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Sample records for coral tissue lesions

  1. Vibrio Zinc-Metalloprotease Causes Photoinactivation of Coral Endosymbionts and Coral Tissue Lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sussman, Meir; Mieog, Jos C.; Doyle, Jason; Victor, Steven; Willis, Bette L.; Bourne, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Coral diseases are emerging as a serious threat to coral reefs worldwide. Of nine coral infectious diseases, whose pathogens have been characterized, six are caused by agents from the family Vibrionacae, raising questions as to their origin and role in coral disease aetiology.

  2. Vibrio Zinc-Metalloprotease Causes Photoinactivation of Coral Endosymbionts and Coral Tissue Lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sussman, Meir; Mieog, Jos C.; Doyle, Jason; Victor, Steven; Willis, Bette L.; Bourne, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Coral diseases are emerging as a serious threat to coral reefs worldwide. Of nine coral infectious diseases, whose pathogens have been characterized, six are caused by agents from the family Vibrionacae, raising questions as to their origin and role in coral disease aetiology. Methodolog

  3. Gross and Microscopic Lesions in Corals from Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Aeby, G S; Hughen, K A

    2016-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  4. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  5. Selective feeding by coral reef fishes on coral lesions associated with brown band and black band disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong-Seng, K. M.; Cole, A. J.; Pratchett, M. S.; Willis, B. L.

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested that corallivorous fishes may be vectors for coral disease, but the extent to which fishes actually feed on and thereby potentially transmit coral pathogens is largely unknown. For this study, in situ video observations were used to assess the level to which fishes fed on diseased coral tissues at Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef. Surveys conducted at multiple locations around Lizard Island revealed that coral disease prevalence, especially of brown band disease (BrB), was higher in lagoon and backreef locations than in exposed reef crests. Accordingly, video cameras were deployed in lagoon and backreef habitats to record feeding by fishes during 1-h periods on diseased sections of each of 44 different coral colonies. Twenty-five species from five fish families (Blennidae, Chaetodontidae, Gobiidae, Labridae and Pomacentridae) were observed to feed on infected coral tissues of staghorn species of Acropora that were naturally infected with black band disease (BBD) or brown band disease (BrB). Collectively, these fishes took an average of 18.6 (±5.6 SE) and 14.3 (±6.1 SE) bites per hour from BBD and BrB lesions, respectively. More than 40% (408/948 bites) and nearly 25% (314/1319 bites) of bites were observed on lesions associated with BBD and BrB, respectively, despite these bands each representing only about 1% of the substratum available. Moreover, many corallivorous fishes ( Labrichthys unilineatus, Chaetodon aureofasciatus, C. baronessa, C. lunulatus, C. trifascialis, Cheiloprion labiatus) selectively targeted disease lesions over adjacent healthy coral tissues. These findings highlight the important role that reef fishes may play in the dynamics of coral diseases, either as vectors for the spread of coral disease or in reducing coral disease progression through intensive and selective consumption of diseased coral tissues.

  6. Environmental conditions influence tissue regeneration rates in scleractinian corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabine, Alexis M; Smith, Tyler B; Williams, Dana E; Brandt, Marilyn E

    2015-06-15

    Natural and anthropogenic factors may influence corals' ability to recover from partial mortality. To examine how environmental conditions affect lesion healing, we assessed several water quality parameters and tissue regeneration rates in corals at six reefs around St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. We hypothesized that sites closer to developed areas would have poor water quality due to proximity to anthropogenic stresses, which would impede tissue regeneration. We found that water flow and turbidity most strongly influenced lesion recovery rates. The most impacted site, with high turbidity and low flow, recovered almost three times slower than the least impacted site, with low turbidity, high flow, and low levels of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results illustrate that in addition to lesion-specific factors known to affect tissue regeneration, environmental conditions can also control corals' healing rates. Resource managers can use this information to protect low-flow, turbid nearshore reefs by minimizing sources of anthropogenic stress.

  7. Relationship between anthropogenic impacts and bleaching-associated tissue mortality of corals in Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerken, I.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic anthropogenic impacts can have a negative effect on coral health and on coral energy budgets needed for regeneration of lesions. I therefore hypothesise that during massive bleaching events, the degree of corals showing bleaching-related tissue mortality is higher in areas subject to chronic

  8. Relationship between anthropogenic impacts and bleaching-associated tissue mortality of corals in Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerken, I.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic anthropogenic impacts can have a negative effect on coral health and on coral energy budgets needed for regeneration of lesions. I therefore hypothesise that during massive bleaching events, the degree of corals showing bleaching-related tissue mortality is higher in areas subject to chronic

  9. Contrasting Lesion Dynamics of White Syndrome among the scleractinian corals Porites spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Lozada-Misa

    Full Text Available White syndrome (WS is currently the most prevalent disease of scleractinian corals in the Indo-Pacific region, with an ability to exist in both epizootic and enzootic states. Here, we present results of an examination of WS lesion dynamics and show that potentially associated traits of host morphology (i.e., branching vs. massive, lesion size, and tissue deposition rate influence disease severity and recovery. Lesion healing rate was positively correlated with initial lesion size in both morphologies, but the rate at which lesions healed differed between morphologies. New lesions in branching Porites cylindrica appeared less frequently, were smaller and healed more quickly, but were more abundant than in closely-related massive Porites sp(p. The positive association between lesion size and healing rate was partly explained by geometry; branching limited lesion maximum size, and larger lesion margins contained more polyps producing new tissue, resulting in faster healing. However, massive colonies deposited tissue more slowly than branching colonies, resulting in slower recovery and more persistent lesions. Corallite size and density did not differ between species and did not, therefore, influence healing rate. We demonstrated multiple modes of pathogen transmission, which may be influenced by the greater potential for pathogen entrainment in branching vs. massive morphologies. We suggest that attributes such as colony morphology and species-specific growth rates require consideration as we expand our understanding of disease dynamics in colonial organisms such as coral.

  10. detrimentally affects tissue regeneration of Red Sea corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Fine, Maoz

    2014-09-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) from rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is threatening the future of coral reef ecosystems. Mounting experimental evidence suggests that OA negatively impacts fundamental life functions of scleractinian corals, including growth and sexual reproduction. Although regeneration is regarded as a chief life function in scleractinian corals and essential to maintain the colony's integrity, the effect of OA on regeneration processes has not yet been investigated. To evaluate the effects of OA on regeneration, the common Indo-Pacific corals Porites sp., Favia favus, Acropora eurystoma, and Stylophora pistillata were inflicted with lesions (314-350 mm2, depending on species) and incubated in different pCO2: (1) ambient seawater (400 µatm, pH 8.1), (2) intermediate (1,800 µatm, pH 7.6), and (3) high (4,000 µatm, pH 7.3) for extended periods of time (60-120 d). While all coral species after 60 d had significantly higher tissue regeneration in ambient conditions as compared to the intermediate and high treatments, reduction in regeneration rate was more pronounced in the slow-growing massive Porites sp. and F. favus than the relatively fast-growing, branching S. pistillata and A. eurystoma. This coincided with reduced tissue biomass of Porites sp., F. favus, and A. eurystoma in higher pCO2, but not in S. pistillata. Porites sp., F. favus, and S. pistillata also experienced a decrease in Symbiodinium density in higher pCO2, while in A. eurystoma there was no change. We hypothesize that a lowered regenerative capacity under elevated pCO2 may be related to resource trade-offs, energy cost of acid/base regulation, and/or decrease in total energy budget. This is the first study to demonstrate that elevated pCO2 could have a compounding influence on coral regeneration following injury, potentially affecting the capacity of reef corals to recover following physical disturbance.

  11. The coral immune response facilitates protection against microbes during tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, Jeroen A J M; Ainsworth, Tracy D; Leggat, William; Bourne, David G; Willis, Bette L; van Oppen, Madeleine J H

    2015-07-01

    Increasing physical damage on coral reefs from predation, storms and anthropogenic disturbances highlights the need to understand the impact of injury on the coral immune system. In this study, we examined the regulation of the coral immune response over 10 days following physical trauma artificially inflicted on in situ colonies of the coral Acropora aspera, simultaneously with bacterial colonization of the lesions. Corals responded to injury by increasing the expression of immune system-related genes involved in the Toll-like and NOD-like receptor signalling pathways and the lectin-complement system in three phases (coral-associated bacterial communities were evident following injury based on 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing. Bacteria-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization also showed no evidence of bacterial colonization of the wound or regenerating tissues. Coral tissues showed near-complete regeneration of lesions within 10 days. This study demonstrates that corals exhibit immune responses that support rapid recovery following physical injury, maintain coral microbial homeostasis and prevent bacterial infestation that may compromise coral fitness. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Explained and unexplained tissue loss in corals from the Tropical Eastern Pacific

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    Rodriguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Work, Thierry M.; Calderon-Aguilera, Luis Eduardo; Reyes-Bonilla, Hector; Hernández, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs rival rainforest in biodiversity, but are declining in part because of disease. Tissue loss lesions, a manifestation of disease, are present in dominant Pocillopora along the Pacific coast of Mexico. We characterized tissue loss in 7 species of Pocillopora from 9 locations (44 sites) spanning southern to northern Mexico. Corals were identified to species, and tissue loss lesions were photographed and classified as those explainable by predation and those that were unexplained. A focal predation study was done concurrently at 3 locations to confirm origin of explained lesions. Of 1054 cases of tissue loss in 7 species of corals, 84% were associated with predation (fish, snails, or seastar) and the remainder were unexplained. Types of tissue loss were not related to coral density; however there was significant geographic heterogeneity in type of lesion; one site in particular (Cabo Pulmo) had the highest prevalence of predator-induced tissue loss (mainly pufferfish predation). Crown-of-thorns starfish, pufferfish, and snails were the most common predators and preferred P. verrucosa, P. meandrina, and P. capitata, respectively. Of the 9 locations, 4 had unexplained tissue loss with prevalence ranging from 1 to 3% with no species predilection. Unexplained tissue loss was similar to white syndrome (WS) in morphology, indicating additional study is necessary to clarify the cause(s) of the lesions and the potential impacts to dominant corals along the Pacific coast of Mexico.

  13. The role of coral colony health state in the recovery of lesions

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    Claudia P. Ruiz-Diaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coral disease literature has focused, for the most part, on the etiology of the more than 35 coral afflictions currently described. Much less understood are the factors that underpin the capacity of corals to regenerate lesions, including the role of colony health. This lack of knowledge with respect to the factors that influence tissue regeneration significantly limits our understanding of the impact of diseases at the colony, population, and community level. In this study, we experimentally compared tissue regeneration capacity of diseased versus healthy fragments of Gorgonia ventalina colonies at 5 m and 12 m of depth. We found that the initial health state of colonies (i.e., diseased or healthy had a significant effect on tissue regeneration (healing. All healthy fragments exhibited full recovery regardless of depth treatment, while diseased fragments did not. Our results suggest that being diseased or healthy has a significant effect on the capacity of a sea fan colony to repair tissue, but that environmental factors associated with changes in depth, such as temperature and light, do not. We conclude that disease doesn’t just compromise vital functions such as growth and reproduction in corals but also compromises their capacity to regenerate tissue and heal lesions.

  14. Light gradients and optical microniches in coral tissues

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    Daniel eWangpraseurt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Light quantity and quality are among the most important factors determining the physiology and stress response of zooxanthellate corals. Yet, almost nothing is known about the light field that Symbiodinium experiences within their coral host, and the basic optical properties of coral tissue are unknown. We used scalar irradiance microprobes to characterise vertical and lateral light gradients within and across tissues of several coral species. Our results revealed the presence of steep light gradients with PAR (photosynthetically available radiation decreasing by about one order of magnitude from the tissue surface to the coral skeleton. Surface scalar irradiance was consistently higher over polyp tissue than over coenosarc tissue in faviid corals. Coral bleaching increased surface scalar irradiance by ~150% (between 500-700 nm relative to a healthy coral. Photosynthesis peaked around 300 µm within the tissue, which corresponded to a zone exhibiting strongest depletion of scalar irradiance. Deeper coral tissue layers, e.g. ~1000 µm into aboral polyp tissues, harbor optical microniches, where only ~10% of the incident irradiance remains. We conclude that the optical microenvironment of corals exhibits strong lateral and vertical gradients of scalar irradiance, which are affected by both tissue and skeleton optical properties. Our results imply that zooxanthellae populations inhabit a strongly heterogeneous light environment and highlight the presence of different optical microniches in corals; an important finding for understanding the photobiology, stress response, as well as the phenotypic and genotypic plasticity of coral symbionts.

  15. Lesion recovery of two scleractinian corals under low pH conditions: Implications for restoration efforts.

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    Hall, Emily R; DeGroot, Breanna C; Fine, Maoz

    2015-11-15

    Some coral restoration efforts are involving cultivation of coral microfragments in land-based pools under controlled conditions until they reach viable size for outplanting. However, gaps in knowledge with these efforts include effects of changing pH on regeneration rates of tissue lesions and other physiological responses on different size fragments. To address this, two fragment sizes of Porites porites and Porites astreoides were artificially inflicted with lesions and incubated in two pH treatments to follow effects on recovery and physiological performance. Recovery was significantly reduced at reduced pH for P. porites in both fragment sizes; while recovery of P. astreoides was reduced only in the larger fragments. Different responses were also seen for Symbiodinium density and total protein with pH and fragment size. Effects on lesion recovery rate from pH and fragment size were species specific and may be related to morphology and/or energetic constrains.

  16. Pathology of tissue loss (white syndrome) in Acropora sp. corals from the Central Pacific

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    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.

    2011-01-01

    We performed histological examination of 69 samples of Acropora sp. manifesting different types of tissue loss (Acropora White Syndrome-AWS) from Hawaii, Johnston Atoll and American Samoa between 2002 and 2006. Gross lesions of tissue loss were observed and classified as diffuse acute, diffuse subacute, and focal to multifocal acute to subacute. Corals with acute tissue loss manifested microscopic evidence of necrosis sometimes associated with ciliates, helminths, fungi, algae, sponges, or cyanobacteria whereas those with subacute tissue loss manifested mainly wound repair. Gross lesions of AWS have multiple different changes at the microscopic level some of which involve various microorganisms and metazoa. Elucidating this disease will require, among other things, monitoring lesions over time to determine the pathogenesis of AWS and the potential role of tissue-associated microorganisms in the genesis of tissue loss. Attempts to experimentally induce AWS should include microscopic examination of tissues to ensure that potentially causative microorganisms associated with gross lesion are not overlooked.

  17. Major similarities in the bacterial communities associated with lesioned and healthy Fungiidae corals

    KAUST Repository

    Apprill, Amy

    2013-03-21

    Cultivation-based studies have demonstrated that yellow-band disease (YBD), a lesion-producing ailment affecting diverse species of coral, is caused by a consortium of Vibrio spp. This study takes the first cultivation-independent approach to examine the whole bacterial community associated with YBD-like lesioned corals. Two species of Fungiidae corals, Ctenactis crassa and Herpolitha limax, displaying YBD-like lesions were examined across diverse reefs throughout the Red Sea. Using a pyrosequencing approach targeting the V1-V3 regions of the SSU rRNA gene, no major differences in bacterial community composition or diversity were identified between healthy and lesioned corals of either species. Indicator species analysis did not find Vibrio significantly associated with the lesioned corals. However, operational taxonomic units belonging to the Ruegeria genus of Alphaproteobacteria and NS9 marine group of Flavobacteria were significantly associated with the lesioned corals. The most striking trend of this dataset was that reef location was found to be the most significant influence on the coral-bacterial community. It is possible that more pronounced lesion-specific bacterial signatures might have been concealed by the strong influence of environmental conditions on coral-bacteria. Overall, this study demonstrates inconsistencies between cultivation-independent and cultivation-based studies regarding the role of specific bacteria in coral diseases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Acute tissue death (white syndrome) affects the microenvironment of tabular Acropora corals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Breum; Vestergaard, Maj; Ainsworth, Tracy D.

    2010-01-01

    White syndrome (WS) is a collective term for coral diseases that cause acute tissue loss, resulting in apparently healthy tissue bordering on exposed skeleton. In this study, the microenvironmental condition and tissue structure of WS-affected tabular acroporid corals were assessed by O2 microele......White syndrome (WS) is a collective term for coral diseases that cause acute tissue loss, resulting in apparently healthy tissue bordering on exposed skeleton. In this study, the microenvironmental condition and tissue structure of WS-affected tabular acroporid corals were assessed by O2...

  19. Effects of Coralliophila violacea on tissue loss in the scleractinian corals Porites spp. depend on host response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymundo, L.; Work, Thierry M.; Miller, R.L.; Lozada-Misa, P.L.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated interactions between the corallivorous gastropod Coralliophila violacea and its preferred hosts Porites spp. Our objectives were to experimentally determine whether tissue loss could progress in Porites during or after Coralliophila predation on corals with and without tissue loss and to histologically document snail predation. In 64% of feeding scars, tissue regenerated within 3 wk, leaving no trace of predation. However, in roughly 28% of scars, lesions progressed to subacute tissue loss resembling white syndrome. In feeding experiments, scars from snails previously fed diseased tissue developed progressive tissue loss twice as frequently as scars from snails previously fed healthy tissue. Scars from previously healthy-fed snails were 3 times as likely to heal as those from previously diseased-fed snails. Histology revealed marked differences in host responses to snails; P. cylindrica manifested a robust inflammatory response with fewer secondary colonizing organisms such as algae, sponges, and helminths, whereas P. rus showed no evident inflammation and more secondary colonization. We conclude that lesion progression associated with Coralliophila may be associated with secondary colonization of coral tissues damaged by predator-induced trauma and necrosis. Importantly, variation at the cellular level should be considered when explaining interspecific differences in host responses in corals impacted by phenomena such as predation.

  20. Prevalence of skeletal tissue growth anomalies in a scleractinian coral: Turbinaria mesenterina of Malvan Marine Sanctuary, eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hussain, A.; De, K.; Thomas, L.; Nagesh, R.; Mote, S.; Ingole, B.S.

    Skeletal tissue growth anomalies (STAs) of corals are capable of causing considerable degradation of reef health. This study is the first report of growth anomalies in Turbinaria corals and the first descriptive study of Indian corals. T...

  1. Monte Carlo modeling of photon propagation reveals highly scattering coral tissue

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    Daniel Wangpraseurt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Corals are very efficient at using solar radiation, with photosynthetic quantum efficiencies approaching theoretical limits. Here, we investigated potential mechanisms underlying such outstanding photosynthetic performance through extracting inherent optical properties of the living coral tissue and skeleton in a massive faviid coral. Using Monte Carlo simulations developed for medical tissue optics it is shown that for the investigated faviid coral, the coral tissue was a strongly light scattering matrix with a reduced scattering coefficient of µs’ =10 cm-1 (at 636 nm. In contrast, the scattering coefficient of the coral skeleton was µs’ =3.4 cm-1, which facilitated the efficient propagation of light to otherwise shaded coral tissue layers, thus supporting photosynthesis in lower tissues. Our study provides a quantification of coral tissue optical properties in a massive faviid coral and suggests a novel light harvesting strategy, where tissue and skeletal optics act in concert to optimize the illumination of the photosynthesizing algal symbionts embedded within the living coral tissue.

  2. Sulfur-oxidizing bacterial populations within cyanobacterial dominated coral disease lesions.

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    Bourne, David G; van der Zee, Marc J J; Botté, Emmanuelle S; Sato, Yui

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the diversity and quantitative shifts of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) during the onset of black band disease (BBD) in corals using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and cloning approaches targeting the soxB gene, involved in sulfur oxidation. Four Montipora sp. coral colonies identified with lesions previously termed cyanobacterial patches (CP) (comprising microbial communities different from those of BBD lesions), was monitored in situ as CP developed into BBD. The overall abundance of SOB in both CP and BBD lesions were very low and near the detection limit of the qPCR assay, although consistently indicated that SOB populations decreased as the lesions transitioned from CP to BBD. Phylogenetic assessment of retrieved soxB genes showed that SOB in both CP and BBD lesions were dominated by one sequence type, representing > 70% of all soxB gene sequences and affiliated with members of the Rhodobacteraceae within the α-Proteobacteria. This study represents the first assessment targeting SOB within BBD lesions and clearly shows that SOB are not highly diverse or abundant in this complex microbial mat. The lack of oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds by SOB likely aids the accumulation of high levels of sulfide at the base of the BBD mat, a compound contributing to the pathogenicity of BBD lesions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Data for spatial analysis of growth anomaly lesions on Montipora capitata coral colonies using 3D reconstruction techniques

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    John H.R. Burns

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten annotated 3D reconstructions of Montipora capitata coral colonies contain x,y,z coordinates for all growth anomaly (GA lesions affecting these corals. The 3D reconstructions are available as Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML files, and the GA lesions coordinates are in accompanying text files. The VRML models and GA lesion coordinates can be spatially analyzed using Matlab. Matlab scripts are provided for three spatial statistical procedures in order to assess clustering of the GA lesions across the coral colony surfaces in a 3D framework: Ripley׳s K, Moran׳s I, and the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Please see the research article, “Investigating the spatial distribution of Growth Anomalies affecting Montipora capitata corals in a 3-dimensional framework” (J.H.R. Burns, T. Alexandrov, E. Ovchinnikova, R.D. Gates, M. Takabayashi, 2016 [1], for further interpretation and discussion of the data.

  4. Heat generation and light scattering of green fluorescent protein-like pigments in coral tissue.

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    Lyndby, Niclas H; Kühl, Michael; Wangpraseurt, Daniel

    2016-05-26

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like pigments have been proposed to have beneficial effects on coral photobiology. Here, we investigated the relationships between green fluorescence, coral heating and tissue optics for the massive coral Dipsastraea sp. (previously Favia sp.). We used microsensors to measure tissue scalar irradiance and temperature along with hyperspectral imaging and combined imaging of variable chlorophyll fluorescence and green fluorescence. Green fluorescence correlated positively with coral heating and scalar irradiance enhancement at the tissue surface. Coral tissue heating saturated for maximal levels of green fluorescence. The action spectrum of coral surface heating revealed that heating was highest under red (peaking at 680 nm) irradiance. Scalar irradiance enhancement in coral tissue was highest when illuminated with blue light, but up to 62% (for the case of highest green fluorescence) of this photon enhancement was due to green fluorescence emission. We suggest that GFP-like pigments scatter the incident radiation, which enhances light absorption and heating of the coral. However, heating saturates, because intense light scattering reduces the vertical penetration depth through the tissue eventually leading to reduced light absorption at high fluorescent pigment density. We conclude that fluorescent pigments can have a central role in modulating coral light absorption and heating.

  5. Relationship between anthropogenic impacts and bleaching-associated tissue mortality of corals in Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nagelkerken

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic anthropogenic impacts can have a negative effect on coral health and on coral energy budgets needed for regeneration of lesions. I therefore hypothesise that during massive bleaching events, the degree of corals showing bleaching-related tissue mortality is higher in areas subject to chronic anthropogenic impacts than in relatively pristine areas. In the present study, the degree of bleaching and bleaching-related tissue mortality was estimated for eight abundant coral species in Curaçao, at the onset of a massive Caribbean bleaching event in 1995, and three months afterwards. To study the possible effects of anthropogenic disturbances, the study was done at four unpolluted control sites, two polluted sites (sedimentation, sewage, and four sites at the mouth of lagoons with outflow of nutrient-rich, warm and turbid seawater. No pattern of an overall difference in bleaching between impacted and control sites was found for the degree of bleaching. However, the percentage of corals showing bleaching-related tissue mortality was higher at the impacted sites than at the control sites for the total number of corals and for corals with Los impactos antropogénicos crónicos pueden tener efectos negativos en la salud y en las cantidades de energía necesarias para la regeneración de lesiones en los corales. Mi hipótesis fue que durante los casos de blanqueamiento masivo, el grado en que los corales muestren mortalidades de tejido relacionadas con el blanqueamiento, será mayor en áreas sujetas a impactos antropogénicos crónicos que en áreas relativamente prístinas. Estimé los grados de blanqueamiento y mortalidad tisular en ocho especies de coral abundantes en Curaçao, durante el comienzo de un de blanqueamiento masivo en el Caribe en 1995 y tres meses después. El estudio se realizó en cuatro sitios control no contaminados, dos sitios contaminados (sedimentación, aguas residuales, y cuatro sitios en la boca de lagunas con aguas

  6. In situ visualization of bacterial populations in coral tissues: pitfalls and solutions

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    Naohisa Wada

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In situ visualization of microbial communities within their natural habitats provides a powerful approach to explore complex interactions between microorganisms and their macroscopic hosts. Specifically, the application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH to simultaneously identify and visualize diverse microbial taxa associated with coral hosts, including symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium, Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi and protists, could help untangle the structure and function of these diverse taxa within the coral holobiont. However, the application of FISH approaches to coral samples is constrained by non-specific binding of targeted rRNA probes to cellular structures within the coral animal tissues (including nematocysts, spirocysts, granular gland cells within the gastrodermis and cnidoglandular bands of mesenterial filaments. This issue, combined with high auto-fluorescence of both host tissues and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium, make FISH approaches for analyses of coral tissues challenging. Here we outline the major pitfalls associated with applying FISH to coral samples and describe approaches to overcome these challenges.

  7. Tissue loss (white syndrome) in the coral Montipora capitata is a dynamic disease with multiple host responses and potential causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Russell, Robin; Aeby, Greta S.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue loss diseases or white syndromes (WS) are some of the most important coral diseases because they result in significant colony mortality and morbidity, threatening dominant Acroporidae in the Caribbean and Pacific. The causes of WS remain elusive in part because few have examined affected corals at the cellular level. We studied the cellular changes associated with WS over time in a dominant Hawaiian coral, Montipora capitata, and showed that: (i) WS has rapidly progressing (acute) phases mainly associated with ciliates or slowly progressing (chronic) phases mainly associated with helminths or chimeric parasites; (ii) these phases interchanged and waxed and waned; (iii) WS could be a systemic disease associated with chimeric parasitism or a localized disease associated with helminths or ciliates; (iv) corals responded to ciliates mainly with necrosis and to helminths or chimeric parasites with wound repair; (v) mixed infections were uncommon; and (vi) other than cyanobacteria, prokaryotes associated with cell death were not seen. Recognizing potential agents associated with disease at the cellular level and the host response to those agents offers a logical deductive rationale to further explore the role of such agents in the pathogenesis of WS in M. capitata and helps explain manifestation of gross lesions. This approach has broad applicability to the study of the pathogenesis of coral diseases in the field and under experimental settings.

  8. Managing Carious Lesions: Consensus Recommendations on Carious Tissue Removal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J.E; Bjørndal, L; Maltz, M; Manton, D.J; Ricketts, D; Van Landuyt, K; Banerjee, A; Campus, G; Doméjean, S; Fontana, M; Leal, S; Lo, E; Machiulskiene, V; Schulte, A; Splieth, C; Zandona, A.F; Innes, N.P.T

    2016-01-01

    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including...

  9. Incidence of lesions on Fungiidae corals in the eastern Red Sea is related to water temperature and coastal pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Furby, K.A.

    2014-07-01

    As sea surface temperatures rise and the global human population increases, large-scale field observations of marine organism health and water quality are increasingly necessary. We investigated the health of corals from the family Fungiidae using visual observations in relation to water quality and microbial biogeochemistry parameters along 1300 km of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. At large scales, incidence of lesions caused by unidentified etiology showed consistent signs, increasing significantly from the northern to southern coast and positively correlated to annual mean seawater temperatures. Lesion abundance also increased to a maximum of 96% near the populous city of Jeddah. The presence of lesioned corals in the region surrounding Jeddah was strongly correlated with elevated concentrations of ammonium and changes in microbial communities that are linked to decreased water quality. This study suggests that both high seawater temperatures and nutrient pollution may play an indirect role in the formation of lesions on corals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Incidence of lesions on Fungiidae corals in the eastern Red Sea is related to water temperature and coastal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, K A; Apprill, A; Cervino, J M; Ossolinski, J E; Hughen, K A

    2014-07-01

    As sea surface temperatures rise and the global human population increases, large-scale field observations of marine organism health and water quality are increasingly necessary. We investigated the health of corals from the family Fungiidae using visual observations in relation to water quality and microbial biogeochemistry parameters along 1300 km of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. At large scales, incidence of lesions caused by unidentified etiology showed consistent signs, increasing significantly from the northern to southern coast and positively correlated to annual mean seawater temperatures. Lesion abundance also increased to a maximum of 96% near the populous city of Jeddah. The presence of lesioned corals in the region surrounding Jeddah was strongly correlated with elevated concentrations of ammonium and changes in microbial communities that are linked to decreased water quality. This study suggests that both high seawater temperatures and nutrient pollution may play an indirect role in the formation of lesions on corals.

  11. Autofluorescence and Raman microspectroscopy of tissue sections of oral lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Veld, DCG; Schut, TCB; Skurichina, M; Witjes, MJH; Van der Wal, JE; Roodenburg, JLN; Sterenborg, HJCM

    2005-01-01

    Autofluorescence spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been suggested for lesion diagnostics. We investigate the information contained in autofluorescence and Raman spectra recorded from oral tissue slices of various lesion types. Thirty-seven human oral mucosa lesions were biopsied and freeze-dr

  12. HSF2 expression in ulcerative colitis lesion tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Rong Zeng; Peng-Fei Chen; Wen-Bin Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the expression of HSF2 in ulcerative colitis lesion tissue and its value for diagnosis and assessment of the disease.Methods:A total of 40 cases with ulcerative colitis were included for study and divided into remission stage, mild activity stage, moderate activity stage and severe activity stage by Sutherland disease activity index. Lesion tissue and normal tissue were collected to detect HSFs, NOX1, ROS, COX2, PGE2, IL-6, JAK2, STAT3, TLRs and SOCSs contents.Results: HSF2 contents in lesion tissue were higher than those in normal tissue, and HSF1, HSF3 and HSF4 contents were not different from those of normal tissue; TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, MyD88, NF-kB, NOX1, ROS, COX2, PGE2, IL-6, JAK2 and STAT3 contents in lesion tissue were higher than those in normal tissue and positively correlated with HSF2 content; SOCS2 and SOCS3 contents in lesion tissue were lower than those in normal tissue and negatively correlated with HSF2 content, and SOCS1, SOCS4, SOCS5, SOCS6 and SOCS7 contents were not different from those of normal tissue.Conclusions:HSF2 expression abnormally increases in ulcerative colitis lesion tissue and is closely related to the activity of the disease, and HSF2 can regulate the expression of inflammatory signal molecules, TLRs and SOCSs to enhance inflammatory response.

  13. Live tissue imaging shows reef corals elevate pH under their calcifying tissue relative to seawater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Venn

    Full Text Available The threat posed to coral reefs by changes in seawater pH and carbonate chemistry (ocean acidification raises the need for a better mechanistic understanding of physiological processes linked to coral calcification. Current models of coral calcification argue that corals elevate extracellular pH under their calcifying tissue relative to seawater to promote skeleton formation, but pH measurements taken from the calcifying tissue of living, intact corals have not been achieved to date. We performed live tissue imaging of the reef coral Stylophora pistillata to determine extracellular pH under the calcifying tissue and intracellular pH in calicoblastic cells. We worked with actively calcifying corals under flowing seawater and show that extracellular pH (pHe under the calicoblastic epithelium is elevated by ∼0.5 and ∼0.2 pH units relative to the surrounding seawater in light and dark conditions respectively. By contrast, the intracellular pH (pHi of the calicoblastic epithelium remains stable in the light and dark. Estimates of aragonite saturation states derived from our data indicate the elevation in subcalicoblastic pHe favour calcification and may thus be a critical step in the calcification process. However, the observed close association of the calicoblastic epithelium with the underlying crystals suggests that the calicoblastic cells influence the growth of the coral skeleton by other processes in addition to pHe modification. The procedure used in the current study provides a novel, tangible approach for future investigations into these processes and the impact of environmental change on the cellular mechanisms underpinning coral calcification.

  14. Histological observations in the Hawaiian reef coral, Porites compressa, affected by Porites bleaching with tissue loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudek, M.; Work, T.M.; Aeby, G.S.; Davy, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    The scleractinian finger coral Porites compressa is affected by the coral disease Porites bleaching with tissue loss (PBTL). This disease initially manifests as bleaching of the coenenchyme (tissue between polyps) while the polyps remain brown with eventual tissue loss and subsequent algal overgrowth of the bare skeleton. Histopathological investigation showed a loss of symbiont and melanin-containing granular cells which was more pronounced in the coenenchyme than the polyps. Cell counts confirmed a 65% reduction in symbiont density. Tissue loss was due to tissue fragmentation and necrosis in affected areas. In addition, a reduction in putative bacterial aggregate densities was found in diseased samples but no potential pathogens were observed.

  15. The microbiome of the Red Sea coral Stylophora pistillata is dominated by tissue-associated Endozoicomonas bacteria.

    KAUST Repository

    Bayer, Till

    2013-08-01

    Endozoicomonas bacteria were found highly associated with the coral Stylophora pistillata, and these bacteria are also ubiquitously associated with diverse corals worldwide. Novel Endozoicomonas-specific probes revealed that Endozoicomonas bacteria were abundant in the endodermal tissues of S. pistillata and appear to have an intimate relationship with the coral.

  16. Managing Carious Lesions: Consensus Recommendations on Carious Tissue Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L; Maltz, M; Manton, D J; Ricketts, D; Van Landuyt, K; Banerjee, A; Campus, G; Doméjean, S; Fontana, M; Leal, S; Lo, E; Machiulskiene, V; Schulte, A; Splieth, C; Zandona, A F; Innes, N P T

    2016-05-01

    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental caries and control activity of existing cavitated lesions to preserve hard tissues and retain teeth long-term. Entering the restorative cycle should be avoided as far as possible. Controlling the disease in cavitated carious lesions should be attempted using methods which are aimed at biofilm removal or control first. Only when cavitated carious lesions either are noncleansable or can no longer be sealed are restorative interventions indicated. When a restoration is indicated, the priorities are as follows: preserving healthy and remineralizable tissue, achieving a restorative seal, maintaining pulpal health, and maximizing restoration success. Carious tissue is removed purely to create conditions for long-lasting restorations. Bacterially contaminated or demineralized tissues close to the pulp do not need to be removed. In deeper lesions in teeth with sensible (vital) pulps, preserving pulpal health should be prioritized, while in shallow or moderately deep lesions, restoration longevity becomes more important. For teeth with shallow or moderately deep cavitated lesions, carious tissue removal is performed according toselective removal to firm dentine.In deep cavitated lesions in primary or permanent teeth,selective removal to soft dentineshould be performed, although in permanent teeth,stepwise removalis an option. The evidence and, therefore, these recommendations support less invasive carious lesion management, delaying entry to, and slowing down, the restorative cycle by preserving tooth tissue and retaining teeth long-term. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  17. Managing Carious Lesions: Consensus Recommendations on Carious Tissue Removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwendicke, F.; Frencken, J.E.; Bjorndal, L.; Maltz, M.; Manton, D.J.; Ricketts, D.; Van Landuyt, K.; Banerjee, A.; Campus, G.; Domejean, S.; Fontana, M.; Leal, S.; Lo, E.; Machiulskiene, V.; Schulte, A.; Splieth, C.; Zandona, A.F.; Innes, N.P.

    2016-01-01

    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental

  18. Imaging of Soft Tissue Lesions of the Foot and Ankle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Differential diagnosis of soft tissue lesions of the foot may be narrowed with imaging. The cystic nature of ganglia, synovial cysts, and bursitis can be confirmed with MR imaging or sonography. Location and signal characteristics of noncystic lesions may suggest Morton's neuroma, giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath and plantar fibromatosis. Synovial-based lesions of the foot and ankle can be differentiated based on presence or absence of mineralization, lesion density, signal intensity, and the enhancement pattern. Knowledge of the incidence of specific neoplasms of the foot and ankle based on patient age aids in providing a limited differential diagnosis

  19. Photothermal lesions in soft tissue induced by optical fiber microheaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel-Domínguez, Reinher; Moreno-Álvarez, Paola; Hautefeuille, Mathieu; Chavarría, Anahí; Hernández-Cordero, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Photothermal therapy has shown to be a promising technique for local treatment of tumors. However, the main challenge for this technique is the availability of localized heat sources to minimize thermal damage in the surrounding healthy tissue. In this work, we demonstrate the use of optical fiber microheaters for inducing thermal lesions in soft tissue. The proposed devices incorporate carbon nanotubes or gold nanolayers on the tips of optical fibers for enhanced photothermal effects and heating of ex vivo biological tissues. We report preliminary results of small size photothermal lesions induced on mice liver tissues. The morphology of the resulting lesions shows that optical fiber microheaters may render useful for delivering highly localized heat for photothermal therapy.

  20. Prefabrication of axial vascularized tissue engineering coral bone by an arteriovenous loop: A better model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Qingshan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Wuhan 430070 (China); Shang Hongtao; Wu Wei [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Chen Fulin [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Zhang Junrui [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Guo Jiaping [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Wuhan 430070 (China); Mao Tianqiu, E-mail: tianqiumao@126.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2012-08-01

    The most important problem for the survival of thick 3-dimensional tissues is the lack of vascularization in the context of bone tissue engineering. In this study, a modified arteriovenous loop (AVL) was developed to prefabricate an axial vascularized tissue engineering coral bone in rabbit, with comparison of the arteriovenous bundle (AVB) model. An arteriovenous fistula between rabbit femoral artery and vein was anastomosed to form an AVL. It was placed in a circular side groove of the coral block. The complex was wrapped with an expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene membrane and implanted beneath inguinal skin. After 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks, the degree of vascularization was evaluated by India ink perfusion, histological examination, vascular casts, and scanning electron microscopy images of vascular endangium. Newly formed fibrous tissues and vasculature extended over the surfaces and invaded the interspaces of entire coral block. The new blood vessels robustly sprouted from the AVL. Those invaginated cavities in the vascular endangium from scanning electron microscopy indicated vessel's sprouted pores. Above indexes in AVL model are all superior to that in AVB model, indicating that the modified AVL model could more effectively develop vascularization in larger tissue engineering bone. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A modified arteriovenous loop (AVL) model in rabbit was developed in this study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Axial prevascularization was induced in a larger coral block by using the AVL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prefabrication of axial vascularized coral bone is superior as vascular carrier.

  1. Ultrasonographic findings of the soft tissue lesions of the extremities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Hee; Lee, Kun Won; Park, Cheol Min; Kim, Jung Hyuk; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck; Son, Won Young [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-02-15

    The ultrasonography is safe, rapid, and very effective method for evaluation of soft tissue lesions, especially by using high frequency transducer. The authors analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 49 cases of the soft tissue lesions of extremities which were proven clinically and surgically and/or pathologically in Korea University Hospital for recent 5 years. The result were as follows: 1. Of the 49 cases, 27 cases were male and 22 cases female. 2. Infectious conditions were 22 case, benign tumor 6 cases, malignant tumor 6 cases, and miscellaneous 15 cases. 3. The accurate diagnosis of nature of the lesions was possible in all cases except tuberculous tendinitis of Achilles tendon in infectious conditions (21/22), except neurilemmoma in benign tumors (5/6), except soft tissue synovial sarcoma and liposarcoma in malignant tumors (4/6), and all cases of miscellaneous conditions (15/15) with clinical symptom and plain X-ray film. 4. By using high frequency transducer for extremity lesions, we obtained precise location, size , shape, and internal structure of the lesions and guide for aspiration and/or biopsy.

  2. MRI evaluation of superficial soft tissue lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabra, A.A. (Russel H. Morgan Dept. of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Taylor, G.A. (Russel H. Morgan Dept. of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1993-10-01

    The role of MRI in the evaluation of superficial soft tissue lesions in children has not been well established. We present our experience with MRI in the evaluation of nineteen children with a variety of cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions. We find MRI to have a definite role in the evaluation of these lesions particularly when determining extent or depth of involvement would affect medical or surgical management. MRI has a less well defined role in tissue determination. Spin echo T1 and T2 weighted images were sufficient for evaluation in most cases. Fat suppression images added additional information in fatty tumors. The MRI appearance of juvenile hyaline fibromatosis and lipoblastomatosis has not been previously described and is included in this study. (orig.)

  3. Histological observations in the Hawaiian reef coral, Porites compressa, affected by Porites bleaching with tissue loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudek, M; Work, T M; Aeby, G S; Davy, S K

    2012-10-01

    The scleractinian finger coral Porites compressa is affected by the coral disease Porites bleaching with tissue loss (PBTL). This disease initially manifests as bleaching of the coenenchyme (tissue between polyps) while the polyps remain brown with eventual tissue loss and subsequent algal overgrowth of the bare skeleton. Histopathological investigation showed a loss of symbiont and melanin-containing granular cells which was more pronounced in the coenenchyme than the polyps. Cell counts confirmed a 65% reduction in symbiont density. Tissue loss was due to tissue fragmentation and necrosis in affected areas. In addition, a reduction in putative bacterial aggregate densities was found in diseased samples but no potential pathogens were observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial heterogeneity in active chlorophyll fluorescence and PSII activity of coral tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ralph, P.J.; Gademann, R.; Larkum, A.W.D.

    2002-01-01

    Chlorophyll-a fluorescence was measured in six species of coral, using pulse-amplitude-modulated fluorometers employing fibre-optic probes with diameters of 8 mm, 1 mm and 140 µm. The 8-mm probe integrated responses over a large area, giving more weight to coenosarc than polyp tissue for Acropora...

  5. Epimicrobiota associated with the decay and recovery of Orbicella corals exhibiting Dark Spot Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Meyer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS is one of the most common diseases of boulder corals in the Caribbean. It presents as sunken brown lesions in coral tissue, which can spread quickly over coral colonies. With this study, we tested the hypothesis that similar to other coral diseases, DSS is a dysbiosis characterized by global shifts in the coral microbiome. Because Black Band Disease (BBD was sometimes found following DSS lesions, we also tested the hypothesis that DSS is a precursor of BBD. To track disease initiation and progression 24 coral colonies were tagged. Of them five Orbicella annularis corals and three O. faveolata corals exhibited DSS lesions at tagging. Microbiota of lesions and apparently healthy tissues from DSS-affected corals over the course of 18 months were collected. Final visual assessment showed that five of eight corals incurred substantial tissue loss while two corals remained stable and one appeared to recover from DSS lesions. Illumina sequencing of the V6 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes demonstrated no significant differences in bacterial community composition associated with healthy tissue or DSS lesions. The epimicrobiomes of both healthy tissue and DSS lesions contained high relative abundances of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs assigned to Halomonas, an unclassified gammaproteobacterial genus, Moritella, an unclassified Rhodobacteraceae genus, Renibacterium, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter. The relative abundance of bacterial taxa was not significantly different between samples when grouped by tissue type (healthy tissue vs. DSS lesion, coral species, collection month, or the overall outcome of DSS-affected corals (substantial tissue loss vs. stable/recovered. Two of the tagged corals with substantial tissue loss also developed BBD during the 18-month sampling period. The bacterial community of the BBD layer was distinct from both healthy tissue and DSS lesions, with high relative abundances of the presumed BBD pathogen

  6. Algae as reservoirs for coral pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Sweet

    Full Text Available Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively. Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is

  7. Sources and spatial distribution of heavy metals in scleractinian coral tissues and sediments from the Bocas del Toro Archipelago, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kathryn L E; Seemann, Janina; Dellwig, Olaf; Struck, Ulrich; Wild, Christian; Leinfelder, Reinhold R

    2013-11-01

    Marine ecosystems worldwide are threatened by aquatic pollution; however, there is a paucity in data from the Caribbean region. As such, five heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, copper, zinc, mercury) were measured in tissues of the scleractinian corals Porites furcata and Agaricia tenuifolia and in adjacent sediments in the Bocas del Toro Archipelago, Panama. Samples were collected from five reef sites along a gradient of distance from an international shipping port and were analysed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry for mercury. Copper and zinc were the most abundant metals and ranged from 11 to 63 mg kg(-1) and from 31 to 185 mg kg(-1) in coral tissues, respectively. The highest concentration of each metal was measured in P. furcata tissues, with copper and mercury concentrations significantly higher in P. furcata than in A. tenuifolia at every site. These results suggest that P. furcata has a higher affinity for metal accumulation and storage than A. tenuifolia. With the exception of cadmium, metal concentrations in coral tissues were generally elevated at coral reefs in closer proximity to the port; however, this pattern was not observed in sediments. Hard coral cover was lowest at reefs in closest proximity to the port, suggesting that metal pollution from port-related activities is influencing hard coral abundance at nearby coral reefs.

  8. Observations of the tissue-skeleton interface in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambutté, E.; Allemand, D.; Zoccola, D.; Meibom, A.; Lotto, S.; Caminiti, N.; Tambutté, S.

    2007-09-01

    Recent micro-analytical studies of coral skeletons have led to the discovery that the effects of biology on the skeletal chemical and isotopic composition are not uniform over the skeleton. The aim of the present work was to provide histological observations of the coral tissue at the interface with the skeleton, using Stylophora pistillata as a model, and to discuss these observations in the context of skeletal ultra-structural organization and composition. Several important observations are reported: (1) At all scales of observation, there was a precise morphological correspondence between the tissues and the skeleton. The morphological features of the calicoblastic ectoderm correspond exactly to the shape of individual crystal fiber bundles in the underlying skeleton, indicating that the calicoblastic cell layer is in direct physical contact with the skeletal surface. This is consistent with the previously observed chemical and isotopic composition of the ultra-structural components in the skeleton. (2) The distribution and density of desmocyte cells, which anchor the calicoblastic ectoderm to the skeletal surface, vary spatially and temporally during skeletal growth. (3) The tissue above the coenosteal spines lack endoderm and consists only of ectodermal cell-layers separated by mesoglea. These findings have important implications for models of vital effects in coral skeletal chemistry and isotope composition.

  9. Tissue mortality by Caribbean ciliate infection and white band disease in three reef-building coral species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Verde

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean ciliate infection (CCI and white band disease (WBD are diseases that affect a multitude of coral hosts and are associated with rapid rates of tissue losses, thus contributing to declining coral cover in Caribbean reefs. In this study we compared tissue mortality rates associated to CCI in three species of corals with different growth forms: Orbicella faveolata (massive-boulder, O. annularis (massive-columnar and Acropora cervicornis (branching. We also compared mortality rates in colonies of A. cervicornis bearing WBD and CCI. The study was conducted at two locations in Los Roques Archipelago National Park between April 2012 and March 2013. In A. cervicornis, the rate of tissue loss was similar between WBD (0.8 ± 1 mm/day, mean ± SD and CCI (0.7 ± 0.9 mm/day. However, mortality rate by CCI in A. cervicornis was faster than in the massive species O. faveolata (0.5 ± 0.6 mm/day and O. annularis (0.3 ± 0.3 mm/day. Tissue regeneration was at least fifteen times slower than the mortality rates for both diseases regardless of coral species. This is the first study providing coral tissue mortality and regeneration rates associated to CCI in colonies with massive morphologies, and it highlights the risks of further cover losses of the three most important reef-building species in the Caribbean.

  10. Tissue mortality by Caribbean ciliate infection and white band disease in three reef-building coral species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Alejandra; Bastidas, Carolina; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Caribbean ciliate infection (CCI) and white band disease (WBD) are diseases that affect a multitude of coral hosts and are associated with rapid rates of tissue losses, thus contributing to declining coral cover in Caribbean reefs. In this study we compared tissue mortality rates associated to CCI in three species of corals with different growth forms: Orbicella faveolata (massive-boulder), O. annularis (massive-columnar) and Acropora cervicornis (branching). We also compared mortality rates in colonies of A. cervicornis bearing WBD and CCI. The study was conducted at two locations in Los Roques Archipelago National Park between April 2012 and March 2013. In A. cervicornis, the rate of tissue loss was similar between WBD (0.8 ± 1 mm/day, mean ± SD) and CCI (0.7 ± 0.9 mm/day). However, mortality rate by CCI in A. cervicornis was faster than in the massive species O. faveolata (0.5 ± 0.6 mm/day) and O. annularis (0.3 ± 0.3 mm/day). Tissue regeneration was at least fifteen times slower than the mortality rates for both diseases regardless of coral species. This is the first study providing coral tissue mortality and regeneration rates associated to CCI in colonies with massive morphologies, and it highlights the risks of further cover losses of the three most important reef-building species in the Caribbean.

  11. Inter-specific coral chimerism: Genetically distinct multicellular structures associated with tissue loss in Montipora capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Forsman, Zac H.; Szabo, Zoltan; Lewis, Teresa D.; Aeby, Greta S.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Montipora white syndrome (MWS) results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS) that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR), while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata). Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss.

  12. Inter-specific coral chimerism: genetically distinct multicellular structures associated with tissue loss in Montipora capitata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry M Work

    Full Text Available Montipora white syndrome (MWS results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR, while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata. Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss.

  13. Impact of seawater acidification on pH at the tissue-skeleton interface and calcification in reef corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn, Alexander A; Tambutté, Eric; Holcomb, Michael; Laurent, Julien; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2013-01-29

    Insight into the response of reef corals and other major marine calcifiers to ocean acidification is limited by a lack of knowledge about how seawater pH and carbonate chemistry impact the physiological processes that drive biomineralization. Ocean acidification is proposed to reduce calcification rates in corals by causing declines in internal pH at the calcifying tissue-skeleton interface where biomineralization takes place. Here, we performed an in vivo study on how partial-pressure CO(2)-driven seawater acidification impacts intracellular pH in coral calcifying cells and extracellular pH in the fluid at the tissue-skeleton interface [subcalicoblastic medium (SCM)] in the coral Stylophora pistillata. We also measured calcification in corals grown under the same conditions of seawater acidification by measuring lateral growth of colonies and growth of aragonite crystals under the calcifying tissue. Our findings confirm that seawater acidification decreases pH of the SCM, but this decrease is gradual relative to the surrounding seawater, leading to an increasing pH gradient between the SCM and seawater. Reductions in calcification rate, both at the level of crystals and whole colonies, were only observed in our lowest pH treatment when pH was significantly depressed in the calcifying cells in addition to the SCM. Overall, our findings suggest that reef corals may mitigate the effects of seawater acidification by regulating pH in the SCM, but they also highlight the role of calcifying cell pH homeostasis in determining the response of reef corals to changes in external seawater pH and carbonate chemistry.

  14. The application of Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ) in diagnosis of thyroid lesions: A preliminary study

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    Hou, Xiu-Juan; Sun, Ai-Xia [In-Patient Ultrasound Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhou, Xian-Li, E-mail: hrbzhouxl@163.com [In-Patient Ultrasound Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Ji, Qiao; Wang, Hong-Bo; Wei, Hong; Sun, Jia-Wei; Liu, Han [In-Patient Ultrasound Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Objectives: Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ) is a quantified ultrasound (US) acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging method that provides numerical measurements (wave-velocity values) of tissue stiffness. The purpose of this study was to detect whether VTQ could be applied to differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Methods: Healthy subjects’ thyroid tissue and thyroid lesions were examined by VTQ to analyze their elasticity after conventional ultrasound. All the thyroid lesions were analyzed pathologically after surgery and correlated the VTQ values with the pathological results. Results: The VTQ value of healthy thyroid tissue, the benign lesions, and the malignant lesions were 1.69 ± 0.41 m/s, 2.03 ± 0.42 m/s, and 3.10 ± 1.08 m/s, respectively. The VTQ value of the malignant lesions was higher than that of the healthy thyroid tissue and the benign lesions (both p < 0.001). The VTQ value of the benign lesions was higher than that of the healthy thyroid tissue (p < 0.001). With a cutoff value of 2.42 m/s, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for differentiating between the benign and the malignancy lesions were 80.00%, 89.23%, 87.05%, 69.56%, and 93.54%, respectively. Conclusions: VTQ could provide quantitative elasticity measurements, which might play an important role in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid lesions.

  15. Bacterial communities associated with healthy and Acropora white syndrome-affected corals from American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bryan; Aeby, Greta S.; Work, Thierry M.; Bourne, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Acropora white syndrome (AWS) is characterized by rapid tissue loss revealing the white underlying skeleton and affects corals worldwide; however, reports of causal agents are conflicting. Samples were collected from healthy and diseased corals and seawater around American Samoa and bacteria associated with AWS characterized using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, from coral mucus and tissue slurries, respectively. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from coral tissue were dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria, and Jaccard's distances calculated between the clone libraries showed that those from diseased corals were more similar to each other than to those from healthy corals. 16S rRNA genes from 78 culturable coral mucus isolates also revealed a distinct partitioning of bacterial genera into healthy and diseased corals. Isolates identified as Vibrionaceae were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing, revealing that whilst several Vibrio spp. were found to be associated with AWS lesions, a recently described species, Vibrio owensii, was prevalent amongst cultured Vibrio isolates. Unaffected tissues from corals with AWS had a different microbiota than normal Acropora as found by others. Determining whether a microbial shift occurs prior to disease outbreaks will be a useful avenue of pursuit and could be helpful in detecting prodromal signs of coral disease prior to manifestation of lesions.

  16. Reformation of tissue balls from tentacle explants of coral Goniopora lobata: self-organization process and response to environmental stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiongxuan; Liu, Tao; Tang, Xianming; Dong, Bo; Guo, Huarong

    2017-02-01

    Coral has strong regeneration ability, which has been applied for coral production and biodiversity protection via tissue ball (TB) culture. However, the architecture, morphological processes, and effects of environmental factors on TB formation have not been well investigated. In this study, we first observed TB formation from the cutting tentacle of scleractinia coral Goniopora lobata and uncovered its inner organization and architecture by confocal microscopy. We then found that the cutting tentacle TB could self-organize and reform a solid TB (sTB) in the culture media. Using chemical drug treatment and dissection manipulation approaches, we demonstrated that the mechanical forces for bending and rounding of the cutting fragments came from the epithelial cells, and the cilia of epithelial cell played indispensable roles for the rounding process. Environmental stress experiments showed that high temperature, not CO2-induced acidification, affected TB and sTB formation. However, the combination of high temperature and acidification caused additional severe effects on sTB reformation. Our studies indicate that coral TB has strong regeneration ability and therefore could serve as a new model to further explore the molecular mechanism of TB formation and the effects of environmental stresses on coral survival and regeneration.

  17. Vibrio owensii induces the tissue loss disease Montipora white syndrome in the Hawaiian reef coral Montipora capitata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Ushijima

    Full Text Available Incidences of coral disease in the Indo-Pacific are increasing at an alarming rate. In particular, Montipora white syndrome, a tissue-loss disease found on corals throughout the Hawaiian archipelago, has the potential to degrade Hawaii's reefs. To identify the etiologic agent of Montipora white syndrome, bacteria were isolated from a diseased fragment of Montipora capitata and used in a screen for virulent strains. A single isolate, designated strain OCN002, recreated disease signs in 53% of coral fragments in laboratory infection trials when added to a final concentration of 10(7 cells/ml of seawater. In addition to displaying similar signs of disease, diseased coral fragments from the field and those from infection trials both had a dramatic increase in the abundance of associated culturable bacteria, with those of the genus Vibiro well represented. Bacteria isolated from diseased fragments used in infection trails were shown to be descendants of the original OCN002 inocula based on both the presence of a plasmid introduced to genetically tag the strain and the sequence of a region of the OCN002 genome. In contrast, OCN002 was not re-isolated from fragments that were exposed to the strain but did not develop tissue loss. Sequencing of the rrsH gene, metabolic characterization, as well as multilocus sequence analysis indicated that OCN002 is a strain of the recently described species Vibrio owensii. This investigation of Montipora white syndrome recognizes V. owensii OCN002 as the first bacterial coral pathogen identified from Hawaii's reefs and expands the range of bacteria known to cause disease in corals.

  18. Synchronous changes in coral chromatophore tissue density and skeletal banding as an adaptive response to environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardisana, R. N.; Miller, C. A.; Sivaguru, M.; Fouke, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    Corals are a key reservoir of biodiversity in coastal, shallow water tropical marine environments, and density banding in their aragonite skeletons is used as a sensitive record of paleoclimate. Therefore, the cellular response of corals to environmental change and its expression in skeletal structure is of significant importance. Chromatophores, pigment-bearing cells within the ectoderm of hermatypic corals, serve to both enhance the photosynthetic activity of zooxanthellae symbionts, as well as protect the coral animal from harmful UV radiation. Yet connections have not previously been drawn between chromatophore tissue density and the development of skeletal density bands. A histological analysis of the coral Montastrea faveolata has therefore been conducted across a bathymetric gradient of 1-20 m on the southern Caribbean island of Curaçao. A combination of field and laboratory photography, serial block face imaging (SBFI), two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM), and 3D image analysis has been applied to test whether M. faveolata adapts to increasing water depth and decreasing photosynthetically active radiation by shifting toward a more heterotrophic lifestyle (decreasing zooxanthellae tissue density, increasing mucocyte tissue density, and decreasing chromatophores density). This study is among the first to collect and evaluate histological data in the spatial context of an entire unprocessed coral polyp. TPLSM was used to optically thin section unprocessed tissue biopsies with quantitative image analysis to yield a nanometer-scale three-dimensional map of the quantity and distribution of the symbionts (zooxanthellae) and a host fluorescent pigments (chromatophores), which is thought to have photoprotective properties, within the context of an entire coral polyp. Preliminary results have offered new insight regarding the three-dimensional distribution and abundance of chromatophores and have identified: (1) M. faveolata tissue collected from 8M SWD do

  19. Quantifying brain tissue volume in multiple sclerosis with automated lesion segmentation and filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesion filling has been successfully applied to reduce the effect of hypo-intense T1-w Multiple Sclerosis (MS lesions on automatic brain tissue segmentation. However, a study of fully automated pipelines incorporating lesion segmentation and lesion filling on tissue volume analysis has not yet been performed. Here, we analyzed the % of error introduced by automating the lesion segmentation and filling processes in the tissue segmentation of 70 clinically isolated syndrome patient images. First of all, images were processed using the LST and SLS toolkits with different pipeline combinations that differed in either automated or manual lesion segmentation, and lesion filling or masking out lesions. Then, images processed following each of the pipelines were segmented into gray matter (GM and white matter (WM using SPM8, and compared with the same images where expert lesion annotations were filled before segmentation. Our results showed that fully automated lesion segmentation and filling pipelines reduced significantly the % of error in GM and WM volume on images of MS patients, and performed similarly to the images where expert lesion annotations were masked before segmentation. In all the pipelines, the amount of misclassified lesion voxels was the main cause in the observed error in GM and WM volume. However, the % of error was significantly lower when automatically estimated lesions were filled and not masked before segmentation. These results are relevant and suggest that LST and SLS toolboxes allow the performance of accurate brain tissue volume measurements without any kind of manual intervention, which can be convenient not only in terms of time and economic costs, but also to avoid the inherent intra/inter variability between manual annotations.

  20. Quantifying brain tissue volume in multiple sclerosis with automated lesion segmentation and filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Sergi; Oliver, Arnau; Roura, Eloy; Pareto, Deborah; Vilanova, Joan C.; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Montalban, Xavier; Rovira, Àlex; Lladó, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Lesion filling has been successfully applied to reduce the effect of hypo-intense T1-w Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions on automatic brain tissue segmentation. However, a study of fully automated pipelines incorporating lesion segmentation and lesion filling on tissue volume analysis has not yet been performed. Here, we analyzed the % of error introduced by automating the lesion segmentation and filling processes in the tissue segmentation of 70 clinically isolated syndrome patient images. First of all, images were processed using the LST and SLS toolkits with different pipeline combinations that differed in either automated or manual lesion segmentation, and lesion filling or masking out lesions. Then, images processed following each of the pipelines were segmented into gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) using SPM8, and compared with the same images where expert lesion annotations were filled before segmentation. Our results showed that fully automated lesion segmentation and filling pipelines reduced significantly the % of error in GM and WM volume on images of MS patients, and performed similarly to the images where expert lesion annotations were masked before segmentation. In all the pipelines, the amount of misclassified lesion voxels was the main cause in the observed error in GM and WM volume. However, the % of error was significantly lower when automatically estimated lesions were filled and not masked before segmentation. These results are relevant and suggest that LST and SLS toolboxes allow the performance of accurate brain tissue volume measurements without any kind of manual intervention, which can be convenient not only in terms of time and economic costs, but also to avoid the inherent intra/inter variability between manual annotations. PMID:26740917

  1. Quantifying brain tissue volume in multiple sclerosis with automated lesion segmentation and filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Sergi; Oliver, Arnau; Roura, Eloy; Pareto, Deborah; Vilanova, Joan C; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Montalban, Xavier; Rovira, Àlex; Lladó, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Lesion filling has been successfully applied to reduce the effect of hypo-intense T1-w Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions on automatic brain tissue segmentation. However, a study of fully automated pipelines incorporating lesion segmentation and lesion filling on tissue volume analysis has not yet been performed. Here, we analyzed the % of error introduced by automating the lesion segmentation and filling processes in the tissue segmentation of 70 clinically isolated syndrome patient images. First of all, images were processed using the LST and SLS toolkits with different pipeline combinations that differed in either automated or manual lesion segmentation, and lesion filling or masking out lesions. Then, images processed following each of the pipelines were segmented into gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) using SPM8, and compared with the same images where expert lesion annotations were filled before segmentation. Our results showed that fully automated lesion segmentation and filling pipelines reduced significantly the % of error in GM and WM volume on images of MS patients, and performed similarly to the images where expert lesion annotations were masked before segmentation. In all the pipelines, the amount of misclassified lesion voxels was the main cause in the observed error in GM and WM volume. However, the % of error was significantly lower when automatically estimated lesions were filled and not masked before segmentation. These results are relevant and suggest that LST and SLS toolboxes allow the performance of accurate brain tissue volume measurements without any kind of manual intervention, which can be convenient not only in terms of time and economic costs, but also to avoid the inherent intra/inter variability between manual annotations.

  2. Pyrosequencing of the bacteria associated with Platygyra carnosus corals with skeletal growth anomalies reveals differences in bacterial community composition in apparently healthy and diseased tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Chun-Yee Ng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Corals are rapidly declining globally due to coral diseases. Skeletal growth anomalies (SGA or coral tumors are a group of coral diseases that affect coral reefs worldwide, including Hong Kong waters in the Indo-Pacific region. To better understand how bacterial communities may vary in corals with SGA, for the first time, we examined the bacterial composition associated with the apparently healthy and the diseased tissues of SGA-affected Platgyra carnosus using 16S ribosomal rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria as the main phyla in both the apparently healthy and the diseased tissues. A significant difference in the bacterial community composition was observed between the two conditions at the OTU level. Diseased tissues were associated with higher abundances of Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes, and a lower abundance of Spirochaetes. Several OTUs belonging to Rhodobacteraceae, Rhizobiales, Gammaproteobacteria, and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroidetes (CFB were strongly associated with the diseased tissues. These groups of bacteria may contain potential pathogens involved with the development of SGA or opportunistic secondary or tertiary colonizers that proliferated upon the health-compromised coral host. We suggest that these bacterial groups to be further studied based on inoculation experiments and testing of Koch’s postulates in efforts to understand the etiology and progression of SGA.

  3. Quantification of algal endosymbionts (Symbiodinium) in coral tissue using real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mieog, J. C.; Van Oppen, M. J. H.; Berkelmans, R.; Stam, W. T.; Olsen, J. L.

    Understanding the flexibility of the endosymbioses between scleractinian corals and single-cell algae of the genus Symbiodinium will provide valuable insights into the future of coral reefs. Here, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay is presented to accurately determine the cell

  4. Quantification of algal endosymbionts (Symbiodinium) in coral tissue using real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mieog, J. C.; Van Oppen, M. J. H.; Berkelmans, R.; Stam, W. T.; Olsen, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the flexibility of the endosymbioses between scleractinian corals and single-cell algae of the genus Symbiodinium will provide valuable insights into the future of coral reefs. Here, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay is presented to accurately determine the cell densiti

  5. Lugol's iodine identifies dysplastic tissue in precancerous lesions: A clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Shereen; Basu, Rajarshi; Hallur, Neelakamal H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Intraepithelial dysplasia, or “invisible” precancerous lesions, provides a challenge for visualization to the surgical team. The prognostic relevance of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ at surgical margins is well documented. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the use of Lugol's iodine in visualizing the surgical margins of dysplastic tissue by an observational study of 100 patients having oral precancerous lesions between June 2013 and March 2016. Conclusion: Lugol's iodine is a simple, inexpensive, and apparently effective means of diagnosing and visualizing the surgical margins of the dysplastic tissue in oral precancerous lesions. PMID:28299253

  6. Role of tissue harmonic imaging in characterization of cystic renal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Asmi; Sandhu, Manavjit S; Lal, Anupam; Sodhi, Kushaljit S; Sud, Kamal; Kohli, Harbir S

    2008-12-01

    To determine the utility of tissue harmonic imaging in evaluating cystic renal lesions and to compare these findings with conventional ultrasound guidance (USG) and CT. Thirty patients, detected with cystic renal lesions on routine USG (over a period of 18 months from July 2004 to December 2005 at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research Chandigarh, Chandigarh, India) were included in this study. All patients underwent a conventional gray scale ultrasound study (GSI), followed by tissue harmonic imaging (THI) sonography on the same machine (advance technology limited high definition imaging 5000). Computed tomography of abdomen was carried out within one week of the ultrasound examinations. All images were evaluated for size, number, and location of lesions. The findings of THI sonography, conventional USG and CT of abdomen were recorded in their respective proformas. The images obtained by GSI, THI, and contrast enhanced CT were also evaluated for image quality, lesion conspicuity, and fluid-solid differentiation. Tissue harmonic imaging showed better image quality in 27 of 34 lesions, improvement in lesion conspicuity was found in 27 of 34 cystic lesions, and an improved solid-fluid differentiation in 30 of 34 lesions when compared to GSI. The THI provided additional information as compared to GSI in 8 patients. The grading of CT scan was significantly higher in overall image quality (p=0.007) and lesion conspicuity (p=0.004), but was non-significant for fluid-solid differentiation (p=0.23). Tissue harmonic imaging provides better image quality, lesion delineation, and superior characterization than conventional gray scale sonography.

  7. Photosynthetic acclimation of Symbiodinium in hospite depends on vertical position in the tissue of the scleractinian coral Montastrea curta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads eLichtenberg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Coral photophysiology has been studied intensively from the colony scale down to the scale of single fluorescent pigment granules as light is one of the key determinants for coral health. We studied the photophysiology of the oral and aboral symbiont band of scleractinian coral Montastrea curta to investigate if different acclimation to light exist in hospite on a polyp scale. By combined use of electrochemical and fiber-optic microsensors for O2, scalar irradiance and variable chlorophyll fluorescence, we could characterize the physical and chemical microenvironment experienced by the symbionts and, for the first time, estimate effective quantum yields of PSII photochemistry and rates of electron transport at the position of the zooxanthellae corrected for the in-tissue gradient of scalar irradiance. The oral- and aboral Symbiodinium layers received ~71% and ~33% of surface scalar irradiance, respectively, and the two symbiont layers experience considerable differences in light exposure. Rates of gross photosynthesis did not differ markedly between the oral- and aboral layer and curves of PSII electron transport rates corrected for scalar irradiance in hospite, showed that the light use efficiency under sub-saturating light conditions were similar between the two layers. However, the aboral Symbiodinium band did not experience photosynthetic saturation, even at the highest investigated irradiance where the oral layer was clearly saturated. We thus found a different light acclimation response for the oral and aboral symbiont bands in hospite, and discuss whether such response could be shaped by spectral shifts caused by tissue gradients of scalar irradiance. Based on our experimental finding, combined with previous knowledge, we present a conceptual model on the photophysiology of Symbiodinium residing inside living coral tissue under natural gradients of light and chemical parameters.

  8. Some Physical, Chemical, and Biological Parameters of Samples of Scleractinium Coral Aquaculture Skeleton Used for Reconstruction/Engineering of the Bone Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A A; Sergeeva, N S; Britaev, T A; Komlev, V S; Sviridova, I K; Kirsanova, V A; Akhmedova, S A; Dgebuadze, P Yu; Teterina, A Yu; Kuvshinova, E A; Schanskii, Ya D

    2015-08-01

    Physical and chemical (phase and chemical composition, dynamics of resorption, and strength properties), and biological (cytological compatibility and scaffold properties of the surface) properties of samples of scleractinium coral skeletons from aquacultures of three types and corresponding samples of natural coral skeletons (Pocillopora verrucosa, Acropora formosa, and Acropora nobilis) were studied. Samples of scleractinium coral aquaculture skeleton of A. nobilis, A. formosa, and P. verrucosa met the requirements (all study parameters) to materials for osteoplasty and 3D-scaffolds for engineering of bone tissue.

  9. Nakagami imaging for detecting thermal lesions induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound in tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangraz, Parisa; Behnam, Hamid; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound induces focalized tissue coagulation by increasing the tissue temperature in a tight focal region. Several methods have been proposed to monitor high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions. Currently, ultrasound imaging techniques that are clinically used for monitoring high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment are standard pulse-echo B-mode ultrasound imaging, ultrasound temperature estimation, and elastography-based methods. On the contrary, the efficacy of two-dimensional Nakagami parametric imaging based on the distribution of the ultrasound backscattered signals to quantify properties of soft tissue has recently been evaluated. In this study, ultrasound radio frequency echo signals from ex vivo tissue samples were acquired before and after high-intensity focused ultrasound exposures and then their Nakagami parameter and scaling parameter of Nakagami distribution were estimated. These parameters were used to detect high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions. Also, the effects of changing the acoustic power of the high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer on the Nakagami parameters were studied. The results obtained suggest that the Nakagami distribution's scaling and Nakagami parameters can effectively be used to detect high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions in tissue ex vivo. These parameters can also be used to understand the degree of change in tissue caused by high-intensity focused ultrasound exposures, which could be interpreted as a measure of degree of variability in scatterer concentration in various parts of the high-intensity focused ultrasound lesion.

  10. Arterial spin labelling shows functional depression of non-lesion tissue in chronic Wernicke's aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Holly; Specht, Karsten; Beaumont, Helen; Parkes, Laura M; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Zahn, Roland

    2017-07-01

    Behavioural impairment post-stroke is a consequence of structural damage and altered functional network dynamics. Hypoperfusion of intact neural tissue is frequently observed in acute stroke, indicating reduced functional capacity of regions outside the lesion. However, cerebral blood flow (CBF) is rarely investigated in chronic stroke. This study investigated CBF in individuals with chronic Wernicke's aphasia (WA) and examined the relationship between lesion, CBF and neuropsychological impairment. Arterial spin labelling CBF imaging and structural MRIs were collected in 12 individuals with chronic WA and 13 age-matched control participants. Joint independent component analysis (jICA) investigated the relationship between structural lesion and hypoperfusion. Partial correlations explored the relationship between lesion, hypoperfusion and language measures. Joint ICA revealed significant differences between the control and WA groups reflecting a large area of structural lesion in the left posterior hemisphere and an associated area of hypoperfusion extending into grey matter surrounding the lesion. Small regions of remote cortical hypoperfusion were observed, ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion. Significant correlations were observed between the neuropsychological measures (naming, repetition, reading and semantic association) and the jICA component of interest in the WA group. Additional ROI analyses found a relationship between perfusion surrounding the core lesion and the same neuropsychological measures. This study found that core language impairments in chronic WA are associated with a combination of structural lesion and abnormal perfusion in non-lesioned tissue. This indicates that post-stroke impairments are due to a wider disruption of neural function than observable on structural T1w MRI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of HPV-induced cervical (pre) neoplastic lesions: a tissue microarray (TMA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Mohammad; Boniver, Jacques; Delvenne, Philippe

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a panel of biomarkers in the characterization of human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cervical lesions. Management of these lesions depends on their histologic confirmation. Misinterpretation especially for benign mimics results in a significant diagnostic disagreement. For these reasons, a continuous effort is still needed to discover surrogate markers, which could support the final diagnosis. Archival biopsies of normal ectocervical and endocervical tissues, squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma in situ, and adenocarcinoma were retrieved to perform a tissue microarray (TMA). A panel of markers was tested on the TMA obtained slides by in situ hybridization (HPV DNA) and immunohistochemistry (p16, involucrin, Ki-67, and HPV L1 proteins). The sensitivity to detect high-risk HPV DNA increased with lesion's severity. In situ hybridization signals suggesting integrated viral physical status predominated in CIN II/III, squamous cell carcinoma, and glandular (pre) neoplastic lesions. The p16 and Ki-67 protein expression increased from CIN I to CIN III and to infiltrative lesions. Involucrin positivity was better appreciated in well-differentiated diagnostic entities (ectocervix, mature metaplasia, and CIN I). HPV L1 antibody detected the viral capsid protein in a low proportion of CIN I and II. In conclusion, using a panel of cervical biomarkers improves the final reporting of various HPV-induced epithelial lesions. Carefully constructed TMA with single spots of 1-mm diameter are powerful tools, which have a high reliability in representing full tissue sections.

  12. Location- and lesion-dependent estimation of background tissue complexity for anthropomorphic model observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanaki, Ali R. N.; Espig, Kathryn; Knippel, Eddie; Kimpe, Tom R. L.; Xthona, Albert; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we specify a notion of background tissue complexity (BTC) as perceived by a human observer that is suited for use with model observers. This notion of BTC is a function of image location and lesion shape and size. We propose four unsupervised BTC estimators based on: (i) perceived pre- and post-lesion similarity of images, (ii) lesion border analysis (LBA; conspicuous lesion should be brighter than its surround), (iii) tissue anomaly detection, and (iv) mammogram density measurement. The latter two are existing methods we adapt for location- and lesion-dependent BTC estimation. To validate the BTC estimators, we ask human observers to measure BTC as the visibility threshold amplitude of an inserted lesion at specified locations in a mammogram. Both human-measured and computationally estimated BTC varied with lesion shape (from circular to oval), size (from small circular to larger circular), and location (different points across a mammogram). BTCs measured by different human observers are correlated (ρ=0.67). BTC estimators are highly correlated to each other (0.84cine mode is outlined. The proposed estimators, as-is or customized to a specific human observer, may be used to construct a BTC-aware model observer, with applications such as optimization of contrast-enhanced medical imaging systems, and creation of a diversified image dataset with characteristics of a desired population.

  13. A white matter lesion-filling approach to improve brain tissue volume measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Valverde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis white matter (WM lesions can affect brain tissue volume measurements of voxel-wise segmentation methods if these lesions are included in the segmentation process. Several authors have presented different techniques to improve brain tissue volume estimations by filling WM lesions before segmentation with intensities similar to those of WM. Here, we propose a new method to refill WM lesions, where contrary to similar approaches, lesion voxel intensities are replaced by random values of a normal distribution generated from the mean WM signal intensity of each two-dimensional slice. We test the performance of our method by estimating the deviation in tissue volume between a set of 30 T1-w 1.5 T and 30 T1-w 3 T images of healthy subjects and the same images where: WM lesions have been previously registered and afterwards replaced their voxel intensities to those between gray matter (GM and WM tissue. Tissue volume is computed independently using FAST and SPM8. When compared with the state-of-the-art methods, on 1.5 T data our method yields the lowest deviation in WM between original and filled images, independently of the segmentation method used. It also performs the lowest differences in GM when FAST is used and equals to the best method when SPM8 is employed. On 3 T data, our method also outperforms the state-of-the-art methods when FAST is used while performs similar to the best method when SPM8 is used. The proposed technique is currently available to researchers as a stand-alone program and as an SPM extension.

  14. Comparison of conventional B-scan, tissue harmonic imaging, compound imaging and tissue harmonic compound imaging in neck lesion characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzato, Alessandro; Loika, Anne; Hornung, Joachim; Koch, Michael; Zenk, Johannes; Uter, Wolfgang; Iro, Heinrich

    2010-10-01

    In recent years, further technical developments of ultrasound scanning techniques, such as tissue harmonic imaging (THI) and compound imaging (CI), have become available and promise considerable improvement in image quality. No comparative assessments have yet been made of their systematic use in the head and neck. We studied 313 lesions of the head and neck detected on ultrasound scanning. Ultrasound images were obtained using a state-of-the-art scanning system. Two experts evaluated the images obtained for each lesion with conventional B-scan mode (BSCAN), THI, CI, and tissue harmonic compound imaging (THICI) with respect to four different aspects of image quality. Largely concordant results were found for each of the parameters studied: overall image quality, tissue contrast, lesion conspicuity, and internal structure. Evaluations of CI and THICI were frequently ranked higher (p Images obtained in BSCAN mode often had better scores than images in THI mode alone (p imaging methods improve image quality of the soft tissues of neck and may be included in the routine settings of ultrasound systems.

  15. Nonproliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Rat and Mouse Skeletal Tissues (Bones, Joints, and Teeth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, Stacey; Vahle, John; Long, Philip; Schelling, Scott; Ernst, Heinrich; Boyce, Rogely Waite; Jolette, Jacquelin; Bolon, Brad; Bendele, Alison; Rinke, Matthias; Healy, Laura; High, Wanda; Roth, Daniel Robert; Boyle, Michael; Leininger, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) Project (www.toxpath.org/inhand.asp) is an initiative of the Societies of Toxicological Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP) and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopic lesions observed in the skeletal tissues and teeth of laboratory rats and mice, with color photomicrographs illustrating examples of many common lesions. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available on the internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material were databases from government, academic and industrial laboratories throughout the world. PMID:27621538

  16. Comprehensive tissue processing strategy for quantitative proteomics of formalin-fixed multiple sclerosis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Linda; Barnett, Michael H; Zheng, Yuan Z; Gulati, Twishi; Prineas, John W; Crossett, Ben

    2011-10-07

    Formalin-fixed (FF) autopsy tissue comprises the bulk of existing Multiple Sclerosis (MSc) pathology archives, providing a rich pool of material for biomarker discovery and disease characterization. Here, we present the development of a heat-induced extraction protocol for the proteomic analysis of FF brain tissue, its application to the study of lesion remyelination and its failure in MSc. A 4-round extraction strategy was optimized using FF tissue leading to a 35% increase in the number of proteins identified compared to a single extraction; and a 65% increase in proteins identified with ≥4 peptides. Histological staining of sections with oil red O and luxol fast blue-periodic acid Schiff, required to characterize MSc lesions was found to have minimal effect on LC-MS/MS. The application of the optimized protocol to chronic demyelinated and remyelinated FF MSc lesions and the adjacent periplaque white matter, isolated through laser guided manual dissection from 3 patients, identified 428 unique proteins (0.2% FDR) using LC-MS/MS. Comparison of the lesion types using iTRAQ and 2-D LC-MS/MS revealed 82 differentially expressed proteins. Protein quantitation by iTRAQ and spectral counting was well-correlated (r(s)= 0.7653; p < 10(-30)). The data generated from this work illustrates the scope of the methodology and provides insights into the pathogenesis of MSc and remyelination.

  17. [Syndromes of peripheral nervous system lesions and mechanisms of their formation in disorders of connective tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N N; Bulanova, V A; Pizova, N V; Shilkina, N P

    2005-01-01

    Systemic rheumatoid diseases are often concomitant with the development of central and peripheral systems pathologies. Presented are the results revealing high frequency of peripheral nervous system lesions (lupus erythematosus and systemic scleroderma), which characterized by polyneuropathy and tunnel syndromes. Based on the results of literature and own studies, pathological mechanisms of peripheral nervous system lesions in diffusion disorders of connective tissue were singled out as follows: ischemic, immunological and metabolic. Taking these mechanisms into account will permit to conduct pathogenetically valid therapy and to improve its results.

  18. Peripheral nervous system lesion syndromes and the mechanisms of their formation in connective tissue diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N N; Bulanova, V A; Pizova, N V; Shilkina, N P

    2007-01-01

    Systemic rheumatological diseases are often accompanied by the development of central and peripheral nervous system pathology. Data providing evidence of the high incidence of peripheral nervous system lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic scleroderma are presented. These diseases in particular are characterized by polyneuropathies and tunnel syndromes. Our own observations, along with published data, revealed the following major pathogenetic mechanisms of peripheral nervous system lesions in diffuse connective tissue diseases - ischemic, immunological, and metabolic. Consideration of these mechanisms will lead to pathogenetically based treatment and improved therapeutic outcomes.

  19. A peculiar fibroma-like lesion of superficial soft tissue: morphologic and immunophenotypic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filotico, M; Damuri, A; Filotico, R

    2014-12-01

    Apeculiar lesion of superficial soft tissue characterised by fibroma-like morphology and an immunohistochemical profile consisting of CK+, VIM+, CD34+, CD31+/-, FLI1+ and INI-1 retained is described. The lesion entered into differential diagnosis with the so-called fibroma-like variant of epithelioid sarcoma, with the entities defined as ES-like/pseudomyogenic haemangioendothelioma and the recently identified entity defined as superficial CD34+ fibroblastic tumour. All of these entities share a common morphological structure, but differ in their immunophenotypic profile.

  20. [Pseudo-tumoral lesions of dense conjuntival tissue. Attempt at pathogenic interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonenfani, J L; Lagacé, R

    1975-01-01

    The histogenesis of pseudotumors of dense connective tissue has been studied. These lesions may be classified as mucoid (synovial cyst and periungueal myxoma), collagenous (desmoid tumor, desmoid fibroblastoma and fibromatosis colli), elastic (elastofibroma dorsi), cellular (fibroblastic: fibromatosis, fasciitis and myositis; histiocytic: giant-cell tumor of tendon sheath, fibrous histiocytoma and atypical fibroxanthoma), metaplastic (ossifying fasciitis, ossifying myositis and juvenile chondroid fibroma) and hamartomatous nature (fibrous hamartoma). It must be emphasized that these lesions show a variable and polymorphouse cellular composition and then can simulate sarcoma.

  1. Ciliate communities consistently associated with coral diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, M. J.; Séré, M. G.

    2016-07-01

    Incidences of coral disease are increasing. Most studies which focus on diseases in these organisms routinely assess variations in bacterial associates. However, other microorganism groups such as viruses, fungi and protozoa are only recently starting to receive attention. This study aimed at assessing the diversity of ciliates associated with coral diseases over a wide geographical range. Here we show that a wide variety of ciliates are associated with all nine coral diseases assessed. Many of these ciliates such as Trochilia petrani and Glauconema trihymene feed on the bacteria which are likely colonizing the bare skeleton exposed by the advancing disease lesion or the necrotic tissue itself. Others such as Pseudokeronopsis and Licnophora macfarlandi are common predators of other protozoans and will be attracted by the increase in other ciliate species to the lesion interface. However, a few ciliate species (namely Varistrombidium kielum, Philaster lucinda, Philaster guamense, a Euplotes sp., a Trachelotractus sp. and a Condylostoma sp.) appear to harbor symbiotic algae, potentially from the coral themselves, a result which may indicate that they play some role in the disease pathology at the very least. Although, from this study alone we are not able to discern what roles any of these ciliates play in disease causation, the consistent presence of such communities with disease lesion interfaces warrants further investigation.

  2. Transcriptional profiling differences for articular cartilage and repair tissue in equine joint surface lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stromberg Arnold J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Full-thickness articular cartilage lesions that reach to the subchondral bone yet are restricted to the chondral compartment usually fill with a fibrocartilage-like repair tissue which is structurally and biomechanically compromised relative to normal articular cartilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate transcriptional differences between chondrocytes of normal articular cartilage and repair tissue cells four months post-microfracture. Methods Bilateral one-cm2 full-thickness defects were made in the articular surface of both distal femurs of four adult horses followed by subchondral microfracture. Four months postoperatively, repair tissue from the lesion site and grossly normal articular cartilage from within the same femorotibial joint were collected. Total RNA was isolated from the tissue samples, linearly amplified, and applied to a 9,413-probe set equine-specific cDNA microarray. Eight paired comparisons matched by limb and horse were made with a dye-swap experimental design with validation by histological analyses and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Results Statistical analyses revealed 3,327 (35.3% differentially expressed probe sets. Expression of biomarkers typically associated with normal articular cartilage and fibrocartilage repair tissue corroborate earlier studies. Other changes in gene expression previously unassociated with cartilage repair were also revealed and validated by RT-qPCR. Conclusion The magnitude of divergence in transcriptional profiles between normal chondrocytes and the cells that populate repair tissue reveal substantial functional differences between these two cell populations. At the four-month postoperative time point, the relative deficiency within repair tissue of gene transcripts which typically define articular cartilage indicate that while cells occupying the lesion might be of mesenchymal origin, they have not recapitulated differentiation to

  3. Photoinduced activation of GFP-like proteins in tissues of reef corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Anya; Wiedenmann, Joerg; Matz, Mikhail; Larkum, Anthony W.; Cox, Guy

    2006-02-01

    A variety of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins homologous to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been recently discovered and cloned from non-bioluminescent marine animals, such as corals, and now provide a multitude of colors for use in fluorescence imaging applications. Recently, a novel fluorescence imaging methodology has emerged that utilizes the unique photoactivatory property of several GFP-like proteins, which respond to irradiation by altering their optical properties, thereby providing a new spatio-temporal capability to the GFP-based imaging applications. During our studies of GFP-like proteins from the Great Barrier Reef corals, several novel photoactivatable (PA) GFP-like proteins have been discovered. These include fluorescence photo-amplifiers and reversible photoswitchers, similar to PA jelly-fish derived PA-GFP and Dronpa, that greatly increase their emissions following ultraviolet-A (UVA) irradiation; the red-to-green (R-to-G) converters, similar to DsRed, that rapidly change to green color following single- or 2-photon irradiation; the green-to-red (G-to-R) converters, that acquire bright red fluorescence following UV-violet irradiation, similar to Kaede-like proteins; and the kindling GFP-like proteins, that are non fluorescent, but rapidly acquire bright fluorescence after green light irradiation. We report on the various optical characteristics of these coral PA proteins that may be used to expand the scope of the available fluorescence bio-imaging technologies.

  4. Gross and microscopic pathology of hard and soft corals in New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Lasne, Gregory; Tribollet, Aline

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the reefs of Grande Terre, New Caledonia, for coral diseases in 2010 and 2013. Lesions encountered in hard and soft corals were systematically described at the gross and microscopic level. We sampled paired and normal tissues from 101 and 65 colonies in 2010 and 2013, respectively, comprising 51 species of corals from 27 genera. Tissue loss was the most common gross lesion sampled (40%) followed by discoloration (28%), growth anomalies (13%), bleaching (10%), and flatworm infestation (1%). When grouped by gross lesions, the diversity of microscopic lesions as measured by Shannon–Wiener index was highest for tissue loss, followed by discoloration, bleaching, and growth anomaly. Our findings document an extension of the range of certain diseases such as Porites trematodiasis and endolithic hypermycosis (dark spots) to the Western Pacific as well as the presence of a putative cnidarian endosymbiont. We also expand the range of species infected by cell-associated microbial aggregates, and confirm the trend that these aggregates predominate in dominant genera of corals in the Indo-Pacific. This study highlights the importance of including histopathology as an integral component of baseline coral disease surveys, because a given gross lesion might be associated with multiple potential causative agents.

  5. Cytomorphology of Erdheim-Chester disease presenting as a retroperitoneal soft tissue lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibianna Purgina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD is a rare, multisystem disorder of macrophages. Patients manifest with histiocytic infiltrates that lead to xanthogranulomatous lesions in multiple organ systems. The cytologic features of this disorder are not well characterized. As a result, the cytologic diagnosis of ECD can be very challenging. The aim of this report is to describe the cytomorphology of ECD in a patient presenting with a retroperitoneal soft tissue lesion. A 54-year-old woman with proptosis and diabetes insipidus was found on imaging studies to have multiple intracranial lesions, sclerosis of both femurs and a retroperitoneal soft tissue mass. Fine needle aspiration (FNA and a concomitant core biopsy of this abnormal retroperitoneal soft tissue revealed foamy, epithelioid and multinucleated histiocytes associated with fibrosis. The histiocytes were immunoreactive for CD68, CD163, Factor XIIIa and fascin, and negative for S100, confirming the diagnosis of ECD. ECD requires a morphologic diagnosis that fits with the appropriate clinical context. This case describes the cytomorphologic features of ECD and highlights the role of cytology in helping reach a diagnosis of this rare disorder.

  6. Cryobiology of coral fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Mary; Farrell, Ann; Carter, Virginia L

    2013-02-01

    Around the world, coral reefs are dying due to human influences, and saving habitat alone may not stop this destruction. This investigation focused on the biological processes that will provide the first steps in understanding the cryobiology of whole coral fragments. Coral fragments are a partnership of coral tissue and endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., commonly called zooxanthellae. These data reflected their separate sensitivities to chilling and a cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide) for the coral Pocillopora damicornis, as measured by tissue loss and Pulse Amplitude Modulated fluorometry 3weeks post-treatment. Five cryoprotectant treatments maintained the viability of the coral tissue and zooxanthellae at control values (1M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0h exposures, and 1.5M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0 and 1.5h exposures, P>0.05, ANOVA), whereas 2M concentrations did not (Pcoral tissue, but not in the zooxanthellae. During the winter when the fragments were chilled, the coral tissue remained relatively intact (∼25% loss) post-treatment, but the zooxanthellae numbers in the tissue declined after 5min of chilling (Pcoral tissue (∼75% loss) and zooxanthellae numbers declined in response to chilling alone (Pcoral against tissue loss after 45min of cryoprotectant exposure (P>0.05, ANOVA), but it did not protect against the loss of zooxanthellae (Pcoral fragment complex and future cryopreservation protocols must be guided by their greater sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental lead pollution and its possible influence on tooth loss and hard dental tissue lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenić-Milošević Desanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Environmental lead (Pb pollution is a global problem. Hard dental tissue is capable of accumulating lead and other hard metals from the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate any correlation between the concentration of lead in teeth extracted from inhabitants of Pančevo and Belgrade, Serbia, belonging to different age groups and occurrence of tooth loss, caries and non-carious lesions. Methods. A total of 160 volunteers were chosen consecutively from Pančevo (the experimental group and Belgrade (the control group and divided into 5 age subgroups of 32 subjects each. Clinical examination consisted of caries and hard dental tissue diagnostics. The Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT Index and Significant Caries Index were calculated. Extracted teeth were freed of any organic residue by UV digestion and subjected to voltammetric analysis for the content of lead. Results. The average DMFT scores in Pančevo (20.41 were higher than in Belgrade (16.52; in the patients aged 31-40 and 41-50 years the difference was significant (p < 0.05 and highly significant in the patients aged 51-60 (23.69 vs 18.5, p < 0.01. Non-carious lesions were diagnosed in 71 (44% patients from Pančevo and 39 (24% patients from Belgrade. The concentrations of Pb in extracted teeth in all the groups from Pančevo were statistically significantly (p < 0.05 higher than in all the groups from Belgrade. In the patients from Pančevo correlations between Pb concentration in extracted teeth and the number of extracted teeth, the number of carious lesions and the number of non-carious lesions showed a statistical significance (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively. Conclusion. According to correlations between lead concentration and the number of extracted teeth, number of carious lesions and non-carious lesions found in the patients living in Pančevo, one possible cause of tooth loss and hard dental tissue damage could be a long

  8. Concordance of human papillomavirus types detected on the surface and in the tissue of genital lesions in men

    OpenAIRE

    Anic, Gabriella M; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Rollison, Dana E.; Stockwell, Heather; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Gage, Christine; Silva, Roberto Jose C.; Baggio, Maria L.; Salmerón, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Swabbing the surface of a genital lesion to obtain a sample for HPV DNA testing is less invasive than a biopsy, but may not represent HPV types present in the lesion tissue. The objective of this study was to examine the concordance of HPV types detected in swab and biopsy samples from 165 genital lesions from men ages 18-70. Lesions included 90 condyloma, 10 penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN), 23 non-condyloma with a known histology, and 42 lesions with an undetermined histology. All le...

  9. [Treatment of advanced periodontal and periapical lesion caused by malformed lingual groove with guided tissue regeneration: report of one case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-ming; Sun, Qing-Feng; Yang, Pi-shan

    2005-08-01

    This paper reported one case with severe periodontal lesions caused by malformed lingual groove treated by guided tissue regeneration. The periodontal lesion was exposed palatally after the tooth had been treated with root canal therapy, the alveolar bone and the root surface was prepared, an unabsorbable member of e-PTFE was placed into the wound,and removed after 4 weeks, the patient was followed up for 3 years. The lesion recovered well three years after the operation, all of the periodontal tissue was in a healthy condition. It is advisable that guided periodontal tissue regeneration can be used as a new method to treat periodontal destruction induced by malformed lingual groove.

  10. Second opinion and discrepancy in the diagnosis of soft tissue lesions at surgical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Muhammad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the frequency and magnitude of discrepancies in the surgical pathological diagnosis of soft tissue lesions on review and second opinion in a histopathology center. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from April 2006 to May 2007. Materials and Methods: All the cases of soft tissue as well as bone lesions, irrespective of age and gender, which were referred for second opinion or review after being reported elsewhere, were included in the study. A panel of antibodies of soft tissue, epithelial and lymphoid markers was applied according to the requirements of each case. The cases were categorized as category A where there was concurrence between initial diagnosis and diagnosis at review. Category B included cases where there was disagreement in the specific diagnostic entity as per WHO classifications without therapeutic implications. Category C was cases where the category of benign or malignant diagnosis remained the same but there was disagreement in the specific diagnosis with definite therapeutic implications. Category D had diagnosis of benign changed to malignant while category E had cases where diagnosis of malignancy was changed to a benign lesion. Results: During the study period, 34 cases of soft tissue lesions were received for review and second opinion. The mean age of the patients was 39 ΁ 22 years and immunohistochemistry was performed in 21 (62% of 34 cases. Concurrence between the review and initial diagnosis was seen in 18 (53% cases (category A. Discrepancy in the diagnosis at review and initial consultation was seen in 16 (47% cases. There were four (11.8% cases that were placed in category B as the diagnosis of benign and malignant remained the same but the specific diagnostic entity was changed. Category C included eight (23.5% cases where the review diagnosis changed the therapeutic

  11. Assessing threats from coral and crustose coralline algae disease on the reefs of New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeby, Greta S.; Tribollet, Aline; Lasne, Gregory; Work, Thierry M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the results of the first quantitative survey of lesions on coral and crustose coralline algae (CCA) on reefs in the lagoon of New Caledonia. Surveys on inshore and offshore reefs were conducted at 13 sites in 2010, with 12 sites resurveyed in 2013. Thirty coral diseases affecting 15 coral genera were found, with low overall disease prevalence (<1%). This study extends the known distribution of growth anomalies to the coral genera Platygyraand Hydnophora, endolithic hypermycosis to Platygyra, Leptoria and Goniastrea and extends the geographic range of three CCA diseases. We found the first trematode infection in Porites outside of Hawaii. Disease prevalence differed among coral genera, with Porites having more lesions, and Acropora and Montipora fewer lesions, than expected on the basis of field abundance. Inshore reefs had a lower coral-colony density, species diversity and reduced CCA cover than did the offshore reefs. Disease prevalence was significantly higher on inshore reefs in 2013 than in 2010, but did not change on offshore reefs. The potential ecological impact of individual coral diseases was assessed using an integrative-scoring and relative-ranking scheme based on average frequency of occurrence, prevalence and estimated degree of virulence. The top-five ranked diseases were all tissue-loss diseases.

  12. Lesiones naturales y regeneración de tejido en ramets del coral Montastraea annularis (Scleractinia: Faviidae en un arrecife degradado del Caribe Colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Alvarado Ch

    2009-12-01

    a year we followed natural lesions that appeared on healthy ramets of a population on a degraded reef within a Marine Protected Area in Colombia, to infer the effect on population size structure. From September 2003 to September 2004, 94% of the ramets presented lesions caused by bleaching, predation; or algae, sponge and borrower interactions. Predation caused 47% of the lesions and algae 36%; most lesions (85% were small (60% of its live tissue and were evident from September to November, yet total recovery was found in three months. In contrast, lesions by algae (36%, showed less recovery (6.7%, and a tendency to grow in time. In general, percentage of affected tissue area of a ramet in any month was lower than 10%. Nevertheless from May to September, the area affected was larger (10-50% due to an increase in frequency and abundance of predation, bleaching and algal damage, and a decrease in recovery. At the end of the year, lesions that did not recover caused partial mortality in 25% of the ramets. Ramets with lesions shrunk throughout the year and by the end of year, 21% passed to a smaller class size. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 939-954. Epub 2009 December 01.

  13. Viral nucleoprotein localization and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njagi, Lucy Wanjiru; Mbuthia, Paul Gichohi; Nyaga, Phillip Njeru; Bebora, Lilly Caroline; Minga, Uswege M

    2012-04-01

    Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Post-mortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks.

  14. High-throughput sequencing approach uncovers the miRNome of peritoneal endometriotic lesions and adjacent healthy tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merli Saare

    Full Text Available Accumulating data have shown the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs in endometriosis pathogenesis. In this study, we used a novel approach to determine the endometriotic lesion-specific miRNAs by high-throughput small RNA sequencing of paired samples of peritoneal endometriotic lesions and matched healthy surrounding tissues together with eutopic endometria of the same patients. We found five miRNAs specific to epithelial cells--miR-34c, miR-449a, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-141 showing significantly higher expression in peritoneal endometriotic lesions compared to healthy peritoneal tissues. We also determined the expression levels of miR-200 family target genes E-cadherin, ZEB1 and ZEB2 and found that the expression level of E-cadherin was significantly higher in endometriotic lesions compared to healthy tissues. Further evaluation verified that studied miRNAs could be used as diagnostic markers for confirming the presence of endometrial cells in endometriotic lesion biopsy samples. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the miRNA profile of peritoneal endometriotic lesion biopsies is largely masked by the surrounding peritoneal tissue, challenging the discovery of an accurate lesion-specific miRNA profile. Taken together, our findings indicate that only particular miRNAs with a significantly higher expression in endometriotic cells can be detected from lesion biopsies, and can serve as diagnostic markers for endometriosis.

  15. High-Throughput Sequencing Approach Uncovers the miRNome of Peritoneal Endometriotic Lesions and Adjacent Healthy Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saare, Merli; Rekker, Kadri; Laisk-Podar, Triin; Sõritsa, Deniss; Roost, Anne Mari; Simm, Jaak; Velthut-Meikas, Agne; Samuel, Külli; Metsalu, Tauno; Karro, Helle; Sõritsa, Andrei; Salumets, Andres; Peters, Maire

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating data have shown the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in endometriosis pathogenesis. In this study, we used a novel approach to determine the endometriotic lesion-specific miRNAs by high-throughput small RNA sequencing of paired samples of peritoneal endometriotic lesions and matched healthy surrounding tissues together with eutopic endometria of the same patients. We found five miRNAs specific to epithelial cells – miR-34c, miR-449a, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-141 showing significantly higher expression in peritoneal endometriotic lesions compared to healthy peritoneal tissues. We also determined the expression levels of miR-200 family target genes E-cadherin, ZEB1 and ZEB2 and found that the expression level of E-cadherin was significantly higher in endometriotic lesions compared to healthy tissues. Further evaluation verified that studied miRNAs could be used as diagnostic markers for confirming the presence of endometrial cells in endometriotic lesion biopsy samples. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the miRNA profile of peritoneal endometriotic lesion biopsies is largely masked by the surrounding peritoneal tissue, challenging the discovery of an accurate lesion-specific miRNA profile. Taken together, our findings indicate that only particular miRNAs with a significantly higher expression in endometriotic cells can be detected from lesion biopsies, and can serve as diagnostic markers for endometriosis. PMID:25386850

  16. Experimental Toxoplasmosis in Rats Induced Orally with Eleven Strains of Toxoplasma gondii of Seven Genotypes: Tissue Tropism, Tissue Cyst Size, Neural Lesions, Tissue Cyst Rupture without Reactivation, and Ocular Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Jitender P; Ferreira, Leandra R; Alsaad, Mohammad; Verma, Shiv K; Alves, Derron A; Holland, Gary N; McConkey, Glenn A

    2016-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widely distributed and successful parasites. Toxoplasma gondii alters rodent behavior such that infected rodents reverse their fear of cat odor, and indeed are attracted rather than repelled by feline urine. The location of the parasite encysted in the brain may influence this behavior. However, most studies are based on the highly susceptible rodent, the mouse. Latent toxoplasmosis was induced in rats (10 rats per T. gondii strains) of the same age, strain, and sex, after oral inoculation with oocysts (natural route and natural stage of infection) of 11 T. gondii strains of seven genotypes. Rats were euthanized at two months post inoculation (p.i.) to investigate whether the parasite genotype affects the distribution, location, tissue cyst size, or lesions. Tissue cysts were enumerated in different regions of the brains, both in histological sections as well in saline homogenates. Tissue cysts were found in all regions of the brain. The tissue cyst density in different brain regions varied extensively between rats with many regions highly infected in some animals. Overall, the colliculus was most highly infected although there was a large amount of variability. The cerebral cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum had higher tissue cyst densities and two strains exhibited tropism for the colliculus and olfactory bulb. Histologically, lesions were confined to the brain and eyes. Tissue cyst rupture was frequent with no clear evidence for reactivation of tachyzoites. Ocular lesions were found in 23 (25%) of 92 rat eyes at two months p.i. The predominant lesion was focal inflammation in the retina. Tissue cysts were seen in the sclera of one and in the optic nerve of two rats. The choroid was not affected. Only tissue cysts, not active tachyzoite infections, were detected. Tissue cysts were seen in histological sections of tongue of 20 rats but not in myocardium and leg muscle. This study reevaluated in depth the

  17. Increased Infiltration of Macrophages in Omental Adipose Tissue Is Associated With Marked Hepatic Lesions in Morbid Human Obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raffaella Cancello; Joan Tordjman; Christine Poitou; Gaël Guilhem; Jean Luc Bouillot; Danielle Hugol; Christiane Coussieu; Arnaud Basdevant; Avner Bar Hen; Pierre Bedossa; Michèle Guerre-Millo; Karine Clément

    2006-01-01

    Increased Infiltration of Macrophages in Omental Adipose Tissue Is Associated With Marked Hepatic Lesions in Morbid Human Obesity Raffaella Cancello 1 2 3 , Joan Tordjman 1 2 3 , Christine Poitou 1 2 3...

  18. DUAL-FOCUS THERAPEUTIC ULTRASOUND TRANSDUCER FOR PRODUCTION OF BROAD TISSUE LESIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Seob; Cannata, Jonathan M.; Shung, K. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    In noninvasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment, formation of a large tissue lesion per sonication is desirable for reducing the overall treatment time. The goal of this study is to show the feasibility of enlarging tissue lesion size with a dual-focus therapeutic ultrasound transducer (DFTUT) by increasing the depth-of-focus (DOF). The proposed transducer consists of a disc- and an annular-type element of different radii of curvatures to produce two focal zones. To increase focal depth and to maintain uniform beamwidth of the elongated DOF, each element transmits ultrasound of a different center frequency: the inner element at a higher frequency for near field focusing and the outer element at a lower frequency for far field focusing. By activating two elements at the same time with a single transmitter capable of generating a dual-frequency mixed signal, the overall DOF of the proposed transducer may be extended considerably. A prototype transducer composed of a 4.1 MHz inner element and a 2.7 MHz outer element was fabricated to obtain preliminary experimental results. The feasibility the proposed technique was demonstrated through sound field, temperature and thermal dose simulations. The performance of the prototype transducer was verified by hydrophone measurements and tissue ablation experiments on a beef liver specimen. When several factors affecting the length and the uniformity of elongated DOF of the DFTUT are optimized, the proposed therapeutic ultrasound transducer design may increase the size of ablated tissues in the axial direction and, thus, decreasing the treatment time for a large volume of malignant tissues especially deep-seated targets. PMID:20870346

  19. Guided tissue regeneration in communicating periodontal and endodontic lesions - A hope for the hopeless!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Rohini; Lele, Priya; Vishakha

    2011-10-01

    The use of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has become a standard of care in Periodontology. GTR using membrane barriers and/or bone grafting materials has also been used in periapical surgery. However, the application of the GTR principle, particularly in communicating endodontic-periodontal lesions with loss of the buccal cortical plate, is a very challenging task, with very few reported human clinical studies. An interdisciplinary approach, combining endodontic and periodontal (surgical) procedures can save a tooth in the long run that has been defined as hopeless at the preliminary stage of treatment.

  20. Chronic coral consumption by butterflyfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, A. J.; Lawton, R. J.; Pratchett, M. S.; Wilson, S. K.

    2011-03-01

    Interactions between predators and prey organisms are of fundamental importance to ecological communities. While the ecological impact that grazing predators can have in terrestrial and temperate marine systems are well established, the importance of coral grazers on tropical reefs has rarely been considered. In this study, we estimate the biomass of coral tissue consumed by four prominent species of corallivorous butterflyfishes. Sub-adult butterflyfishes (60-70 mm, 6-11 g) remove between 0.6 and 0.9 g of live coral tissue per day, while larger adults (>110 mm, ~40-50 g) remove between 1.5 and 3 g of coral tissue each day. These individual consumption rates correspond to the population of coral-feeding butterflyfishes at three exposed reef crest habitats at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, consuming between 14.6 g (±2.0) and 19.6 g (±3.9) .200 m-2 day-1 of coral tissue. When standardised to the biomass of butterflyfishes present, a combined reefwide removal rate of 4.2 g (±1.2) of coral tissue is consumed per 200 m-2 kg-1 of coral-feeding butterflyfishes. The quantity of coral tissue removed by these predators is considerably larger than previously expected and indicates that coral grazers are likely to play an important role in the transfer of energy fixed by corals to higher consumers. Chronic coral consumption by butterflyfishes is expected to exact a large energetic cost upon prey corals and contribute to an increased rate of coral loss on reefs already threatened by anthropogenic pressure and ongoing climate change.

  1. [PREVALENCE OF NON-CARIOUS CERVICAL LESIONS AND ABFRACTIONS OF DENTAL HARD TISSUES IN AN ADULT IN DIFFERENT AGES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanishvili, A K; Chernyj, D A; Jankovskij, V V; Orlov, A K; Drobkova, K O

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to gerontostomatological and gender-specific prevalence of non-carious lesions of the hard tissue of teeth in adults. The paper presents data of epidemiological study on prevalence of non-carious lesions of dental hard tissues (high abrasion, erosion, wedge-shaped defects, hyperesthesia). Allocated to four age groups: young adults surveyed--from 22 to 39 years; middle ages--from 40 to 59 years; older--from 60 to 74 years of age; senile age--from 75 to 87 years. To determine the frequency of occurrence of different forms of non-carious lesions of the hard tissue of teeth we have used the following: general scientific and special methods: poll, dental examination, groupings, statistical and mathematical methods of processing sample. We have ranked low incidence of non-carious lesions of the hard tissue of the teeth in the sample surveyed: high abrasion, erosion, wedge-shaped defects of solid tissues, hyperesthesia. The features of clinical course of non-carious lesions have been determined. In particular a rare combined lesion of the teeth with advanced erasibility, wedge defects and erosion has been noted. Significant combination of the pathological processes of the hard tissue of teeth with their hyperesthesia has been found. Features of different forms of non-carious lesions of the hard tissue of teeth in different age periods of life have been determined. Noted that older people, due to non-carious esions of the hard tissue of teeth were more likely to require medical intervention aimed at addressing the ncreased sensitivity and loss of hard tissue of teeth by dental therapeutic activities or dental prosthetics.

  2. Tissue lesions of tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum): relationship to sewage effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, F.L.

    1977-01-01

    A population of facultative neotenous tiger salamanders (A. tigrinum) inhabiting a sewage lagoon at Reese AFB, Hurlwood, Texas, was found to have an exceptionally high rate of spontaneous tissue lesions. The population is composed of an estimated 28,000 large, reproductively mature larvae that are restricted to the lagoon. Only about 17 percent of the population metamorphoses normally. In contrast, tiger salamanders from uncontaminated lagoons in the same general vicinity metamorphose normally; however, no neoplasms were discovered in larvae sampled from the nonsewage lagoons. N-nitrosamine analyses of water and tissue samples of larvae were negative. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocargon analyses revealed traces of benzo(a)pyrene in the sludge; however, perylene, a constituent of jet fuel, was found in high concentration (300 ppB). These results indicate that perylene, which was previously found not be tumorigenic to mice and rats, should be retested as a possible agent for nonmammalian species.

  3. Effect of Inorganic Nutrient Enrichment and Water Temperature Increment on the Zooxanthellae Density in the Scleractinian Coral Tissues

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    Taihun Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The coral symbiotic algae zooxanthellae is often expelled from the host as the host coral is under physiological stress, causing the coral to turn completely white. Such coral bleaching events are occurring more frequently with the increase in the global warming, ocean acidification and increased level of anthropogenic impacts such as eutrophication. In the present study, we investigated the effects of inorganic nutrients including ammonium, nitrate, phosphate and elevated water temperature on the symbiotic zooxanthellae density in the fragment of branching coral Acropora nobilis. Zooxanthellae density in the host coral decreased 8 hrs after the experiment at a given elevated water temperature (32oC, p < 0.05. In contrast, no clear coral bleaching or decrease in the symbiotic algae density was observed from the branching coral exposed to a normal water temperature of 30oC and high levels of nutrients such as 20 μM of NH4Cl, 20 μM of NaNO3 and, 10 μM KH2PO4. Accordingly, the data indicated high water temperature is one of the stressful factors to cause bleaching in A. nobilis, whereas the high levels of nutrients is not a factor. It is believed that the results obtained in the present study are useful as baseline information in the management of the coral reefs.

  4. Premalignant and Malignant Skin Lesions in Two Recipients of Vascularized Composite Tissue Allografts (Face, Hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Kanitakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recipients of solid organ transplants (RSOT have a highly increased risk for developing cutaneous premalignant and malignant lesions, favored by the lifelong immunosuppression. Vascularized composite tissue allografts (VCA have been introduced recently, and relevant data are sparse. Two patients with skin cancers (one with basal cell carcinoma and one with squamous cell carcinomas have been so far reported in this patient group. Since 2000 we have been following 9 recipients of VCA (3 face, 6 bilateral hands for the development of rejection and complications of the immunosuppressive treatment. Among the 9 patients, one face-grafted recipient was diagnosed with nodular-pigmented basal cell carcinoma of her own facial skin 6 years after graft, and one patient with double hand allografts developed disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis, a potentially premalignant dermatosis, on her skin of the arm and legs. Similar to RSOT, recipients of VCA are prone to develop cutaneous premalignant and malignant lesions. Prevention should be applied through sun-protective measures, regular skin examination, and early treatment of premalignant lesions.

  5. Practical guidelines for ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of soft-tissue lesions: Transformation from beginner to specialist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Chung, Hye Won; Oh, Tack Sun; Lee, Jong Seok [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (US-CNB) is an important step in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal soft-tissue lesions. To maximize efficacy and minimize the complications of US-CNB, it is critical to collaborate with a multidisciplinary team and to understand the particular considerations of US-CNB for these lesions. The purpose of this article is to provide a systematic review and step-by-step tips for using US-CNB to diagnose musculoskeletal soft-tissue lesions.

  6. Diffusing, side-firing, and radial delivery laser balloon catheters for creating subsurface thermal lesions in tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Hung; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2016-02-01

    Infrared lasers have been used in combination with applied cooling methods to preserve superficial skin layers during cosmetic surgery. Similarly, combined laser irradiation and tissue cooling may also allow development of minimally invasive laser therapies beyond dermatology. This study compares diffusing, side-firing, and radial delivery laser balloon catheter designs for creation of subsurface lesions in tissue, ex vivo, using a near-IR laser and applied contact cooling. An Ytterbium fiber laser with 1075 nm wavelength delivered energy through custom built 18 Fr (6-mm-OD) balloon catheters incorporating either 10-mm-long diffusing fiber tip, 90 degree side-firing fiber, or radial delivery cone mirror, through a central lumen. A chilled solution was flowed through a separate lumen into 9-mm-diameter balloon to keep probe cooled at 7°C. Porcine liver tissue samples were used as preliminary tissue model for immediate observation of thermal lesion creation. The diffusing fiber produced subsurface thermal lesions measuring 49.3 +/- 10.0 mm2 and preserved 0.8 +/- 0.1 mm of surface tissue. The side-firing fiber produced subsurface thermal lesions of 2.4 +/- 0.9 mm2 diameter and preserved 0.5 +/- 0.1 mm of surface tissue. The radial delivery probe assembly failed to produce subsurface thermal lesions, presumably due to the small effective spot diameter at the tissue surface, which limited optical penetration depth. Optimal laser power and irradiation time measured 15 W and 100 s for diffusing fiber and 1.4 W and 20 s, for side-firing fiber, respectively. Diffusing and side-firing laser balloon catheter designs provided subsurface thermal lesions in tissue. However, the divergent laser beam in both designs limited the ability to preserve a thicker layer of tissue surface. Further optimization of laser and cooling parameters may be necessary to preserve thicker surface tissue layers.

  7. [Investigation on noncarious hard tissue lesions of teeth in teachers of one university in Shanghai municipality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-li; Zhang, Zhe-dan; Guo, Jian-qing; Zhu, Ya-ping; Wang, Qun; Gao, Ling-yu

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the condition of four kinds of noncarious hard tissue lesions of the teeth in teachers of one university in Shanghai municipality and provide guidance about oral health care. The table and the standard on oral health survey authorized by WHO were adopted, condition of four kinds of noncarious hard tissue lesions of teeth in 776 teachers of East China University of Science was investigated and analyzed using SPSS16.0 software package. The average wedge-shaped defect teeth was 5.54±3.87, the incidence was 30.41%, caries incidence of the first bicuspid was the highest(29.52%). The incidence of tetracycline pigmentation teeth was 3.09%, the incidence of enamel hypoplasia was 2.06%, and the incidence of dental fluorosis was 1.55%. The average wedge-shaped defect teeth is higher than the data over the country, the incidence of dental textural anomaly is lower. The behaviors of oral health care of university teachers in Shanghai municipality remains to be further strengthened.

  8. Partial volume segmentation in 3D of lesions and tissues in magnetic resonance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Brian; Atkins, M. Stella; Booth, Kellogg S.

    1994-05-01

    An important first step in diagnosis and treatment planning using tomographic imaging is differentiating and quantifying diseased as well as healthy tissue. One of the difficulties encountered in solving this problem to date has been distinguishing the partial volume constituents of each voxel in the image volume. Most proposed solutions to this problem involve analysis of planar images, in sequence, in two dimensions only. We have extended a model-based method of image segmentation which applies the technique of iterated conditional modes in three dimensions. A minimum of user intervention is required to train the algorithm. Partial volume estimates for each voxel in the image are obtained yielding fractional compositions of multiple tissue types for individual voxels. A multispectral approach is applied, where spatially registered data sets are available. The algorithm is simple and has been parallelized using a dataflow programming environment to reduce the computational burden. The algorithm has been used to segment dual echo MRI data sets of multiple sclerosis patients using lesions, gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid as the partial volume constituents. The results of the application of the algorithm to these datasets is presented and compared to the manual lesion segmentation of the same data.

  9. The application of lesion sterilization and tissue repair 3Mix-MP for treating rat's dental pulp tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raditya Nugroho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lesion sterilization and tissue repair (LSTR 3Mix-MP are three broad-spectrum antibiotics, including metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline are mixed with propylene glycol or macrogol. There is the possibility ofthe healing process that marked proliferation ofnew blood vessels and proliferation offibroblasts in the treatment ofirreversible pulpitis by pulp capping LSTR 3MixMP because of  the principle of the method LSTR 3Mix-MP is to kill bacteria. Purpose: The purpose of this study to prove the effect of LSTR 3Mix-MP on chronic inflammation and the healing process in rat dental pulp tissue in vivo. Methods: Rattus norvegicus anaesthetized by using ketamine and xylazine dissolved in sterile isotonic saline solution (0.2 ml/50gr mm on the upper right thigh. Cavity preparation class I to perforation by using a low speed tapered diamond round bur. In the treatment group, rats were treated 3Mix-MP at a dose of10 mg and then covered with glass ionomer cement for 7 days on the pulp that has been opened for 3 days. The control group treated with saline irrigation on the pulp that has been opened for 3 days. Rats were killed after seven days, and then made preparations pulp tissue to count the number oflymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, blood vessels, and fibroblasts Results: There is an increase in the average number ofmacrophage cells, plasma, and fibroblasts; and decreased lymphocytes and blood vessels in the treated group exposure LSTR 3Mix-MP. Conclusion:LSTR 3Mix-MP can reduce chronic inflammation process and enhance the healing process in rat dental pulp tissue.

  10. Antiprotozoal drug nitazoxanide enhances parasitemia, tissue lesions and mortality caused by Trypanosoma cruzi in murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Reyes, Juan Salvador; Melnikov, Valery; Dobrovinskaya, Oxana; Rodriguez-Hernández, Alejandrina; Wookee-Zea, Cristina; Pimientel-Rodrigez, Víctor; Rueda-Valdovinos, Gabriela; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; López-Lemus, Uriel A; Espinoza-Gómez, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Chagas' disease is caused by unicellular parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). It is endemic throughout Latin America, but nowadays has become a global challenge due to tourism and migration. Non-treated infection may result in health-threatening complications and lead to death. Current medications for this infection are nifurtimox (NFT) and benznidazol. Both drugs may cause side effects and are ineffective in the chronic phase. Therefore, new antichagasic compounds are urgently required. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a broad spectrum antiparasitic drug, proposed recently as a potential candidate to be added to the list of essential medicines for integrated neglected tropical disease control and elimination. Although the effect of NTZ against T. cruzi epimastigotes in vitro was reported, the corresponding experiments in animal models of T. cruzi infection have never been undertaken. The present work was designed to fill this gap and evaluate the effect of NTZ on experimental murine trypanosomiasis, in comparison with classical antichagasic agent NFT. Highly sensitive to T. cruzi BALB/c mice were infected using Albarrada T. cruzi strain, recently isolated in Mexico. Experimental groups were either left untreated, or otherwise treated with NFT, NTZ (100 and 1000 mg/kg), or with both drugs simultaneously. The severity of the infection was estimated based on criteria such as parasitemia, lesions in target tissues (heart, muscles and lungs) and mortality. Despite the expected protective effect, NTZ drastically aggravates the course of T. cruzi infection. Namely, parasitemia, tissue lesions and mortality caused by T. cruzi infection were significantly higher in NTZ-treated mice groups, even in comparison with untreated infected animals. NTZ by itself no produced mortality o tissue damage, and NFT showed an expected protective effect. Our results indicate that NTZ cannot be considered for Chagas' disease treatment. Moreover, NTZ should be used with caution in patients

  11. A Retrospective Analysis on the Proper Size of Tissue Expanders to Treat Scalp Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rino Aya, MD

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: Expanders that generate functional skin at least more than 2.5 times the width of the lesion and have a volume more than 7 ml/cm2 lesion are necessary to cover scalp lesions without complications.

  12. Peripheral ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels correlate with and predict histological tissue lesion severity in naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Noh, Susan M; White, Stephen N; Snekvik, Kevin R; Truscott, Thomas; Knowles, Donald P

    2009-04-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine whether anti-ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) antibody responses in serum or OPP provirus levels in peripheral blood associate with the degree of histologically measured tissue lesions in naturally OPPV-infected sheep. Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and hematoxylin- and eosin-stained lung, mammary gland, carpal synovial membrane, and brain tissues from 11 OPPV-infected ewes (mean age of 8.6 years) and 5 OPPV-uninfected ewes (mean age of 6 years) were evaluated for lesion severity. Ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) provirus levels and anti-OPPV antibody titers in peripheral blood and serum samples, respectively, were measured upon euthanasia and 3 years prior to euthanasia. Both mean peripheral OPP provirus levels and mean serum anti-surface envelope glycoprotein (anti-SU) antibody titers at the time of euthanasia were significantly higher in ewes with moderate to severe histological lesions than in ewes with no to mild histological lesions. However, although mean peripheral blood OPP provirus levels at euthanasia and 3 years prior to euthanasia significantly correlated with the highest histological lesion score for any affected tissue (two-tailed P values, 0.03 and 0.02), mean serum anti-SU antibody titers, anti-capsid antibody titers, and anti-transmembrane 90 antibody titers at euthanasia did not show a significant correlation with the highest histological lesion score for any tissue (two-tailed P values, 0.32, 0.97, and 0.18, respectively). These data are the first to show that OPP provirus levels predict and correlate with the extent of OPPV-related histological lesions in various OPPV-affected tissues. These findings suggest that peripheral OPP provirus levels quantitatively contribute more to the development of histological lesions than the systemic anti-SU antibody host immune response.

  13. Biopsy of Different Oral Soft Tissues Lesions by KTP and Diode Laser: Histological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Romeo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Oral biopsy aims to obtain clear and safe diagnosis; it can be performed by scalpel or laser. The controversy in this latter application is the thermal alteration due to tissue heating. The aim of this study is the histological evaluation of margins of “in vivo” biopsies collected by diode and KTP lasers. Material and Methods. 17 oral benign lesions biopsies were made by diode 808 nm (SOL, DenMatItalia, Italy and KTP 532 nm (SmartLite, DEKA, Italy. Samples were observed at OM LEICA DM 2000; margin alterations were evaluated through Leica Application Suite 3.4. Results. Epithelial and connective damages were assessed for each pathology with an average of 0.245 mm and a standard deviation of ±0.162 mm in mucoceles, 0.382 mm ± 0.149 mm in fibromas, 0.336 mm ± 0.106 mm in hyperkeratosis, 0.473 mm ± 0.105 mm in squamous hyperplasia, 0.182 mm in giant cell granuloma, and 0.149 mm in melanotic macula. Discussion. The histologic aspect of lesions influenced the response to laser, whereas the greater inflammation and cellularity were linked with the higher thermal signs. Many artifacts were also associated to histologic procedures. Conclusion. Both tested lasers permitted sure histologic diagnosis. However, it is suggested to enlarge biopsies of about 0.5 mm, to avoid thermal alterations, especially in inflammatory lesions like oral lichen planus.

  14. Hybrid Matrix Grafts to Favor Tissue Regeneration in Rabbit Femur Bone Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goy, Dante Pascual; Gorosito, Emmanuel; Costa, Hermes S; Mortarino, Pablo; Pedemonte, Noelia Acosta; Toledo, Javier; Mansur, Herman S; Pereira, Marivalda M; Battaglino, Ricardo; Feldman, Sara

    2012-01-01

    At present, typical approaches employed to repair fractures and other bone lesions tend to use matrix grafts to promote tissue regeneration. These grafts act as templates, which promote cellular adhesion, growth and proliferation, osteoconduction, and even osteoinduction, which commonly results in de novo osteogenesis. The present work aimed to study the bone-repairing ability of hybrid matrixes (HM) prepared with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and bioactive glass in an experimental rabbit model. The HM were prepared by combining 30% bioactive glass (nominal composition of 58% SiO2 -33 % CaO - 9% P2O5) and 70% PVA. New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the control group (C group) and two groups with bone lesions, in which one received a matrix implant HM (Implant group), while the other did not (no Implant group). Clinical monitoring showed no altered parameters from either the Implant or the no Implant groups as compared to the control group, for the variables of diet grades, day and night temperatures and hemograms. In the Implant group, radiologic and tomographic studies showed implanted areas with clean edges in femoral non-articular direction, and radio-dense images that suggest incipient integration. Minimum signs of phlogosis could be observed, whereas no signs of rejection at this imaging level could be identified. Histological analysis showed evidence of osteo-integration, with the formation of a trabecular bone within the implant. Together, these results show that implants of hybrid matrixes of bioactive glass are capable of promoting bone regeneration. PMID:22848334

  15. Coral microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Kellogg, Christina A.; Rohwer, Forest

    2007-01-01

    In the last 30 years, there has been approximately a 30% loss of corals worldwide, largely due to emerging diseases (Harvell et al., 2002, 2007; Hughes et al., 2003). Coral microbiology is a new field, driven largely by a desire to understand the interactions between corals and their symbiotic microorganisms and to use this knowledge to eventually prevent the spread of coral diseases.

  16. Relationship of Albuminuria and Renal Artery Stent Outcomes: Results From the CORAL Randomized Clinical Trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes With Renal Artery Lesions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy P; Cooper, Christopher J; Pencina, Karol M; D'Agostino, Ralph; Massaro, Joseph; Cutlip, Donald E; Jamerson, Kenneth; Matsumoto, Alan H; Henrich, William; Shapiro, Joseph I; Tuttle, Katherine R; Cohen, David J; Steffes, Michael; Gao, Qi; Metzger, D Christopher; Abernethy, William B; Textor, Stephen C; Briguglio, John; Hirsch, Alan T; Tobe, Sheldon; Dworkin, Lance D

    2016-11-01

    Randomized clinical trials have not shown an additional clinical benefit of renal artery stent placement over optimal medical therapy alone. However, studies of renal artery stent placement have not examined the relationship of albuminuria and treatment group outcomes. The CORAL study (Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions) is a prospective clinical trial of 947 participants with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis randomized to optimal medical therapy with or without renal artery stent which showed no treatment differences (3(5.8% and 35.1% event rate at mean 43-month follow-up). In a post hoc analysis, the study population was stratified by the median baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio (n=826) and analyzed for the 5-year incidence of the primary end point (myocardial infarction, hospitalization for congestive heart failure, stroke, renal replacement therapy, progressive renal insufficiency, or cardiovascular disease- or kidney disease-related death), for each component of the primary end point, and overall survival. When baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio was ≤ median (22.5 mg/g, n=413), renal artery stenting was associated with significantly better event-free survival from the primary composite end point (73% versus 59% at 5 years; P=0.02), cardiovascular disease-related death (93% versus 85%; P≤ 0.01), progressive renal insufficiency (91% versus 77%; P=0.03), and overall survival (89% versus 76%; P≤0.01), but not when baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio was greater than median (n=413). These data suggest that low albuminuria may indicate a potentially large subgroup of those with renal artery stenosis that could experience improved event-free and overall-survival after renal artery stent placement plus optimal medical therapy compared with optimal medical therapy alone. Further research is needed to confirm these preliminary observations.

  17. Evaluation of muscular lesions in connective tissue diseases: thallium 201 muscular scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, G.; Guillet, J.; Sanciaume, C.; Maleville, J.; Geniaux, M.; Morin, P.

    1988-04-01

    We performed thallium 201 muscle scans to assess muscular involvement in 40 patients with different connective tissue diseases (7 with dermatomyositis, 7 with systemic lupus erythematosus, 12 with progressive systemic scleroderma, 2 with calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal involvement, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome, 3 with monomelic scleroderma, 6 with morphea, and 3 with Raynaud's disease). Only 12 of these patients complained of fatigability and/or myalgia. Electromyography was performed and serum levels of muscle enzymes were measured in all patients. Comparison of thallium 201 exercise recording with the other tests revealed that scan sensitivity is greater than electromyographic and serum muscle enzymes levels. Thallium 201 scans showed abnormal findings in 32 patients and revealed subclinical lesions in 18 patients, while electromyography findings were abnormal in 25 of these 32 patients. Serum enzyme levels were raised in only 8 patients. Thallium 201 scanning proved to be a useful guide for modifying therapy when laboratory data were conflicting. It was useful to evaluate treatment efficacy. Because our data indicate a 100% positive predictive value, we believe that thallium 201 scanning should be advised for severe systemic connective tissue diseases with discordant test results.

  18. Identification of Chlamydophila abortus and the development of lesions in placental tissues of experimentally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, S W; Livingstone, M; Rodger, S M; Longbottom, D; Buxton, D

    2009-03-16

    Chlamydophila (C.) abortus is a major cause of infectious abortion in sheep in many countries. Twenty-one pregnant sheep were experimentally infected intranasally with C. abortus at 70 days of gestation (dg). Thereafter, a number of animals were killed at weekly intervals and a post-mortem examination was carried out. Evidence of chlamydial infection in the placenta was determined by isolation of the bacterium by tissue culture and detection of C. abortus DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). In addition, histopathological changes in the placenta were assessed, as was the detection of chlamydial antigen by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Evidence of placental infection was observed as early as 2 weeks after inoculation, and while only relatively low numbers of bacteria were isolated by culture and/or detected by real-time PCR prior to 113-114dg, at 119-121dg, it was more numerous. This study, using the four criteria for assessment of infection, showed that while C. abortus gained access to the placenta as early as 85dg, characteristic histopathological changes were not apparent until 119/121dg. While the chronology of when the bacterium arrived in the placenta and subsequent lesion development is remarkable for its consistency this paper provides more reliable data on the former which in turn now allows study of the factors that permit its access to this tissue and govern its multiplication and the ensuing triggering of damage.

  19. Gross and microscopic pathology of lesions in Pocillopora spp. from the subtropical eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Rocha-Olivares, Axayácatl; Work, Thierry Martin; Calderon-Aguilera, Luis Eduardo; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge Abelardo

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are threatened by a variety of factors including diseases that have caused significant damage in some regions such as in the Caribbean. At present, no data are available on coral diseases in the Mexican Pacific where Pocillopora spp. is a dominant component of coral communities. Here, we describe gross and microscopic morphology of lesions found in pocilloporids at four sites in the Mexican Pacific. Corals were identified and their lesions photographed and quantified in the field. Tissue samples were collected from healthy and affected colonies for histopathology. We recorded seven species of pocilloporids at the study sites with Isla Isabel being the location with the highest coral diversity (H′ = 1.27). Lesions were present in 42% of the colonies and included discoloration (32%), predation-induced tissue loss (30%), unexplained tissue loss (3%) and overgrowth by sponges or algae (35%). The most affected species, P. damicornis (50%), was also one of the most common in the region. No species was more prone to a particular lesion, but there was a significant association between location and the presence of lesions. Northern Islas Marietas (61%) and Isla Isabel (41%) had the highest prevalence of lesions, followed by Manzanillo (37%) and Bahías de Huatulco (23%). Histological changes included atrophy of the surface body wall with depletion of zooxanthellae (91%) in corals with discoloration (bleaching). Ablation of tissue from mesoglea (18%) was also observed. Colonies with unexplained tissue loss showed atrophy and thinning of the epidermis (89%), characterized by cuboidal instead of pseudocolumnar cells normally found in healthy pseudocolumnar ciliated epithelium. Bacterial aggregates between the mesoglea and gastrodermis (11%) were very conspicuous in healthy and diseased corals. Lesions produced by fish bites and gastropods were associated with tissue atrophy (40%) and, in some cases, algal overgrowth near the lesion (20%). No infectious agents

  20. In situ hybridisation detects pro-apoptotic gene expression of a Bcl-2 family member in white syndrome-affected coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, T D; Knack, B; Ukani, L; Seneca, F; Weiss, Y; Leggat, W

    2015-12-09

    White syndrome has been described as one of the most prolific diseases on the Great Barrier Reef. Previously, apoptotic cell death has been described as the mechanism driving the characteristic rapid tissue loss associated with this disease, but the molecular mechanisms controlling apoptotic cell death in coral disease have yet to be investigated. In situ methods were used to study the expression patterns of 2 distinct regulators of apoptosis in Acropora hyacinthus tissues undergoing white syndrome and apoptotic cell death. Apoptotic genes within the Bcl-2 family were not localized in apparently healthy coral tissues. However, a Bcl-2 family member (bax-like) was found to localize to cells and tissues affected by white syndrome and those with morphological evidence for apoptosis. A potential up-regulation of pro-apoptotic or bax-like gene expression in tissues with apoptotic cell death adjacent to disease lesions is consistent with apoptosis being the primary cause of rapid tissue loss in coral affected by white syndrome. Pro-apoptotic (bax-like) expression in desmocytes and the basal tissue layer, the calicodermis, distant from the disease lesion suggests that apoptosis may also underlie the sloughing of healthy tissues associated with the characteristic, rapid spread of tissue loss, evident of this disease. This study also shows that in situ hybridisation is an effective tool for studying gene expression in adult corals, and wider application of these methods should allow a better understanding of many aspects of coral biology and disease pathology.

  1. "Spider bite" lesions are usually diagnosed as skin and soft-tissue infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchard, Jeffrey Ross

    2011-11-01

    Many people seek medical attention for skin lesions and other conditions they attribute to spider bites. Prior experience suggests that many of these lesions have alternate causes, especially infections with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). This study determined the percentage of emergency department (ED) patients reporting a "spider bite" who received a clinical diagnosis of spider bite by their physician vs. other etiologies, and if the diagnoses correlated with demographic risk factors for developing CA-MRSA infections. ED patients who reported that their condition was caused by a "spider bite" were prospectively enrolled in an anonymous, voluntary survey regarding details of their illness and demographic information. Discharge diagnoses were also collected and categorized as: spider bite, bite from other animal (including unknown arthropod), infection, or other diagnosis. There were 182 patients enrolled over 23 months. Seven patients (3.8%) were diagnosed with actual spider bites, 9 patients (4.9%) with bites from other animals, 156 patients (85.7%) with infections, and 6 patients (3.3%) were given other diagnoses. Four patients were given concurrent diagnoses in two categories, and 8 (4.4%) did not have the diagnosis recorded on the data collection instrument. No statistically significant associations were found between the patients' diagnostic categories and the demographic risk factors for CA-MRSA assessed. ED patients reporting a "spider bite" were most frequently diagnosed with skin and soft-tissue infections. Clinically confirmed spider bites were rare, and were caused by black widow spiders when the species could be identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Concordance of human papillomavirus types detected on the surface and in the tissue of genital lesions in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anic, Gabriella M; Messina, Jane L; Stoler, Mark H; Rollison, Dana E; Stockwell, Heather; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Gage, Christine; Silva, Roberto Jose C; Baggio, Maria L; Salmerón, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R

    2013-09-01

    Swabbing the surface of a genital lesion to obtain a sample for HPV DNA testing is less invasive than a biopsy, but may not represent HPV types present in the lesion tissue. The objective of this study was to examine the concordance of HPV types detected in swab and biopsy samples from 165 genital lesions from men ages 18-70. Lesions included 90 condyloma, 10 penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN), 23 non-condyloma with a known histology, and 42 lesions with an undetermined histology. All lesions were sampled by swabbing the surface of the lesion with a pre-wetted Dacron swab and taking a shave biopsy. HPV genotyping was performed using Linear Array for swab samples and INNO-LiPA for biopsy samples. The kappa and McNemar statistics were used to compare the concordance of detecting HPV types in swab and biopsy samples. Both sampling methods had high agreement for detection of HPV DNA in condyloma (87.8% agreement) and PeIN (100% agreement). There was also high concordance for detection of HPV16 (kappa = 1.00) and HPV18 (kappa = 1.00) in PeIN, however, agreement was low to moderate for detecting HPV6 (kappa = 0.31) and HPV11 (kappa = 0.56) in condyloma. Low to moderate agreement was also observed between sampling methods for detecting individual HPV types in the non-condyloma and lesions with an indefinite histology. The results suggest that obtaining a biopsy in addition to swabbing the surface of a lesion may provide additional information about specific HVP types associated with male genital lesions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Non-invasive optical estimate of tissue composition to differentiate malignant from benign breast lesions: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Paola; Paganoni, Anna Maria; Ieva, Francesca; Pifferi, Antonio; Quarto, Giovanna; Abbate, Francesca; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2017-01-01

    Several techniques are being investigated as a complement to screening mammography, to reduce its false-positive rate, but results are still insufficient to draw conclusions. This initial study explores time domain diffuse optical imaging as an adjunct method to classify non-invasively malignant vs benign breast lesions. We estimated differences in tissue composition (oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, lipid, water, collagen) and absorption properties between lesion and average healthy tissue in the same breast applying a perturbative approach to optical images collected at 7 red-near infrared wavelengths (635–1060 nm) from subjects bearing breast lesions. The Discrete AdaBoost procedure, a machine-learning algorithm, was then exploited to classify lesions based on optically derived information (either tissue composition or absorption) and risk factors obtained from patient’s anamnesis (age, body mass index, familiarity, parity, use of oral contraceptives, and use of Tamoxifen). Collagen content, in particular, turned out to be the most important parameter for discrimination. Based on the initial results of this study the proposed method deserves further investigation. PMID:28091596

  4. Non-invasive optical estimate of tissue composition to differentiate malignant from benign breast lesions: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Paola; Paganoni, Anna Maria; Ieva, Francesca; Pifferi, Antonio; Quarto, Giovanna; Abbate, Francesca; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2017-01-01

    Several techniques are being investigated as a complement to screening mammography, to reduce its false-positive rate, but results are still insufficient to draw conclusions. This initial study explores time domain diffuse optical imaging as an adjunct method to classify non-invasively malignant vs benign breast lesions. We estimated differences in tissue composition (oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, lipid, water, collagen) and absorption properties between lesion and average healthy tissue in the same breast applying a perturbative approach to optical images collected at 7 red-near infrared wavelengths (635–1060 nm) from subjects bearing breast lesions. The Discrete AdaBoost procedure, a machine-learning algorithm, was then exploited to classify lesions based on optically derived information (either tissue composition or absorption) and risk factors obtained from patient’s anamnesis (age, body mass index, familiarity, parity, use of oral contraceptives, and use of Tamoxifen). Collagen content, in particular, turned out to be the most important parameter for discrimination. Based on the initial results of this study the proposed method deserves further investigation.

  5. Photoacoustic detection and optical spectroscopy of high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions in biologic tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhamami, Mosa; Kolios, Michael C.; Tavakkoli, Jahan, E-mail: jtavakkoli@ryerson.ca [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The aims of this study are: (a) to investigate the capability of photoacoustic (PA) method in detecting high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments in muscle tissuesin vitro; and (b) to determine the optical properties of HIFU-treated and native tissues in order to assist in the interpretation of the observed contrast in PA detection of HIFU treatments. Methods: A single-element, spherically concaved HIFU transducer with a centre frequency of 1 MHz was utilized to create thermal lesions in chicken breast tissuesin vitro. To investigate the detectability of HIFU treatments photoacoustically, PA detection was performed at 720 and 845 nm on seven HIFU-treated tissue samples. Within each tissue sample, PA signals were acquired from 22 locations equally divided between two regions of interest within two volumes in tissue – a HIFU-treated volume and an untreated volume. Optical spectroscopy was then carried out on 10 HIFU-treated chicken breast specimens in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm, in 1-nm increments, using a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere attachment. The authors’ optical spectroscopy raw data (total transmittance and diffuse reflectance) were used to obtain the optical absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of HIFU-induced thermal lesions and native tissues by employing the inverse adding-doubling method. The aforementioned interaction coefficients were subsequently used to calculate the effective attenuation coefficient and light penetration depth of HIFU-treated and native tissues in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm. Results: HIFU-treated tissues produced greater PA signals than native tissues at 720 and 845 nm. At 720 nm, the averaged ratio of the peak-to-peak PA signal amplitude of HIFU-treated tissue to that of native tissue was 3.68 ± 0.25 (mean ± standard error of the mean). At 845 nm, the averaged ratio of the peak-to-peak PA signal amplitude of HIFU-treated tissue to that of native tissue was 3.75

  6. The role of coral-associated bacterial communities in Australian Subtropical White Syndrome of Turbinaria mesenterina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Godwin

    Full Text Available Australian Subtropical White Syndrome (ASWS is an infectious, temperature dependent disease of the subtropical coral Turbinaria mesenterina involving a hitherto unknown transmissible causative agent. This report describes significant changes in the coral associated bacterial community as the disease progresses from the apparently healthy tissue of ASWS affected coral colonies, to areas of the colony affected by ASWS lesions, to the dead coral skeleton exposed by ASWS. In an effort to better understand the potential roles of bacteria in the formation of disease lesions, the effect of antibacterials on the rate of lesion progression was tested, and both culture based and culture independent techniques were used to investigate the bacterial communities associated with colonies of T. mesenterina. Culture-independent analysis was performed using the Oligonucleotide Fingerprinting of Ribosomal Genes (OFRG technique, which allowed a library of 8094 cloned bacterial 16S ribosomal genes to be analysed. Interestingly, the bacterial communities associated with both healthy and disease affected corals were very diverse and ASWS associated communities were not characterized by a single dominant organism. Treatment with antibacterials had a significant effect on the rate of progress of disease lesions (p = 0.006, suggesting that bacteria may play direct roles as the causative agents of ASWS. A number of potential aetiological agents of ASWS were identified in both the culture-based and culture-independent studies. In the culture-independent study an Alphaproteobacterium closely related to Roseovarius crassostreae, the apparent aetiological agent of juvenile oyster disease, was found to be significantly associated with disease lesions. In the culture-based study Vibrio harveyi was consistently associated with ASWS affected coral colonies and was not isolated from any healthy colonies. The differing results of the culture based and culture-independent studies

  7. Correlation of abnormal DNMT1 and MeCP2 expression with cell biological characteristics in cervical lesion tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Lin; Sha Ma

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the correlation of abnormal DNMT1 and MeCP2 expression with cell biological characteristics in cervical lesion tissue.Methods:Cervical cancer tissue and para-carcinoma tissue were collected from cervical cancer patients who received surgery in our hospital from May 2012 to October 2015, and HPV types as well as the expression levels of DNMTs, MeCP2, PBK, TOPK, Snail, Slug, SALL4 and Cat L were determined.Results:Protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT2, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3l and MeCP2 in cervical cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in para-carcinoma tissue, and the rising trend of DNMT1 expression level was the most significant; protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT2, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3l and MeCP2 in cervical cancer tissue with high-risk HPV infection were significantly higher than those in cervical cancer tissue with normal HPV infection; in cervical cancer tissue with high expression of DNMT1 and MeCP2, PBK, TOPK, Snail, Slug, SALL4 and Cat L levels were significantly higher than those in cervical cancer tissue with low expression of DNMT1 and MeCP2.Conclusions:Abnormally high expression of DNMT1 and MeCP2 in cervical cancer tissue may up-regulate the expression of a variety of malignant biological molecules by increasing methylation level.

  8. Evaluation of Virtual Touch Tissue Imaging Quantification, a New Shear Wave Velocity Imaging Method, for Breast Lesion Assessment by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Golatta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate virtual touch tissue imaging quantification (VTIQ as a new elastography method concerning its intra- and interexaminer reliability and its ability to differentiate benign from malignant breast lesions in comparison to and in combination with ultrasound (US B-mode breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS assessment. Materials and Methods. US and VTIQ were performed by two examiners in 103 women with 104 lesions. Intra- and interexaminer reliability of VTIQ was assessed. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of BIRADS, VTIQ, and combined data were compared. Results. Fifty-four of 104 lesions were malignant. Intraexaminer reliability was consistent, and interexaminer agreement showed a strong positive correlation (r=0.93. The mean VTIQ values in malignant lesions were significantly higher than those in benign (7.73 m/s ± 1.02 versus 4.46 m/s ± 1.87; P<0.0001. The combination of US-BIRADS with the optimal cut-off for clinical decision making of 5.18 m/s yielded a sensitivity of 98%, specificity of 82%, PPV of 86%, and NPV of 98%. The combination of BIRADS and VTIQ led to improved test validity. Conclusion. VTIQ is highly reliable and reproducible. There is a significant difference regarding the mean maximum velocity of benign and malignant lesions. Adding VTIQ to BIRADS assessment improves the specificity.

  9. Evaluation of virtual touch tissue imaging quantification, a new shear wave velocity imaging method, for breast lesion assessment by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golatta, Michael; Schweitzer-Martin, Mirjam; Harcos, Aba; Schott, Sarah; Gomez, Christina; Stieber, Anne; Rauch, Geraldine; Domschke, Christoph; Rom, Joachim; Schütz, Florian; Sohn, Christof; Heil, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate virtual touch tissue imaging quantification (VTIQ) as a new elastography method concerning its intra- and interexaminer reliability and its ability to differentiate benign from malignant breast lesions in comparison to and in combination with ultrasound (US) B-mode breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) assessment. US and VTIQ were performed by two examiners in 103 women with 104 lesions. Intra- and interexaminer reliability of VTIQ was assessed. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of BIRADS, VTIQ, and combined data were compared. Fifty-four of 104 lesions were malignant. Intraexaminer reliability was consistent, and interexaminer agreement showed a strong positive correlation (r = 0.93). The mean VTIQ values in malignant lesions were significantly higher than those in benign (7.73 m/s ± 1.02 versus 4.46 m/s ± 1.87; P BIRADS with the optimal cut-off for clinical decision making of 5.18 m/s yielded a sensitivity of 98%, specificity of 82%, PPV of 86%, and NPV of 98%. The combination of BIRADS and VTIQ led to improved test validity. VTIQ is highly reliable and reproducible. There is a significant difference regarding the mean maximum velocity of benign and malignant lesions. Adding VTIQ to BIRADS assessment improves the specificity.

  10. To understand coral disease, look at coral cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Meteyer, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Diseases threaten corals globally, but 40 years on their causes remain mostly unknown. We hypothesize that inconsistent application of a complete diagnostic approach to coral disease has contributed to this slow progress. We quantified methods used to investigate coral disease in 492 papers published between 1965 and 2013. Field surveys were used in 65% of the papers, followed by biodetection (43%), laboratory trials (20%), microscopic pathology (21%), and field trials (9%). Of the microscopic pathology efforts, 57% involved standard histopathology at the light microscopic level (12% of the total investigations), with the remainder dedicated to electron or fluorescence microscopy. Most (74%) biodetection efforts focused on culture or molecular characterization of bacteria or fungi from corals. Molecular and immunological tools have been used to incriminate infectious agents (mainly bacteria) as the cause of coral diseases without relating the agent to specific changes in cell and tissue pathology. Of 19 papers that declared an infectious agent as a cause of disease in corals, only one (5%) used microscopic pathology, and none fulfilled all of the criteria required to satisfy Koch’s postulates as applied to animal diseases currently. Vertebrate diseases of skin and mucosal surfaces present challenges similar to corals when trying to identify a pathogen from a vast array of environmental microbes, and diagnostic approaches regularly used in these cases might provide a model for investigating coral diseases. We hope this review will encourage specialists of disease in domestic animals, wildlife, fish, shellfish, and humans to contribute to the emerging field of coral disease.

  11. Biology of corals and coral reefs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajkumar, R.; Parulekar, A.H.

    This chapter deals with biology of corals, coral reefs (in general) and coral reefs of the Indian Ocean. Biology of corals is lucidly dealt with, beginning from the clarification on hermatypic and ahermatypic forms. A complete account...

  12. Comparison of four lasers (λ = 650, 808, 980, and 1075 nm) for noninvasive creation of deep subsurface lesions in tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Hung; Wilson, Christopher R.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-07-01

    Lasers have been used in combination with applied cooling methods to preserve superficial skin layers (100's μm's) during cosmetic surgery. Preservation of a thicker tissue surface layer (millimeters) may also allow development of other noninvasive laser procedures. We are exploring noninvasive therapeutic laser applications in urology (e.g. laser vasectomy and laser treatment of female stress urinary incontinence), which require surface tissue preservation on the millimeter scale. In this preliminary study, four lasers were compared for noninvasive creation of deep subsurface thermal lesions. Laser energy from three diode lasers (650, 808, and 980 nm) and a Ytterbium fiber laser (1075 nm) was delivered through a custom built, side-firing, laser probe with integrated cooling. An alcohol-based solution at -5 °C was circulated through a flow cell, cooling a sapphire window, which in turn cooled the tissue surface. The probe was placed in contact with porcine liver tissue, ex vivo, kept hydrated in saline and maintained at ~ 35 °C. Incident laser power was 4.2 W, spot diameter was 5.3 mm, and treatment time was 60 s. The optimal laser wavelength tested for creation of deep subsurface thermal lesions during contact cooling of tissues was 1075 nm, which preserved a surface layer of ~ 2 mm. The Ytterbium fiber laser provides a compact, low maintenance, and high power alternative laser source to the Neodymium:YAG laser for noninvasive thermal therapy.

  13. Tissue immunostaining for factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of pityriasis alba skin lesions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; Amaral, Gabriela Borborema do; Mendes, Maiana Darwich; Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões

    2014-01-01

    .... However, its etiology remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of skin lesions of pityriasis alba. METHOD...

  14. The diversity of coral associated bacteria and the environmental factors affect their community variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Ying; Ling, Juan; Yang, Qing-Song; Wang, You-Shao; Sun, Cui-Ci; Sun, Hong-Yan; Feng, Jing-Bin; Jiang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Zhou; Wu, Mei-Lin; Dong, Jun-De

    2015-10-01

    Coral associated bacterial community potentially has functions relating to coral health, nutrition and disease. Culture-free, 16S rRNA based techniques were used to compare the bacterial community of coral tissue, mucus and seawater around coral, and to investigate the relationship between the coral-associated bacterial communities and environmental variables. The diversity of coral associated bacterial communities was very high, and their composition different from seawater. Coral tissue and mucus had a coral associated bacterial community with higher abundances of Gammaproteobacteria. However, bacterial community in seawater had a higher abundance of Cyanobacteria. Different populations were also found in mucus and tissue from the same coral fragment, and the abundant bacterial species associated with coral tissue was very different from those found in coral mucus. The microbial diversity and OTUs of coral tissue were much higher than those of coral mucus. Bacterial communities of corals from more human activities site have higher diversity and evenness; and the structure of bacterial communities were significantly different from the corals collected from other sites. The composition of bacterial communities associated with same coral species varied with season's changes, geographic differences, and coastal pollution. Unique bacterial groups found in the coral samples from more human activities location were significant positively correlated to chemical oxygen demand. These coral specific bacteria lead to coral disease or adjust to form new function structure for the adaption of different surrounding needs further research.

  15. Unraveling the microbial processes of black band disease in corals through integrated genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yui; Ling, Edmund Y. S.; Turaev, Dmitrij; Laffy, Patrick; Weynberg, Karen D.; Rattei, Thomas; Willis, Bette L.; Bourne, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Coral disease outbreaks contribute to the ongoing degradation of reef ecosystems, however, microbial mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of most coral diseases are poorly understood. Black band disease (BBD) manifests as a cyanobacterial-dominated microbial mat that destroys coral tissues as it rapidly spreads over coral colonies. To elucidate BBD pathogenesis, we apply a comparative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approach to identify taxonomic and functional changes within microbial lesions during in-situ development of BBD from a comparatively benign stage termed cyanobacterial patches. Results suggest that photosynthetic CO2-fixation in Cyanobacteria substantially enhances productivity of organic matter within the lesion during disease development. Photosynthates appear to subsequently promote sulfide-production by Deltaproteobacteria, facilitating the major virulence factor of BBD. Interestingly, our metagenome-enabled transcriptomic analysis reveals that BBD-associated cyanobacteria have a putative mechanism that enables them to adapt to higher levels of hydrogen sulfide within lesions, underpinning the pivotal roles of the dominant cyanobacterium within the polymicrobial lesions during the onset of BBD. The current study presents sequence-based evidence derived from whole microbial communities that unravel the mechanism of development and progression of BBD.

  16. Gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in Cnidaria from Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth J.; Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Knapp, Ingrid S.; Davy, Simon K.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted gross and microscopic characterizations of lesions in Cnidaria from Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific. We found growth anomalies (GA) to be the most commonly encountered lesion. Cases of discoloration and tissue loss were rare. GAs had a focal or multi-focal distribution and were predominantly nodular, exophytic, and umbonate. In scleractinians, the majority of GAs manifested as hyperplasia of the basal body wall (52% of cases), with an associated absence or reduction of polyp structure (mesenteries and filaments, actinopharynx and tentacles), and depletion of zooxanthellae in the gastrodermis of the upper body wall. In the soft corals Sinularia sp. and Lobophytum sp., GAs exclusively manifested as prominent hyperplasia of the coenenchyme with an increased density of solenia. In contrast to scleractinians, soft coral GAs displayed an inflammatory and necrotizing component with marked edema of the mesoglea, accompanied by infiltrates of variably-sized granular amoebocytes. Fungi, algae, sponges, and Crustacea were present in some scleractinian GAs, but absent in soft coral GAs. Fragmentation of tissues was a common finding in Acropora acuminata and Montipora cf. dilatata colonies with tissue loss, although no obvious causative agents were seen. Discoloration in the zoanthid, Palythoa tuberculosa, was found to be the result of necrosis, while in Lobophytum sp. discoloration was the result of zooxanthellar depletion (bleaching). Soft corals with discoloration or tissue loss showed a marked inflammatory response, however no obvious causative organisms were seen. Lesions that appeared similar at the gross level were revealed to be distinct by microscopy, emphasizing the importance of histopathology.

  17. Coral choreography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Viewers clicking onto the Waikiki Aquarium's “Coral Research Cam” any time during daylight hours in Hawaii can catch the latest action of three species of living corals (Acropora sp., Acropora elseyi,and Montipora digitata) and the yellow tang and blue tang fish swimming amongst them in an outdoor aquarium.Waikiki Aquarium Director Bruce Carlson says the camera is part of a new exhibit, “Corals Are Alive!,” which encourages people to view living corals close-up at the aquarium or via the Internet, in order to gain a better appreciation of the corals. “Hopefully through education and awareness, people will be more interested and willing to help with conservation efforts to preserve coral reefs,” says Carlson.

  18. Spinal cord injury after blunt cervical spine trauma: correlation of soft-tissue damage and extension of lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, R; Paredes, I; Cepeda, S; Ramos, A; Castaño-León, A M; García-Fuentes, C; Lobato, R D; Gómez, P A; Lagares, A

    2014-05-01

    In patients with spinal cord injury after blunt trauma, several studies have observed a correlation between neurologic impairment and radiologic findings. Few studies have been performed to correlate spinal cord injury with ligamentous injury. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate whether ligamentous injury or disk disruption after spinal cord injury correlates with lesion length. We retrospectively reviewed 108 patients diagnosed with traumatic spinal cord injury after cervical trauma between 1990-2011. Plain films, CT, and MR imaging were performed on patients and then reviewed for this study. MR imaging was performed within 96 hours after cervical trauma for all patients. Data regarding ligamentous injury, disk injury, and the extent of the spinal cord injury were collected from an adequate number of MR images. We evaluated anterior longitudinal ligaments, posterior longitudinal ligaments, and the ligamentum flavum. Length of lesion, disk disruption, and ligamentous injury association, as well as the extent of the spinal cord injury were statistically assessed by means of univariate analysis, with the use of nonparametric tests and multivariate analysis along with linear regression. There were significant differences in lesion length on T2-weighted images for anterior longitudinal ligaments, posterior longitudinal ligaments, and ligamentum flavum in the univariate analysis; however, when this was adjusted by age, level of injury, sex, and disruption of the soft tissue evaluated (disk, anterior longitudinal ligaments, posterior longitudinal ligaments, and ligamentum flavum) in a multivariable analysis, only ligamentum flavum showed a statistically significant association with lesion length. Furthermore, the number of ligaments affected had a positive correlation with the extension of the lesion. In cervical spine trauma, a specific pattern of ligamentous injury correlates with the length of the spinal cord lesion in MR imaging studies

  19. A pathogenetic study of the early connective tissue lesions of viral caprine arthritis-encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D S; Crawford, T B; Klevjer-Anderson, P

    1980-05-01

    Experiments were designed to correlate morphologic lesions with the presence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV). Twenty-one cesarean-derived goat kids were infected with 10(6) to 10(7) TCID50 of virus, killed sequentially, and examined for viral antigens by immunofluorescence, viral infectivity by isolation and titration, and morphologic changes by light microscopy. Fluorescent viral antigens were detected from 1 to 10 days postinoculation (DPI) and only in synovial cells. Virus was reisolated from several joints and from brain 0.5 to 79 DPI. Increases in synovial fluid cell counts were noted by 1 DPI, and morphologic changes in synovial membranes were present from 3 to 45 DPI. Joint lesions progressed from mild synovial cell hyperplasia and perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration to severe synovial cell hyperplasia and mononuclear cell infiltration with villous hypertrophy. Lesions elsewhere were mild, consisting only of perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates. Eleven cesarean-derived control goats were negative for viral antigens, virus, and morphologic lesions.

  20. A retracting wire knife for cutting fiber bundles and making sheet lesions of brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M; Russell, I S

    1979-07-01

    A retracting knife which has two cutting wires for the transection of fiber bundles is described. The knife holds the fiber bundles of the stria terminalis between the two cutting wires and transects them by a shearing movement as the wires close. In addition, the feasability of such a knife producing a sheet lesion around the n. caudatus is also described.

  1. Measurement of breast-tissue x-ray attenuation by spectral mammography: solid lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenberg, Erik; Kilburn-Toppin, Fleur; Willsher, Paula; Moa, Elin; Danielsson, Mats; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Wallis, Matthew G.

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of x-ray attenuation is essential for developing and evaluating x-ray imaging technologies. For instance, techniques to distinguish between cysts and solid tumours at mammography screening would be highly desirable to reduce recalls, but the development requires knowledge of the x-ray attenuation for cysts and tumours. We have previously measured the attenuation of cyst fluid using photon-counting spectral mammography. Data on x-ray attenuation for solid breast lesions are available in the literature, but cover a relatively wide range, likely caused by natural spread between samples, random measurement errors, and different experimental conditions. In this study, we have adapted a previously developed spectral method to measure the linear attenuation of solid breast lesions. A total of 56 malignant and 5 benign lesions were included in the study. The samples were placed in a holder that allowed for thickness measurement. Spectral (energy-resolved) images of the samples were acquired and the image signal was mapped to equivalent thicknesses of two known reference materials, which can be used to derive the x-ray attenuation as a function of energy. The spread in equivalent material thicknesses was relatively large between samples, which is likely to be caused mainly by natural variation and only to a minor extent by random measurement errors and sample inhomogeneity. No significant difference in attenuation was found between benign and malignant solid lesions. The separation between cyst-fluid and tumour attenuation was, however, significant, which suggests it may be possible to distinguish cystic from solid breast lesions, and the results lay the groundwork for a clinical trial. In addition, the study adds a relatively large sample set to the published data and may contribute to a reduction in the overall uncertainty in the literature.

  2. Comparison of mesencephalic free-floating tissue culture grafts and cell suspension grafts in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Morten; Widmer, H R; Wagner, B

    1998-01-01

    improvements in terms of significant reductions in amphetamine-induced rotations were observed in rats grafted with FFRT cultures (127%) and rats grafted with cell suspensions (122%), while control animals showed no normalization of rotational behavior. At 84 days after transplantation, there were similar...... days in culture or directly as dissociated cell suspensions, and compared with regard to neuronal survival and ability to normalize rotational behavior in adult rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions. Other lesioned rats received injections of cell-free medium and served as controls...... numbers of TH-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons in grafts of cultured tissue (775 +/- 98, mean +/- SEM) and grafts of fresh, dissociated cell suspension (806 +/- 105, mean +/- SEM). Cell counts in fresh explants, 7-day-old cultures, and grafted cultures revealed a 68.2% loss of TH-ir cells 7 days after...

  3. Diseases of corals with particular reference to Indian reefs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.

    valderianum, a cyanobacterium causes the PLS Histological observations showed that the tissue was destroyed in PLS The coral bleaching is the only abiotic disease known in the corals Bleaching is triggered by anomalous high water temperature during summer...

  4. Injection-site lesions: incidence, tissue histology, collagen concentration, and muscle tenderness in beef rounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    George, M. H; Morgan, J. B; Glock, R. D; Tatum, J. D; Schmidt, G. R; Sofos, J. N; Cowman, G. L; Smith, G. C

    1995-01-01

    .... Two additional experiments were conducted to examine the subsequent effects of pharmaceutical administration on tissue histology, soluble and insoluble collagen concentration, and muscle tenderness...

  5. Application of a global proteomic approach to archival precursor lesions: deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 and tissue transglutaminase 2 are upregulated in pancreatic cancer precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Wang; Darfler, Marlene M; Alvarez, Hector;

    2008-01-01

    of invasive cancer. Biomarker discovery in precursor lesions has been hampered by the ready availability of fresh specimens, and limited yields of proteins suitable for large scale screening. METHODS: We utilized Liquid Tissue, a novel technique for protein extraction from archival formalin-fixed material...... their overexpression in IPMNs. CONCLUSION: Global proteomics analysis using the Liquid Tissue workflow is a feasible approach for unbiased biomarker discovery in limited archival material, particularly applicable to precursor lesions of cancer....

  6. A pathogenetic study of the early connective tissue lesions of viral caprine arthritis-encephalitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, D. S.; Crawford, T B; Klevjer-Anderson, P

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were designed to correlate morphologic lesions with the presence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV). Twenty-one cesarean-derived goat kids were infected with 10(6) to 10(7) TCID50 of virus, killed sequentially, and examined for viral antigens by immunofluorescence, viral infectivity by isolation and titration, and morphologic changes by light microscopy. Fluorescent viral antigens were detected from 1 to 10 days postinoculation (DPI) and only in synovial cells. Virus w...

  7. Tissue immunostaining for factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of pityriasis alba skin lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; Amaral,Gabriela Borborema do; Mendes,Maiana Darwich; Quaresma,Juarez Antônio Simões

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pityriasis alba affects 1% of the world population and about 9.9% of the children in Brazil. However, its etiology remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of skin lesions of pityriasis alba. METHOD: Twenty patients with pityriasis alba and 20 patients with atopic dermatitis underwent biopsy. The dermal dendrocytes marked by factor XIIIa were counted by means of immunohistochemic...

  8. Accurate white matter lesion segmentation by k nearest neighbor classification with tissue type priors (kNN-TTPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenwijk, Martijn D; Pouwels, Petra J W; Daams, Marita; van Dalen, Jan Willem; Caan, Matthan W A; Richard, Edo; Barkhof, Frederik; Vrenken, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The segmentation and volumetric quantification of white matter (WM) lesions play an important role in monitoring and studying neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) or cerebrovascular disease. This is often interactively done using 2D magnetic resonance images. Recent developments in acquisition techniques allow for 3D imaging with much thinner sections, but the large number of images per subject makes manual lesion outlining infeasible. This warrants the need for a reliable automated approach. Here we aimed to improve k nearest neighbor (kNN) classification of WM lesions by optimizing intensity normalization and using spatial tissue type priors (TTPs). The kNN-TTP method used kNN classification with 3.0 T 3DFLAIR and 3DT1 intensities as well as MNI-normalized spatial coordinates as features. Additionally, TTPs were computed by nonlinear registration of data from healthy controls. Intensity features were normalized using variance scaling, robust range normalization or histogram matching. The algorithm was then trained and evaluated using a leave-one-out experiment among 20 patients with MS against a reference segmentation that was created completely manually. The performance of each normalization method was evaluated both with and without TTPs in the feature set. Volumetric agreement was evaluated using intra-class coefficient (ICC), and voxelwise spatial agreement was evaluated using Dice similarity index (SI). Finally, the robustness of the method across different scanners and patient populations was evaluated using an independent sample of elderly subjects with hypertension. The intensity normalization method had a large influence on the segmentation performance, with average SI values ranging from 0.66 to 0.72 when no TTPs were used. Independent of the normalization method, the inclusion of TTPs as features increased performance particularly by reducing the lesion detection error. Best performance was achieved using variance scaled intensity

  9. Hepatic expression of mature transforming growth factor beta 1 in transgenic mice results in multiple tissue lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, N.; Factor, V; Nagy, P; Kopp, J; Kondaiah, P; WAKEFIELD, L.; Roberts, A B; Sporn, M B; Thorgeirsson, S S

    1995-01-01

    Aberrant expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) has been implicated in a number of disease processes, particularly those involving fibrotic and inflammatory lesions. To determine the in vivo effects of overexpression of TGF-beta 1 on the function and structure of hepatic as well as extrahepatic tissues, transgenic mice were generated containing a fusion gene (Alb/TGF-beta 1) consisting of modified porcine TGF-beta 1 cDNA under the control of the regulatory elements of th...

  10. "COMPARISON BETWEEN NUMBER OF NERVE FIBERS IN NORMAL BREAST TISSUE, BENIGN LESIONS AND MALIGNANT BREAST TUMORS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Soltanghoraiee

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is common and is considered second cause of cancer related mortality in females. Regarding importance of breast cancer, more investigation in this field is recommended. For many years investigators believed that neoplasms were not innervated but new findings have proved otherwise. This descriptive study was carried out to compare number of nerve fibers in benign, malignant and normal breast tissue. Of each group several slides were reviewed and 3608.50 mm2 of malignant tumors (ductal carcinoma, 3641 mm2 of benign tumors (fibroadenoma and 2331.25 mm2 of normal breast tissue (mammoplasty were assessed. Numbers of nerve fibers were compared and a significant increase in nerve fibers was found in malignant tumors compared with benign tumors and normal breast tissue. Accuracy of hematoxylin and eosin method were examined by immunohistochemistry staining (neurofilament method and affirmed. These results reveal that malignant tumors of breast have more nerve fibers than normal breast tissue or benign tumors.

  11. Coral pathogens identified for White Syndrome (WS epizootics in the Indo-Pacific.

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    Meir Sussman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: White Syndrome (WS, a general term for scleractinian coral diseases with acute signs of advancing tissue lesions often resulting in total colony mortality, has been reported from numerous locations throughout the Indo-Pacific, constituting a growing threat to coral reef ecosystems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bacterial isolates were obtained from corals displaying disease signs at three ws outbreak sites: Nikko Bay in the Republic of Palau, Nelly Bay in the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR and Majuro Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and used in laboratory-based infection trials to satisfy Henle-Koch's postulates, Evan's rules and Hill's criteria for establishing causality. Infected colonies produced similar signs to those observed in the field following exposure to bacterial concentrations of 1x10(6 cells ml(-1. Phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene analysis demonstrated that all six pathogens identified in this study were members of the gamma-Proteobacteria family Vibrionacae, each with greater than 98% sequence identity with the previously characterized coral bleaching pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus. Screening for proteolytic activity of more than 150 coral derived bacterial isolates by a biochemical assay and specific primers for a Vibrio family zinc-metalloprotease demonstrated a significant association between the presence of isolates capable of proteolytic activity and observed disease signs. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to provide evidence for the involvement of a unique taxonomic group of bacterial pathogens in the aetiology of Indo-Pacific coral diseases affecting multiple coral species at multiple locations. Results from this study strongly suggest the need for further investigation of bacterial proteolytic enzymes as possible virulence factors involved in Vibrio associated acute coral infections.

  12. MRI of superficial soft tissue masses: analysis of features useful in distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, Michele; Dimigen, Marion; Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    To identify the MRI features of superficial soft tissue masses, that may allow differentiation between malignant and non-malignant lesions. A total of 136 consecutive patients referred to a supra-regional musculoskeletal oncology center over a 10-year period with the diagnosis of a superficial soft tissue mass were included in this retrospective study. Features analyzed included patient demographics, lesion size, MRI signal characteristics, margins, lobulation, hemorrhage, necrosis, fascial edema, relationship to the fascia, as well as involvement of the skin. Comparison was then made with the final histological diagnosis. Of the patients reviewed, 58 were male and 78 were female, and the mean age was 49.9 years. The mean age for malignant lesions was 57.9 years, and that for non-neoplastic and benign conditions 41.9 years (p < 0.001). A significant relationship was identified between malignancy and lobulation (p < 0.01), hemorrhage (p < 0.001), fascial edema (p < 0.001), hemorrhage (p < 0.0001) and necrosis (p < 0.001). The relationship between skin thickening and skin contact and malignancy was also found to be significant. However, size was not found to be an important determining factor for malignancy, with a significant proportion of malignant superficial sarcomas measuring less than 5 cm in maximal diameter. This study has shown that a significant proportion of malignant superficial sarcomas measured less than 5 cm in maximal diameter. Fascial edema, skin thickening, skin contact, hemorrhage, and necrosis were found to be highly significant factors indicative of malignancy. Lobulation and peritumoral edema were also significant MRI features. (orig.)

  13. The use of tissue expander in repairing skin and hair lesions of the head

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    Khatir A

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Of 14 cases who underwent this operation only in one of them because of infection in operation site, we had to extract the expander. Also, in the first day of the operation that we injected serum inside the expander of two other patients, the wound opened up and the expander appeared and came out automatically. The remaining ten patients have tolerated the operation after treatment period without any complications and good result was achieved. This method in covering up skin lesions and in eliminating burn as well as old wound scars was very effective and the patient become satisfied because there was no need to remove skin from other parts of the body and thus no new scars would have been created. The only problems in this method of treatment were its duration which is needed for injection inside the expander as well as bad appearance in operation region and these problems cause the patients to become depressed and to become isolated from the public for a long period. For the past three years that we used this method for covering skin lesions in different parts of the body and even in treating extensive spots and the hemantrium we achieved excellent results and the report will subsequently be submitted.

  14. Histological analysis of soft and hard tissues in a periimplantitis lesion: a human case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soong-Ryong; Bashutski, Jill D; Jandali, Rami; Prasad, Hari; Rohrer, Michael; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-06-01

    Little is known regarding the histologic hard and soft tissue changes that occur in chronic periimplantitis situations in humans. It is critical to gain an understanding of all aspects of periimplantitis to develop appropriate therapeutic approaches. An 83-year-old African American man presented with a fractured implant affected by severe, chronic periimplantitis and surrounded by keratinized gingiva. A trephine biopsy of the implant and surrounding tissues was analyzed histologically. Histological analysis of the periimplantitis specimen revealed significant inflammatory infiltrate consisting predominantly of lymphocytes and plasma cells. In addition, epithelial migration and bone loss to the apical vent were noted. This case report documents a single case of periimplantitis that was left untreated for 7 years. The presence of significant keratinized tissue and a smooth surface implant failed to prevent fibrous encapsulation of the implant.

  15. Hyperspectral sensing of disease stress in the Caribbean reef-building coral, Orbicella faveolata - perspectives for the field of coral disease monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David A; Armstrong, Roy A; Weil, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of management plans developed for responding to coral disease outbreaks is limited due to the lack of rapid methods of disease diagnosis. In order to fulfill current management guidelines for responding to coral disease outbreaks, alternative methods that significantly reduce response time must be developed. Hyperspectral sensing has been used by various groups to characterize the spectral signatures unique to asymptomatic and bleached corals. The 2010 combined bleaching and Caribbean yellow band disease outbreak in Puerto Rico provided a unique opportunity to investigate the spectral signatures associated with bleached and Caribbean yellow band-diseased colonies of Orbicella faveolata for the first time. Using derivative and cluster analyses of hyperspectral reflectance data, the present study demonstrates the proof of concept that spectral signatures can be used to differentiate between coral disease states. This method enhanced predominant visual methods of diagnosis by distinguishing between different asymptomatic conditions that are identical in field observations and photographic records. The ability to identify disease-affected tissue before lesions become visible could greatly reduce response times to coral disease outbreaks in monitoring efforts. Finally, spectral signatures associated with the poorly understood Caribbean yellow band disease are presented to guide future research on the role of pigments in the etiology.

  16. Tissue engineering applications: cartilage lesions repair by the use of autologous chondrocytes

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    L. De Franceschi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Promising new therapies based on tissue engineering have been recently developed for cartilage repair. The association of biomaterials with autologous chondrocytes expanded in vitro can represent a useful tool to regenerate this tissue. The scaffolds utilised in such therapeutical applications should provide a pre-formed three-dimensional shape, prevent cells from floating out of the defect, have sufficient mechanical strength, facilitate uniform spread of cells and stimulate the phenotype of transplanted cells. Hyaff®-11 is a hyaluronic-acid based biodegradable polymer, that has been shown to provide successful cell carrier for tissue-engineered repair. From our findings we can state that human chondrocytes seeded on Hyaff®-11 are able to maintain in vitro the characteristic of differentiated cells, expressing and producing collagen type II and aggrecan which are the main markers of cartilage phenotype, down-regulating collagen type I. Moreover, it seems to be a useful scaffold for cartilage repair both in animal models and clinical trials in humans, favouring the formation of a hyaline-like tissue. In the light of these data, we can hypothesise, for the future, the use of autologous chondrocyte transplantation together with gene therapy as a treatment for rheumatic diseases such as osteoarthritis.

  17. Evaluation of Stony Coral Indicators for Coral Reef ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonies of reef-building stony corals at 57 stations around St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands were characterized by species, size and percentage of living tissue. Taxonomic, biological and physical indicators of coral condition were derived from these measurements and assessed for their response to gradients of human disturbance. The purpose of the study was to identify indicators that could be used for regulatory assessments under authority of the Clean Water Act--this requires that indicators distinguish anthropogenic disturbances from natural variation. Stony coral indicators were tested for correlation with human disturbance across gradients located on three different sides of the island. At the most intensely disturbed location, five of eight primary indicators were highly correlated with distance from the source of disturbance: Coral taxa richness, average colony size, the coefficient of variation of colony size (an indicator of colony size heterogeneity), total topographic coral surface area, and live coral surface area. An additional set of exploratory indicators related to rarity, reproductive and spawning mode, and taxonomic identity were also screened for association with disturbance at the same location. For the other two locations, there were no significant changes in indicator values and therefore no discernible effects of human activity. Coral indicators demonstrated sufficient precision to detect levels of change that would be applicable in a regio

  18. Crowning corals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    and oil transport, thermal pollution and freshwater inflow are the major threats to corals growing along the urban and industrialised centres. Therefore, a concerted effort from academicians, governmental and non-governmental bodies to educate the public...

  19. The role of microorganisms in coral health, disease and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Koren, Omry; Reshef, Leah; Efrony, Rotem; Zilber-Rosenberg, Ilana

    2007-05-01

    Coral microbiology is an emerging field, driven largely by a desire to understand, and ultimately prevent, the worldwide destruction of coral reefs. The mucus layer, skeleton and tissues of healthy corals all contain large populations of eukaryotic algae, bacteria and archaea. These microorganisms confer benefits to their host by various mechanisms, including photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, the provision of nutrients and infection prevention. Conversely, in conditions of environmental stress, certain microorganisms cause coral bleaching and other diseases. Recent research indicates that corals can develop resistance to specific pathogens and adapt to higher environmental temperatures. To explain these findings the coral probiotic hypothesis proposes the occurrence of a dynamic relationship between symbiotic microorganisms and corals that selects for the coral holobiont that is best suited for the prevailing environmental conditions. Generalization of the coral probiotic hypothesis has led us to propose the hologenome theory of evolution.

  20. Exacerbation of Soft Tissue Lesions in Lead Exposed Virus Infected Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PRATIBHA GUPTA; M. M. HUSAIN; RAVI SHANKER; R. K. S. DOGRA; P. K. SETH; R. K. MAHESHWARI

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Lead (Pb) acetate exposure on Semliki forest virus (SFV)pathogenesis in mice. Methods Different doses (62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/Kg body weight) of Pb dissolved in normal saline were given to mice by oral intubation in a sub-acute (28 days) and sub-chronic (90 days) regimen followed by SFV infection. Morbidity, mortality, clinical symptoms,mean survival time (MST), changes in body and organ weight, accumulation of lead in soft tissues,virus titre in brain and histopathological alterations were compared between lead exposed and infected groups. Results Early appearance of virus symptoms, increased mortality, decreased MST, enhanced SFV titre and greater tissue damage were observed in lead exposed-SFV-infected mice. Conclusion Pre-exposure to lead increases the susceptibility of mice towards SFV infection. Further studies are suggested in view of the persistence of lead in the environment and the possibility of infection bymicrobial pathogens.

  1. Aberrant Expression of miRNA and mRNAs in Lesioned Tissues of Graves' Disease

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    Qiu Qin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Abnormal microRNA (miRNA expression is found in many diseases including autoimmune diseases. However, little is known about the role of miRNA regulation in Graves' disease (GD. Here, we simultaneously detected different expressions of miRNA and mRNAs in thyroid tissues via a high-throughput transcriptomics approach, known as microarray, in order to reveal the relationship between aberrant expression of miRNAs and mRNAs spectrum and GD. Methods: Totally 7 specimens of thyroid tissue from 4 GD patients and 3 controls were obtained by surgery for microarray analysis. Then, 30 thyroid specimens (18 GD and 12 controls were also collected for further validation by quantitative real-time PCR ( qRT-PCR . Results: Statistical analysis showed that the expressions of 5 specific miRNA were increased significantly while those of other 18 miRNA were decreased in thyroid tissue of GD patients (FC≥1.3 or≤0.77 and pConclusion: Our study highlights the possibility that miRNA-target gene network may be involved in the pathogenesis of GD and could provide new insights into understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of GD.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii infection in llama (Llama glama): acute visceral disseminated lesions, diagnosis, and development of tissue cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Newell, T K; Verma, S K; Calero-Bernal, R; Stevens, E L

    2014-06-01

    Clinical toxoplasmosis has been reported in many species of warm-blooded animals but is rare in camelids. Here we report acute fatal systemic toxoplasmosis involving heart, thyroid gland, stomach, intestine, diaphragm, kidneys, adrenal glands, and liver of a 13-mo-old llama (Llama glama). Many Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were associated with tissue necrosis in multiple organs. Death was attributed to severe myocarditis. Ulcers associated with numerous tachyzoites were present in the C3 compartment of the stomach. Tissue cyst development was followed using bradyzoite-specific T. gondii antibodies. Individual intracellular, and groups of 2 or more, bradyzoites were identified in hepatocytes, biliary epithelium, myocardiocytes, lung, diaphragm, thyroid gland, spleen, and stomach. Lesions in the brain were a few microglial nodules and very early tissue cysts containing 1-3 bradyzoites. These observations suggest that the animal had acquired toxoplasmosis recently. Diagnosis was confirmed immunohistochemically by reaction with T. gondii -specific polyclonal rabbit serum but not with antibodies to the related protozoan Neospora caninum . Genetic typing using the DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded myocardium of llama and 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers revealed a type II allele at the SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, PK1 L358, and Apico loci; therefore, this isolate belongs to the ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1, which is most common in North America and Europe.

  3. Tissue immunostaining for factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of pityriasis alba skin lesions*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; do Amaral, Gabriela Borborema; Mendes, Maiana Darwich; Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pityriasis alba affects 1% of the world population and about 9.9% of the children in Brazil. However, its etiology remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE The objective of the present study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of skin lesions of pityriasis alba. METHOD Twenty patients with pityriasis alba and 20 patients with atopic dermatitis underwent biopsy. The dermal dendrocytes marked by factor XIIIa were counted by means of immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS The mean amount of dermal dendrocytes found in the patients with pityriasis alba was 2, whereas in the patients with atopic dermatitis it was 4, with a statistically significant difference between them. A cutoff point of 3 cells/square inch was established to differentiate pityriasis alba from atopic dermatitis, with 80% sensibility and 90% specificity. CONCLUSION We believe that pityriasis alba and atopic dermatitis should be considered different clinical forms within the spectrum of atopic disease, in which sun radiation plays an important role by modulating the progression of the disease. PMID:24770500

  4. Tissue immunostaining for factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of pityriasis alba skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; Amaral, Gabriela Borborema do; Mendes, Maiana Darwich; Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões

    2014-01-01

    Pityriasis alba affects 1% of the world population and about 9.9% of the children in Brazil. However, its etiology remains uncertain. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of skin lesions of pityriasis alba. Twenty patients with pityriasis alba and 20 patients with atopic dermatitis underwent biopsy. The dermal dendrocytes marked by factor XIIIa were counted by means of immunohistochemical analysis. The mean amount of dermal dendrocytes found in the patients with pityriasis alba was 2, whereas in the patients with atopic dermatitis it was 4, with a statistically significant difference between them. A cutoff point of 3 cells/square inch was established to differentiate pityriasis alba from atopic dermatitis, with 80% sensibility and 90% specificity. We believe that pityriasis alba and atopic dermatitis should be considered different clinical forms within the spectrum of atopic disease, in which sun radiation plays an important role by modulating the progression of the disease.

  5. Efficacy of guided tissue regeneration in the management of through-and-through lesions following surgical endodontics: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschieri, Silvio; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Testori, Tiziano; Saita, Massimo; Weinstein, Roberto

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the outcome of periradicular surgery with or without guided tissue regeneration (GTR) for the treatment of through-and-through lesions. Thirty-four teeth were included according to specific selection criteria. In the test group (using GTR), after root-end filling, the defects were filled with anorganic bovine bone and covered with a resorbable collagen membrane. Healing was assessed according to specific criteria and graded as successful, doubtful, or failed. In the control group, neither grafts nor membranes were used. After 1 year, 31 teeth were evaluated. Of these, 22 (71%) healed successfully, 6 (19%) showed doubtful healing, and 2 were recorded as failures. The outcomes of the defects treated with GTR (88% successful) were significantly better than those of the control group (57% successful). The present study showed that the use of GTR associated with anorganic bovine bone in the treatment of through-and-through lesions may positively affect the healing process.

  6. Spectral classifying base on color of live corals and dead corals covered with algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdin, Nurjannah; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Barille, Laurent; Akbar, A. S. M.; Sawayama, Shuhei; Fitrah, Muh. Nur; Prasyad, Hermansyah

    2016-05-01

    Pigments in the host tissues of corals can make a significant contribution to their spectral signature and can affect their apparent color as perceived by a human observer. The aim of this study is classifying the spectral reflectance of corals base on different color. It is expected that they can be used as references in discriminating between live corals, dead coral covered with algae Spectral reflectance data was collected in three small islands, Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia by using a hyperspectral radiometer underwater. First and second derivative analysis resolved the wavelength locations of dominant features contributing to reflectance in corals and support the distinct differences in spectra among colour existed. Spectral derivative analysis was used to determine the specific wavelength regions ideal for remote identification of substrate type. The analysis results shown that yellow, green, brown and violet live corals are spectrally separable from each other, but they are similar with dead coral covered with algae spectral.

  7. PATHOLOGICAL TISSUE LESIONS INDUCED BY CHRONIC CADMIUM INTOXICATION IN SILVER CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

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    NICULA MARIOARA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to describe the histopathological effects of chronic cadmium intoxication on liver, gill, kidney, intestine and striated muscle in silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. 25 immature 1+-year-old crucian carp were obtained from a private fishfarm and acclimated to laboratory conditions. After a 21 days exposure to a sublethal cadmium concentration (1.625 ppm from a Cd (CH3COO2 x2H2O stock solution, liver, gill, kidney, small intestine and striated muscle were sampled and processed for histological examination. Histopathological alterations induced by studied heavy metal in the tissues of silver crucian carp specimenes were: nephrocite hypertrophic processes, distruction of intercellular jonctions, stratification of epitelium and congestions both in renal glomerulis and in interstitium; hyalinizations, congestions of blood vassels and vacuolations associated with lipid accumulation at the hepatic level; into intestinal mucosa revealed rich leucocyte infiltrates, with numerous leucocytes situated intraepithelial; branchial lamelles with disordered aspect and multilayered epithelium, vascular ectasias and leucocyte infiltrates into subepithelial connective tissue at the gill level; miolisis processes in peripheral muscular fibers manifested by contractile apparatus alteration on large areas.

  8. PATHOLOGICAL TISSUE LESIONS INDUCED BY CHRONIC MERCURY INTOXICATION IN SILVER CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

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    MARIOARA NICULA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to describe the histopathological effects of chronic inorganic mercury intoxication on liver, gills, kidneys, small intestine and skin in silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. 20 immature 1+-year-old crucian carp were obtained from a private fishfarm and acclimatized to laboratory conditions. After a 3 weeks exposure to a sublethal mercury concentration (0.25 ppm from a HgCl2 stock solution, liver, gills, kidney, small intestine and skin were sampled and processed for histological examination.The main effects observed: numerous interstitial leukocytar infiltrates, followed by glomerulonephritis and tubulonephritis there are at the renal level; fibrosation of peri- and interlobular conjunctive tissue, including ectasiated blood vessel and numerous limphocytar infiltrates enlarged both in perilobular and intralobular conjunctive tissue at the liver level; an disorganization process of gill lamellae by superficial layer alteration, at the gill level; cells of skin epiderma exhibit hiperplazic hypertrophy, epithelial desquamation, intraepithelial edema and citoplasmatic vacuolization; light epithelial distrophic processes and an abundant leukocytar infiltrate both in vilositaire chorion and basal chorion at the small intestine level.

  9. Corals form characteristic associations with symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Kimberley A; Willis, Bette L; Bourne, David G

    2012-05-01

    The complex symbiotic relationship between corals and their dinoflagellate partner Symbiodinium is believed to be sustained through close associations with mutualistic bacterial communities, though little is known about coral associations with bacterial groups able to fix nitrogen (diazotrophs). In this study, we investigated the diversity of diazotrophic bacterial communities associated with three common coral species (Acropora millepora, Acropora muricata, and Pocillopora damicormis) from three midshelf locations of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) by profiling the conserved subunit of the nifH gene, which encodes the dinitrogenase iron protein. Comparisons of diazotrophic community diversity among coral tissue and mucus microenvironments and the surrounding seawater revealed that corals harbor diverse nifH phylotypes that differ between tissue and mucus microhabitats. Coral mucus nifH sequences displayed high heterogeneity, and many bacterial groups overlapped with those found in seawater. Moreover, coral mucus diazotrophs were specific neither to coral species nor to reef location, reflecting the ephemeral nature of coral mucus. In contrast, the dominant diazotrophic bacteria in tissue samples differed among coral species, with differences remaining consistent at all three reefs, indicating that coral-diazotroph associations are species specific. Notably, dominant diazotrophs for all coral species were closely related to the bacterial group rhizobia, which represented 71% of the total sequences retrieved from tissue samples. The species specificity of coral-diazotroph associations further supports the coral holobiont model that bacterial groups associated with corals are conserved. Our results suggest that, as in terrestrial plants, rhizobia have developed a mutualistic relationship with corals and may contribute fixed nitrogen to Symbiodinium.

  10. Microbial diseases of corals and global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Ben-Haim, Yael

    2002-06-01

    Coral bleaching and other diseases of corals have increased dramatically during the last few decades. As outbreaks of these diseases are highly correlated with increased sea-water temperature, one of the consequences of global warming will probably be mass destruction of coral reefs. The causative agent(s) of a few of these diseases have been reported: bleaching of Oculina patagonica by Vibrio shiloi; black band disease by a microbial consortium; sea-fan disease (aspergillosis) by Aspergillus sydowii; and coral white plague possibly by Sphingomonas sp. In addition, we have recently discovered that Vibrio coralyticus is the aetiological agent for bleaching the coral Pocillopora damicornis in the Red Sea. In the case of coral bleaching by V. shiloi, the major effect of increasing temperature is the expression of virulence genes by the pathogen. At high summer sea-water temperatures, V. shiloi produces an adhesin that allows it to adhere to a beta-galactoside-containing receptor in the coral mucus, penetrate into the coral epidermis, multiply intracellularly, differentiate into a viable-but-not-culturable (VBNC) state and produce toxins that inhibit photosynthesis and lyse the symbiotic zooxanthellae. In black band disease, sulphide is produced at the coral-microbial biofilm interface, which is probably responsible for tissue death. Reports of newly emerging coral diseases and the lack of epidemiological and biochemical information on the known diseases indicate that this will become a fertile area of research in the interface between microbial ecology and infectious disease.

  11. Beneficial Microorganisms for Corals (BMC): Proposed Mechanisms for Coral Health and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Raquel S.; Rosado, Phillipe M.; Leite, Deborah Catharine de Assis; Rosado, Alexandre S.; Bourne, David G.

    2017-01-01

    The symbiotic association between the coral animal and its endosymbiotic dinoflagellate partner Symbiodinium is central to the success of corals. However, an array of other microorganisms associated with coral (i.e., Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi, and viruses) have a complex and intricate role in maintaining homeostasis between corals and Symbiodinium. Corals are sensitive to shifts in the surrounding environmental conditions. One of the most widely reported responses of coral to stressful environmental conditions is bleaching. During this event, corals expel Symbiodinium cells from their gastrodermal tissues upon experiencing extended seawater temperatures above their thermal threshold. An array of other environmental stressors can also destabilize the coral microbiome, resulting in compromised health of the host, which may include disease and mortality in the worst scenario. However, the exact mechanisms by which the coral microbiome supports coral health and increases resilience are poorly understood. Earlier studies of coral microbiology proposed a coral probiotic hypothesis, wherein a dynamic relationship exists between corals and their symbiotic microorganisms, selecting for the coral holobiont that is best suited for the prevailing environmental conditions. Here, we discuss the microbial-host relationships within the coral holobiont, along with their potential roles in maintaining coral health. We propose the term BMC (Beneficial Microorganisms for Corals) to define (specific) symbionts that promote coral health. This term and concept are analogous to the term Plant Growth Promoting Rhizosphere (PGPR), which has been widely explored and manipulated in the agricultural industry for microorganisms that inhabit the rhizosphere and directly or indirectly promote plant growth and development through the production of regulatory signals, antibiotics and nutrients. Additionally, we propose and discuss the potential mechanisms of the effects of BMC on corals, suggesting

  12. Cyanobacteria in Coral Reef Ecosystems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Charpy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria have dominated marine environments and have been reef builders on Earth for more than three million years (myr. Cyanobacteria still play an essential role in modern coral reef ecosystems by forming a major component of epiphytic, epilithic, and endolithic communities as well as of microbial mats. Cyanobacteria are grazed by reef organisms and also provide nitrogen to the coral reef ecosystems through nitrogen fixation. Recently, new unicellular cyanobacteria that express nitrogenase were found in the open ocean and in coral reef lagoons. Furthermore, cyanobacteria are important in calcification and decalcification. All limestone surfaces have a layer of boring algae in which cyanobacteria often play a dominant role. Cyanobacterial symbioses are abundant in coral reefs; the most common hosts are sponges and ascidians. Cyanobacteria use tactics beyond space occupation to inhibit coral recruitment. Cyanobacteria can also form pathogenic microbial consortia in association with other microbes on living coral tissues, causing coral tissue lysis and death, and considerable declines in coral reefs. In deep lagoons, coccoid cyanobacteria are abundant and are grazed by ciliates, heteroflagellates, and the benthic coral reef community. Cyanobacteria produce metabolites that act as attractants for some species and deterrents for some grazers of the reef communities.

  13. Amorphous calcium carbonate particles form coral skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, Tali; Giuffre, Anthony J.; Sun, Chang-Yu; Stifler, Cayla A.; Frazier, Matthew J.; Neder, Maayan; Tamura, Nobumichi; Stan, Camelia V.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Gilbert, Pupa U. P. A.

    2017-09-01

    Do corals form their skeletons by precipitation from solution or by attachment of amorphous precursor particles as observed in other minerals and biominerals? The classical model assumes precipitation in contrast with observed “vital effects,” that is, deviations from elemental and isotopic compositions at thermodynamic equilibrium. Here, we show direct spectromicroscopy evidence in Stylophora pistillata corals that two amorphous precursors exist, one hydrated and one anhydrous amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC); that these are formed in the tissue as 400-nm particles; and that they attach to the surface of coral skeletons, remain amorphous for hours, and finally, crystallize into aragonite (CaCO3). We show in both coral and synthetic aragonite spherulites that crystal growth by attachment of ACC particles is more than 100 times faster than ion-by-ion growth from solution. Fast growth provides a distinct physiological advantage to corals in the rigors of the reef, a crowded and fiercely competitive ecosystem. Corals are affected by warming-induced bleaching and postmortem dissolution, but the finding here that ACC particles are formed inside tissue may make coral skeleton formation less susceptible to ocean acidification than previously assumed. If this is how other corals form their skeletons, perhaps this is how a few corals survived past CO2 increases, such as the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum that occurred 56 Mya.

  14. Hyperspectral and physiological analyses of coral-algal interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Barott

    Full Text Available Space limitation leads to competition between benthic, sessile organisms on coral reefs. As a primary example, reef-building corals are in direct contact with each other and many different species and functional groups of algae. Here we characterize interactions between three coral genera and three algal functional groups using a combination of hyperspectral imaging and oxygen microprofiling. We also performed in situ interaction transects to quantify the relative occurrence of these interaction on coral reefs. These studies were conducted in the Southern Line Islands, home to some of the most remote and near-pristine reefs in the world. Our goal was to determine if different types of coral-coral and coral-algal interactions were characterized by unique fine-scale physiological signatures. This is the first report using hyperspectral imaging for characterization of marine benthic organisms at the micron scale and proved to be a valuable tool for discriminating among different photosynthetic organisms. Consistent patterns emerged in physiology across different types of competitive interactions. In cases where corals were in direct contact with turf or macroalgae, there was a zone of hypoxia and altered pigmentation on the coral. In contrast, interaction zones between corals and crustose coralline algae (CCA were not hypoxic and the coral tissue was consistent across the colony. Our results suggest that at least two main characteristic coral interaction phenotypes exist: 1 hypoxia and coral tissue disruption, seen with interactions between corals and fleshy turf and/or some species of macroalgae, and 2 no hypoxia or tissue disruption, seen with interactions between corals and some species of CCA. Hyperspectral imaging in combination with oxygen profiling provided useful information on competitive interactions between benthic reef organisms, and demonstrated that some turf and fleshy macroalgae can be a constant source of stress for corals, while

  15. Hyperspectral and physiological analyses of coral-algal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barott, Katie; Smith, Jennifer; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Hatay, Mark; Sandin, Stuart; Rohwer, Forest

    2009-11-26

    Space limitation leads to competition between benthic, sessile organisms on coral reefs. As a primary example, reef-building corals are in direct contact with each other and many different species and functional groups of algae. Here we characterize interactions between three coral genera and three algal functional groups using a combination of hyperspectral imaging and oxygen microprofiling. We also performed in situ interaction transects to quantify the relative occurrence of these interaction on coral reefs. These studies were conducted in the Southern Line Islands, home to some of the most remote and near-pristine reefs in the world. Our goal was to determine if different types of coral-coral and coral-algal interactions were characterized by unique fine-scale physiological signatures. This is the first report using hyperspectral imaging for characterization of marine benthic organisms at the micron scale and proved to be a valuable tool for discriminating among different photosynthetic organisms. Consistent patterns emerged in physiology across different types of competitive interactions. In cases where corals were in direct contact with turf or macroalgae, there was a zone of hypoxia and altered pigmentation on the coral. In contrast, interaction zones between corals and crustose coralline algae (CCA) were not hypoxic and the coral tissue was consistent across the colony. Our results suggest that at least two main characteristic coral interaction phenotypes exist: 1) hypoxia and coral tissue disruption, seen with interactions between corals and fleshy turf and/or some species of macroalgae, and 2) no hypoxia or tissue disruption, seen with interactions between corals and some species of CCA. Hyperspectral imaging in combination with oxygen profiling provided useful information on competitive interactions between benthic reef organisms, and demonstrated that some turf and fleshy macroalgae can be a constant source of stress for corals, while CCA are not.

  16. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Pulmonary Metastases From Soft-Tissue Sarcomas: Excellent Local Lesion Control and Improved Patient Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhakal, Sughosh [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Corbin, Kimberly S. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Milano, Michael T.; Philip, Abraham [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Sahasrabudhe, Deepak [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Jones, Carolyn [Department of Surgery, Division of Thoracic/Foregut, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Constine, Louis S., E-mail: louis_constine@urmc.rochester.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Patients with pulmonary metastases (PM) from soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) have historically been treated with surgery and/or chemotherapy. Since 2001, we have treated PM with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). We postulated that SBRT for PM from STS would yield excellent local control (LC) and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: Fifty-two patients with PM from STS, diagnosed between 1990 and 2006 at University of Rochester, were retrospectively reviewed. Most patients received multimodality treatment comprising of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation. SBRT used the Novalis ExacTrac patient positioning platform, vacuum bag immobilization, and relaxed end-expiratory breath hold techniques. Results: Leiomyosarcoma (23%), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (19%), and synovial sarcoma (15%) were the most common histologies. Forty-eight percent initially presented with PM, whereas 52% developed PM at a median of 0.7 (0.3-7.3) years after initial diagnosis. Median follow-up from diagnosis of PM was 0.9 (0.3-7.3) years. Fifteen patients underwent SBRT to 74 lesions. Median number of lesions treated was 4 (1-16) per patient and 3.5 (1-6) per session. Preferred dose and fractionation was 50 Gy in 5 Gy fractions. Three-year LC was 82%. No patients experienced Grade {>=}3 toxicity. Median OS was 2.1 (0.8-11.5) years for patients treated with SBRT, and 0.6 (0.1-7.8) years for those who never received SBRT (p = 0.002). Conclusions: SBRT provides excellent LC of PM and may extend OS. SBRT should be considered for all patients with PM from STS, particularly those who are not surgical candidates. Further investigation is warranted to establish criteria for the use of SBRT for STS patients with PM.

  17. Mass coral bleaching in the northern Persian Gulf, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Kavousi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Coral bleaching events due to elevated temperatures are increasing in both frequency and magnitude worldwide. Mass bleaching was recorded at five sites in the northern Persian Gulf during August and September 2012. Based on available seawater temperature data from field, satellite and previous studies, we suggest that the coral bleaching threshold temperature in the northern Persian Gulf is between 33.5 and 34°C, which is about 1.5 to 2.5°C lower than that in the southern part. To assess the bleaching effects, coral genera counted during 60-minute dives were categorized into four groups including healthy, slightly bleached ( 50% bleached tissue and fully bleached colonies. The anomalously high sea surface temperature resulted in massive coral bleaching (~84% coral colonies affected. Acropora spp. colonies, which are known as the most vulnerable corals to thermal stress, were less affected by the bleaching than massive corals, such as Porites, which are among the most thermo-tolerant corals. Turbid waters, suggested as coral refugia against global warming, did not protect corals in this study since most affected corals were found in the most turbid waters. The 2012 bleaching in the northern Persian Gulf was relatively strong from the viewpoint of coral bleaching severity. Long-term monitoring is needed to understand the actual consequences of the bleaching event on the coral reefs and communities.

  18. Coral transcriptome and bacterial community profiles reveal distinct Yellow Band Disease states in Orbicella faveolata

    KAUST Repository

    Closek, Collin J.

    2014-06-20

    Coral diseases impact reefs globally. Although we continue to describe diseases, little is known about the etiology or progression of even the most common cases. To examine a spectrum of coral health and determine factors of disease progression we examined Orbicella faveolata exhibiting signs of Yellow Band Disease (YBD), a widespread condition in the Caribbean. We used a novel combined approach to assess three members of the coral holobiont: the coral-host, associated Symbiodinium algae, and bacteria. We profiled three conditions: (1) healthy-appearing colonies (HH), (2) healthy-appearing tissue on diseased colonies (HD), and (3) diseased lesion (DD). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed health state-specific diversity in Symbiodinium clade associations. 16S ribosomal RNA gene microarrays (PhyloChips) and O. faveolata complimentary DNA microarrays revealed the bacterial community structure and host transcriptional response, respectively. A distinct bacterial community structure marked each health state. Diseased samples were associated with two to three times more bacterial diversity. HD samples had the highest bacterial richness, which included components associated with HH and DD, as well as additional unique families. The host transcriptome under YBD revealed a reduced cellular expression of defense- and metabolism-related processes, while the neighboring HD condition exhibited an intermediate expression profile. Although HD tissue appeared visibly healthy, the microbial communities and gene expression profiles were distinct. HD should be regarded as an additional (intermediate) state of disease, which is important for understanding the progression of YBD. © 2014 International Society for Microbial Ecology. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiofrequency tissue ablation with cooled-tip electrodes:an experimental study in a bovine liver model on variables influencing lesion size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyun Young [Eulgy Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Chong Soo [Chonbuk National Univ. Hospital, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of various factors on the extent of thermal coagulation necrosis after radiofrequency (RF) tissue ablation using a cooled-tip electrode in bovine liver. RF ablation was induced by a monopolar 500 KHz-RF generator (CC-1; Radionics, Burlington, Mass., U.S.A.) and an 18-G cooled-tip with single or clustered electrodes. The ablation protocol involved a combination of varying current, ablation time, power output, gradual or abrupt increase of this out-put, and pulsed radiofrequency techniques. The maximum diameter of all thermal lesions which showed a color change was measured perpendicular to the electrode axis by two observers who reached their decisions by consensus. Twenty representative lesions were pathologically examined. With increasing current lesion diameter also increased, but above 1500 mA no further increase was induced. Extending the ablation time to 9 minutes for a single electrode and 15 minutes for a clustered electrode increased lesion diameter until a steady state was reached. Higher power levels caused larger lesions, but above 100 W no increase was observed. Ample exposure time coupled with a stepwise increase in power level induced a lesion larger than that resulting from an abrupt increase. Continuous pulsed RF with a high current led to increased coagulation necrosis diameter. These experimental findings may be useful thermotherapy. The data suggest that all involved factors significantly affect lesion size:if the factors are better understood, cancer thermotherapy can be better controlled.

  20. Papillary reconstruction and guided tissue regeneration for combined periodontal-endodontic lesions caused by palatogingival groove and additional root: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hui; Chen, Min; Otgonbayar, Tsetsen; Zhang, Sha Sha; Hou, Min Hong; Wu, Zhou; Wang, Yong Lan; Wu, Li Geng

    2015-12-01

    We described a combined periodontal-endodontic lesion, which was caused by a palatogingival groove and an additional root. An interdisciplinary approach involving endodontic therapy, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) filling, root resection, guided tissue regeneration, and papillary reconstruction was used for the case. The tooth presents morphologically and functionally normal except tooth discoloration caused by MTA.

  1. Papillary reconstruction and guided tissue regeneration for combined periodontal–endodontic lesions caused by palatogingival groove and additional root: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Hui; Chen, Min; Otgonbayar, Tsetsen; Zhang, Sha Sha; Hou, Min Hong; Wu, Zhou; Wang, Yong Lan; Wu, Li Geng

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We described a combined periodontal–endodontic lesion, which was caused by a palatogingival groove and an additional root. An interdisciplinary approach involving endodontic therapy, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) filling, root resection, guided tissue regeneration, and papillary reconstruction was used for the case. The tooth presents morphologically and functionally normal except tooth discoloration caused by MTA.

  2. Comparison between concentrations of amphotericin B in infected lung lesion and in uninfected lung tissue in a patient treated with liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Matsumoto, Kana; Igari, Hidetoshi; Uesato, Masaya; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Nakamura, Yasutaka; Morita, Kunihiko; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Yoshino, Ichiro; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2010-09-01

    Generally, the primary lesion of a mold infection is in the airway, an extravascular site. Therefore, the antifungal drug concentration at the actual tissue lesion of a mold infection is as important as in the blood compartment. Although our antifungal armamentarium has expanded recently, polyenes are still often needed in clinical practice because of their potent fungicidal activity and the rarity of resistance. Nevertheless, the distribution of amphotericin B (AmB) in infected lung tissue has not yet been evaluated. Using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, we determined the concentrations of AmB in plasma and infected and uninfected tissues of resected lung simultaneously, in a patient with pulmonary aspergillosis treated with liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB). The AmB concentration in the infected lesion of the lung was approximately 5.2 times higher than that in plasma and 3.7 times higher than in uninfected lung tissue. L-AmB accumulated in the infected lesion of the lung at a higher concentration. Although our data are from only one patient, they may be useful in helping to develop better strategies for the use of L-AmB against pulmonary fungal infections.

  3. Effect of the use of silver nanocrystals and silver sulfadiazine in the management of soft tissue lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineo C

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cristian Tineo,1 Cinthia M Nuñez,2–4 Ouel Sosa,1,5 Dahiana Pichardo,1 Juan Luis Hernández,1 Gustavo Collado3 1Department of Surgery, José María Cabral y Báez Regional and University Hospital (HRUJMCB, 2Department of Surgery, Dr. Arturo Grullòn University and Childrens Hospital Burn Unit (HIRUDAG, 3Department of Surgery, Santiago Metropolitan Hospital (HOMS, 4Department of Medicine, Mother and Master Pontifical and Catholic University (PUCMM, 5Department of Medicine, Santiago Thechnological University (UTESA, Santiago, Dominican Republic Background: Soft tissue lesions represent a health problem of great magnitude around the world. Multiple drugs have been used in their treatment. Silver sulfadiazine (SSD and silver nanocrystals (SNC are among the most used. The purpose of this research was to compare the effectiveness of SSD and SNC regarding the wound granulation rate, treatment time, antibiotic effect, and treatment cost and to determine the frequency of these lesions in participants of this research.Methods: Data were collected from 50 patients with soft tissue lesions in the Regional University Hospital José María Cabral y Báez (HRUJMCB, in Santiago, Dominican Republic. This study was approved by the bioethics committee of the Pontifical Catholic University Madre and Maestra (PUCMM and the HRUJMCB. Patients were followed up from August 2015 to February 2016. SPSS Statistics program was used to calculate Chi square and assess statistical significance.Results: Fifty patients were included in this study, of whom 56% had diabetic foot ulcers, 22% had vascular ulcers, and 22% had pressure ulcers. In total, 42% of the patients were treated with SSD and 58% with SNC. Granulation rate was 71.4% for SSD and 89.6% for SNC, and positive antibiotic effect was 15.9% for SSD and 25.9% for SNC. A total of 14.4% of patients treated with SSD ended their participation in the research between 8 and 14 days, 37.9% in 15–21 days, and 42.8% in

  4. Individual Assessment of Brain Tissue Changes in MS and the Effect of Focal Lesions on Short-Term Focal Atrophy Development in MS: A Voxel-Guided Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jan; Kraemer, Matthias; Schormann, Thorsten; Dabringhaus, Andreas; Hirsch, Jochen; Eisele, Philipp; Szabo, Kristina; Weiss, Christel; Amann, Michael; Weier, Katrin; Naegelin, Yvonne; Kappos, Ludwig; Gass, Achim

    2016-01-01

    We performed voxel-guided morphometry (VGM) investigating the mechanisms of brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) related to focal lesions. VGM maps detect regional brain changes when comparing 2 time points on high resolution T1-weighted (T1w) magnetic resonace imaging (MRI). Two T1w MR datasets from 92 relapsing-remitting MS patients obtained 12 months apart were analysed with VGM. New lesions and volume changes of focal MS lesions as well as in the surrounding tissue were identified by visual inspection on colour coded VGM maps. Lesions were dichotomized in active and inactive lesions. Active lesions, defined by either new lesions (NL) (volume increase > 5% in VGM), chronic enlarging lesions (CEL) (pre-existent T1w lesions with volume increase > 5%), or chronic shrinking lesions (CSL) (pre-existent T1w lesions with volume reduction > 5%) in VGM, were accompanied by tissue shrinkage in surrounding and/or functionally related regions. Volume loss within the corpus callosum was highly correlated with the number of lesions in its close proximity. Volume loss in the lateral geniculate nucleus was correlated with lesions along the optic radiation. VGM analysis provides strong evidence that all active lesion types (NL, CEL, and CSL) contribute to brain volume reduction in the vicinity of lesions and/or in anatomically and functionally related areas of the brain. PMID:27043553

  5. Individual Assessment of Brain Tissue Changes in MS and the Effect of Focal Lesions on Short-Term Focal Atrophy Development in MS: A Voxel-Guided Morphometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Fox

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We performed voxel-guided morphometry (VGM investigating the mechanisms of brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS related to focal lesions. VGM maps detect regional brain changes when comparing 2 time points on high resolution T1-weighted (T1w magnetic resonace imaging (MRI. Two T1w MR datasets from 92 relapsing-remitting MS patients obtained 12 months apart were analysed with VGM. New lesions and volume changes of focal MS lesions as well as in the surrounding tissue were identified by visual inspection on colour coded VGM maps. Lesions were dichotomized in active and inactive lesions. Active lesions, defined by either new lesions (NL (volume increase > 5% in VGM, chronic enlarging lesions (CEL (pre-existent T1w lesions with volume increase > 5%, or chronic shrinking lesions (CSL (pre-existent T1w lesions with volume reduction > 5% in VGM, were accompanied by tissue shrinkage in surrounding and/or functionally related regions. Volume loss within the corpus callosum was highly correlated with the number of lesions in its close proximity. Volume loss in the lateral geniculate nucleus was correlated with lesions along the optic radiation. VGM analysis provides strong evidence that all active lesion types (NL, CEL, and CSL contribute to brain volume reduction in the vicinity of lesions and/or in anatomically and functionally related areas of the brain.

  6. 乳腺实性病灶组织多普勒超声弹性成像时间-应变曲线分析%Tissue Doppler and strain curve of tissue Doppler ultrasound elatography of breast solid lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫勇; 隋秀芳; 李红苗; 赵志宏; 张琼; 周海红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of tissue Doppler ultrasound elastography (TDUE)in the diagnosis of breast solid lesions. Methods TDUE was used to examine 46 cases with 54 breast solid lesions(39 benign lesions and 15 malignant lesions). The pathological confirmations were performed after surgical resection. After a size of 1cm2 region of interest( ROI) was placed in the subcutaneous adipose tissue and target lesion ,the corresponding type of tissue Doppler and strain curve was achieved . Maximal absolute relaxed strain ( max-ARS) of adipose tissues , benign lesions and malignant lesions were also recorded . Results The elastography was performed 3 times for each solid lesion and adipose tissue adjacent to the lesion . Totally 162 curves of adipose tissues ,117 curves of benign lesions ,and 45 curves of malignant lesions in ROI were acquired with elastographic modality. Two categories of curve, positive wave and negative wave , were achieved. There were all positive waves and no negative waves in 162 curves of adipose tissues. Numbers of positive and negative waves in 117 curves of breast benign lesions were 108 and 9,respectively. Numbers of positive and negative waves in 45 curves of breast malignant lesions were 12 and 33, respectively. The categories of curves among the adipose tissues , benign lesions and malignant lesions had statistically significant difference ( corrected size of test, x2 = 172.37 ,P <0.0001). The difference was significant for the types of curves between adipose tissues and benign lesions ( Fisher exact test, P = 0. 0003 ) and between adipose tissues and malignant lesions ( Fisher exact test ,P <0.0001). The types of curves between malignant lesions and benign lesions were also considered statistically significant (x = 72. 92,P <0. 0001). The mean max-ARS of adipose tissues, benign and malignant lesions was (15. 57 ± 8. 91 ) % , ( 6. 78 ± 4. 48 ) % and (1.14 ±2.71)% ,respectively ,and the difference among them was significant (F

  7. VEGF-A immunohistochemical and mRNA expression in tissues and its serum levels in potentially malignant oral lesions and oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Seema; Goel, Madhu Mati; Chandra, Saumya; Bhatia, Vikram; Mehrotra, Divya; Kumar, Sandeep; Makker, Annu; Rath, S K; Agarwal, S P

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the estimation of circulating Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) levels by ELISA could be used as surrogate of VEGF-A expression in tissues of pre-malignant oral lesions (PMOLs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as compared to that in healthy controls. The study samples comprised of tissue and blood samples from 60 PMOLs, 60 OSCC, and 20 healthy controls. Serum VEGF-A levels were determined by an ELISA based assay (Quantikine human VEGF; R & D System, Minneapolis USA). Tissue VEGF-A expression and microvessel density (MVD) were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using antibodies against VEGF-A and CD-34 on formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. VEGF-A mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR in snap frozen tissues. Serum VEGF-A levels and immunohistochemical VEGF-A expression were significantly high in PMOLs and OSCC in comparison with controls. VEGF mRNA gene expression showed more than 50-fold increase in PMOLs and OSCC. VEGF-A levels in serum correlated in a linear fashion with the tissue expression in oral pre-malignant and malignant lesions, suggesting that the serum levels may serve as surrogate material for tissue expression of VEGF-A.

  8. Treatment of non-vital primary molar using lesion sterilization and tissue repair (LSTR 3Mix-MP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Saskianti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Root canal preparation and anatomic variations of deciduous teeth often cause the child patient uncooperative and sometimes the treatment failure. the non-threatening treatment and non-invasive approaches is needed to obtain a good cooperation from child patient. Purpose: The study was aimed to clinically evaluate the use of 3Mix-MP- a combination of antibacterial drugs, i.e. metronidazole, minocycline and ciprofloxacin (3Mix, and macrogol and propylene glycol (MP - as pulp medicament on a necroses primary molar. Methods: Subject were the children patients of Pediatric Dental Clinic Universitas Airlangga Dental Hospital. Eight primary molars with pulp necroses due to dental caries were selected as samples. The treatment was done based on the concept of lesion sterilization and tissue repair (LSTR therapy. A slice of 3 Mix-MP pastes was placed in the cavity and then sealed with glassionomer cement. Subjects were asked for recall visit in 1, 3 and 6 months post treatment, for clinical and radiographic evaluation. The antibacterial effect of 3 Mix-MP was compared with tempophore on mixed bacteria of pulp cavity which was isolated prior to therapy. The antibacterial effect was determined by measuring the inhibition zone after 24 hours anaerobe incubation. Results: Seven out of 8 subjects on recall visit showed no acute or chronic clinical symptoms, such as fistulae, abscess, purulent exudates, swelling or feel any pain during mastication. Microbiological test result showed LSTR 3Mix-MP had antibacterial effect higher than tempophore (p<0.001. Conclusion: The study revealed that 3Mix-MP treatment showed clinical and radiographic positive response on necrose primary molar.Latar belakang: Preparasi saluran akar dan variasi anatomi gigi sulung seringkali menyebabkan pasien anak tidak kooperatif dan kadang menyebabkan kegagalan perawatan. Perawatan yang tidak menakutkan dan non-invasif diperlukan untuk mendapatkan kerjasama yang baik dari

  9. Comparison of whole-body PET/CT and PET/MRI in breast cancer patients: Lesion detection and quantitation of 18F-deoxyglucose uptake in lesions and in normal organ tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Leonardo, E-mail: lpace@unisa.it [Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università degli Studi di Salerno (Italy); Nicolai, Emanuele, E-mail: enicolai@sdn-napoli.it [IRCCS–SDN, Napoli (Italy); Luongo, Angelo, E-mail: angelo_luongo@libero.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Avanzate, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Aiello, Marco, E-mail: maiello@sdn-napoli.it [IRCCS–SDN, Napoli (Italy); Catalano, Onofrio A., E-mail: onofriocatalano@yahoo.it [IRCCS–SDN, Napoli (Italy); Soricelli, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.soricelli@uniparthenope.it [Dipartimento di Studi delle Istituzioni e dei Sistemi Territoriali, Università degli Studi Parthenope di Napoli (Italy); Salvatore, Marco, E-mail: marsalva@unina.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Avanzate, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To compare the performance of PET/MRI imaging using MR attenuation correction (MRAC) (DIXON-based 4-segment -map) in breast cancer patients with that of PET/CT using CT-based attenuation correction and to compare the quantification accuracy in lesions and in normal organ tissues. Methods: A total of 36 patients underwent a whole-body PET/CT scan 1 h after injection and an average of 62 min later a second scan using a hybrid PET/MRI system. PET/MRI and PET/CT were compared visually by rating anatomic allocation and image contrast. Regional tracer uptake in lesions was quantified using volumes of interest, and maximal and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean, respectively) were calculated. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) of each lesion was computed on PET/MRI and PET/CT. Tracer uptake in normal organ tissue was assessed as SUVmax and SUVmean in liver, spleen, left ventricular myocardium, lung, and muscle. Results: Overall 74 FDG positive lesions were visualized by both PET/CT and PET/MRI. No significant differences in anatomic allocation scores were found between PET/CT and PERT/MRI, while contrast score of lesions on PET/MRI was significantly higher. Both SUVmax and SUVmean of lesions were significantly higher on PET/MRI than on PET/CT, with strong correlations between PET/MRI and PET/CT data (ρ = 0.71–0.88). MTVs of all lesions were 4% lower on PET/MRI than on PET/CT, but no statistically significant difference was observed, and an excellent correlation between measurements of MTV with PET/MRI and PET/CT was found (ρ = 0.95–0.97; p < 0.0001). Both SUVmax and SUVmean were significantly lower by PET/MRI than by PET/CT for lung, liver and muscle, no significant difference was observed for spleen, while either SUVmax and SUVmean of myocardium were significantly higher by PET/MRI. High correlations were found between PET/MRI and PET/CT for both SUVmax and SUVmean of the left ventricular myocardium (ρ = 0.91; p < 0.0001), while moderate

  10. Coral contact dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson, Julie; Thompson, Curtis; Hinshaw, Molly; Rich, Phoebe

    2015-01-01

    Corals can elicit both toxic and allergic reactions upon contact with the skin. Clinical presentations vary depending on whether the reaction is acute, delayed, or chronic. Literature concerning cutaneous reactions to corals and other Cnidarians is scarce. Herein we report a case of delayed contact hypersensitivity reaction to coral and review the clinical and histopathological features of coral contact dermatitis.

  11. Coral contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Julie; Thompson, Curtis; Hinshaw, Molly; Rich, Phoebe

    2015-04-16

    Corals can elicit both toxic and allergic reactions upon contact with the skin. Clinical presentations vary depending on whether the reaction is acute, delayed, or chronic. Literature concerning cutaneous reactions to corals and other Cnidarians is scarce. Herein we report a case of delayed contact hypersensitivity reaction to coral and review the clinical and histopathological features of coral contact dermatitis.

  12. Bacteria associated with the bleached and cave coral Oculina patagonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Omry; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2008-04-01

    The relative abundance of bacteria in the mucus and tissues of Oculina patagonica taken from bleached and cave (azooxanthellae) corals was determined by analyses of the 16S rRNA genes from cloned libraries of extracted DNA and from isolated colonies. The results were compared to previously published data on healthy O. patagonica. The bacterial community of bleached, cave, and healthy corals were completely different from each other. A tight cluster (>99.5% identity) of bacteria, showing 100% identity to Acinetobacter species, dominated bleached corals, comprising 25% of the 316 clones sequenced. The dominant bacterial cluster found in cave corals, representing 29% of the 97 clones sequenced, showed 98% identity to an uncultured bacterium from the Great Barrier Reef. Vibrio splendidus was the most dominant species in healthy O. patagonica. The culturable bacteria represented 0.1-1.0% of the total bacteria (SYBR Gold staining) of the corals. The most abundant culturable bacteria in bleached, cave, and healthy corals were clusters that most closely matched Microbulbifer sp., an alpha-proteobacterium previously isolated from healthy corals and an alpha-protobacterium (AB026194), respectively. Three generalizations emerge from this study on O. patagonica: (1) More bacteria are associated with coral tissue than mucus; (2) tissue and mucus populations are different; (3) bacterial populations associated with corals change dramatically when corals lack their symbiotic zooxanthellae, either as a result of the bleaching disease or when growing in the absence of light.

  13. In situ oxygen dynamics in coral-algal interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wangpraseurt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coral reefs degrade globally at an alarming rate, with benthic algae often replacing corals. However, the extent to which benthic algae contribute to coral mortality, and the potential mechanisms involved, remain disputed. Recent laboratory studies suggested that algae kill corals by inducing hypoxia on the coral surface, through stimulated microbial respiration. METHODS/FINDINGS: We examined the main premise of this hypothesis by measuring in situ oxygen microenvironments at the contact interface between the massive coral Porites spp. and turf algae, and between Porites spp. and crustose coralline algae (CCA. Oxygen levels at the interface were similar to healthy coral tissue and ranged between 300-400 µM during the day. At night, the interface was hypoxic (~70 µM in coral-turf interactions and close to anoxic (~2 µM in coral-CCA interactions, but these values were not significantly different from healthy tissue. The diffusive boundary layer (DBL was about three times thicker at the interface than above healthy tissue, due to a depression in the local topography. A numerical model, developed to analyze the oxygen profiles above the irregular interface, revealed strongly reduced net photosynthesis and dark respiration rates at the coral-algal interface compared to unaffected tissue during the day and at night, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that hypoxia was not a consistent feature in the microenvironment of the coral-algal interface under in situ conditions. Therefore, hypoxia alone is unlikely to be the cause of coral mortality. Due to the modified topography, the interaction zone is distinguished by a thicker diffusive boundary layer, which limits the local metabolic activity and likely promotes accumulation of potentially harmful metabolic products (e.g., allelochemicals and protons. Our study highlights the importance of mass transfer phenomena and the need for direct in situ measurements of

  14. In situ oxygen dynamics in coral-algal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangpraseurt, Daniel; Weber, Miriam; Røy, Hans; Polerecky, Lubos; de Beer, Dirk; Suharsono; Nugues, Maggy M

    2012-01-01

    Coral reefs degrade globally at an alarming rate, with benthic algae often replacing corals. However, the extent to which benthic algae contribute to coral mortality, and the potential mechanisms involved, remain disputed. Recent laboratory studies suggested that algae kill corals by inducing hypoxia on the coral surface, through stimulated microbial respiration. We examined the main premise of this hypothesis by measuring in situ oxygen microenvironments at the contact interface between the massive coral Porites spp. and turf algae, and between Porites spp. and crustose coralline algae (CCA). Oxygen levels at the interface were similar to healthy coral tissue and ranged between 300-400 µM during the day. At night, the interface was hypoxic (~70 µM) in coral-turf interactions and close to anoxic (~2 µM) in coral-CCA interactions, but these values were not significantly different from healthy tissue. The diffusive boundary layer (DBL) was about three times thicker at the interface than above healthy tissue, due to a depression in the local topography. A numerical model, developed to analyze the oxygen profiles above the irregular interface, revealed strongly reduced net photosynthesis and dark respiration rates at the coral-algal interface compared to unaffected tissue during the day and at night, respectively. Our results showed that hypoxia was not a consistent feature in the microenvironment of the coral-algal interface under in situ conditions. Therefore, hypoxia alone is unlikely to be the cause of coral mortality. Due to the modified topography, the interaction zone is distinguished by a thicker diffusive boundary layer, which limits the local metabolic activity and likely promotes accumulation of potentially harmful metabolic products (e.g., allelochemicals and protons). Our study highlights the importance of mass transfer phenomena and the need for direct in situ measurements of microenvironmental conditions in studies on coral stress.

  15. Corals concentrate dissolved inorganic carbon to facilitate calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Nicola; Cohen, Itay; Finch, Adrian A; Erez, Jonathan; Tudhope, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    The sources of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) used to produce scleractinian coral skeletons are not understood. Yet this knowledge is essential for understanding coral biomineralization and assessing the potential impacts of ocean acidification on coral reefs. Here we use skeletal boron geochemistry to reconstruct the DIC chemistry of the fluid used for coral calcification. We show that corals concentrate DIC at the calcification site substantially above seawater values and that bicarbonate contributes a significant amount of the DIC pool used to build the skeleton. Corals actively increase the pH of the calcification fluid, decreasing the proportion of DIC present as CO2 and creating a diffusion gradient favouring the transport of molecular CO2 from the overlying coral tissue into the calcification site. Coupling the increases in calcification fluid pH and [DIC] yields high calcification fluid [CO3(2-)] and induces high aragonite saturation states, favourable to the precipitation of the skeleton.

  16. Assessment of illness-related indicators in peripheral blood and skin lesion tissue of patients with vitiligo after NB-UVB, triamcinolone acetonide and vitiligo granules triple treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Liang Wang; Yan Chen; Feng-Bin Liu; Yuan-Zuo Huang; Ju-Zhen Lin; Guan-Biao Lyu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the changes of illness-related indicators in peripheral blood and skin lesion tissue of patients with vitiligo after NB-UVB, triamcinolone acetonide and vitiligo granules triple treatment.Methods: Patients with vitiligo were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into two groups, observation group received NB-UVB, triamcinolone acetonide and vitiligo granules triple treatment, control group received combined therapy of NB-UVB and triamcinolone acetonide, and then the contents of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in peripheral blood as well as the expression of illness-related molecules in skin lesion tissue were detected.Results:After treatment, the percentage of CD3+ CD28+, CD3+CD4+CD28+, CD3+CD8+CD28+ and Th17cells as well as the contents of IL-17 and IL-6 in peripheral blood of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group, and the percentage of CD3+ CTLA4+, CD3+CD4+ CTLA4+, CD3+CD8+ CTLA4+ and Treg cells as well as the contents of IL-10 and TGF-β were significantly higher than those of control group; the expression levels of Nrf-2, SCF, c-kit and InnVit in skin lesion tissue of observation group were higher than those of control group, and CLEC2B expression level was lower than that of control group.Conclusion:NB-UVB, triamcinolone acetonide and vitiligo granules triple treatment can more effectively regulate immune function and expression of illness-related molecules in skin lesion tissue of patients with vitiligo.

  17. Localized bleaching in Hawaii causes tissue loss and a reduction in the number of gametes in Porites compressa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudek, M.; Aeby, G. S.; Davy, S. K.

    2012-06-01

    Localized bleaching (a discrete white area on the coral) was observed in one of the main framework-building corals in Hawaii, Porites compressa. This study aimed to determine the degree of virulence of the lesion. We investigated the whole-colony effects by following disease progression through time and examining the effect of localized bleaching on coral fecundity. After two months, 35 of 42 (83.3%) individually tagged colonies affected by localized bleaching showed tissue loss and partial colony mortality. Histological slides of healthy P. compressa and samples from colonies showing signs of localized bleaching were compared showing that affected colonies had a significant reduction (almost 50%) in gamete development, egg numbers, and egg size in the affected tissue. The observed localized bleaching results in both partial colony mortality and a reduced number of gametes and was termed Porites Bleaching with Tissue Loss (PBTL).

  18. Bacterial acquisition in juveniles of several broadcast spawning coral species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koty H Sharp

    Full Text Available Coral animals harbor diverse microorganisms in their tissues, including archaea, bacteria, viruses, and zooxanthellae. The extent to which coral-bacterial associations are specific and the mechanisms for their maintenance across generations in the environment are unknown. The high diversity of bacteria in adult coral colonies has made it challenging to identify species-specific patterns. Localization of bacteria in gametes and larvae of corals presents an opportunity for determining when bacterial-coral associations are initiated and whether they are dynamic throughout early development. This study focuses on the early onset of bacterial associations in the mass spawning corals Montastraea annularis, M. franksi, M. faveolata, Acropora palmata, A. cervicornis, Diploria strigosa, and A. humilis. The presence of bacteria and timing of bacterial colonization was evaluated in gametes, swimming planulae, and newly settled polyps by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using general eubacterial probes and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The coral species investigated in this study do not appear to transmit bacteria via their gametes, and bacteria are not detectable in or on the corals until after settlement and metamorphosis. This study suggests that mass-spawning corals do not acquire, or are not colonized by, detectable numbers of bacteria until after larval settlement and development of the juvenile polyp. This timing lays the groundwork for developing and testing new hypotheses regarding general regulatory mechanisms that control bacterial colonization and infection of corals, and how interactions among bacteria and juvenile polyps influence the structure of bacterial assemblages in corals.

  19. Bacterial acquisition in juveniles of several broadcast spawning coral species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Koty H; Ritchie, Kim B; Schupp, Peter J; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Paul, Valerie J

    2010-05-28

    Coral animals harbor diverse microorganisms in their tissues, including archaea, bacteria, viruses, and zooxanthellae. The extent to which coral-bacterial associations are specific and the mechanisms for their maintenance across generations in the environment are unknown. The high diversity of bacteria in adult coral colonies has made it challenging to identify species-specific patterns. Localization of bacteria in gametes and larvae of corals presents an opportunity for determining when bacterial-coral associations are initiated and whether they are dynamic throughout early development. This study focuses on the early onset of bacterial associations in the mass spawning corals Montastraea annularis, M. franksi, M. faveolata, Acropora palmata, A. cervicornis, Diploria strigosa, and A. humilis. The presence of bacteria and timing of bacterial colonization was evaluated in gametes, swimming planulae, and newly settled polyps by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using general eubacterial probes and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The coral species investigated in this study do not appear to transmit bacteria via their gametes, and bacteria are not detectable in or on the corals until after settlement and metamorphosis. This study suggests that mass-spawning corals do not acquire, or are not colonized by, detectable numbers of bacteria until after larval settlement and development of the juvenile polyp. This timing lays the groundwork for developing and testing new hypotheses regarding general regulatory mechanisms that control bacterial colonization and infection of corals, and how interactions among bacteria and juvenile polyps influence the structure of bacterial assemblages in corals.

  20. Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

  1. Yellow band disease compromises the reproductive output of the Caribbean reef-building coral Montastraea faveolata (Anthozoa, Scleractinia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Ernesto; Cróquer, Aldo; Urreiztieta, Isabel

    2009-11-16

    Sexual reproduction is critical to coral population dynamics and the long-term regeneration of coral reefs. Bleaching, disease, and/or anthropogenic-induced tissue/colony loss reduce reproductive output. This is the first attempt to explore the effect of a biotic disease on the reproduction of scleractinian corals. The study aimed to assess the effect of yellow band disease (YBD) on the reproduction of the important Caribbean reef-builder Montastraea faveolata. Tissue samples were collected from diseased, transition, and healthy-looking areas in each of 5 infected colonies and from 5 healthy controls in southwest Puerto Rico. The effect of disease-induced mortality was assessed by collecting samples from the edge and center of surviving small and large, healthy-looking tissue patches from large, previously infected tagged colonies. Fecundity was significantly lower in disease lesions compared to transition and healthy-looking tissues and the controls (99% fewer eggs). Fecundity in transition areas was significantly lower (50%) than in healthy-looking tissues in diseased colonies, which had 23% lower fecundity than control tissues. Although this fecundity drop was not statistically significant, it could indicate a systemic effect of YBD across the colony. Large and small patches had 64 and 84% fewer eggs than controls, respectively, and edge polyps had 97% fewer eggs than those in central control areas. Field observations of the spawning behavior of each tissue area corroborated the histological results. Our results indicate that YBD significantly compromises the reproductive output of M. faveolata, potentially reducing the fitness and consequently, the recovery of this important reef-building species on Caribbean coral reefs.

  2. Validity of T2 mapping in characterization of the regeneration tissue by bone marrow derived cell transplantation in osteochondral lesions of the ankle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, M., E-mail: milva.battaglia@ior.it [Service of Ecography and Radiology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, via Pupilli n. 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, E. [Service of Ecography and Radiology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, via Pupilli n. 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Monti, C. [Service of CT and MRI, Casa di Cura Madre Fortunata Toniolo, Bologna (Italy); Guaraldi, F. [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Sant' Andrea, A. [Service of CT and MRI, Casa di Cura Madre Fortunata Toniolo, Bologna (Italy); Buda, R.; Cavallo, M.; Giannini, S.; Vannini, F. [Clinical Orthopaedic and Traumatology Unit II, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: Bone marrow derived cell transplantation (BMDCT) has been recently suggested as a possible surgical technique to repair osteochondral lesions. To date, no qualitative MRI studies have evaluated its efficacy. The aim of our study is to investigate the validity of MRI T2-mapping sequence in characterizing the reparative tissue obtained and its ability to correlate with clinical results. Methods and materials: 20 patients with an osteochondral lesion of the talus underwent BMDCT and were evaluated at 2 years follow up using MRI T2-mapping sequence. 20 healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. MRI images were acquired using a protocol suggested by the International Cartilage Repair Society, MOCART scoring system and T2 mapping. Results were then correlated with AOFAS clinical score. Results: AOFAS score increased from 66.8 {+-} 14.5 pre-operatively to 91.2 {+-} 8.3 (p < 0.0005) at 2 years follow-up. T2-relaxation time value of 35-45 ms was derived from healthy ankles evaluation and assumed as normal hyaline cartilage value and used as a control. Regenerated tissue with a T2-relaxation time value comparable to hyaline cartilage was found in all the cases treated, covering a mean of 78% of the repaired lesion area. A high clinical score was related directly to isointense signal in DPFSE fat sat (p = 0.05), and percentage of regenerated hyaline cartilage (p = 0.05), inversely to the percentage of regenerated fibrocartilage. Lesion's depth negatively related to the integrity of the repaired tissue's surface (tau = -0.523, p = 0.007), and to the percentage of regenerated hyaline cartilage (rho = -0.546, p = 0.013). Conclusions: Because of its ability to detect cartilage's quality and to correlate to the clinical score, MRI T2-mapping sequence integrated with Mocart score represent a valid, non-invasive technique for qualitative cartilage assessment after regenerative surgical procedures.

  3. Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease in a comparative coral species framework.

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are threatened throughout the world. A major factor contributing to their decline is outbreaks and propagation of coral diseases. Due to the complexity of coral-associated microbe communities, little is understood in terms of disease agents, hosts and vectors. It is known that compromised health in corals is correlated with shifts in bacterial assemblages colonizing coral mucus and tissue. However, general disease patterns remain, to a large extent, ambiguous as comparative studies over species, regions, or diseases are scarce. Here, we compare bacterial assemblages of samples from healthy (HH) colonies and such displaying signs of White Plague Disease (WPD) of two different coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) from the same reef in Koh Tao, Thailand, using 16S rRNA gene microarrays. In line with other studies, we found an increase of bacterial diversity in diseased (DD) corals, and a higher abundance of taxa from the families that include known coral pathogens (Alteromonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Vibrionaceae). In our comparative framework analysis, we found differences in microbial assemblages between coral species and coral health states. Notably, patterns of bacterial community structures from HH and DD corals were maintained over species boundaries. Moreover, microbes that differentiated the two coral species did not overlap with microbes that were indicative of HH and DD corals. This suggests that while corals harbor distinct species-specific microbial assemblages, disease-specific bacterial abundance patterns exist that are maintained over coral species boundaries.

  4. An ex vivo study on radiofrequency tissue ablation: increased lesion size by using an "expandable-wet" electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Y; Ni, Y; Yu, J; Zhang, H; Baert, A; Marchal, G

    2001-01-01

    The present comparative study was conducted to validate a newly developed "expandable-wet" electrode for an increased lesion size of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on excised beef liver. The expandable-wet electrode, which allows interstitial hypertonic saline infusion through retractable curved needles, was compared with "expanded-dry" and "unexpanded-wet" electrodes for RFA lesion size and other parameters. A total of 120 lesions were created under 50 W (groups A-C) and 90 W (groups A'-C') power control mode for 10 min at each ablation site with the following groups: group A and A' of expanded-dry electrode (needles deployed but saline uninfused); group B and B' of unexpanded-wet electrode (saline infused but needle undeployed); and group C and C' of expanded-wet electrode (needles deployed and saline infused). Together with lower impedance and higher power output, the lesion size in group C (5.3+/-0.4 cm) and C' (6.0+/-1.0 cm) were significantly larger (P<0.01) than that in group A (3.3+/-0.3 cm) and A' (2.0+/-0.2 cm), and group B (3.8+/-1.0 cm) and B' (2.6+/-0.4 cm). The RFA lesion size can be significantly enlarged when the expandable electrode is complemented with interstitial hypertonic saline infusion. This design may improve the efficacy of RF tumor ablation.

  5. Rapid Discrimination of Malignant Breast Lesions from Normal Tissues Utilizing Raman Spectroscopy System: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of In Vitro Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ke; Zhu, Chenjing; Ma, Xuelei; Jia, Hongyuan; Wei, Zhigong; Xiao, Yue; Xu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Raman spectroscopy system in the detection of malignant breast lesions through a systemic review and meta-analysis of published studies. We conducted a comprehensive literature search of PubMed and Embase from 2000 to June 2015. Published studies that evaluated the diagnostic performance of Raman spectroscopy in distinguishing malignant breast lesions from benign lesions and normal tissues were included in our study. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio, and the area under the curve of summary receiver-operating characteristic curves was derived. A Revised Tool for the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies guidelines was used to assess the quality of included studies. The initial search produced a total of 157 articles after removing duplicates. Nine studies (8 in vitro and 1 in vivo) were eligible in this meta-analysis. We analyzed the eight in vitro studies with 1756 lesions, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of Raman spectroscopy system for the diagnosis of malignant breast lesions were 0.92 (95% CI 0.86-0.96) and 0.97 (97% CI 0.93-0.98), respectively. Diagnostic odds ratio was 266.70 (95% CI 89.38-795.79), and the area under the curve of summary receiver-operating characteristic curves was 0.98 (95% CI 0.97-0.99). Significant heterogeneity was found between studies. There was no evidence of considerable publication bias. Raman spectroscopy system is an optical diagnostic technology with great value for detecting malignant breast lesions. At the same time, it has advantages of being non-invasive, real-time, and easy to use. Thus it deserves to be further explored for intra-operatory breast tumor margin detection.

  6. Detection of chromosome aneuploidy in breast lesions with fluorescence in situ hybridization: Comparison of whole nuclei to thin tissue sections and correlation with flow cytometric DNA analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visscher, D.W.; Wallis, T.; Ritchie, C.A. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    We compared flow-cytometric DNA histogram pattern to counts of 4 fluorescent-labelled centromeric probes (chromosomes 1, 7, 8, and 17) in whole nuclei (WN) and in nuclei from formalin-fixed deparaffinized thin tissue section (TS) in 25 breast lesions. In benign lesions, signal gains (i.e., trisomic nuclei) were never observed in greater than 10% of nuclei from either WN or TS preparations. Loss of signal in benign breast lesions, however, varied considerably (0-43%) between individual case and between chromosome probes. The mean incidence of signal loss in WN of benign lesions ranged from 8.9% (chromosome 7) to 14.4 % (chromosome 1) of nuclei. These signal loss frequencies exceeded those of benign lymphoid control cells. In three benign lesions, signal loss in WN (with one probe) was observed in at least 25% of nuclei. Signal losses in benign TS, on average, were 50-150% greater than in matched WN preparations (chromosome 1: 21.7%, chromosome 7: 21.5%). Malignant lesions generally, but not always, displayed fewer monosomic nuclei and more trisomic nuclei in compared to TS, compatible with a slicing (i.e., nuclear truncation) artifact. Signal counts in carcinomas correlated well with flow cytometric DNA index; however, they were also characterized by evidence of genetic instability, manifest as signal gains in a subset of nuclei (10-25%) with individual probes in diploid range cases, as well as intratumoral heterogeneity, reflected as discrepancies in probe counts between WN and TS samples. We conclude that signal losses with centromeric probes are largely, but not entirely, explained by nuclear slicing. The minimum signal loss threshold for establishment of monosomy using interphase cytogenetics is thus unclear, even in WN. Signal gains indicative of trisomy, in contrast, are reliably associated with malignancy and may reflect gross DNA aneuploidy as well as genetic instability. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Quantification of the herpesvirus content in various tissues and organs, and associated post mortem lesions of psittacine birds which died during an epornithic of pacheco's parrot disease (PPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravendyck, M; Balks, E; Schroder-Gravendyck, A S; Eskens, U; Frank, H; Marschang, R E; Kaleta, E F

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the viral content of up to 52 tissue and organ samples of 18 individual large psittacines which died during an epornithic of Pacheco's parrot disease (PPD) caused by psittacid herpesvirus 1 (PsHV1). Associated clinical signs and pathological lesions are described. The large spectrum of samples found to be positive for PsHVl suggests that birds succumb to PPD during viraemia. Tissues and organs from which the virus could be isolated included the integument and associated structures, the muscular, respiratory and circulatory system, bone marrow, the nervous system, thyroid and adrenal glands, spleen and liver, the urogenital tract and the gastro-intestinal tract. Nevertheless, individual and organ (but not species)-specific variation does occur. Virus isolation appears to be most promising from the respiratory, vascular and nervous system and the liver. Highest titres were obtained from heart blood and liver (up to 7.6 log(10)/g tissue), airsac, Nervus vagus and pulp and quill of pin feathers. Pin feathers may therefore be suitable for in-vivo diagnosis. In contrast, HV could not be isolated from any of the feather vanes examined. For the most part, post mortem lesions do not reflect the organ pattern found to be most permissive for virus replication as judged by the success of virus isolation and virus titres. A closer quantitative correlation is indicated for the lungs, spleen and liver, only. Corresponding findings as to frequency of gross pathological lesions and virus quantification appear to be restricted to the liver. In accordance with clinical observations and experimental findings, tissue virus content indicates that horizontal spread of herpesviruses is mediated by cloacal contents or secretions from the respiratory system.

  8. Tissue histiocyte reactivity with CD31 is comparable to CD68 and CD163 in common skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, W James; Googe, Paul B

    2014-06-01

    CD31 is a standard immunostain for evaluating vascular lesions of the skin, but CD31 reactivity for histiocytes is reported in only a small variety of pathological conditions. CD68 and CD163 are well recognized stains for cutaneous histiocytic lesions. We compared immunostaining of CD31 within that of CD68 and CD163 in five cases each of cutaneous lesions containing histiocytes: healing biopsy site, granuloma annulare, xanthogranuloma, ruptured follicular cyst and sarcoidosis. Reactivity was graded on a scale of 0-3 for brightness of immunostaining. Immunoreactivity was seen in histiocytes in all specimens for CD31, CD68 and CD163. The average intensity of staining was 1.7-2.5 for CD31, 2.6-3 for CD68 and 2.9-3 for CD163. The staining was somewhat less for CD31 because the reactivity is localized on the cell surfaces, whereas CD68 and CD163 react with cell surfaces and cytoplasm. We conclude that histiocytes in cutaneous lesions stain for CD31 and the staining is comparable to, but less intense, than that seen with CD68 and CD163. Caution is suggested in interpretation of CD31 staining in skin specimens, as CD31 shows reactivity with histiocytes as well as endothelial cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Laura; de Goeij, Jasper M; Mueller, Christina E; Struck, Ulrich; Middelburg, Jack J; van Duyl, Fleur C; Al-Horani, Fuad A; Wild, Christian; Naumann, Malik S; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-01-07

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrients in DOM to higher trophic levels on Caribbean reefs via the so-called sponge loop. Coral mucus may be a major DOM source for the sponge loop, but mucus uptake by sponges has not been demonstrated. Here we used laboratory stable isotope tracer experiments to show the transfer of coral mucus into the bulk tissue and phospholipid fatty acids of the warm-water sponge Mycale fistulifera and cold-water sponge Hymedesmia coriacea, demonstrating a direct trophic link between corals and reef sponges. Furthermore, 21-40% of the mucus carbon and 32-39% of the nitrogen assimilated by the sponges was subsequently released as detritus, confirming a sponge loop on Red Sea warm-water and north Atlantic cold-water coral reefs. The presence of a sponge loop in two vastly different reef environments suggests it is a ubiquitous feature of reef ecosystems contributing to the high biogeochemical cycling that may enable coral reefs to thrive in nutrient-limited (warm-water) and energy-limited (cold-water) environments.

  10. Metatranscriptome analysis of the reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata indicates holobiont response to coral disease

    KAUST Repository

    Daniels, Camille Arian

    2015-09-11

    White Plague Disease (WPD) is implicated in coral reef decline in the Caribbean and is characterized by microbial community shifts in coral mucus and tissue. Studies thus far have focused on assessing microbial communities or the identification of specific pathogens, yet few have addressed holobiont response across metaorganism compartments in coral disease. Here, we report on the first metatranscriptomic assessment of the coral host, algal symbiont, and microbial compartment in order to survey holobiont structure and function in healthy and diseased samples from Orbicella faveolata collected at reef sites off Puerto Rico. Our data indicate holobiont-wide as well as compartment-specific responses to WPD. Gene expression changes in the diseased coral host involved proteins playing a role in innate immunity, cytoskeletal integrity, cell adhesion, oxidative stress, chemical defense, and retroelements. In contrast, the algal symbiont showed comparatively few expression changes, but of large magnitude, of genes related to stress, photosynthesis, and metal transport. Concordant with the coral host response, the bacterial compartment showed increased abundance of heat shock proteins, genes related to oxidative stress, DNA repair, and potential retroelement activity. Importantly, analysis of the expressed bacterial gene functions establishes the participation of multiple bacterial families in WPD pathogenesis and also suggests a possible involvement of viruses and/or phages in structuring the bacterial assemblage. In this study, we implement an experimental approach to partition the coral holobiont and resolve compartment- and taxa-specific responses in order to understand metaorganism function in coral disease.

  11. Metatranscriptome analysis of the reef-buidling coral Orbicella faveolata indicates holobiont response to coral disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille eDaniels

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available White Plague Disease (WPD is implicated in coral reef decline in the Caribbean and is characterized by microbial community shifts in coral mucus and tissue. Studies thus far have focused on assessing microbial communities or the identification of specific pathogens, yet few have addressed holobiont response across metaorganism compartments in coral disease. Here, we report on the first metatranscriptomic assessment of the coral host, algal symbiont, and microbial compartment in order to survey holobiont structure and function in healthy and diseased samples from Orbicella faveolata collected at reef sites off Puerto Rico. Our data indicate metaorganism-wide as well as compartment-specific responses to WPD. Gene expression changes in the diseased coral host involved proteins playing a role in innate immunity, cytoskeletal integrity, cell adhesion, oxidative stress, chemical defense, and retroelements. In contrast, the algal symbiont showed comparatively few expression changes, but of large magnitude, of genes related to stress, photosynthesis, and metal transport. Concordant with the coral host response, the bacterial compartment showed increased abundance of heat shock proteins, genes related to oxidative stress, DNA repair, and potential retroelement activity. Importantly, analysis of the expressed bacterial gene functions establishes the participation of multiple bacterial families in WPD pathogenesis and also suggests a possible involvement of viruses and/or phages in structuring the bacterial assemblage. In this study, we implement an experimental approach to partition the coral holobiont and resolve compartment- and taxa-specific responses in order to understand metaorganism function in coral disease.

  12. Identification and prevalence of coral diseases on three Western Indian Ocean coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séré, Mathieu G; Chabanet, Pascale; Turquet, Jean; Quod, Jean-Pascal; Schleyer, Michael H

    2015-06-03

    Coral diseases have caused a substantial decline in the biodiversity and abundance of reef-building corals. To date, more than 30 distinct diseases of scleractinian corals have been reported, which cause progressive tissue loss and/or affect coral growth, reproductive capacity, recruitment, species diversity and the abundance of reef-associated organisms. While coral disease research has increased over the last 4 decades, very little is known about coral diseases in the Western Indian Ocean. Surveys conducted at multiple sites in Reunion, South Africa and Mayotte between August 2010 and June 2012 revealed the presence of 6 main coral diseases: black band disease (BBD), white syndrome (WS), pink line syndrome (PLS), growth anomalies (GA), skeleton eroding band (SEB) and Porites white patch syndrome (PWPS). Overall, disease prevalence was higher in Reunion (7.5 ± 2.2%; mean ± SE) compared to South Africa (3.9 ± 0.8%) and Mayotte (2.7 ± 0.3%). Across locations, Acropora and Porites were the genera most susceptible to disease. Spatial variability was detected in both Reunion and South Africa, with BBD and WS more prevalent on shallow than deep reefs. There was also evidence of seasonality in 2 diseases: the prevalence of BBD and WS was higher in summer than winter. This was the first study to investigate the ecology of coral diseases, providing both qualitative and quantitative data, on Western Indian Ocean reefs, and surveys should be expanded to confirm these patterns.

  13. Preliminary results from multicenter clinical trials for detection of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions using a novel full-field evoked-tissue-flourescence-based imaging instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattamajumdar, Anupam K.; Wells, D.; Parnell, Julie R.; Ganguly, Dipankur; Wright, Thomas C., Jr.

    2001-10-01

    We report preliminary results from a multi-center trial of evaluating the performance of a novel, full-field multi-spectral tissue fluorescence imaging system (CerviscanTM) designed to detect cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions. Spectral data from multiple regions of 48 patients enrolled from clinical performance sites in the US and Canada are included in this preliminary analysis. This includes 30 women used for the training set and 18 used for the testing set. In the testing set, 37/43 SIL and 70/80 NonSIL regions were correctly identified for a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 87.5%. CerviscanTM locates cervical precancerous lesions with high sensitivity and specificity and has the potential to permit 'see and treat' patient management.

  14. Effect of Shenqi Compound Formula on PPARγ in White Adipose Tissue of Rats with Macrovascular Lesion in Early Stage of Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hongmin; Xie Chunguang; Chen Shiwei; Xie Yiqiang; Wang Youjing

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of Shenqi Compound Formula(SCF)on peroxisome proliferatorsactivated receptor γ,(PPARγ)in white adipose tissue of rats with macrovascular lesion in early stage of diabetes.Methods:Corresponding treatment was given to rats in model group,Ramipril group,normal control group,low dosage SCF group and high dosage SCF group respectively for 32 days.The expressions of PPARγand adiponectin Messenger RNA(mRNA)were detected by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.Results:The expressions of PPARγand adiponectin mRNA increased significantly in both low and high dosage SCF groups as compared with the model group,and a positive linear correlation was found between the expressions of PPARγ and adiponectin mRNA.Conclusions:SCF can prevent macrovascular lesion in early stage of diabetes,which is possibly related with up-regulating expressions of PPARγ and activating PPARγ.

  15. Coral reefs - Specialized ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    This paper discusses briefly some aspects that characterize and differentiate coral reef ecosystems from other tropical marine ecosystems. A brief account on the resources that are extractable from coral reefs, their susceptibility to natural...

  16. The use of guided tissue regeneration principles in endodontic surgery for induced chronic periodontic-endodontic lesions: a clinical, radiographic, and histologic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britain, Steven K; Arx, Thomas von; Schenk, Robert K; Buser, Daniel; Nummikoski, Pirkka; Cochran, David L

    2005-03-01

    Chronic periodontic-endodontic lesions are not uncommon in clinical practice and their regenerative capacity has long been questioned. However, there are no published studies investigating the application of guided tissue regeneration techniques in combination with endodontic surgery using an induced perio-endo defect model. This study evaluated the clinical, radiographic, and histologic outcomes of three surgical procedures used to treat induced perio-endo lesions. Pulpal necrosis was induced in foxhounds along with surgical removal of radicular buccal bone. After 4 weeks, chronic lesions were clinically and radiographically assessed. Treatment surgery consisted of apicoectomy, root canal instrumentation, and retrofilling with mineral trioxide aggregate. Teeth were then assigned to one of the following treatment groups: open flap debridement only (OFD), OFD with bioabsorbable porcine-derived collagen membrane (BG), or OFD with BG and anorganic bovine bone matrix (BO/BG). Clinical parameters and standardized radiographs were assessed at defect creation; treatment surgery; and at 1, 2, 4, and 6 months. Animals were sacrificed at 6 months and specimens prepared for histometric analysis. Clinical and radiographic conditions improved during the study period. Mean epithelial attachment was similar between all groups. Mean connective tissue attachment for groups OFD, BG, and BO/BG was 3.79 mm, 2.63 mm, and 1.75 mm, respectively, and mean radicular bone height was 2.16 mm, 3.24 mm, and 3.45 mm, respectively. Statistically significant increases in the amount of new cementum were observed in groups BG and BO/BG when compared with OFD (P <0.05). Treatment of combined induced perio-endo lesions using bioabsorbable collagen membranes alone or in combination with anorganic bovine bone matrix resulted in increased amounts of bone, periodontal ligament, and significant increases in the amount of new cementum when compared to open flap debridement in a canine model.

  17. Facilitation in Caribbean coral reefs: high densities of staghorn coral foster greater coral condition and reef fish composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Brittany E; Miller, Margaret W; Pausch, Rachel; Richter, Lee

    2017-05-01

    Recovery of the threatened staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) is posited to play a key role in Caribbean reef resilience. At four Caribbean locations (including one restored and three extant populations), we quantified characteristics of contemporary staghorn coral across increasing conspecific densities, and investigated a hypothesis of facilitation between staghorn coral and reef fishes. High staghorn densities in the Dry Tortugas exhibited significantly less partial mortality, higher branch growth, and supported greater fish abundances compared to lower densities within the same population. In contrast, partial mortality, branch growth, and fish community composition did not vary with staghorn density at the three other study locations where staghorn densities were lower overall. This suggests that density-dependent effects between the coral and fish community may only manifest at high staghorn densities. We then evaluated one facilitative mechanism for such density-dependence, whereby abundant fishes sheltering in dense staghorn aggregations deliver nutrients back to the coral, fueling faster coral growth, thereby creating more fish habitat. Indeed, dense staghorn aggregations within the Dry Tortugas exhibited significantly higher growth rates, tissue nitrogen, and zooxanthellae densities than sparse aggregations. Similarly, higher tissue nitrogen was induced in a macroalgae bioassay outplanted into the same dense and sparse aggregations, confirming greater bioavailability of nutrients at high staghorn densities. Our findings inform staghorn restoration efforts, suggesting that the most effective targets may be higher coral densities than previously thought. These coral-dense aggregations may reap the benefits of positive facilitation between the staghorn and fish community, favoring the growth and survivorship of this threatened species.

  18. Bacteria are not the primary cause of bleaching in the Mediterranean coral Oculina patagonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, T D; Fine, M; Roff, G; Hoegh-Guldberg, O

    2008-01-01

    Coral bleaching occurs when the endosymbiosis between corals and their symbionts disintegrates during stress. Mass coral bleaching events have increased over the past 20 years and are directly correlated with periods of warm sea temperatures. However, some hypotheses have suggested that reef-building corals bleach due to infection by bacterial pathogens. The 'Bacterial Bleaching' hypothesis is based on laboratory studies of the Mediterranean invading coral, Oculina patagonica, and has further generated conclusions such as the coral probiotic hypothesis and coral hologenome theory of evolution. We aimed to investigate the natural microbial ecology of O. patagonica during the annual bleaching using fluorescence in situ hybridization to map bacterial populations within the coral tissue layers, and found that the coral bleaches on the temperate rocky reefs of the Israeli coastline without the presence of Vibrio shiloi or bacterial penetration of its tissue layers. Bacterial communities were found associated with the endolithic layer of bleached coral regions, and a community dominance shift from an apparent cyanobacterial-dominated endolithic layer to an algal-dominated layer was found in bleached coral samples. While bacterial communities certainly play important roles in coral stasis and health, we suggest environmental stressors, such as those documented with reef-building corals, are the primary triggers leading to bleaching of O. patagonica and suggest that bacterial involvement in patterns of bleaching is that of opportunistic colonization.

  19. Doom and boom on a resilient reef: climate change, algal overgrowth and coral recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; McCook, Laurence J; Dove, Sophie; Berkelmans, Ray; Roff, George; Kline, David I; Weeks, Scarla; Evans, Richard D; Williamson, David H; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2009-01-01

    Coral reefs around the world are experiencing large-scale degradation, largely due to global climate change, overfishing, diseases and eutrophication. Climate change models suggest increasing frequency and severity of warming-induced coral bleaching events, with consequent increases in coral mortality and algal overgrowth. Critically, the recovery of damaged reefs will depend on the reversibility of seaweed blooms, generally considered to depend on grazing of the seaweed, and replenishment of corals by larvae that successfully recruit to damaged reefs. These processes usually take years to decades to bring a reef back to coral dominance. In 2006, mass bleaching of corals on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef caused high coral mortality. Here we show that this coral mortality was followed by an unprecedented bloom of a single species of unpalatable seaweed (Lobophora variegata), colonizing dead coral skeletons, but that corals on these reefs recovered dramatically, in less than a year. Unexpectedly, this rapid reversal did not involve reestablishment of corals by recruitment of coral larvae, as often assumed, but depended on several ecological mechanisms previously underestimated. These mechanisms of ecological recovery included rapid regeneration rates of remnant coral tissue, very high competitive ability of the corals allowing them to out-compete the seaweed, a natural seasonal decline in the particular species of dominant seaweed, and an effective marine protected area system. Our study provides a key example of the doom and boom of a highly resilient reef, and new insights into the variability and mechanisms of reef resilience under rapid climate change.

  20. DNA Lesions in MEDKA (O. Latipes): Development of a Micro-Method for Tissue Analysis Using GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-15

    Fenton reaction . Free Radic Res 1994; 20:345-63. 5. Imlay JA, Chin SM, Linn S. Toxic DNA damage by hydrogen ...peroxide through the Fenton reaction in vivo and in vitro . Science 1988; 240:640-2. 6. Malins DC. Identification of hydroxyl radical-induced lesions in DNA ...on DNA . However, other reactions cannot be ruled out. Difficulties presently exist in precisely defining the proportions of damage inflicted on

  1. Tea polyphenols prevent lung from preneoplastic lesions and effect p53 and bcl-2 gene expression in rat lung tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qihua; Hu, Chengping; Chen, Qiong; Xia, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the cancers that have the highest incidence and the highest mortality rate, and it is of great interest to identify ways to prevent its occurrence. We had established an animal model by using 3,4-benzopyrene intra-pulmonary injection in our previous study, and had observed that the rats lung carcinoma incidence and multiplicity were significantly reduced by green tea administration. This study further investigated the effect of tea polyphenols on rat lung preneoplastic lesions using the lung carcinoma model established by 3,4-benzopyrene intra-pulmonary injection. Sprague-Dawley rats of the same age were randomly divided into 10 groups and treated with 3,4-benzopyrene by intra-pulmonary injection. Five groups were given 0.3% solution of tea polyphenols (equivalent to 1.2% of green tea) in drinking water, while the other 5 groups were given pure drinking water. The rats were sacrificed at 0, 1, 4, 8 and 16 weeks after carcinogen treatment. In the control groups of rats, local bronchial inflammation were observed at 1 week after 3,4-benzopyrene treatment. From 4 weeks to 16 weeks after carcinogen treatment, hyperplasia, cell hyperproliferation, heterogeneity were observed in the bronchial epithelium. Meanwhile, the expression of p53 mRNA and protein, as well as the level of bcl-2, increased in the bronchial epithelial lesion. Tea polyphenols treatment significantly alleviated the bronchial epithelial lesions. At the same time, tea polyphenols treatment enhanced p53 expression, but reduced bcl-2 expression. These results indicated that tea polyphenols may have preventive effect against lung preneoplasm lesions, possibly through regulating the expression of some critical genes such as p53 and bcl-2.

  2. A new approach to determining the rates of recruitment of circulating leukocytes into tissues: Application to the measurement of leukocyte recruitment into atherosclerotic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Daniel; Khoo, John C.; Glass, Christopher K.; Palinski, Wulf; Almazan, Felicidad

    1997-01-01

    Recruitment of circulating monocytes into the artery wall is an important feature of early atherogenesis. In vitro studies have identified a number of adhesion molecules and chemokines that may control this process but very little work has been done to evaluate their relative importance in vivo, in part because there have been no methods available of sufficient sensitivity and reliability. This paper proposes a new approach in which advantage is taken of naturally occurring or transgenically induced mutations to “mark” donor cells and to follow their fate in recipient animals using highly sensitive PCR methods. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated by preliminary studies of monocyte recruitment into atherosclerotic lesions. However, the method should in principle be applicable to the study of any of the circulating leukocytes and their rate of entry into any tissue or tissues of interest. PMID:9108101

  3. Successful treatment of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in a patient with gastric and rectal lesions with metachronous and ectopic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Umezu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old female, who had an abnormal stomach x-ray finding, was admitted to the hospital for further examination and therapy. Upper GI endoscopy showed reddish and swollen folds on the greater curvature of the gastric body and a biopsy was of this lesion revealed malignant lymphoma (small cell type or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma suspected. The patient was infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, however, in response to the patient’s wishes, a total gastrectomy, omentectomy and splenectomy were performed and the histological diagnosis was gastric MALT lymphoma. Two courses of CHOP therapy (cyclophosphamide (CPM 750 mg/m2/day, day 1, adriamycin (ADM 50 mg/m2/day, day 1, vincristine sulfate (VCR 1.4 mg/m2/day, day 1, prednisolone 100 mg/body, day 1-5 were administered as adjuvant chemotherapy. A colonoscopic examination performed about 4.5 yr after the operation revealed rectal submucosal tumors and the biopsied specimens were diagnosed as malignant lymphoma. A transanal focal resection was performed and the histological diagnosis was metachronous and ectopic development of MALT lymphoma. The histological finding was similar to the gastric lesion. About 4 and 7 yr after the first development of rectal MALT lymphoma, MALT lymphomas developed repeatedly in the rectal lesion, however, these were resected repeatedly and no developmenthas occurred during the past two years. This report presents a very rare case of metachronous and ectopic MALT lymphoma de

  4. Can the Diagnostics of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Lesions Be Improved by MRI-Based Soft-Tissue Reconstruction? An Imaging-Based Workup and Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Hammer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC provides both mobility and stability of the radiocarpal joint. TFCC lesions are difficult to diagnose due to the complex anatomy. The standard treatment for TFCC lesions is arthroscopy, posing surgery-related risks onto the patients. This feasibility study aimed at developing a workup for soft-tissue reconstruction using clinical imaging, to verify these results in retrospective patient data. Methods. Microcomputed tomography (μ-CT, 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and plastination were used to visualize the TFCC in cadaveric specimens applying segmentation-based 3D reconstruction. This approach further trialed the MRI dataset of a patient with minor radiological TFCC alterations but persistent pain. Results. TFCC reconstruction was impossible using μ-CT only but feasible using MRI, resulting in an appreciation of its substructures, as seen in the plastinates. Applying this approach allowed for visualizing a Palmer 2C lesion in a patient, confirming ex postum the arthroscopy findings, being markedly different from MRI (Palmer 1B. Discussion. This preliminary study showed that image-based TFCC reconstruction may help to identify pathologies invisible in standard MRI. The combined approach of μ-CT, MRI, and plastination allowed for a three-dimensional appreciation of the TFCC. Image quality and time expenditure limit the approach’s usefulness as a diagnostic tool.

  5. [Femoral osteolytic lesions with soft tissue tumors and hypercalcemia as presentation form of a B-cell lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Hernández, J L; Olmos Martínez, J M; Figols Ladrón de Guevara, J; Riancho Moral, J A; González Macías, J

    2000-05-01

    Hypercalcemia associated with haematological neoplasms account for 15 to 20% of hipercalcemia in malignancy, and occurs usually in patients with multiple myeloma. However, its incidence in patients with linfoma is low, and it is observed usually in T-cell linfomas. Bone affectation is also uncommon in patients with non-Hodgkin linfoma. It usually is seen as a late manifestation of the disease, and its occurrence as the form of presentation is exceptional. We hereby report a patient with a B-cell non-Hodgkin linfoma presenting with hypercalcemia and femoral osteolytic lesions.

  6. Coral-Associated Actinobacteria: Diversity, Abundance, and Biotechnological Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Huda M; Kalendar, Aisha A

    2016-01-01

    Marine Actinobacteria, particularly coral-associated Actinobacteria, have attracted attention recently. In this study, the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria associated with three types of coral thriving in a thermally stressed coral reef system north of the Arabian Gulf were investigated. Coscinaraea columna, Platygyra daedalea and Porites harrisoni have been found to harbor equivalent numbers of culturable Actinobacteria in their tissues but not in their mucus. However, different culturable actinobacterial communities have been found to be associated with different coral hosts. Differences in the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria were detected between the mucus and tissue of the same coral host. In addition, temporal and spatial variations in the abundance and diversity of the cultivable actinobacterial communities were detected. In total, 19 different actinobacterial genera, namely Micrococcus, Brachybacterium, Brevibacterium, Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Renibacterium, Nocardia, Microbacterium, Dietzia, Cellulomonas, Ornithinimicrobium, Rhodococcus, Agrococcus, Kineococcus, Dermacoccus, Devriesea, Kocuria, Marmoricola, and Arthrobacter, were isolated from the coral tissue and mucus samples. Furthermore, 82 isolates related to Micromonospora, Brachybacterium, Nocardia, Micrococcus, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, and Streptomyces showed antimicrobial activities against representative Gram-positive and/or Gram-negative bacteria. Even though Brevibacterium and Kocuria were the most dominant actinobacterial isolates, they failed to show any antimicrobial activity, whereas less dominant genera, such as Streptomyces, did show antimicrobial activity. Focusing on the diversity of coral-associated Actinobacteria may help to understand how corals thrive under harsh environmental conditions and may lead to the discovery of novel antimicrobial metabolites with potential biotechnological applications.

  7. Aragonite precipitation by "proto-polyps" in coral cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Mass

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of coral calcification at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels are poorly understood. In this study, we examine calcium carbonate precipitation using novel coral tissue cultures that aggregate to form "proto-polyps". Our goal is to establish an experimental system in which calcification is facilitated at the cellular level, while simultaneously allowing in vitro manipulations of the calcifying fluid. This novel coral culturing technique enables us to study the mechanisms of biomineralization and their implications for geochemical proxies. Viable cell cultures of the hermatypic, zooxanthellate coral, Stylophora pistillata, have been maintained for 6 to 8 weeks. Using an enriched seawater medium with aragonite saturation state similar to open ocean surface waters (Ω(arag~4, the primary cell cultures assemble into "proto-polyps" which form an extracellular organic matrix (ECM and precipitate aragonite crystals. These extracellular aragonite crystals, about 10 µm in length, are formed on the external face of the proto-polyps and are identified by their distinctive elongated crystallography and X-ray diffraction pattern. The precipitation of aragonite is independent of photosynthesis by the zooxanthellae, and does not occur in control experiments lacking coral cells or when the coral cells are poisoned with sodium azide. Our results demonstrate that proto-polyps, aggregated from primary coral tissue culture, function (from a biomineralization perspective similarly to whole corals. This approach provides a novel tool for investigating the biophysical mechanism of calcification in these organisms.

  8. In vivo analysis of tissue by Raman microprobe: examination of human skin lesions and esophagus Barrett's mucosa on an animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Ali; Piot, Olivier; Derancourt, Sylvie; Cadiot, Guillaume; Diebold, Marie D.; Bernard, Philippe; Manfait, Michel

    2006-02-01

    In the last few years, Raman spectroscopy has been increasingly used for the characterization of normal and pathological tissues. A new Raman system, constituted of optic fibers bundle coupled to an axial Raman spectrometer (Horiba Jobin Yvon SAS), was developed for in vivo investigations. Here, we present in vivo analysis on two tissues: human skin and esophagus mucosa on a rat model. The skin is a directly accessible organ, representing a high diversity of lesions and cancers. Including malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and the squamous cell carcinoma, skin cancer is the cancer with the highest incidence worldwide. Several Raman investigations were performed to discriminate and classify different types of skin lesions, on thin sections of biopsies. Here, we try to characterize in vivo the different types of skin cancers in order to be able to detect them in their early stages of development and to define precisely the exeresis limits. Barrett's mucosa was also studied by in vivo examination of rat's esophagus. Barrett's mucosa, induced by gastro-esophageal reflux, is a pretumoral state that has to be carefully monitored due to its high risk of evolution in adenocarcinoma. A better knowledge of the histological transformation of esophagus epithelium in a Barrett's type will lead to a more efficient detection of the pathology for its early diagnosis. To study these changes, an animal model (rats developing Barrett's mucosa after duodenum - esophagus anastomosis) was used. Potential of vibrational spectroscopy for Barrett's mucosa identification is assessed on this model.

  9. Three-dimensional volumetric MRI with isotropic resolution: improved speed of acquisition, spatial resolution and assessment of lesion conspicuity in patients with recurrent soft tissue sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlawat, Shivani [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Morris, Carol [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fayad, Laura M. [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-05-15

    To assess the acquisition speed, lesion conspicuity, and inter-observer agreement associated with volumetric T{sub 1}-weighted MR sequences with isotropic resolution for detecting recurrent soft-tissue sarcoma (STS). Fifteen subjects with histologically proven recurrent STS underwent MRI, including axial and coronal T{sub 1}-weighted spin echo (T{sub 1}-WSE) (5-mm slice thickness) and coronal 3D volumetric T{sub 1}-weighted (fat-suppressed, volume-interpolated, breath-hold examination; repetition time/echo time, 3.7/1.4 ms; flip angle, 9.5 ; 1-mm slice thickness) sequences before and after intravenous contrast administration. Subtraction imaging and multiplanar reformations (MPRs) were performed. Acquisition times for T{sub 1}-WSE in two planes and 3D sequences were reported. Two radiologists reviewed images for quality (>50 % artifacts, 25-50 % artifacts, <25 % artifacts, and no substantial artifacts), lesion conspicuity, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR{sub muscle}), recurrence size, and recurrence-to-joint distance. Descriptive and intraclass correlation (ICC) statistics are given. Mean acquisition times were significantly less for 3D imaging compared with 2-plane T{sub 1}-WSE (183.6 vs 342.6 s; P = 0.012). Image quality was rated as having no substantial artifacts in 13/15 and <25 % artifacts in 2/15. Lesion conspicuity was significantly improved for subtracted versus unsubtracted images (CNR{sub muscle}, 100 ± 138 vs 181 ± 199; P = 0.05). Mean recurrent lesion size was 2.5 cm (range, 0.7-5.7 cm), and measurements on 3D sequences offered excellent interobserver agreement (ICC, 0.98 for lesion size and 0.96 for recurrence-to-joint distance with MPR views). Three-dimensional volumetric sequences offer faster acquisition times, higher spatial resolution, and MPR capability compared with 2D T{sub 1}-WSE for postcontrast imaging. Subtraction imaging provides higher lesion conspicuity for detecting recurrent STS in skeletal muscle, with excellent interobserver

  10. Expression of glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein B in cutaneous malignant and benign lesions: a tissue microarray study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan; QIAO Zheng-guo; SHAN Shi-jun; SUN Qing-miao; ZHANG Jian-zhong

    2012-01-01

    Background Glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and malignant diseases.We investigated the expression of GPNMB in benign and malignant skin diseases.Methods Tissue microarray was performed in the skin tissues of 102 cases including malignant melanoma (MM),squamous cell carcinoma (SCC),basal cell carcinoma (BCC),and benign dermatosis.The expression of GPNMB in the tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry.Twenty cases of normal skin and adjacent neoplastic normal skin tissues were selected as controls.Results GPNMB was positively stained in skin malignancies (38/50,76%),which was significantly higher than that in the control and the benign skin tissues (P=0.001 and <0.001 respectively).GPNMB was positively stained in MM (13/15,87%) and SCC (16/20,80%) (P <0.001).Significant higher expression of GPNMB was observed in patients aged ≥65years than those less than 65 years (n=11 and n=9 respectively,P=0.027).No significant difference of the expression rates was observed between normal control and BCC; however,stronger intensity was detected in the latter.Negative or weak expression was observed in the controls.Conclusion Over-expression of GPNMB correlated strongly and might play an important role in the pathogenesis of MM and SCC.

  11. Stromal tissue as an adjunct tool in the diagnosis of follicular thyroid lesions by fine-needle aspiration biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Kien T.; Hogan, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The stroma in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of thyroid lesions has not been well investigated. Design: We studied 256 consecutive cases of thyroid FNAB prepared with traditional smear technique. The stroma was categorized: Type 1a consisted of long (more than 3 mm), broad bands composed of mesh containing collagen fibrils thickened by entrapped blood components and follicular cells. Type 1b consisted of dense strands/bands. Type 2 was similar to Type 1a but with shorter (papillary architectures or fragments of capsule. Type 1b stroma likely represented thick/collagenized fibrous septae. Incomplete or complete rings of small encapsulated tumor were occasionally identified. These frameworks of stroma were frequently associated with multinodular goiters (MNGs) which are often hypocellular and follicular neoplasms/papillary thyroid carcinoma with increased cellularity. Type 2 was associated with microfollicles in encapsulated neoplasms or with macrofollicles in MNG. Follicular lesions of unknown significance (n = 41) either negative (n = 26) or positive (n = 15) for carcinoma in subsequent follow-up were frequently associated with stroma characteristic of MNG and carcinoma, respectively. Conclusion: The preservation of the in vivo architecture of Type 1 is likely due to its elasticity. Recognition of the stromal architecture will likely facilitate the diagnosis. PMID:27651822

  12. White Band Disease transmission in the threatened coral, Acropora cervicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignoux-Wolfsohn, S A; Marks, Christopher J; Vollmer, Steven V

    2012-01-01

    The global rise in coral diseases has severely impacted coral reef ecosystems, yet often little is known about these diseases, including how they are transmitted. White Band Disease (WBD), for example, has caused unparalleled declines in live Acropora cover, spreading rapidly throughout the Caribbean by unknown means. Here we test four putative modes of WBD transmission to the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis: two animal vectors (Coralliophila abbreviata and C. caribaea) and waterborne transmission to intact and injured coral tissues. Using aquarium-based infection experiments, we determine that C. abbreviata, but not C. caribaea, acts as both a vector and reservoir for transmission of the WBD pathogen. We also demonstrate waterborne transmission to injured, but not intact staghorn coral tissues. The combination of transmission by both animal vectors and through the water column helps explain how WBD is spread locally and across the Caribbean.

  13. Growth of Bone Marrow Derived Osteoblast-Like Cells into Coral Implant Scaffold: Preliminary Study on Malaysian Coral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. AL-Salihi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Biomaterial fabrication in Malaysia started as a consequence of the demand for cheaper implant materials. Various biomaterials have been developed utilizing local resources like Malaysian coral. Locally processed Malaysian coral need to be complemented with proper evaluation and testing including toxicology, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, physicochemical characterization and in vivo testing. The present study was carried out to assess natural coral of porites species as scaffold combined with in vitro expanded Bone Marrow Derived Osteoblast-Like cells (BM-DOL, in order to develop a tissue-engineered bone graft in a rat model. Approach: Coral was used in a block shape with a dimension of 10 mm length × 5 mm width × 5 mm thickness. BM-DOL cells were seeded into porous coral scaffold in a density of 5×106 mL-1. After 7 days of in vitro incubation in osteogenic medium, one block was processed for light (LM and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM observations while the other blocks were implanted subcutaneously in the back of 5 weeks-old Sprague-Dawely rats for 3 months. Coral blocks without cells were implanted as a control. The implants harvested and processed for gross inspection, histological and scanning electron microscopy observations. Results: Both LM and SEM showed attachment of well arrangement multilayer cells inside the pores of in vitro seeded coral scaffolds. Gross inspection of all in vivo coral-cell complexes implants revealed vascularized like bone tissue formation. Histological sections revealed mature bone formation occurred in the manner resemble intramembraneous bone formation. SEM observations revealed multi-layer cellular proliferation with abundant collagen covered the surface of coral implants. Control group showed resorbed coral block. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that Malaysian coral can be use as a suitable scaffold material for delivering bone marrow mesenchymal

  14. Coral disease and health workshop: Coral Histopathology II, July 12-14, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, S.B.; Woodley, Cheryl M.; McLaughlin, S.M.; Work, T.M.; Bochsler, V.S.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Sileo, Louis; Peters, E.C.; Kramarsky-Winters, E.; Morado, J. Frank; Parnell, P.G.; Rotstein, D.S.; Harely, R.A.; Reynolds, T.L.

    2005-01-01

    The health and continued existence of coral reef ecosystems are threatened by an increasing array of environmental and anthropogenic impacts. Coral disease is one of the prominent causes of increased mortality among reefs globally, particularly in the Caribbean. Although over 40 different coral diseases and syndromes have been reported worldwide, only a few etiological agents have been confirmed; most pathogens remain unknown and the dynamics of disease transmission, pathogenicity and mortality are not understood. Causal relationships have been documented for only a few of the coral diseases, while new syndromes continue to emerge. Extensive field observations by coral biologists have provided substantial documentation of a plethora of new pathologies, but our understanding, however, has been limited to descriptions of gross lesions with names reflecting these observations (e.g., black band, white band, dark spot). To determine etiology, we must equip coral diseases scientists with basic biomedical knowledge and specialized training in areas such as histology, cell biology and pathology. Only through combining descriptive science with mechanistic science and employing the synthesis epizootiology provides will we be able to gain insight into causation and become equipped to handle the pending crisis.

  15. CpG Methylation Analysis of HPV16 in Laser Capture Microdissected Archival Tissue and Whole Tissue Sections from High Grade Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions: A Potential Disease Biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molano, Monica; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M; Roberts, Jennifer M; Machalek, Dorothy A; Phillips, Samuel; Chandler, David; Hillman, Richard J; Grulich, Andrew E; Jin, Fengyi; Poynten, I Mary; Templeton, David J; Cornall, Alyssa M

    2016-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates of anal cancer are increasing globally. More than 90% of anal squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC) are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). Studies on HPV-related anogenital lesions have shown that patterns of methylation of viral and cellular DNA targets could potentially be developed as disease biomarkers. Lesion-specific DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from existing or prospective patient cohorts may constitute a valuable resource for methylation analysis. However, low concentrations of DNA make these samples technically challenging to analyse using existing methods. We therefore set out to develop a sensitive and reproducible nested PCR-pyrosequencing based method to accurately quantify methylation at 10 CpG sites within the E2BS1, E2BS2,3,4 and Sp1 binding sites in the viral upstream regulatory region of HPV16 genome. Methylation analyses using primary and nested PCR-pyrosequencing on 52 FFPE tissue [26 paired whole tissue sections (WTS) and laser capture microdissected (LCM) tissues] from patients with anal squamous intraepithelial lesions was performed. Using nested PCR, methylation results were obtained for the E2BS1, E2BS2,3,4 and Sp1 binding sites in 86.4% of the WTS and 81.8% of the LCM samples. Methylation patterns were strongly correlated within median values of matched pairs of WTS and LCM sections, but overall methylation was higher in LCM samples at different CpG sites. High grade lesions showed low methylation levels in the E2BS1 and E2BS2 regions, with increased methylation detected in the E2BS,3,4/Sp1 regions, showing the highest methylation at CpG site 37. The method developed is highly sensitive in samples with low amounts of DNA and demonstrated to be suitable for archival samples. Our data shows a possible role of specific methylation in the HPV16 URR for detection of HSIL.

  16. Finite Element Modeling of Balloon Angioplasty by Considering Overstretch of Remnant Non-diseased Tissues in Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, T. Christian; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

    2007-06-01

    The paper deals with the modeling of balloon angioplasty by considering the balloon-induced overstretch of remnant non-diseased tissues in atherosclerotic arteries. A stenotic artery is modeled as a heterogenous structure composed of adventitia, media and a model plaque, and residual stresses are considered. The constitutive models are able to capture the anisotropic elastic tissue response in addition to the inelastic phenomena associated with tissue stretches beyond the physiological domain. The inelastic model describes the experimentally-observed changes of the wall during balloon inflation, i.e. non-recoverable deformation, and tissue weakening. The contact of the artery with a balloon catheter is simulated by a point-to-surface strategy. The states of deformations and stresses within the artery before, during and after balloon inflation are computed, compared and discussed. The 3D stress states at physiological loading conditions before and after balloon inflation differ significantly, and even compressive normal stresses may occur in the media after dilation.

  17. Changes to coral health and metabolic activity under oxygen deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    On Hawaiian reefs, the fast-growing, invasive algae Gracilaria salicornia overgrows coral heads, restricting water flow and light, thereby smothering corals. Field data shows hypoxic conditions (dissolved oxygen (DO2) < 2 mg/L) occurring underneath algal mats at night, and concurrent bleaching and partial tissue loss of shaded corals. To analyze the impact of nighttime oxygen-deprivation on coral health, this study evaluated changes in coral metabolism through the exposure of corals to chronic hypoxic conditions and subsequent analyses of lactate, octopine, alanopine, and strombine dehydrogenase activities, critical enzymes employed through anaerobic respiration. Following treatments, lactate and octopine dehydrogenase activities were found to have no significant response in activities with treatment and time. However, corals subjected to chronic nighttime hypoxia were found to exhibit significant increases in alanopine dehydrogenase activity after three days of exposure and strombine dehydrogenase activity starting after one overnight exposure cycle. These findings provide new insights into coral metabolic shifts in extremely low-oxygen environments and point to ADH and SDH assays as tools for quantifying the impact of hypoxia on coral health. PMID:27114888

  18. Changes to coral health and metabolic activity under oxygen deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W.A. Murphy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available On Hawaiian reefs, the fast-growing, invasive algae Gracilaria salicornia overgrows coral heads, restricting water flow and light, thereby smothering corals. Field data shows hypoxic conditions (dissolved oxygen (DO2 < 2 mg/L occurring underneath algal mats at night, and concurrent bleaching and partial tissue loss of shaded corals. To analyze the impact of nighttime oxygen-deprivation on coral health, this study evaluated changes in coral metabolism through the exposure of corals to chronic hypoxic conditions and subsequent analyses of lactate, octopine, alanopine, and strombine dehydrogenase activities, critical enzymes employed through anaerobic respiration. Following treatments, lactate and octopine dehydrogenase activities were found to have no significant response in activities with treatment and time. However, corals subjected to chronic nighttime hypoxia were found to exhibit significant increases in alanopine dehydrogenase activity after three days of exposure and strombine dehydrogenase activity starting after one overnight exposure cycle. These findings provide new insights into coral metabolic shifts in extremely low-oxygen environments and point to ADH and SDH assays as tools for quantifying the impact of hypoxia on coral health.

  19. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis accompanied by soft tissue lesions during treatment of a patient with hyperthyroidism: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Xiao-Yun; Wang, Wei-Min; Yan, Xue-Bo; Wang, Cong-Hui; Liu, Rong-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is difficult to diagnose because it requires histopathology and tissue culture, as well as due to its rapid progression. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is the primary cause of pulmonary mycosis in China, which can occur in patients with neutrophil deficiency, leukaemia or lymphoma, malignant tumours, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with long-term corticosteroid use or bacterial exacerbations. Such fungal infections can lead to disseminated dis...

  20. Symbiodinium associations with diseased and healthy scleractinian corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, A. M. S.; Brandt, M. E.; Smith, T. B.; Thornhill, D. J.; Baker, A. C.

    2009-06-01

    Despite recent advances in identifying the causative agents of disease in corals and understanding the impact of epizootics on reef communities, little is known regarding the interactions among diseases, corals, and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts ( Symbiodinium spp.). Since the genotypes of both corals and their resident Symbiodinium contribute to colony-level phenotypes, such as thermotolerance, symbiont genotypes might also contribute to the resistance or susceptibility of coral colonies to disease. To explore this, Symbiodinium were identified using the internal transcribed spacer-2 region of ribosomal DNA from diseased and healthy tissues within individual coral colonies infected with black band disease (BB), dark spot syndrome (DSS), white plague disease (WP), or yellow blotch disease (YB) in the Florida Keys (USA) and the US Virgin Islands. Most of the diseased colonies sampled contained B1, B5a, or C1 (depending on host species), while apparently healthy colonies of the same coral species frequently hosted these types and/or additional symbiont diversity. No potentially “parasitic” Symbiodinium types, uniquely associated with diseased coral tissue, were detected. Within most individual colonies, the same dominant Symbiodinium type was detected in diseased and visually healthy tissues. These data indicate that specific Symbiodinium types are not correlated with the infected tissues of diseased colonies and that DSS and WP onset do not trigger symbiont shuffling within infected tissues. However, few diseased colonies contained clade D symbionts suggesting a negative correlation between hosting Symbiodinium clade D and disease incidence in scleractinian corals. Understanding the influence of Symbiodinium diversity on colony phenotypes may play a critical role in predicting disease resistance and susceptibility in scleractinian corals.

  1. 银质针灸治疗下腰部软组织疼痛%An investigation of treatment with silver acupuncture for pain of chronic soft tissue lesions in low back

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞乐华; 吴南顺; 张宽平

    2002-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of a modern silver acupuncture(MSA) on chronic soft tissue lesion in low back.Methods 89 patients suffering severe low back pain from soft tissue lesions(conversion of acute injuries,chronic overuse injuries,fibromyositis or myogelosis) were treated by MSA.The silver needles of MSA to be inserted into a series of abnormal points (local tension," trigger points" and tenderness,stiffness and muscle spasms etc.) mainly located in the connective tissue between bones and muscles in low back , should go through all soft tissues to reach the lesions along the sides of bones, lighting moxibustion fixed on the tails of the needles produced heat effect on the lesions.Treatment period might be one time to five times, 7~ 10 days interval between twice.Results The effective percents of conversion of acute injuries(72% ) or chronic overuse injuries(64% ) were significant higher than that of fibromyositis or myogelosis(29% ), P < 0.01, P< 0.05 respectively. Conclusion MSA is an effective treatment, especially for the soft tissue lesions from conversion of acute injuries and chronic overuse injuries in low back.

  2. Tissue tropisms, infection kinetics, histologic lesions, and antibody response of the MR766 strain of Zika virus in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawiecki, Anna B; Mayton, E Handly; Dutuze, M Fausta; Goupil, Brad A; Langohr, Ingeborg M; Del Piero, Fabio; Christofferson, Rebecca C

    2017-04-18

    The appearance of severe Zika virus (ZIKV) disease in the most recent outbreak has prompted researchers to respond through the development of tools to quickly characterize transmission and pathology. We describe here another such tool, a mouse model of ZIKV infection and pathogenesis using the MR766 strain of virus that adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding ZIKV kinetics in small animal models. We infected mice with the MR766 strain of ZIKV to determine infection kinetics via serum viremia. We further evaluated infection-induced lesions via histopathology and visualized viral antigen via immunohistochemical labeling. We also investigated the antibody response of recovered animals to both the MR766 and a strain from the current outbreak (PRVABC59). We demonstrate that the IRF3/7 DKO mouse is a susceptible, mostly non-lethal model well suited for the study of infection kinetics, pathological progression, and antibody response. Infected mice presented lesions in tissues that have been associated with ZIKV infection in the human population, such as the eyes, male gonads, and central nervous system. In addition, we demonstrate that infection with the MR766 strain produces cross-neutralizing antibodies to the PRVABC59 strain of the Asian lineage. This model provides an additional tool for future studies into the transmission routes of ZIKV, as well as for the development of antivirals and other therapeutics, and should be included in the growing list of available tools for investigations of ZIKV infection and pathogenesis.

  3. Evaluation of tissue sampling methods used for MRI-detected contralateral breast lesions in the American College of Radiology Imaging Network 6667 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartini, Wendy B; Hanna, Lucy; Gatsonis, Constantine; Mahoney, Mary C; Lehman, Constance D

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate tissue sampling methods used for MRI-detected suspicious contralateral breast lesions in the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) 6667 trial. Breast MRI was performed at 25 institutions in 969 women who had a recent diagnosis of unilateral breast cancer and negative contralateral mammography and clinical breast examinations. Biopsy was recommended for MRI findings in 135 women, and 121 underwent sampling. Frequencies and positive biopsy rates of sampling methods used for initial diagnosis and imaging guidance techniques were calculated and compared. Sampling yielded 30 malignant and 91 benign results. Initial sampling used needle biopsy in 88 of 121 (72.7%) and surgical biopsy in 30 of 121 (24.8%) women. Surgical biopsy was excisional biopsy in 28 of 30 (93.3%) and mastectomy in two of 30 (6.7%). The remaining three of 121 (2.5%) women underwent mastectomy, but it was not documented whether this represented initial tissue sampling. Of imaging-guided procedures, 56 of 106 (52.8%) used MRI; 49 of 106 (46.2%), ultrasound; and one of 106 (1.0%), stereotaxis. MRI-guided sampling was with needle biopsy rather than wire-localized surgical biopsy in 33 of 56 (58.9%) women, whereas ultrasound used needle biopsy in 47 of 49 (95.9%). Positive biopsy rates of sampling methods were 20.5% for needle biopsy, 46.2% for excisional biopsy, and 0% for mastectomy. The majority of initial biopsies for MRI-detected contralateral breast lesions used needle biopsy rather than surgical biopsy. Contralateral surgery could have been avoided in most cases had needle biopsy been performed because most excisional biopsy and all mastectomy results were benign. MRI-guided biopsy was significantly more likely than ultrasound-guided sampling to use wire-localized surgical biopsy rather than needle biopsy.

  4. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    caries and control activity of existing cavitated lesions to preserve hard tissues and retain teeth long-term. Entering the restorative cycle should be avoided as far as possible. Controlling the disease in cavitated carious lesions should be attempted using methods which are aimed at biofilm removal...... or control first. Only when cavitated carious lesions either are noncleansable or can no longer be sealed are restorative interventions indicated. When a restoration is indicated, the priorities are as follows: preserving healthy and remineralizable tissue, achieving a restorative seal, maintaining pulpal...... health, and maximizing restoration success. Carious tissue is removed purely to create conditions for long-lasting restorations. Bacterially contaminated or demineralized tissues close to the pulp do not need to be removed. In deeper lesions in teeth with sensible (vital) pulps, preserving pulpal health...

  5. Incidence of delayed complications following percutaneous CT-guided biopsy of bone and soft tissue lesions of the spine and extremities: A 2-year prospective study and analysis of risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ambrose J.; Rosenthal, Daniel I. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Halpern, Elkan F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Institute of Technology Assessment, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-01-15

    To prospectively evaluate the incidence of delayed complications (bleeding, pain, infection) following CT-guided biopsies of bone or soft tissue lesions and to identify risk factors that predispose to their occurrence. All adults presenting for CT-guided biopsy of a bone or soft tissue lesion were eligible for the study. Risk factors considered included patient gender and age, bone versus soft tissue, lesion location, lesion depth, anticoagulation, conscious sedation, coaxial biopsy technique, bleeding during the biopsy, dressing type and duration of placement, final diagnosis, needle gauge, number of passes, and number of days to follow-up. Outcomes measured included fever, pain, bruising/hematoma formation, and swelling and were collected by a follow-up phone call within 14 days of the biopsy. Fisher's exact test, the Wald Chi-square test, and univariate, multivariate, and stepwise logistic regression were performed to evaluate the influence of the risk factors on the outcomes. A total of 386 patients participated in the study. The rates of post-biopsy fever, pain, bruising, and swelling were 1.0, 16.1, 15.6, and 9.6 %, respectively. Anticoagulants were identified as a risk factor for fever. Increasing patient age was identified as a risk factor for pain. Female gender and lesion location were identified as risk factors for bruising. Increasing patient age and lesion location were identified as risk factors for swelling. Patient age, female gender, and lesion location are risk factors for delayed minor complications following CT-guided biopsy of a bone or soft tissue lesion. There were no major complications. None of the complications in this series altered patient management. (orig.)

  6. Expression of leptin, leptin receptor, and connective tissue growth factor in degenerative disk lesions in the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unglaub, Frank; Wolf, Maya B; Kroeber, Markus W; Dragu, Adrian; Schwarz, Stephan; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Kloeters, Oliver; Horch, Raymund E

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether leptin and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) occur in the degenerative fibrocartilage disk and whether cartilage cells express leptin receptors. The study included 23 patients diagnosed with degenerative articular disk tears of the triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) (Palmer type 2C). Patients were divided into 2 groups based on ulna length: 1 group consisted of patients with an ulna-positive variance (group A), and the other group included patients with ulna-negative or -neutral variance (group B). After arthroscopic debridement of the TFC, histologic sections of biopsy specimens were prepared. The biopsy specimens were immunohistochemically analyzed, and the quantity of leptin-, CTGF-, and leptin receptor-positive cells was assessed. Cells positive for leptin, leptin receptor, and CTGF were found. The number of cells positive for leptin was significantly increased in specimens of patients with an ulna-negative variance (group B). In contrast, no significant difference was found for leptin receptor and CTGF in biopsy specimens of patients with ulna-positive or ulna-negative/neutral variance. The inner, middle, and outer zones of the disk do not express significantly different quantities of marker-positive cells. Degenerative fibrocartilage disk tissue cells exhibit leptin receptors and are exposed to the markers leptin and CTGF, providing evidence of a local paracrine system and regenerative processes. Cells of disks from patients with an ulna-neutral/negative length express significantly higher numbers of leptin-positive cells. Level II, diagnostic study. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. USE OF AUTOLOGOUS ADIPOSE TISSUE DERIVED STROMAL VASCULAR FRACTION IN TREATMENT OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS AND CHONDRAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is a joint inflammation that results from cartilage degeneration. It can be caused by aging, heredity and injury from trauma or disease. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF, containing large amount of stem cells and other regenerative cells, can be easily obtained from loose connective tissue that is associated with adipose tissue. Here we evaluated safety and clinical efficacy of freshly isolated autologous SVF cells in patients with grade 2 - 4 degenerative osteoarthritis (OA. A total of 31 patients underwent standard liposuction under local anesthesia and SVF cells were isolated and prepared for application into joints. A total of 61 joints, mainly knee and hip joints, were treated with a single dose of SVF cells. 19 patients were fol lowed for minimum 6 weeks for safety and efficacy. Modified KOOS Clinical Score was used to evaluate clinical effect and was based on pain, non - steroid analgesic usage, limping, extent of joint movement, and stiffness evaluation before and at pre - operative , 1 week post - op, 1 month and 6 weeks after the treatment. No serious side effects, systemic infection or cancer was associated with SVF cell therapy. All patients improved after the treatment. Average KOOS score improved from pre - operative 37.5 to post - op erative 6 week average 66.6. All sub scale parameter for pain, symptoms, activity of living & quality of life are also improved. Higher grade of OA were associated with slower healing. In conclusion, here we report a novel and promising treatment approach for patients with degenerative OA that is safe, cost - effective, and relying only on autologous cells, and can be used as one of the minimal invasive treatment modality for osteoarthritis

  8. The effects of four transplantation methods on five coral species at the Sanya Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuyang; HUANG Hui; HUANG Jieying; YOU Feng; LIAN Jiansheng; YANG Jianhui; WEN Colin K C

    2016-01-01

    Coral transplantation is considered as one of the major tools to increase coral abundance for degraded coral reefs. To investigate the effects of various methods and coral species in transplantation, coral fragments (n=902) of five coral species were transplanted by four methods at Luhuitou, the Sanya Bay, Hainan Province, China, where the reef has been over-exploited and is still threatened by human activities and natural disasters. Ten months after the transplant, the average survivorship of the transplanted corals was 45.5%. Methodologies had different effects on the transplanted corals, but none of them was efficacious for all coral species. Methodology could not change the decreasing trend for Montipora foliosa and Acropora hyacinthus, although it did slow down their decline. All transplants of A. hyacinthus and M. foliosa had high mortalities and significant decrease on survival area, while Porites andrewsi and Galaxea fascicularis had lower mortalities and partial mortalities. Only one method had significant effect on increasing survival area of G. fascicularis, same as P. andrewsi. Out of the five transplanted coral species, Pocillopora damicornis was the only species that had living tissue area increase in all applied methods, while the others had decreased live tissue area in one or more methods. The results of this study suggested that performing coral transplantation in a highly threatened area was not efficient unless the threats were diminished or erased. Moreover, proper species selection for coral transplantation is crucial, especially in a disturbed environment. Methodology, although having limited effects on improving results of coral transplantation, cannot compensate the maladjustment of vulnerable species to the stresses on the Luhuitou Reef. Coral transplantation on Luhuitou Reef should not be performed unless the stresses are under controlled, and corals with good tolerance to the environment should be considered first.

  9. Relative Pigment Composition and Remote Sensing Reflectance of Caribbean Shallow-Water Corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan L Torres-Pérez

    Full Text Available Reef corals typically contain a number of pigments, mostly due to their symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic dinoflagellates. These pigments usually vary in presence and concentration and influence the spectral characteristics of corals. We studied the variations in pigment composition among seven Caribbean shallow-water Scleractinian corals by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis to further resolve the discrimination of corals. We found a total of 27 different pigments among the coral species, including some alteration products of the main pigments. Additionally, pigments typically found in endolithic algae were also identified. A Principal Components Analysis and a Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed the separation of coral species based on pigment composition. All the corals were collected under the same physical environmental conditions. This suggests that pigment in the coral's symbionts might be more genetically-determined than influenced by prevailing physical conditions of the reef. We further investigated the use of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs as a tool for estimating the total pigment concentration of reef corals. Depending on the coral species, the Rrs and the total symbiont pigment concentration per coral tissue area correlation showed 79.5-98.5% confidence levels demonstrating its use as a non-invasive robust technique to estimate pigment concentration in studies of coral reef biodiversity and health.

  10. Relative Pigment Composition and Remote Sensing Reflectance of Caribbean Shallow-Water Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pérez, Juan L; Guild, Liane S; Armstrong, Roy A; Corredor, Jorge; Zuluaga-Montero, Anabella; Polanco, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Reef corals typically contain a number of pigments, mostly due to their symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic dinoflagellates. These pigments usually vary in presence and concentration and influence the spectral characteristics of corals. We studied the variations in pigment composition among seven Caribbean shallow-water Scleractinian corals by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis to further resolve the discrimination of corals. We found a total of 27 different pigments among the coral species, including some alteration products of the main pigments. Additionally, pigments typically found in endolithic algae were also identified. A Principal Components Analysis and a Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed the separation of coral species based on pigment composition. All the corals were collected under the same physical environmental conditions. This suggests that pigment in the coral's symbionts might be more genetically-determined than influenced by prevailing physical conditions of the reef. We further investigated the use of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) as a tool for estimating the total pigment concentration of reef corals. Depending on the coral species, the Rrs and the total symbiont pigment concentration per coral tissue area correlation showed 79.5-98.5% confidence levels demonstrating its use as a non-invasive robust technique to estimate pigment concentration in studies of coral reef biodiversity and health.

  11. Growing coral larger and faster: micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Zac H; Page, Christopher A; Toonen, Robert J; Vaughan, David

    2015-01-01

    Fusion is an important life history strategy for clonal organisms to increase access to shared resources, to compete for space, and to recover from disturbance. For reef building corals, fragmentation and colony fusion are key components of resilience to disturbance. Observations of small fragments spreading tissue and fusing over artificial substrates prompted experiments aimed at further characterizing Atlantic and Pacific corals under various conditions. Small (∼1-3 cm(2)) fragments from the same colony spaced regularly over ceramic tiles resulted in spreading at rapid rates (e.g., tens of square centimeters per month) followed by isogenic fusion. Using this strategy, we demonstrate growth, in terms of area encrusted and covered by living tissue, of Orbicella faveolata, Pseudodiploria clivosa, and Porites lobata as high as 63, 48, and 23 cm(2) per month respectively. We found a relationship between starting and ending size of fragments, with larger fragments growing at a faster rate. Porites lobata showed significant tank effects on rates of tissue spreading indicating sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors. The tendency of small coral fragments to encrust and fuse over a variety of surfaces can be exploited for a variety of applications such as coral cultivation, assays for coral growth, and reef restoration.

  12. Growing coral larger and faster: micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zac H. Forsman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusion is an important life history strategy for clonal organisms to increase access to shared resources, to compete for space, and to recover from disturbance. For reef building corals, fragmentation and colony fusion are key components of resilience to disturbance. Observations of small fragments spreading tissue and fusing over artificial substrates prompted experiments aimed at further characterizing Atlantic and Pacific corals under various conditions. Small (∼1–3 cm2 fragments from the same colony spaced regularly over ceramic tiles resulted in spreading at rapid rates (e.g., tens of square centimeters per month followed by isogenic fusion. Using this strategy, we demonstrate growth, in terms of area encrusted and covered by living tissue, of Orbicella faveolata, Pseudodiploria clivosa, and Porites lobata as high as 63, 48, and 23 cm2 per month respectively. We found a relationship between starting and ending size of fragments, with larger fragments growing at a faster rate. Porites lobata showed significant tank effects on rates of tissue spreading indicating sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors. The tendency of small coral fragments to encrust and fuse over a variety of surfaces can be exploited for a variety of applications such as coral cultivation, assays for coral growth, and reef restoration.

  13. The importance of macro- versus microstructure in modulating light levels inside coral colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaniewska, Paulina; Magnusson, Sveinn H.; Anthony, Ken R. N.

    2011-01-01

    Adjusting the light exposure and capture of their symbiotic photosynthetic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium Freud.) is central to the success of reef-building corals (order Scleractinia) across high spatio-temporal variation in the light environment of coral reefs. We tested the hypothesis...... irradiances at the level of coral photosymbionts. Key index words: irradiance; morphology; photoacclimation; scale; scleractinian coral; Symbiodinium Abbreviations: a chl a, specific absorption coefficient of chl a; Ddn, diadinoxanthin; Dtn, diatoxanthin; GBR, Great Barrier Reef; GFP, green fluorescent...... that optical properties of tissues in some coral species can provide light management at the tissue scale comparable to light modulation by colony architecture in other species. We compared within-tissue scalar irradiance in two coral species from the same light habitat but with contrasting colony growth forms...

  14. Effect of Combined Calcium Hydroxide and Accelerated Portland Cement on Bone Formation and Soft Tissue Healing in Dog Bone Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorshidi H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Recent literatures show that accelerated Portland cement (APC and calcium hydroxide Ca (OH2 may have the potential to promote the bone regeneration. However, certain clinical studies reveal consistency of Ca (OH2, as one of the practical drawbacks of the material when used alone. To overcome such inconvenience, the combination of the Ca (OH2 with a bone replacement material could offer a convenient solution. Objectives: To evaluate the soft tissue healing and bone regeneration in the periodontal intrabony osseous defects using accelerated Portland cement (APC in combination with calcium hydroxide Ca (OH2, as a filling material. Materials and Methods: Five healthy adult mongrel dogs aged 2-3 years old (approximately 20 kg in weight with intact dentition and healthy periodontium were selected for this study. Two one-wall defects in both mesial and distal aspects of the 3rd premolars of both sides of the mandible were created. Therefore, four defects were prepared in each dog. Three defects in each dog were randomly filled with one of the following materials: APC alone, APC mixed with Ca (OH2, and Ca (OH2 alone. The fourth defect was left empty (control. Upon clinical examination of the sutured sites, the amount of dehiscence from the adjacent tooth was measured after two and eight weeks, using a periodontal probe mesiodistally. For histometric analysis, the degree of new bone formation was estimated at the end of the eighth postoperative week, by a differential point-counting method. The percentage of the defect volume occupied by new osteoid or trabecular bone was recorded. Results: Measurement of wound dehiscence during the second week revealed that all five APCs had an exposure of 1-2 mm and at the end of the study all samples showed 3-4 mm exposure across the surface of the graft material, whereas the Ca (OH2, control, and APC + Ca (OH2 groups did not show any exposure at the end of the eighth week of the study. The most

  15. Benefit of pulsation in soft corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremien, Maya; Shavit, Uri; Mass, Tali; Genin, Amatzia

    2013-05-28

    Soft corals of the family Xeniidae exhibit a unique, rhythmic pulsation of their tentacles (Movie S1), first noted by Lamarck nearly 200 y ago. However, the adaptive benefit of this perpetual, energetically costly motion is poorly understood. Using in situ underwater particle image velocimetry, we found that the pulsation motions thrust water upward and enhance mixing across the coral-water boundary layer. The induced upward motion effectively prevents refiltration of water by neighboring polyps, while the intensification of mixing, together with the upward flow, greatly enhances the coral's photosynthesis. A series of controlled laboratory experiments with the common xeniid coral Heteroxenia fuscescens showed that the net photosynthesis rate during pulsation was up to an order of magnitude higher than during the coral's resting, nonpulsating state. This enhancement diminished when the concentration of oxygen in the ambient water was artificially raised, indicating that the enhancement of photosynthesis was due to a greater efflux of oxygen from the coral tissues. By lowering the internal oxygen concentration, pulsation alleviates the problem of reduced affinity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RuBisCO) to CO2 under conditions of high oxygen concentrations. The photosynthesis-respiration ratio of the pulsating H. fuscescens was markedly higher than the ratios reported for nonpulsating soft and stony corals. Although pulsation is commonly used for locomotion and filtration in marine mobile animals, its occurrence in sessile (bottom-attached) species is limited to members of the ancient phylum Cnidaria, where it is used to accelerate water and enhance physiological processes.

  16. Modern views on the pathogenesis of hard dental tissues and periodontium lesions and means of their treatment in children with chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupey V.Y.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the mouth covity often reflect regularities of pathogenesis of a number of disease states, and primarily from the digestive tract. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to clarify pathogenesis of certain lesions of hard dental tissues and periodontal tissues in children with chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and development of schemes for their treatment. The study observed 441 children aged from 7 to 15 years with dental caries and generalized chronic catarrhal gingivitis on the background of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, duodenal ulcer and malabsorption syndrome. All the children were divided into 2 groups - basic and comparison one. The study identified the most dan¬gerous and little-known way of pathogenesis, which passes through the general processes of reducing the production of various proteins (immune system and antiseptics, is a violation of the general and local resistance and, ultimately, mineral metabolism. Such disorders impair complete mineralization of tooth enamel, reduce optimal composition and properties of saliva stimulating glycolysis processes in oral cavity. Prevention of dental caries and generalized chronic catarrhal gingivitis in children with chronic pathology of the gastrointestinal tract is based on the use of developed therapeutic and prophylactic complex, which includes mucosal gel Kvertulin, probiotic Latsidofil and drug Calcium D.

  17. Australian Coral as a Biomaterial: Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to produce effective implants, the materials used must be biocompatible. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a bioactive material similar to the mineral component of teeth and bone which is often used for orbital implants and bone graft applications. HAp can be manufactured from corals via hydrothermal conversion. Coral is particularly useful as a starting material for hydroxyapatite production because of its porous nature. When a porous structure is used tissue ingrowth can occur readily and hence an excellent mechanical bond can be achieved. A large pore size and a high degree of pore interconnections are desirable implant properties. In the present paper a comparison of the properties of four different species of Australian coral has been made to determine the most favourable species to use as a starting material for hydrothermal conversion.

  18. A Wearable Goggle Navigation System for Dual-Mode Optical and Ultrasound Localization of Suspicious Lesions: Validation Studies Using Tissue-Simulating Phantoms and an Ex Vivo Human Breast Tissue Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zeshu; Pei, Jing; Wang, Dong; Gan, Qi; Ye, Jian; Yue, Jian; Wang, Benzhong; Povoski, Stephen P; Martin, Edward W; Hitchcock, Charles L; Yilmaz, Alper; Tweedle, Michael F; Shao, Pengfei; Xu, Ronald X

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection remains the primary curative treatment for many early-stage cancers, including breast cancer. The development of intraoperative guidance systems for identifying all sites of disease and improving the likelihood of complete surgical resection is an area of active ongoing research, as this can lead to a decrease in the need of subsequent additional surgical procedures. We develop a wearable goggle navigation system for dual-mode optical and ultrasound imaging of suspicious lesions. The system consists of a light source module, a monochromatic CCD camera, an ultrasound system, a Google Glass, and a host computer. It is tested in tissue-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo human breast tissue model. Our experiments demonstrate that the surgical navigation system provides useful guidance for localization and core needle biopsy of simulated tumor within the tissue-simulating phantom, as well as a core needle biopsy and subsequent excision of Indocyanine Green (ICG)-fluorescing sentinel lymph nodes. Our experiments support the contention that this wearable goggle navigation system can be potentially very useful and fully integrated by the surgeon for optimizing many aspects of oncologic surgery. Further engineering optimization and additional in vivo clinical validation work is necessary before such a surgical navigation system can be fully realized in the everyday clinical setting.

  19. A Wearable Goggle Navigation System for Dual-Mode Optical and Ultrasound Localization of Suspicious Lesions: Validation Studies Using Tissue-Simulating Phantoms and an Ex Vivo Human Breast Tissue Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeshu Zhang

    Full Text Available Surgical resection remains the primary curative treatment for many early-stage cancers, including breast cancer. The development of intraoperative guidance systems for identifying all sites of disease and improving the likelihood of complete surgical resection is an area of active ongoing research, as this can lead to a decrease in the need of subsequent additional surgical procedures. We develop a wearable goggle navigation system for dual-mode optical and ultrasound imaging of suspicious lesions. The system consists of a light source module, a monochromatic CCD camera, an ultrasound system, a Google Glass, and a host computer. It is tested in tissue-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo human breast tissue model. Our experiments demonstrate that the surgical navigation system provides useful guidance for localization and core needle biopsy of simulated tumor within the tissue-simulating phantom, as well as a core needle biopsy and subsequent excision of Indocyanine Green (ICG-fluorescing sentinel lymph nodes. Our experiments support the contention that this wearable goggle navigation system can be potentially very useful and fully integrated by the surgeon for optimizing many aspects of oncologic surgery. Further engineering optimization and additional in vivo clinical validation work is necessary before such a surgical navigation system can be fully realized in the everyday clinical setting.

  20. Structure and temporal dynamics of the bacterial communities associated to microhabitats of the coral Oculina patagonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Portillo, Esther; Santos, Fernando; Martínez-García, Manuel; de Los Ríos, Asunción; Ascaso, Carmen; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Ramos-Esplá, Alfonso A; Anton, Josefa

    2016-12-01

    Corals are known to contain a diverse microbiota that plays a paramount role in the physiology and health of holobiont. However, few studies have addressed the variability of bacterial communities within the coral host. In this study, bacterial community composition from the mucus, tissue and skeleton of the scleractinian coral Oculina patagonica were investigated seasonally at two locations in the Western Mediterranean Sea, to further understand how environmental conditions and the coral microbiome structure are related. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in combination with next-generation sequencing and electron microscopy to characterize the bacterial community. The bacterial communities were significantly different among coral compartments, and coral tissue displayed the greatest changes related to environmental conditions and coral health status. Species belonging to the Rhodobacteraceae and Vibrionaceae families form part of O. patagonica tissues core microbiome and may play significant roles in the nitrogen cycle. Furthermore, sequences related to the coral pathogens, Vibrio mediterranei and Vibrio coralliilyticus, were detected not only in bleached corals but also in healthy ones, even during cold months. This fact opens a new view onto unveiling the role of pathogens in the development of coral diseases in the future. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Zinc and Sulfur Distributions and Bonding Environments in Scleractinian Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfan, G.; Apprill, A.; Webb, S.; Hansel, C. M.

    2016-02-01

    Zinc is a cofactor in many enzymes essential for life and a limiting nutrient in the oligotrophic waters surrounding most coral reefs. Because corals make up a large percentage of the volume of coral reefs and may be a significant sink for otherwise bioavailable zinc, we tracked the spatial distributions and bonding environments of zinc (Zn) and sulfur (S) in the tissues and skeletons of corals using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (u-XRF) high-resolution mapping and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine how the distribution and concentration of Zn was related to changes in skeletal crystal structure. Consistent with previous studies that employed bulk-techniques, our in-situ measurements indicated that metal concentrations in the tissues greatly exceeded those incorporated into the skeletons. XRF maps showed that Zn distributions traced tissue morphologies with concentrations especially high around what appear to be endosimbionts in the tissues. Zinc XANES spectra indicate that Zn is bonded to organics in both the tissues and skeletons. In speculation, Zn in the skeleton may have originated from carbonic anhydrase, Zn-containing enzymes known to play a role in coral aragonite precipitation. Indeed, Zn concentrations are higher in outer, younger skeletal regions in comparison to inner regions of the skeleton. This Zn gradient also correlated to a small change in the aragonite crystal structure consistent with previous biogenic aragonite studies that confirm the presence of organics in biogenic aragonite. Sulfur is observed in both the tissue and skeleton but does not correlate with Zn distributions. Sulfur present as organo-sulfur complexes differ between the tissues and the skeleton. In sum, this study finds Zn is highly concentrated within coral tissue, illustrating that corals may be a substantial sink for Zn in oligotrophic regions of the ocean.

  2. RNA-seq profiles of immune related genes in the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis infected with white band disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libro, Silvia; Kaluziak, Stefan T; Vollmer, Steven V

    2013-01-01

    Coral diseases are among the most serious threats to coral reefs worldwide, yet most coral diseases remain poorly understood. How the coral host responds to pathogen infection is an area where very little is known. Here we used next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to produce a transcriptome-wide profile of the immune response of the Staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis to White Band Disease (WBD) by comparing infected versus healthy (asymptomatic) coral tissues. The transcriptome of A. cervicornis was assembled de novo from A-tail selected Illumina mRNA-seq data from whole coral tissues, and parsed bioinformatically into coral and non-coral transcripts using existing Acropora genomes in order to identify putative coral transcripts. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified in the coral and non-coral datasets to identify genes that were up- and down-regulated due to disease infection. RNA-seq analyses indicate that infected corals exhibited significant changes in gene expression across 4% (1,805 out of 47,748 transcripts) of the coral transcriptome. The primary response to infection included transcripts involved in macrophage-mediated pathogen recognition and ROS production, two hallmarks of phagocytosis, as well as key mediators of apoptosis and calcium homeostasis. The strong up-regulation of the enzyme allene oxide synthase-lipoxygenase suggests a key role of the allene oxide pathway in coral immunity. Interestingly, none of the three primary innate immune pathways--Toll-like receptors (TLR), Complement, and prophenoloxydase pathways, were strongly associated with the response of A. cervicornis to infection. Five-hundred and fifty differentially expressed non-coral transcripts were classified as metazoan (n = 84), algal or plant (n = 52), fungi (n = 24) and protozoans (n = 13). None of the 52 putative Symbiodinium or algal transcript had any clear immune functions indicating that the immune response is driven by the coral host, and not its algal

  3. RNA-seq profiles of immune related genes in the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis infected with white band disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Libro

    Full Text Available Coral diseases are among the most serious threats to coral reefs worldwide, yet most coral diseases remain poorly understood. How the coral host responds to pathogen infection is an area where very little is known. Here we used next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq to produce a transcriptome-wide profile of the immune response of the Staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis to White Band Disease (WBD by comparing infected versus healthy (asymptomatic coral tissues. The transcriptome of A. cervicornis was assembled de novo from A-tail selected Illumina mRNA-seq data from whole coral tissues, and parsed bioinformatically into coral and non-coral transcripts using existing Acropora genomes in order to identify putative coral transcripts. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified in the coral and non-coral datasets to identify genes that were up- and down-regulated due to disease infection. RNA-seq analyses indicate that infected corals exhibited significant changes in gene expression across 4% (1,805 out of 47,748 transcripts of the coral transcriptome. The primary response to infection included transcripts involved in macrophage-mediated pathogen recognition and ROS production, two hallmarks of phagocytosis, as well as key mediators of apoptosis and calcium homeostasis. The strong up-regulation of the enzyme allene oxide synthase-lipoxygenase suggests a key role of the allene oxide pathway in coral immunity. Interestingly, none of the three primary innate immune pathways--Toll-like receptors (TLR, Complement, and prophenoloxydase pathways, were strongly associated with the response of A. cervicornis to infection. Five-hundred and fifty differentially expressed non-coral transcripts were classified as metazoan (n = 84, algal or plant (n = 52, fungi (n = 24 and protozoans (n = 13. None of the 52 putative Symbiodinium or algal transcript had any clear immune functions indicating that the immune response is driven by the coral host, and not

  4. Agents of coral mortality on reef formations of the Colombian Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Navas-Camacho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The National Monitoring System for Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC monitors the impact of some of the most important agents of coral tissue loss (bleaching and/or disease in the Colombian Pacific coral formations since 1998. Physiological bleaching is among the main results of stress in the area. Signs of coral diseases resembling bacterial bleaching such as White Plague and White Band, were observed in Malpelo and Gorgona islands. Damage to the Pacific gorgonian Pacifigorgia spp., similar to those produced by Aspergillosis in Caribbean corals, was detected in Utría Bay. The presence of tumors in colonies of massive corals was also recorded. Even though coral diseases are globally widespread, their occurrence in American Pacific reefs has been poorly documented to date. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 1: 133-138. Epub 2010 May 01.

  5. Coral overgrowth by an encrusting red alga ( Ramicrusta sp.): a threat to Caribbean reefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckrich, Caren E.; Engel, M. Sabine

    2013-03-01

    An encrusting red alga ( Ramicrusta sp., Peyssonneliaceae) present in Lac Bay, Bonaire, overgrows and kills corals and other sessile organisms. Living coral tissue comprises 7.2 % of the benthic composition of the shallow reef, while Ramicrusta sp. covers 18.7 % of the substratum. Of 1374 coral colonies surveyed, 45.8 % were partially overgrown by Ramicrusta sp., with P. porites, P. astreoides and M. complanata being the most susceptible to overgrowth. Mean Ramicrusta sp. maximum overgrowth rates ± SD were 0.08 ± 0.05 mm d-1, 0.07 ± 0.03 mm d-1 and 0.06 ± 0.02 mm d-1 for M. complanata, P. porites and P. astreoides, respectively. None of the 71 coral recruits surveyed were growing on Ramicrusta sp. Ramicrusta sp. is an immediate threat to corals, reduces the area of suitable substratum for coral settlement and may have the ability to influence coral species composition.

  6. Reef scent: How brooded coral larvae from a tough coral smell their way to a new home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, N.; Richmond, R. H.; Seneca, F.; Murphy, J.; Martinez, J.; Lyman, A.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs are highly diverse marine ecosystems of ecological, economic, and cultural value. With the expected negative effects on reefs from global climate change including rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification, the identification of resilient coral species has become increasingly important. Leptastrea purpurea is an encrusting coral that is found throughout the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea. While most corals are broadcast spawners, releasing sperm and eggs to be fertilized in the water column, some corals brood embryos within their tissues after internal fertilization. L. purpurea appears to release planula larvae on a continuous basis from the parent colony as observed during two years of monitoring. The planula larvae show remarkable resilience under a wide range of stressful conditions including temperature, sediment, and chemical stressors, as well as the ability to successfully settle and metamorphose after 180 days in controlled laboratory conditions. Various smells were tested to identify a settlement cue for L. purpurea larvae, and our results suggest that the smell associated with other coral colonies induce larval settlement and metamorphosis. Knowledge of the settlement cues and reproductive biology of this coral is important to our understanding of coral resilience in the face of anthropogenic perturbation.

  7. HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibition Promotes Neurological Recovery, Peri-Lesional Tissue Remodeling, and Contralesional Pyramidal Tract Plasticity after Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ertugrul; Reitmeir, Raluca; Kilic, Ülkan; Caglayan, Ahmet Burak; Beker, Mustafa Caglar; Kelestemur, Taha; Ethemoglu, Muhsine Sinem; Ozturk, Gurkan; Hermann, Dirk M.

    2014-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors are widely used for secondary stroke prevention. Besides their lipid-lowering activity, pleiotropic effects on neuronal survival, angiogenesis, and neurogenesis have been described. In view of these observations, we were interested whether HMG-CoA reductase inhibition in the post-acute stroke phase promotes neurological recovery, peri-lesional, and contralesional neuronal plasticity. We examined effects of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin (0.2 or 2.0 mg/kg/day i.c.v.), administered starting 3 days after 30 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion for 30 days. Here, we show that rosuvastatin treatment significantly increased the grip strength and motor coordination of animals, promoted exploration behavior, and reduced anxiety. It was associated with structural remodeling of peri-lesional brain tissue, reflected by increased neuronal survival, enhanced capillary density, and reduced striatal and corpus callosum atrophy. Increased sprouting of contralesional pyramidal tract fibers crossing the midline in order to innervate the ipsilesional red nucleus was noticed in rosuvastatin compared with vehicle-treated mice, as shown by anterograde tract tracing experiments. Western blot analysis revealed that the abundance of HMG-CoA reductase was increased in the contralesional hemisphere at 14 and 28 days post-ischemia. Our data support the idea that HMG-CoA reductase inhibition promotes brain remodeling and plasticity far beyond the acute stroke phase, resulting in neurological recovery. PMID:25565957

  8. Phage therapy for Florida corals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Christina A.

    2007-01-01

    Coral disease is a major cause of reef decline in the Florida Keys. Bacterium has been defined as the most common pathogen (disease-causing organism). Although much is being done to catalog coral diseases, map their locations, determine the causes of disease, or measure the rates of coral demise, very little research has been directed toward actually preventing or eliminating the diseases affecting coral and coral reef decline.

  9. A novel method for coral explant culture and micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizel, Maya; Loya, Yossi; Downs, Craig A; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti

    2011-06-01

    We describe here a method for the micropropagation of coral that creates progeny from tissue explants derived from a single polyp or colonial corals. Coral tissue explants of various sizes (0.5-2.5 mm in diameter) were manually microdissected from the solitary coral Fungia granulosa. Explants could be maintained in an undeveloped state or induced to develop into polyps by manipulating environmental parameters such as light and temperature regimes, as well as substrate type. Fully developed polyps were able to be maintained for a long-term in a closed sea water system. Further, we demonstrate that mature explants are also amenable to this technique with the micropropagation of second-generation explants and their development into mature polyps. We thereby experimentally have established coral clonal lines that maintain their ability to differentiate without the need for chemical induction or genetic manipulation. The versatility of this method is also demonstrated through its application to two other coral species, the colonial corals Oculina patigonica and Favia favus.

  10. Turf algae-mediated coral damage in coastal reefs of Belize, Central America

    KAUST Repository

    Wild, Christian

    2014-09-16

    Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12–70 km): Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore), Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore), and Lighthouse Reef (offshore). In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26–29%) when compared to the other sites (4–19%). The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth) for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia), particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf) algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs.

  11. Relative Pigment Composition and Remote Sensing Reflectance of Caribbean Shallow-Water Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pérez, Juan L.; Guild, Liane S.; Armstrong, Roy A.; Corredor, Jorge; Zuluaga-Montero, Anabella; Polanco, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Reef corals typically contain a number of pigments, mostly due to their symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic dinoflagellates. These pigments usually vary in presence and concentration and influence the spectral characteristics of corals. We studied the variations in pigment composition among seven Caribbean shallow-water Scleractinian corals by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis to further resolve the discrimination of corals. We found a total of 27 different pigments among the coral species, including some alteration products of the main pigments. Additionally, pigments typically found in endolithic algae were also identified. A Principal Components Analysis and a Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed the separation of coral species based on pigment composition. All the corals were collected under the same physical environmental conditions. This suggests that pigment in the coral’s symbionts might be more genetically-determined than influenced by prevailing physical conditions of the reef. We further investigated the use of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) as a tool for estimating the total pigment concentration of reef corals. Depending on the coral species, the Rrs and the total symbiont pigment concentration per coral tissue area correlation showed 79.5–98.5% confidence levels demonstrating its use as a non-invasive robust technique to estimate pigment concentration in studies of coral reef biodiversity and health. PMID:26619210

  12. Coral Calcification Across a Natural Gradient in Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A. L.; Brainard, R. E.; Young, C.; Shamberger, K. E.; McCorkle, D. C.; Feely, R. A.; Mcleod, E.; Cantin, N.; Rose, K.; Lohmann, G. P.

    2011-12-01

    Much of our understanding of the impact of ocean acidification on coral calcification comes from laboratory manipulation experiments in which corals are reared under a range of seawater pH and aragonite saturation states (μar) equivalent to those projected for the next hundred years. In general, experiments show a consistently negative impact of acidification on coral calcification, leading to predictions of mass coral reef extinctions by dissolution as natural rates of carbonate erosion exceed the rates at which corals and other reef calcifiers can replace it. The tropical oceans provide a natural laboratory within which to test hypotheses about the longer term impact and adaptive potential of corals to acidification of the reef environment. Here we report results of a study in which 3-D CT scan and imaging techniques were used to quantify annual rates of calcification by conspecifics at 12 reefs sites spanning a natural gradient in ocean acidification. In situ μar calculated from alkalinity and DIC measurements of reef seawater ranged from less than 2.7 on an eastern Pacific Reef to greater than 4.0 in the central Red Sea. No correlation between μar and calcification was observed across this range. Corals living on low μar reefs appear to be calcifying as fast, sometimes faster than conspecifics living on high μar reefs. We used total lipid and tissue thickness to index the energetic status of colonies collected at each of our study sites. Our results support the hypothesis that energetics plays a key role in the coral calcification response to ocean acidification. Indeed, the true impact of acidification on coral reefs will likely be felt as temperatures rise and the ocean becomes more stratified, depleting coral energetic reserves through bleaching and reduced nutrient delivery to oceanic reefs.

  13. MR imaging of overuse injuries in the skeletally immature gymnast: spectrum of soft-tissue and osseous lesions in the hand and wrist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwek, Jerry R. [Department of Radiology, Rady Children' s Hospital and Health Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Cardoso, Fabiano; Chung, Christine B. [University of California at San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    In the pediatric gymnast, stress-related physeal injuries have been well described with characteristic imaging findings. However, a spectrum of overuse injuries, some rarely reported in the literature, can be encountered in the gymnast's hand and wrist. To demonstrate the MR appearance of a spectrum of overuse injuries in the skeletally immature wrist and hand of pediatric gymnasts. A total of 125 MR exams of the hand and wrist in skeletally immature children were performed at our institution during a 2-year period. Clinical histories were reviewed for gymnastics participation. MR studies of that subpopulation were reviewed and abnormalities tabulated. Of the MR studies reviewed, ten gymnasts were identified, all girls age 12-16 years (mean age 14.2 years) who presented with wrist or hand pain. Three of these children had bilateral MR exams. Abnormalities included chronic physeal injuries in three children. Two girls exhibited focal lunate osteochondral defects. Triangular fibrocartilage tears were present in three girls, one of whom had a scapholunate ligament tear. Two girls manifested metacarpal head flattening and necrosis. A variety of soft-tissue and osseous lesions can be encountered in the skeletally immature gymnast. Familiarity with these stress-related injuries is important for accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  14. In vivo Microscale Measurements of Light and Photosynthesis during Coral Bleaching: Evidence for the Optical Feedback Loop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangpraseurt, Daniel; Holm, Jacob B; Larkum, Anthony W D; Pernice, Mathieu; Ralph, Peter J; Suggett, David J; Kühl, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Climate change-related coral bleaching, i.e., the visible loss of zooxanthellae from the coral host, is increasing in frequency and extent and presents a major threat to coral reefs globally. Coral bleaching has been proposed to involve accelerating light stress of their microalgal endosymbionts via a positive feedback loop of photodamage, symbiont expulsion and excess in vivo light exposure. To test this hypothesis, we used light and O2 microsensors to characterize in vivo light exposure and photosynthesis of Symbiodinium during a thermal stress experiment. We created tissue areas with different densities of Symbiodinium cells in order to understand the optical properties and light microenvironment of corals during bleaching. Our results showed that in bleached Pocillopora damicornis corals, Symbiodinium light exposure was up to fivefold enhanced relative to healthy corals, and the relationship between symbiont loss and light enhancement was well-described by a power-law function. Cell-specific rates of Symbiodinium gross photosynthesis and light respiration were enhanced in bleached P. damicornis compared to healthy corals, while areal rates of net photosynthesis decreased. Symbiodinium light exposure in Favites sp. revealed the presence of low light microniches in bleached coral tissues, suggesting that light scattering in thick coral tissues can enable photoprotection of cryptic symbionts. Our study provides evidence for the acceleration of in vivo light exposure during coral bleaching but this optical feedback mechanism differs between coral hosts. Enhanced photosynthesis in relation to accelerating light exposure shows that coral microscale optics exerts a key role on coral photophysiology and the subsequent degree of radiative stress during coral bleaching.

  15. In vivo Microscale Measurements of Light and Photosynthesis during Coral Bleaching: Evidence for the Optical Feedback Loop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangpraseurt, Daniel; Holm, Jacob B.; Larkum, Anthony W. D.; Pernice, Mathieu; Ralph, Peter J.; Suggett, David J.; Kühl, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Climate change-related coral bleaching, i.e., the visible loss of zooxanthellae from the coral host, is increasing in frequency and extent and presents a major threat to coral reefs globally. Coral bleaching has been proposed to involve accelerating light stress of their microalgal endosymbionts via a positive feedback loop of photodamage, symbiont expulsion and excess in vivo light exposure. To test this hypothesis, we used light and O2 microsensors to characterize in vivo light exposure and photosynthesis of Symbiodinium during a thermal stress experiment. We created tissue areas with different densities of Symbiodinium cells in order to understand the optical properties and light microenvironment of corals during bleaching. Our results showed that in bleached Pocillopora damicornis corals, Symbiodinium light exposure was up to fivefold enhanced relative to healthy corals, and the relationship between symbiont loss and light enhancement was well-described by a power-law function. Cell-specific rates of Symbiodinium gross photosynthesis and light respiration were enhanced in bleached P. damicornis compared to healthy corals, while areal rates of net photosynthesis decreased. Symbiodinium light exposure in Favites sp. revealed the presence of low light microniches in bleached coral tissues, suggesting that light scattering in thick coral tissues can enable photoprotection of cryptic symbionts. Our study provides evidence for the acceleration of in vivo light exposure during coral bleaching but this optical feedback mechanism differs between coral hosts. Enhanced photosynthesis in relation to accelerating light exposure shows that coral microscale optics exerts a key role on coral photophysiology and the subsequent degree of radiative stress during coral bleaching. PMID:28174567

  16. Exposure to elevated sea-surface temperatures below the bleaching threshold impairs coral recovery and regeneration following injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonesso, Joshua Louis; Leggat, William; Ainsworth, Tracy Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Elevated sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are linked to an increase in the frequency and severity of bleaching events due to temperatures exceeding corals' upper thermal limits. The temperatures at which a breakdown of the coral-Symbiodinium endosymbiosis (coral bleaching) occurs are referred to as the upper thermal limits for the coral species. This breakdown of the endosymbiosis results in a reduction of corals' nutritional uptake, growth, and tissue integrity. Periods of elevated sea surface temperature, thermal stress and coral bleaching are also linked to increased disease susceptibility and an increased frequency of storms which cause injury and physical damage to corals. Herein we aimed to determine the capacity of corals to regenerate and recover from injuries (removal of apical tips) sustained during periods of elevated sea surface temperatures which result in coral stress responses, but which do not result in coral bleaching (i.e., sub-bleaching thermal stress events). In this study, exposure of the species Acropora aspera to an elevated SST of 32 °C (2 °C below the bleaching threshold, 34 °C) was found to result in reduced fluorescence of green fluorescent protein (GFP), reduced skeletal calcification and a lack of branch regrowth at the site of injury, compared to corals maintained under ambient SST conditions (26 °C). Corals maintained under normal, ambient, sea surface temperatures expressed high GFP fluorescence at the injury site, underwent a rapid regeneration of the coral branch apical tip within 12 days of sustaining injury, and showed extensive regrowth of the coral skeleton. Taken together, our results have demonstrated that periods of sustained increased sea surface temperatures, below the corals' bleaching threshold but above long-term summertime averages, impair coral recovery from damage, regardless of the onset or occurrence of coral bleaching.

  17. Corals and Sclerosponges

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past climate and ocean environment derived from stable isotope, trace metal, and other measurements made on corals and sclerosponges. Parameter keywords...

  18. All Framing Corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data represent predicted habitat suitability for several taxa of deep-sea corals. Predictions were modeled using a statistical machine-learning algorithm called...

  19. Effects of predation and nutrient enrichment on the success and microbiome of a foundational coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Elizabeth C; Shantz, Andrew A; McMinds, Ryan; Burkepile, Deron E; Vega Thurber, Rebecca L; Silliman, Brian R

    2017-03-01

    By inflicting damage to prey tissues, consumer species may increase stress in prey hosts and reduce overall fitness (i.e., primary effects, such as growth or reproduction) or cause secondary effects by affecting prey interactions with other species such as microbes. However, little is known about how abiotic conditions affect the outcomes of these biotic interactions. In coral reef communities, both nutrient enrichment and predation have been linked to reduced fitness and disease facilitation in corals, yet no study to date has tested their combined effects on corals or their associated microbial communities (i.e., microbiomes). Here, we assess the effects of grazing by a prevalent coral predator (the short coral snail, Coralliophila abbreviata) and nutrient enrichment on staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, and its microbiomes using a factorial experiment and high-throughput DNA sequencing. We found that predation, but not nutrients, significantly reduced coral growth and increased mortality, tissue loss, and turf algae colonization. Partial predation and nutrient enrichment both independently altered coral microbiomes such that one bacterial genus came to dominate the microbial community. Nutrient-enriched corals were associated with significant increases in Rickettsia-like organisms, which are currently one of several microbial groups being investigated as a disease agent in this coral species. However, we found no effects of nutrient enrichment on coral health, disease, or their predators. This research suggests that in the several months following coral transplantation (i.e., restoration) or disturbance (i.e., recovery), Caribbean acroporid corals appear to be highly susceptible to negative effects caused by predators, but not or not yet susceptible to nutrient enrichment despite changes to their microbial communities.

  20. Historical temperature variability affects coral response to heat stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Carilli

    Full Text Available Coral bleaching is the breakdown of symbiosis between coral animal hosts and their dinoflagellate algae symbionts in response to environmental stress. On large spatial scales, heat stress is the most common factor causing bleaching, which is predicted to increase in frequency and severity as the climate warms. There is evidence that the temperature threshold at which bleaching occurs varies with local environmental conditions and background climate conditions. We investigated the influence of past temperature variability on coral susceptibility to bleaching, using the natural gradient in peak temperature variability in the Gilbert Islands, Republic of Kiribati. The spatial pattern in skeletal growth rates and partial mortality scars found in massive Porites sp. across the central and northern islands suggests that corals subject to larger year-to-year fluctuations in maximum ocean temperature were more resistant to a 2004 warm-water event. In addition, a subsequent 2009 warm event had a disproportionately larger impact on those corals from the island with lower historical heat stress, as indicated by lower concentrations of triacylglycerol, a lipid utilized for energy, as well as thinner tissue in those corals. This study indicates that coral reefs in locations with more frequent warm events may be more resilient to future warming, and protection measures may be more effective in these regions.

  1. Occurrence of thraustochytrid fungi in corals and coral mucus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Balasubramanian, R.

    Occurrence of thraustochytrid fungi in corals, fresh coral mucus and floating and attached mucus detritus from the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea was studied. Corallochytrium limacisporum Raghukumar, Thraustochytrium motivum Goldstein...

  2. Skeletal light-scattering accelerates bleaching response in reef-building corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Timothy D; DuBois, Emily; Gomes, Andrew; Stoyneva, Valentina P; Radosevich, Andrew J; Henss, Jillian; Wagner, Michelle E; Derbas, Justin; Grooms, Hannah W; Velazquez, Elizabeth M; Traub, Joshua; Kennedy, Brian J; Grigorescu, Arabela A; Westneat, Mark W; Sanborn, Kevin; Levine, Shoshana; Schick, Mark; Parsons, George; Biggs, Brendan C; Rogers, Jeremy D; Backman, Vadim; Marcelino, Luisa A

    2016-03-21

    At the forefront of ecosystems adversely affected by climate change, coral reefs are sensitive to anomalously high temperatures which disassociate (bleaching) photosynthetic symbionts (Symbiodinium) from coral hosts and cause increasingly frequent and severe mass mortality events. Susceptibility to bleaching and mortality is variable among corals, and is determined by unknown proportions of environmental history and the synergy of Symbiodinium- and coral-specific properties. Symbiodinium live within host tissues overlaying the coral skeleton, which increases light availability through multiple light-scattering, forming one of the most efficient biological collectors of solar radiation. Light-transport in the upper ~200 μm layer of corals skeletons (measured as 'microscopic' reduced-scattering coefficient, μ'(S,m)), has been identified as a determinant of excess light increase during bleaching and is therefore a potential determinant of the differential rate and severity of bleaching response among coral species. Here we experimentally demonstrate (in ten coral species) that, under thermal stress alone or combined thermal and light stress, low-μ'(S,m) corals bleach at higher rate and severity than high-μ'(S,m) corals and the Symbiodinium associated with low-μ'(S,m) corals experience twice the decrease in photochemical efficiency. We further modelled the light absorbed by Symbiodinium due to skeletal-scattering and show that the estimated skeleton-dependent light absorbed by Symbiodinium (per unit of photosynthetic pigment) and the temporal rate of increase in absorbed light during bleaching are several fold higher in low-μ'(S,m) corals. While symbionts associated with low-[Formula: see text] corals receive less total light from the skeleton, they experience a higher rate of light increase once bleaching is initiated and absorbing bodies are lost; further precipitating the bleaching response. Because microscopic skeletal light-scattering is a robust predictor

  3. Differential response of coral communities to Caulerpa spp. bloom in the reefs of Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, B; Ravindran, J

    2017-02-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are disturbed in tandem by climatic and anthropogenic stressors. A number of factors act synergistically to reduce the live coral cover and threaten the existence of reefs. Continuous monitoring of the coral communities during 2012-2014 captured an unprecedented growth of macroalgae as a bloom at Gulf of Mannar (GoM) and Palk Bay (PB) which are protected and unprotected reefs, respectively. The two reefs varying in their protection level enabled to conduct an assessment on the response of coral communities and their recovery potential during and after the macroalgal bloom. Surveys in 2012 revealed a live coral cover of 36.8 and 14.6% in GoM and PB, respectively. Live coral cover was lost at an annual rate of 4% in PB due to the Caulerpa racemosa blooms that occurred in 2013 and 2014. In GoM, the loss of live coral cover was estimated to be 16.5% due to C. taxifolia bloom in 2013. Tissue regeneration by the foliose and branching coral morphotypes aided the recovery of live coral cover in GoM, whereas the chances for the recovery of live coral cover in PB reef were low, primarily due to frequent algal blooms, and the existing live coral cover was mainly due to the abundance of slow-growing massive corals. In combination, results of this study suggested that the recovery of a coral reef after a macroalgal bloom largely depends on coral species composition and the frequency of stress events. A further study linking macroalgal bloom to its specific cause is essential for the successful intervention and management.

  4. Doom and boom on a resilient reef: climate change, algal overgrowth and coral recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Diaz-Pulido

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coral reefs around the world are experiencing large-scale degradation, largely due to global climate change, overfishing, diseases and eutrophication. Climate change models suggest increasing frequency and severity of warming-induced coral bleaching events, with consequent increases in coral mortality and algal overgrowth. Critically, the recovery of damaged reefs will depend on the reversibility of seaweed blooms, generally considered to depend on grazing of the seaweed, and replenishment of corals by larvae that successfully recruit to damaged reefs. These processes usually take years to decades to bring a reef back to coral dominance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2006, mass bleaching of corals on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef caused high coral mortality. Here we show that this coral mortality was followed by an unprecedented bloom of a single species of unpalatable seaweed (Lobophora variegata, colonizing dead coral skeletons, but that corals on these reefs recovered dramatically, in less than a year. Unexpectedly, this rapid reversal did not involve reestablishment of corals by recruitment of coral larvae, as often assumed, but depended on several ecological mechanisms previously underestimated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These mechanisms of ecological recovery included rapid regeneration rates of remnant coral tissue, very high competitive ability of the corals allowing them to out-compete the seaweed, a natural seasonal decline in the particular species of dominant seaweed, and an effective marine protected area system. Our study provides a key example of the doom and boom of a highly resilient reef, and new insights into the variability and mechanisms of reef resilience under rapid climate change.

  5. Comparison of Positron Emission Tomography Quantification Using Magnetic Resonance- and Computed Tomography-Based Attenuation Correction in Physiological Tissues and Lesions: A Whole-Body Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Study in 66 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seith, Ferdinand; Gatidis, Sergios; Schmidt, Holger; Bezrukov, Ilja; la Fougère, Christian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Pfannenberg, Christina; Schwenzer, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Attenuation correction (AC) in fully integrated positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) systems plays a key role for the quantification of tracer uptake. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the accuracy of standardized uptake value (SUV) quantification using MR-based AC in direct comparison with computed tomography (CT)-based AC of the same PET data set on a large patient population. Sixty-six patients (22 female; mean [SD], 61 [11] years) were examined by means of combined PET/CT and PET/MR (11C-choline, 18F-FDG, or 68Ga-DOTATATE) subsequently. Positron emission tomography images from PET/MR examinations were corrected with MR-derived AC based on tissue segmentation (PET(MR)). The same PET data were corrected using CT-based attenuation maps (μ-maps) derived from PET/CT after nonrigid registration of the CT to the MR-based μ-map (PET(MRCT)). Positron emission tomography SUVs were quantified placing regions of interest or volumes of interest in 6 different body regions as well as PET-avid lesions, respectively. The relative differences of quantitative PET values when using MR-based AC versus CT-based AC were varying depending on the organs and body regions assessed. In detail, the mean (SD) relative differences of PET SUVs were as follows: -7.8% (11.5%), blood pool; -3.6% (5.8%), spleen; -4.4% (5.6%)/-4.1% (6.2%), liver; -0.6% (5.0%), muscle; -1.3% (6.3%), fat; -40.0% (18.7%), bone; 1.6% (4.4%), liver lesions; -6.2% (6.8%), bone lesions; and -1.9% (6.2%), soft tissue lesions. In 10 liver lesions, distinct overestimations greater than 5% were found (up to 10%). In addition, overestimations were found in 2 bone lesions and 1 soft tissue lesion adjacent to the lung (up to 28.0%). Results obtained using different PET tracers show that MR-based AC is accurate in most tissue types, with SUV deviations generally of less than 10%. In bone, however, underestimations can be pronounced, potentially leading to inaccurate SUV quantifications. In

  6. A coral-eating barnacle, revisited (Cirripedia, Pyrgomatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, Arnold; Newman, William A.

    1995-01-01

    The coral-eating barnacle Hoekia monticulariae (Gray, 1831), the only internal parasite among the Thoracica described to this day, is characterized by an irregularly-shaped shell nestled cryptically between the polyps of the hermatypic coral Hydnophora Fischer, 1807, which occurs throughout most of

  7. Rose Atoll Coral Monitoring Narrative

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Narrative report summarizes the results of coral monitoring at 11 georeferenced sites at Rose Atoll, American Samoa, undertaken by Dr. James Maragos, USFWS Coral...

  8. Coral reefs: Turning back time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Janice M.

    2016-03-01

    An in situ experiment finds that reducing the acidity of the seawater surrounding a natural coral reef significantly increases reef calcification, suggesting that ocean acidification may already be slowing coral growth. See Letter p.362

  9. Total lesion glycolysis by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is a reliable predictor of prognosis in soft-tissue sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun-Seok; Kim, Han-Soo; Ha, Jae Hong; Han, Ilkyu [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Seung-Gyun; Paeng, Jin Chul [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Preoperative identification of aggressiveness is important for the establishment of a treatment strategy in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma (STS). We compared the predictive values of various metabolic parameters derived from PET/CT with {sup 18}F-FDG, including maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and metabolic tumour volume (MTV). A total of 66 patients with STS who had undergone FDG PET/CT before tumour resection were reviewed retrospectively. We determined SUVmax, TLG and MTV to compare their value in predicting disease progression, which was defined as local recurrence and metastases. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to compare the accuracy. Univariate and multivariate analyses of conventional clinicopathological variables were used to compare the reliability of the metabolic parameters. TLG exhibited greater accuracy than SUVmax or MTV in ROC analysis (area under curve, AUC, 0.802, 0.726 and 0.681, respectively). The cut-off values for disease progression derived from the AUC data were TLG 250; SUVmax 6.0, and MTV 40 cm{sup 3}. In univariate analysis, TLG (>250) was a more significant predictive factor than SUVmax and MTV (P < 0.001, P = 0.031 and P = 0.022, respectively). TLG was the only meaningful metabolic parameter in the multivariate analysis (P = 0.008) other than presence of metastasis at diagnosis (P = 0.003). TLG is a more accurate predictor of disease progression than SUVmax or MTV. TLG enables accurate preoperative assessment of aggressiveness comparable with conventional clinicopathological parameters. (orig.)

  10. Investigating coral hyperspectral properties across coral species and coral state using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Smith, Dustin K.; Smith, Shane W.; Strychar, Kevin B.; McLauchlan, Lifford

    2013-09-01

    Coral reefs are one of the most diverse and threatened ecosystems in the world. Corals worldwide are at risk, and in many instances, dying due to factors that affect their environment resulting in deteriorating environmental conditions. Because corals respond quickly to the quality of the environment that surrounds them, corals have been identified as bioindicators of water quality and marine environmental health. The hyperspectral imaging system is proposed as a noninvasive tool to monitor different species of corals as well as coral state over time. This in turn can be used as a quick and non-invasive method to monitor environmental health that can later be extended to climate conditions. In this project, a laboratory-based hyperspectral imaging system is used to collect spectral and spatial information of corals. In the work presented here, MATLAB and ENVI software tools are used to view and process spatial information and coral spectral signatures to identify differences among the coral data. The results support the hypothesis that hyperspectral properties of corals vary among different coral species, and coral state over time, and hyperspectral imaging can be a used as a tool to document changes in coral species and state.

  11. Age-Related Shifts in Bacterial Diversity in a Reef Coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alex D; Brown, Barbara E; Putchim, Lalita; Sweet, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between microbial communities in differently sized colonies of the massive coral Coelastrea aspera at Phuket, Thailand where colony size could be used as a proxy for age. Results indicated significant differences between the bacterial diversity (ANOSIM, R = 0.76, p = 0.001) of differently sized colonies from the same intertidal reef habitat. Juvenile and small colonies ( 28 cm mean diam). Bacterial diversity increased in a step-wise pattern from juveniles coral skeleton; a result providing some support for the hypothesis that the endolithic algae of corals may directly influence the bacterial community present in coral tissues.

  12. Juvenile corals can acquire more carbon from high-performance algal symbionts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantin, N. E.; van Oppen, M. J. H.; Willis, B. L.; Mieog, J. C.; Negri, A. P.

    Algal endosymbionts of the genus Symbiodinium play a key role in the nutrition of reef building corals and strongly affect the thermal tolerance and growth rate of the animal host. This study reports that (14)C photosynthate incorporation into juvenile coral tissues was doubled in Acropora millepora

  13. Juvenile corals can acquire more carbon from high-performance algal symbionts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantin, N. E.; van Oppen, M. J. H.; Willis, B. L.; Mieog, J. C.; Negri, A. P.

    2009-01-01

    Algal endosymbionts of the genus Symbiodinium play a key role in the nutrition of reef building corals and strongly affect the thermal tolerance and growth rate of the animal host. This study reports that (14)C photosynthate incorporation into juvenile coral tissues was doubled in Acropora millepora

  14. Coral disease following massive bleaching in 2005 causes 60% decline in coral cover on reefs in the US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Muller, E.; Rogers, C.; Waara, R.; Atkinson, A.; Whelan, K.R.T.; Patterson, M.; Witcher, B.

    2009-01-01

    In the northeast Caribbean, doldrum-like conditions combined with elevated water temperatures in the summer/fall 2005 created the most severe coral bleaching event ever documented within this region. Video monitoring of 100 randomly chosen, permanent transects at five study sites in the US Virgin Islands revealed over 90% of the scleractinian coral cover showed signs of thermal stress by paling or becoming completely white. Lower water temperatures in October allowed some re-coloring of corals; however, a subsequent unprecedented regional outbreak of coral disease affected all sites. Five known diseases or syndromes were recorded; however, most lesions showed signs similar to white plague. Nineteen scleractinian species were affected by disease, with >90% of the disease-induced lesions occurring on the genus Montastraea. The disease outbreak peaked several months after the onset of bleaching at all sites but did not occur at the same time. The mean number of disease-induced lesions increased 51-fold and the mean area of disease-associated mortality increased 13-fold when compared with pre-bleaching disease levels. In the 12 months following the onset of bleaching, coral cover declined at all sites (average loss: 51.5%, range: 42.4-61.8%) reducing the five-site average from 21.4% before bleaching to 10.3% with most mortality caused by white plague disease, not bleaching. Continued losses through October 2007 reduced the average coral cover of the five sites to 8.3% (average 2-year loss: 61.1%, range: 53.0-79.3%). Mean cover by M. annularis (complex) decreased 51%, Colpophyllia natans 78% and Agaricia agaricites 87%. Isolated disease outbreaks have been documented before in the Virgin Islands, but never as widespread or devastating as the one that occurred after the 2005 Caribbean coral-bleaching event. This study provides insight into the effects of continued seawater warming and subsequent coral bleaching events in the Caribbean and highlights the need to

  15. Bioindication in coral reef ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, H T

    1986-01-01

    The concept of bioindication in the sense of the use of organisms for detecting environmental stress has been employed in coral reef conservation and management for the past several years. Important tools are coral growth rates and various community parameters, notably hard coral cover. The present need is the optimal coordination of international efforts for the earliest possible institution of an effective monitoring system.

  16. Enhanced susceptibility to predation in corals of compromised condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan J. Bright

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The marine gastropod, Coralliophila abbreviata, is an obligate corallivore that causes substantial mortality in Caribbean Acropora spp. Considering the imperiled status of Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata, a better understanding of ecological interactions resulting in tissue loss may enable more effective conservation strategies. We examined differences in susceptibility of A. cervicornis to C. abbreviata predation based on coral tissue condition. Coral tissue condition was a strong determinant of snail prey choice, with snails preferring A. cervicornis fragments that were diseased or mechanically damaged over healthy fragments. In addition, snails always chose fragments undergoing active predation by another snail, while showing no preference for a non-feeding snail when compared with an undisturbed prey fragment. These results indicate that the condition of A. cervicornis prey influenced foraging behavior of C. abbreviata, creating a potential feedback that may exacerbate damage from predation in coral populations compromised by other types of disturbance.

  17. Enhanced susceptibility to predation in corals of compromised condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Allan J; Cameron, Caitlin M; Miller, Margaret W

    2015-01-01

    The marine gastropod, Coralliophila abbreviata, is an obligate corallivore that causes substantial mortality in Caribbean Acropora spp. Considering the imperiled status of Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata, a better understanding of ecological interactions resulting in tissue loss may enable more effective conservation strategies. We examined differences in susceptibility of A. cervicornis to C. abbreviata predation based on coral tissue condition. Coral tissue condition was a strong determinant of snail prey choice, with snails preferring A. cervicornis fragments that were diseased or mechanically damaged over healthy fragments. In addition, snails always chose fragments undergoing active predation by another snail, while showing no preference for a non-feeding snail when compared with an undisturbed prey fragment. These results indicate that the condition of A. cervicornis prey influenced foraging behavior of C. abbreviata, creating a potential feedback that may exacerbate damage from predation in coral populations compromised by other types of disturbance.

  18. Coralline algae disease reduces survival and settlement success of coral planulae in laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéré, Gaëlle; Nugues, Maggy M.

    2015-09-01

    Disease outbreaks have been involved in the deterioration of coral reefs worldwide and have been particularly striking among crustose coralline algae (CCA). Although CCA represent important cues for coral settlement, the impact of CCA diseases on the survival and settlement of coral planulae is unknown. Exposing coral larvae to healthy, diseased, and recently dead crusts from three important CCA species, we show a negative effect of disease in the inductive CCA species Hydrolithon boergesenii on larval survivorship of Orbicella faveolata and settlement of O. faveolata and Diploria labyrinthiformis on the CCA surface. No effect was found with the less inductive CCA species Neogoniolithon mamillare and Paragoniolithon accretum. Additionally, a majority of planulae that settled on top of diseased H. boergesenii crusts were on healthy rather than diseased/dying tissue. Our experiments suggest that CCA diseases have the potential to reduce the survivorship and settlement of coral planulae on coral reefs.

  19. Flow and coral morphology control coral surface pH: Implications for the effects of ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil C. S. Chan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The future impact of ocean acidification (OA on corals is disputed in part because mathematical models used to predict these impacts do not seem to capture, or offer a framework to adequately explain, the substantial variability in acidification effects observed in empirical studies. The build-up of a diffusive boundary layer (DBL, wherein solute transport is controlled by diffusion, can lead to pronounced differences between the bulk seawater pH, and the actual pH experienced by the organism, a factor rarely considered in mathematical modelling of ocean acidification effects on corals. In the present study, we developed a simple diffusion-reaction-uptake model that was experimentally parameterized based on direct microsensor measurements of coral tissue pH and O2 within the DBL of a branching and a massive coral. The model accurately predicts tissue surface pH for different coral morphologies and under different flow velocities as a function of ambient pH. We show that, for all cases, tissue surface pH is elevated at lower flows, and thus thicker DBLs. The relative effects of OA on coral surface pH was controlled by flow and we show that under low flow velocities tissue surface pH under OA conditions (pHSWS = 7.8 can be equal to the pH under normal conditions (pHSWS = 8.2. We conclude that OA effects on corals in nature will be complex as the degree to which they are controlled by flow appears to be species specific.

  20. Coral reefs in crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1997-01-01

    This article reports on the crisis facing reefs throughout the world and the struggle to save them. Coral reefs, one of the biological wonders of the world, are among the largest and oldest living communities of plants and animals on earth, having been evolved between 200 and 450 million years ago. Located mostly in the Pacific region, most established coral reefs are now dead and only the upper layer is covered by a thin changeable skin of living coral. Reefs, over the years, have been the main source of animal protein for over 1 billion people in Asia. Countries near the coastlines, which relied on the seas, have resorted to dynamite fishing, poisoning and other illegal and dangerous techniques. Overpopulation and pollution has caused the deteriorating conditions of the 600,000 sq. km of coral reefs worldwide. Despite these conditions, the government has ignored this problem as they struggle to develop their economies at the expense of common resources. In addition, this article narrates the efforts that are exerted by governments in promoting coral reef protection and management of these coastal resources, setting the Apo Island in the Philippines as an example of good management and sustainability.

  1. Assessment of Agreement between Clinical Diagnosis and Pathologic Report in the Soft Tissue Lesions of the Patients Referring to Pathology Department of Dental School, Tehran and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences During 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ravaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Agreement between clinical and pathologic diagnoses plays an important role in an appropriate treatment plan and it may also prevent serious side effects and problems in patients. This study was conducted to assess the agreement between clinical diagnoses and pathologic reports in soft tissue lesions of patients referring to pathology department of dental school, Tehran and shahid Beheshti university of medical sciences during 2005-2008. Methods: In this retrospective and descriptive study, 300 soft tissue lesions of patients referring to pathology department were selected by census sampling method and then were analyzed. The lesions were classified according to the criteria proposed by reference pathology textbooks and the data records regarding the patients age, gender and clinical and pathologic diagnoses were noted. Concordance between two diagnoses was determined by descriptive statistics. Results: In this study, pathologic findings were golden standard (definitive diagnoses. The results showed the concordance between two clinical and pathologic diagnoses were more than 0/7 except POF and pemphigus. Conclusion: The results showed that the surgeons of oral and maxillofacial surgery in dental departments of Tehran and shahid Beheshti university of medical science provided acceptable diagnoses regarding pathologic lesions during 2005-2008. However, even the slight differences between two diagnoses necessitate all patients to be evaluated clinically and paraclinically in order to propose an accurate scientific diagnosis and prevent the harmful outcomes of the disease. Furthermore most efforts must be done to make more agreements between clinical and pathological diagnoses.

  2. Modeling regional coral reef responses to global warming and changes in ocean chemistry: Caribbean case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddemeier, R.W.; Lane, D.R.; Martinich, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Climatic change threatens the future of coral reefs in the Caribbean and the important ecosystem services they provide. We used a simulation model [Combo ("COral Mortality and Bleaching Output")] to estimate future coral cover in the part of the eastern Caribbean impacted by a massive coral bleaching event in 2005. Combo calculates impacts of future climate change on coral reefs by combining impacts from long-term changes in average sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean acidification with impacts from episodic high temperature mortality (bleaching) events. We used mortality and heat dose data from the 2005 bleaching event to select historic temperature datasets, to use as a baseline for running Combo under different future climate scenarios and sets of assumptions. Results suggest a bleak future for coral reefs in the eastern Caribbean. For three different emissions scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; B1, A1B, and A1FI), coral cover on most Caribbean reefs is projected to drop below 5% by the year 2035, if future mortality rates are equivalent to some of those observed in the 2005 event (50%). For a scenario where corals gain an additional 1-1. 5??C of heat tolerance through a shift in the algae that live in the coral tissue, coral cover above 5% is prolonged until 2065. Additional impacts such as storms or anthropogenic damage could result in declines in coral cover even faster than those projected here. These results suggest the need to identify and preserve the locations that are likely to have a higher resiliency to bleaching to save as many remnant populations of corals as possible in the face of projected wide-spread coral loss. ?? 2011 The Author(s).

  3. Development of a Regional Coral Observation Method by a Fluorescence Imaging LIDAR Installed in a Towable Buoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Sasano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coral bleaching and mortality is predicted to increase under global climate change. A new observation technique is required to monitor regional coral conditions. To this end, we developed a light detection and ranging (LIDAR system installed in a towable buoy for boat observations, which acquires continuous fluorescent images of the seabed during day-time. Most corals have innate fluorescent proteins in their tissue, and they emit fluorescence by ultraviolet excitation. This fluorescence distinguishes living coral from dead coral skeleton, crustose coralline algae, and sea algae. This paper provides a proof of concept for using the LIDAR system and fluorescence to map coral distribution within 1 km scale and coral cover within 100 m scale for a single reef in Japan.

  4. Physiological and biogeochemical traits of bleaching and recovery in the mounding species of coral Porites lobata: implications for resilience in mounding corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Levas

    Full Text Available Mounding corals survive bleaching events in greater numbers than branching corals. However, no study to date has determined the underlying physiological and biogeochemical trait(s that are responsible for mounding coral holobiont resilience to bleaching. Furthermore, the potential of dissolved organic carbon (DOC as a source of fixed carbon to bleached corals has never been determined. Here, Porites lobata corals were experimentally bleached for 23 days and then allowed to recover for 0, 1, 5, and 11 months. At each recovery interval a suite of analyses were performed to assess their recovery (photosynthesis, respiration, chlorophyll a, energy reserves, tissue biomass, calcification, δ(13C of the skeletal, δ(13C, and δ(15N of the animal host and endosymbiont fractions. Furthermore, at 0 months of recovery, the assimilation of photosynthetically acquired and zooplankton-feeding acquired carbon into the animal host, endosymbiont, skeleton, and coral-mediated DOC were measured via (13C-pulse-chase labeling. During the first month of recovery, energy reserves and tissue biomass in bleached corals were maintained despite reductions in chlorophyll a, photosynthesis, and the assimilation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. At the same time, P. lobata corals catabolized carbon acquired from zooplankton and seemed to take up DOC as a source of fixed carbon. All variables that were negatively affected by bleaching recovered within 5 to 11 months. Thus, bleaching resilience in the mounding coral P. lobata is driven by its ability to actively catabolize zooplankton-acquired carbon and seemingly utilize DOC as a significant fixed carbon source, facilitating the maintenance of energy reserves and tissue biomass. With the frequency and intensity of bleaching events expected to increase over the next century, coral diversity on future reefs may favor not only mounding morphologies but species like P. lobata, which have the ability to utilize heterotrophic

  5. Long-term monitoring of reef corals at the Flower Garden Banks (northwest Gulf of Mexico): Reef coral population changes and historical incorporation of barium in Montastrea annularis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deslarzes, K.J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Reef coral populations were monitored from 1988 to 1991 at the Flower Garden Banks located in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. The status of reef coral populations, and natural or man-made factors potentially affecting their well-being were determined. Man-made chronic disturbances are degrading coral reef resources on a global scale. Yet, the Flower Garden coral reefs seem to have been sheltered from the effects of regional stresses generated by population growth and increased industrial activity. Since 1974, reef coral population levels have remained unchanged in the Montastrea-Diploria Zones at the Flower Garden Banks. Live coral cover ranges between 46 and 46.5%. Montastrea annularis and Diploria strigosa comprise 80% of the coral cover on either bank. The remainder of the cover is mostly shared by eight other taxa. Coral taxa appear to be more homogeneously distributed on the West Bank. The relatively greater number of Agaricia spp., Madracis decastis, and P. astreoides colonies on the East Bank may be the source of a decreased evenness. The health of reef corals was assessed using repetitive and non-repetitive photographic methods, and accretionary growth measurements of M. annularis. Reef corals have undergone small scale changes at the Flower Gardens probably reflecting natural disturbance, predation, disease, and inter-specific competition. White mat disease (ridge disease) is shown to generate more tissue loss than any of the three bleaching events that took place at the Flower Gardens (1989, 1990, and 1991). Advance to retreat linear ratios of encrusting growth revealed a net tissue gain on the East Bank and a net tissue loss on the West Bank. Growth rates of M. annularis were highly variable. The annual barium content from 1910 in 1989 in a M. annularis colony from the West Flower Garden did not reveal trends associated with the extensive oil and gas exploration in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  6. Coral reef ecosystem

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.

    communication). Fossil reefs, drowned as a result of the Holocene sea level rise, occur at 92, 85, 75 and 55 m depth along .. ~ !! ":2 0. ~ Figure 3.1 Graphical Representation of the SO-Box Model of a Caribbean Coral Reef Key: 1. Benthic producers. 2. Detritus... explain the low species diversity and the absence of branching corals in the intertidal regions. H.aised fossil reefs, proba bly as a result of local upheavals, arc found in Minicoy island (Gardiner 1903), in Ramanalhapuram district in Tamil Nadu...

  7. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innes, N P T; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the terminology used to describe clinical management of carious lesions has contributed to a lack of clarity in the scientific literature and beyond. In this article, the International Caries Consensus Collaboration presents 1) issues around terminology, a scoping review of current...... managementshould be limited to situations involving control of the disease through preventive and noninvasive means at a patient level, whereascarious lesion managementcontrols the disease symptoms at the tooth level. While it is not possible to directly relate the visual appearance of carious lesions' clinical...... manifestations to the histopathology, we have based the terminology around the clinical consequences of disease (soft, leathery, firm, and hard dentine). Approaches to carious tissue removal are defined: 1)selective removal of carious tissue-includingselective removal to soft dentineandselective removal to firm...

  8. Corals from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzert, William C.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this research is to monitor the health and vigor of coral reef ecosystems, and their sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic climate changes. To achieve these lofty goals, this research is investigating the feasibility of using spaceborne high-resolution spectrometers (on the US Landsat, French Systeme Probatoire pour l'Observation de la Terre [SPOT] and/or the Indian Resources Satellite [IRS 1C & 1D] spacecraft) to first map the aerial extent of coral reef systems, and second separate the amount of particular corals. If this is successful, we could potentially provide a quantum leap in our understanding of coral reef systems, as well as provide much needed baseline data to measure future changes in global coral reef ecosystems. In collaboration with Tomas Tomascik, Yann Morel, and other colleagues, a series of experiments were planned to coordinate in situ coral observations, high-resolution spaceborne imagery (from Landsat, SPOT, and, possibly, IRS IC spacecraft), and NASA Space Shuttle photographs and digital images. Our eventual goal is to develop "coral health algorithms" that can be used to assess time series of imagery collected from satellite sensors (Landsat since 1972, SPOT since 1986) in concert with in situ observations. The bad news from last year was that from 1997 to mid- 1998, the extreme cloudiness over southeast Asia due to prolonged smoke from El Nino-related fires and the economic chaos in this region frustrated both our space and reef-based data collection activities. When this volatile situation stabilizes, we will restart these activities. The good news was that in collaboration with Al Strong at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) we had an exciting year operationally using the NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer sensor derived sea surface temperature products to warn of coral "bleaching" at many locations throughout the tropics. Data from NOAA's satellites showed that during the El Nino of

  9. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef communities in Puerto Rico using the Coral Demographics method

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Demographic method is one of two benthic surveys conducted in Puerto Rico as part of the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP). The coral...

  10. Predictive modeling of coral disease distribution within a reef system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth J Williams

    Full Text Available Diseases often display complex and distinct associations with their environment due to differences in etiology, modes of transmission between hosts, and the shifting balance between pathogen virulence and host resistance. Statistical modeling has been underutilized in coral disease research to explore the spatial patterns that result from this triad of interactions. We tested the hypotheses that: 1 coral diseases show distinct associations with multiple environmental factors, 2 incorporating interactions (synergistic collinearities among environmental variables is important when predicting coral disease spatial patterns, and 3 modeling overall coral disease prevalence (the prevalence of multiple diseases as a single proportion value will increase predictive error relative to modeling the same diseases independently. Four coral diseases: Porites growth anomalies (PorGA, Porites tissue loss (PorTL, Porites trematodiasis (PorTrem, and Montipora white syndrome (MWS, and their interactions with 17 predictor variables were modeled using boosted regression trees (BRT within a reef system in Hawaii. Each disease showed distinct associations with the predictors. Environmental predictors showing the strongest overall associations with the coral diseases were both biotic and abiotic. PorGA was optimally predicted by a negative association with turbidity, PorTL and MWS by declines in butterflyfish and juvenile parrotfish abundance respectively, and PorTrem by a modal relationship with Porites host cover. Incorporating interactions among predictor variables contributed to the predictive power of our models, particularly for PorTrem. Combining diseases (using overall disease prevalence as the model response, led to an average six-fold increase in cross-validation predictive deviance over modeling the diseases individually. We therefore recommend coral diseases to be modeled separately, unless known to have etiologies that respond in a similar manner to

  11. Spectroscopic Detection of Caries Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Mika Ruohonen; Katri Palo; Jarmo Alander

    2013-01-01

    Background. A caries lesion causes changes in the optical properties of the affected tissue. Currently a caries lesion can be detected only at a relatively late stage of development. Caries diagnosis also suffers from high interobserver variance. Methods. This is a pilot study to test the suitability of an optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for caries diagnosis. Reflectance visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/NIRS) was used to measure caries lesions and healthy enamel on extracted h...

  12. A comparative study of the anatomy of adipose tissue in areas with and without raised lesions of cellulite using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexsel, Doris; Siega, Carolina; Schilling-Souza, Juliana; Porto, Manoela Donida; Rodrigues, Ticiana Costa

    2013-12-01

    Cellulite is considered a noninflammatory phenomenon characterized by alterations to the skin surface, with depressed and raised lesions. Few studies have evaluated subcutaneous fat in patients with cellulite, and there is no information about the anatomy of raised lesions. Sixty women with raised cellulite lesions were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cellulite grade was evaluated using the Cellulite Severity Scale (CSS). Raised cellulite lesions were marked and compared with control areas on the opposite side of the body (buttocks, abdomen, and upper thighs). Mean age was 39.3 ± 11.0 years and average body mass index (BMI) was 25.4 ± 4.1 kg/m(2) . There were no differences between the raised lesions and the control areas in the anatomy of the fat lobes and their size. CSS scores were higher in older patients and in those with higher BMI. Patients with higher BMI had more fat lobes. The anatomy of subcutaneous fat was similar in raised and control areas for shape, size, and thickness. Higher CSS scores were found in older patients and those with higher BMI. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Coral reefs at risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Eighty-eight percent of Southeast Asia's reefs are threatened by overfishing, destructive fishing, and sedimentation and pollution from inland activities, according to a new report by 35 regional scientists published by the World Resources Institute.Nearly 100,000 square kilometers of coral reefs—34% of the world's total—are located in Southeast Asia.

  14. Coral Reef Biological Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs worldwide are experiencing decline from a variety of stressors. Some important stressors are land-based sources of pollution and human activities in the coastal zone. However, few tools are available to offset the impact of these stressors. The Clean Water Act (CWA...

  15. Coral Reef Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Helen T.

    Coral reefs are geological structures of significant dimensions, constructed over millions of years by calcifying organisms. The present day reef-builders are hard corals belonging to the order Scleractinia, phylum Cnidaria. The greatest concentrations of coral reefs are in the tropics, with highest levels of biodiversity situated in reefs of the Indo-West Pacific region. These ecosystems have provided coastal protection and livelihood to human populations over the millennia. Human activities have caused destruction of these habitats, the intensity of which has increased alarmingly since the latter decades of the twentieth century. The severity of this impact is directly related to exponential growth rates of human populations especially in the coastal areas of the developing world. However, a more recently recognized phenomenon concerns disturbances brought about by the changing climate, manifested mainly as rising sea surface temperatures, and increasing acidification of ocean waters due to greater drawdown of higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Management efforts have so far not kept pace with the rates of degradation, so that the spatial extent of damaged reefs and the incidences of localized extinction of reef species are increasing year after year. The major management efforts to date consist of establishing marine protected areas and promoting the active restoration of coral habitats.

  16. Raiding the Coral Nurseries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Jones

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A recent shift in the pattern of commercial harvest in the Keppel Island region of the southern inshore Great Barrier Reef raises concern about the depletion of a number of relatively rare restricted range taxa. The shift appears to be driven by demand from the United States (US for corals for domestic aquaria. Data from the annual status reports from the Queensland Coral Fishery were compared with export trade data to the US from the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES. Evidence was found of recent increases in the harvest of species from the Mussidae family (Acanthastrea spp. which appears to be largely driven by demand from the US. On present trends, the industry runs the risk of localized depletion of Blastomussa and Scolymia; evidenced by an increase in the harvest of small specimens and the trend of decreasing harvest despite a concurrent increase in demand. Considering their relatively high sediment tolerance compared to other reef-building species, and the current lack of information about their functional role in reef stability, the trend raises concerns about the impact of the harvest on local coral communities. The recent shift in harvest patterns could have impacts on slow-growing species by allowing harvest beyond the rate of population regeneration. In light of these factors, combined with the value of such species to local tourism, a commercial coral fishery based on uncommon but highly sought-after species may not be ecologically sustainable or economically viable in the Keppels.

  17. Ecological variables, including physiognomic-structural attributes, and classification of Indonesian coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, R. P. M.; Povel, G. D. E.

    Communities are distinguished by biological and physical features, such as size and shape of organisms and dead substrata, which are characteristic expressions of the organizing forces in the community. We measured 87 of such features in 39 transects on seaward-facing reef slopes in the eastern Indonesian archipelago, but did not identify coral species. We aimed to identify the basic variables that are indispensable to classify coral reef communities. This would give ecological information on variation in reef communities and show exactly which data must be recorded in the field. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the data matrix showed the following variables to be important in the ordination of transects along the axes: coral colony shape, loose fragments, bare bottom, coral tissue wounds, rubble, sediment/rubble, crustose coralline algae, excavating sponge, miscellaneous organisms, coral overgrowth, interaction coral/non-coral, Acanthaster, maximum size coral colonies, tabular Acropora, massive Porites, fungiids, angle slope, and crevices. We used the transect data to define four groups of environmental conditions: 'sheltered', 'exposed' (to water movement), 'biologically disturbed' and 'physically disturbed'. Discriminant Analysis was employed to classify additional transects. It appeared that a minimum of 9 variables has to be measured in the field (rubble, thick branching corals, fungiids, sediment/rubble, two largest-colonies diameters, massive Porites, angle slope, Acanthaster) to assign transects to one of those groups (P Discriminant Analysis.

  18. What are the physiological and immunological responses of coral to climate warming and disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mydlarz, Laura D; McGinty, Elizabeth S; Harvell, C Drew

    2010-03-15

    Coral mortality due to climate-associated stress is likely to increase as the oceans get warmer and more acidic. Coral bleaching and an increase in infectious disease are linked to above average sea surface temperatures. Despite the uncertain future for corals, recent studies have revealed physiological mechanisms that improve coral resilience to the effects of climate change. Some taxa of bleached corals can increase heterotrophic food intake and exchange symbionts for more thermally tolerant clades; this plasticity can increase the probability of surviving lethal thermal stress. Corals can fight invading pathogens with a suite of innate immune responses that slow and even arrest pathogen growth and reduce further tissue damage. Several of these responses, such as the melanin cascade, circulating amoebocytes and antioxidants, are induced in coral hosts during pathogen invasion or disease. Some components of immunity show thermal resilience and are enhanced during temperature stress and even in bleached corals. These examples suggest some plasticity and resilience to cope with environmental change and even the potential for evolution of resistance to disease. However, there is huge variability in responses among coral species, and the rate of climate change is projected to be so rapid that only extremely hardy taxa are likely to survive the projected changes in climate stressors.

  19. The effects of coral bleaching on settlement preferences and growth of juvenile butterflyfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, A J; Lawton, R J; Pisapia, C; Pratchett, M S

    2014-07-01

    Coral bleaching and associated mortality is an increasingly prominent threat to coral reef ecosystems. Although the effects of bleaching-induced coral mortality on reef fishes have been well demonstrated, corals can remain bleached for several weeks prior to recovery or death and little is known about how bleaching affects resident fishes during this time period. This study compared growth rates of two species of juvenile butterflyfishes (Chaetodon aureofasciatus and Chaetodon lunulatus) that were restricted to feeding upon either bleached or healthy coral tissue of Acropora spathulata or Pocillopora damicornis. Coral condition (bleached vs. unbleached) had no significant effects on changes in total length or weight over a 23-day period. Likewise, in a habitat choice experiment, juvenile butterflyfishes did not discriminate between healthy and bleached corals, but actively avoided using recently dead colonies. These results indicate that juvenile coral-feeding fishes are relatively robust to short term effects of bleaching events, provided that the corals do recover. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Percutaneous diagnostic angioscopy. Primary lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, C; Foucart, H; Baudrillard, J C; Cécile, J P

    1993-01-01

    Efficacy of percutaneous treatments of arterial affections requires the correct choice of indications, necessitating precise knowledge of elementary arterial lesions. Arterial endoscopy appears to be more specific than angiography for this use, since it allows direct vision in vivo of the lesion, a histopathologic approach compared with the non univocal images produced by angiography (for example, an arterial obstruction can result from varied causes). Different accidents to the endothelial surface can be observed: golden yellow atheromatous elevations on a straw yellow background, intimal flaps, mobile intra-luminal vegetations. Established atheromatous stenosis are smooth and regular, or on the contrary ulcerated and edged with irregular flaps capable of provoking an eccentric residual lumen. The vegetating atheromatous lesions may project into the lumen, often as calcified and thus pearly white scales adhering to the wall, or as larger occlusive lesions. When capable of being isolated, a thrombus often completes the stenosis: its recognition is therefore fundamental since its removal exposes the subjacent lesions to be treated. The fresh clot is coral shaped, bright red and mobile in the blood flow. Established clots are compact and greenish brown. At an advanced stage of atheroma the surface of the occluding clot is covered with a regular straw yellow endothelium. In the presence of a dissecting vessel the fibroscope may be introduced into the false channel, no longer showing typical endothelium but a coagulated mass interspersed with fibrous bands. Prosthetic stenosis result from either intimal hyperplasia or a suturing fault with plication.

  1. Development of bacterial biofilms on artificial corals in comparison to surface-associated microbes of hard corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Sweet

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the differences in bacterial communities associated with corals versus those in their surrounding environment. However, these environmental samples often represent vastly different microbial micro-environments with few studies having looked at the settlement and growth of bacteria on surfaces similar to corals. As a result, it is difficult to determine which bacteria are associated specifically with coral tissue surfaces. In this study, early stages of passive settlement from the water column to artificial coral surfaces (formation of a biofilm were assessed. Changes in bacterial diversity (16S rRNA gene, were studied on artificially created resin nubbins that were modelled from the skeleton of the reef building coral Acropora muricata. These models were dip-coated in sterile agar, mounted in situ on the reef and followed over time to monitor bacterial community succession. The bacterial community forming the biofilms remained significantly different (R = 0.864 p<0.05 from that of the water column and from the surface mucus layer (SML of the coral at all times from 30 min to 96 h. The water column was dominated by members of the α-proteobacteria, the developed community on the biofilms dominated by γ-proteobacteria, whereas that within the SML was composed of a more diverse array of groups. Bacterial communities present within the SML do not appear to arise from passive settlement from the water column, but instead appear to have become established through a selection process. This selection process was shown to be dependent on some aspects of the physico-chemical structure of the settlement surface, since agar-coated slides showed distinct communities to coral-shaped surfaces. However, no significant differences were found between different surface coatings, including plain agar and agar enhanced with coral mucus exudates. Therefore future work should consider physico-chemical surface properties as

  2. Lesiones laborales

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Las lesiones laborales se producen por un esfuerzo repetitivo, cuando un exceso de presión se ejerce sobre una parte del cuerpo provocando lesiones óseas, articulares, musculares y daños en los tejidos. Los accidentes laborales también pueden producir una lesión en el organismo y esto sumado a diversos factores es un problema para la reinserción laboral de los trabajadores de la energía eléctrica. Objetivo: Establecer cuáles son las lesiones más frecuentes que afectan a los ...

  3. Shared skeletal support in a coral-hydroid symbiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pantos

    Full Text Available Hydroids form symbiotic relationships with a range of invertebrate hosts. Where they live with colonial invertebrates such as corals or bryozoans the hydroids may benefit from the physical support and protection of their host's hard exoskeleton, but how they interact with them is unknown. Electron microscopy was used to investigate the physical interactions between the colonial hydroid Zanclea margaritae and its reef-building coral host Acropora muricata. The hydroid tissues extend below the coral tissue surface sitting in direct contact with the host's skeleton. Although this arrangement provides the hydroid with protective support, it also presents problems of potential interference with the coral's growth processes and exposes the hydroid to overgrowth and smothering. Desmocytes located within the epidermal layer of the hydroid's perisarc-free hydrorhizae fasten it to the coral skeleton. The large apical surface area of the desmocyte and high bifurcation of the distal end within the mesoglea, as well as the clustering of desmocytes suggests that a very strong attachment between the hydroid and the coral skeleton. This is the first study to provide a detailed description of how symbiotic hydroids attach to their host's skeleton, utilising it for physical support. Results suggest that the loss of perisarc, a characteristic commonly associated with symbiosis, allows the hydroid to utilise desmocytes for attachment. The use of these anchoring structures provides a dynamic method of attachment, facilitating detachment from the coral skeleton during extension, thereby avoiding overgrowth and smothering enabling the hydroid to remain within the host colony for prolonged periods of time.

  4. SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITY WITHIN DISEASED CORALS FROM THE GREAT BARRIER REEF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roff, George; Ulstrup, Karin Elizabeth; Fine, Maoz

    2008-01-01

    Morphological diagnosis and descriptions of seven disease-like syndromes affecting scleractinian corals were characterized from the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Chl a fluorescence of PSII was measured using an Imaging-PAM (pulse amplitude modulated) fluorometer, enabling visualization...... with white patch syndrome appeared to impact primarily on the symbiotic dinoflagellates, as evidenced by declines in minimum fluorescence (F0) and maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), with no indication of degeneration in the host tissues. Our results suggest that for the majority of coral syndromes from the GBR......, pathogenesis occurs in the host tissue, while the impact on the zooxanthellae populations residing in affected corals is minimal....

  5. The recent decline of Montastraea annularis (complex coral populations in western Curaçao: a cause for concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W Bruckner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shallow leeward reefs off the western end of Curaçao are dominated by extensive populations of M. annularis (complex. These species are larger in size (mean= 66 cm diameter than all other species, with few small colonies (10 cm observed within transects, and most exhibited low levels of partial mortality (mean= 22.5%. These species were less abundant (38% of all colonies in 2005. Partial mortality among live colonies of M. annularis and M. faveolata increased by 85% (mean = 42% partial mortality and numerous dead colonies of M. faveolata and M. annularis were observed; M. franksi colonies were generally in excellent condition (14% partial tissue mortality. A high prevalence of coral diseases (3-30% was documented among M. annularis and M. faveolata, while all other species were less frequently affected. Yellow band disease (YBD emerged shortly after the 1995 bleaching event, and rapidly spread throughout all depths, with the highest prevalence between 1997-1999. YBD caused slow rates of mortality (=1 cm/month, but multiple focal lesions appeared on individual colonies, and these progressively radiated outward as they killed the colonies. By 2005, 44% of the tagged corals were dead; the remainder exhibited active YBD infections (21% or were in remission (31.6% but were missing on average >90% of their tissue. Although the incidence of YBD has declined since 2000, white plague (WP prevalence was unusually high (4-12% in 2001 and 2005, with affected colonies exhibiting recent mortality of up to 70%. Dead Montastraea spp. surfaces are being colonized by other corals, including poritids, agaricids, and other faviids, while recruits of M. annularis (complex are absent. If diseases and other biotic stressors persist on these reefs, M. annularis and M. faveolata populations may undergo a decline similar to that observed in the 1980s among Caribbean acroporids. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 45- 58. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.

  6. Sulfur utilization of corals is enhanced by endosymbiotic algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuko Yuyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur-containing compounds are important components of all organisms, but few studies have explored sulfate utilization in corals. Our previous study found that the expression of a sulfur transporter (SLC26A11 was upregulated in the presence of Symbiodinium cells in juveniles of the reef-building coral Acropora tenuis. In this study, we performed autoradiography using 35S-labeled sulfate ions (35SO4 2− to examine the localization and amount of incorporated radioactive sulfate in the coral tissues and symbiotic algae. Incorporated 35SO4 2− was detected in symbiotic algal cells, nematocysts, ectodermal cells and calicoblast cells. The combined results of 35S autoradiography and Alcian Blue staining showed that incorporated 35S accumulated as sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs in the ectodermal cell layer. We also compared the relative incorporation of 35SO4 2− into coral tissues and endosymbiotic algae, and their chemical fractions in dark versus light (photosynthetic conditions. The amount of sulfur compounds, such as GAGs and lipids, generated from 35SO4 2− was higher under photosynthetic conditions. Together with the upregulation of sulfate transporters by symbiosis, our results suggest that photosynthesis of algal endosymbionts contributes to the synthesis and utilization of sulfur compounds in corals.

  7. Seaweed-coral interactions: variance in seaweed allelopathy, coral susceptibility, and potential effects on coral resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaldo, Roberta M; Hay, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70-80% lower, macroalgal cover 4-9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5-15 fold more frequent and 23-67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae), and coral cover 51-68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa) against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals.

  8. Seaweed-coral interactions: variance in seaweed allelopathy, coral susceptibility, and potential effects on coral resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M Bonaldo

    Full Text Available Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70-80% lower, macroalgal cover 4-9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5-15 fold more frequent and 23-67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae, and coral cover 51-68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals.

  9. Coral-associated Actinobacteria from the Arabian Gulf: diversity, abundance and biotechnological potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Mahmoud Mahmoud

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Actinobacteria are widely distributed in terrestrial environments, where they are considered a significant source of bioactive compounds, mainly antibiotics. Marine Actinobacteria, particularly coral-associated Actinobacteria, have attracted attention recently. In this study, the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria associated with Coscinaraea columna, Platygyra daedalea and Porites harrisoni, north of the Arabian Gulf were investigated. The corals of the Arabian Gulf, one of the world’s hottest seas, are thriving under extreme water temperatures that exceed 39°C during the summer. Similar water temperatures cause coral bleaching and death in other water bodies. For this reason, the corals of the Gulf are living models for investigating how corals in other settings may survive at the end of the current century.Different coral hosts have been found to harbor equivalent numbers of culturable Actinobacteria in their tissues but not in their mucus. However, different culturable actinobacterial communities have been found to be associated with different coral hosts. Differences in the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria were detected between the mucus and tissue of the same coral host. In addition, temporal and spatial variations in the abundance and diversity of the cultivable actinobacterial communities were detected. In total, 19 different actinobacterial genera, namely Micrococcus, Brachybacterium, Brevibacterium, Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Renibacterium, Nocardia, Microbacterium, Dietzia, Cellulomonas, Ornithinimicrobium, Rhodococcus, Agrococcus, Kineococcus, Dermacoccus, Devriesea, Kocuria, Marmoricola and Arthrobacter, were isolated from the coral tissue and mucus samples. Furthermore, 82 isolates related to Micromonospora, Brachybacterium, Nocardia, Micrococcus, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus and Streptomyces showed antimicrobial activities against representative Gram-positive and/or Gram-negative bacteria. Even though

  10. Promoter Region Hypermethylation and mRNA Expression of MGMT and p16 Genes in Tissue and Blood Samples of Human Premalignant Oral Lesions and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Bhatia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoter methylation and relative gene expression of O6-methyguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT and p16 genes were examined in tissue and blood samples of patients with premalignant oral lesions (PMOLs and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Methylation-specific PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR were performed in 146 tissue and blood samples from controls and patients with PMOLs and OSCC. In PMOL group, significant promoter methylation of MGMT and p16 genes was observed in 59% (P=0.0010 and 57% (P=0.0016 of tissue samples, respectively, and 39% (P=0.0135 and 33% (P=0.0074 of blood samples, respectively. Promoter methylation of both genes was more frequent in patients with OSCC, that is, 76% (P=0.0001 and 82% (P=0.0001 in tissue and 57% (P=0.0002 and 70% (P=0.0001 in blood, respectively. Significant downregulation of MGMT and p16 mRNA expression was observed in both tissue and blood samples from patients with PMOLs and OSCC. Hypermethylation-induced transcriptional silencing of MGMT and p16 genes in both precancer and cancer suggests important role of these changes in progression of premalignant state to malignancy. Results support use of blood as potential surrogate to tissue samples for screening or diagnosing PMOLs and early OSCC.

  11. Promoter region hypermethylation and mRNA expression of MGMT and p16 genes in tissue and blood samples of human premalignant oral lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Vikram; Goel, Madhu Mati; Makker, Annu; Tewari, Shikha; Yadu, Alka; Shilpi, Priyanka; Kumar, Sandeep; Agarwal, S P; Goel, Sudhir K

    2014-01-01

    Promoter methylation and relative gene expression of O(6)-methyguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) and p16 genes were examined in tissue and blood samples of patients with premalignant oral lesions (PMOLs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methylation-specific PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR were performed in 146 tissue and blood samples from controls and patients with PMOLs and OSCC. In PMOL group, significant promoter methylation of MGMT and p16 genes was observed in 59% (P = 0.0010) and 57% (P = 0.0016) of tissue samples, respectively, and 39% (P = 0.0135) and 33% (P = 0.0074) of blood samples, respectively. Promoter methylation of both genes was more frequent in patients with OSCC, that is, 76% (P = 0.0001) and 82% (P = 0.0001) in tissue and 57% (P = 0.0002) and 70% (P = 0.0001) in blood, respectively. Significant downregulation of MGMT and p16 mRNA expression was observed in both tissue and blood samples from patients with PMOLs and OSCC. Hypermethylation-induced transcriptional silencing of MGMT and p16 genes in both precancer and cancer suggests important role of these changes in progression of premalignant state to malignancy. Results support use of blood as potential surrogate to tissue samples for screening or diagnosing PMOLs and early OSCC.

  12. Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease across corals and oceans indicates a conserved and distinct disease microbiome

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, C.

    2014-01-29

    Coral diseases are characterized by microbial community shifts in coral mucus and tissue, but causes and consequences of these changes are vaguely understood due to the complexity and dynamics of coral-associated bacteria. We used 16S rRNA gene microarrays to assay differences in bacterial assemblages of healthy and diseased colonies displaying White Plague Disease (WPD) signs from two closely related Caribbean coral species, Orbicella faveolata and Orbicella franksi. Analysis of differentially abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed strong differences between healthy and diseased specimens, but not between coral species. A subsequent comparison to data from two Indo-Pacific coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) revealed distinct microbial community patterns associated with ocean basin, coral species and health state. Coral species were clearly separated by site, but also, the relatedness of the underlying bacterial community structures resembled the phylogenetic relationship of the coral hosts. In diseased samples, bacterial richness increased and putatively opportunistic bacteria were consistently more abundant highlighting the role of opportunistic conditions in structuring microbial community patterns during disease. Our comparative analysis shows that it is possible to derive conserved bacterial footprints of diseased coral holobionts that might help in identifying key bacterial species related to the underlying etiopathology. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that similar-appearing disease phenotypes produce microbial community patterns that are consistent over coral species and oceans, irrespective of the putative underlying pathogen. Consequently, profiling coral diseases by microbial community structure over multiple coral species might allow the development of a comparative disease framework that can inform on cause and relatedness of coral diseases. 2013 The Authors Molecular Ecology John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Spectral response of the coral rubble, living corals, and dead corals: study case on the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdin, Nurjannah; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Yamano, Hiroya; Arafat, Gulam; Rani, Chair; Akbar AS, M.

    2012-10-01

    Coral reefs play important ecological services such as providing foods, biodiversity, nutrient recycling etc. for human society. On the other hand, they are threatened by human impacts such as illegal fishing and environmental changes such as rises of sea water temperature and sea level due to global warming. Thus, it is very important to monitor dynamic spatial distributions of coral reefs and related habitats such as coral rubble, dead coral, bleached corals, seagrass, etc. Hyperspectral data, in particular, offer high potential for characterizing and mapping coral reefs because of their capability to identify individual reef components based on their detailed spectral response. We studied the optical properties by measuring in situ spectra of living corals, dead coral and coral rubble covered with algae. Study site was selected in Spermonde archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia because this area is included in the highest diversity of corals in the world named as Coral Triangle, which is recognized as the global centre of marine biodiversity and a global priority for conservation. Correlation analysis and cluster analysis support that there are distinct differences in reflectance spectra among categories. Common spectral characteristic of living corals, dead corals and coral rubble covered with algae was a reflectance minimum at 674 nm. Healthy corals, dead coral covered with algae and coral rubble covered with algae showed high similarity of spectral reflectance. It is estimated that this is due to photsynthetic pigments.

  14. 脊髓多发性硬化斑块周围组织的重塑%Tissue remodeling in periplaque regions of multiple sclerosis spinal cord lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice Lieury; Marie Chanal; Graldine Androdias; Richard Reynolds; Sylvie Cavagna; Pascale Giraudon; Christian Confavreux; Serge Nataf

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge of multiple sclerosis (MS) neuropathology has benefited from a number of studies that provided an in-depth description of plaques and, more recently, diffuse alterations of the normal-appearing white or grey matter. However, there have been few studies focusing on the periplaqueregions surrounding demyelinat-ed plaques, notably in MS spinal cords. In this context, the present study aimed to analyze the molecular im-munopathology of periplaque demyelinated lesions (PDLs) in the spinal cord of patients with a progressive form of MS. To achieve this goal, the neuropathological features of PDLs were analyzed in postmortem tissues derived from the cervical spinal cord of 21 patients with primary or secondary progressive MS. We found that PDLs cov-ered unexpectedly large areas of incomplete demyelination and were characterized by the superimposition of pro-and anti-inflammatory molecular signatures. Accordingly, macrophages/microglia accumulated in PDLs but ex-hibited a poor phagocytic activity toward myelin debris. Interestingly, while genes of the oligodendrocyte lineage were consistently down-regulated in PDLs, astrocyte-related molecules such as aquaporin 4, connexin 43 and the glutamate transporter EAAT1, were significantly upregulated in PDLs at the mRNA and protein levels. Overall, our work indicates that in the spinal cord of patients with a progressive form of MS, a tissue remodeling process that is temporally remote from plaque development takes place in PDLs. We propose that in spinal cord PDLs, this process is supported by subtle alterations of astrocyte functions and by low-grade inflammatory events that drive a slowly progressive loss of myelin and a failure of remyelination.%关于多发性硬化(multiple sclerosis,MS)斑块的病理以及MS患者灰白质的弥散性改变,目前已有相当多的深入研究报道。但对于脱髓鞘斑块周围组织的改变,尤其对是脊髓MS斑块周围组织的病理研究,

  15. Emerging coral diseases in Kāne'ohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawai'i (USA): two major disease outbreaks of acute Montipora white syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeby, Greta S.; Callahan, Sean; Cox, Evelyn F.; Runyon, Christina M.; Smith, Ashley; Stanton, Frank G.; Ushijima, Blake; Work, Thierry M.

    2016-01-01

    In March 2010 and January 2012, we documented 2 widespread and severe coral disease outbreaks on reefs throughout Kāne‘ohe Bay, Hawai‘i (USA). The disease, acute Montipora white syndrome (aMWS), manifested as acute and progressive tissue loss on the common reef coral M. capitata. Rapid visual surveys in 2010 revealed 338 aMWS-affected M. capitata colonies with a disease abundance of (mean ± SE) 0.02 ± 0.01 affected colonies per m of reef surveyed. In 2012, disease abundance was significantly higher (1232 aMWS-affected colonies) with 0.06 ± 0.02 affected colonies m-1. Prior surveys found few acute tissue loss lesions in M. capitata in Kāne‘ohe Bay; thus, the high number of infected colonies found during these outbreaks would classify this as an emerging disease. Disease abundance was highest in the semi-enclosed region of south Kāne‘ohe Bay, which has a history of nutrient and sediment impacts from terrestrial runoff and stream discharge. In 2010, tagged colonies showed an average tissue loss of 24% after 1 mo, and 92% of the colonies continued to lose tissue in the subsequent month but at a slower rate (chronic tissue loss). The host-specific nature of this disease (affecting only M. capitata) and the apparent spread of lesions between M. capitatacolonies in the field suggest a potential transmissible agent. The synchronous appearance of affected colonies on multiple reefs across Kāne‘ohe Bay suggests a common underlying factor. Both outbreaks occurred during the colder, rainy winter months, and thus it is likely that some parameter(s) associated with winter environmental conditions are linked to the emergence of disease outbreaks on these reefs.

  16. Azooxanthellate? Most Hawaiian black corals contain Symbiodinium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel; Pochon, Xavier; Irwin, Leslie; Toonen, Robert J.; Gates, Ruth D.

    2011-01-01

    The ecological success of shallow-water reef-building corals (Hexacorallia: Scleractinia) is framed by their intimate endosymbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium (zooxanthellae). In contrast, the closely related black corals (Hexacorallia: Anthipatharia) are described as azooxanthellate (lacking Symbiodinium), a trait thought to reflect their preference for low-light environments that do not support photosynthesis. We examined 14 antipatharian species collected between 10 and 396 m from Hawai'i and Johnston Atoll for the presence of Symbiodinium using molecular typing and histology. Symbiodinium internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS-2) region sequences were retrieved from 43 per cent of the antipatharian samples and 71 per cent of the examined species, and across the entire depth range. The ITS-2 sequences were identical or very similar to those commonly found in shallow-water scleractinian corals throughout the Pacific. Histological analyses revealed low densities of Symbiodinium cells inside antipatharian gastrodermal tissues (0–92 cells mm−3), suggesting that the Symbiodinium are endosymbiotic. These findings confirm that the capacity to engage in endosymbiosis with Symbiodinium is evolutionarily conserved across the cnidarian subclass Hexacorallia, and that antipatharians associate with Symbiodinium types found in shallow-water scleractinians. This study represents the deepest record for Symbiodinium to date, and suggests that some members of this dinoflagellate genus have extremely diverse habitat preferences and broad environmental ranges. PMID:20961904

  17. Azooxanthellate? Most Hawaiian black corals contain Symbiodinium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel; Pochon, Xavier; Irwin, Leslie; Toonen, Robert J; Gates, Ruth D

    2011-05-07

    The ecological success of shallow-water reef-building corals (Hexacorallia: Scleractinia) is framed by their intimate endosymbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium (zooxanthellae). In contrast, the closely related black corals (Hexacorallia: Anthipatharia) are described as azooxanthellate (lacking Symbiodinium), a trait thought to reflect their preference for low-light environments that do not support photosynthesis. We examined 14 antipatharian species collected between 10 and 396 m from Hawai'i and Johnston Atoll for the presence of Symbiodinium using molecular typing and histology. Symbiodinium internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS-2) region sequences were retrieved from 43 per cent of the antipatharian samples and 71 per cent of the examined species, and across the entire depth range. The ITS-2 sequences were identical or very similar to those commonly found in shallow-water scleractinian corals throughout the Pacific. Histological analyses revealed low densities of Symbiodinium cells inside antipatharian gastrodermal tissues (0-92 cells mm(-3)), suggesting that the Symbiodinium are endosymbiotic. These findings confirm that the capacity to engage in endosymbiosis with Symbiodinium is evolutionarily conserved across the cnidarian subclass Hexacorallia, and that antipatharians associate with Symbiodinium types found in shallow-water scleractinians. This study represents the deepest record for Symbiodinium to date, and suggests that some members of this dinoflagellate genus have extremely diverse habitat preferences and broad environmental ranges.

  18. Detection and Type-Distribution of Human Papillomavirus in Vulva and Vaginal Abnormal Cytology Lesions and Cancer Tissues from Thai Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamkham, Jarunya; Boonmark, Krittika; Phansri, Thainsang

    2016-01-01

    Vulva and Vaginal cancers are rare among all gynecological cancers worldwide, including Thailand, and typically affect women in later life. Persistent high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is one of several important causes of cancer development. In this study, we focused on HPV investigation and specific type distribution from Thai women with abnormality lesions and cancers of the vulva and Vaginal. A total of ninety paraffin-embedded samples of vulva and Vaginal abnormalities and cancer cells with histologically confirmed were collected from Thai women, who were diagnosed in 2003-2012 at the National Cancer Institute, Thailand. HPV DNA was detected and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction and enzyme immunoassay with GP5+/ bio 6+ consensus specific primers and digoxigenin-labeled specific oligoprobes, respectively. The human β-globin gene was used as an internal control. Overall results represented that HPV frequency was 16/34 (47.1%) and 8/20 (40.0%) samples of vulva with cancer and abnormal cytology lesions, respectively, while, 3/5 (60%) and 16/33 (51.61%) samples of Vaginal cancer and abnormal cytology lesions, respectively, were HPV DNA positive. Single HPV type and multiple HPV type infection could be observed in both type of cancers and abnormal lesion samples in the different histological categorizes. HPV16 was the most frequent type in all cancers and abnormal cytology lesions, whereas HPV 18 was less frequent and could be detected as co-infection with other high risk HPV types. In addition, low risk types such as HPV 6, 11 and 70 could be detected in Vulva cancer and abnormal cytology lesion samples, whereas, all Vaginal cancer samples exhibited only high risk HPV types; HPV 16 and 31. In conclusion, from our results in this study we suggest that women with persistent high risk HPV type infection are at risk of developing vulva and Vaginal cancers and HPV 16 was observed at the highest frequent both of these, similar to the cervical

  19. Nitrification in reef corals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.; David, J.J.

    cells cmP2 (Drew 1972), it is reasonable to expect that nitrification will have to compete with assimilatory re- moval of NH,+. The relative importance of NH4+ flux in these two pathways can be evaluated with the present data on NO,- production... about the means in the es- timates, this correspondence shows that bacterial nitrification effectively competes with autotrophic uptake of NH,+ in coral- zooxanthellae symbiosis. In fact, our nitrification rates would be underestimates since losses...

  20. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2013-10-03

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with \\'deep-sea\\' and \\'cold-water\\' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.

  1. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, C; Berumen, M L; Bouwmeester, J; Papathanassiou, E; Al-Suwailem, A; Voolstra, C R

    2013-10-03

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with 'deep-sea' and 'cold-water' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.

  2. Fine-structural analysis of black band disease-infected coral reveals boring cyanobacteria and novel bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aaron W; Blackwelder, Patricia; Al-Sayegh, Husain; Richardson, Laurie L

    2011-02-22

    Examination of coral fragments infected with black band disease (BBD) at the fine- and ultrastructural levels using scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed novel features of the disease. SEM images of the skeleton from the host coral investigated (Montastraea annularis species complex) revealed extensive boring underneath the BBD mat, with cyanobacterial filaments present within some of the bore holes. Cyanobacteria were observed to penetrate into the overlying coral tissue from within the skeleton and were present throughout the mesoglea between tissue layers (coral epidermis and gastrodermis). A population of novel, as yet unidentified, small filamentous bacteria was found at the leading edge of the migrating band. This population increased in number within the band and was present within degrading coral epithelium, suggesting a role in disease etiology. In coral tissue in front of the leading edge of the band, cyanobacterial filaments were observed to be emerging from bundles of sloughed-off epidermal tissue. Degraded gastrodermis that contained actively dividing zooxanthellae was observed using both TEM and SEM. The BBD mat contained cyanobacterial filaments that were twisted, characteristic of negative-tactic responses. Some evidence of boring was found in apparently healthy control coral fragments; however, unlike in BBD-infected fragments, there were no associated cyanobacteria. These results suggest the coral skeleton as a possible source of pathogenic BBD cyanobacteria. Additionally, SEM revealed the presence of a potentially important group of small, filamentous BBD-associated bacteria yet to be identified.

  3. Osmoadjustment in the Coral Holobiont

    KAUST Repository

    Röthig, Till

    2017-04-01

    Coral reefs are under considerable decline. The framework builders in coral reefs are scleractinian corals, which comprise so-called holobionts, consisting of cnidarian host, algal symbionts (genus Symbiodinium), and other associated microbes. Corals are commonly considered stenohaline osmoconformers, possessing limited capability to adjust to salinity changes. However, corals differ in their ability to cope with different salinities. The underlying mechanisms have not yet been addressed. To further understand putative mechanisms involved, I examined coral holobiont osmoregulation conducting a range of experiments on the coral Fungia granulosa. In my research F. granulosa from the Red Sea exhibited pronounced physiological reactions (decreased photosynthesis, cessation of calcification) upon short-term incubations (4 h) to high salinity (55). However, during a 29-day in situ salinity transect experiment, coral holobiont photosynthesis was unimpaired under high salinity (49) indicating acclimatization. F. granulosa microbiome changes after the 29-day high salinity exposure aligned with a bacterial community restructuring that putatively supports the coral salinity acclimatization (osmolyte synthesis, nutrient fixation/cycling). Long-term incubations (7 d) of cultured Symbiodinium exhibited cell growth even at ‘extreme’ salinity levels of 25 and 55. Metabolic profiles of four Symbiodinium strains exposed to increased (55) and decreased (25) salinities for 4 h indicated distinct carbohydrates and amino acids to be putatively involved in the osmoadjustment. Importantly, under high salinity the osmolyte floridoside was consistently increased. This could be corroborated in the coral model Aiptasia and in corals from the Persian/Arabian Gulf, where floridoside was also markedly increased upon short- (15 h) and long-term (>24 months) exposure to high salinity, confirming an important role of floridoside in the osmoadjustment of cnidarian holobionts. This thesis

  4. Effects of drilling fluids (muds) and turbidity on the metabolic state of the coral Acropora cervicornis: calcification rate and protein concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, J.J. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of ten used drilling muds on coral health have been examined by monitoring changes in calcification rates and soluble tissue protein in the coral Acropora cervicornis. Exposure to 25-ppm (v/v) of one mud for 24 h reduced calcification rate in the growing tips by as much as 63%. Soluble tissue protein concentration dropped sig

  5. Pink lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomel, Jason; Zalaudek, Iris

    2013-10-01

    Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy or surface microscopy) is an ancillary dermatologic tool that in experienced hands can improve the accuracy of diagnosis of a variety of benign and malignant pigmented skin tumors. The early and more accurate diagnosis of nonpigmented, or pink, tumors can also be assisted by dermoscopy. This review focuses on the dermoscopic diagnosis of pink lesions, with emphasis on blood vessel morphology and pattern. A 3-step algorithm is presented, which facilitates the timely and more accurate diagnosis of pink tumors and subsequently guides the management for such lesions.

  6. Computer-assisted image analysis in the diagnosis of gynaecological lesions: A quantitative and comparative investigation of haematoxylin-eosin with special dyes on tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Onyije

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: MT staining technique produced the best results in the % area of tissues covered and the intensity measurements, and therefore was recommended for routine use alongside with H&E in diagnostic histopathology.

  7. Coral host cells acidify symbiotic algal microenvironment to promote photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barott, Katie L; Venn, Alexander A; Perez, Sidney O; Tambutté, Sylvie; Tresguerres, Martin

    2015-01-13

    Symbiotic dinoflagellate algae residing inside coral tissues supply the host with the majority of their energy requirements through the translocation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. The algae, in turn, rely on the host for the supply of inorganic carbon. Carbon must be concentrated as CO2 in order for photosynthesis to proceed, and here we show that the coral host plays an active role in this process. The host-derived symbiosome membrane surrounding the algae abundantly expresses vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (VHA), which acidifies the symbiosome space down to pH ∼ 4. Inhibition of VHA results in a significant decrease in average H(+) activity in the symbiosome of up to 75% and a significant reduction in O2 production rate, a measure of photosynthetic activity. These results suggest that host VHA is part of a previously unidentified carbon concentrating mechanism for algal photosynthesis and provide mechanistic evidence that coral host cells can actively modulate the physiology of their symbionts.

  8. Fungal invasion of massive corals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Raghukumar, S.

    Five species of corals from the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal (Indian Ocean) have been regularly found to have single or multiple necrotic patches. The occurrence of such corals with necrotic patches varied from 10-50% in the field. Sections...

  9. Predicting dredging-associated effects to coral reefs in Apra Harbor, Guam - Part 2: Potential coral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Deborah Shafer; McManus, John; Richmond, Robert H; King, David B; Gailani, Joe Z; Lackey, Tahirih C; Bryant, Duncan

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs are in decline worldwide due to anthropogenic stressors including reductions in water and substratum quality. Dredging results in the mobilization of sediments, which can stress and kill corals via increasing turbidity, tissue damage and burial. The Particle Tracking Model (PTM) was applied to predict the potential impacts of dredging-associated sediment exposure on the coral reef ecosystems of Apra Harbor, Guam. The data were interpreted using maps of bathymetry and coral abundance and distribution in conjunction with impact parameters of suspended sediment concentration (turbidity) and sedimentation using defined coral response thresholds. The results are presented using a "stoplight" model of negligible or limited impacts to coral reefs (green), moderate stress from which some corals would be expected to recover while others would not (yellow) and severe stress resulting in mortality (red). The red conditions for sediment deposition rate and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) were defined as values exceeding 25 mg cm(-2) d(-1) over any 30 day window and >20 mg/l for any 18 days in any 90 day period over a column of water greater than 2 m, respectively. The yellow conditions were defined as values >10 mg cm(-2) d(-1) and assumption that even sub-lethal stress levels can ultimately lead to mortality in a multi-stressor system. This modeling approach can be applied by resource managers and regulatory agencies to support management decisions related to planning, site selection, damage reduction, and compensatory mitigation.

  10. PhyloChip™ microarray comparison of sampling methods used for coral microbial ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Zawada, David G.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Interest in coral microbial ecology has been increasing steadily over the last decade, yet standardized methods of sample collection still have not been defined. Two methods were compared for their ability to sample coral-associated microbial communities: tissue punches and foam swabs, the latter being less invasive and preferred by reef managers. Four colonies of star coral, Montastraea annularis, were sampled in the Dry Tortugas National Park (two healthy and two with white plague disease). The PhyloChip™ G3 microarray was used to assess microbial community structure of amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences. Samples clustered based on methodology rather than coral colony. Punch samples from healthy and diseased corals were distinct. All swab samples clustered closely together with the seawater control and did not group according to the health state of the corals. Although more microbial taxa were detected by the swab method, there is a much larger overlap between the water control and swab samples than punch samples, suggesting some of the additional diversity is due to contamination from water absorbed by the swab. While swabs are useful for noninvasive studies of the coral surface mucus layer, these results show that they are not optimal for studies of coral disease.

  11. Differential specificity between closely related corals and abundant Endozoicomonas endosymbionts across global scales

    KAUST Repository

    Neave, Matthew J.

    2016-07-08

    Reef-building corals are well regarded not only for their obligate association with endosymbiotic algae, but also with prokaryotic symbionts, the specificity of which remains elusive. To identify the central microbial symbionts of corals, their specificity across species and conservation over geographic regions, we sequenced partial SSU ribosomal RNA genes of Bacteria and Archaea from the common corals Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora verrucosa across 28 reefs within seven major geographical regions. We demonstrate that both corals harbor Endozoicomonas bacteria as their prevalent symbiont. Importantly, catalyzed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD–FISH) with Endozoicomonas-specific probes confirmed their residence as large aggregations deep within coral tissues. Using fine-scale genotyping techniques and single-cell genomics, we demonstrate that P. verrucosa harbors the same Endozoicomonas, whereas S. pistillata associates with geographically distinct genotypes. This specificity may be shaped by the different reproductive strategies of the hosts, potentially uncovering a pattern of symbiont selection that is linked to life history. Spawning corals such as P. verrucosa acquire prokaryotes from the environment. In contrast, brooding corals such as S. pistillata release symbiont-packed planula larvae, which may explain a strong regional signature in their microbiome. Our work contributes to the factors underlying microbiome specificity and adds detail to coral holobiont functioning.

  12. Exploring the Symbiodinium rare biosphere provides evidence for symbiont switching in reef-building corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulotte, Nadine M; Dalton, Steven J; Carroll, Andrew G; Harrison, Peter L; Putnam, Hollie M; Peplow, Lesa M; van Oppen, Madeleine Jh

    2016-11-01

    Reef-building corals possess a range of acclimatisation and adaptation mechanisms to respond to seawater temperature increases. In some corals, thermal tolerance increases through community composition changes of their dinoflagellate endosymbionts (Symbiodinium spp.), but this mechanism is believed to be limited to the Symbiodinium types already present in the coral tissue acquired during early life stages. Compelling evidence for symbiont switching, that is, the acquisition of novel Symbiodinium types from the environment, by adult coral colonies, is currently lacking. Using deep sequencing analysis of Symbiodinium rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) PCR amplicons from two pocilloporid coral species, we show evidence consistent with de novo acquisition of Symbiodinium types from the environment by adult corals following two consecutive bleaching events. Most of these newly detected symbionts remained in the rare biosphere (background types occurring below 1% relative abundance), but one novel type reached a relative abundance of ~33%. Two de novo acquired Symbiodinium types belong to the thermally resistant clade D, suggesting that this switching may have been driven by consecutive thermal bleaching events. Our results are particularly important given the maternal mode of Symbiodinium transmission in the study species, which generally results in high symbiont specificity. These findings will cause a paradigm shift in our understanding of coral-Symbiodinium symbiosis flexibility and mechanisms of environmental acclimatisation in corals.

  13. Microbial to reef scale interactions between the reef-building coral Montastraea annularis and benthic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barott, Katie L; Rodriguez-Mueller, Beltran; Youle, Merry; Marhaver, Kristen L; Vermeij, Mark J A; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest L

    2012-04-22

    Competition between reef-building corals and benthic algae is of key importance for reef dynamics. These interactions occur on many spatial scales, ranging from chemical to regional. Using microprobes, 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and underwater surveys, we examined the interactions between the reef-building coral Montastraea annularis and four types of benthic algae. The macroalgae Dictyota bartayresiana and Halimeda opuntia, as well as a mixed consortium of turf algae, caused hypoxia on the adjacent coral tissue. Turf algae were also associated with major shifts in the bacterial communities at the interaction zones, including more pathogens and virulence genes. In contrast to turf algae, interactions with crustose coralline algae (CCA) and M. annularis did not appear to be antagonistic at any scale. These zones were not hypoxic, the microbes were not pathogen-like and the abundance of coral-CCA interactions was positively correlated with per cent coral cover. We propose a model in which fleshy algae (i.e. some species of turf and fleshy macroalgae) alter benthic competition dynamics by stimulating bacterial respiration and promoting invasion of virulent bacteria on corals. This gives fleshy algae a competitive advantage over corals when human activities, such as overfishing and eutrophication, remove controls on algal abundance. Together, these results demonstrate the intricate connections and mechanisms that structure coral reefs.

  14. Ingestion of Microplastics and Their Impact on Calcification in Reef-Building Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, C. P.; Smith, R. T.

    2016-02-01

    Since the early 1970's, researchers began identifying plastics and other sources of litter as harmful to ecosystems. In recent years, there's been a growing concern about microscopic plastic debris (microplastics) and its impact on marine organisms. Likewise, microplastics are currently and continuously being documented from environmental samples on a global scale. The ecosystems most likely affected by their presence are shallow marine habitats, such as near-shore coral reefs. One concern is that microplastics may be ingested by reef-building corals and negatively impact their physiology. In this study, two species of Caribbean reef-building corals, Orbicella faveolata and Porites porites were investigated for rates of ingesting microplastics. Coral samples were incubated with 100μm micro-beads manufactured with a fluorescent label to aid in recovery and quantification from the coral tissue. Following the consumption of plastic, we measured instantaneous rates of calcification as a proxy for physiological performance compared to controls. Our results indicate that corals ingest microplastic particles and maintain them internally for at least 24 hours. Our initial findings suggest that the ingestion of ≥ 3 microplastic particles cm-2 may negatively impact rates of coral calcification. In light of these preliminary findings, further investigations should examine the long-term effect of environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastics on reef corals and its potential detriment to reef building capacity.

  15. Telomere length of the colonial coral Galaxea fascicularis at different developmental stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuta, H.; Hidaka, M.

    2013-06-01

    The ability to estimate coral age using soft tissue would be useful for population biology or aging studies on corals. In this study, we investigated whether telomere length can be used to estimate coral age. We applied single telomere length analysis to a colonial coral, Galaxea fascicularis, and estimated telomere lengths of specific coral chromosomes at different developmental stages. If the telomere shortened at each cell division, the telomere length of the coral would be longest in sperm and shortest in adult colonies. However, the mean telomere length of sperm, planula larvae, and polyps was approximately 4 kb, with no significant differences among the developmental stages. The telomerase restriction fragment (TRF) analysis also showed no significant difference in the mean TRF length among the developmental stages. Our results suggested that telomere length is maintained during developmental stages and that estimating the age of colonial coral based on telomere length may not be possible. However, our findings can be used to examine avoidance of aging and rejuvenation during regeneration and asexual reproduction in colonial corals.

  16. Trace metal anomalies in bleached Porites coral at Meiji Reef, tropical South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Yu, Kefu; Zhao, Jianxin; Feng, Yuexing; Chen, Tianran

    2017-01-01

    Coral bleaching has generally been recognized as the main reason for tropical coral reef degradation, but there are few long-term records of coral bleaching events. In this study, trace metals including chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), and yttrium (Y), were analyzed in two Porites corals collected from Meiji Reef in the tropical South China Sea (SCS) to assess differences in trace metal concentrations in bleached compared with unbleached coral growth bands. Ti, V, Cr, and Mo generally showed irregular fluctuations in both corals. Bleached layers contained high concentrations of Mn, Cu, Sn, and Pb. Unbleached layers showed moderately high concentrations of Mn and Cu only. The different distribution of trace metals in Porites may be attributable to different selectivity on the basis of vital utility or toxicity. Ti, V, Cr, and Mo are discriminated against by both coral polyps and zooxanthellae, but Mn, Cu, Sn, and Pb are accumulated by zooxanthellae and only Mn and Cu are accumulated by polyps as essential elements. The marked increase in Cu, Mn, Pb, and Sn are associated with bleaching processes, including mucus secretion, tissue retraction, and zooxanthellae expulsion and occlusion. Variation in these trace elements within the coral skeleton can be used as potential tracers of short-lived bleaching events.

  17. First experimental evidence of corals feeding on seagrass matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S.; Gillis, L. G.; Mueller, C.; Bouma, T. J.; Guest, J. R.; Last, K. S.; Ziegler, A. D.; Todd, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first experimental evidence of a coral ( Oulastrea crispata) ingesting and assimilating seagrass material. Tropical seagrass meadows export a substantial portion of their productivity and can provide an important source of nutrients to neighbouring systems such as coral reefs; however, little is known about the mechanisms of this link. To investigate whether seagrass nutrient uptake via coral heterotrophy is possible, we conducted a feeding experiment with seagrass particulate and dissolved organic matter. Using gut extractions and stable isotope analyses, we determined that O. crispata ingested 15N-enriched seagrass particles and assimilated the nitrogen into its tissue at a rate of 0.75 μg N cm-2 h-1. Corals took up nitrogen from dissolved matter at a comparable rate of 0.98 μg N cm-2 h-1. While other ecological connections between seagrass meadows and reef ecosystems are well known, our results suggest a previously unstudied direct nutritional link between seagrasses and corals.

  18. Contaminants assessment in the coral reefs of Virgin Islands National Park and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A.; Garrison, Virginia H.; Alvarez, David A.; Echols, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Coral, fish, plankton, and detritus samples were collected from coral reefs in Virgin Islands National Park (VIIS) and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICR) to assess existing contamination levels. Passive water sampling using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semi-permeable membrane devices found a few emerging pollutants of concern (DEET and galaxolide) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Very little persistent organic chemical contamination was detected in the tissue or detritus samples. Detected contaminants were at concentrations below those reported to be harmful to aquatic organisms. Extracts from the POCIS were subjected to the yeast estrogen screen (YES) to assess potential estrogenicity of the contaminant mixture. Results of the YES (estrogen equivalency of 0.17–0.31 ng/L 17-β-estradiol) indicated a low estrogenicity likelihood for contaminants extracted from water. Findings point to low levels of polar and non-polar organic contaminants in the bays sampled within VICR and VIIS.

  19. Contaminants assessment in the coral reefs of Virgin Islands National Park and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A; Garrison, Virginia H; Alvarez, David A; Echols, Kathy R

    2013-05-15

    Coral, fish, plankton, and detritus samples were collected from coral reefs in Virgin Islands National Park (VIIS) and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICR) to assess existing contamination levels. Passive water sampling using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semi-permeable membrane devices found a few emerging pollutants of concern (DEET and galaxolide) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Very little persistent organic chemical contamination was detected in the tissue or detritus samples. Detected contaminants were at concentrations below those reported to be harmful to aquatic organisms. Extracts from the POCIS were subjected to the yeast estrogen screen (YES) to assess potential estrogenicity of the contaminant mixture. Results of the YES (estrogen equivalency of 0.17-0.31 ng/L 17-β-estradiol) indicated a low estrogenicity likelihood for contaminants extracted from water. Findings point to low levels of polar and non-polar organic contaminants in the bays sampled within VICR and VIIS. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Differential thermal bleaching susceptibilities amongst coral taxa: re-posing the role of the host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Scott A.

    2014-03-01

    It is well established that different coral species have different susceptibilities to thermal stress, yet it is less clear which biological or physical mechanisms allow some corals to resist thermal stress, whereas other corals bleach and die. Although the type of symbiont is clearly of fundamental importance, many aspects of coral bleaching cannot be explained solely by differences in symbionts amongst coral species. Here, I use the CO2 (sink) limitation model of coral bleaching to repose various host traits believed to influence thermal tolerance (e.g. metabolic rates, colony tissue thickness, skeletal growth form, mucus production rates, tissue concentration of fluorescent pigments and heterotrophic feedings capacity) in terms of an integrated strategy to reduce the likelihood of CO2 limitation around its intracellular photosymbionts. Contrasting observational data for the skeletal vital effect on oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) partitions two alternate evolutionary strategies. The first strategy is heavily reliant on a sea water supply chain of CO2 to supplement respiratory CO2(met). In contrast, the alternate strategy is less reliant on the sea water supply source, potentially facilitated by increased basal respiration rates and/or a lower photosynthetic demand for CO2. The comparative vulnerability of these alternative strategies to modern ocean conditions is used to explain the global-wide observation that corals with branching morphologies (and thin tissue layers) are generally more thermally sensitive than corals with massive morphologies (and thick tissue layers). The life history implications of this new framework are discussed in terms of contrasting fitness drivers and past environmental constraints, which delivers ominous predictions for the viability of thin-tissued branching and plating species during the present human-dominated ("Anthropocene") era of the Earth System.

  1. Coral biomineralization: A focus on intra-skeletal organic matrix and calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falini, Giuseppe; Fermani, Simona; Goffredo, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    In the recent years several papers and some reviews have dealt with characterization, localization and influence on the precipitation of calcium carbonate, of the organic matrix from scleractinian corals. In fact, it has been well established that coral calcification is a biological controlled process orchestrated in space and time by the organism also trough the secretion of organic matrix molecules because it has been well established that coral calcification is a biological controlled process, and thus is orchestrated in space and time by the organism also through the secretion of organic matrix molecules. In this review is presented a scientific path on the biomineralization of corals having as focusing point the intra-skeletal organic matrix, the molecules that are associated with mineral (aragonite). The review starts with a an overview on coral tissue, skeleton and tissue skeleton interface, describes the intra-skeletal organic matrix putting attention mainly on the proteins associated to aragonite and finally describes the in vivo and in vitro calcium carbonate precipitation experiments carried out aimed to evaluate the role of the organic matrix. The last paragraph reports studies on the role of the organic matrix in controlling calcification when corals are subject ocean acidification effects. The readers are expected to find a source of inspiration for new studies on the biomineralization of corals that are organic matrix addressed and merge diverse scientific disciplines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Coral diseases and bleaching on Colombian Caribbean coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Camacho, Raúl; Gil-Agudelo, Diego Luis; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Alberto; Reyes-Nivia, María Catalina; Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    Since 1998 the National Monitoring System for the Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC) has monitored the occurrence of coral bleaching and diseases in some Colombian coral reefs (permanent stations at San Andres Island, Rosario Islands, Tayrona, San Bernardo Islands and Urabá). The main purpose is to evaluate their health status and to understand the factors that have been contributing to their decline. To estimate these occurrences, annual surveys in 126 permanent belt transects (10 x 2m) with different depth intervals (3-6 meters, 9-12 meters and 15-18 meters) are performed at all reef sites. Data from the 1998-2004 period, revealed that San Andrés Island had many colonies with diseases (38.9 colonies/m2), and Urabá had high numbers with bleaching (54.4 colonies/m2). Of the seven reported coral diseases studied, Dark Spots Disease (DSD), and White Plague Disease (WPD) were noteworthy because they occurred in all Caribbean monitored sites, and because of their high interannual infection incidence. Thirty five species of scleractinian corals were affected by at least one disease and a high incidence of coral diseases on the main reef builders is documented. Bleaching was present in 34 species. During the whole monitoring period, Agaricia agaricites and Siderastrea siderea were the species most severely affected by DSD and bleaching, respectively. Diseases on species such as Agaricia fragilis, A. grahamae, A. humilis, Diploria clivosa, Eusmilia fastigiata, Millepora complanata, and Mycetophyllia aliciae are recorded for first time in Colombia. We present bleaching and disease incidences, kinds of diseases, coral species affected, reef localities studied, depth intervals of surveys, and temporal (years) variation for each geographic area. This variation makes difficult to clearly determine defined patterns or general trends for monitored reefs. This is the first long-term study of coral diseases and bleaching in the Southwestern Caribbean, and one of the few long

  3. Morel-Lavallee lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hui; Zhang Fangjie; Lei Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity.Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses.It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice.Data sources A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords:Morel-Lavallee lesion,closed degloving injury,concealed degloving injury,Morel-Lavallee effusion,Morel-Lavallee hematoma,posttraumatic pseudocyst,posttraumatic soft tissue cyst.Study selection Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected.Their references were also reviewed.Results Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury.It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia.Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter,MLLs have been described in other parts of the body.The natural history of MLL has not yet been established.The lesion may decrease in volume,remain stable,enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern.Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed.Ultrasonography,computed tomography,and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL.Treatment of MLL has included compression,local aspiration,open debridement,and sclerodesis.No standard treatment has been established.Conclusions A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft,fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury.Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis.Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures,the condition of the lesion,symptom and desire of the patient.

  4. Coral disease physiology: the impact of Acroporid white syndrome on Symbiodinium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roff, G.; Kvennefors, E. C. E.; Ulstrup, Karin Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Acroporid white syndrome, a disease-like syndrome from the Great Barrier Reef, results from degenerative host tissue at lesion borders. Tissue preceding lesion borders appears visually healthy, but it is currently unclear whether the endosymbiotic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) are physiologically...

  5. Combined treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and dexamethasone phosphate-containing liposomes improves neurological outcome and restricts lesion progression after embolic stroke in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiebosch, I.A.; Crielaard, B.J.; Bouts, M.J.; Salas-Perdomo, A.; Lammers, T.G.G.M.; Planas, A.M.; Storm, G.; Dijkhuizen, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Variable efficacies have been reported for glucocorticoid drugs as anti-inflammatory treatment after stroke. We applied an alternative drug delivery strategy, by injection of dexamethasone phosphate-containing liposomes in combination with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), i

  6. Sonographic evaluation of surrounding soft tissue lesions complicated with femur fracture%髋部股骨骨折合并周围软组织损伤的超声诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 农恒荣; 袁勇卫; 杜二珠; 王豫平

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨超声检查髋部股骨骨折合并周围软组织损伤的多种声像图表现类型及其临床意义.方法 对154例X线检查证实髋部股骨骨折患者的X线图像及超声图像进行对比观察,重点观察骨折及其周围软组织损伤、髋关节囊积液及血肿等的影像显示(X线和超声),包括超声检查治疗前后的比较.结果 在X线检查证实髋部股骨骨折154例患者中,143例超声提示骨折的部位与X线片一致,11例超声不能明确提示X线片所示的骨折部位;超声检出髋部股骨骨折时合并周围软组织损伤148例(96.1%,148/154);总结其声像图表现有以下几种类型:(1)髋关节腔积液(12例).(2)髋关节腔内血块(35例).(3)骨折碎片嵌入肌肉(24例).(4)肌肉血肿(46例).(5)肌肉转子囊内积血(31例).X线通常难以提示髋部骨折合并软组织损伤的具体病变细节,154例中仅有9例臀大肌转子囊内积血合并肌肉内血肿时提示软组织肿胀.结论 超声能够充分显示髋部股骨骨折合并肌肉、韧带、关节囊等软组织损伤,其检测率远高于X线检查,其声像图存在多种类型,从而为临床治疗骨折后关节及肌肉损伤提供重要诊断信息;但超声存在着显示骨折损伤全貌的局限性.%Objective The surrounding soft tissue lesions complicated with femur fracture are extremely common. The detection rate of ultrasound and sonographic features were evaluated in this study. Methods A total of 154 cases with the femur fracture of hip confirmed by X-ray, were compared with those by ultrasonography, especially for the surrounding soft tissue lesions with femur fracture near the hip. Results In the 154 femur fracture cases confirmed by X-ray, the ultrasound finding in 143 cases were in accordance with those by X-ray, the 11 cases of femur fracture could not be found by ultrasound. There are 148 cases with soft tissue lesions surrounding the femur fracture near the hip had been diagnosed by

  7. Parasellar lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscalleda, J. [Hospital Sant Pau, Radiology Department, Neuroradiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-03-01

    The sellar and parasellar region is an anatomically complex area that represents a crucial crossroad of important adjacent structures, e.g. orbits, cavernous sinus and its content, polygon of Willis, hypothalamus through the pituitary stalk and dural reflections forming the diaphragm sellae and the walls of the cavernous sinuses. Although the cavernous sinus represents the most relevant parasellar structure, from the practical and clinical point of view all the structures that surround the sella turcica can be included in the parasellar region. CT and, mainly, MRI are the imaging modalities to study and characterise the normal anatomy and the majority of processes in this region. We present a practical short review of the most relevant CT and MRI characteristics, such as location, nature of contrast enhancement and presence of cystic components, together with clinical findings, which permit differentiation of the most frequent and less common lesions found in the parasellar region. Learning objectives: A short review of the anatomy and clinical symptoms related to the parasellar region. Radiological characterisation, mainly by MRI, of the many lesions that alter the structure and function of sellar and parasellar anatomy. Description of the MRI features that permit differentiation among less common lesions. (orig.)

  8. New perspectives on ecological mechanisms affecting coral recruitment on reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritson-Williams, R.; Arnold, S.N.; Fogarty, N.D.; Steneck, R.S.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Paul, V.J.

    2009-01-01

    Coral mortality has increased in recent decades, making coral recruitment more important than ever in sustaining coral reef ecosystems and contributing to their resilience. This review summarizes existing information on ecological factors affecting scleractinian coral recruitment. Successful recruit

  9. New perspectives on ecological mechanisms affecting coral recruitment on reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritson-Williams, R.; Arnold, S.N.; Fogarty, N.D.; Steneck, R.S.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Paul, V.J.

    2009-01-01

    Coral mortality has increased in recent decades, making coral recruitment more important than ever in sustaining coral reef ecosystems and contributing to their resilience. This review summarizes existing information on ecological factors affecting scleractinian coral recruitment. Successful

  10. Long-wavelength photosensitivity in coral planula larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Benjamin M; Cohen, Jonathan H

    2012-04-01

    Light influences the swimming behavior and settlement of the planktonic planula larvae of coral, but little is known regarding the photosensory biology of coral at this or any life-history stage. Here we used changes in the electrical activity of coral planula tissue upon light flashes to investigate the photosensitivity of the larvae. Recordings were made from five species: two whose larvae are brooded and contain algal symbionts (Porites astreoides and Agaricia agaricites), and three whose larvae are spawned and lack algal symbionts (Acropora cervicornis, Acropora palmata,and Montastrea faveolata). Photosensitivity originated from the coral larva rather than from, or in addition to, its algal symbionts as species with and without symbionts displayed similar tissue-level electrical responses to light. All species exhibited as much (or more) sensitivity to red stimuli as to blue/green stimuli, which is consistent with a role for long-wavelength visible light in the preference for substrata observed during settlement and in facilitating vertical positioning of larvae in the water column.

  11. A PCR-Based Assay Targeting the Major Capsid Protein Gene of a Dinorna-Like ssRNA Virus That Infects Coral Photosymbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Montalvo-Proaño

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The coral-Symbiodinium association is a critical component of coral reefs as it is the main primary producer and builds the reef's 3-dimensional structure. A breakdown of this endosymbiosis causes a loss of the dinoflagellate photosymbiont, Symbiodinium, and/or its photosynthetic pigments from the coral tissues (i.e., coral bleaching, and can lead to coral mortality. Coral bleaching has mostly been attributed to environmental stressors, and in some cases to bacterial infection. Viral lysis of Symbiodinium has been proposed as another possible cause of some instances of coral bleaching, but this hypothesis has not yet been experimentally confirmed. In this study, we used coral virome data to develop a novel PCR-based assay for examining the presence and diversity of a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA virus by targeting its major capsid protein (MCP gene. Illumina sequence analysis of amplicons obtained with novel primers showed 99.8% of the reads had the closest taxonomic affinity with the MCP gene of the virus, Heterocapsa circularisquama RNA virus (HcRNAV known to infect dinoflagellates, indicating that dinorna-like viruses are commonly associated with corals on the Great Barrier Reef. A phylogenetic analysis of MCP gene sequences revealed strong coral species specificity of viral operational taxon units (OTUs. This assay allows a relatively easy and rapid evaluation of the presence and diversity of this particular viral group and will assist in enhancing our understanding of the role of viral lysis in coral bleaching.

  12. Coral reef mesopredators switch prey, shortening food chains, in response to habitat degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempson, Tessa N; Graham, Nicholas A J; MacNeil, M Aaron; Williamson, David H; Jones, Geoffrey P; Almany, Glenn R

    2017-04-01

    Diet specificity is likely to be the key predictor of a predator's vulnerability to changing habitat and prey conditions. Understanding the degree to which predatory coral reef fishes adjust or maintain prey choice, in response to declines in coral cover and changes in prey availability, is critical for predicting how they may respond to reef habitat degradation. Here, we use stable isotope analyses to characterize the trophic structure of predator-prey interactions on coral reefs of the Keppel Island Group on the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. These reefs, previously typified by exceptionally high coral cover, have recently lost much of their coral cover due to coral bleaching and frequent inundation by sediment-laden, freshwater flood plumes associated with increased rainfall patterns. Long-term monitoring of these reefs demonstrates that, as coral cover declined, there has been a decrease in prey biomass, and a shift in dominant prey species from pelagic plankton-feeding damselfishes to territorial benthic algal-feeding damselfishes, resulting in differences in the principal carbon pathways in the food web. Using isotopes, we tested whether this changing prey availability could be detected in the diet of a mesopredator (coral grouper, Plectropomus maculatus). The δ(13)C signature in grouper tissue in the Keppel Islands shifted from a more pelagic to a more benthic signal, demonstrating a change in carbon sources aligning with the change in prey availability due to habitat degradation. Grouper with a more benthic carbon signature were also feeding at a lower trophic level, indicating a shortening in food chains. Further, we found a decline in the coral grouper population accompanying a decrease in total available prey biomass. Thus, while the ability to adapt diets could ameliorate the short-term impacts of habitat degradation on mesopredators, long-term effects may negatively impact mesopredator populations and alter the trophic structure of coral reef

  13. Successful treatment of osseous lesion associated with palatoradicular groove using local drug delivery and guided tissue regeneration: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakash S Gadagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental grooves are not rare and often appear on maxillary lateral and central incisors and are an important predisposing factor to localized periodontal disease. Various techniques have been adopted to eliminate the groove and regenerate lost periodontium. This report of two cases describes the technique of using the local drug delivery system with chlorehexidine and the guided tissue regeneration (GTR to control the disease progression and regeneration.

  14. The effect of aging of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues on the in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry signals in cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuovo, Allison J; Garofalo, Michela; Mikhail, Alexandria; Nicol, Alcina F; Vianna-Andrade, Cecilia; Nuovo, Gerard J

    2013-09-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues are widely used in biomedical research but little is known about the effect of the age of the block or unstained slides on the in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry signal. We compared the in situ-based and immunohistochemistry-based signals for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia samples that ranged from 0 to 15 years of age. There was a progressive and statistically significant decrease in the strength of the p16 signal when comparing tissues prepared from recent unstained slides (0 to 1 y old, mean score of 92%) to those of intermediate age (5 to 7 y old, mean score of 49%) to old unstained slides (cut 13 to 15 y ago, mean score of 10%). Equivalent, progressive, and significant decreases in the intensity of the signals for microRNAs, CD45, and human papillomavirus DNA were seen in tissues stored on slides from 5 to 7 years and 13 to 15 years, respectively. However, the diminution of signal was much less, although still statistically significant, if the sections from the 13- to 15-year-old paraffin blocks were prepared in 2012. The data likely does not represent degradation of the targets as extraction of several microRNA from the old blocks showed no detectable degradation, despite the markedly weakened in situ hybridization signal. It is concluded that in situ-based signal for DNA, microRNAs, and proteins in paraffin-embedded tissues are significantly reduced over time, especially when stored long term on glass slides which, in turn, can lead to a significant underestimation of the amount and presence of the nucleic acid or protein target.

  15. Successful treatment of osseous lesion associated with palatoradicular groove using local drug delivery and guided tissue regeneration: A report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Jayaprakash S Gadagi; Sugumari Elavarasu; Divya Ananda; Thamaraiselvan Murugan

    2012-01-01

    Developmental grooves are not rare and often appear on maxillary lateral and central incisors and are an important predisposing factor to localized periodontal disease. Various techniques have been adopted to eliminate the groove and regenerate lost periodontium. This report of two cases describes the technique of using the local drug delivery system with chlorehexidine and the guided tissue regeneration (GTR) to control the disease progression and regeneration.

  16. Assessing Coral Community Recovery from Coral Bleaching by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mombasa Marine National Park and Reserve and Reef Recovery. Abstract—In 2003 ... from sources of coral larvae from reefs in the south, and are seasonally influenced by nutrient-rich, cooler water due ..... Marine Pollution Bulletin. 42, 1264- ...

  17. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, Jessica E; Norris, Richard D; Black, Bryan A; Walsh, Sheila M; McField, Melanie

    2009-07-22

    Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following a major bleaching event, Montastraea faveolata coral growth rates at sites with higher local anthropogenic stressors remained suppressed for at least 8 years, while coral growth rates at sites with lower stress recovered in 2-3 years. Instead of promoting acclimatization, our data indicate that background stress reduces coral fitness and resilience to episodic events. We also suggest that reducing chronic stress through local coral reef management efforts may increase coral resilience to global climate change.

  18. Acute periodontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-06-01

    This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute

  19. Annual coral bleaching and the long-term recovery capacity of coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, Verena; Grottoli, Andréa G; Levas, Stephen J; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D; Baumann, Justin H; Matsui, Yohei; Warner, Mark E

    2015-11-22

    Mass bleaching events are predicted to occur annually later this century. Nevertheless, it remains unknown whether corals will be able to recover between annual bleaching events. Using a combined tank and field experiment, we simulated annual bleaching by exposing three Caribbean coral species (Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides and Orbicella faveolata) to elevated temperatures for 2.5 weeks in 2 consecutive years. The impact of annual bleaching stress on chlorophyll a, energy reserves, calcification, and tissue C and N isotopes was assessed immediately after the second bleaching and after both short- and long-term recovery on the reef (1.5 and 11 months, respectively). While P. divaricata and O. faveolata were able to recover from repeat bleaching within 1 year, P. astreoides experienced cumulative damage that prevented full recovery within this time frame, suggesting that repeat bleaching had diminished its recovery capacity. Specifically, P. astreoides was not able to recover protein and carbohydrate concentrations. As energy reserves promote bleaching resistance, failure to recover from annual bleaching within 1 year will likely result in the future demise of heat-sensitive coral species.

  20. Trehalose is a chemical attractant in the establishment of coral symbiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hagedorn

    Full Text Available Coral reefs have evolved with a crucial symbiosis between photosynthetic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium and their cnidarian hosts (Scleractinians. Most coral larvae take up Symbiodinium from their environment; however, the earliest steps in this process have been elusive. Here we demonstrate that the disaccharide trehalose may be an important signal from the symbiont to potential larval hosts. Symbiodinium freshly isolated from Fungia scutaria corals constantly released trehalose (but not sucrose, maltose or glucose into seawater, and released glycerol only in the presence of coral tissue. Spawning Fungia adults increased symbiont number in their immediate area by excreting pellets of Symbiodinium, and when these naturally discharged Symbiodinium were cultured, they also released trehalose. In Y-maze experiments, coral larvae demonstrated chemoattractant and feeding behaviors only towards a chamber with trehalose or glycerol. Concomitantly, coral larvae and adult tissue, but not symbionts, had significant trehalase enzymatic activities, suggesting the capacity to utilize trehalose. Trehalase activity was developmentally regulated in F. scutaria larvae, rising as the time for symbiont uptake occurs. Consistent with the enzymatic assays, gene finding demonstrated the presence of a trehalase enzyme in the genome of a related coral, Acropora digitifera, and a likely trehalase in the transcriptome of F. scutaria. Taken together, these data suggest that adult F. scutaria seed the reef with Symbiodinium during spawning and the exuded Symbiodinium release trehalose into the environment, which acts as a chemoattractant for F. scutaria larvae and as an initiator of feeding behavior- the first stages toward establishing the coral-Symbiodinium relationship. Because trehalose is a fixed carbon compound, this cue would accurately demonstrate to the cnidarian larvae the photosynthetic ability of the potential symbiont in the ambient environment. To our

  1. Stable mucus-associated bacterial communities in bleached and healthy corals of Porites lobata from the Arabian Seas

    KAUST Repository

    Hadaidi, Ghaida

    2017-03-31

    Coral reefs are subject to coral bleaching manifested by the loss of endosymbiotic algae from coral host tissue. Besides algae, corals associate with bacteria. In particular, bacteria residing in the surface mucus layer are thought to mediate coral health, but their role in coral bleaching is unknown. We collected mucus from bleached and healthy Porites lobata colonies in the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) and the Red Sea (RS) to investigate bacterial microbiome composition using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We found that bacterial community structure was notably similar in bleached and healthy corals, and the most abundant bacterial taxa were identical. However, fine-scale differences in bacterial community composition between the PAG and RS were present and aligned with predicted differences in sulfur- and nitrogen-cycling processes. Based on our data, we argue that bleached corals benefit from the stable composition of mucus bacteria that resemble their healthy coral counterparts and presumably provide a conserved suite of protective functions, but monitoring of post-bleaching survival is needed to further confirm this assumption. Conversely, fine-scale site-specific differences highlight flexibility of the bacterial microbiome that may underlie adjustment to local environmental conditions and contribute to the widespread success of Porites lobata.

  2. Effects of cold stress and heat stress on coral fluorescence in reef-building corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Melissa S; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2013-01-01

    Widespread temperature stress has caused catastrophic coral bleaching events that have been devastating for coral reefs. Here, we evaluate whether coral fluorescence could be utilized as a noninvasive assessment for coral health. We conducted cold and heat stress treatments on the branching coral Acropora yongei, and found that green fluorescent protein (GFP) concentration and fluorescence decreased with declining coral health, prior to initiation of bleaching. Ultimately, cold-treated corals acclimated and GFP concentration and fluorescence recovered. In contrast, heat-treated corals eventually bleached but showed strong fluorescence despite reduced GFP concentration, likely resulting from the large reduction in shading from decreased dinoflagellate density. Consequently, GFP concentration and fluorescence showed distinct correlations in non-bleached and bleached corals. Green fluorescence was positively correlated with dinoflagellate photobiology, but its closest correlation was with coral growth suggesting that green fluorescence could be used as a physiological proxy for health in some corals.

  3. Fungi and their role in corals and coral reef ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Ravindran, J.

    to colourful, hard and soft corals, sponges, a diverse population of fishes, holothurians, calciferous algae and other myriad communities (Connell 1978). They support tourism, food production and coastal protection from natural hazards. Corals fall in two... in the French Polynesia (Golubic et al. 2005). Bak and Laane (1987) observed a dark mycelial fungus with perithecia, probably belonging to Ascomycetes in black bands of Porites species in the eastern part of the Indonesian Archipelago. Partial dissolution...

  4. Coral transplantation triggers shift in microbiome and promotion of coral disease associated potential pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Jordan M; Connolly, Sean R; Ainsworth, Tracy D

    2015-07-06

    By cultivating turf algae and aggressively defending their territories, territorial damselfishes in the genus Stegastes play a major role in shaping coral-algal dynamics on coral reefs. The epilithic algal matrix (EAM) inside Stegastes' territories is known to harbor high abundances of potential coral disease pathogens. To determine the impact of territorial grazers on coral microbial assemblages, we established a coral transplant inside and outside of Stegastes' territories. Over the course of one year, the percent mortality of transplanted corals was monitored and coral samples were collected for microbial analysis. As compared to outside damselfish territories, Stegastes were associated with a higher rate of mortality of transplanted corals. However, 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that territorial grazers do not differentially impact the microbial assemblage of corals exposed to the EAM. Regardless of Stegastes presence or absence, coral transplantation resulted in a shift in the coral-associated microbial community and an increase in coral disease associated potential pathogens. Further, transplanted corals that suffer low to high mortality undergo a microbial transition from a microbiome similar to that of healthy corals to that resembling the EAM. These findings demonstrate that coral transplantation significantly impacts coral microbial communities, and transplantation may increase susceptibility to coral disease.

  5. Heterotrophic compensation: a possible mechanism for resilience of coral reefs to global warming or a sign of prolonged stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Hughes

    Full Text Available Thermally induced bleaching has caused a global decline in corals and the frequency of such bleaching events will increase. Thermal bleaching severely disrupts the trophic behaviour of the coral holobiont, reducing the photosynthetically derived energy available to the coral host. In the short term this reduction in energy transfer from endosymbiotic algae results in an energy deficit for the coral host. If the bleaching event is short-lived then the coral may survive this energy deficit by depleting its lipid reserves, or by increasing heterotrophic energy acquisition. We show for the first time that the coral animal is capable of increasing the amount of heterotrophic carbon incorporated into its tissues for almost a year following bleaching. This prolonged heterotrophic compensation could be a sign of resilience or prolonged stress. If the heterotrophic compensation is in fact an acclimatization response, then this physiological response could act as a buffer from future bleaching by providing sufficient heterotrophic energy to compensate for photoautotrophic energy losses during bleaching, and potentially minimizing the effect of subsequent elevated temperature stresses. However, if the elevated incorporation of zooplankton is a sign that the effects of bleaching continue to be stressful on the holobiont, even after 11 months of recovery, then this physiological response would indicate that complete coral recovery requires more than 11 months to achieve. If coral bleaching becomes an annual global phenomenon by mid-century, then present temporal refugia will not be sufficient to allow coral colonies to recover between bleaching events and coral reefs will become increasingly less resilient to future climate change. If, however, increasing their sequestration of zooplankton-derived nutrition into their tissues over prolonged periods of time is a compensating mechanism, the impacts of annual bleaching may be reduced. Thus, some coral species

  6. Heterotrophic Compensation: A Possible Mechanism for Resilience of Coral Reefs to Global Warming or a Sign of Prolonged Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adam D.; Grottoli, Andréa G.

    2013-01-01

    Thermally induced bleaching has caused a global decline in corals and the frequency of such bleaching events will increase. Thermal bleaching severely disrupts the trophic behaviour of the coral holobiont, reducing the photosynthetically derived energy available to the coral host. In the short term this reduction in energy transfer from endosymbiotic algae results in an energy deficit for the coral host. If the bleaching event is short-lived then the coral may survive this energy deficit by depleting its lipid reserves, or by increasing heterotrophic energy acquisition. We show for the first time that the coral animal is capable of increasing the amount of heterotrophic carbon incorporated into its tissues for almost a year following bleaching. This prolonged heterotrophic compensation could be a sign of resilience or prolonged stress. If the heterotrophic compensation is in fact an acclimatization response, then this physiological response could act as a buffer from future bleaching by providing sufficient heterotrophic energy to compensate for photoautotrophic energy losses during bleaching, and potentially minimizing the effect of subsequent elevated temperature stresses. However, if the elevated incorporation of zooplankton is a sign that the effects of bleaching continue to be stressful on the holobiont, even after 11 months of recovery, then this physiological response would indicate that complete coral recovery requires more than 11 months to achieve. If coral bleaching becomes an annual global phenomenon by mid-century, then present temporal refugia will not be sufficient to allow coral colonies to recover between bleaching events and coral reefs will become increasingly less resilient to future climate change. If, however, increasing their sequestration of zooplankton-derived nutrition into their tissues over prolonged periods of time is a compensating mechanism, the impacts of annual bleaching may be reduced. Thus, some coral species may be better

  7. Mycosporine-like amino acids from coral dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosic, Nedeljka N; Dove, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    Coral reefs are one of the most important marine ecosystems, providing habitat for approximately a quarter of all marine organisms. Within the foundation of this ecosystem, reef-building corals form mutualistic symbioses with unicellular photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Exposure to UV radiation (UVR) (280 to 400 nm) especially when combined with thermal stress has been recognized as an important abiotic factor leading to the loss of algal symbionts from coral tissue and/or a reduction in their pigment concentration and coral bleaching. UVR may damage biological macromolecules, increase the level of mutagenesis in cells, and destabilize the symbiosis between the coral host and their dinoflagellate symbionts. In nature, corals and other marine organisms are protected from harmful UVR through several important photoprotective mechanisms that include the synthesis of UV-absorbing compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). MAAs are small (<400-Da), colorless, water-soluble compounds made of a cyclohexenone or cyclohexenimine chromophore that is bound to an amino acid residue or its imino alcohol. These secondary metabolites are natural biological sunscreens characterized by a maximum absorbance in the UVA and UVB ranges of 310 to 362 nm. In addition to their photoprotective role, MAAs act as antioxidants scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suppressing singlet oxygen-induced damage. It has been proposed that MAAs are synthesized during the first part of the shikimate pathway, and recently, it has been suggested that they are synthesized in the pentose phosphate pathway. The shikimate pathway is not found in animals, but in plants and microbes, it connects the metabolism of carbohydrates to the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds. However, both the complete enzymatic pathway of MAA synthesis and the extent of their regulation by environmental conditions are not known. This minireview discusses the current knowledge of MAA

  8. Metabolic rates and tissue composition of the coral Pocillopora verrucosa over 12 latitudes in the Red Sea characterized by strong temperature and nutrient gradient, supplement to: Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, A; Hohn, S; Banguera-Hinestroza, E; Voolstra, Christian R; Wahl, Martin (2015): Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming. Scientific Reports, 5, 8940

    KAUST Repository

    Sawall, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12 degrees latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5 degrees N, 21-27 degrees C) and southern (16.5 degrees N, 28-33 degrees C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29 degrees C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals

  9. Precious Coral Logbook Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a federally mandated logbook program for harvesting precious coral, and it is required to be mailed in to PIFSC after a fishing trip. Data is from 1999-2000....

  10. Coral bleaching: the role of the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Andrew H; Bhagooli, Ranjeet; Ralph, Peter J; Takahashi, Shunichi

    2009-01-01

    Coral bleaching caused by global warming is one of the major threats to coral reefs. Very recently, research has focused on the possibility of corals switching symbionts as a means of adjusting to accelerating increases in sea surface temperature. Although symbionts are clearly of fundamental importance, many aspects of coral bleaching cannot be readily explained by differences in symbionts among coral species. Here we outline several potential mechanisms by which the host might influence the bleaching response, and conclude that predicting the fate of corals in response to climate change requires both members of the symbiosis to be considered equally.

  11. Coral Sr-U Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, T. M.; Gaetani, G. A.; Cohen, A. L.; Foster, G. L.; Alpert, A.; Stewart, J.

    2016-12-01

    Coral skeletons archive the past two millennia of climate variability in the oceans with unrivaled temporal resolution. However, extracting accurate temperature information from coral skeletons is confounded by "vital effects", which often override the temperature dependence of geochemical proxies. Here, we present a new approach to coral paleothermometry based on results of abiogenic precipitation experiments interpreted within a framework provided by a quantitative model of the coral biomineralization process. We conducted laboratory experiments to test the temperature and carbonate chemistry controls on abiogenic partitioning of Sr/Ca and U/Ca between aragonite and seawater, and we modeled the sensitivity of skeletal composition to processes occurring at the site of calcification. The model predicts that temperature can be accurately reconstructed from coral skeleton by combining Sr/Ca and U/Ca ratios into a new proxy, Sr-U. We tested the model predictions with measured Sr/Ca and U/Ca ratios of fourteen Porites sp. corals collected from the tropical Pacific Ocean and the Red Sea, with a subset also analyzed using the boron isotope (δ11B) pH proxy. Observed relationships among Sr/Ca, U/Ca, and δ11B agree with model predictions, indicating that the model accounts for the key features of the coral biomineralization process. We calibrated Sr-U to instrumental temperature records and found that it captures 93% of mean annual variability (26-30 °C) and predicts temperature within 0.5 °C (1 σ). Conversely, Sr/Ca alone has an error of prediction of 1 °C and often diverges from observed temperature by 3 °C or more. Many of the problems afflicting Sr/Ca - including offsets among neighboring corals and decouplings from temperature during coral stress events - are reconciled by Sr-U. By accounting for the influence of the coral biomineralization process, the Sr-U thermometer may offer significantly improved reliability for reconstructing ocean temperatures from coral

  12. 声触诊组织量化技术鉴别诊断肝脏局灶性病变%Virtual touch tissue quantification in differential diagnosis of focal liver lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏凌琳; 叶真; 徐秋晨

    2012-01-01

    To explore the clinical application value of virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) in the differential diagnosis of focal liver lesions. Methods VTQ technique was performed on 93 patients with 96 focal liver lesions and 15 healthy volunteers to obtain shear wave velocity (SWV) values of lesions and liver parenchyma. Results Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of SWV values of focal liver lesions, normal liver parenchyma and peripheral liver parenchyma of the focal lesions by two operators were all over 0. 71. The average SWV value of malignant group was the highest, followed by that of benign group and then normal group (P0. 05). The average SWV value of the liver parenchyma in malignant group was higher than that in benign group and normal group (P0. 05). There was no statistical difference of SWV values of the liver parenchyma between hemangioma and FNH, neither among liver metastatic carcinoma, HCC, cirrhotic nodules and cholangiocellu-lar carcinoma (P>0. 05). Conclusion VTQ technique provides quantitative information which can reflect the hardness of focal liver lesions, therefore being helpful to the differential diagnosis of focal liver lesions.%目的 探讨声触诊组织量化(VTQ)技术在肝脏局灶性病变鉴别诊断中的临床应用价值.方法 采用VTQ技术对93例肝脏局灶性病变患者96个病灶及15名正常志愿者进行检测,获取病灶及肝实质的剪切波速度( SWV)值.结果 病变组与正常对照组的SWV值的组内相关系数(ICC)均>0.71.恶性病变组SWV值最大,良性组次之,正常对照组最低(P<0.05),以SWV=1.96 m/s作为良、恶性病变的诊断阈值,诊断恶性病变的准确率、敏感度、特异度、阳性和阴性预测值分别91.68%,98.41%,80.02%,89.62%和96.57%;血管瘤与肝硬化结节及局灶性结节增生(FNH)、肝细胞癌(HCC)与肝转移癌的SWV差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).局灶性恶性病变组周围肝实质SWV值大于良性组及正常组(P<0

  13. Does coral disease affect symbiodinium? Investigating the impacts of growth anomaly on symbiont photophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Henrik Robert Burns

    Full Text Available Growth anomaly (GA is a commonly observed coral disease that impairs biological functions of the affected tissue. GA is prevalent at Wai 'ōpae tide pools, southeast Hawai 'i Island. Here two distinct forms of this disease, Type A and Type B, affect the coral, Montiporacapitata. While the effects of GA on biology and ecology of the coral host are beginning to be understood, the impact of this disease on the photophysiology of the dinoflagellate symbiont, Symbiodinium spp., has not been investigated. The GA clearly alters coral tissue structure and skeletal morphology and density. These tissue and skeletal changes are likely to modify not only the light micro-environment of the coral tissue, which has a direct impact on the photosynthetic potential of Symbiodinium spp., but also the physiological interactions within the symbiosis. This study utilized Pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry (PAM to characterize the photophysiology of healthy and GA-affected M. capitata tissue. Overall, endosymbionts within GA-affected tissue exhibit reduced photochemical efficiency. Values of both Fv/Fm and ΔF/ Fm' were significantly lower (p<0.01 in GA tissue compared to healthy and unaffected tissues. Tracking the photophysiology of symbionts over a diurnal time period enabled a comparison of symbiont responses to photosynthetically available radiation (PAR among tissue conditions. Symbionts within GA tissue exhibited the lowest values of ΔF/Fm' as well as the highest pressure over photosystem II (p<0.01. This study provides evidence that the symbionts within GA-affected tissue are photochemically compromised compared to those residing in healthy tissue.

  14. Static measurements of the resilience of Caribbean coral populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Bruckner

    2012-03-01

    dead M. annularis colonies were common, survivors were frequently reduced in size and subdivided into smaller tissue remnants, and these species exhibited higher amounts of partial mortality than all other species. A notable absence of sexual recruits and juveniles of M. annularis illustrates a progressive shift away from a Montastraea dominated system. This shift, characterized by an increasing dominance of smaller, short-lived species such as Agaricia and Porites and a reduction in size of longer-lived massive corals, is occurring throughout the Caribbean. Monitoring of the survival of recruits is necessary to determine whether Caribbean reefs will retain the same function, structure, identity and feedbacks (key signs of resilience if the losses of M. annularis (complex continue at present levels. The rapid assessment protocol utilized here allows characterization of colony size structure, partial mortality, recruitment, and whether small corals represent surviving recruits that increased in size or larger (older colonies that continue to shrink in size. This approach can help determine the history of a site and its resilience.En la actualidad se está viendo en el Caribe un cambio en la composición de los corales constructores de arrecifes, aumento en la cobertura de macroalgas y otras especies, un aumento en áreas cubiertas por escombros de corales, y una pérdida de relieve. La incorporación de principios de resiliencia en el manejo es una estrategia propuesta para revertir esta tendencia y asegurar la sobrevivencia y el adecuado funcionamiento de los arrecifes de coral bajo escenarios previstos de cambio climático. Sin embargo, todavía quedan grandes vacíos en la comprensión de los factores que promueven la resiliencia. Evaluaciones rápidas realizadas con la metodología AGRRA (Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment y con el protocolo de Evaluación de Resiliencia para arrecifes coralinos de la IUCN brindan información de línea base sobre la

  15. Physical state and expression of HPV DNA in benign and dysplastic cervical tissue: different levels of viral integration are correlated with lesion grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudelist, Gernot; Manavi, Mahmood; Pischinger, Kerstin I D; Watkins-Riedel, Thomas; Singer, Christian F; Kubista, E; Czerwenka, Klaus F

    2004-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most important event in the malignant transformation of human cervical epithelium. Several high-risk (HR-)HPV subtypes have been identified, which lead to CIN and subsequently to invasive carcinoma. The reason for this phenomenon is still unknown, but it seems to be related to the physical state of HPV DNA. Digene HC II test was used to identify HR- and/or low-risk (LR-)HPV infections in cervical swabs of 275 women attending our clinic for routine cytological screening and/or colposcopy because of an abnormal Pap smear comprising low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL) and high-grade SIL (HGSIL). Specific HR (16, 18, 31, 33, 52b, 58) and LR (6, 11) subtypes were characterized in cervical biopsies of 10 women with benign cellular changes and of 68 women with CIN I-III by the PCR-restriction enzyme method. The physical state of HPV DNA (episomal, mixed and integrated form) was analyzed by bi-dimensional (2D)-gel electrophoresis. In addition, mRNA expression of E6/E7 genes was analyzed by RT-PCR. Furthermore, the relative virus load was determined in nine selected cases. The physical state and transcriptional activity of HPV DNA were then correlated to histopathological results. LR-HPV infection [27 cases (9.8%)] and HR-HPV infection [121 cases (44%)] of cervical swabs were clearly correlated to the degree of SIL. Further HPV typing in cervical biopsies of 78 women showed that HPV6 and 11 were restricted to benign cellular changes, CIN I and II, whereas HPV16 and 18 were observed predominantly in CIN III/CIS (P=0.01). No clear distribution pattern was observed for HPV31, 33, 52b and 58. Expression of HPV E6 and E7 transcripts was uniformly correlated with the different physical state of HPV DNA. Analyzing the physical state of these HPV subtypes, HPV6 and 11 could only be detected as an episomal form, independent of SIL grade. In normal epithelium and in CIN I and II, HPV16 and 18 were exclusively found in the

  16. Coral reef resilience through biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    Irrefutable evidence of coral reef degradation worldwide and increasing pressure from rising seawater temperatures and ocean acidification associated with climate change have led to a focus on reef resilience and a call to “manage” coral reefs for resilience. Ideally, global action to reduce emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will be accompanied by local action. Effective management requires reduction of local stressors, identification of the characteristics of resilient reefs, and design of marine protected area networks that include potentially resilient reefs. Future research is needed on how stressors interact, on how climate change will affect corals, fish, and other reef organisms as well as overall biodiversity, and on basic ecological processes such as connectivity. Not all reef species and reefs will respond similarly to local and global stressors. Because reef-building corals and other organisms have some potential to adapt to environmental changes, coral reefs will likely persist in spite of the unprecedented combination of stressors currently affecting them. The biodiversity of coral reefs is the basis for their remarkable beauty and for the benefits they provide to society. The extraordinary complexity of these ecosystems makes it both more difficult to predict their future and more likely they will have a future.

  17. Heterotrophy promotes the re-establishment of photosynthate translocation in a symbiotic coral after heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Gori, Andrea; Maguer, Jean François; Hoogenboom, Mia; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

    2016-12-01

    Symbiotic scleractinian corals are particularly affected by climate change stress and respond by bleaching (losing their symbiotic dinoflagellate partners). Recently, the energetic status of corals is emerging as a particularly important factor that determines the corals’ vulnerability to heat stress. However, detailed studies of coral energetic that trace the flow of carbon from symbionts to host are still sparse. The present study thus investigates the impact of heat stress on the nutritional interactions between dinoflagellates and coral Stylophora pistillata maintained under auto- and heterotrophy. First, we demonstrated that the percentage of autotrophic carbon retained in the symbionts was significantly higher during heat stress than under non-stressful conditions, in both fed and unfed colonies. This higher photosynthate retention in symbionts translated into lower rates of carbon translocation, which required the coral host to use tissue energy reserves to sustain its respiratory needs. As calcification rates were positively correlated to carbon translocation, a significant decrease in skeletal growth was observed during heat stress. This study also provides evidence that heterotrophic nutrient supply enhances the re-establishment of normal nutritional exchanges between the two symbiotic partners in the coral S. pistillata, but it did not mitigate the effects of temperature stress on coral calcification.

  18. Germ cell development in the scleractinian coral Euphyllia ancora (Cnidaria, Anthozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Shikina

    Full Text Available Sexual reproduction of scleractinian coral is among the most important means of establishing coral populations. However, thus far, little is known about the mechanisms underlying coral gametogenesis. To better understand coral germ cell development, we performed a histological analysis of gametogenesis in Euphyllia ancora and characterized the coral homolog of the Drosophila germline marker gene vasa. The histological analysis revealed that E. ancora gametogenesis occurs in the mesenterial mesoglea between the mesenterial filaments and the retractor muscle bands. The development of germ cells takes approximately one year in females and half a year in males. Staining of tissue sections with an antibody against E. ancora Vasa (Eavas revealed anti-Eavas immunoreactivity in the oogonia, early oocyte, and developing oocyte, but only faint or undetectable reactivity in developing oocytes that were >150 µm in diameters. In males, Eavas could be detected in the spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes but was only faintly detectable in the secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, and sperms. Furthermore, a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blotting analysis of unfertilized mature eggs proved the presence of Eavas transcripts and proteins, suggesting that Eavas may be a maternal factor. Vasa may represent a germ cell marker for corals, and would allow us to distinguish germ cells from somatic cells in coral bodies that have no distinct organs.

  19. An aposymbiotic primary coral polyp counteracts acidification by active pH regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoshikazu; Iguchi, Akira; Shinzato, Chuya; Inoue, Mayuri; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Corals build their skeletons using extracellular calcifying fluid located in the tissue–skeleton interface. However, the mechanism by which corals control the transport of calcium and other ions from seawater and the mechanism of constant alkalization of calcifying fluid are largely unknown. To address these questions, we performed direct pH imaging at calcification sites (subcalicoblastic medium, SCM) to visualize active pH upregulation in live aposymbiotic primary coral polyps treated with HCl-acidified seawater. Active alkalization was observed in all individuals using vital staining method while the movement of HPTS and Alexa Fluor to SCM suggests that certain ions such as H+ could diffuse via a paracellular pathway to SCM. Among them, we discovered acid-induced oscillations in the pH of SCM (pHSCM), observed in 24% of polyps examined. In addition, we discovered acid-induced pH up-regulation waves in 21% of polyps examined, which propagated among SCMs after exposure to acidified seawater. Our results showed that corals can regulate pHSCM more dynamically than was previously believed. These observations will have important implications for determining how corals regulate pHSCM during calcification. We propose that corals can sense ambient seawater pH via their innate pH-sensitive systems and regulate pHSCM using several unknown pH-regulating ion transporters that coordinate with multicellular signaling occurring in coral tissue.

  20. Review on Association Between Corals and Their Symbiotic Microorganisms From the Ecology and Biotechnology Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Amini Khoei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corals have a diversity of prokaryotic communities as an internal or external symbiotic . This review will examine the association between corals and their symbiotic microorganisms from the ecology and biotechnology perspective. Material and Methods: In this study, articles were examined which indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and Scirus databases. Keywords we used included coral, symbiotic microorganisms, ecology, and biotechnology. Finally, overall of 120 articles and reports, 103 articles were evaluated by eliminating the same articles. Results: The Corals symbiotic microorganisms stay on in the ecological niches such as the surface mucus layer, tissue and their skeleton. They play role in the cycle of sulfur, nitrogen fixation, production of antimicrobial compounds and protect corals against pathogens. Many bioactive compounds which attributed to invertebrates such as sponges and corals in fact they are produced by symbiotic bacteria. Various metabolites produced by these microorganisms can be used as medicine. Five screening strategies including conventional screening, met genomics, genomics, combinatorial biosynthesis, and synthetic biology are used for marine microbial natural products discovery and development. Conclusion: According to the collected material we can be concluded that, the ecological studies about the natural association between corals and their symbiotic microorganisms were technological prerequisite for biomedical research and they make clear the road to attainment to bioactive compounds in fauna. Also, in the first step, it is recommended that modern technology and advanced screening methods used to identification of marine organisms and then to identify secondary metabolites among them.

  1. Natural disease resistance in threatened staghorn corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Steven V; Kline, David I

    2008-01-01

    Disease epidemics have caused extensive damage to tropical coral reefs and to the reef-building corals themselves, yet nothing is known about the abilities of the coral host to resist disease infection. Understanding the potential for natural disease resistance in corals is critically important, especially in the Caribbean where the two ecologically dominant shallow-water corals, Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata, have suffered an unprecedented mass die-off due to White Band Disease (WBD), and are now listed as threatened under the US Threatened Species Act and as critically endangered under the IUCN Red List criteria. Here we examine the potential for natural resistance to WBD in the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis by combining microsatellite genotype information with in situ transmission assays and field monitoring of WBD on tagged genotypes. We show that six percent of staghorn coral genotypes (3 out of 49) are resistant to WBD. This natural resistance to WBD in staghorn corals represents the first evidence of host disease resistance in scleractinian corals and demonstrates that staghorn corals have an innate ability to resist WBD infection. These resistant staghorn coral genotypes may explain why pockets of Acropora have been able to survive the WBD epidemic. Understanding disease resistance in these corals may be the critical link to restoring populations of these once dominant corals throughout their range.

  2. Natural disease resistance in threatened staghorn corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven V Vollmer

    Full Text Available Disease epidemics have caused extensive damage to tropical coral reefs and to the reef-building corals themselves, yet nothing is known about the abilities of the coral host to resist disease infection. Understanding the potential for natural disease resistance in corals is critically important, especially in the Caribbean where the two ecologically dominant shallow-water corals, Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata, have suffered an unprecedented mass die-off due to White Band Disease (WBD, and are now listed as threatened under the US Threatened Species Act and as critically endangered under the IUCN Red List criteria. Here we examine the potential for natural resistance to WBD in the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis by combining microsatellite genotype information with in situ transmission assays and field monitoring of WBD on tagged genotypes. We show that six percent of staghorn coral genotypes (3 out of 49 are resistant to WBD. This natural resistance to WBD in staghorn corals represents the first evidence of host disease resistance in scleractinian corals and demonstrates that staghorn corals have an innate ability to resist WBD infection. These resistant staghorn coral genotypes may explain why pockets of Acropora have been able to survive the WBD epidemic. Understanding disease resistance in these corals may be the critical link to restoring populations of these once dominant corals throughout their range.

  3. Coral calcification and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiel, Paul L.; Jury, Christopher P.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 60 years ago, the discovery that light increased calcification in the coral plant-animal symbiosis triggered interest in explaining the phenomenon and understanding the mechanisms involved. Major findings along the way include the observation that carbon fixed by photosynthesis in the zooxanthellae is translocated to animal cells throughout the colony and that corals can therefore live as autotrophs in many situations. Recent research has focused on explaining the observed reduction in calcification rate with increasing ocean acidification (OA). Experiments have shown a direct correlation between declining ocean pH, declining aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), declining [CO32_] and coral calcification. Nearly all previous reports on OA identify Ωarag or its surrogate [CO32] as the factor driving coral calcification. However, the alternate “Proton Flux Hypothesis” stated that coral calcification is controlled by diffusion limitation of net H+ transport through the boundary layer in relation to availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The “Two Compartment Proton Flux Model” expanded this explanation and synthesized diverse observations into a universal model that explains many paradoxes of coral metabolism, morphology and plasticity of growth form in addition to observed coral skeletal growth response to OA. It is now clear that irradiance is the main driver of net photosynthesis (Pnet), which in turn drives net calcification (Gnet), and alters pH in the bulk water surrounding the coral. Pnet controls [CO32] and thus Ωarag of the bulk water over the diel cycle. Changes in Ωarag and pH lag behind Gnet throughout the daily cycle by two or more hours. The flux rate Pnet, rather than concentration-based parameters (e.g., Ωarag, [CO3 2], pH and [DIC]:[H+] ratio) is the primary driver of Gnet. Daytime coral metabolism rapidly removes DIC from the bulk seawater. Photosynthesis increases the bulk seawater pH while providing the energy that drives

  4. THE CONDITION OF CORAL REEFS IN SOUTH FLORIDA (2000) USING CORAL DISEASE AND BLEACHING AS INDICATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The destruction for coral reef habitats is occurring at unprecedented levels. Coral disease epizootics in the Southwestern Atlantic have lead to coral replacement by turf algae, prompting a call to classify some coral species as endangered. In addition, a massive bleaching event ...

  5. THE CONDITION OF CORAL REEFS IN SOUTH FLORIDA (2000) USING CORAL DISEASE AND BLEACHING AS INDICATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The destruction for coral reef habitats is occurring at unprecedented levels. Coral disease epizootics in the Southwestern Atlantic have lead to coral replacement by turf algae, prompting a call to classify some coral species as endangered. In addition, a massive bleaching event ...

  6. 21 CFR 882.4400 - Radiofrequency lesion generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiofrequency lesion generator. 882.4400 Section... lesion generator. (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion generator is a device used to produce lesions in the nervous system or other tissue by the direct application of radiofrequency currents to...

  7. The Clinical Value Discussion of Using CT to Diagnose Coronary Disease Which Caused Brain Tissue Lesions%应用CT诊断冠心病引起脑组织病变的临床价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立莎

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨CT诊断冠心病引起脑组织病变的临床应用价值。方法:将选取的100例冠心病引起脑组织病变患者按年龄分为老年组和非老年组,其中老年组54例,非老年组46例,采用CT对所有患者进行检查,观察其检查结果、两组的CT特点和所出现的临床表现。结果:CT检查显示局限性低密度区改变、豆状核边界不清、大脑中动脉区改变和双侧额极低密度改变等病灶非常明确,具有较高的阳性诊断率;非老年组患者CT检查显示的单侧脑组织病灶明显多于老年组,显示的多脑组织病灶则明显较老年组少,两组比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);老年组中患者的构音障碍、偏瘫和意识障碍等明显较非老年组多见,而出现偏身感觉障碍、头晕和头痛等症状明显少于非老年组,差异均具有统计学意义(P均<0.05)。结论:常规CT扫描检查对于冠心病引起脑组织病变的患者的诊断具有比较重要的临床价值,与临床表现结合可对患者做出明确诊断。%Objectives:To discuss clinical application value of using CT to diagnose coronary disease which caused brain tissue lesions.Methods:Divided those 100 cases of coronary disease which caused brain tissue lesions patients into senile group and non-senile group according to their ages,senile group has 54 cases,while non-senile group has 46 cases,adopted CT to check up all of the patients,observed their inspection results,these two groups’ CT characteristics and their clinical features.Results:CT examination showed that change of limitations low density area,unclear boundary of lenticular nucleus, change of the brain artery area and change of bilateral forehead extremely low density these nidus were very clear,it has fairly high positive diagnosisi rate;Unilateral brain tissue focus which showed in non-senile group through the CT examination is obviously more than senile group

  8. Coral Reef Watch, Hotspots, 50 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Coral Reef Watch provides Coral Bleaching hotspot maps derived from NOAA's Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). This data provides global area...

  9. Coral Reef Ecosystems Monitoring Feature Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Ecosystem Monitoring feature service hosted on ArcGIS Online provides access to data collected in the Mariana Archipelago by the Coral Reef Ecosystem...

  10. AFSC/ABL: Coldwater coral growth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Colonies of the gorgonian coral Calcigorgia spiculifera were tagged at three sites in Southeast Alaska, Little Port Walter, Tenakee Inlet, and Kelp Bay. The corals...

  11. Elkhorn and Staghorn Corals Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) and staghorn coral (A. cervicornis) as designated by 73 FR 72210, November 26, 2008,...

  12. Fisheries management: what chance on coral reefs?

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Failures of fishery management to control fishing effort globally and how this affects the coral reef fisheries are discussed. The use of marine reserves in coral reef fisheries management is also emphasized.

  13. LEGACY - EOP Temperature data for deep corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Thermographs were deployed opportunistically in patches of deep coral at depths greater than 300 m. Sites included the Makapuu precious coral bed, the Cross Seamount...

  14. Biomedical and veterinary science can increase our understanding of coral disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Richardson, Laurie L.; Reynolds, T.L.; Willis, Bette L.

    2008-01-01

    A balanced approach to coral disease investigation is critical for understanding the global decline of corals. Such an approach should involve the proper use of biomedical concepts, tools, and terminology to address confusion and promote clarity in the coral disease literature. Investigating disease in corals should follow a logical series of steps including identification of disease, systematic morphologic descriptions of lesions at the gross and cellular levels, measurement of health indices, and experiments to understand disease pathogenesis and the complex interactions between host, pathogen, and the environment. This model for disease investigation is widely accepted in the medical, veterinary and invertebrate pathology disciplines. We present standard biomedical rationale behind the detection, description, and naming of diseases and offer examples of the application of Koch's postulates to elucidate the etiology of some infectious diseases. Basic epidemiologic concepts are introduced to help investigators think systematically about the cause(s) of complex diseases. A major goal of disease investigation in corals and other organisms is to gather data that will enable the establishment of standardized case definitions to distinguish among diseases. Concepts and facts amassed from empirical studies over the centuries by medical and veterinary pathologists have standardized disease investigation and are invaluable to coral researchers because of the robust comparisons they enable; examples of these are given throughout this paper. Arguments over whether coral diseases are caused by primary versus opportunistic pathogens reflect the lack of data available to prove or refute such hypotheses and emphasize the need for coral disease investigations that focus on: characterizing the normal microbiota and physiology of the healthy host; defining ecological interactions within the microbial community associated with the host; and investigating host immunity, host

  15. Optimization of DNA extraction for advancing coral microbiota investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Laura; DeForce, Emelia; Apprill, Amy

    2017-02-08

    DNA-based sequencing approaches are commonly used to identify microorganisms and their genes and document trends in microbial community diversity in environmental samples. However, extraction of microbial DNA from complex environmental samples like corals can be technically challenging, and extraction methods may impart biases on microbial community structure. We designed a two-phase study in order to propose a comprehensive and efficient method for DNA extraction from microbial cells present in corals and investigate if extraction method influences microbial community composition. During phase I, total DNA was extracted from seven coral species in a replicated experimental design using four different MO BIO Laboratories, Inc., DNA Isolation kits: PowerSoil®, PowerPlant® Pro, PowerBiofilm®, and UltraClean® Tissue & Cells (with three homogenization permutations). Technical performance of the treatments was evaluated using DNA yield and amplification efficiency of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU ribosomal RNA (rRNA)) genes. During phase II, potential extraction biases were examined via microbial community analysis of SSU rRNA gene sequences amplified from the most successful DNA extraction treatments. In phase I of the study, the PowerSoil® and PowerPlant® Pro extracts contained low DNA concentrations, amplified poorly, and were not investigated further. Extracts from PowerBiofilm® and UltraClean® Tissue and Cells permutations were further investigated in phase II, and analysis of sequences demonstrated that overall microbial community composition was dictated by coral species and not extraction treatment. Finer pairwise comparisons of sequences obtained from Orbicella faveolata, Orbicella annularis, and Acropora humilis corals revealed subtle differences in community composition between the treatments; PowerBiofilm®-associated sequences generally had higher microbial richness and the highest coverage of dominant microbial groups in comparison to the Ultra

  16. Unusual lesions of the mediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Shamsuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study unusual lesions in the mediastinum, which do not originate from the thymus, lymph nodes, neural tissues or germ cells, and tissues that normally engender pathologic lesions in the mediastinum. Materials and Methods: Of the 65 cases seen, 12 unusual lesion were encountered in a 5½ year period from 2006 to 2011. Results: Two cases of nodular colloid goiter and one each of the mediastinal cyst, undifferentiated carcinoma, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH affected the anterosuperior mediastinum. In the middle mediastinum, one case each of the mesothelioma, malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, solitary fibrous tumor (SFT, and pleomorphic sarcoma (PS was seen. One case of meningeal melanocytoma (Mme and primary pleural liposarcoma (PL involved the posterior mediastinum. Persistent disease was seen in LCH after 2 years. Of all the cases with malignant lesions, only the patient with SCC was alive after 1 year. Conclusion: The cases of primary and SCC, LCH, melanocytoma, liposarcoma and PS, and GIST are unexpected and very rarely have paradigms in the mediastinum. Radiologic impression and knowledge of the compartment where these lesions arose from hardly assisted in arriving at a definitive opinion as the lesions were not typical of this location. A high index of suspicion and the immunohistochemical profile facilitated the final diagnosis.

  17. Coral reef degradation and metabolic performance of the scleractinian coral Porites lutea under anthropogenic impact along the NE coast of Hainan Island, South China Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2013-04-01

    Hainan\\'s coast provides favorable climatic, geochemical and biogeographic conditions for the development of extensive coral reefs in China. Observations in five reefs along the NE coast of Hainan showed, however, that the overall density of mobile macrofauna is low and key functional groups such as browsing, scraping or excavating herbivore fish are missing altogether. Coral diseases, partial mortality or tissue degradation are abundant and growth of macroalgal space competitors extensive. Signs of eutrophication, siltation and destructive fishing practices are evident resulting in a strongly altered environment unfavorable for coral recruitment success and survival. Acclimation to the anthropogenically altered conditions in the massive coral Porites lutea occurs at the cost of a decreased photosynthesis: respiration ratio reducing the regenerative capacity of these key framebuilding organisms. Even though, on the organismal level, corals are able to cope with these stressful conditions, a shift is imminent on the ecosystem level from a coral reef to a macroalgae-dominated community if land-based disturbance prevails unabated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Coral reef degradation and metabolic performance of the scleractinian coral Porites lutea under anthropogenic impact along the NE coast of Hainan Island, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, Cornelia; Wu, Zhongjie; Richter, Claudio; Zhang, Jing

    2013-04-01

    Hainan's coast provides favorable climatic, geochemical and biogeographic conditions for the development of extensive coral reefs in China. Observations in five reefs along the NE coast of Hainan showed, however, that the overall density of mobile macrofauna is low and key functional groups such as browsing, scraping or excavating herbivore fish are missing altogether. Coral diseases, partial mortality or tissue degradation are abundant and growth of macroalgal space competitors extensive. Signs of eutrophication, siltation and destructive fishing practices are evident resulting in a strongly altered environment unfavorable for coral recruitment success and survival. Acclimation to the anthropogenically altered conditions in the massive coral Porites lutea occurs at the cost of a decreased photosynthesis: respiration ratio reducing the regenerative capacity of these key framebuilding organisms. Even though, on the organismal level, corals are able to cope with these stressful conditions, a shift is imminent on the ecosystem level from a coral reef to a macroalgae-dominated community if land-based disturbance prevails unabated.

  19. Implications of coral harvest and transplantation on reefs in northwestern Dominica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Bruckner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In June, 2002, the government of Dominica requested assistance in evaluating the coral culture and transplantation activities being undertaken by Oceanographic Institute of Dominica (OID, a coral farm culturing both western Atlantic and Indo-Pacific corals for restoration and commercial sales. We assessed the culture facilities of OID, the condition of reefs, potential impacts of coral collection and benefits of coral transplantation. Coral reefs (9 reefs, 3-20m depth were characterized by 35 species of scleractinian corals and a live coral cover of 8-35%. Early colonizing, brooders such as Porites astreoides (14.8% of all corals, P. porites (14.8%, Meandrina meandrites (14.7% and Agaricia agaricites (9.1% were the most abundant corals, but colonies were mostly small (mean=25cm diameter. Montastraea annularis (complex was the other dominant taxa (20.8% of all corals and colonies were larger (mean=70cm. Corals (pooled species were missing an average of 20% of their tissue, with a mean of 1.4% recent mortality. Coral diseases affected 6.4% of all colonies, with the highest prevalence at Cabrits West (11.0%, Douglas Bay (12.2% and Coconut Outer reef (20.7%. White plague and yellow band disease were causing the greatest loss of tissue, especially among M. annularis (complex, with localized impacts from corallivores, overgrowth by macroalgae, storm damage and sedimentation. While the reefs appeared to be undergoing substantial decline, restoration efforts by OID were unlikely to promote recovery. No Pacific species were identified at OID restoration sites, yet species chosen for transplantation with highest survival included short-lived brooders (Agaricia and Porites that were abundant in restoration sites, as well as non-reef builders (Palythoa and Erythropodium that monopolize substrates and overgrow corals. The species of highest value for restoration (massive broadcast spawners showed low survivorship and unrestored populations of these species

  20. Porpostoma guamensis n. sp., a philasterine scuticociliate associated with brown-band disease of corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobban, Christopher S; Raymundo, Laurie M; Montagnes, David J S

    2011-01-01

    Brown band disease of coral is caused by a ciliate that consumes the tissue of the corals in the genus Acropora. We describe the ciliate associated with this disease on Guam, based on: general morphology, division stages, and ciliature observed on live and protargol-stained specimens; modification of the oral structures between divisional stages, observed on protargol-stained specimens; and some aspects of behavior in field and laboratory studies. Porpostoma guamensis n. sp. is elongate and has ciliature typical for the genus; live cells are 70-500 × 20-75 μm; the macronucleus is sausage-like, elongate but often bent, positioned centrally along the main cell axis; the oral ciliature follows a basic pattern, being composed of three adoral polykinetidal regions, as described for other species in the genus, although there is variability in the organization, especially in large cells where the three regions are not easily distinguished. Ciliates fed on coral with their oral region adjacent to the tissue, which they engulfed, leaving the coral a bare skeleton. Both zooxanthellae and nematocysts from coral occurred in the ciliates. Zooxanthellae appeared to be ingested alive but deteriorated within 2-3 days. Ciliates formed thin-walled division cysts on the coral and divided up to 3 times. Cysts formed around daughter cells within cysts. We provide some observations on the complex division pattern of the ciliate (i.e. tomont-trophont-cyst) and propose a possible complete pattern that requires further validation.

  1. Interactions between the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pallida and Serratia marcescens, an opportunistic pathogen of corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krediet, Cory J; Meyer, Julie L; Gimbrone, Nicholas; Yanong, Roy; Berzins, Ilze; Alagely, Ali; Castro, Herman; Ritchie, Kim B; Paul, Valerie J; Teplitski, Max

    2014-06-01

    Coral reefs are under increasing stress caused by global and local environmental changes, which are thought to increase the susceptibility of corals to opportunistic pathogens. In the absence of an easily culturable model animal, the understanding of the mechanisms of disease progression in corals remains fairly limited. In the present study, we tested the susceptibility of the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pallida to an opportunistic coral pathogen (Serratia marcescens). A. pallida was susceptible to S. marcescens PDL100 and responded to this opportunistic coral pathogen with darkening of the tissues and retraction of tentacles, followed by complete disintegration of polyp tissues. Histological observations revealed loss of zooxanthellae and structural changes in eosinophilic granular cells in response to pathogen infection. A screen of S. marcescens mutants identified a motility and tetrathionate reductase mutants as defective in virulence in the A. pallida infection model. In co-infections with the wild-type strain, the tetrathionate reductase mutant was less fit within the surface mucopolysaccharide layer of the host coral Acropora palmata.

  2. Coral diseases and bleaching on Colombian Caribbean coral reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Navas-Camacho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998 the National Monitoring System for the Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC has monitored the occurrence of coral bleaching and diseases in some Colombian coral reefs (permanent stations at San Andres Island, Rosario Islands, Tayrona, San Bernardo Islands and Urabá. The main purpose is to evaluate their health status and to understand the factors that have been contributing to their decline. To estimate these occurrences, annual surveys in 126 permanent belt transects (10x2m with different depth intervals (3-6 meters, 9-12 meters and 15-18 meters are performed at all reef sites. Data from the 1998-2004 period, revealed that San Andrés Island had many colonies with diseases (38.9 colonies/m2, and Urabá had high numbers with bleaching (54.4 colonies/m2. Of the seven reported coral diseases studied, Dark Spots Disease (DSD, and White Plague Disease (WPD were noteworthy because they occurred in all Caribbean monitored sites, and because of their high interannual infection incidence. Thirty five species of scleractinian corals were affected by at least one disease and a high incidence of coral diseases on the main reef builders is documented. Bleaching was present in 34 species. During the whole monitoring period, Agaricia agaricites and Siderastrea siderea were the species most severely affected by DSD and bleaching, respectively. Diseases on species such as Agaricia fragilis, A.grahamae, A. humilis, Diploria clivosa, Eusmilia fastigiata, Millepora complanata, and Mycetophyllia aliciae are recorded for first time in Colombia. We present bleaching and disease incidences, kinds of diseases, coral species affected, reef localities studied, depth intervals of surveys, and temporal (years variation for each geographic area. This variation makes difficult to clearly determine defined patterns or general trends for monitored reefs. This is the first long-term study of coral diseases and bleaching in the Southwestern Caribbean, and one of the few

  3. Host pigments: potential facilitators of photosynthesis in coral symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Sophie G; Lovell, Carli; Fine, Maoz; Deckenback, Jeffry; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Anthony, Kenneth R N

    2008-11-01

    Reef-building corals occur as a range of colour morphs because of varying types and concentrations of pigments within the host tissues, but little is known about their physiological or ecological significance. Here, we examined whether specific host pigments act as an alternative mechanism for photoacclimation in the coral holobiont. We used the coral Montipora monasteriata (Forskål 1775) as a case study because it occurs in multiple colour morphs (tan, blue, brown, green and red) within varying light-habitat distributions. We demonstrated that two of the non-fluorescent host pigments are responsive to changes in external irradiance, with some host pigments up-regulating in response to elevated irradiance. This appeared to facilitate the retention of antennal chlorophyll by endosymbionts and hence, photosynthetic capacity. Specifically, net P(max) Chl a(-1) correlated strongly with the concentration of an orange-absorbing non-fluorescent pigment (CP-580). This had major implications for the energetics of bleached blue-pigmented (CP-580) colonies that maintained net P(max) cm(-2) by increasing P(max) Chl a(-1). The data suggested that blue morphs can bleach, decreasing their symbiont populations by an order of magnitude without compromising symbiont or coral health.

  4. Satellite SST-Based Coral Disease Outbreak Predictions for the Hawaiian Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie M. Caldwell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting wildlife disease risk is essential for effective monitoring and management, especially for geographically expansive ecosystems such as coral reefs in the Hawaiian archipelago. Warming ocean temperature has increased coral disease outbreaks contributing to declines in coral cover worldwide. In this study we investigated seasonal effects of thermal stress on the prevalence of the three most widespread coral diseases in Hawai’i: Montipora white syndrome, Porites growth anomalies and Porites tissue loss syndrome. To predict outbreak likelihood we compared disease prevalence from surveys conducted between 2004 and 2015 from 18 Hawaiian Islands and atolls with biotic (e.g., coral density and abiotic (satellite-derived sea surface temperature metrics variables using boosted regression trees. To date, the only coral disease forecast models available were developed for Acropora white syndrome on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR. Given the complexities of disease etiology, differences in host demography and environmental conditions across reef regions, it is important to refine and adapt such models for different diseases and geographic regions of interest. Similar to the Acropora white syndrome models, anomalously warm conditions were important for predicting Montipora white syndrome, possibly due to a relationship between thermal stress and a compromised host immune system. However, coral density and winter conditions were the most important predictors of all three coral diseases in this study, enabling development of a forecasting system that can predict regions of elevated disease risk up to six months before an expected outbreak. Our research indicates satellite-derived systems for forecasting disease outbreaks can be appropriately adapted from the GBR tools and applied for a variety of diseases in a new region. These models can be used to enhance management capacity to prepare for and respond to emerging coral diseases throughout Hawai

  5. Rapid assessment of stony coral richness and condition on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A McKenna

    Full Text Available The benthic habitats of Saba Bank (17 degrees 25'N, 63 degrees 30'W are at risk from maritime traffic, especially oil tankers (e.g., anchoring. To mitigate this risk, information is needed on the biodiversity and location of habitats to develop a zone use plan. A rapid survey to document the biodiversity of macro-algae, sponges, corals and fishes was conducted. Here we report on the richness and condition of stony coral species at 18 select sites, and we test for the effects of bottom type, depth, and distance from platform edge. Species richness was visually assessed by roving scuba diver with voucher specimens of each species collected. Coral tissue was examined for bleaching and diseases. Thirty-three coral species were documented. There were no significant differences in coral composition among bottom types or depth classes (ANOSIM, P>0.05. There was a significant difference between sites (ANOSIM, P<0.05 near and far from the platform edge. The number of coral species observed ranged from zero and one in algal dominated habitats to 23 at a reef habitat on the southern edge of the Bank. Five reef sites had stands of Acropora cervicornis, a critically endangered species on the IUCN redlist. Bleaching was evident at 82% of the sites assessed with 43 colonies bleached. Only three coral colonies were observed to have disease. Combining our findings with that of other studies, a total of 43 species have been documented from Saba Bank. The coral assemblage on the bank is representative and typical of those found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Although our findings will help develop effective protection, more information is needed on Saba Bank to create a comprehensive zone use plan. Nevertheless, immediate action is warranted to protect the diverse coral reef habitats documented here, especially those containing A. cervicornis.

  6. 40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coral reefs. 230.44 Section 230.44... Aquatic Sites § 230.44 Coral reefs. (a) Coral reefs consist of the skeletal deposit, usually of calcareous... organisms present in growing portions of the reef. (b) Possible loss of values: The discharge of dredged or...

  7. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gilmour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west. Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending

  8. CORAL REEFS. Genomic determinants of coral heat tolerance across latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Groves B; Davies, Sarah W; Aglyamova, Galina A; Meyer, Eli; Bay, Line K; Matz, Mikhail V

    2015-06-26

    As global warming continues, reef-building corals could avoid local population declines through "genetic rescue" involving exchange of heat-tolerant genotypes across latitudes, but only if latitudinal variation in thermal tolerance is heritable. Here, we show an up-to-10-fold increase in odds of survival of coral larvae under heat stress when their parents come from a warmer lower-latitude location. Elevated thermal tolerance was associated with heritable differences in expression of oxidative, extracellular, transport, and mitochondrial functions that indicated a lack of prior stress. Moreover, two genomic regions strongly responded to selection for thermal tolerance in interlatitudinal crosses. These results demonstrate that variation in coral thermal tolerance across latitudes has a strong genetic basis and could serve as raw material for natural selection. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. How do corals make rocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, P. G.; Mass, T.; Drake, J.; Schaller, M. F.; Rosenthal, Y.; Schofield, O.; Sherrell, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a three pronged approach to understanding how corals precipitate aragonite crystals and contain proxy biogeochemical information. Using proteomic and genomic approaches, we have identified 35 proteins in coral skeletons. Among these are a series of coral acidic proteins (CARPs). Based on their gene sequences, we cloned a subset of these proteins and purified them. Each of the proteins precipitate aragonite in vitro in unamended seawater. Antibodies raised against these proteins react with individual crystals of the native coral, clearly revealing that they are part of a biomineral structure. Based on the primary structure of the proteins we have developed a model of the precipitation reaction that focuses on a Lewis acid displacement of protons from bicarbonate anions by calcium ligated to the carboxyl groups on the CARPs. The reactions are highly acidic and are not manifestly influenced by pH above ca. 6. These results suggest that corals will maintain the ability to calcify in the coming centuries, despite acidification of the oceans.

  10. A connection between colony biomass and death in Caribbean reef-building corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Thornhill

    Full Text Available Increased sea-surface temperatures linked to warming climate threaten coral reef ecosystems globally. To better understand how corals and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp. respond to environmental change, tissue biomass and Symbiodinium density of seven coral species were measured on various reefs approximately every four months for up to thirteen years in the Upper Florida Keys, United States (1994-2007, eleven years in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas (1995-2006, and four years in Puerto Morelos, Mexico (2003-2007. For six out of seven coral species, tissue biomass correlated with Symbiodinium density. Within a particular coral species, tissue biomasses and Symbiodinium densities varied regionally according to the following trends: Mexico≥Florida Keys≥Bahamas. Average tissue biomasses and symbiont cell densities were generally higher in shallow habitats (1-4 m compared to deeper-dwelling conspecifics (12-15 m. Most colonies that were sampled displayed seasonal fluctuations in biomass and endosymbiont density related to annual temperature variations. During the bleaching episodes of 1998 and 2005, five out of seven species that were exposed to unusually high temperatures exhibited significant decreases in symbiotic algae that, in certain cases, preceded further decreases in tissue biomass. Following bleaching, Montastraea spp. colonies with low relative biomass levels died, whereas colonies with higher biomass levels survived. Bleaching- or disease-associated mortality was also observed in Acropora cervicornis colonies; compared to A. palmata, all A. cervicornis colonies experienced low biomass values. Such patterns suggest that Montastraea spp. and possibly other coral species with relatively low biomass experience increased susceptibility to death following bleaching or other stressors than do conspecifics with higher tissue biomass levels.

  11. A connection between colony biomass and death in Caribbean reef-building corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Daniel J; Rotjan, Randi D; Todd, Brian D; Chilcoat, Geoff C; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Kemp, Dustin W; LaJeunesse, Todd C; Reynolds, Jennifer McCabe; Schmidt, Gregory W; Shannon, Thomas; Warner, Mark E; Fitt, William K

    2011-01-01

    Increased sea-surface temperatures linked to warming climate threaten coral reef ecosystems globally. To better understand how corals and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) respond to environmental change, tissue biomass and Symbiodinium density of seven coral species were measured on various reefs approximately every four months for up to thirteen years in the Upper Florida Keys, United States (1994-2007), eleven years in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas (1995-2006), and four years in Puerto Morelos, Mexico (2003-2007). For six out of seven coral species, tissue biomass correlated with Symbiodinium density. Within a particular coral species, tissue biomasses and Symbiodinium densities varied regionally according to the following trends: Mexico≥Florida Keys≥Bahamas. Average tissue biomasses and symbiont cell densities were generally higher in shallow habitats (1-4 m) compared to deeper-dwelling conspecifics (12-15 m). Most colonies that were sampled displayed seasonal fluctuations in biomass and endosymbiont density related to annual temperature variations. During the bleaching episodes of 1998 and 2005, five out of seven species that were exposed to unusually high temperatures exhibited significant decreases in symbiotic algae that, in certain cases, preceded further decreases in tissue biomass. Following bleaching, Montastraea spp. colonies with low relative biomass levels died, whereas colonies with higher biomass levels survived. Bleaching- or disease-associated mortality was also observed in Acropora cervicornis colonies; compared to A. palmata, all A. cervicornis colonies experienced low biomass values. Such patterns suggest that Montastraea spp. and possibly other coral species with relatively low biomass experience increased susceptibility to death following bleaching or other stressors than do conspecifics with higher tissue biomass levels. © 2011 Thornhill et al.

  12. Impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on a deep-water coral community in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Helen K; Hsing, Pen-Yuan; Cho, Walter; Shank, Timothy M; Cordes, Erik E; Quattrini, Andrea M; Nelson, Robert K; Camilli, Richard; Demopoulos, Amanda W J; German, Christopher R; Brooks, James M; Roberts, Harry H; Shedd, William; Reddy, Christopher M; Fisher, Charles R

    2012-12-11

    To assess the potential impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on offshore ecosystems, 11 sites hosting deep-water coral communities were examined 3 to 4 mo after the well was capped. Healthy coral communities were observed at all sites >20 km from the Macondo well, including seven sites previously visited in September 2009, where the corals and communities appeared unchanged. However, at one site 11 km southwest of the Macondo well, coral colonies presented widespread signs of stress, including varying degrees of tissue loss, sclerite enlargement, excess mucous production, bleached commensal ophiuroids, and covering by brown flocculent material (floc). On the basis of these criteria the level of impact to individual colonies was ranked from 0 (least impact) to 4 (greatest impact). Of the 43 corals imaged at that site, 46% exhibited evidence of impact on more than half of the colony, whereas nearly a quarter of all of the corals showed impact to >90% of the colony. Additionally, 53% of these corals' ophiuroid associates displayed abnormal color and/or attachment posture. Analysis of hopanoid petroleum biomarkers isolated from the floc provides strong evidence that this material contained oil from the Macondo well. The presence of recently damaged and deceased corals beneath the path of a previously documented plume emanating from the Macondo well provides compelling evidence that the oil impacted deep-water ecosystems. Our findings underscore the unprecedented nature of the spill in terms of its magnitude, release at depth, and impact to deep-water ecosystems.

  13. Coral-zooxanthellae meta-transcriptomics reveals integrated response to pollutant stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Kurt A; Najar, Fares Z; Habib, Tanwir; Lotufo, Guilherme R; Piggot, Alan M; Fouke, Bruce W; Laird, Jennifer G; Wilbanks, Mitchell S; Rawat, Arun; Indest, Karl J; Roe, Bruce A; Perkins, Edward J

    2014-07-12

    Corals represent symbiotic meta-organisms that require harmonization among the coral animal, photosynthetic zooxanthellae and associated microbes to survive environmental stresses. We investigated integrated-responses among coral and zooxanthellae in the scleractinian coral Acropora formosa in response to an emerging marine pollutant, the munitions constituent, 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX; 5 day exposures to 0 (control), 0.5, 0.9, 1.8, 3.7, and 7.2 mg/L, measured in seawater). RDX accumulated readily in coral soft tissues with bioconcentration factors ranging from 1.1 to 1.5. Next-generation sequencing of a normalized meta-transcriptomic library developed for the eukaryotic components of the A. formosa coral holobiont was leveraged to conduct microarray-based global transcript expression analysis of integrated coral/zooxanthellae responses to the RDX exposure. Total differentially expressed transcripts (DET) increased with increasing RDX exposure concentrations as did the proportion of zooxanthellae DET relative to the coral animal. Transcriptional responses in the coral demonstrated higher sensitivity to RDX compared to zooxanthellae where increased expression of gene transcripts coding xenobiotic detoxification mechanisms (i.e. cytochrome P450 and UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2 family) were initiated at the lowest exposure concentration. Increased expression of these detoxification mechanisms was sustained at higher RDX concentrations as well as production of a physical barrier to exposure through a 40% increase in mucocyte density at the maximum RDX exposure. At and above the 1.8 mg/L exposure concentration, DET coding for genes involved in central energy metabolism, including photosynthesis, glycolysis and electron-transport functions, were decreased in zooxanthellae although preliminary data indicated that zooxanthellae densities were not affected. In contrast, significantly increased transcript expression for genes involved in cellular energy production

  14. Confronting the coral reef crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellwood, D. R.; Hughes, T. P.; Folke, C.; Nyström, M.

    2004-06-01

    The worldwide decline of coral reefs calls for an urgent reassessment of current management practices. Confronting large-scale crises requires a major scaling-up of management efforts based on an improved understanding of the ecological processes that underlie reef resilience. Managing for improved resilience, incorporating the role of human activity in shaping ecosystems, provides a basis for coping with uncertainty, future changes and ecological surprises. Here we review the ecological roles of critical functional groups (for both corals and reef fishes) that are fundamental to understanding resilience and avoiding phase shifts from coral dominance to less desirable, degraded ecosystems. We identify striking biogeographic differences in the species richness and composition of functional groups, which highlight the vulnerability of Caribbean reef ecosystems. These findings have profound implications for restoration of degraded reefs, management of fisheries, and the focus on marine protected areas and biodiversity hotspots as priorities for conservation.

  15. Tracking transmission of apicomplexan symbionts in diverse Caribbean corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan L Kirk

    Full Text Available Symbionts in each generation are transmitted to new host individuals either vertically (parent to offspring, horizontally (from exogenous sources, or a combination of both. Scleractinian corals make an excellent study system for understanding patterns of symbiont transmission since they harbor diverse symbionts and possess distinct reproductive modes of either internal brooding or external broadcast spawning that generally correlate with vertical or horizontal transmission, respectively. Here, we focused on the under-recognized, but apparently widespread, coral-associated apicomplexans (Protista: Alveolata to determine if symbiont transmission depends on host reproductive mode. Specifically, a PCR-based assay was utilized towards identifying whether planula larvae and reproductive adults from brooding and broadcast spawning scleractinian coral species in Florida and Belize harbored apicomplexan DNA. Nearly all (85.5%; n = 85/89 examined planulae of five brooding species (Porites astreoides, Agaricia tenuifolia, Agaricia agaricites, Favia fragum, Mycetophyllia ferox and adults of P. astreoides were positive for apicomplexan DNA. In contrast, no (n = 0/10 apicomplexan DNA was detected from planulae of four broadcast spawning species (Acropora cervicornis, Acropora palmata, Pseudodiploria strigosa, and Orbicella faveolata and rarely in gametes (8.9%; n = 5/56 of these species sampled from the same geographical range as the brooding species. In contrast, tissue samples from nearly all (92.0%; n = 81/88 adults of the broadcast spawning species A. cervicornis, A. palmata and O. faveolata harbored apicomplexan DNA, including colonies whose gametes and planulae tested negative for these symbionts. Taken together, these data suggest apicomplexans are transmitted vertically in these brooding scleractinian coral species while the broadcast spawning scleractinian species examined here acquire these symbionts horizontally. Notably, these transmission

  16. Tracking Transmission of Apicomplexan Symbionts in Diverse Caribbean Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Nathan L.; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Miller, Margaret W.; Fogarty, Nicole D.; Santos, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Symbionts in each generation are transmitted to new host individuals either vertically (parent to offspring), horizontally (from exogenous sources), or a combination of both. Scleractinian corals make an excellent study system for understanding patterns of symbiont transmission since they harbor diverse symbionts and possess distinct reproductive modes of either internal brooding or external broadcast spawning that generally correlate with vertical or horizontal transmission, respectively. Here, we focused on the under-recognized, but apparently widespread, coral-associated apicomplexans (Protista: Alveolata) to determine if symbiont transmission depends on host reproductive mode. Specifically, a PCR-based assay was utilized towards identifying whether planula larvae and reproductive adults from brooding and broadcast spawning scleractinian coral species in Florida and Belize harbored apicomplexan DNA. Nearly all (85.5%; n = 85/89) examined planulae of five brooding species (Porites astreoides, Agaricia tenuifolia, Agaricia agaricites, Favia fragum, Mycetophyllia ferox) and adults of P. astreoides were positive for apicomplexan DNA. In contrast, no (n = 0/10) apicomplexan DNA was detected from planulae of four broadcast spawning species (Acropora cervicornis, Acropora palmata, Pseudodiploria strigosa, and Orbicella faveolata) and rarely in gametes (8.9%; n = 5/56) of these species sampled from the same geographical range as the brooding species. In contrast, tissue samples from nearly all (92.0%; n = 81/88) adults of the broadcast spawning species A. cervicornis, A. palmata and O. faveolata harbored apicomplexan DNA, including colonies whose gametes and planulae tested negative for these symbionts. Taken together, these data suggest apicomplexans are transmitted vertically in these brooding scleractinian coral species while the broadcast spawning scleractinian species examined here acquire these symbionts horizontally. Notably, these transmission patterns are

  17. Tracking transmission of apicomplexan symbionts in diverse Caribbean corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Nathan L; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Miller, Margaret W; Fogarty, Nicole D; Santos, Scott R

    2013-01-01

    Symbionts in each generation are transmitted to new host individuals either vertically (parent to offspring), horizontally (from exogenous sources), or a combination of both. Scleractinian corals make an excellent study system for understanding patterns of symbiont transmission since they harbor diverse symbionts and possess distinct reproductive modes of either internal brooding or external broadcast spawning that generally correlate with vertical or horizontal transmission, respectively. Here, we focused on the under-recognized, but apparently widespread, coral-associated apicomplexans (Protista: Alveolata) to determine if symbiont transmission depends on host reproductive mode. Specifically, a PCR-based assay was utilized towards identifying whether planula larvae and reproductive adults from brooding and broadcast spawning scleractinian coral species in Florida and Belize harbored apicomplexan DNA. Nearly all (85.5%; n = 85/89) examined planulae of five brooding species (Porites astreoides, Agaricia tenuifolia, Agaricia agaricites, Favia fragum, Mycetophyllia ferox) and adults of P. astreoides were positive for apicomplexan DNA. In contrast, no (n = 0/10) apicomplexan DNA was detected from planulae of four broadcast spawning species (Acropora cervicornis, Acropora palmata, Pseudodiploria strigosa, and Orbicella faveolata) and rarely in gametes (8.9%; n = 5/56) of these species sampled from the same geographical range as the brooding species. In contrast, tissue samples from nearly all (92.0%; n = 81/88) adults of the broadcast spawning species A. cervicornis, A. palmata and O. faveolata harbored apicomplexan DNA, including colonies whose gametes and planulae tested negative for these symbionts. Taken together, these data suggest apicomplexans are transmitted vertically in these brooding scleractinian coral species while the broadcast spawning scleractinian species examined here acquire these symbionts horizontally. Notably, these transmission patterns are

  18. Black reefs: iron-induced phase shifts on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Linda Wegley; Barott, Katie L; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Friedlander, Alan M; Nosrat, Bahador; Obura, David; Sala, Enric; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Vermeij, Mark J A; Williams, Gareth J; Willner, Dana; Rohwer, Forest

    2012-03-01

    The Line Islands are calcium carbonate coral reef platforms located in iron-poor regions of the central Pacific. Natural terrestrial run-off of iron is non-existent and aerial deposition is extremely low. However, a number of ship groundings have occurred on these atolls. The reefs surrounding the shipwreck debris are characterized by high benthic cover of turf algae, macroalgae, cyanobacterial mats and corallimorphs, as well as particulate-laden, cloudy water. These sites also have very low coral and crustose coralline algal cover and are call black reefs because of the dark-colored benthic community and reduced clarity of the overlying water column. Here we use a combination of benthic surveys, chemistry, metagenomics and microcosms to investigate if and how shipwrecks initiate and maintain black reefs. Comparative surveys show that the live coral cover was reduced from 40 to 60% to reefs on Millennium, Tabuaeran and Kingman. These three sites are relatively large (>0.75 km(2)). The phase shift occurs rapidly; the Kingman black reef formed within 3 years of the ship grounding. Iron concentrations in algae tissue from the Millennium black reef site were six times higher than in algae collected from reference sites. Metagenomic sequencing of the Millennium Atoll black reef-associated microbial community was enriched in iron-associated virulence genes and known pathogens. Microcosm experiments showed that corals were killed by black reef rubble through microbial activity. Together these results demonstrate that shipwrecks and their associated iron pose significant threats to coral reefs in iron-limited regions.

  19. Apoptosis detected by tissue microarray in cervical squamous epithelial lesions%组织芯片技术检测宫颈鳞状上皮病变中细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林静; 乐江华; 寥芝玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the condition and significance of apoptosis in cervical squamous epithelial lesions. Methods: 53 cervical specimens were selected from the hospital from January 2008 to October 2009 to prepare tissue microarray, including 9 normal specimens, 32 specimens of CIN and 12 specimens of cervical squamous cell carcinoma; TUNEL method was used to detect apoptosis. Results; The positive rates of apoptosis were 0% (0/9) in normal cervix group, 15. 62% (5/32) in CIN group, 66. 67% (8/12) in squamous cell carcinoma group; there was significant difference among the three groups (P <0. 01) . Conclusion: The phenomenon of apoptosis becomes clear with the aggravation of cervical squamous epithelial lesions, TUNEL technique has the advantages of high quality, high efficiency and reliability for tissue microarray detection.%目的:研究宫颈鳞状上皮病变中细胞凋亡的情况及其意义.方法:选择2008年1月~2009年10月桂林医学院附属医院53例宫颈组织制成组织芯片,其中正常9例,CIN 32例,鳞状细胞癌12例;应用TUNEL法检测细胞凋亡情况.结果:凋亡阳性率依次为:正常组0% (0/9),CIN组15.62% (5/32),鳞状细胞癌66.67%(8/12);正常组、CIN组与癌症组凋亡阳性率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:细胞凋亡现象随着宫颈鳞状上皮病变的发展逐渐明显,应用TUNEL法检测宫颈组织芯片,具有优质、高效、结果可靠的特点.

  20. Seawater transport during coral biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Alexander C.; Adkins, Jess F.; Erez, Jonathan

    2012-05-01

    Cation transport during skeletal growth is a key process controlling metal/calcium (Me/Ca) paleoproxy behavior in coral. To characterize this transport, cultured corals were transferred into seawater enriched in the rare earth element Tb3 + as well as stable isotopes of calcium, strontium, and barium. Subsequent NanoSIMS ion images of each coral skeleton were used to follow uptake dynamics. These images show a continuous region corresponding to new growth that is homogeneously enriched in each tracer. Isotope ratio profiles across the new growth boundary transition rapidly from natural abundance ratios to a ratio matching the enriched culture solution. The location of this transition is the same for each element, within analytical resolution. The synchronous incorporation of all these cations, including the dissimilar ion terbium, which has no known biological function in coral, suggests that: (1) there is cation exchange between seawater and the calcifying fluid, and (2) these elements are influenced by similar transport mechanisms consistent with direct and rapid seawater transport to the site of calcification. Measured using isotope ratio profiles, seawater transport rates differ from place to place on the growing coral skeleton, with calcifying fluid turnover times from 30 min to 5.7 h. Despite these differences, all the elements measured in this study show the same transport dynamics at each location. Using an analytical geochemical model of biomineralization that includes direct seawater transport we constrain the role of active calcium pumping during calcification and we show that the balance between seawater transport and precipitation can explain observed Me/Ca variability in deep-sea coral.

  1. Microbial Regulation in Gorgonian Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D. Mydlarz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gorgonian corals possess many novel natural products that could potentially mediate coral-bacterial interactions. Since many bacteria use quorum sensing (QS signals to facilitate colonization of host organisms, regulation of prokaryotic cell-to-cell communication may represent an important bacterial control mechanism. In the present study, we examined extracts of twelve species of Caribbean gorgonian corals, for mechanisms that regulate microbial colonization, such as antibacterial activity and QS regulatory activity. Ethanol extracts of gorgonians collected from Puerto Rico and the Florida Keys showed a range of both antibacterial and QS activities using a specific Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS reporter, sensitive to long chain AHLs and a short chain N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL biosensor, Chromobacterium violaceium. Overall, the gorgonian corals had higher antimicrobial activity against non-marine strains when compared to marine strains. Pseudopterogorgia americana, Pseusopterogorgia acerosa, and Pseudoplexuara flexuosa had the highest QS inhibitory effect. Interestingly, Pseudoplexuara porosa extracts stimulated QS activity with a striking 17-fold increase in signal. The stimulation of QS by P. porosa or other elements of the holobiont may encourage colonization or recruitment of specific microbial species. Overall, these results suggest the presence of novel stimulatory QS, inhibitory QS and bactericidal compounds in gorgonian corals. A better understanding of these compounds may reveal insight into coral-microbial ecology and whether a therapeutic potential exists.

  2. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Mark J A; Marhaver, Kristen L; Huijbers, Chantal M; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Simpson, Stephen D

    2010-05-14

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency.

  3. Coral benchmarks in the center of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licuanan, W Y; Robles, R; Dygico, M; Songco, A; van Woesik, R

    2017-01-30

    There is an urgent need to quantify coral reef benchmarks that assess changes and recovery rates through time and serve as goals for management. Yet, few studies have identified benchmarks for hard coral cover and diversity in the center of marine diversity. In this study, we estimated coral cover and generic diversity benchmarks on the Tubbataha reefs, the largest and best-enforced no-take marine protected area in the Philippines. The shallow (2-6m) reef slopes of Tubbataha were monitored annually, from 2012 to 2015, using hierarchical sampling. Mean coral cover was 34% (σ±1.7) and generic diversity was 18 (σ±0.9) per 75m by 25m station. The southeastern leeward slopes supported on average 56% coral cover, whereas the northeastern windward slopes supported 30%, and the western slopes supported 18% coral cover. Generic diversity was more spatially homogeneous than coral cover. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Opportunistic feeding on various organic food sources by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Mueller

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to exploit different food sources was investigated under standardized conditions in a flume. All tested food sources, dissolved organic matter (DOM, added as dissolved free amino acids, bacteria, algae, and zooplankton (Artemia were deliberately enriched in 13C and 15N. The incorporation of 13C and 15N was traced into bulk tissue, fatty acids, hydrolysable amino acids, and the skeleton (13C only of L. pertusa. Incorporation rates of carbon (ranging from 0.8–2.4 µg C g–1 DW d–1 and nitrogen (0.2–0.8 µg N g–1 DW d–1 into coral tissue did not differ significantly among food sources indicating an opportunistic feeding strategy. Although total food assimilation was comparable among sources, subsequent food processing was dependent on the type of food source ingested and recovery of assimilated C in tissue compounds ranged from 17% (algae to 35% (Artemia. De novo synthesis of individual fatty acids by L. pertusa occurred in all treatments as indicated by the 13C enrichment of individual phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs in the coral that were absent in the added food sources. This indicates that the coral might be less dependent on its diet as a source of specific fatty acids than expected, with direct consequences for the interpretation of in situ observations on coral nutrition based on lipid profiles.

  5. Opportunistic feeding on various organic food sources by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, C. E.; Larsson, A. I.; Veuger, B.; Middelburg, J. J.; van Oevelen, D.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to exploit different food sources was investigated under standardized conditions in a flume. The tested food sources, dissolved organic matter (DOM, added as dissolved free amino acids), bacteria, algae, and zooplankton (Artemia) were deliberately enriched in 13C and 15N. The incorporation of 13C and 15N was traced into bulk tissue, fatty acids, hydrolysable amino acids, and the skeleton (13C only) of L. pertusa. Incorporation rates of carbon (ranging from 0.8-2.4 μg C g-1 DW d-1) and nitrogen (0.2-0.8 μg N g-1 DW d-1) into coral tissue did not differ significantly among food sources indicating an opportunistic feeding strategy. Although total food assimilation was comparable among sources, subsequent food processing was dependent on the type of food source ingested and recovery of assimilated C in tissue compounds ranged from 17% (algae) to 35% (Artemia). De novo synthesis of individual fatty acids by L. pertusa occurred in all treatments as indicated by the 13C enrichment of individual phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs) in the coral that were absent in the added food sources. This indicates that the coral might be less dependent on its diet as a source of specific fatty acids than expected, with direct consequences for the interpretation of in situ observations on coral nutrition based on lipid profiles.

  6. Calcification process dynamics in coral primary polyps as observed using a calcein incubation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Ohno

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcification processes are largely unknown in scleractinian corals. In this study, live confocal imaging was u