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Sample records for coral inia cultivar

  1. Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are economically important Gram positive bacterial pathogens of cultured and wild fish with a worldwide distribution. Both bacteria are potential zoonotic pathogens and have been associated most often with infections in immunocompromised people. Streptococcus in...

  2. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Blum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland. All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators “Emistym C” and “Agrostymulin” was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide “Strobi” and natural growth regulator “Emistym C” demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  3. Reduced transcription of a LEAFY-like gene in Alstroemeria sp. cultivar Green Coral that cannot develop floral meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Masayo; Yamagishi, Masumi; Kanno, Akira

    2012-04-01

    Alstroemeria sp. cv. Green Coral has numerous bracts instead of flowers, and its cyme structures are repeated eternally. Observations of the development and morphology of inflorescence in cv. Green Coral revealed that transition from inflorescence to floral meristem was restricted. We isolated and characterized floral meristem identity genes LEAFY-like (AlsLFY) and SQUAMOSA-like (AlsSQa and AlsSQb) genes from Alstroemeria ligtu. In situ hybridization results indicated that AlsSQa and AlsSQb were expressed in the dome-shaped floral meristems and all floral organ primordia in A. ligtu. Transcripts of AlsLFY accumulated early in the dome-shaped floral meristems; the signals were restricted later to the outer region of the floral meristem. These results indicate that AlsLFY, AlsSQa, and AlsSQb function as floral meristem identity genes. Expression profiles of AlsLFY, AlsSQa, AlsSQb, and other MADS-box genes were compared between A. ligtu and cv. Green Coral. AlsLFY, AlsDEFa, and AlsAGL6 transcripts were not detected at the shoot apices of cv. Green Coral but were detected in A. ligtu. The early induction and accumulation of AlsLFY transcripts in the inflorescence meristem of A. ligtu prior to development of the floral meristem suggest that downregulation of AlsLFY is likely to restrict the inflorescence-to-floral meristem transition in cv. Green Coral.

  4. Evaluation of development of three cultivars of coral bells (Heuchera after application of organic means of improving soil properties and mineral fertilizers on post-mining area of the Dąbrowskie Coal Basin

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    Gabriela Sąkol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of improving soil properties using a liquid organic means: Eko-użyźniacz, based on manure vermicompost, and traditional fertilizer Azofoska on three cultivars of coral bells: ‘Chatterbox’, ‘Marmelade’ and ‘Purple Petticoats’. The plants were field cultivated on post-mining area of the Dąbrowskie Coal Basin from 2009 to 2011. Even though, the doses of nutriens from mean of improve soil properties were low the plants were visually appealing. The effect of Azofoska or Eko-użyźniacz used were not significant (α = 0.05 in diameter of plants, numbers of shoots and inflorescences. All of the cultivars gave more flower shoots in the second vegetation period. Plants of coral bells grow well after a treatment of Eko-użyźniacz, which means that use of this treatment is addequate for post-mining soils.  

  5. Valinia INIA, a New Early Storage Onion Variety for Central South Chile Valinia INIA, una Nueva Variedad de Cebolla de Guarda Precoz para la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

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    María Inés González A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Central South Chile, storage onion varieties (Allium cepa L. sold domestically usually begin the maturation process in March, which implies that a large proportion of bulbs do not mature adequately and do not resist prolonged storage. This situation led the Quilamapu vegetable program of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA to select an early maturing onion variety. This breeding method involved a recurrent selection with free plant crossing that began in 1994 on a population of 2000 plants of the 'Valenciana' commercial variety. Plants were first selected when they reached physiological maturity (tops down before 28 February, and then for shape, size, storage capacity, and single-centered bulbs. The result of the program was 'Valinia INIA', a type of Valenciana onion variety: early maturing, medium-sized bulb, spherical, yellow, and resistant to sprouting during storage. From the 2001-2002 to the 2008-2009 season, variety assays were carried out to compare 'Valinia INIA' with commercial cultivars, i.e., 'Sintética 14', 'Grano de Oro', and 'Valenciana Cobra'. 'Valinia INIA' precocity exceeded the other varieties in all seasons with a mean of 1.5 wk ahead of 'Sintética 14', which is the earliest commercial variety and more than 2 wk ahead of the other two. Its yield is similar to 'Valenciana Cobra' and higher than the other two varieties. Its storage capacity is similar to 'Grano de Oro' and 'Sintética 14', but greater than 'Valenciana Cobra'.En la zona centro sur de Chile es habitual que las variedades de cebolla (Allium cepa L. de guarda que se comercializan en el pais inicien el proceso de maduración preferentemente en marzo, lo que conlleva a que una gran proporción de bulbos no madure adecuadamente, no resistiendo el almacenaje por un tiempo prolongado. Esta situación llevó al programa de hortalizas del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA Quilamapu a la selección de una variedad de cebolla de madurez

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus iniae 89353, a Virulent Strain Isolated from Diseased Tilapia in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-Han; Chen, Chun-Yao; Huang, Chang-Wen; Lu, Jenn-Kan; Chou, Hsin-Yiu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus iniae 89353 is a virulent strain isolated from diseased tilapia in Taiwan. The full-genome sequence of S. iniae 89353 is 2,098,647 bp. The revealed genome information will be beneficial for identification and understanding of potential virulence genes of Streptococcus iniae and possible immunogens for vaccine development against streptococcosis. PMID:28126946

  7. Suitability of three cultivars of coral bells (heuchera cvs. to bioremediation of cadmium (cd, lead (pb and zinc (zn from post-mining area in zagłębie dąbrowskie

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    Gabriela Sąkol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term shallow exploitation of pitcoal in Będzin area (in mining district Zagłębie Dąbrowskie has degraded the environment. Profiles of soil were dislocated and contaminated with heavy metals above permissible standards. Due to the fact that Zagłę- bie Dąbrowskie is densely populated, risk of harmful exposure to heavy metals affects high number of people. Decontamination of post-mining grounds is possible with planting plants which not only tolerate elevated heavy metals quantities but can also accumulate them in plant tissues. Materials and methods: The cultivars ‘Chatterbox’ and ‘Strawberry Swirl’ and ‘Palace Purple’ of coral bells (Heuchera cvs. were chosen to do the research. Cadmium, lead and zinc uptake in plants growing in contaminated and control fields was evaluated. Amount of heavy metals was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Results: Content of metals detected in plants in postmining soil was respectively: Cd 1,92 mgükg11, Pb 56,3 mgükg11, Zn 153,7 mgükg11. Those metals value is from 2 to 4 times higher than natural content in neutral soil of pH 6,5 – a typical pH in this region. The examined cultivars of coral bells accumulated significant amount of Cd, Pb, Zn even if concentration of those metals was low, what is characteristic for clean regions of Poland. Conclusions: The plants cultivated on contaminated soil of post-mining region didn`t show toxic response (damaged leaves even though they accumulated cadmium, lead and zinc in their roots and leaves. Cultivars differences of coral bells found on significance level (p¤0,05. The cultivar ‘Palace Purple’ has transported the highest amount of lead from roots to leaves. Other cultivars ‘Chatterbox’ and ‘Strawberry Swirl’ have accumulated higher amounts of metals in their roots in a sequence Cd¤Zn¤Pb.

  8. A third report of "golf ball disease" in an Amazon River dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) associated with Streptococcus iniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Christopher J; Wagner, Robert A

    2003-09-01

    An Amazon River dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) developed a dermatologic syndrome characterized by the occurrence of slow-growing, nodular, s.c. abscesses. Initial biopsies, cultures, and cytologic analysis of needle aspirates from the abscesses indicated steatitis with probable secondary, gram-negative bacterial infection. Treatment with dietary vitamin E supplement and broad-spectrum antibiotics yielded minimal improvement. Subsequent cultures revealed Streptococcus iniae in addition to several gram-negative bacteria. Vigorous surgical management of the abscesses, including lancing, debridement, and irrigation, combined with antimicrobial therapy specific for Streptococcus and gram-negative organisms, and improvement of the animal's diet and environmental water quality led to gradual recovery. When the animal was ill, it demonstrated an inflammatory leukogram and transient uremia. Streptococcus iniae is a serious pathogen of aquacultured fishes and humans and should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic dermatopathy in river dolphins. Specific antimicrobial therapy, excellent water quality, surgical management of abscesses, and adherence to sanitary protocols should be observed in cases of suspected S. iniae infection in dolphins.

  9. Sil: a Streptococcus iniae bacteriocin with dual role as an antimicrobial and an immunomodulator that inhibits innate immune response and promotes S. iniae infection.

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    Mo-fei Li

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is a Gram-positive bacterium and a severe pathogen to a wide range of economically important fish species. In addition, S. iniae is also a zoonotic pathogen and can cause serious infections in humans. In this study, we identified from a pathogenic S. iniae strain a putative bacteriocin, Sil, and examined its biological activity. Sil is composed of 101 amino acid residues and shares 35.6% overall sequence identity with the lactococcin 972 of Lactococcus lactis. Immunoblot analysis showed that Sil was secreted by S. iniae into the extracellular milieu. Purified recombinant Sil (rSil exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the growth of Bacillus subtilis but had no impact on the growths of other 16 Gram-positive bacteria and 10 Gram-negative bacteria representing 23 different bacterial species. Treatment of rSil by heating at 50°C abolished the activity of rSil. rSil bound to the surface of B. subtilis but induced no killing of the target cells. Cellular study revealed that rSil interacted with turbot (Scophthalmus maximus head kidney monocytes and inhibited the innate immune response of the cells, which led to enhanced cellular infection of S. iniae. Antibody blocking of the extracellular Sil produced by S. iniae significantly attenuated the infectivity of S. iniae. Consistent with these in vitro observations, in vivo study showed that administration of turbot with rSil prior to S. iniae infection significantly increased bacterial dissemination and colonization in fish tissues. Taken together, these results indicate that Sil is a novel virulence-associated bacteriostatic and an immunoregulator that promotes S. iniae infection by impairing the immune defense of host fish.

  10. Immunoproteomic analysis of the antibody response obtained in tilapia following immunization with a Streptococcus iniae vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is one of the most economically important Gram-positive pathogens in cultured fish species worldwide. Research has shown that vaccination is a tool that can be used in the prevention of streptococcal disease. The USDA-ARS patented S. iniae vaccine has been demonstrated to be ef...

  11. Primer prueba de desafio controlado en tilapia del Nilo Para Resistencia a Streptococcus iniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensification of tilapia production has resulted in disease outbreaks that negatively affect commercial fish farmers. One bacterial pathogen that commonly causes losses in tilapia production is Streptococcus iniae. Control and prevention of S. iniae can be difficult and requires an integrated fish...

  12. Controlled laboratory challenge demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance to Streptococcus iniae in Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. An alternative and ...

  13. The novel polysaccharide deacetylase homologue Pdi contributes to virulence of the aquatic pathogen Streptococcus iniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Carlo J E; Aziz, Ramy K; Locke, Jeffrey B; Dahesh, Samira; Nizet, Victor; Buchanan, John T

    2010-02-01

    The aquatic zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus iniae represents a threat to the worldwide aquaculture industry and poses a risk to humans who handle raw fish. Because little is known about the mechanisms of S. iniae pathogenesis or virulence factors, we established a high-throughput system combining whole-genome pyrosequencing and transposon mutagenesis that allowed us to identify virulence proteins, including Pdi, the polysaccharide deacetylase of S. iniae, that we describe here. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified a highly conserved signature motif in Pdi that is also conserved in the peptidoglycan deacetylase PgdA protein family. A Deltapdi mutant was attenuated for virulence in the hybrid striped bass model and for survival in whole fish blood. Moreover, Pdi was found to promote bacterial resistance to lysozyme killing and the ability to adhere to and invade epithelial cells. On the other hand, there was no difference in the autolytic potential, resistance to oxidative killing or resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides between S. iniae wild-type and Deltapdi. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that pdi is involved in S. iniae adherence and invasion, lysozyme resistance and survival in fish blood, and have shown that pdi plays a role in the pathogenesis of S. iniae. Identification of Pdi and other S. iniae virulence proteins is a necessary initial step towards the development of appropriate preventive and therapeutic measures against diseases and economic losses caused by this pathogen.

  14. The novel polysaccharide deacetylase homologue Pdi contributes to virulence of the aquatic pathogen Streptococcus iniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Carlo J. E.; Aziz, Ramy K.; Locke, Jeffrey B.; Dahesh, Samira; Nizet, Victor; Buchanan, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The aquatic zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus iniae represents a threat to the worldwide aquaculture industry and poses a risk to humans who handle raw fish. Because little is known about the mechanisms of S. iniae pathogenesis or virulence factors, we established a high-throughput system combining whole-genome pyrosequencing and transposon mutagenesis that allowed us to identify virulence proteins, including Pdi, the polysaccharide deacetylase of S. iniae, that we describe here. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified a highly conserved signature motif in Pdi that is also conserved in the peptidoglycan deacetylase PgdA protein family. A Δpdi mutant was attenuated for virulence in the hybrid striped bass model and for survival in whole fish blood. Moreover, Pdi was found to promote bacterial resistance to lysozyme killing and the ability to adhere to and invade epithelial cells. On the other hand, there was no difference in the autolytic potential, resistance to oxidative killing or resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides between S. iniae wild-type and Δpdi. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that pdi is involved in S. iniae adherence and invasion, lysozyme resistance and survival in fish blood, and have shown that pdi plays a role in the pathogenesis of S. iniae. Identification of Pdi and other S. iniae virulence proteins is a necessary initial step towards the development of appropriate preventive and therapeutic measures against diseases and economic losses caused by this pathogen. PMID:19762441

  15. Protective efficiency of an inactivated vaccine against Streptococcus iniae in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

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    Jeong Yong-Uk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is a causative agent of hemorrhagic septicemia in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, in Korea, resulting in serious economic losses. As a preventive measure, M VAC INIAE (Mastuken, Japan was prepared from the S. iniae F2K strain and tested against the SI-36 strain prevalent on flounder fish farms on Jeju Island, Korea. F2K had a serotype of 38 (− and SI-36 38 (+. The vaccine recognized both serotypes. It showed a very high effective immune response against S. iniae; the challenge test using the S. iniae SI-36 strain resulted in a relative percent survival (RPS of 85.7-87.0% 2 weeks after vaccination and 71.0-80.0% 6 months after vaccination. Field vaccination and clinical challenge tests were performed at local Jeju aquafarms with S. iniae SI-36. These showed significantly reduced cumulative mortality when compared to the control group with RPS rates that ranged between 71-80%. Hence, the present study suggests that this vaccine showed a significant immune response against S. iniae and could be applied in commercial aquafarms as a therapeutic agent against β-hemolytic streptococcosis in cultured P. olivaceus.

  16. Unihemispheric slow-wave sleep in the Amazonian dolphin, Inia geoffrensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhametov, L M

    1987-08-18

    An electroencephalographic study of sleep in Amazonian dolphins, Inia geoffrensis, revealed that unihemispheric slow-wave sleep is the dominant sleep type in this species, as in the other two dolphin species that were studied earlier.

  17. Demographische Untersuchungen am Amazonasdelfin (Inia geoffrensis) im Cuyabeno-Reservat, in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Denkinger, Judith

    2001-01-01

    Amazonasdelfine (Inia geoffrensis) sind im gesamten Amazonas- und Orinocobecken verbreitet. In Ecuador kommen sie in den Flusssystemen des Pastaza, Curaray, Napo und Aguarico vor. Bisher gibt es nur sehr wenig Informationen über die Populationsdynamik, die Habitatnutzung oder das Sozialsystem von Inia, auch fehlen standardisierte Methoden, um beispielsweise Populationsschätzungen aus verschiedenen Studiengebieten miteinander vergleichen zu können. Darüber hinaus sind Flussdelfine durch die Ze...

  18. Antibacterial activity of Iranian medicinal plants against Streptococcus iniae isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

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    Pirbalouti Ghasemi Abdollah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is among the major pathogens of a large number of fish species cultured in fresh and marine recirculating and net pen production systems. Ten Iranian medicinal plants were assessed for their antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus iniae isolates obtained from diseased Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmonidae; Walbaum, 1972 collected from fish farms in Iran. The antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of Punica granatum, Quercus branti, Glycyrrhiza glabra and essential oils of Heracleum lasiopetalum, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis, Myrtus communis, Echinophora platyloba, Kelussia odoratissima and Stachys lavandulifolia against Steptococcus iniae was evaluated by disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts and essential oils showed a relatively high antibacterial activity against Streptococcus iniae. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of Satureja bachtiarica, Echinophora platyloba, Thymus daenensis and the ethanol extract of Quercus branti. Some of the extracts were active against Streptococcus iniae. Two essential oils showed lower MIC values; Heracleum lasiopetalum (78 μg/ml and Satureja bachtiarica (39 μg/ml. The essential oil of Satureja bachtiarica could be an important source of antibacterial compounds against the Streptococcus iniae isolated from rainbow trout.

  19. Coral microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Kellogg, Christina A.; Rohwer, Forest

    2007-01-01

    In the last 30 years, there has been approximately a 30% loss of corals worldwide, largely due to emerging diseases (Harvell et al., 2002, 2007; Hughes et al., 2003). Coral microbiology is a new field, driven largely by a desire to understand the interactions between corals and their symbiotic microorganisms and to use this knowledge to eventually prevent the spread of coral diseases.

  20. Characterization of genetic coefficients of durum wheat (Triticum turgidumL. ssp. durum'Llareta-INIA' and 'Corcolén-INIA'

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    Marco Garrido

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The genetic coefficients, representative of a crop, are necessary to use growth models; in many cases the range of the species is known, but there are no specific values for varieties. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidumL. ssp. durum'Llareta-INIA' and 'Corcolén-INIA' were sown under irrigation in the experiment station Antumapu of the Universidad de Chile on 29 June 2007, 19 May 2009, and 15 June 2010 in order to determinate four genetic coefficients: developmental thermal time, phyllochron (PHLN, extinction coefficient (k, and radiation use efficiency (RUE, and to evaluate the performance of these coefficients. Thermal times to anthesis and from anthesis to physiological maturity were 652 and 541 °C d, respectively. Two PHLN values were found, 46.6 °C d leaf-1 from emergence to fifth leaf and 102.9 °C d leaf-1 from fifth to eighth leaf. In both cases neither variety nor sowing date was significant. The value of kdid not vary among sowing dates for 'Llareta-INIA' and was not significantly different from that of 'Corcolén-INIA' for normal planting date, due to which a single fit for the two varieties was adjusted, obtaining a value of 0.46. However, 'Corcolén-INIA' had a lower value of kfor later sowing dates. RUE did not vary between varieties or sowing dates; its estimated value was 2.83 g MJ-1. The evaluation of the coefficients obtained showed coherent results, thus they can be used in model simulations.

  1. Rapid Detection and Identification of Streptococcus Iniae Using a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is among the major pathogens of a large number of fish species cultured in fresh and marine recirculating and net pen production systems . The traditional plate culture technique to detect and identify S. iniae is time consuming and may be problematic due to phenotypic variations...

  2. Controlled challenge experiment demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. A complimentary pre...

  3. BARLEY CULTIVARS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-06-13

    Jun 13, 1993 ... models were each based on several parametric statistics: 1. Thevarianceofacultivaracrossenvironments. This approach uses the variance of a cultivar ... The predicted yield values areadjusted ... Subsistence farmers risks.

  4. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of the Amazon River dolphin Inia geoffrensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Heidi L; da Silva, Vera M F; Martin, Anthony R; Feldberg, Eliana

    2012-09-01

    Classical and molecular cytogenetic (18S rDNA, telomeric sequence, and LINE-1 retrotransposon probes) studies were carried out to contribute to an understanding of the organization of repeated DNA elements in the Amazon River dolphin (boto, Inia geoffrensis). Twenty-seven specimens were examined, each presenting 2n = 44 chromosomes, the karyotype formula 12m + 14sm + 6st + 10t + XX/XY, and fundamental number (FN) = 74. C-positive heterochromatin was observed in terminal and interstitial positions, with the occurrence of polymorphism. Interstitial telomeric sequences were not observed. The nucleolar organizer region (NOR) was located at a single site on a smallest autosomal pair. LINE-1 was preferentially distributed in the euchromatin regions, with the greatest accumulation on the X chromosome. Although the karyotype structure in cetaceans is considered to be conserved, the boto karyotype demonstrated significant variations in its formula, heterochromatin distribution, and the location of the NOR compared to other cetacean species. These results contribute to knowledge of the chromosome organization in boto and to a better understanding of karyoevolution in cetaceans.

  5. Fatal septicemia caused by the zoonotic bacterium Streptococcus iniae during an outbreak in Caribbean reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keirstead, N D; Brake, J W; Griffin, M J; Halliday-Simmonds, I; Thrall, M A; Soto, E

    2014-09-01

    An outbreak of Streptococcus iniae occurred in the early months of 2008 among wild reef fish in the waters of the Federation of St Kitts and Nevis, lasting almost 2 months. Moribund and dead fish were collected for gross, histological, bacteriological, and molecular analysis. Necropsy findings included diffuse fibrinous pericarditis, pale friable livers, and serosal petechiation. Cytological and histological analysis revealed granulocytic and granulomatous inflammation with abundant coccoid bacterial organisms forming long chains. Necrosis, inflammation, and vasculitis were most severe in the pericardium, meninges, liver, kidneys, and gills. Bacterial isolates revealed β-hemolytic, Gram-positive coccoid bacteria identified as S. iniae by amplification and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Results from biochemical and antimicrobial susceptibility analysis, together with repetitive element palindromic polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting, suggest that a single strain was responsible for the outbreak. The inciting cause for this S. iniae-associated cluster of mortalities is unknown.

  6. Electrophysiological study of interaural sound intensity difference in the dolphin Inia geoffrensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supin AYa; Popov, V V; Klishin, V O

    1991-09-15

    A wave observed in the auditory brainstem responses (ABR), sensitive to the side of sound presentation, is described in a dolphin (Inia geoffrensis). Dependence of the wave threshold on location of the sound source showed that the interaural intensity difference was more than 20 dB.

  7. Experimental study to evaluate the pathogenicity of Streptococcus iniae in Guppy (Poecilia reticulata

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    Milad Adel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae has emerged as an important fish pathogen over the last decade in farmed rainbow trout in Iran. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of S. iniae in Poecilia reticulata. Atotal of 60 apparently healthy P. reticulata were obtained from ornamental fish pet store and injected intraperitoneally with 1.5×106 cfu of bacteria. For 14 days after challenge, the rate of mortality and clinical signs were recorded. The first clinical signs was observed in challenged fish 48 hrs after injection of S. iniae and first mortality was observed 72 hrs after injection. No significant differences in mortality and clinical signs between both sexes were observed. Streptococcus iniae was collected from internal organs of fishes challenged, and was confirmed using the conventional biochemical tests and PCR. It is concluded that, P. reticulata is susceptible to streptococcosis and can play an important role in transmission of the disease to other ornamental fish species and also cultured fish.

  8. Spring forward with improved Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus resistant to Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilapia aquaculture worldwide is valued around US $ 7 billion. Tilapia are an important source of protein for domestic (top 5 most consumed seafoods) and global food security. Two gram postitive bacteria, Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae, are responsible for billion dollar losses annually. Gen...

  9. Streptococcus iniae SF1: complete genome sequence, proteomic profile, and immunoprotective antigens.

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    Bao-cun Zhang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is a Gram-positive bacterium that is reckoned one of the most severe aquaculture pathogens. It has a broad host range among farmed marine and freshwater fish and can also cause zoonotic infection in humans. Here we report for the first time the complete genome sequence as well as the host factor-induced proteomic profile of a pathogenic S. iniae strain, SF1, a serotype I isolate from diseased fish. SF1 possesses a single chromosome of 2,149,844 base pairs, which contains 2,125 predicted protein coding sequences (CDS, 12 rRNA genes, and 45 tRNA genes. Among the protein-encoding CDS are genes involved in resource acquisition and utilization, signal sensing and transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, and defense against host immune response. Potential virulence genes include those encoding adhesins, autolysins, toxins, exoenzymes, and proteases. In addition, two putative prophages and a CRISPR-Cas system were found in the genome, the latter containing a CRISPR locus and four cas genes. Proteomic analysis detected 21 secreted proteins whose expressions were induced by host serum. Five of the serum-responsive proteins were subjected to immunoprotective analysis, which revealed that two of the proteins were highly protective against lethal S. iniae challenge when used as purified recombinant subunit vaccines. Taken together, these results provide an important molecular basis for future study of S. iniae in various aspects, in particular those related to pathogenesis and disease control.

  10. Biology of corals and coral reefs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajkumar, R.; Parulekar, A.H.

    This chapter deals with biology of corals, coral reefs (in general) and coral reefs of the Indian Ocean. Biology of corals is lucidly dealt with, beginning from the clarification on hermatypic and ahermatypic forms. A complete account...

  11. Growth and functional responses of different cultivars of Lotus corniculatus to aluminum and low pH stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovkin, Ján; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Kolarovic, Lukás; Zelinová, Veronika

    2009-09-15

    Aluminum toxicity is an important stress factor in acid soils. Growth, respiration and permeability properties of root cells were studied in five cultivars of Lotus corniculatus subjected to aluminum (Al) or low pH stress. The cultivars showed significant differences in root elongation under stress conditions, which correlated with changes in membrane potential (E(M)) of root cortical cells. A pH drop from 5.5 to 4.0 resulted in significant membrane depolarization and root growth inhibition. The strongest inhibition was observed in cv. São Gabriel (33.6%) and least in cv. UFRGS (25.8%). Application of an extremely high Al concentration (2mM) stopped the root growth in cv. INIA Draco, while inhibition in cv. UFRGS reached only 75%. The E(M) values of cortical cells of Lotus roots varied between -115 and -144mV. Treatment with 250microM of AlCl(3) (pH 4) resulted in rapid membrane depolarization. The extent of the membrane depolarization ranged between 51mV (cv. UFGRS) and 16mV (cv. INIA Draco). The membrane depolarization was followed by a loss of K(+) from Al-treated roots (2mM Al) and resulted in a decrease of the diffusion potential (E(D)). The total amount of K(+) in Al-treated roots dropped from 31.4 to 16.8micromolg(-1) FW in sensitive cv. INIA Draco, or from 26.1 to 22.7micromolg(-1) FW in tolerant cv. UFGRS. The rate of root respiration under control conditions as well as under Al treatment was higher in cv. INIA Draco than in cv. UFRGS. Al-induced inhibition of root respiration was 21-34% of the control.

  12. Coral choreography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Viewers clicking onto the Waikiki Aquarium's “Coral Research Cam” any time during daylight hours in Hawaii can catch the latest action of three species of living corals (Acropora sp., Acropora elseyi,and Montipora digitata) and the yellow tang and blue tang fish swimming amongst them in an outdoor aquarium.Waikiki Aquarium Director Bruce Carlson says the camera is part of a new exhibit, “Corals Are Alive!,” which encourages people to view living corals close-up at the aquarium or via the Internet, in order to gain a better appreciation of the corals. “Hopefully through education and awareness, people will be more interested and willing to help with conservation efforts to preserve coral reefs,” says Carlson.

  13. Spatial distribution of river dolphins, Inia geoffrensis (Iniidae), in the Araguaia River (central Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    ARAÚJO, CLARYANA COSTA; Vera Maria Ferreira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the distribution of botos, Inia geoffrensis, along a 530 km stretch in the middle reaches of the Araguaia River (central Brazil). Data collection was conducted in May (lowering water season) and September (dry season) of 2009. The location and group size of botos were recorded, and the relative density was calculated. The river was divided into nine areas according to geomorphological features; these areas were later grouped into two (low and high) levels of s...

  14. Evolution of the capsular operon of Streptococcus iniae in response to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Candice M; Baiano, Justice C F; Chan, Candy; Yuen, Benedict; Aviles, Fabian; Landos, Matt; Chong, Roger S M; Benedict, Suresh; Barnes, Andrew C

    2012-12-01

    Streptococcus iniae causes severe septicemia and meningitis in farmed fish and is also occasionally zoonotic. Vaccination against S. iniae is problematic, with frequent breakdown of protection in vaccinated fish. The major protective antigens in S. iniae are the polysaccharides of the capsule, which are essential for virulence. Capsular biosynthesis is driven and regulated by a 21-kb operon comprising up to 20 genes. In a long-term study, we have sequenced the capsular operon of strains that have been used in autogenous vaccines across Australia and compared it with the capsular operon sequences of strains subsequently isolated from infected vaccinated fish. Intriguingly, strains isolated from vaccinated fish that subsequently become infected have coding mutations that are confined to a limited number of genes in the cps operon, with the remainder of the genes in the operon remaining stable. Mutations in strains in diseased vaccinated fish occur in key genes in the capsular operon that are associated with polysaccharide configuration (cpsG) and with regulation of biosynthesis (cpsD and cpsE). This, along with high ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations within the cps genes, suggests that immune response directed predominantly against capsular polysaccharide may be driving evolution in a very specific set of genes in the operon. From these data, it may be possible to design a simple polyvalent vaccine with a greater operational life span than the current monovalent killed bacterins.

  15. Crowning corals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    and oil transport, thermal pollution and freshwater inflow are the major threats to corals growing along the urban and industrialised centres. Therefore, a concerted effort from academicians, governmental and non-governmental bodies to educate the public...

  16. First report of major histocompatibility complex class II loci from the Amazon pink river dolphin (genus Inia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Agüero, M; Flores-Ramírez, S; Ruiz-García, M

    2006-07-31

    We report the first major histocompatibility complex (MHC) DQB1 sequences for the two species of pink river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis and Inia boliviensis) inhabiting the Amazon and Orinoco River basins. These sequences were found to be polymorphic within the Inia genus and showed shared homology with cetacean DQB-1 sequences, especially, those of the Monodontidae and Phocoenidae. On the other hand, these sequences were shown to be divergent from those described for other riverine dolphin species, such as Lipotes vexillifer, the Chinese river dolphin. Two main conclusions can be drawn from our results: 1) the Mhc DQB1 sequences seem to evolve more rapidly than other nuclear sequences in cetaceans, and 2) differential positive selective pressures acting on these genes cause concomitant divergent evolutionary histories that derive phylogenetic reconstructions that could be inconsistent with widely accepted intertaxa evolutionary relationships elucidated with other molecular markers subjected to a neutral dynamics.

  17. The INIA19 template and NeuroMaps atlas for primate brain image parcellation and spatial normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten eRohlfing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The INIA19 is a new, high-quality template for imaging-based studies of non-human primate brains created from high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR images of 19 rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta animals. Combined with the comprehensive cortical and subcortical label map of the NeuroMaps atlas, the INIA19 is equally suitable for studies requiring both spatial normalization and atlas label propagation. Population-averaged template images are provided for both the brain and the whole head, to allow alignment of the atlas with both skull-stripped and unstripped data, and thus to facilitate its use for skull stripping of new images. This article describes the construction of the template using freely-available software tools, as well as the template itself, which is being made available to the scientific community (http://nitrc.org/projects/inia19/.

  18. Lleuque-INIA, New High Yield Spring Durum Wheat Variety for Chile Lleuque-INIA, Nueva Variedad de Trigo Candeal de Primavera de Alto Potencial de Rendimiento para Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Matus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Lleuque-INIA spring durum wheat variety (Triticum turgidum var. durum L. originated from a cross carried out by the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, National Wheat Program, in the Centro Regional de Investigación La Platina, Santiago, Chile, in 1993. This variety has an upright growth habit in the seedling stage; the adult plant is of medium height and varies between 80 and 90 cm. The spike is medium-sized, white, and exhibits long whitish awns along its full length. The grain is large-sized, elongated, golden yellow, and vitreous. The variety was sown in mid-August in the Santa Rosa Experimental Station (36°31’ S; 71°54’ W, Chillán, head emergence occurred between 89 and 91 d after sowing, and was 6 to 8 d later than ‘Llareta-INIA’ and ‘Corcolén-INIA’. In La Platina, ‘Lleuque-INIA’ had a mean yield of 16.7 and 20.8% higher than vars. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA, respectively, whereas the yield was higher in Chillán by 10.3 and 10.1%, respectively. On the other hand, in Yungay located in the Ñuble foothills, ‘Lleuque-INIA’ yield exceeded ‘Llareta-INIA’ by 13.07% and var. Corcolén-INIA by 16.97%. In Humán, var. Lleuque-INIA yield exceeded the control vars. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA by 15.23 and 24.03%, respectively. Lleuque-INIA variety is a type of wheat with good hectoliter weight, good wet gluten content (%, and a protein value mean fluctuating between 10.47 and 12.3%.La variedad de trigo candeal (Triticum turgidum var. durum L. de primavera Lleuque-INIA proviene de un cruzamiento efectuado el año 1993 por el Programa Nacional de Trigo del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA en el Centro Regional de Investigación La Platina, Santiago, Chile. Es un trigo con hábito de crecimiento erecto al estado de plántula, la planta adulta es de altura mediana y varía entre 80 y 90 cm. La espiga es de tamaño medio, compacta, de color blanco, presenta barbas largas de color

  19. Streptococcus iniae M-Like Protein Contributes to Virulence in Fish and Is a Target for Live Attenuated Vaccine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jeffrey B.; Aziz, Ramy K.; Vicknair, Mike R.; Nizet, Victor; Buchanan, John T.

    2008-01-01

    Background Streptococcus iniae is a significant pathogen in finfish aquaculture, though knowledge of virulence determinants is lacking. Through pyrosequencing of the S. iniae genome we have identified two gene homologues to classical surface-anchored streptococcal virulence factors: M-like protein (simA) and C5a peptidase (scpI). Methodology/Principal Findings S. iniae possesses a Mga-like locus containing simA and a divergently transcribed putative mga-like regulatory gene, mgx. In contrast to the Mga locus of group A Streptococcus (GAS, S. pyogenes), scpI is located distally in the chromosome. Comparative sequence analysis of the Mgx locus revealed only one significant variant, a strain with an insertion frameshift mutation in simA and a deletion mutation in a region downstream of mgx, generating an ORF which may encode a second putative mga-like gene, mgx2. Allelic exchange mutagenesis of simA and scpI was employed to investigate the potential role of these genes in S. iniae virulence. Our hybrid striped bass (HSB) and zebrafish models of infection revealed that M-like protein contributes significantly to S. iniae pathogenesis whereas C5a peptidase-like protein does not. Further, in vitro cell-based analyses indicate that SiMA, like other M family proteins, contributes to cellular adherence and invasion and provides resistance to phagocytic killing. Attenuation in our virulence models was also observed in the S. iniae isolate possessing a natural simA mutation. Vaccination of HSB with the ΔsimA mutant provided 100% protection against subsequent challenge with a lethal dose of wild-type (WT) S. iniae after 1,400 degree days, and shows promise as a target for live attenuated vaccine development. Conclusions/Significance Analysis of M-like protein and C5a peptidase through allelic replacement revealed that M-like protein plays a significant role in S. iniae virulence, and the Mga-like locus, which may regulate expression of this gene, has an unusual arrangement

  20. Streptococcus iniae M-like protein contributes to virulence in fish and is a target for live attenuated vaccine development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B Locke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus iniae is a significant pathogen in finfish aquaculture, though knowledge of virulence determinants is lacking. Through pyrosequencing of the S. iniae genome we have identified two gene homologues to classical surface-anchored streptococcal virulence factors: M-like protein (simA and C5a peptidase (scpI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: S. iniae possesses a Mga-like locus containing simA and a divergently transcribed putative mga-like regulatory gene, mgx. In contrast to the Mga locus of group A Streptococcus (GAS, S. pyogenes, scpI is located distally in the chromosome. Comparative sequence analysis of the Mgx locus revealed only one significant variant, a strain with an insertion frameshift mutation in simA and a deletion mutation in a region downstream of mgx, generating an ORF which may encode a second putative mga-like gene, mgx2. Allelic exchange mutagenesis of simA and scpI was employed to investigate the potential role of these genes in S. iniae virulence. Our hybrid striped bass (HSB and zebrafish models of infection revealed that M-like protein contributes significantly to S. iniae pathogenesis whereas C5a peptidase-like protein does not. Further, in vitro cell-based analyses indicate that SiMA, like other M family proteins, contributes to cellular adherence and invasion and provides resistance to phagocytic killing. Attenuation in our virulence models was also observed in the S. iniae isolate possessing a natural simA mutation. Vaccination of HSB with the Delta simA mutant provided 100% protection against subsequent challenge with a lethal dose of wild-type (WT S. iniae after 1,400 degree days, and shows promise as a target for live attenuated vaccine development. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Analysis of M-like protein and C5a peptidase through allelic replacement revealed that M-like protein plays a significant role in S. iniae virulence, and the Mga-like locus, which may regulate expression of this gene, has an

  1. Development of a multiplex PCR assay to detect Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus parauberis, and Streptococcus iniae in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Bin; Kwon, Kyoung; Cha, In Seok; Jang, Ho Bin; Nho, Seong Won; Fagutao, Fernand F; Kim, Young Kyu; Yu, Jong Earn; Jung, Tae Sung

    2014-01-01

    A multiplex PCR protocol was established to simultaneously detect major bacterial pathogens in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) including Edwardsiella (E.) tarda, Streptococcus (S.) parauberis, and S. iniae. The PCR assay was able to detect 0.01 ng of E. tarda, 0.1 ng of S. parauberis, and 1 ng of S. iniae genomic DNA. Furthermore, this technique was found to have high specificity when tested with related bacterial species. This method represents a cheaper, faster, and reliable alternative for identifying major bacterial pathogens in olive flounder, the most important farmed fish in Korea.

  2. Immunomodulatory effect of sodium alginate enriched diet in kelp grouper Epinephelus brneus against Streptococcus iniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Han, Yong-Jae; Jang, Ik-Soo; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-02-01

    The effect of diets containing sodium alginate at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ following challenge with Streptococcus iniae in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus were assessed with reference to survival rate and innate immune parameters such as alternative complement, lysozyme, natural haemagglutination, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase, and phagocytic activities on week 1, 2, and 4. Fish fed with sodium alginate containing diet at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ after being challenged with S. iniae had higher survival rates of 75% and 60%, respectively than those fed with control diet (0 g kg⁻¹). With any enriched diet the percentage of macrophages significantly decreased from week 1-4, while the percentage of neutrophils and lymphocytes significantly increased. The alternate complement activity, natural haemagglutination, and phagocytic activities of infected fish fed with sodium alginate containing diet at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ on week 2 and 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ diets on week 4 were significantly higher when compared to the control. The lysozyme, respiratory bursts, and superoxide dismutase activities of fish fed with enriched diets at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly increased on week 2 and 4. We therefore recommend that at 1.0 or 2.0 g kg⁻¹ dietary administration of sodium alginate can enhance innate immunity and disease resistance in kelp grouper against S. iniae. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunological enhancement action of endotoxin-free tilapia heat shock protein 70 against Streptococcus iniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Rui; Li, Liping; Liang, Wanwen; Wang, Qiuhua; Huang, Ting; Li, Chao; Li, Jian; Gan, Xi; Lei, Aiying; Huang, Weiyi; Luo, Honglin

    2014-07-01

    The immunological effects of heat shock proteins (HSPs) had been found in humans and mice, but scarce data of endotoxin-free Hsp70 were reported in tilapia. In the current study, we reported that tHsp70 alone and antigen-tHsp70 compound increased the proliferations of lymphocytes and macrophages, significantly increased the NO release and phagocytotic ability of macrophages (ptilapia lymphocytes and macrophages post S. iniae exposure and its up-regulation effects on vaccine-induced protection. Our research highlights the immunological enhancement action of Hsp70 in teleost immunity.

  4. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkacsi, A B; Pan, J J; Villesen, Palle

    2004-01-01

    of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each functional group are members of monophyletic groups. However, there is one outstanding exception in the fungus-growing ant system, the unidentified cultivar grown only by ants in the Apterostigma pilosum group. We classify this cultivar in the coral...

  5. Recombinant thioredoxin 1 protein: the immune-adjuvant effect of Streptococcus iniae and its safety in rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Won; Shim, Sang Hee; Lee, Jung-Ho; Jeong, Ji-Min; Park, Chan-Il

    2014-08-01

    Adjuvant is an immune enhancer commonly used during vaccination to enhance the host immune response. In the present study, we analysed the recombinant protein produced from rock bream thioredoxin 1 cDNA (rRbTRx1). To verify the immune-stimulatory effect of this recombinant protein, changes in the expression level of several genes were investigated using the cDNA microarray chips in rock bream peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with rRbTRx1. Furthermore, the immune responses of rock bream to Streptococcus iniae FKC (formalin-killed cell) vaccination alone or in combination with recombinant proteins were analysed after an experimental challenge with living S. iniae. Microarray analysis showed that 237 unique genes were upregulated more than two-fold after rRbTRx1 stimulation. Serum agglutination titres were relatively low; however, the FKC vaccine still conferred protection against S. iniae. Moreover, the adverse effects showed no statistically significant difference between fish injected with a concentration and non-injected fish. After experimental challenge to the rock bream by injection with living bacteria (S. iniae), the relative percent survival in the vaccinated groups with FKC + rRbTRx1 was significantly higher than that of the vaccinated groups with FKC alone, which were 85.9% and 68.2%, respectively. This indicated that the recombinant protein as an adjuvant showed synergism with the injected vaccine in rock bream.

  6. Stomach Content of a Juvenile Bolivian River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis) from the Upper Madeira Basin, Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliaga-Rossel, E.; Beerman, A.S.; Sarmiento, J.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a study about the stomach content of a juvenile Bolivian river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis), an endemic subspecies of the Amazon River dolphin, found in the upper Madeira River basin in Bolivia. The study finds that the stomach of Bolivian river dolphin contained a mix

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  8. Stomach Content of a Juvenile Bolivian River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis) from the Upper Madeira Basin, Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliaga-Rossel, E.; Beerman, A.S.; Sarmiento, J.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a study about the stomach content of a juvenile Bolivian river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis), an endemic subspecies of the Amazon River dolphin, found in the upper Madeira River basin in Bolivia. The study finds that the stomach of Bolivian river dolphin contained a

  9. Additive genetic variation in resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae capsular type Ib: is genetic resistance correlated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus (S.) iniae and S. agalactiae are both economically important Gram positive bacterial pathogens affecting the globally farmed tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). Historically control of these bacteria in tilapia culture has included biosecurity, therapeutants and vaccination strategies. Genet...

  10. Morphology and Ultrastructure of the Amazon River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) Spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Rodrigo S; Da Silva, Vera M F; Valdez Domingos, Fabíola X; Martin, Anthony R

    2017-08-01

    The spermatozoa from seven adult Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis, CETACEA: INIIDAE) were analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The spermatozoa showed an elongated ellipsoid shaped head and a long tail with a well distinguishable midpiece. The head spermatozoa have a smooth surface like other odontocetes examined, with the exception of the Delphinidae family. The mean dimensions of the spermatozoa were within the range already reported for other cetaceans. The spermatozoa midpiece, as in other cetaceans, showed a random pattern of mitochondria, different from that described for other mammals. Further studies of sperm morphology of a wider spectrum of cetacean families could help to better understand the reproductive biology of these animals and the intergeneric and intrageneric relationships among them, as well as, among other mammals. Anat Rec, 300:1519-1523, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Coral contact dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson, Julie; Thompson, Curtis; Hinshaw, Molly; Rich, Phoebe

    2015-01-01

    Corals can elicit both toxic and allergic reactions upon contact with the skin. Clinical presentations vary depending on whether the reaction is acute, delayed, or chronic. Literature concerning cutaneous reactions to corals and other Cnidarians is scarce. Herein we report a case of delayed contact hypersensitivity reaction to coral and review the clinical and histopathological features of coral contact dermatitis.

  12. Coral contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Julie; Thompson, Curtis; Hinshaw, Molly; Rich, Phoebe

    2015-04-16

    Corals can elicit both toxic and allergic reactions upon contact with the skin. Clinical presentations vary depending on whether the reaction is acute, delayed, or chronic. Literature concerning cutaneous reactions to corals and other Cnidarians is scarce. Herein we report a case of delayed contact hypersensitivity reaction to coral and review the clinical and histopathological features of coral contact dermatitis.

  13. Variation in the immunoglobulin levels in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) after vaccination with Streptococcus iniae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Wenbin; LIU Hongming; XING Jing; SHENG Xiuzhen; TANG Xiaoqian

    2009-01-01

    A pathogenic bacterium (S636), identified as Streptococcus iniae, was isolated from turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in 2005. We immunized turbot with formalin-killed S. iniae four times (on days 1, 14, 21, and 28) by intraperitoneal inoculation. After each vaccination, we obtained serum samples and isolated the lymphocytes from the peripheral blood, spleen, pronephros, and mesonephros. We measured surface Ig-positive (sIg+) lymphocytes and serum antibody levels from these organs using flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively, using monoclonal antibodies against turbot immunoglobulin. We confirmed that the antibody reacted with both the surface and plasma Ig by confocal laser scanning microscopy and electron microscopy. The percentage of sIg+ in the lymphocytes increased following each successive vaccination. The mean percentage increased from 31.96% (control) to 37.49%, 38.36%, 42.9%, and 51.63% in the peripheral blood; from 27.09% to 36.63%, 36.81%, 39.28%, and 46.0% in the spleen; from 22.2% to 28.99%, 29.21%, 32.83%, and 41.58% in pronephros; and from 18.12% to 22.17%, 22.45%, 25.69%, and 31.68% in the mesonephros. The ELISA results were consistent with these results. Both the total and specific antibody levels increased with each vaccination. The mean OD value of the specific antibody assay increased from 0.094, to 0.269, 0.283, 0.333, and 0.421; for total antibody the mean OD value increased from 0.133, to 0.292, 0.323, 0.413, and 0.527.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    P.S. Santos; ALBUQUERQUE, G. R.; da Silva, V. M. F.; Martin, A R; Marvulo,M.F.V.; S.L.P. Souza; Ragozo, A. M. A. [UNESP; Nascimento, C. C.; Gennari,S.M.; Dubey, J. P.; Silva, J. C. R.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefe, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT >= 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with ...

  15. CULTIVAR RELEASE - BRS Saturno – triticale cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The triticale cultivar BRS Saturno was developed by Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation inpartnership with the Fundação Pró-Sementes de Apoio à Pesquisa. It is the result of a cross between the genotypes PFT 512 and CEP28 – Guará, adapted to the environmental conditions of cultivation in southern Brazil.

  16. Coral reefs - Specialized ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    This paper discusses briefly some aspects that characterize and differentiate coral reef ecosystems from other tropical marine ecosystems. A brief account on the resources that are extractable from coral reefs, their susceptibility to natural...

  17. The complete amino acid sequence of the major component myoglobin of Amazon river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwulet, F E; Bogardt, R A; Jones, B N; Lehman, L D; Gurd, F R

    1975-12-02

    The complete amino acid sequence of the major component myoglobin from Amazon River dolphin, Inia geoffrensis, was determined by specific cleavage of the protein to obtain large peptides which are readily degraded by the automatic sequencer. Three easily separable peptides were obtained by cleaving the protein with cyanogen bromide at the methionine residues and four peptides were obtained by cleaving the methyl-acetimidated protein with trypsin at the arginine residues. From these peptides over 85% of the sequence was completed. The remainder of the sequence was obtained by fragmentation of the large cyanogen bromide peptide with trypsin. This protein differs from that of the common porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, at seven positions, from that of the common dolphin, Delphinus delphis, at 11 positions, and from that of the sperm whale, Physeter catodon, at 15 positions. By comparison of this sequence with the three-dimensional structure of sperm whale myoglobin it appears that those residues close to the heme group are most conserved followed by those in nonhelical regions and lastly by those in the helical segments. All of the substitutions observed in this sequence fit easily into the three-dimensional structure of the sperm whale myoglobin.

  18. Presumed normal ultrasonographic findings of the testis and epididymis of botos (Inia geoffrensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Flávio Ribeiro; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Martin, Anthony Richard; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Giglio, Robson Fortes; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2012-12-01

    Fifteen live adult male botos, or Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis), were examined using ultrasonography during the yearly capture expedition, between October and November 2005, at the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, within the Brazilian Amazon (3 degrees S, 65 degrees W). All examinations were performed with a Sonosite 180 plus ultrasound unit in conjunction with a 2- to 5-MHz multifrequency transducer convex array 180 Plus/Elite-C60. Age and maturity estimates were determined considering the body length, weight, and external characteristics. In all examinations, the testes were discerned by the presence of a hyperechoic central line, called the mediastinum testis, a landmark for their identification during ultrasonography. No significant differences in echogenicity were detected on the ultrasonographic appearance of the testes among the studied animals. On adult male botos, apparent parenchymal nodulation of the testis was observed on scanning in most of the animals and probably constituted evidence of reproductive maturity. Using the color Doppler technique, blood flow was detected along the mediastinum testis that progressively decreased toward the periphery of this organ. Little blood flow could be identified by color Doppler. Power Doppler allowed better accuracy to identify testicular vessels, their topography, and their differentiation from adjacent structures. Ultrasonographic examination provides useful data for morphologic characterization of the boto's testes. Examination using Doppler techniques was considered a valuable tool to evidence blood flow through the testicular parenchyma.

  19. Minor contribution of mutations at iniA codon 501 and embC-embA intergenic region in ethambutol-resistant clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Suhail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethambutol (EMB is a first-line drug for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB. Resistance to EMB in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is mediated by mutations in several genes involved in arabinan synthesis notably three emb (arabinosyl transferase and iniA (isoniazid-inducible genes. Most epidemiologically unrelated EMB-resistant M. tuberculosis strains contain mutations at embB codons 306, 406 and 497, embC-embA intergenic region (IGR and iniA codon 501 (iniA501. Objective To develop a more comprehensive molecular screen for EMB-resistance detectioamong epidemiologically unrelated EMB-resistant M. tuberculosis strains previously analyzed for embB codon 306, 406 and 497 mutations by including analysis of mutations at iniA501 and in embC-embA IGR. Methods Fifty consecutive and phenotypically documented EMB-resistant and 25 pansusceptible M. tuberculosis strains isolated from 75 different TB patients over a four-year period in Kuwait were analyzed. Mutations at iniA501 were detected by PCR amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP patterns generated with Hpy 99 I. Direct DNA sequencing was used to confirm RFLP results and for detecting mutations in embC-embA IGR. Results Nearly same number of EMB-resistant M. tuberculosis strains were resistant to EMB alone and EMB together with additional resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid (9 of 50, 18% and 11 of 50, 22%, respectively. All the 25 pansusceptible strains contained wild-type sequences at iniA501 and in embC-embA IGR. The analysis of 50 EMB-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates showed that only one strain contained a mutated iniA501 while no mutation was detected in embC-embA IGR in any of the isolate. Conclusion Analysis of iniA501 and embC-embA IGR in epidemiologically unrelated EMB-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates in Kuwait indicate that mutations at these locations occur very infrequently and their inclusion for the development of a

  20. Effects of exposure to Streptococcus iniae on microRNA expression in the head kidney of genetically improved farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Jun; Tao, Fanyi; He, Jie; Sun, Lanyi; Xu, Pao; Bao, Wenjin

    2017-02-20

    Genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) are susceptible to infection by Streptococcus iniae when maintained in modern intensive culture systems. GIFT are commercially important fishes that are cultured widely in southern China. The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulatory response of GIFT to S. iniae infection has been underestimated and has not yet been well studied. Head kidney has an important immune function in teleost fishes. The main aim of this study was to determine the possible function of miRNAs in head kidney of S. iniae-infected GIFT. MiRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the 3'-untranslated regions of their target mRNAs. MiRNAs are known to regulate immune-regulated signaling and inflammatory response pathways. High-throughput deep sequencing of two libraries (control group [CO] and infected group [IN]) of RNA extracted from GIFT head kidney tissues generated 12,089,630 (CO) and 12,624,975 (IN) clean reads. Bioinformatics analysis identified 1736 and 1729 conserved miRNAs and 164 and 165 novel miRNAs in the CO and IN libraries, respectively. Three miRNAs (miR-310-3p, miR-92, and miR-127) were found to be up-regulated and four miRNAs (miR-92d-3p, miR-375-5p, miR-146-3p, and miR-694) were found to be down-regulated in the S. iniae-infected GIFT. The expressions of these miRNAs were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. RNAhybrid and TargetScan were used to identify complementary miRNA and mRNA target sites, and the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases were used to annotate and predict potential downstream regulation of biological pathways. Seven target genes, which encode immune-related proteins (complement C3, cytidine deaminase, regulator of G-protein Rgs22, mitogen-activated protein kinase Mapk1, metabotropic glutamate receptorm GluR8, calcium-sensing receptor CaSR, and microtubule-associated protein Map1S) were predicted to play crucial roles in the

  1. Microsatellite loci for population and parentage analysis in the Amazon River dolphin (Inia geoffrensis de Blainville, 1817).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravena, Waleska; Hrbek, Tomas; DA Silva, Vera M S; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Farias, Izeni P

    2009-03-01

    We developed specific primers for microsatellite DNA regions for the Amazon River dolphin or boto Inia geoffrensis, for use in population and conservation genetic studies. We also tested their transferability for two other species, Pontoporia blainvillei (sister taxon of I. geoffrensis) and Sotalia guianensis. A total of 12 microsatellite loci were polymorphic for the boto. An additional 25 microsatellite loci previously isolated from other cetacean species were also tested in the boto. The 26 polymorphic microsatellite loci indicate they will be excellent markers for studies of population structure and kinship relations of the boto.

  2. Hematologia e bioquímica sangüínea do boto Vermelho Inia Geoffrensis (de Blainville, 1817)

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Daniela Magalhães Drummond de

    2006-01-01

    Os golfinhos de rio estão entre os cetáceos menos conhecidos e mais ameaçados do mundo. O boto vermelho (Inia geoffrensis) é endêmico e amplamente distribuído nas bacias dos rios Amazonas e Orinoco. Visando aumentar conhecimento sobre a biologia básica e fisiologia do mesmo, o presente trabalho reporta os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos de 109 botos de vida livre da Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá. As colheitas foram realizadas durante o mês de novembro de 2004 e 2005. ...

  3. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkacsi, A.B.; Pan, J.J.; Villesen, P.

    2004-01-01

    of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each functional group are members of monophyletic groups. However, there is one outstanding exception in the fungus-growing ant system, the unidentified cultivar grown only by ants in the Apterostigma pilosum group. We classify this cultivar in the coral-mushroom...... family Pterulaceae using phylogenetic reconstructions based on broad taxon sampling, including the first mushroom collected from the garden of an ant species in the A. pilosum group. The domestication of the pterulaceous cultivar is independent from the domestication of the gilled mushrooms cultivated...

  4. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkacsi, A.B.; Pan, J.J.; Villesen, P.;

    2004-01-01

    of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each functional group are members of monophyletic groups. However, there is one outstanding exception in the fungus-growing ant system, the unidentified cultivar grown only by ants in the Apterostigma pilosum group. We classify this cultivar in the coral-mushroom...... family Pterulaceae using phylogenetic reconstructions based on broad taxon sampling, including the first mushroom collected from the garden of an ant species in the A. pilosum group. The domestication of the pterulaceous cultivar is independent from the domestication of the gilled mushrooms cultivated...

  5. Filogeografia e gen?tica de popula??es de inia geoffrensis (cetartiodactyla: iniidae) nos rios Negro e Branco e evid?ncia de linhagem evolutiva independente na Bacia do Orinoco

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, Joiciane Gon?alves

    2015-01-01

    Os golfinhos de ?gua doce do g?nero Inia pertencem a fam?lia Iniidae e possuem tr?s esp?cies descritas para diferentes regi?es hidrogr?ficas: Inia boliviensis (sub-bacia Boliviana); I. araguaiaensis (bacia Tocantins/Araguaia); e I. geoffrensis (bacias Amaz?nica e do Orinoco). Esta ?ltima ? representada por duas subesp?cies, cuja taxonomia ? controversa: Inia geoffrensis geoffrensis (bacia Amaz?nia) e I. g. humboldtiana (bacia do Orinoco). As adapta??es adquiridas pelas esp?cies...

  6. Pessegueiro: cultivar BRS kampai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O programa de Melhoramento Genético de Pessegueiros da Embrapa Clima Temperado tem, entre seus objetivos, a obtenção de cultivares produtoras de frutas para consumo in natura, com características que satisfaçam às exigências dos consumidores. Alguns dos grandes centros consumidores, como é o caso de São Paulo e Curitiba, preferem pêssegos de polpa branca e sabor doce. A cultivar BRS Kampai, obtida de um cruzamento entre 'Chimarrita' e 'Flordaprince', alia a baixa necessidade em frio, o que é uma vantagem em regiões subtropicais, à boa aparência, com sabor superior a qualquer um dos parentais. A colheita dos frutos desta cultivar inicia-se geralmente, em meados de novembro, em Pelotas-RS (em Atibaia, São Paulo, inicia-se na segunda quinzena de outubro, poucos dias antes das cultivares Rubimel (polpa amarela e Premier (polpa branca, sendo ótima substituta para esta última.

  7. Effects of dietary levels of vitamin A on growth, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental levels of vitamin A (0, 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 IU/kg diet) on the growth performance, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus to Streptococcus iniae challenge. Each diet was fed to Nil...

  8. Growth performance and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets supplemented with GroBiotic - A and Brewtech Dried Brewers Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of Brewtech® dried brewers yeast (BY) and GroBiotic®-A (GB) on growth performance, proximate body composition, immune response and resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. A practical basal (control) diet ...

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus iniae UEL-Si1, Isolated in Diseased Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Northern Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Kátia B.; Scarpassa, Josiane A.; Pretto-Giordano, Lucienne G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Streptococcus iniae UEL-Si1 strain was isolated from diseased Nile tilapia within the Paranapanema River Basin, Northern Paraná, Brazil. This is an emerging infectious disease agent of fish from Brazil, and sequencing of the complete genome is fundamental to understanding aspects relative to pathogenesis, infection, epidemiology, and immunity. PMID:28082497

  10. Phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among Streptococcus iniae isolates recovered from cultured and wild fish in North America, Central America and the Caribbean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae, the etiological agent of streptococcosis in fish, is an important pathogen of cultured and wild fish worldwide. During the last decade outbreaks of streptococcosis have occurred in a wide range of cultured and wild fish in the Americas and Caribbean islands. To gain a better und...

  11. Fitness cost, gyrB mutation, and absence of phosphotransferase system fructose specific IIABC component in novobiocin-resistant Streptococcus iniae vaccine strain ISNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand the fitness cost of novobiocin-resistance in an attenuated Streptococcus iniae vaccine strain ISNO compared to its virulent parent strain ISET0901, cell proliferation rate of the two strains were compared to each other. Our results revealed that the cell proliferation rates of ISNO wer...

  12. Caracterização molecular de cultivares de pessegueiro e nectarineira com microssatélites Molecular characterization of peach and nectarine cultivars though microsatellites markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmor João Bianchi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Na certificação de mudas de plantas frutíferas, a identificação genética é importante em todas as etapas do processo de produção. Em pessegueiro, a identificação de genótipos baseada somente em características morfofenológicas deixa dúvidas quanto à verdadeira identidade de algumas cultivares. Marcadores moleculares de microssatélies foram utilizados objetivando a caracterização molecular de 8 cultivares de nectarineira e 28 de pessegueiro. Para a análise, foram utilizados 13 incializadores de microssatélites (primers, sendo que todos foram marcadores produzindo polimorfismo suficiente para identificar 32 das 36 cultivares analisadas. A maior similaridade genética verificada nas cultivares para consumo in natura foi entre Coral e Planalto (0,94 e entre Della Nona e Marfim (0,90, enquanto, para os pessegueiros para indústria, foi de 0,93 entre Jubileu e Capdeboscq e de 0,92 entre Jade e Esmeralda. Os marcadores de microssatélites permitiram separar em grupos distintos as nectarineiras e os pessegueiros de consumo in natura dos de indústria, havendo uma elevada concordância entre os dados genealógicos das cultivares e os dados gerados pelos microssatélites, confirmando a grande utilidade da técnica para a caracterização genética.Genetic identification of fruit tree plants is important in all phases of the production process. On peach the genotypes identification based only on the morphologic and phenologic characteristics leaves doubts on the true identity of some cultivars. Microsatellite markers were used aiming at the molecular characterization of eight nectarine and 28 peach cultivars. Thirteen microsatellite primers were used and all of them generated enough polimorfism that may identify 32 out of 36 of the analysed cultivars. The greatest genetic similarity was found between the fresh market 'Coral' and 'Planalto'(0,94 and between the 'Della Nona' and 'Marfim' cultivars (0,90, whereas for caning peaches the

  13. Effectiveness of Aquaflor (50% florfenicol) administered in feed to control mortality associated with Streptococcus iniae in tilapia at a commercial tilapia production facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Schleis, Susan M.; Leis, Eric; Lasee, Becky A.; Endris, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of Aquaflor (florfenicol; FFC) to control mortality caused by Streptococcus iniae in tilapia was evaluated under field conditions. The trial was initiated following presumptive diagnosis of S. iniae infection in a mixed group of fingerling (mean, 4.5 g) Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and a hybrid of Nile Tilapia×Blue Tilapia O. aureus. Diagnoses included mortality in source tank; examination of clinical signs and presence or absence of gram-positive cocci in brain, and collection of samples for microbiological review and disease confirmation of 60 moribund fish. Following presumptive diagnosis, tilapia (83/tank) were randomly transferred to each of 20 test tanks receiving the same water as the source tank (test tank water was not reused). Tilapia were offered either nonmedicated control feed or FFC-medicated feed (FFC at 15 mg/kg body weight/d; 10 tanks per regimen) for 10 consecutive days followed by a 14-d observation period during which only the nonmedicated control feed was offered. Streptococcus iniae was presumptively identified during pretreatment necropsy and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assay; S. iniae was confirmed in samples taken during the dosing period but was not detected during the postdosing period. The FFC disk diffusion zone of inhibition ranged from 29 to 32 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration of FFC ranged from 2 to 4 μg/mL for the S. iniae isolates collected. Survival of tilapia assigned to the FFC-dose group was significantly greater at 14 d posttreatment than that of the nonmedicated controls. The odds of tilapia assigned to the FFC-dose group surviving to the end of the postdosing period were 1.34 times the odds of survival of tilapia assigned to the nonmedicated control group. There were no clinically apparent adverse effects associated with the administration of FFC-medicated feed in this study.

  14. Multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus garvieae: a case of S. agalactiae infection in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Chutima Tantikitti; Naraid Suanyuk; Akkarawit Itsaro

    2012-01-01

    A multiplex PCR (m-PCR) technique was developed for simultaneous detection of the causative agents responsible forstreptococcosis of cultured fish in Thailand i.e., Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae, and Lactococcus garvieae.The study on the sensitivity of the technique indicated that the minimum detected DNA concentration was 9.76, 39.06, and19.53 pg for S. agalactiae, S. iniae and L. garvieae, respectively. Detection of streptococcosis in healthy and diseased Niletilapia (Oreoch...

  15. Phage therapy for Florida corals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Christina A.

    2007-01-01

    Coral disease is a major cause of reef decline in the Florida Keys. Bacterium has been defined as the most common pathogen (disease-causing organism). Although much is being done to catalog coral diseases, map their locations, determine the causes of disease, or measure the rates of coral demise, very little research has been directed toward actually preventing or eliminating the diseases affecting coral and coral reef decline.

  16. Efficacy of QCDCR formulated CpG ODN 2007 in Nile tilapia against Streptococcus iniae and identification of upregulated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H; Mu, Xingjiang; Yancey, Robert J; Kievit, Michele S; Dominowski, Paul J

    2012-01-15

    The potential of using a QCDCR (quilA:cholesterol:dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide:carbopol:R1005 glycolipid) formulated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), ODN 2007, to confer protection in Nile tilapia against Streptococcus iniae infection was evaluated in this study. At two days post treatment, QCDCR formulated ODN 2007 elicited significant (Psubtractive cDNA library. Quantitative PCR revealed that 44 ESTs were significantly (P10-fold) and 15 moderately (<10-fold) upregulated ESTs. Of all ESTs, putative peroxisomal sarcosine oxidase was upregulated the highest. The 69 ESTs only included six genes that had putative functions related to immunity, of which only two (putative glutaredoxin-1 and carboxypeptidase N catalytic chain) were confirmed to be significantly upregulated. Our results suggest that the protection elicited by ODN 2007 is mainly through innate immune responses directly or indirectly related to immunity.

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, P S; Albuquerque, G R; da Silva, V M F; Martin, A R; Marvulo, M F V; Souza, S L P; Ragozo, A M A; Nascimento, C C; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Silva, J C R

    2011-12-29

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefé, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT ≥ 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with titers of 1:25 in 24, 1:50 in 56, and 1:500 in 2. Results suggest a high level contamination of the aquatic environment of the home range of these animals.

  18. Cryobiology of coral fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Mary; Farrell, Ann; Carter, Virginia L

    2013-02-01

    Around the world, coral reefs are dying due to human influences, and saving habitat alone may not stop this destruction. This investigation focused on the biological processes that will provide the first steps in understanding the cryobiology of whole coral fragments. Coral fragments are a partnership of coral tissue and endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., commonly called zooxanthellae. These data reflected their separate sensitivities to chilling and a cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide) for the coral Pocillopora damicornis, as measured by tissue loss and Pulse Amplitude Modulated fluorometry 3weeks post-treatment. Five cryoprotectant treatments maintained the viability of the coral tissue and zooxanthellae at control values (1M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0h exposures, and 1.5M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0 and 1.5h exposures, P>0.05, ANOVA), whereas 2M concentrations did not (Pcoral tissue, but not in the zooxanthellae. During the winter when the fragments were chilled, the coral tissue remained relatively intact (∼25% loss) post-treatment, but the zooxanthellae numbers in the tissue declined after 5min of chilling (Pcoral tissue (∼75% loss) and zooxanthellae numbers declined in response to chilling alone (Pcoral against tissue loss after 45min of cryoprotectant exposure (P>0.05, ANOVA), but it did not protect against the loss of zooxanthellae (Pcoral fragment complex and future cryopreservation protocols must be guided by their greater sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Millán-INIA, New Variety of High Quality Early Spring Bread Wheat for Irrigated Soils in Central-Southern Chile Millán-INIA, Nueva Variedad de Trigo Harinero Precoz de Primavera de Alta Calidad para Suelos de Riego de la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Matus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Millán-INIA is a variety of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. originating from a cross carried out in the Wheat Plant Breeding Project of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, in the Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu in 1995. This is a spring wheat variety with an early to medium-early head emergence and upright growth habit in the seedling stage. The adult plant is low to medium height and varies between 75 and 90 cm, with a mean of 85 cm. The spike is white with long awns along its full length. The grain is large-sized, white, and vitreous. The weight of 1000 grains varies between 50 and 59 g. It was sown in mid-August at the Santa Rosa Experimental Station (36°31’ S; 71°54’ W, Chillán. Head emergence occurred 88 to 89 d after sowing, which is 2 to 3 d after Ciko-INIA. On average, Millán-INIA reached a yield similar to that of the var. Ciko-INIA. This line stands out for its good resistance to disease, high protein content (11.5% mean, high sedimentation value, and high W value.Millán-INIA es un trigo harinero (Triticum aestivum L. de primavera que proviene de un cruzamiento efectuado en 1995 en el Proyecto de Fitomejoramiento de Trigo del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA, en el Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu. Es un trigo de hábito primaveral, de época de espigadura mediana a precoz, con hábito de crecimiento erecto al estado de plántula. La altura de la planta adulta se considera mediana a baja, y varía entre 75 y 90 cm, con un promedio de 85 cm. La espiga es de color blanco y de barbas largas y presentes en toda su extensión. El grano es de color blanco y aspecto vítreo y de tamaño grande, con un peso de los 1000 granos que varía entre 50 y 59 g. Sembrado a mediados de agosto en el Campo Experimental Santa Rosa (36°31’ S; 71°54’ O, Chillán, la emisión de espigas ocurre 88 a 89 días después de la siembra, entre 2 y 3 días después que Ciko-INIA. Como

  20. Efeito de diferentes concentrações de sais em solução nutritiva na tolerância de cultivares de trigo à toxicidade de alumínio Influence of salt concentrations in nutrient solution on tolerance to aluminum toxicity in wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados dez cultivares de trigo em soluções nutritivas contendo três diferentes níveis de alumínio tóxico combinados com quatro diferentes concentrações salinas. A tolerância foi medida pela capacidade de as raízes primárias continuarem a crescer em solução sem alumínio, após permanência de 46 horas em solução contendo determinadas concentrações de sais e de alumínio. Os cultivares Siete Cerros, Tobari-66 e INIA-66 foram os mais sensíveis, IAC-15 moderadamente sensível, Alondra S-46 e IAC-17 moderadamente tolerantes, BH-1146, IAC-13, IAC-5 e C-3 tolerantes à presença de quantidades crescentes de Al³+ na solução nutritiva tratamento, o sintoma de toxicidade de alumínio ficou acentuado ou por aumento da concentração de alumínio ou por diminuição da concentração de sais para todos os cultivares estudados. Aparentemente, tolerância à toxicidade de determinada concentração de alumínio é uma característica antes relativa do que absoluta, por depender da concentração de sais presentes.The aluminum tolerance of ten wheat cultivars was studied in nutrient solutions using three different levels of this element combined with four different salt concentrations. The tolerance was evaluated by measuring, the root growth in an aluminum-free complete nutrient solution after a previous treatment in Al added solutions of equal, one half, one fifth and one tenth the salt concentration of the aluminum-free solution. The wheat cultivars Siete Cerros, Tobari-66 and INIA-66 were sensitive; IAC-15 was moderately sensitive; Alondra-S-46 and IAC-17 showed moderate tolerance; BH-1146, IAC-13, IAC-5, and C-3 were tolerant to the presence of increasing concentrations of Al³+ in the treatment nutrient solution. The aluminum toxicity symptom (inhibition of root growth was dependent on the salt concentration and the amount of aluminum in the treatment solution. For the same level of Al3+ toxicity increased when the

  1. Corals and Sclerosponges

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past climate and ocean environment derived from stable isotope, trace metal, and other measurements made on corals and sclerosponges. Parameter keywords...

  2. All Framing Corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data represent predicted habitat suitability for several taxa of deep-sea corals. Predictions were modeled using a statistical machine-learning algorithm called...

  3. Acoustic characteristics of biossonar sounds of free-ranging botos (Inia geoffrensis) and tucuxis (Sotalia fluviatilis) in the Negro River, Amazon, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Yukiko Yamamoto; Tomonari Akamatso; Vera Maria Ferreira da Silva; Yayoi Yoshida; Shiro Kohshima

    2015-01-01

    Odontoceti emit broadband high-frequency clicks on echolocation for orientation or prey detection. In the Amazon Basin, two odontoceti species, boto (Amazon River dolphin, Inia geoffrensis) and tucuxi (Sotalia fluviatilis), live sympatrically. The acoustic characteristics of the echolocation clicks of free-ranging botos and tucuxis were measured with a hydrophone array consisting of a full-band and an acoustic event recorder (A-tag). The clicks of the two species were short-duration broadband...

  4. Construction of a Streptococcus iniae sortase A mutant and evaluation of its potential as an attenuated modified live vaccine in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zou, L L; Li, A X

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus iniae is a major Gram-positive aquatic pathogen, which causes invasive diseases in cultured fish worldwide. The identification of potential virulence determinants of streptococcal infections will help to understand and control this disease, but only a few have been confirmed in S. iniae. Sortase A (srtA) is the key enzyme that anchors pre-mature cell wall-attached proteins to peptidoglycan and it can affect the correct positioning of surface proteins, as well as the course of Gram-positive bacterial infection, thereby making it a potential target in the study of virulence factors and disease control. In this study, the 759 bp srtA gene was cloned from pathogenic S. iniae TBY-1 strain and the mutant strain TBY-1ΔsrtA was constructed via allelic exchange mutagenesis. We found that srtA shares high similarities with sortase A from other Streptococcus spp. Direct survival rate assay and challenge experiments were performed, which showed that the mutant strain TBY-1ΔsrtA had a lower survival capacity in healthy tilapia blood and it was less virulent than the wild type strain in tilapia, thereby indicating that the deletion of sortase A affects the virulence and infectious capacity of S. iniae. The mutant strain TBY-1ΔsrtA was used as a live vaccine, which was administered via intraperitoneal injection, and it provided the relative percent survival value of 95.5% in Nile tilapia, thereby demonstrating its high potential as an effective attenuated live vaccine candidate.

  5. Occurrence of thraustochytrid fungi in corals and coral mucus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Balasubramanian, R.

    Occurrence of thraustochytrid fungi in corals, fresh coral mucus and floating and attached mucus detritus from the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea was studied. Corallochytrium limacisporum Raghukumar, Thraustochytrium motivum Goldstein...

  6. A coral-eating barnacle, revisited (Cirripedia, Pyrgomatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, Arnold; Newman, William A.

    1995-01-01

    The coral-eating barnacle Hoekia monticulariae (Gray, 1831), the only internal parasite among the Thoracica described to this day, is characterized by an irregularly-shaped shell nestled cryptically between the polyps of the hermatypic coral Hydnophora Fischer, 1807, which occurs throughout most of

  7. Rose Atoll Coral Monitoring Narrative

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Narrative report summarizes the results of coral monitoring at 11 georeferenced sites at Rose Atoll, American Samoa, undertaken by Dr. James Maragos, USFWS Coral...

  8. Coral reefs: Turning back time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Janice M.

    2016-03-01

    An in situ experiment finds that reducing the acidity of the seawater surrounding a natural coral reef significantly increases reef calcification, suggesting that ocean acidification may already be slowing coral growth. See Letter p.362

  9. Investigating coral hyperspectral properties across coral species and coral state using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Smith, Dustin K.; Smith, Shane W.; Strychar, Kevin B.; McLauchlan, Lifford

    2013-09-01

    Coral reefs are one of the most diverse and threatened ecosystems in the world. Corals worldwide are at risk, and in many instances, dying due to factors that affect their environment resulting in deteriorating environmental conditions. Because corals respond quickly to the quality of the environment that surrounds them, corals have been identified as bioindicators of water quality and marine environmental health. The hyperspectral imaging system is proposed as a noninvasive tool to monitor different species of corals as well as coral state over time. This in turn can be used as a quick and non-invasive method to monitor environmental health that can later be extended to climate conditions. In this project, a laboratory-based hyperspectral imaging system is used to collect spectral and spatial information of corals. In the work presented here, MATLAB and ENVI software tools are used to view and process spatial information and coral spectral signatures to identify differences among the coral data. The results support the hypothesis that hyperspectral properties of corals vary among different coral species, and coral state over time, and hyperspectral imaging can be a used as a tool to document changes in coral species and state.

  10. Bioindication in coral reef ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, H T

    1986-01-01

    The concept of bioindication in the sense of the use of organisms for detecting environmental stress has been employed in coral reef conservation and management for the past several years. Important tools are coral growth rates and various community parameters, notably hard coral cover. The present need is the optimal coordination of international efforts for the earliest possible institution of an effective monitoring system.

  11. Pessegueiro: cultivar BRS kampai Peach cultivar BRS kampai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O programa de Melhoramento Genético de Pessegueiros da Embrapa Clima Temperado tem, entre seus objetivos, a obtenção de cultivares produtoras de frutas para consumo in natura, com características que satisfaçam às exigências dos consumidores. Alguns dos grandes centros consumidores, como é o caso de São Paulo e Curitiba, preferem pêssegos de polpa branca e sabor doce. A cultivar BRS Kampai, obtida de um cruzamento entre 'Chimarrita' e 'Flordaprince', alia a baixa necessidade em frio, o que é uma vantagem em regiões subtropicais, à boa aparência, com sabor superior a qualquer um dos parentais. A colheita dos frutos desta cultivar inicia-se geralmente, em meados de novembro, em Pelotas-RS (em Atibaia, São Paulo, inicia-se na segunda quinzena de outubro, poucos dias antes das cultivares Rubimel (polpa amarela e Premier (polpa branca, sendo ótima substituta para esta última.The peach breeding program of Embrapa Clima Temperado has, among the objectives the development of fresh market cultivars that fulfill the consumer's preference. Some of the largest consumer centers, such as São Paulo and Curitiba, prefer white flesh peaches with sweet flavor. Cultivar BRS Kampai originated from a cross between 'Chimarrita' and 'Flordaprince', adds the low chilling requirement, advantageous for subtropical areas, to the good appearance and flavor superior to any of the parents. The harvest period of this cultivar begins mid November, in Pelotas, RS, a few days before Rubimel (yellow flesh and Premier (white flesh cultivars (and in the second half of October, in Atibaia, SP being a good substitute for the later.

  12. Coral reefs in crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1997-01-01

    This article reports on the crisis facing reefs throughout the world and the struggle to save them. Coral reefs, one of the biological wonders of the world, are among the largest and oldest living communities of plants and animals on earth, having been evolved between 200 and 450 million years ago. Located mostly in the Pacific region, most established coral reefs are now dead and only the upper layer is covered by a thin changeable skin of living coral. Reefs, over the years, have been the main source of animal protein for over 1 billion people in Asia. Countries near the coastlines, which relied on the seas, have resorted to dynamite fishing, poisoning and other illegal and dangerous techniques. Overpopulation and pollution has caused the deteriorating conditions of the 600,000 sq. km of coral reefs worldwide. Despite these conditions, the government has ignored this problem as they struggle to develop their economies at the expense of common resources. In addition, this article narrates the efforts that are exerted by governments in promoting coral reef protection and management of these coastal resources, setting the Apo Island in the Philippines as an example of good management and sustainability.

  13. Cultivar development of allogamous crops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souza Jr., Cláudio Lopes de

    2011-01-01

    .... It was reviewed the genetic structure of these species and its relationship with the development of cultivars, the technologies used to develop hybrids and improved open-pollinated varieties and their F1...

  14. How to maintain improved cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlevliet, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Improved cultivars loose their identity and healthiness unless maintained properly. Contaminating and degrading forces, such as outcrossing, volunteer plants, mixing, natural selection, mutation and seed-borne diseases, are at the root of this. Maintenance selection can prevent this deterioration.

  15. BRS Progresso – Rye cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rye cultivar BRS Progresso, developed by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa, is the result of a synthetic cross of 18 open-pollinated, self-incompatible lines, resistant to stem rust.

  16. Micropropagation of four blueberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Brenes Angulo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sharpblue, Woodard, Bonita and Delite cultivars were propagated from leaf explants. Leaf sections from in vitro singlenode explants were compared with those from plants in the field. The explants were placed in WPM medium supplemented with 1.5 mg.l-1 TDZ to promote sprouting, then subcultured to fresh WPM medium supplemented with 0.5 or 1.0 mg.l-1 zeatin to enhance adventitious shoot growth. Shoot clump length and number of shoots >2mm and >1cm in each clump were determined. Shoots 8 to 10 cm were harvested at 8 weeks and subcultured in WPM medium supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 4 or 8 mg.l-1 IBA for rooting. After 10 weeks, shoots were transplanted to greenhouse for acclimatization. The leaf segments cultured in WPM medium with TDZ formed adventitious shoot clumps in all varieties, regardless of leaf source. A significant effect of cultivar, source of explant and interaction cultivar x leaf source was found for shoots >2 mm. Clump size varied significantly among cultivars, leaf source, and interaction cultivars x source x zeatin concentration, when transfering to a medium with 2 concentrations of the growth regulator, but no differences due to cytokinin concentration were found. Number of shoots >2mm and length of the longest shoot varied significantly with cultivar and the interaction cultivar x source of explant in WPM + zeatin medium. Woodard explants from in vitro leaf sections produced the highest number of shoots (44.70±13.34 and Delite the lowest (21.50±4.99. Shoots subcultured in WPM with different IBA concentrations had les than 10% rooting in all treatments. However, when transplanted to greenhouse 100% rooting was obtained, regardless of in vitro treatment with IBA or leaf explant source. All the microshoots of the 4 cultivars were successfully greenhouse acclimatized and plantlets later established in the field.

  17. Coral reef ecosystem

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.

    communication). Fossil reefs, drowned as a result of the Holocene sea level rise, occur at 92, 85, 75 and 55 m depth along .. ~ !! ":2 0. ~ Figure 3.1 Graphical Representation of the SO-Box Model of a Caribbean Coral Reef Key: 1. Benthic producers. 2. Detritus... explain the low species diversity and the absence of branching corals in the intertidal regions. H.aised fossil reefs, proba bly as a result of local upheavals, arc found in Minicoy island (Gardiner 1903), in Ramanalhapuram district in Tamil Nadu...

  18. Chronic coral consumption by butterflyfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, A. J.; Lawton, R. J.; Pratchett, M. S.; Wilson, S. K.

    2011-03-01

    Interactions between predators and prey organisms are of fundamental importance to ecological communities. While the ecological impact that grazing predators can have in terrestrial and temperate marine systems are well established, the importance of coral grazers on tropical reefs has rarely been considered. In this study, we estimate the biomass of coral tissue consumed by four prominent species of corallivorous butterflyfishes. Sub-adult butterflyfishes (60-70 mm, 6-11 g) remove between 0.6 and 0.9 g of live coral tissue per day, while larger adults (>110 mm, ~40-50 g) remove between 1.5 and 3 g of coral tissue each day. These individual consumption rates correspond to the population of coral-feeding butterflyfishes at three exposed reef crest habitats at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, consuming between 14.6 g (±2.0) and 19.6 g (±3.9) .200 m-2 day-1 of coral tissue. When standardised to the biomass of butterflyfishes present, a combined reefwide removal rate of 4.2 g (±1.2) of coral tissue is consumed per 200 m-2 kg-1 of coral-feeding butterflyfishes. The quantity of coral tissue removed by these predators is considerably larger than previously expected and indicates that coral grazers are likely to play an important role in the transfer of energy fixed by corals to higher consumers. Chronic coral consumption by butterflyfishes is expected to exact a large energetic cost upon prey corals and contribute to an increased rate of coral loss on reefs already threatened by anthropogenic pressure and ongoing climate change.

  19. Corals from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzert, William C.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this research is to monitor the health and vigor of coral reef ecosystems, and their sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic climate changes. To achieve these lofty goals, this research is investigating the feasibility of using spaceborne high-resolution spectrometers (on the US Landsat, French Systeme Probatoire pour l'Observation de la Terre [SPOT] and/or the Indian Resources Satellite [IRS 1C & 1D] spacecraft) to first map the aerial extent of coral reef systems, and second separate the amount of particular corals. If this is successful, we could potentially provide a quantum leap in our understanding of coral reef systems, as well as provide much needed baseline data to measure future changes in global coral reef ecosystems. In collaboration with Tomas Tomascik, Yann Morel, and other colleagues, a series of experiments were planned to coordinate in situ coral observations, high-resolution spaceborne imagery (from Landsat, SPOT, and, possibly, IRS IC spacecraft), and NASA Space Shuttle photographs and digital images. Our eventual goal is to develop "coral health algorithms" that can be used to assess time series of imagery collected from satellite sensors (Landsat since 1972, SPOT since 1986) in concert with in situ observations. The bad news from last year was that from 1997 to mid- 1998, the extreme cloudiness over southeast Asia due to prolonged smoke from El Nino-related fires and the economic chaos in this region frustrated both our space and reef-based data collection activities. When this volatile situation stabilizes, we will restart these activities. The good news was that in collaboration with Al Strong at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) we had an exciting year operationally using the NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer sensor derived sea surface temperature products to warn of coral "bleaching" at many locations throughout the tropics. Data from NOAA's satellites showed that during the El Nino of

  20. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef communities in Puerto Rico using the Coral Demographics method

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Demographic method is one of two benthic surveys conducted in Puerto Rico as part of the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP). The coral...

  1. Coral reefs at risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Eighty-eight percent of Southeast Asia's reefs are threatened by overfishing, destructive fishing, and sedimentation and pollution from inland activities, according to a new report by 35 regional scientists published by the World Resources Institute.Nearly 100,000 square kilometers of coral reefs—34% of the world's total—are located in Southeast Asia.

  2. Coral Reef Biological Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs worldwide are experiencing decline from a variety of stressors. Some important stressors are land-based sources of pollution and human activities in the coastal zone. However, few tools are available to offset the impact of these stressors. The Clean Water Act (CWA...

  3. Coral Reef Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Helen T.

    Coral reefs are geological structures of significant dimensions, constructed over millions of years by calcifying organisms. The present day reef-builders are hard corals belonging to the order Scleractinia, phylum Cnidaria. The greatest concentrations of coral reefs are in the tropics, with highest levels of biodiversity situated in reefs of the Indo-West Pacific region. These ecosystems have provided coastal protection and livelihood to human populations over the millennia. Human activities have caused destruction of these habitats, the intensity of which has increased alarmingly since the latter decades of the twentieth century. The severity of this impact is directly related to exponential growth rates of human populations especially in the coastal areas of the developing world. However, a more recently recognized phenomenon concerns disturbances brought about by the changing climate, manifested mainly as rising sea surface temperatures, and increasing acidification of ocean waters due to greater drawdown of higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Management efforts have so far not kept pace with the rates of degradation, so that the spatial extent of damaged reefs and the incidences of localized extinction of reef species are increasing year after year. The major management efforts to date consist of establishing marine protected areas and promoting the active restoration of coral habitats.

  4. Raiding the Coral Nurseries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Jones

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A recent shift in the pattern of commercial harvest in the Keppel Island region of the southern inshore Great Barrier Reef raises concern about the depletion of a number of relatively rare restricted range taxa. The shift appears to be driven by demand from the United States (US for corals for domestic aquaria. Data from the annual status reports from the Queensland Coral Fishery were compared with export trade data to the US from the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES. Evidence was found of recent increases in the harvest of species from the Mussidae family (Acanthastrea spp. which appears to be largely driven by demand from the US. On present trends, the industry runs the risk of localized depletion of Blastomussa and Scolymia; evidenced by an increase in the harvest of small specimens and the trend of decreasing harvest despite a concurrent increase in demand. Considering their relatively high sediment tolerance compared to other reef-building species, and the current lack of information about their functional role in reef stability, the trend raises concerns about the impact of the harvest on local coral communities. The recent shift in harvest patterns could have impacts on slow-growing species by allowing harvest beyond the rate of population regeneration. In light of these factors, combined with the value of such species to local tourism, a commercial coral fishery based on uncommon but highly sought-after species may not be ecologically sustainable or economically viable in the Keppels.

  5. Comparación de las características físicas de las fibras de la llama ch´aku (Lama glama) y la alpaca Huacaya (Lama pacos) del centro experimental Quimsachata del INIA – Puno

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Producción Animal Los objetivos fueron evaluar los efectos de especie y sexo sobre las características físicas de las fibras de llama Ch´aku y alpaca Huacaya de un año de edad, del Centro Experimental Quimsachata del INIA – Puno y determinar las correlaciones de las principales características. Las muestras de fibra se obtuvieron del C.E. Quimsachata del INIA, ubicada en distrito de Santa Lucia (Puno-Perú); y fueron a...

  6. Investigation for zoonotic disease pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Streptococcus iniae) seen in carp farms in Duhok region of Northern Iraq by molecular methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Kamiran Abdulrahman; Arabacı, Muhammed; Önalan, Şükrü

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the zoonotic bacteria in carp farms in Duhok region of the Northern Iraq. Carp is the main fish species cultured in the Duhok region. The most common zoonotic bacteria generally seen in carp farms are Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus iniae. Samples were collected from 20 carp farms in the Duhok Region of the Northern Iraq. Six carp samples were collected from each carp farm. Head kidney tissue samples and intestine tissue samples were collected from each carp sample. Than head kidney and intestine tissue samples were pooled. The total bacterial DNA extraction from the pooled each 20 head kidney tissue samples and pooled each 20 intestinal tissue samples. Primers for pathogens were originally designed from 16S Ribosomal gene region. Zoonotic bacteria were scanned in all tissue samples by absent / present analysis in the RT-PCR. After RT-PCR, Capillary gel electrophoresis bands were used for the confirmation of the size of amplicon which was planned during primer designing stage. As a result, one sample was positive in respect to Aeromonas hydrophila, from intestine and one carp farm was positive in respect to Pseudomonas fluorescens from intestine and two carp farms were positive in respect to Streptococcus iniae. Totally 17 of 20 carp farms were negative in respect to the zoonotic bacteria. In conclusion the zoonotic bacteria were very low (15 %) in carp farms from the Duhok Region in the Northern Iraq. Only in one Carp farms, both Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens were positive. Also Streptococcus inia were positive in two carp farms.

  7. Vegetative and productive aspects of organically grown coffee cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta dos Santos Freire Ricci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although Coffea arabica species has its origin in the African understories, there is great resistance on the part of the Brazilian producers for growing this species under agroforestry systems as they fear that shading reduces production. This study aimed at evaluating some vegetative traits and the productivity of organically grown coffee (Coffea arabica L. cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems. Twelve treatments consisting of two cultivation systems (shaded and unshaded and six coffee cultivars were arranged in randomized blocks with four replicates, in a split-plot scheme. Shading was provided by banana (Musa sp. and coral bean plants (Erythrinaverna. Shading delayed fruit maturation. Late maturation cultivars, such as the Icatu and the Obatã, matured early in both cultivation systems, while medium and early maturation cultivars presented late maturation. Cultivation in the shaded system increased the leaf area and the number of lower branches, decreased the number of productive nodes per branch, and increased the distance between the nodes and the number of leaves present in the branches. Cultivation in the unshaded system presented greater number of plants with branch blight in relation to plants grown in the shade. The productivity of the cultivars was not different, at 30.0 processed bags per hectare in the shaded system, and 25.8 processed bags per hectare in the unshaded system. The most productive cultivars in the shaded system were the Tupi, the Obatã, and the Catuaí, while no differences between cultivars were obtained in the unshaded system.

  8. Isolamento e Caracterização de Marcadores Microssatélites para análise de Parentesco no Boto-vermelho (Inia geoffrensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Gravena, Waleska

    2006-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi dividido em dois capítulos: no capítulo I foi realizado tanto o isolamento e caracterização de marcadores microssatélites específicos para o boto-vermelho (Inia geoffrensis), como caracterização de marcadores desenvolvidos para outras espécies de cetáceos. Estes marcadores também foram caracterizados para a franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei) e para o boto-cinza (Sotalia guianensis). No capítulo II foram feitas análises para determinação de relacionamentos dentro e en...

  9. To understand coral disease, look at coral cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Meteyer, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Diseases threaten corals globally, but 40 years on their causes remain mostly unknown. We hypothesize that inconsistent application of a complete diagnostic approach to coral disease has contributed to this slow progress. We quantified methods used to investigate coral disease in 492 papers published between 1965 and 2013. Field surveys were used in 65% of the papers, followed by biodetection (43%), laboratory trials (20%), microscopic pathology (21%), and field trials (9%). Of the microscopic pathology efforts, 57% involved standard histopathology at the light microscopic level (12% of the total investigations), with the remainder dedicated to electron or fluorescence microscopy. Most (74%) biodetection efforts focused on culture or molecular characterization of bacteria or fungi from corals. Molecular and immunological tools have been used to incriminate infectious agents (mainly bacteria) as the cause of coral diseases without relating the agent to specific changes in cell and tissue pathology. Of 19 papers that declared an infectious agent as a cause of disease in corals, only one (5%) used microscopic pathology, and none fulfilled all of the criteria required to satisfy Koch’s postulates as applied to animal diseases currently. Vertebrate diseases of skin and mucosal surfaces present challenges similar to corals when trying to identify a pathogen from a vast array of environmental microbes, and diagnostic approaches regularly used in these cases might provide a model for investigating coral diseases. We hope this review will encourage specialists of disease in domestic animals, wildlife, fish, shellfish, and humans to contribute to the emerging field of coral disease.

  10. Seaweed-coral interactions: variance in seaweed allelopathy, coral susceptibility, and potential effects on coral resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaldo, Roberta M; Hay, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70-80% lower, macroalgal cover 4-9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5-15 fold more frequent and 23-67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae), and coral cover 51-68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa) against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals.

  11. Seaweed-coral interactions: variance in seaweed allelopathy, coral susceptibility, and potential effects on coral resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M Bonaldo

    Full Text Available Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70-80% lower, macroalgal cover 4-9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5-15 fold more frequent and 23-67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae, and coral cover 51-68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals.

  12. FERRUGEM DO PESSEGUEIRO:REAÇÃO DE CULTIVARES EM SISTEMA DE PRODUÇÃO INTEGRADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GISELDA ALVES

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A ferrugem do pessegueiro, causada pelo fungo Tranzschelia discolor, é a principal doença foliar da cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar e comparar a intensidade da ferrugem em onze cultivares de pessegueiro (Aurora 1, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier e Vanguarda em pomar manejado de acordo com as normas da produção integrada, no município da Lapa-PR, no período de novembro e abril. O experimento foi composto de três blocos contendo três plantas por cultivar em cada bloco. Na planta central de cada cultivar, avaliaram-se a incidência e a severidade da ferrugem do pessegueiro em folhas de oito ramos mistos previamente marcados, a cada 15 dias. A incidência da ferrugem nas folhas de todas as cultivares variou de 25,4% (Eldorado a 82,6% (Chimarrita na primeira safra e de 15,3% (Eldorado a 49,3% (Granada na segunda safra. O modelo logístico foi ajustado aos dados de incidência ao longo do tempo. Os valores estimados de inóculo inicial e taxa de progresso não diferiram entre as cultivares. A severidade foi baixa (<1 %, para a maioria das cultivares, nas duas safras, e a área abaixo da curva de progresso da severidade das cultivares Chimarrita e Granada diferenciou-se das demais somente na primeira safra. Não foi observada desfolha provocada pela doença. A cultivar Eldorado apresentou menor intensidade da ferrugem, e Chimarrita e Granada maior intensidade dentre as cultivares avaliadas.

  13. Spectral response of the coral rubble, living corals, and dead corals: study case on the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdin, Nurjannah; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Yamano, Hiroya; Arafat, Gulam; Rani, Chair; Akbar AS, M.

    2012-10-01

    Coral reefs play important ecological services such as providing foods, biodiversity, nutrient recycling etc. for human society. On the other hand, they are threatened by human impacts such as illegal fishing and environmental changes such as rises of sea water temperature and sea level due to global warming. Thus, it is very important to monitor dynamic spatial distributions of coral reefs and related habitats such as coral rubble, dead coral, bleached corals, seagrass, etc. Hyperspectral data, in particular, offer high potential for characterizing and mapping coral reefs because of their capability to identify individual reef components based on their detailed spectral response. We studied the optical properties by measuring in situ spectra of living corals, dead coral and coral rubble covered with algae. Study site was selected in Spermonde archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia because this area is included in the highest diversity of corals in the world named as Coral Triangle, which is recognized as the global centre of marine biodiversity and a global priority for conservation. Correlation analysis and cluster analysis support that there are distinct differences in reflectance spectra among categories. Common spectral characteristic of living corals, dead corals and coral rubble covered with algae was a reflectance minimum at 674 nm. Healthy corals, dead coral covered with algae and coral rubble covered with algae showed high similarity of spectral reflectance. It is estimated that this is due to photsynthetic pigments.

  14. A retrospective study of pathologic findings in the Amazon and Orinoco river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Christopher J; Boede, Ernesto O; Hartmann, Manuel García; Lowenstein-Whaley, Joanne; Mujica-Jorquera, Esmeralda; Parish, Scott V; Parish, James V; Garner, Michael M; Stadler, Cynthia K

    2007-06-01

    River dolphins are especially susceptible to negative human impacts. For their conservation, attempts of relocation or procreation ex situ may become important in the future to avoid their extinction. Additional knowledge and medical experiences of river dolphin management in captivity may aid such conservation efforts. The medical records and necropsy and histopathology reports on 123 captive Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) were re-viewed. Of these 123 animals, 105 were necropsied and 70 necropsies were supported with histopathology. Eighteen animals were not necropsied. Among wild-born animals, mortality was highest in the first 2 mo immediately postcapture and transport, accounting for 32 of 123 deaths. Pneumonia and skin lesions (cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcerations and abscesses) were the most common findings, found in 44 of 105 (42%) and 38 of 105 (36%) of gross diagnoses, respectively. At least 10 of 44 cases of pneumonia diagnosed grossly included a verminous component. Cachexia, from a variety of causes, was a major gross finding in 21 animals. Fifteen animals had histologic evidence of significant renal pathology, and this was the primary cause of death in 13 cases. Hepatic pathology was found in 18 cases, and bacterial sepsis was confirmed via histology in 16 cases. Based on these findings, it may be concluded that keys to successful maintenance of this species include 1) prophylactic anthelminthic and antibiotic therapy immediately post-capture; 2) maintenance of animals in larger enclosures than in past attempts, in compatible groups, and in facilities capable of separating aggressive animals; 3) maintenance in microbiologically hygienic water quality at all times; and 4) a proactive program of preventive medicine during the immediate postcapture, quarantine, and maintenance period of captivity.

  15. Host-derived probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus improves resistance against Streptococcus iniae infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) via immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Reza; Adel, Milad; Lazado, Carlo C; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dadar, Maryam

    2016-05-01

    The present study evaluated the benefits of dietary administration of host-derived candidate probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Experimental diets were prepared by incorporating the microorganisms in the basal feed at 3 inclusion levels (i.e. 10(7) CFU g(-1) of feed [T1], 10(8) CFU g(-1) of feed [T2], 10(9) CFU g(-1) of feed [T3]). The probiotic feeds were administered for 8 weeks, with a group fed with the basal diet serving as control. The effects on growth performance, gut health, innate immunity and disease resistance were evaluated. Results showed that growth performance parameters were significantly improved in T2 and T3 groups. Activities of digestive enzymes such as trypsin and lipase were significantly higher in these two groups as well. Gut micro-ecology was influenced by probiotic feeding as shown by the significant increase in intestinal lactic acid bacteria and total viable aerobic counts in T2 and T3. Humoral immunity was impacted by dietary probiotics as total serum protein and albumin were significantly elevated in T3. The levels of serum IgM significantly increased in all probiotic fed groups at week 8; with the T3 group registering the highest increment. Respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes were significantly improved in T2 and T3. Hematological profiling further revealed that neutrophil counts significantly increased in all probiotic fed groups. Challenge test showed that probiotic feeding significantly improved host resistance to Streptococcus iniae infection, specifically in T2 and T3 where a considerable modulation of immune responses was observed. Taken together, this study demonstrated E. casseliflavus as a potential probiotics for rainbow trout with the capability of improving growth performance and enhancing disease resistance by immunomodulation.

  16. Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) modify biosonar output level and directivity during prey interception in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladegaard, Michael; Jensen, Frants Havmand; Beedholm, Kristian; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2017-07-15

    Toothed whales have evolved to live in extremely different habitats and yet they all rely strongly on echolocation for finding and catching prey. Such biosonar-based foraging involves distinct phases of searching for, approaching and capturing prey, where echolocating animals gradually adjust sonar output to actively shape the flow of sensory information. Measuring those outputs in absolute levels requires hydrophone arrays centred on the biosonar beam axis, but this has never been done for wild toothed whales approaching and capturing prey. Rather, field studies make the assumption that toothed whales will adjust their biosonar in the same manner to arrays as they will when approaching prey. To test this assumption, we recorded wild botos (Inia geoffrensis) as they approached and captured dead fish tethered to a hydrophone in front of a star-shaped seven-hydrophone array. We demonstrate that botos gradually decrease interclick intervals and output levels during prey approaches, using stronger adjustment magnitudes than predicted from previous boto array data. Prey interceptions are characterised by high click rates, but although botos buzz during prey capture, they do so at lower click rates than marine toothed whales, resulting in a much more gradual transition from approach phase to buzzing. We also demonstrate for the first time that wild toothed whales broaden biosonar beamwidth when closing in on prey, as is also seen in captive toothed whales and bats, thus resulting in a larger ensonified volume around the prey, probably aiding prey tracking by decreasing the risk of prey evading ensonification. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Efeito de diferentes níveis de fósforo em solução nutritiva e no solo no comportamento de cultivares de trigo Effect of different levels of phosphorus in nutrient solution and in the soil on the responses of wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados dez cultivares de trigo quanto à sua eficiência na utilização de fósforo em solução nutritiva contendo quatro níveis de P (0; 3,875; 7,75 e 15,5mg/litro, mantendo-se a temperatura constante de 25 °C ± 1 °C e o pH das soluções igual a 4,0 por um período de quinze dias. A eficiência da utilização de fósforo para cada cultivar em cada uma das concentrações desse elemento foi expressa pela quantidade de matéria seca da parte aérea e pela proporção entre a quantidade de matéria seca da parte aérea e a quantidade de fósforo nela presente. Os cultivares IAC-5, IAS-20, BH-1146 e IAC-17 foram eficientes na utilização de fósforo em soluções contendo 3,875mg/litro de P; IAC-18, IAC-15 e IAC-13 apresentaram-se como moderadamente eficientes, e Siete Cerros, Alondra-S-46 e INIA-66, como ineficientes. Os cultivares IAC-5, IAC-18 e INIA-66 responderam aumentando suas produções de matéria seca da parte aérea, à medida que o teor de P das soluções se elevou de 0 a 15,5mg/litro; IAS-20, IAC-13, Siete Cerros e Alondra-S-46 apresentaram moderada resposta e BH-1146, IAC-17 e IAC-15 não responderam. Os cultivares IAC-5 e IAC-17 foram estudados em vasos contendo solo nos quais foram empregadas três doses de adubação com superfosfato simples (0, 30 e 60kg/ha de P2O5 combinadas com três doses de calcário dolomítico (0, 4 e 8t/ha. Os dois cultivares responderam à adubação com P2O5 para os três níveis de calcário em relação à produção de matéria seca da parte aérea aos trinta dias após a germinação, porém o IAC-5 apresentou maiores respostas em relação ao IAC-17. Considerando fixo um mesmo nível de P2O5 verificou-se que os dois cultivares responderam à aplicação de calcário até a dosagem de 4t/ha. Os dois cultivares aumentaram a produção de grãos por planta quando foram aplicadas doses crescentes de P2O5, mantendo-se constante a dose de calcário de 4t/ha, porém as grandes respostas

  18. Nitrification in reef corals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.; David, J.J.

    cells cmP2 (Drew 1972), it is reasonable to expect that nitrification will have to compete with assimilatory re- moval of NH,+. The relative importance of NH4+ flux in these two pathways can be evaluated with the present data on NO,- production... about the means in the es- timates, this correspondence shows that bacterial nitrification effectively competes with autotrophic uptake of NH,+ in coral- zooxanthellae symbiosis. In fact, our nitrification rates would be underestimates since losses...

  19. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  20. Osmoadjustment in the Coral Holobiont

    KAUST Repository

    Röthig, Till

    2017-04-01

    Coral reefs are under considerable decline. The framework builders in coral reefs are scleractinian corals, which comprise so-called holobionts, consisting of cnidarian host, algal symbionts (genus Symbiodinium), and other associated microbes. Corals are commonly considered stenohaline osmoconformers, possessing limited capability to adjust to salinity changes. However, corals differ in their ability to cope with different salinities. The underlying mechanisms have not yet been addressed. To further understand putative mechanisms involved, I examined coral holobiont osmoregulation conducting a range of experiments on the coral Fungia granulosa. In my research F. granulosa from the Red Sea exhibited pronounced physiological reactions (decreased photosynthesis, cessation of calcification) upon short-term incubations (4 h) to high salinity (55). However, during a 29-day in situ salinity transect experiment, coral holobiont photosynthesis was unimpaired under high salinity (49) indicating acclimatization. F. granulosa microbiome changes after the 29-day high salinity exposure aligned with a bacterial community restructuring that putatively supports the coral salinity acclimatization (osmolyte synthesis, nutrient fixation/cycling). Long-term incubations (7 d) of cultured Symbiodinium exhibited cell growth even at ‘extreme’ salinity levels of 25 and 55. Metabolic profiles of four Symbiodinium strains exposed to increased (55) and decreased (25) salinities for 4 h indicated distinct carbohydrates and amino acids to be putatively involved in the osmoadjustment. Importantly, under high salinity the osmolyte floridoside was consistently increased. This could be corroborated in the coral model Aiptasia and in corals from the Persian/Arabian Gulf, where floridoside was also markedly increased upon short- (15 h) and long-term (>24 months) exposure to high salinity, confirming an important role of floridoside in the osmoadjustment of cnidarian holobionts. This thesis

  1. Fungal invasion of massive corals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Raghukumar, S.

    Five species of corals from the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal (Indian Ocean) have been regularly found to have single or multiple necrotic patches. The occurrence of such corals with necrotic patches varied from 10-50% in the field. Sections...

  2. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  3. 'Gloriosa': cultivar de alface americana tropicalizada 'Gloriosa': crisphead tropicalized cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Sala

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available 'Gloriosa' é uma cultivar de alface (Lactuca sativa L. americana tropicalizada e resistente a Thielaviopsis basicola. Foi selecionada a partir de variantes da cultivar Lucy Brown, pelo método genealógico. Progênies S1 a S6 foram selecionadas para resistência a T. basicola, características hortícolas, tolerância ao pendoamento precoce e adaptação ao cultivo de verão. Apresenta ciclo precoce de 40 a 50 dias pós-transplante, pendoamento lento, cabeças grandes e três camadas de folhas externas. Possui tolerância a Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians e suporta o cultivo nos períodos de elevadas temperaturas e pluviosidade. Trata-se da primeira cultivar de alface americana tropicalizada no Brasil.'Gloriosa' is a tropicalized crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. resistant to Thielaviopsis basicola. It was derived by selection from cv. Lucy Brown variants by pedigree method. Progenies S1 to S6 were selected for T. basicola resistance, desirable horticulture traits, slowbolting and adaptation for Brazilian summer crop. It presents a precocious cycle within 40 to 50 days of being planted, slowbolting, large head and three layers of frame levels. It is tolerant to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians and is able to be grown under high temperature and rainy summer in southern of Brazil. It is the first crisphead lettuce type developed for tropical regions of Brazil.

  4. Evaluation of Stony Coral Indicators for Coral Reef ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonies of reef-building stony corals at 57 stations around St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands were characterized by species, size and percentage of living tissue. Taxonomic, biological and physical indicators of coral condition were derived from these measurements and assessed for their response to gradients of human disturbance. The purpose of the study was to identify indicators that could be used for regulatory assessments under authority of the Clean Water Act--this requires that indicators distinguish anthropogenic disturbances from natural variation. Stony coral indicators were tested for correlation with human disturbance across gradients located on three different sides of the island. At the most intensely disturbed location, five of eight primary indicators were highly correlated with distance from the source of disturbance: Coral taxa richness, average colony size, the coefficient of variation of colony size (an indicator of colony size heterogeneity), total topographic coral surface area, and live coral surface area. An additional set of exploratory indicators related to rarity, reproductive and spawning mode, and taxonomic identity were also screened for association with disturbance at the same location. For the other two locations, there were no significant changes in indicator values and therefore no discernible effects of human activity. Coral indicators demonstrated sufficient precision to detect levels of change that would be applicable in a regio

  5. Coral diseases and bleaching on Colombian Caribbean coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Camacho, Raúl; Gil-Agudelo, Diego Luis; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Alberto; Reyes-Nivia, María Catalina; Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    Since 1998 the National Monitoring System for the Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC) has monitored the occurrence of coral bleaching and diseases in some Colombian coral reefs (permanent stations at San Andres Island, Rosario Islands, Tayrona, San Bernardo Islands and Urabá). The main purpose is to evaluate their health status and to understand the factors that have been contributing to their decline. To estimate these occurrences, annual surveys in 126 permanent belt transects (10 x 2m) with different depth intervals (3-6 meters, 9-12 meters and 15-18 meters) are performed at all reef sites. Data from the 1998-2004 period, revealed that San Andrés Island had many colonies with diseases (38.9 colonies/m2), and Urabá had high numbers with bleaching (54.4 colonies/m2). Of the seven reported coral diseases studied, Dark Spots Disease (DSD), and White Plague Disease (WPD) were noteworthy because they occurred in all Caribbean monitored sites, and because of their high interannual infection incidence. Thirty five species of scleractinian corals were affected by at least one disease and a high incidence of coral diseases on the main reef builders is documented. Bleaching was present in 34 species. During the whole monitoring period, Agaricia agaricites and Siderastrea siderea were the species most severely affected by DSD and bleaching, respectively. Diseases on species such as Agaricia fragilis, A. grahamae, A. humilis, Diploria clivosa, Eusmilia fastigiata, Millepora complanata, and Mycetophyllia aliciae are recorded for first time in Colombia. We present bleaching and disease incidences, kinds of diseases, coral species affected, reef localities studied, depth intervals of surveys, and temporal (years) variation for each geographic area. This variation makes difficult to clearly determine defined patterns or general trends for monitored reefs. This is the first long-term study of coral diseases and bleaching in the Southwestern Caribbean, and one of the few long

  6. Cultivar de soja BRS 205

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonato Emídio Rizzo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A BRS 205, cultivar de soja de ciclo semiprecoce, obtida do cruzamento [BR-16(2 x Ocepar 8] x Tracy-M, é indicada para o Rio Grande do Sul, em semeaduras de novembro. Possui crescimento determinado, plantas de flor branca, pubescência marrom, porte baixo e grãos de hilo preto. Tem resistência ao cancro-da-haste (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis, à podridão-parda-da-haste (Phialophora gregata, à mancha-olho-de-rã (Cercospora sojina e à pústula bacteriana (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines. É moderadamente resistente ao oídio (Microsphaera diffusa. O rendimento médio de grãos foi 6% e 11% superior ao das cultivares RS 7-Jacuí e BR-16, respectivamente.

  7. Microsporogenesis of Apricot Cultivars in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika HAJNAL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Like all phenological processes, microsporogenesis is mainly determined genetically, but its phenotypical expression is greatly influenced by environmental factors, particularly the temperature. During the 3-year experimental period, the process of microsporogenesis was examined in eight apricot cultivars originated in North America and in Romania. The Hungarian cultivar ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ was used as the control. Based on the results it was possible to rank the cultivars in terms of their microsporogenesis schedule. The same order was found in all three years. This order also indicates the yield reliability of the cultivars. Endodormancy ended between January 10th and 25th in the buds of the earliest cultivar ‘Pinkcot’, but not until February 5-10th in the latest cultivar ‘Harlayne’. Three of the cultivars had faster flower bud development than the control, in the order ‘Pinkcot’, ‘Orange Red’ and ‘Harcot’. Growing these cultivars thus involves greater risk than for ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ in Hungary, due to their rapid winter flower bud development. Some cultivars found to have slower flower bud development than ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’; ‘Litoral’, ‘Harogem’, ‘Comandor’, ‘Sirena’ and ‘Harlayne’ – thus these cultivars can be grown more reliably.

  8. New perspectives on ecological mechanisms affecting coral recruitment on reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritson-Williams, R.; Arnold, S.N.; Fogarty, N.D.; Steneck, R.S.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Paul, V.J.

    2009-01-01

    Coral mortality has increased in recent decades, making coral recruitment more important than ever in sustaining coral reef ecosystems and contributing to their resilience. This review summarizes existing information on ecological factors affecting scleractinian coral recruitment. Successful recruit

  9. New perspectives on ecological mechanisms affecting coral recruitment on reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritson-Williams, R.; Arnold, S.N.; Fogarty, N.D.; Steneck, R.S.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Paul, V.J.

    2009-01-01

    Coral mortality has increased in recent decades, making coral recruitment more important than ever in sustaining coral reef ecosystems and contributing to their resilience. This review summarizes existing information on ecological factors affecting scleractinian coral recruitment. Successful

  10. Caracterização de cultivares de pessegueiro e de nectarineira por marcadores moleculares Characterization of peach and nectarine cultivars through molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Rocha Lima

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Em espécies de estreita base genética, como o pessegueiro e a nectarineira (Prunus persica (L. Batsch, a utilização de marcadores moleculares para a caracterização de cultivares é de grande importância, além do potencial de uso para fins de proteção. As técnicas de eletroforese em gel e RAPD foram empregadas com o objetivo de caracterizar as cultivares de pessegueiro Granada, Esmeralda, Jade, Eldorado, Riograndense, Capdeboscq, Aldrighi, Precocinho, Diamante, Turmalina, Maciel, BR-1, Pepita, Coral, Chinoca, Marfim, Chiripá, Della Nona e Planalto, e as de nectarineira Dulce e Anita. Foram analisadas isoenzimas de 6-fosfogluconato desidrogenase e fosfatase ácida em pólen, peroxidase, fosfoglucoisomerase, aspartato transaminase e isocitrato desidrogenase em folhas, e malato desidrogenase, leucina aminopeptidase e fosfoglucomutase em pólen e folhas. Dos 50 primers testados, 11 foram escolhidos para análise de RAPD em folhas. As análises de similaridade e de agrupamento entre os genótipos foram feitas empregando-se o coeficiente de Jaccard e o método da média aritmética não ponderada. Apesar das diferenças detectadas nas isoenzimas de malato desidrogenase em pólen e folhas de pessegueiro e nectarineira, o baixo polimorfismo apresentado pelos demais sistemas não permitiu a caracterização de todas as cultivares por essa técnica. Os marcadores RAPD, associados ou não à eletroforese de isoenzimas, foram eficientes para caracterizar as cultivares de pessegueiro e nectarineira.In species with a narrow genetic basis, such as peach and nectarine (Prunus persica (L. Batsch, the utilization of molecular markers in cultivar characterization is very important, besides the potential of use for protection. Gel electrophoresis and RAPD techniques were used to characterize peach cultivars Granada, Esmeralda, Jade, Eldorado, Riograndense, Capdeboscq, Aldrighi, Precocinho, Diamante, Turmalina, Maciel, BR-1, Pepita, Coral, Chinoca, Marfim

  11. Assessing Coral Community Recovery from Coral Bleaching by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mombasa Marine National Park and Reserve and Reef Recovery. Abstract—In 2003 ... from sources of coral larvae from reefs in the south, and are seasonally influenced by nutrient-rich, cooler water due ..... Marine Pollution Bulletin. 42, 1264- ...

  12. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, Jessica E; Norris, Richard D; Black, Bryan A; Walsh, Sheila M; McField, Melanie

    2009-07-22

    Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following a major bleaching event, Montastraea faveolata coral growth rates at sites with higher local anthropogenic stressors remained suppressed for at least 8 years, while coral growth rates at sites with lower stress recovered in 2-3 years. Instead of promoting acclimatization, our data indicate that background stress reduces coral fitness and resilience to episodic events. We also suggest that reducing chronic stress through local coral reef management efforts may increase coral resilience to global climate change.

  13. Effects of cold stress and heat stress on coral fluorescence in reef-building corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Melissa S; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2013-01-01

    Widespread temperature stress has caused catastrophic coral bleaching events that have been devastating for coral reefs. Here, we evaluate whether coral fluorescence could be utilized as a noninvasive assessment for coral health. We conducted cold and heat stress treatments on the branching coral Acropora yongei, and found that green fluorescent protein (GFP) concentration and fluorescence decreased with declining coral health, prior to initiation of bleaching. Ultimately, cold-treated corals acclimated and GFP concentration and fluorescence recovered. In contrast, heat-treated corals eventually bleached but showed strong fluorescence despite reduced GFP concentration, likely resulting from the large reduction in shading from decreased dinoflagellate density. Consequently, GFP concentration and fluorescence showed distinct correlations in non-bleached and bleached corals. Green fluorescence was positively correlated with dinoflagellate photobiology, but its closest correlation was with coral growth suggesting that green fluorescence could be used as a physiological proxy for health in some corals.

  14. Fungi and their role in corals and coral reef ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Ravindran, J.

    to colourful, hard and soft corals, sponges, a diverse population of fishes, holothurians, calciferous algae and other myriad communities (Connell 1978). They support tourism, food production and coastal protection from natural hazards. Corals fall in two... in the French Polynesia (Golubic et al. 2005). Bak and Laane (1987) observed a dark mycelial fungus with perithecia, probably belonging to Ascomycetes in black bands of Porites species in the eastern part of the Indonesian Archipelago. Partial dissolution...

  15. Coral transplantation triggers shift in microbiome and promotion of coral disease associated potential pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Jordan M; Connolly, Sean R; Ainsworth, Tracy D

    2015-07-06

    By cultivating turf algae and aggressively defending their territories, territorial damselfishes in the genus Stegastes play a major role in shaping coral-algal dynamics on coral reefs. The epilithic algal matrix (EAM) inside Stegastes' territories is known to harbor high abundances of potential coral disease pathogens. To determine the impact of territorial grazers on coral microbial assemblages, we established a coral transplant inside and outside of Stegastes' territories. Over the course of one year, the percent mortality of transplanted corals was monitored and coral samples were collected for microbial analysis. As compared to outside damselfish territories, Stegastes were associated with a higher rate of mortality of transplanted corals. However, 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that territorial grazers do not differentially impact the microbial assemblage of corals exposed to the EAM. Regardless of Stegastes presence or absence, coral transplantation resulted in a shift in the coral-associated microbial community and an increase in coral disease associated potential pathogens. Further, transplanted corals that suffer low to high mortality undergo a microbial transition from a microbiome similar to that of healthy corals to that resembling the EAM. These findings demonstrate that coral transplantation significantly impacts coral microbial communities, and transplantation may increase susceptibility to coral disease.

  16. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  17. Investigation of zoonotic disease pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Streptococcus iniae) seen in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region by molecular methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Azad Saber; Önalan, Şükrü; Arabacı, Muhammed

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the zoonotic bacteria in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region. Carp is the main fish species cultured in Erbil region. The most common zoonotic bacteria generally seen in carp farms are Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus iniae. Samples were collected from 25 carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region. Six carp samples were collected from each carp farm. Head kidney and intestine tissue samples were collected from each carp sample. Then head kidney and intestine tissue samples were pooled separately from each carp farm. Total bacterial DNA had been extracted from the 25 pooled head kidney and 25 intestinal tissue samples. The pathogen Primers were originally designed from 16S RNA gene region. Zoonotic bacteria were scanned in all tissue samples with absent/present analysis by RT-PCR. Furthermore, the capillary gel electrophoresis bands were used for confirmation of amplicon size which was planned during primer designing stage. As a result, thirteen carp farms were positive in the respect to Aeromonas hydrophila, eight carp farms were positive from head kidney and six carp farms were positive from the intestine, only one carp farm was positive from both head kidney and the intestine tissue samples. In the respect to Streptococcus iniae, four carp farms were positive from head kidney and two carp farms were positive from the intestine. Only one carp farm was positive in the respect to Pseudomonas fluorescens from the intestine. Totally, 9 of 25 carp farms were cleared (negative) the zoonotic bacteria. In conclusion, the zoonotic bacteria were high (64 %) in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region.

  18. Dietary Aloe vera improves plasma lipid profile, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks.

  19. Precious Coral Logbook Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a federally mandated logbook program for harvesting precious coral, and it is required to be mailed in to PIFSC after a fishing trip. Data is from 1999-2000....

  20. Coral bleaching: the role of the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Andrew H; Bhagooli, Ranjeet; Ralph, Peter J; Takahashi, Shunichi

    2009-01-01

    Coral bleaching caused by global warming is one of the major threats to coral reefs. Very recently, research has focused on the possibility of corals switching symbionts as a means of adjusting to accelerating increases in sea surface temperature. Although symbionts are clearly of fundamental importance, many aspects of coral bleaching cannot be readily explained by differences in symbionts among coral species. Here we outline several potential mechanisms by which the host might influence the bleaching response, and conclude that predicting the fate of corals in response to climate change requires both members of the symbiosis to be considered equally.

  1. Coral Sr-U Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, T. M.; Gaetani, G. A.; Cohen, A. L.; Foster, G. L.; Alpert, A.; Stewart, J.

    2016-12-01

    Coral skeletons archive the past two millennia of climate variability in the oceans with unrivaled temporal resolution. However, extracting accurate temperature information from coral skeletons is confounded by "vital effects", which often override the temperature dependence of geochemical proxies. Here, we present a new approach to coral paleothermometry based on results of abiogenic precipitation experiments interpreted within a framework provided by a quantitative model of the coral biomineralization process. We conducted laboratory experiments to test the temperature and carbonate chemistry controls on abiogenic partitioning of Sr/Ca and U/Ca between aragonite and seawater, and we modeled the sensitivity of skeletal composition to processes occurring at the site of calcification. The model predicts that temperature can be accurately reconstructed from coral skeleton by combining Sr/Ca and U/Ca ratios into a new proxy, Sr-U. We tested the model predictions with measured Sr/Ca and U/Ca ratios of fourteen Porites sp. corals collected from the tropical Pacific Ocean and the Red Sea, with a subset also analyzed using the boron isotope (δ11B) pH proxy. Observed relationships among Sr/Ca, U/Ca, and δ11B agree with model predictions, indicating that the model accounts for the key features of the coral biomineralization process. We calibrated Sr-U to instrumental temperature records and found that it captures 93% of mean annual variability (26-30 °C) and predicts temperature within 0.5 °C (1 σ). Conversely, Sr/Ca alone has an error of prediction of 1 °C and often diverges from observed temperature by 3 °C or more. Many of the problems afflicting Sr/Ca - including offsets among neighboring corals and decouplings from temperature during coral stress events - are reconciled by Sr-U. By accounting for the influence of the coral biomineralization process, the Sr-U thermometer may offer significantly improved reliability for reconstructing ocean temperatures from coral

  2. Use of multiline cultivars and cultivar mixtures for disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, C C

    2002-01-01

    The usefulness of mixtures (multiline cultivars and cultivar mixtures) for disease management has been well demonstrated for rusts and powdery mildews of small grain crops. Such mixtures are more useful under some epidemiological conditions than under others, and experimental methodology, especially problems of scale, may be crucial in evaluating the potential efficacy of mixtures on disease. There are now examples of mixtures providing both low and high degrees of disease control for a wide range of pathosystems, including crops with large plants, and pathogens that demonstrate low host specificity, or are splash dispersed, soilborne, or insect vectored. Though most analyses of pathogen evolution in mixtures consider static costs of virulence to be the main mechanism countering selection for pathogen complexity, many other potential mechanisms need to be investigated. Agronomic and marketing considerations must be carefully evaluated when implementing mixture approaches to crop management. Practical difficulties associated with mixtures have often been overestimated, however, and mixtures will likely play an increasingly important role as we develop more sustainable agricultural systems.

  3. Coral reef resilience through biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    Irrefutable evidence of coral reef degradation worldwide and increasing pressure from rising seawater temperatures and ocean acidification associated with climate change have led to a focus on reef resilience and a call to “manage” coral reefs for resilience. Ideally, global action to reduce emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will be accompanied by local action. Effective management requires reduction of local stressors, identification of the characteristics of resilient reefs, and design of marine protected area networks that include potentially resilient reefs. Future research is needed on how stressors interact, on how climate change will affect corals, fish, and other reef organisms as well as overall biodiversity, and on basic ecological processes such as connectivity. Not all reef species and reefs will respond similarly to local and global stressors. Because reef-building corals and other organisms have some potential to adapt to environmental changes, coral reefs will likely persist in spite of the unprecedented combination of stressors currently affecting them. The biodiversity of coral reefs is the basis for their remarkable beauty and for the benefits they provide to society. The extraordinary complexity of these ecosystems makes it both more difficult to predict their future and more likely they will have a future.

  4. �Saruman� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple cultivar Saruman was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. Saruman was released by hybridization between Cluj III-VI-5-26 selection (Parmain dOr, open pollinated and NJ 46. The trees are vigorous, spreading shape, and with medium crop yield. The fruits have large size, conic shape and mostly red (purple coloration; they have white flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Fruits become ripe in the last decade of August, first decade of September and the fruits are proper for dessert and well suited for cooking, applesauce, cider, pies.

  5. Natural disease resistance in threatened staghorn corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Steven V; Kline, David I

    2008-01-01

    Disease epidemics have caused extensive damage to tropical coral reefs and to the reef-building corals themselves, yet nothing is known about the abilities of the coral host to resist disease infection. Understanding the potential for natural disease resistance in corals is critically important, especially in the Caribbean where the two ecologically dominant shallow-water corals, Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata, have suffered an unprecedented mass die-off due to White Band Disease (WBD), and are now listed as threatened under the US Threatened Species Act and as critically endangered under the IUCN Red List criteria. Here we examine the potential for natural resistance to WBD in the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis by combining microsatellite genotype information with in situ transmission assays and field monitoring of WBD on tagged genotypes. We show that six percent of staghorn coral genotypes (3 out of 49) are resistant to WBD. This natural resistance to WBD in staghorn corals represents the first evidence of host disease resistance in scleractinian corals and demonstrates that staghorn corals have an innate ability to resist WBD infection. These resistant staghorn coral genotypes may explain why pockets of Acropora have been able to survive the WBD epidemic. Understanding disease resistance in these corals may be the critical link to restoring populations of these once dominant corals throughout their range.

  6. Natural disease resistance in threatened staghorn corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven V Vollmer

    Full Text Available Disease epidemics have caused extensive damage to tropical coral reefs and to the reef-building corals themselves, yet nothing is known about the abilities of the coral host to resist disease infection. Understanding the potential for natural disease resistance in corals is critically important, especially in the Caribbean where the two ecologically dominant shallow-water corals, Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata, have suffered an unprecedented mass die-off due to White Band Disease (WBD, and are now listed as threatened under the US Threatened Species Act and as critically endangered under the IUCN Red List criteria. Here we examine the potential for natural resistance to WBD in the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis by combining microsatellite genotype information with in situ transmission assays and field monitoring of WBD on tagged genotypes. We show that six percent of staghorn coral genotypes (3 out of 49 are resistant to WBD. This natural resistance to WBD in staghorn corals represents the first evidence of host disease resistance in scleractinian corals and demonstrates that staghorn corals have an innate ability to resist WBD infection. These resistant staghorn coral genotypes may explain why pockets of Acropora have been able to survive the WBD epidemic. Understanding disease resistance in these corals may be the critical link to restoring populations of these once dominant corals throughout their range.

  7. Coral calcification and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiel, Paul L.; Jury, Christopher P.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 60 years ago, the discovery that light increased calcification in the coral plant-animal symbiosis triggered interest in explaining the phenomenon and understanding the mechanisms involved. Major findings along the way include the observation that carbon fixed by photosynthesis in the zooxanthellae is translocated to animal cells throughout the colony and that corals can therefore live as autotrophs in many situations. Recent research has focused on explaining the observed reduction in calcification rate with increasing ocean acidification (OA). Experiments have shown a direct correlation between declining ocean pH, declining aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), declining [CO32_] and coral calcification. Nearly all previous reports on OA identify Ωarag or its surrogate [CO32] as the factor driving coral calcification. However, the alternate “Proton Flux Hypothesis” stated that coral calcification is controlled by diffusion limitation of net H+ transport through the boundary layer in relation to availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The “Two Compartment Proton Flux Model” expanded this explanation and synthesized diverse observations into a universal model that explains many paradoxes of coral metabolism, morphology and plasticity of growth form in addition to observed coral skeletal growth response to OA. It is now clear that irradiance is the main driver of net photosynthesis (Pnet), which in turn drives net calcification (Gnet), and alters pH in the bulk water surrounding the coral. Pnet controls [CO32] and thus Ωarag of the bulk water over the diel cycle. Changes in Ωarag and pH lag behind Gnet throughout the daily cycle by two or more hours. The flux rate Pnet, rather than concentration-based parameters (e.g., Ωarag, [CO3 2], pH and [DIC]:[H+] ratio) is the primary driver of Gnet. Daytime coral metabolism rapidly removes DIC from the bulk seawater. Photosynthesis increases the bulk seawater pH while providing the energy that drives

  8. Vibrio Zinc-Metalloprotease Causes Photoinactivation of Coral Endosymbionts and Coral Tissue Lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sussman, Meir; Mieog, Jos C.; Doyle, Jason; Victor, Steven; Willis, Bette L.; Bourne, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Coral diseases are emerging as a serious threat to coral reefs worldwide. Of nine coral infectious diseases, whose pathogens have been characterized, six are caused by agents from the family Vibrionacae, raising questions as to their origin and role in coral disease aetiology.

  9. THE CONDITION OF CORAL REEFS IN SOUTH FLORIDA (2000) USING CORAL DISEASE AND BLEACHING AS INDICATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The destruction for coral reef habitats is occurring at unprecedented levels. Coral disease epizootics in the Southwestern Atlantic have lead to coral replacement by turf algae, prompting a call to classify some coral species as endangered. In addition, a massive bleaching event ...

  10. THE CONDITION OF CORAL REEFS IN SOUTH FLORIDA (2000) USING CORAL DISEASE AND BLEACHING AS INDICATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The destruction for coral reef habitats is occurring at unprecedented levels. Coral disease epizootics in the Southwestern Atlantic have lead to coral replacement by turf algae, prompting a call to classify some coral species as endangered. In addition, a massive bleaching event ...

  11. Vibrio Zinc-Metalloprotease Causes Photoinactivation of Coral Endosymbionts and Coral Tissue Lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sussman, Meir; Mieog, Jos C.; Doyle, Jason; Victor, Steven; Willis, Bette L.; Bourne, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Coral diseases are emerging as a serious threat to coral reefs worldwide. Of nine coral infectious diseases, whose pathogens have been characterized, six are caused by agents from the family Vibrionacae, raising questions as to their origin and role in coral disease aetiology. Methodolog

  12. RESPONSE OF CABBAGE CULTIVARS TO BLACK ROT INFECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield stability of white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) cultivars were ... and stable cultivar(s) with adequate resistance to black rot caused by ..... Principles and Procedures of Statistics: ... black rot development in introduced cabbage.

  13. CULTIVAR IMPACT ON THE CHEMICAL CONTENT AND GRAIN TECHNOLOGICAL QUALITIES OF SOME DURUM WHEAT CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanko Kolev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative experiment was carried out with five Bulgarian and five foreign durum wheat cultivars. The aim of the experiment was to determine the chemical content and grain technological quality of some Bulgarian and foreign durum wheat cultivars grown under the agriecological conditions of Southern Bulgaria. The Vazhod cultivar proved to give the highest durum wheat grain yield, followed by Beloslava cultivar. Out of the foreign durum wheat cultivars the Durumko was notable for its higher productivity. The crude protein content in the grain was highest in Zagorka, Yavor and Yukon. The highest yield of gluten was reported in Beloslava, Vazhod and Zagorka.

  14. PUBLIC-PRIVATE ALLIANCES FOR INNOVATION: THE CASE OF THE CONSORCIOS REGIONALES DE INNOVACIÓN (REGIONAL CONSORTIUM FOR INNOVATION LED BY THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF LIVESTOCK INVESTIGATION OF URUGUAY(INIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Saldías

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The public-private partnerships represent a strategy for improving the efficiency in the generation of innovations in a global context, where the increasing of competitiveness is crucial for companies. Although the public and business environment present different interests, it is possible to establish a common area for this type of alliance, oriented to the generation of knowledge in a further conscious environment of business and productive realities. As an example of this type of alliance, the National Institute of Livestock Investigation of Uruguay (INIA is in the process of implementing the Regional Consortium for Innovation (CRI in the production chain of milk in Uruguay, in order to facilitate the development of research and development activities oriented to innovation. Thus, this paper, through an exploratory and documentary survey, describes the example of the INIA and, based on the literature about public-private partnerships, discusses its importance in the development of Uruguay.

  15. Cannabis - from cultivar to chemovar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, A; Fischedick, J T

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal-grade Cannabis. An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names, with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types. Although more than 700 different cultivars have already been described, it is unclear whether such classification reflects any relevant differences in chemical composition. Some attempts have been made to classify Cannabis varieties based on chemical composition, but they have mainly been useful for forensic applications, distinguishing drug varieties, with high THC content, from the non-drug hemp varieties. The biologically active terpenoids have not been included in these approaches. For a clearer understanding of the medicinal properties of the Cannabis plant, a better classification system, based on a range of potentially active constituents, is needed. The cannabinoids and terpenoids, present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main candidates. In this study, we compared cultivars obtained from multiple sources. Based on the analysis of 28 major compounds present in these samples, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the quantitative data, we were able to identify the Cannabis constituents that defined the samples into distinct chemovar groups. The study indicates the usefulness of a PCA approach for chemotaxonomic classification of Cannabis varieties.

  16. Coral Reef Watch, Hotspots, 50 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Coral Reef Watch provides Coral Bleaching hotspot maps derived from NOAA's Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). This data provides global area...

  17. Coral Reef Ecosystems Monitoring Feature Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Ecosystem Monitoring feature service hosted on ArcGIS Online provides access to data collected in the Mariana Archipelago by the Coral Reef Ecosystem...

  18. AFSC/ABL: Coldwater coral growth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Colonies of the gorgonian coral Calcigorgia spiculifera were tagged at three sites in Southeast Alaska, Little Port Walter, Tenakee Inlet, and Kelp Bay. The corals...

  19. Elkhorn and Staghorn Corals Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) and staghorn coral (A. cervicornis) as designated by 73 FR 72210, November 26, 2008,...

  20. Fisheries management: what chance on coral reefs?

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Failures of fishery management to control fishing effort globally and how this affects the coral reef fisheries are discussed. The use of marine reserves in coral reef fisheries management is also emphasized.

  1. LEGACY - EOP Temperature data for deep corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Thermographs were deployed opportunistically in patches of deep coral at depths greater than 300 m. Sites included the Makapuu precious coral bed, the Cross Seamount...

  2. Effects of Soybean Cultivars on Soymilk Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziadekey, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk was prepared from twelve soybean cultivars grown under the same environmental conditions to evaluate their effects on soymilk characteristics. Significant correlations were observed between the Chemical composition of the seeds and the resultant soymilk. Soymilk solids were significantly affected by seed size and seed phosphorus contents. Cultivars with dark hilum produced soymilk with less attractive colour.

  3. Coral diseases and bleaching on Colombian Caribbean coral reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Navas-Camacho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998 the National Monitoring System for the Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC has monitored the occurrence of coral bleaching and diseases in some Colombian coral reefs (permanent stations at San Andres Island, Rosario Islands, Tayrona, San Bernardo Islands and Urabá. The main purpose is to evaluate their health status and to understand the factors that have been contributing to their decline. To estimate these occurrences, annual surveys in 126 permanent belt transects (10x2m with different depth intervals (3-6 meters, 9-12 meters and 15-18 meters are performed at all reef sites. Data from the 1998-2004 period, revealed that San Andrés Island had many colonies with diseases (38.9 colonies/m2, and Urabá had high numbers with bleaching (54.4 colonies/m2. Of the seven reported coral diseases studied, Dark Spots Disease (DSD, and White Plague Disease (WPD were noteworthy because they occurred in all Caribbean monitored sites, and because of their high interannual infection incidence. Thirty five species of scleractinian corals were affected by at least one disease and a high incidence of coral diseases on the main reef builders is documented. Bleaching was present in 34 species. During the whole monitoring period, Agaricia agaricites and Siderastrea siderea were the species most severely affected by DSD and bleaching, respectively. Diseases on species such as Agaricia fragilis, A.grahamae, A. humilis, Diploria clivosa, Eusmilia fastigiata, Millepora complanata, and Mycetophyllia aliciae are recorded for first time in Colombia. We present bleaching and disease incidences, kinds of diseases, coral species affected, reef localities studied, depth intervals of surveys, and temporal (years variation for each geographic area. This variation makes difficult to clearly determine defined patterns or general trends for monitored reefs. This is the first long-term study of coral diseases and bleaching in the Southwestern Caribbean, and one of the few

  4. As atividades turísticas baseadas na alimentação artificial de botos-da-Amazônia (Inia geoffrensis) e a legislação ambiental brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Cláudio Pinto de Sá Alves; Carlos José Saldanha Machado; Rodrigo Machado Vilani; Marcelo Derzi Vidal; Artur Andriolo; Alexandre de Freitas Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Here we evaluate the touristic activity involving the interaction between botos (Inia geoffrensis) and humans based on the conditioning through artificial feeding in the light of the environmental legislation, using the Anavilhanas National Park (ANP) as case study. The Park is located in the Brazilian Amazon, in Novo Airão city, Amazonas State. This activity has significantly increased over the last years, as well as the literature describing its negative effects. By consulting the specializ...

  5. 40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coral reefs. 230.44 Section 230.44... Aquatic Sites § 230.44 Coral reefs. (a) Coral reefs consist of the skeletal deposit, usually of calcareous... organisms present in growing portions of the reef. (b) Possible loss of values: The discharge of dredged or...

  6. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gilmour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west. Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending

  7. CORAL REEFS. Genomic determinants of coral heat tolerance across latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Groves B; Davies, Sarah W; Aglyamova, Galina A; Meyer, Eli; Bay, Line K; Matz, Mikhail V

    2015-06-26

    As global warming continues, reef-building corals could avoid local population declines through "genetic rescue" involving exchange of heat-tolerant genotypes across latitudes, but only if latitudinal variation in thermal tolerance is heritable. Here, we show an up-to-10-fold increase in odds of survival of coral larvae under heat stress when their parents come from a warmer lower-latitude location. Elevated thermal tolerance was associated with heritable differences in expression of oxidative, extracellular, transport, and mitochondrial functions that indicated a lack of prior stress. Moreover, two genomic regions strongly responded to selection for thermal tolerance in interlatitudinal crosses. These results demonstrate that variation in coral thermal tolerance across latitudes has a strong genetic basis and could serve as raw material for natural selection. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. How do corals make rocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, P. G.; Mass, T.; Drake, J.; Schaller, M. F.; Rosenthal, Y.; Schofield, O.; Sherrell, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a three pronged approach to understanding how corals precipitate aragonite crystals and contain proxy biogeochemical information. Using proteomic and genomic approaches, we have identified 35 proteins in coral skeletons. Among these are a series of coral acidic proteins (CARPs). Based on their gene sequences, we cloned a subset of these proteins and purified them. Each of the proteins precipitate aragonite in vitro in unamended seawater. Antibodies raised against these proteins react with individual crystals of the native coral, clearly revealing that they are part of a biomineral structure. Based on the primary structure of the proteins we have developed a model of the precipitation reaction that focuses on a Lewis acid displacement of protons from bicarbonate anions by calcium ligated to the carboxyl groups on the CARPs. The reactions are highly acidic and are not manifestly influenced by pH above ca. 6. These results suggest that corals will maintain the ability to calcify in the coming centuries, despite acidification of the oceans.

  9. �Saruman� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple cultivar �Saruman� was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. �Saruman� was released by hybridization between �Cluj III-VI-5-26� selection (�Parmain d�Or�, open pollinated and �NJ 46�. The trees are vigorous, spreading shape, and with medium crop yield. The fruits have large size, conic shape and mostly red (purple coloration; they have white flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Fruits become ripe in the last decade of August, first decade of September and the fruits are proper for dessert and well suited for cooking, applesauce, cider, pies.

  10. �Sauron� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new apple cultivar Sauron was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. Sauron was identified in open pollinated population of Cluj 3/83 selection [Cluj III-VI-5-26 selection (Parmain dOr, open pollinated x NJ 46]. The trees have moderate vigour, upright then spread, with moderate productivity. Fruits are medium to large, usually red, with a portion being greenish or yellow-green and purple red vertically striped. The fruit has good quality, being soft eating apple due to their lack of crispness. Quality indices include firmness, crispness and excellent flavour. Fruits become ripe between 15 August and 5 September and the fruits are good quality, being proper for dessert and industrialization (juice, applesauce, pies, and cider.

  11. �Sauron� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new apple cultivar �Sauron� was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. �Sauron� was identified in open pollinated population of �Cluj 3/83� selection [�Cluj III-VI-5-26� selection (�Parmain d�Or�, open pollinated x �NJ 46�]. The trees have moderate vigour, upright then spread, with moderate productivity. Fruits are medium to large, usually red, with a portion being greenish or yellow-green and purple red vertically striped. The fruit has good quality, being soft eating apple due to their lack of crispness. Quality indices include firmness, crispness and excellent flavour. Fruits become ripe between 15 August and 5 September and the fruits are good quality, being proper for dessert and industrialization (juice, applesauce, pies, and cider.

  12. Cultivar de soja BRS 66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertagnolli Paulo Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS 66, oriunda do cruzamento BR 83-147 x FT-Abyara, é indicada para cultivo no Rio Grande do Sul. Na média de 21 ambientes no RS, no período de 1993/94 a 1995/96, essa cultivar apresentou rendimento médio de grãos de 2.883 kg/ha. Apresenta resistência ao cancro-da-haste, à podridão-parda-da-haste, à mancha-olho-de-rã, à raça 1 de Phytophthora sojae, à pústula-bacteriana e ao oídio. Tem flor branca, pubescência marrom, tegumento da semente amarelo-fosco, hilo marrom e tipo de crescimento determinado. É de ciclo médio e apresenta estatura da planta de média a alta, com boa resistência ao acamamento.

  13. Confronting the coral reef crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellwood, D. R.; Hughes, T. P.; Folke, C.; Nyström, M.

    2004-06-01

    The worldwide decline of coral reefs calls for an urgent reassessment of current management practices. Confronting large-scale crises requires a major scaling-up of management efforts based on an improved understanding of the ecological processes that underlie reef resilience. Managing for improved resilience, incorporating the role of human activity in shaping ecosystems, provides a basis for coping with uncertainty, future changes and ecological surprises. Here we review the ecological roles of critical functional groups (for both corals and reef fishes) that are fundamental to understanding resilience and avoiding phase shifts from coral dominance to less desirable, degraded ecosystems. We identify striking biogeographic differences in the species richness and composition of functional groups, which highlight the vulnerability of Caribbean reef ecosystems. These findings have profound implications for restoration of degraded reefs, management of fisheries, and the focus on marine protected areas and biodiversity hotspots as priorities for conservation.

  14. Seawater transport during coral biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Alexander C.; Adkins, Jess F.; Erez, Jonathan

    2012-05-01

    Cation transport during skeletal growth is a key process controlling metal/calcium (Me/Ca) paleoproxy behavior in coral. To characterize this transport, cultured corals were transferred into seawater enriched in the rare earth element Tb3 + as well as stable isotopes of calcium, strontium, and barium. Subsequent NanoSIMS ion images of each coral skeleton were used to follow uptake dynamics. These images show a continuous region corresponding to new growth that is homogeneously enriched in each tracer. Isotope ratio profiles across the new growth boundary transition rapidly from natural abundance ratios to a ratio matching the enriched culture solution. The location of this transition is the same for each element, within analytical resolution. The synchronous incorporation of all these cations, including the dissimilar ion terbium, which has no known biological function in coral, suggests that: (1) there is cation exchange between seawater and the calcifying fluid, and (2) these elements are influenced by similar transport mechanisms consistent with direct and rapid seawater transport to the site of calcification. Measured using isotope ratio profiles, seawater transport rates differ from place to place on the growing coral skeleton, with calcifying fluid turnover times from 30 min to 5.7 h. Despite these differences, all the elements measured in this study show the same transport dynamics at each location. Using an analytical geochemical model of biomineralization that includes direct seawater transport we constrain the role of active calcium pumping during calcification and we show that the balance between seawater transport and precipitation can explain observed Me/Ca variability in deep-sea coral.

  15. Microbial Regulation in Gorgonian Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D. Mydlarz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gorgonian corals possess many novel natural products that could potentially mediate coral-bacterial interactions. Since many bacteria use quorum sensing (QS signals to facilitate colonization of host organisms, regulation of prokaryotic cell-to-cell communication may represent an important bacterial control mechanism. In the present study, we examined extracts of twelve species of Caribbean gorgonian corals, for mechanisms that regulate microbial colonization, such as antibacterial activity and QS regulatory activity. Ethanol extracts of gorgonians collected from Puerto Rico and the Florida Keys showed a range of both antibacterial and QS activities using a specific Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS reporter, sensitive to long chain AHLs and a short chain N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL biosensor, Chromobacterium violaceium. Overall, the gorgonian corals had higher antimicrobial activity against non-marine strains when compared to marine strains. Pseudopterogorgia americana, Pseusopterogorgia acerosa, and Pseudoplexuara flexuosa had the highest QS inhibitory effect. Interestingly, Pseudoplexuara porosa extracts stimulated QS activity with a striking 17-fold increase in signal. The stimulation of QS by P. porosa or other elements of the holobiont may encourage colonization or recruitment of specific microbial species. Overall, these results suggest the presence of novel stimulatory QS, inhibitory QS and bactericidal compounds in gorgonian corals. A better understanding of these compounds may reveal insight into coral-microbial ecology and whether a therapeutic potential exists.

  16. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Mark J A; Marhaver, Kristen L; Huijbers, Chantal M; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Simpson, Stephen D

    2010-05-14

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency.

  17. Coral benchmarks in the center of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licuanan, W Y; Robles, R; Dygico, M; Songco, A; van Woesik, R

    2017-01-30

    There is an urgent need to quantify coral reef benchmarks that assess changes and recovery rates through time and serve as goals for management. Yet, few studies have identified benchmarks for hard coral cover and diversity in the center of marine diversity. In this study, we estimated coral cover and generic diversity benchmarks on the Tubbataha reefs, the largest and best-enforced no-take marine protected area in the Philippines. The shallow (2-6m) reef slopes of Tubbataha were monitored annually, from 2012 to 2015, using hierarchical sampling. Mean coral cover was 34% (σ±1.7) and generic diversity was 18 (σ±0.9) per 75m by 25m station. The southeastern leeward slopes supported on average 56% coral cover, whereas the northeastern windward slopes supported 30%, and the western slopes supported 18% coral cover. Generic diversity was more spatially homogeneous than coral cover. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coral reefs in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Terry P.; Barnes, Michele L.; Bellwood, David R.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Cumming, Graeme S.; Jackson, Jeremy B. C.; Kleypas, Joanie; van de Leemput, Ingrid A.; Lough, Janice M.; Morrison, Tiffany H.; Palumbi, Stephen R.; van Nes, Egbert H.; Scheffer, Marten

    2017-06-01

    Coral reefs support immense biodiversity and provide important ecosystem services to many millions of people. Yet reefs are degrading rapidly in response to numerous anthropogenic drivers. In the coming centuries, reefs will run the gauntlet of climate change, and rising temperatures will transform them into new configurations, unlike anything observed previously by humans. Returning reefs to past configurations is no longer an option. Instead, the global challenge is to steer reefs through the Anthropocene era in a way that maintains their biological functions. Successful navigation of this transition will require radical changes in the science, management and governance of coral reefs.

  19. Global warming and coral reefs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    photosynthesis and survival of coral planulae, etc. Unfortunately, no such studies have been carried out on Indian corals so far, and a visualization of what will happen to Indian reefs if sea level rises rapidly will have to be constructed based on such dat... susceptible, as plankton living near the sea surface, and as hosts deriving nutri tional benefits from zooxanthtllar photosynthesis, which itself is susceptible to UV-B damage. Contrary to the misconception that UV is absorbed by the sea water, UV penetrates...

  20. A preliminary study of corals recruitment using coral rubbles substrate in Seribu Island waters, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Fadli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Coral recruitment is important in natural recovery and coral rehabilitation program. Here, wetested the coral rubbles as substrate for coral recruitment. The study was conducted on the first week ofSeptember 2007 until the second week of January 2008 in Panggang Island, Seribu Islands, Indonesia.The results showed that the recruited coral were settled on the substrate in both depths (6 and 10 m. Atotal of 5 families of recruited coral were recorded during the study, namely Acroporidae, Pocilloporidae,Oculinidae, Fungiidae and Poritidae. There were no differences in term of the number of recruits thatwere found in 6 and 10 m depth.

  1. 75 FR 39917 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ..., and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs off the Southern Atlantic States; Exempted Fishing Permit... for Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hardbottom Habitat of the South Atlantic Region. The applicant has... Coral Reef Research Foundation (CRRF, http://www.coralreefresearchfoundation.org/ ). Samples would be...

  2. 76 FR 30110 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ..., and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs Off the Southern Atlantic States; Exempted Fishing Permit... implementing the Fishery Management Plan for Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hardbottom Habitat of the South... Cancer Institute ( http://www.cancer.gov/ ) and the Coral Reef Research Foundation (CRRF, http://www...

  3. Flower colours and pigments in tulip cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, van J.P.; Keulen, van H.A.; Dijk, van A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Aanvullend op eerder onderzoek, waarbij bijna 500 oude en nieuwe tulpencultivars op bloempigmenten werden geanalyseerd, worden in tabelvorm van diezelfde cultivars nu de bloemkleur en de relatieve hoeveelheden carotenoiden, delfinidine, cyanidine, pelargonidine en flavonolen aangegeven

  4. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  5. The cumulative impact of annual coral bleaching can turn some coral species winners into losers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grottoli, Andréa G; Warner, Mark E; Levas, Stephen J; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D; Schoepf, Verena; McGinley, Michael; Baumann, Justin; Matsui, Yohei

    2014-12-01

    Mass coral bleaching events caused by elevated seawater temperatures result in extensive coral loss throughout the tropics, and are projected to increase in frequency and severity. If bleaching becomes an annual event later in this century, more than 90% of coral reefs worldwide may be at risk of long-term degradation. While corals can recover from single isolated bleaching and can acclimate to recurring bleaching events that are separated by multiple years, it is currently unknown if and how they will survive and possibly acclimatize to annual coral bleaching. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that annual coral bleaching can dramatically alter thermal tolerance in Caribbean corals. We found that high coral energy reserves and changes in the dominant algal endosymbiont type (Symbiodinium spp.) facilitated rapid acclimation in Porites divaricata, whereas low energy reserves and a lack of algal phenotypic plasticity significantly increased susceptibility in Porites astreoides to bleaching the following year. Phenotypic plasticity in the dominant endosymbiont type of Orbicella faveolata did not prevent repeat bleaching, but may have facilitated rapid recovery. Thus, coral holobiont response to an isolated single bleaching event is not an accurate predictor of its response to bleaching the following year. Rather, the cumulative impact of annual coral bleaching can turn some coral species 'winners' into 'losers', and can also facilitate acclimation and turn some coral species 'losers' into 'winners'. Overall, these findings indicate that cumulative impact of annual coral bleaching could result in some species becoming increasingly susceptible to bleaching and face a long-term decline, while phenotypically plastic coral species will acclimatize and persist. Thus, annual coral bleaching and recovery could contribute to the selective loss of coral diversity as well as the overall decline of coral reefs in the Caribbean.

  6. Destruction of corals and other reef animals by coral spawn slicks on Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C. J.; Cary, J. L.; Masini, R. J.

    1993-11-01

    In March 1989, most of the corals near Coral Bay, off the north-western coastline of Australia, spawned several nights earlier than usual. Flood, rather than ebb, tides at the time of spawning combined with light north-west winds and low swell conditions to restrict the dispersal of coral propagules and, as a result, large amounts of coral spawn were trapped in the bay, forming extensive slicks. Fish and other animals began to die almost immediately, and over the next few days, over 1 million fish, representing at least 80 species, were washed ashore. A survey of the benthic communities revealed extensive mortality of corals and other reef animals over an area of about 3 km2. Live coral cover in this area decreased from 42.9% to 9.4% and several large coral colonies up to 10 m in diameter were killed. The observed mortality was presumably the result of hypoxia (oxygen depletion) created initially by the respiratory demand of the coral spawn and maintained by the biological oxygen demand of the decomposing spawn slicks and dead animals. Anecdotal reports of corals and other reef animals dying in the vicinity of coral spawn slicks on other reefs in Western Australia suggest that this phenomenon may be a relatively common event on shallow coral reefs where coral mass spawning occurs. These records and observations document, for the first time, a new source of natural disturbance that has a significant influence on the community structure of some coral reefs.

  7. Parental Selection in Rice Cultivar Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanley Omar P B.SAMONTE; Rodante E.TABIEN; Lloyd T.WILSON

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars assists breeders in identifying useful trait relationships and in selecting parents as donors of specific traits.This study was conducted to compare long-grain rice cultivars using genotype x trait (GT) biplot analysis and determine potential donors of traits related to grain yield and quality.Seventeen cultivars in the 2005 and 2006 Uniform Regional Rice Nursery in Beaumont,Texas,USA were analyzed for 20 traits using GT biplot analysis.The GT biplots showed the diversity among cultivars with regards to yield-related traits.Cultivars recommended as donor parents were:Trenasse,Spring,Presidio,and Cocodrie for high grain yield and head rice rate;Trenasse and Presidio for semi-dwarfness; Banks for tall plant height; Wells for high flag leaf area,panicle weight,and number and mass of filled grains per panicle; Hidalgo for high tiller density; Francis for high number of spikelets per panicle; Spring and Trenasse for short flowering duration; Cheniere for more days to heading and maturity and Spring for less days; and Spring and Hidalgo for high grain weight.Breeders can use these cultivars with specific traits to increase grain yield and quality.

  8. Microbial diseases of corals and global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Ben-Haim, Yael

    2002-06-01

    Coral bleaching and other diseases of corals have increased dramatically during the last few decades. As outbreaks of these diseases are highly correlated with increased sea-water temperature, one of the consequences of global warming will probably be mass destruction of coral reefs. The causative agent(s) of a few of these diseases have been reported: bleaching of Oculina patagonica by Vibrio shiloi; black band disease by a microbial consortium; sea-fan disease (aspergillosis) by Aspergillus sydowii; and coral white plague possibly by Sphingomonas sp. In addition, we have recently discovered that Vibrio coralyticus is the aetiological agent for bleaching the coral Pocillopora damicornis in the Red Sea. In the case of coral bleaching by V. shiloi, the major effect of increasing temperature is the expression of virulence genes by the pathogen. At high summer sea-water temperatures, V. shiloi produces an adhesin that allows it to adhere to a beta-galactoside-containing receptor in the coral mucus, penetrate into the coral epidermis, multiply intracellularly, differentiate into a viable-but-not-culturable (VBNC) state and produce toxins that inhibit photosynthesis and lyse the symbiotic zooxanthellae. In black band disease, sulphide is produced at the coral-microbial biofilm interface, which is probably responsible for tissue death. Reports of newly emerging coral diseases and the lack of epidemiological and biochemical information on the known diseases indicate that this will become a fertile area of research in the interface between microbial ecology and infectious disease.

  9. Threatened corals provide underexplored microbial habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Sunagawa

    Full Text Available Contemporary in-depth sequencing of environmental samples has provided novel insights into microbial community structures, revealing that their diversity had been previously underestimated. Communities in marine environments are commonly composed of a few dominant taxa and a high number of taxonomically diverse, low-abundance organisms. However, studying the roles and genomic information of these "rare" organisms remains challenging, because little is known about their ecological niches and the environmental conditions to which they respond. Given the current threat to coral reef ecosystems, we investigated the potential of corals to provide highly specialized habitats for bacterial taxa including those that are rarely detected or absent in surrounding reef waters. The analysis of more than 350,000 small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA sequence tags and almost 2,000 nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that rare seawater biosphere members are highly abundant or even dominant in diverse Caribbean corals. Closely related corals (in the same genus/family harbored similar bacterial communities. At higher taxonomic levels, however, the similarities of these communities did not correlate with the phylogenetic relationships among corals, opening novel questions about the evolutionary stability of coral-microbial associations. Large proportions of OTUs (28.7-49.1% were unique to the coral species of origin. Analysis of the most dominant ribotypes suggests that many uncovered bacterial taxa exist in coral habitats and await future exploration. Our results indicate that coral species, and by extension other animal hosts, act as specialized habitats of otherwise rare microbes in marine ecosystems. Here, deep sequencing provided insights into coral microbiota at an unparalleled resolution and revealed that corals harbor many bacterial taxa previously not known. Given that two of the coral species investigated are listed as threatened under

  10. 75 FR 48934 - Coral Reef Conservation Program Implementation Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-ZC19 Coral Reef Conservation Program... Implementation Guidelines for the Coral Reef Conservation Program. SUMMARY: This document provides NOAA's revised Grant Program Implementation Guidelines (Guidelines) for the Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP or...

  11. Sharing the slope: depth partitioning of agariciid corals and associated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, P.; Frade, P.R.; Ogier, J.J.; Hay, K.B.; van Bleijswijk, J.; Englebert, N.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Bak, R.P.M.; Visser, P.M.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Scleractinian corals and their algal endosymbionts (genus Symbiodinium) exhibit distinct bathymetric distributions on coral reefs. Yet, few studies have assessed the evolutionary context of these ecological distributions by exploring the genetic diversity of closely related coral species

  12. Dietary Aloe vera supplementation on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; He, Jie; Ma, Xin Yu; Kpundeh, Mathew D; Xu, Pao

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated effects of dietary Aloe vera on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT). Five groups were designed including a basal diet (control) and 100% A. vera powder incorporated in fish feed at 0.5% 1%, 2%, and 4%/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera supplemented diet significantly improved (p vera diet at 1% and 2%/kg feed. Feed efficiency ratio, feed conversion ratio, and hepatosomatic index were significantly enhanced in 4% A. vera supplemented fish over unsupplemented ones (p vera supplemented fish showed a significant increase (p vera supplemented fish showed a decrease (p vera diet at 2% and 4% A. vera/kg feed than those fed unsupplemented diet. Unchallenged fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera showed significantly higher values (p vera supplemented diet. There was a significant increase (p vera unsupplemented fish and those supplemented with A. vera diet at 1%/kg feed increased significantly (p vera supplemented diet maintained higher values at all experimental stages among groups. There was a significant correlation (p Aloe had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the survival of the fish when compared to the control; no mortality was recorded in challenge trial. Overall, our results indicated that dietary aloe supplementation could improve growth, feed utilization, and haemato-biochemical parameters of cultured tilapia.

  13. NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program: 2016 projects to address coral reef conservation issues

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2016 the following projects will take place to address aspects of coral reef conservation: Enhancing Management of Pacific ESA-listed Corals with Improved Utility...

  14. A coral-on-a-chip microfluidic platform enabling live-imaging microscopy of reef-building corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Orr H; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Gavish, Assaf R; Stocker, Roman; Vardi, Assaf

    2016-03-04

    Coral reefs, and the unique ecosystems they support, are facing severe threats by human activities and climate change. Our understanding of these threats is hampered by the lack of robust approaches for studying the micro-scale interactions between corals and their environment. Here we present an experimental platform, coral-on-a-chip, combining micropropagation and microfluidics to allow direct microscopic study of live coral polyps. The small and transparent coral micropropagates are ideally suited for live-imaging microscopy, while the microfluidic platform facilitates long-term visualization under controlled environmental conditions. We demonstrate the usefulness of this approach by imaging coral micropropagates at previously unattainable spatio-temporal resolutions, providing new insights into several micro-scale processes including coral calcification, coral-pathogen interaction and the loss of algal symbionts (coral bleaching). Coral-on-a-chip thus provides a powerful method for studying coral physiology in vivo at the micro-scale, opening new vistas in coral biology.

  15. Bottlenecks to coral recovery in the Seychelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong-Seng, K. M.; Graham, N. A. J.; Pratchett, M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Processes that affect recovery of coral assemblages require investigation because coral reefs are experiencing a diverse array of more frequent disturbances. Potential bottlenecks to coral recovery include limited larval supply, low rates of settlement, and high mortality of new recruits or juvenile corals. We investigated spatial variation in local abundance of scleractinian corals in the Seychelles at three distinct life history stages (recruits, juveniles, and adults) on reefs with differing benthic conditions. Following widespread coral loss due to the 1998 bleaching event, some reefs are recovering (i.e., relatively high scleractinian coral cover: `coral-dominated'), some reefs have low cover of living macrobenthos and unconsolidated rubble substrates (`rubble-dominated'), and some reefs have high cover of macroalgae (`macroalgal-dominated'). Rates of coral recruitment to artificial settlement tiles were similar across all reef conditions, suggesting that larval supply does not explain differential coral recovery across the three reef types. However, acroporid recruits were absent on macroalgal-dominated reefs (0.0 ± 0.0 recruits tile-1) in comparison to coral-dominated reefs (5.2 ± 1.6 recruits tile-1). Juvenile coral colony density was significantly lower on macroalgal-dominated reefs (2.4 ± 1.1 colonies m-2), compared to coral-dominated reefs (16.8 ± 2.4 m-2) and rubble-dominated reefs (33.1 ± 7.3 m-2), suggesting that macroalgal-dominated reefs have either a bottleneck to successful settlement on the natural substrates or a high post-settlement mortality bottleneck. Rubble-dominated reefs had very low cover of adult corals (10.0 ± 1.7 %) compared to coral-dominated reefs (33.4 ± 3.6 %) despite no statistical difference in their juvenile coral densities. A bottleneck caused by low juvenile colony survivorship on unconsolidated rubble-dominated reefs is possible, or alternatively, recruitment to rubble-dominated reefs has only recently begun. This

  16. CULTIVAR RELEASE-IPR 98: Rust-resistant dwarf arabica coffee cultivar for dense spacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumoru Sera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The IPR 98 coffee cultivar is a dwarf plant smaller than the Catuaí Vermelho IAC-81 cultivar, completelyresistant to Hemileia vastatrix Berk. et Br. with medium precocity in ripening and superior quality and high yields with semidense,dense and super dense spacing in lower temperature coffee regions of the state of Paraná.

  17. Cultivar identification and genetic relationship of pineapple (Ananas comosus) cultivars using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y S; Kuan, C S; Weng, I S; Tsai, C C

    2015-11-25

    The genetic relationships among 27 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] cultivars and lines were examined using 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The number of alleles per locus of the SSR markers ranged from 2 to 6 (average 3.19), for a total of 51 alleles. Similarity coefficients were calculated on the basis of 51 amplified bands. A dendrogram was created according to the 16 SSR markers by the unweighted pair-group method. The banding patterns obtained from the SSR primers allowed most of the cultivars and lines to be distinguished, with the exception of vegetative clones. According to the dendrogram, the 27 pineapple cultivars and lines were clustered into three main clusters and four individual clusters. As expected, the dendrogram showed that derived cultivars and lines are closely related to their parental cultivars; the genetic relationships between pineapple cultivars agree with the genealogy of their breeding history. In addition, the analysis showed that there is no obvious correlation between SSR markers and morphological characters. In conclusion, SSR analysis is an efficient method for pineapple cultivar identification and can offer valuable informative characters to identify pineapple cultivars in Taiwan.

  18. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rix, L.; de Goeij, J.M.; Mueller, C.E.; Struck, U.; Middelburg, J.J.; van Duyl, F.C.; Al-Horani, F.A.; Wild, C.; Naumann, M.S.; van Oevelen, D.

    2016-01-01

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and

  19. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rix, L.; de Goeij, J.M.; Mueller, C.E.; Struck, U.; Middelburg, J.J.; van Duyl, F.C.; Al-Horani, F.A.; Wild, C.; Naumann, M.S.; Van Oevelen, D.

    2016-01-01

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrient

  20. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rix, L.; de Goeij, J.M.; Mueller, C.E.; Struck, U.; Middelburg, J.J.; van Duyl, F.C.; Al-Horani, F.A.; Wild, C.; Naumann, M.S.; Van Oevelen, D.

    2016-01-01

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrient

  1. Beneficial Microorganisms for Corals (BMC): Proposed Mechanisms for Coral Health and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Raquel S.; Rosado, Phillipe M.; Leite, Deborah Catharine de Assis; Rosado, Alexandre S.; Bourne, David G.

    2017-01-01

    The symbiotic association between the coral animal and its endosymbiotic dinoflagellate partner Symbiodinium is central to the success of corals. However, an array of other microorganisms associated with coral (i.e., Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi, and viruses) have a complex and intricate role in maintaining homeostasis between corals and Symbiodinium. Corals are sensitive to shifts in the surrounding environmental conditions. One of the most widely reported responses of coral to stressful environmental conditions is bleaching. During this event, corals expel Symbiodinium cells from their gastrodermal tissues upon experiencing extended seawater temperatures above their thermal threshold. An array of other environmental stressors can also destabilize the coral microbiome, resulting in compromised health of the host, which may include disease and mortality in the worst scenario. However, the exact mechanisms by which the coral microbiome supports coral health and increases resilience are poorly understood. Earlier studies of coral microbiology proposed a coral probiotic hypothesis, wherein a dynamic relationship exists between corals and their symbiotic microorganisms, selecting for the coral holobiont that is best suited for the prevailing environmental conditions. Here, we discuss the microbial-host relationships within the coral holobiont, along with their potential roles in maintaining coral health. We propose the term BMC (Beneficial Microorganisms for Corals) to define (specific) symbionts that promote coral health. This term and concept are analogous to the term Plant Growth Promoting Rhizosphere (PGPR), which has been widely explored and manipulated in the agricultural industry for microorganisms that inhabit the rhizosphere and directly or indirectly promote plant growth and development through the production of regulatory signals, antibiotics and nutrients. Additionally, we propose and discuss the potential mechanisms of the effects of BMC on corals, suggesting

  2. Algae as reservoirs for coral pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Sweet

    Full Text Available Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively. Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is

  3. Cyanobacteria in Coral Reef Ecosystems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Charpy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria have dominated marine environments and have been reef builders on Earth for more than three million years (myr. Cyanobacteria still play an essential role in modern coral reef ecosystems by forming a major component of epiphytic, epilithic, and endolithic communities as well as of microbial mats. Cyanobacteria are grazed by reef organisms and also provide nitrogen to the coral reef ecosystems through nitrogen fixation. Recently, new unicellular cyanobacteria that express nitrogenase were found in the open ocean and in coral reef lagoons. Furthermore, cyanobacteria are important in calcification and decalcification. All limestone surfaces have a layer of boring algae in which cyanobacteria often play a dominant role. Cyanobacterial symbioses are abundant in coral reefs; the most common hosts are sponges and ascidians. Cyanobacteria use tactics beyond space occupation to inhibit coral recruitment. Cyanobacteria can also form pathogenic microbial consortia in association with other microbes on living coral tissues, causing coral tissue lysis and death, and considerable declines in coral reefs. In deep lagoons, coccoid cyanobacteria are abundant and are grazed by ciliates, heteroflagellates, and the benthic coral reef community. Cyanobacteria produce metabolites that act as attractants for some species and deterrents for some grazers of the reef communities.

  4. Amorphous calcium carbonate particles form coral skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, Tali; Giuffre, Anthony J.; Sun, Chang-Yu; Stifler, Cayla A.; Frazier, Matthew J.; Neder, Maayan; Tamura, Nobumichi; Stan, Camelia V.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Gilbert, Pupa U. P. A.

    2017-09-01

    Do corals form their skeletons by precipitation from solution or by attachment of amorphous precursor particles as observed in other minerals and biominerals? The classical model assumes precipitation in contrast with observed “vital effects,” that is, deviations from elemental and isotopic compositions at thermodynamic equilibrium. Here, we show direct spectromicroscopy evidence in Stylophora pistillata corals that two amorphous precursors exist, one hydrated and one anhydrous amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC); that these are formed in the tissue as 400-nm particles; and that they attach to the surface of coral skeletons, remain amorphous for hours, and finally, crystallize into aragonite (CaCO3). We show in both coral and synthetic aragonite spherulites that crystal growth by attachment of ACC particles is more than 100 times faster than ion-by-ion growth from solution. Fast growth provides a distinct physiological advantage to corals in the rigors of the reef, a crowded and fiercely competitive ecosystem. Corals are affected by warming-induced bleaching and postmortem dissolution, but the finding here that ACC particles are formed inside tissue may make coral skeleton formation less susceptible to ocean acidification than previously assumed. If this is how other corals form their skeletons, perhaps this is how a few corals survived past CO2 increases, such as the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum that occurred 56 Mya.

  5. The role of microorganisms in coral bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Kushmaro, Ariel; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Banin, Ehud; Yossi, Loya

    2009-02-01

    Coral bleaching is the disruption of the symbiosis between the coral host and its endosymbiotic algae. The prevalence and severity of the disease have been correlated with high seawater temperature. During the last decade, the major hypothesis to explain coral bleaching is that high water temperatures cause irreversible damage to the symbiotic algae resulting in loss of pigment and/or algae from the holobiont. Here, we discuss the evidence for an alternative but not mutually exclusive concept, the microbial hypothesis of coral bleaching.

  6. New tool to manage coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is making available a new tool for coral reef managers to monitor the cumulative thermal stress of several coral reefs around the world, including the Great Barrier Reef, and reefs by the Galapagos Islands, the agency announced on 25 February.The agency's "Degree Heating Weeks" product uses satellite-derived information to allow continuous monitoring of the extent and acuteness of thermal stress, which are key predictors of coral bleaching, and which contribute to coral reef degradation.

  7. The immune responses of the coral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Toledo-Hernández

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Corals are among the most ancient extant animals on earth. Currently, coral viability is threatened, due in part to the increased number of diseases affecting them in recent decades. Understanding how the innate immune systems of corals function is important if we want to predict the fate of corals and their response to the environmental and biological changes they face. In this review we discuss the latest findings regarding the innate immune systems of corals. The review is organized following the chronology of steps taken by corals from the initial encounter with a potential pathogen and recognition of threats to the orchestration of a response. We begin with the literature describing the repertory of immune-related receptors involved in the recognition of threats and the subsequent pathways leading to an immune response. We then review the effector responses that eliminate the threats described for corals. Finally, we acknowledge the literature of coral microbiology to access the potential role of microbes as an essential constituent of the coral immune system.

  8. Resistance of some commercial winter wheat cultivars to Tilletia tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staletić Mirjana D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the resistance of twenty commercial winter wheat cultivars to common bunt causal agent (Tilletia tritici. Significant differences among the cultivars concerning the infection percent were observed, as well as the differences in the level of commercial cultivars' resistance to T. tritici. Most of the studied cultivars belonged to susceptible categories, and just few of them to the resistant ones. Cultivar Lasta was classified as highly resistant during the both investigation years in Kragujevac, while in Leposavić Lasta and Tiha were classified as resistant. The other studied cultivars were more or less susceptible.

  9. As atividades turísticas baseadas na alimentação artificial de botos-da-Amazônia (Inia geoffrensis) e a legislação ambiental brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Alves,Luiz Cláudio Pinto de Sá; Machado, Carlos José Saldanha; Vilani, Rodrigo Machado; Vidal, Marcelo Derzi; Andriolo, Artur; Azevedo, Alexandre de Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A atividade turística de interação ser humano-boto-da-Amazônia (Inia geoffrensis), baseada na prática do condicionamento por meio da alimentação artificial, vem aumentando quantitativamente nos últimos anos, assim como a literatura que descreve os seus efeitos negativos. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar essa atividade à luz da legislação ambiental, tomando como estudo de caso o Parque Nacional de Anavilhanas (PNA), localizado em Novo Airão, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. A partir de consultas...

  10. Coral Reef Protection Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    ecosystems. These reports Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico , and Pacific Ocean." For the will also serve as an awareness tool for agencies to purposes of this report...alternatives for proposed discharges of - 7 dredged or fill material into U.S or international waters, *o SECTION THi- zEE EXISTING FUNDING SOURCES FOR CORAL...facilities on several thousand acres within the Ko’olaupoko Region on O’ahu. Popu- NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO lation growth and development throughout

  11. Coral diseases and bleaching on Colombian Caribbean coral reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Navas-Camacho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998 the National Monitoring System for the Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC has monitored the occurrence of coral bleaching and diseases in some Colombian coral reefs (permanent stations at San Andres Island, Rosario Islands, Tayrona, San Bernardo Islands and Urabá. The main purpose is to evaluate their health status and to understand the factors that have been contributing to their decline. To estimate these occurrences, annual surveys in 126 permanent belt transects (10x2m with different depth intervals (3-6 meters, 9-12 meters and 15-18 meters are performed at all reef sites. Data from the 1998-2004 period, revealed that San Andrés Island had many colonies with diseases (38.9 colonies/m2, and Urabá had high numbers with bleaching (54.4 colonies/m2. Of the seven reported coral diseases studied, Dark Spots Disease (DSD, and White Plague Disease (WPD were noteworthy because they occurred in all Caribbean monitored sites, and because of their high interannual infection incidence. Thirty five species of scleractinian corals were affected by at least one disease and a high incidence of coral diseases on the main reef builders is documented. Bleaching was present in 34 species. During the whole monitoring period, Agaricia agaricites and Siderastrea siderea were the species most severely affected by DSD and bleaching, respectively. Diseases on species such as Agaricia fragilis, A.grahamae, A. humilis, Diploria clivosa, Eusmilia fastigiata, Millepora complanata, and Mycetophyllia aliciae are recorded for first time in Colombia. We present bleaching and disease incidences, kinds of diseases, coral species affected, reef localities studied, depth intervals of surveys, and temporal (years variation for each geographic area. This variation makes difficult to clearly determine defined patterns or general trends for monitored reefs. This is the first long-term study of coral diseases and bleaching in the Southwestern Caribbean, and one of the few

  12. Identification of Candidate Coral Pathogens on White Band Disease-Infected Staghorn Coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Sarah A; Vollmer, Steven V

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial diseases affecting scleractinian corals pose an enormous threat to the health of coral reefs, yet we still have a limited understanding of the bacteria associated with coral diseases. White band disease is a bacterial disease that affects the two Caribbean acroporid corals, the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and the elkhorn coral A. palmate. Species of Vibrio and Rickettsia have both been identified as putative WBD pathogens. Here we used Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing to profile the bacterial communities associated with healthy and diseased A. cervicornis collected from four field sites during two different years. We also exposed corals in tanks to diseased and healthy (control) homogenates to reduce some of the natural variation of field-collected coral bacterial communities. Using a combination of multivariate analyses, we identified community-level changes between diseased and healthy corals in both the field-collected and tank-exposed datasets. We then identified changes in the abundances of individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between diseased and healthy corals. By comparing the diseased and healthy-associated bacteria in field-collected and tank-exposed corals, we were able to identify 16 healthy-associated OTUs and 106 consistently disease-associated OTUs, which are good candidates for putative WBD pathogens. A large percentage of these disease-associated OTUs belonged to the order Flavobacteriales. In addition, two of the putative pathogens identified here belong to orders previously suggested as WBD pathogens: Vibronales and Rickettsiales.

  13. Identification of Candidate Coral Pathogens on White Band Disease-Infected Staghorn Coral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Gignoux-Wolfsohn

    Full Text Available Bacterial diseases affecting scleractinian corals pose an enormous threat to the health of coral reefs, yet we still have a limited understanding of the bacteria associated with coral diseases. White band disease is a bacterial disease that affects the two Caribbean acroporid corals, the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and the elkhorn coral A. palmate. Species of Vibrio and Rickettsia have both been identified as putative WBD pathogens. Here we used Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing to profile the bacterial communities associated with healthy and diseased A. cervicornis collected from four field sites during two different years. We also exposed corals in tanks to diseased and healthy (control homogenates to reduce some of the natural variation of field-collected coral bacterial communities. Using a combination of multivariate analyses, we identified community-level changes between diseased and healthy corals in both the field-collected and tank-exposed datasets. We then identified changes in the abundances of individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs between diseased and healthy corals. By comparing the diseased and healthy-associated bacteria in field-collected and tank-exposed corals, we were able to identify 16 healthy-associated OTUs and 106 consistently disease-associated OTUs, which are good candidates for putative WBD pathogens. A large percentage of these disease-associated OTUs belonged to the order Flavobacteriales. In addition, two of the putative pathogens identified here belong to orders previously suggested as WBD pathogens: Vibronales and Rickettsiales.

  14. Cadmium accumulation in different pakchoi cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying CHEN; Ting-qiang LI; Xuan HAN; Zhe-li DING; Xiao-e YANG; Ye-fei JIN

    2012-01-01

    The selection and breeding of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) is a practicable and cost-effective approach to minimize the influx of heavy metal to the human food chain.In this study,both pot-culture and field experiments were conducted to identify and screen out cadmium pollution-safe cultivars (Cd-PSCs) from 50 pakchoi (Brassica rapa L.ssp.chinensis) cultivars for food safety.When treated with 1.0 or 2.5 mg/kg Cd,most of the pakchoi cultlvars (>70%)showed greater or similar shoot biomass when compared with the control.This result indicates that pakchoi has a considerable tolerance to soil Cd stress.Cd concentrations in the shoot varied significantly (P<0.05) between cultivars:in two Cd treatments (1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg),the average values were 0.074 and 0.175 mg/kg fresh weight (FW),respectively.Cd concentrations in the shoots of 14 pakchoi cultivars were lower than 0.05 mg/kg FW.In pot-culture experiments,both enrichment factors (EFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of six pakchoi cultivars were lower than 1.0.The field studies further confirmed that the Hangzhouyoudonger,Aijiaoheiye 333,and Zaoshenghuajing cultivars are Cd-PSCs,and are therefore suitable for growth in low Cd-contaminated soils (≤1.2 mg/kg) without any risk to food safety.

  15. Spectral classifying base on color of live corals and dead corals covered with algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdin, Nurjannah; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Barille, Laurent; Akbar, A. S. M.; Sawayama, Shuhei; Fitrah, Muh. Nur; Prasyad, Hermansyah

    2016-05-01

    Pigments in the host tissues of corals can make a significant contribution to their spectral signature and can affect their apparent color as perceived by a human observer. The aim of this study is classifying the spectral reflectance of corals base on different color. It is expected that they can be used as references in discriminating between live corals, dead coral covered with algae Spectral reflectance data was collected in three small islands, Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia by using a hyperspectral radiometer underwater. First and second derivative analysis resolved the wavelength locations of dominant features contributing to reflectance in corals and support the distinct differences in spectra among colour existed. Spectral derivative analysis was used to determine the specific wavelength regions ideal for remote identification of substrate type. The analysis results shown that yellow, green, brown and violet live corals are spectrally separable from each other, but they are similar with dead coral covered with algae spectral.

  16. Coral barium incorporation: implications for proxy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonneea, M. E.; Cohen, A. L.; Charette, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Coral Ba/Ca ratios have been proposed as proxies for various environmental variables including sediment loading, upwelling and groundwater input. Two assumptions that underpin the application of Ba/Ca ratios as an environmental proxy is 2) that corals take up Ba/Ca in concentrations proportional to seawater concentrations and 1) that the specified forcing mechanism influences seawater [Ba]. Here we present data from laboratory experiments that demonstrates corals reared in a range of seawater [Ba] linearly incorporate this signature in their skeletal Ba/Ca ratios. Observed coral Ba/Ca perturbations above baseline typically range from 5-15 μmol/mol which is ~100-500% increase over baseline. Other factors known to influence coral Ba/Ca include the temperature dependence on the partition coefficient and mass fraction aragonite precipitated by the coral which may be linked to calcification rate. In our experiments, calcification rate increased with temperature, thus the observed coral partition coefficient is the net effect of temperature (Ba/Ca increase at lower temperature) and calcification rate (Ba/Ca increase at higher temperature). We observed that the partition coefficient for reared coral Ba/Ca increased 20% 27.7 to 22.5 C, much less than observed Ba/Ca perturbations. Thus we predict that seawater [Ba] drives coral Ba/Ca signals in many locations. We present a model framework to calculate the expected contribution from sediment input, upwelling and groundwater discharge that is needed to produce this signature in corals growing in receiving waters. Finally we apply this model to a coral record from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, recording groundwater discharge to the coastal ocean.

  17. Diversity and evolution of coral fluorescent proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila O Alieva

    Full Text Available GFP-like fluorescent proteins (FPs are the key color determinants in reef-building corals (class Anthozoa, order Scleractinia and are of considerable interest as potential genetically encoded fluorescent labels. Here we report 40 additional members of the GFP family from corals. There are three major paralogous lineages of coral FPs. One of them is retained in all sampled coral families and is responsible for the non-fluorescent purple-blue color, while each of the other two evolved a full complement of typical coral fluorescent colors (cyan, green, and red and underwent sorting between coral groups. Among the newly cloned proteins are a "chromo-red" color type from Echinopora forskaliana (family Faviidae and pink chromoprotein from Stylophora pistillata (Pocilloporidae, both evolving independently from the rest of coral chromoproteins. There are several cyan FPs that possess a novel kind of excitation spectrum indicating a neutral chromophore ground state, for which the residue E167 is responsible (numeration according to GFP from A. victoria. The chromoprotein from Acropora millepora is an unusual blue instead of purple, which is due to two mutations: S64C and S183T. We applied a novel probabilistic sampling approach to recreate the common ancestor of all coral FPs as well as the more derived common ancestor of three main fluorescent colors of the Faviina suborder. Both proteins were green such as found elsewhere outside class Anthozoa. Interestingly, a substantial fraction of the all-coral ancestral protein had a chromohore apparently locked in a non-fluorescent neutral state, which may reflect the transitional stage that enabled rapid color diversification early in the history of coral FPs. Our results highlight the extent of convergent or parallel evolution of the color diversity in corals, provide the foundation for experimental studies of evolutionary processes that led to color diversification, and enable a comparative analysis of

  18. Capacidade produtiva de cultivares de berinjela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Antonio C. C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a capacidade produtiva de diferentes híbridos e cultivares de berinjela. Sete híbridos (Nápoli, Diamante Negro, Ciça, F-100, Super F-100, Kiko e F-2000 e duas cultivares de polinização aberta (Suzuki e Florida Market foram avaliados. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, constituído de nove tratamentos e três repetições. Cada repetição foi composta de oito plantas. As mudas foram plantadas no espaçamento 1,5m x 1,0m. A cultivar Suzuki produziu a maior quantidade de frutos por planta (27 frutos embora tenha apenas diferido significativamente da cultivar Flórida Market (13 frutos. Os híbridos testados apresentaram número de frutos variando de 20 a 25. Não foi verificada diferença significativa para o número de frutos de 1ª e 2ª categoria entre os materiais testados. Flórida Market e Kiko apresentaram a maior massa média do fruto (362,5 e 358,7 g, respectivamente, diferindo significativamente da cultivar Suzuki, que produziu frutos com a menor massa (178,9 g. As maiores produções por planta foram obtidas com o híbrido Kiko que diferiu significativamente da cultivar Suzuki. Foi verificado que os híbridos Kiko, Diamante Negro, Ciça e F-2000 apresentam potencial de produção semelhante ao Nápoli, atual padrão de mercado.

  19. CULTIVAR RELEASE-IAC-Alvorada and IAC-Diplomata: new common bean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Augusto Morais Carbonell

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of common bean breeding programs is the development of high-yielding cultivars, with multipledisease resistance and high technological and nutritional grain quality. Two cultivars, IAC-Alvorada with carioca grain, andIAC-Diplomata with black grain, meet these standards, according to the results of trials of Value for Cultivation and Use(VCU 2005/2006/2007 in São Paulo. The cultivars, developed by the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, were registered bythe MAPA/RNC.

  20. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, M.J.A.; Marhaver, K.L.; Huijbers, C.M.; Nagelkerken, I.; Simpson, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to

  1. CORAL REEF BIOLOGICAL CRITERIA: USING THE CLEAN ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are declining at unprecedented rates worldwide due to multiple interactive stressors including climate change and land-based sources of pollution. The Clean Water Act (CWA) can be a powerful legal instrument for protecting water resources, including the biological inhabitants of coral reefs. The objective of the CWA is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of water resources. Coral reef protection and restoration under the Clean Water Act begins with water quality standards - provisions of state or Federal law that consist of a designated use(s) for the waters of the United States and water quality criteria sufficient to protect the uses. Aquatic life use is the designated use that is measured by biological criteria (biocriteria). Biocriteria are expectations set by a jurisdiction for the quality and quantity of living aquatic resources in a defined waterbody. Biocriteria are an important addition to existing management tools for coral reef ecosystems. The Technical Support Document “Coral Reef Biological Criteria: Using the Clean Water Act to Protect a National Treasure” will provide a framework to aid States and Territories in their development, adoption, and implementation of coral reef biocriteria in their respective water quality standards. The Technical Support Document “Coral Reef Biological Criteria: Using the Clean Water Act to Protect a National Treasure” will provide a framework for coral re

  2. Corals as bioindicators of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Eugene A.

    2008-01-01

    Potential effects of climate change and ocean acidification have energized much discussion among coral scientists, especially biologists. Will corals go extinct, lose their skeletons, or migrate pole-ward to cooler waters? No one knows, but some simple experiments, recent observations, and recent studies may shed some light on these questions. Above all they show the need for collaboration among biologists and geologists.

  3. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, M.J.A.; Marhaver, K.L.; Huijbers, C.M.; Nagelkerken, I.; Simpson, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to ob

  4. 78 FR 67128 - Coral Reef Conservation Program; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coral Reef Conservation Program; Meeting AGENCY: Coral Reef... of public comment. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of a public meeting of the U.S. Coral Reef Task... to do so. Established by Presidential Executive Order 13089 in 1998, the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force...

  5. Coral aquaculture: applying scientific knowledge to ex situ production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal, M.C.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.; Petersen, D.; Osinga, R.

    2016-01-01

    Coral aquaculture is an activity of growing interest due to the degradation of coral reefs worldwide and concomitant growing demand for corals by three industries: marine ornamental trade, pharmaceutical industry and reef restoration. Although captive breeding and propagation of corals is a well-kno

  6. Coral aquaculture: applying scientific knowledge to ex situ production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal, M.C.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.; Petersen, D.; Osinga, R.

    2016-01-01

    Coral aquaculture is an activity of growing interest due to the degradation of coral reefs worldwide and concomitant growing demand for corals by three industries: marine ornamental trade, pharmaceutical industry and reef restoration. Although captive breeding and propagation of corals is a

  7. Response of broccoli and cabbage hybrid cultivars to clomazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide (Command 3ME) is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Cabbage cultivars vary in clomazone tolerance, and recommended use rates can cause severe foliar chlorosis and yield reduction to susceptible cultivars. The objectiv...

  8. Distinguishing Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Craig A; Sisterson, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of the world's almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) demanding the highest prices. Placement of cultivars into the NMG is historical and no objective standards exist for deciding whether newly developed cultivars belong in the NMG. Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify nut and kernel characteristics best separating the 4 NMG cultivars (Nonpareil, Jeffries, Kapareil, and Milow) from a representative of the California Marketing Group (cultivar Carmel) and the Mission Marketing Group (cultivar Padre). In addition, discriminant analyses were used to determine cultivar misclassification rates between and within the marketing groups. All 19 evaluated carpological characters differed significantly among the 6 cultivars and during 2 harvest seasons. A clear distinction of NMG cultivars from representatives of the California and Mission Marketing Groups was evident from a PCA involving the 6 cultivars. Further, NMG kernels were successfully discriminated from kernels representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups with overall kernel misclassification of only 2% using 16 of the 19 evaluated characters. Pellicle luminosity was the most discriminating character, regardless of the character set used in analyses. Results provide an objective classification of NMG almond kernels, clearly distinguishing them from kernels of cultivars representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups.

  9. Characterizing Magnetic Properties in Belize Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbalejo, A. A.; Bhattacharya, A.; Gee, J. S.; Mitra, R.; Carilli, J.; Hangsterfer, A.; Feinberg, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of magnetic remanence and characterization of magnetic phases are widely applied to environmental and climate studies; however, magnetic tools have not been widely applied to coral studies. As such, there is a deficit in our understanding of magnetic materials and behavior in coral skeletons and consequently, of processes by which magnetic materials may get incorporated into coral skeletons. In this study, we present magnetic measurements conducted on freshly broken chips from coral cores; the cores were collected from Mesoamerican sites in Belize. Trace, minor, and major element concentration has been well studied in these two coral cores, using inductively coupled mass spectrometric techniques (ICP-MS). The goal of our current research is to determine are as follows: (a) Is there is a viable magnetic signal that can be obtained from measuring chips broken off of coral skeletons? (b) What are some of the dominant magnetic behaviors? (c) What are the carrier phases of magnetic material? (c) can we determine possible variations in the type and quantity of magnetic materials over time and ultimately, (e) can magnetic fingerprinting of corals can be used as tracers of environmental, climate or biological processes? Here, we present preliminary magnetic remanence measurements (IRM and double IRM) from the two coral cores collected from Belize and dating back to the mid 1800s. Early results using freshly broken chips from both coral cores indicate a magnetite-like soft magnetic component during IRM experiments. Double-IRM experiments on the same samples indicate uniaxial single domain behavior. Furthermore, SEM images suggest that the magnetic carrier phase could likely be magnetite. We will also present comparisons of our magnetic data with newly collected X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) data on the same coral cores. The goal is to properly characterize the type of magnetic signals and determine possible environmental and/or biological impacts on magnetic carrier

  10. 76 FR 66273 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the South Atlantic; Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY... conditions, various species of reef fish and live rock in Federal waters off North Carolina. The specimens... Plan (FMP) for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region and the FMP for Coral, Coral...

  11. Growth and development in Achimenes cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlahos, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Achimenes is a herbaceous perennial of the Gesneriaceae family. Its origin is Central and South America. It has been cultivated as a pot plant since the Victorian era. Extensive hybridization has produced many attractive cultivars which have been Introduced in

  12. Blueberry Cultivars for Oregon (EC 1308)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Extension publication gives an overview of the types of blueberries and the blueberry cultivars that might be grown in Oregon or elsewhere in the Pacific Northwest. Bush and berry characteristics, yield potential, and suitability for commercial or home garden production are given for over 30 bl...

  13. Growth and development in Achimenes cultivars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlahos, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Achimenes is a herbaceous perennial of the Gesneriaceae family. Its origin is Central and South America. It has been cultivated as a pot plant since the Victorian era. Extensive hybridization has produced many attractive cultivars which have been Introduced in commercial floriculture both In the Uni

  14. Micropropagation of peach rootstocks and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Ildikó; Mansvelt, Lucienne

    2013-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most popular stone fruits, commercially produced largely in Mediterranean and, to a lesser extent, in continental climatic conditions. Several breeding programs with different aims release annually large numbers of new cultivars. Micropropagation offers a suitable method to provide the growers of sufficient quantities of rootstocks, as well as of pathogen-free planting material of old and new cultivars.An effective four-step micropropagation procedure for cultivar and rootstock production is described here, based on the use of modified MS and WPM media. The health status of the initial shoot tips is very important, also because the growth and proliferation rate of shoot cultures from virus-infected clones are generally very poor. Proliferation and elongation phases depend on the major macro-elements, as well as the content and ratio of plant growth regulators. It is important to grow the cultures at 22°C, as hyperhydricity may develop at higher temperatures. Although sucrose is the most common carbon source used during proliferation and rooting, for some peach cultivars and rootstocks the replacement of sucrose (10 g/L) with glucose (20 g/L) in the rooting medium improves the rooting and survival rates of plants in the acclimatization phase. The rooting rate of the rootstock "Cadaman" is improved with the chelated form of iron FeEDDHA at 150 mg/L. Rooted plants are acclimatized in greenhouse under high humidity conditions.

  15. Distribution of Glucosinolates in Brassica oleracea cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, A; Aires, A; Rosa, E; Bloem, E; Stulen, I.; De Kok, LJ

    2004-01-01

    Glucosinolates are important secondary compounds, commonly found in Brassicaceae. To what extent these sulfur and nitrogen containing compounds contribute to the total sulfur pool was investigated. In various cultivars of Brassica oleracea viz. curly kale, pointed cabbage, red cabbage, savoy cabbage

  16. Substrates in the development potted gerbera cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ludwig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The gerbera is a prominent culture that has gained in the Brazilian market of flowers and ornamental plants and there is a great demand for adequate substrates for its production. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth and distribution of dry mass and nitrogen in potted gerbera, depending on the substrates and cultivars. Experimental design was randomized blocks in a 5x2 factorial arrangement (5 substrates and 2 cultivars. Red and Cherry cultivars were evaluated at 1, 15, 29, 43 and 50 days of acclimation (DAA to the leaves number, leaf area, dry mass of aerial parts (leaf and flower and accumulation of nitrogen. From 29 DAA, the inflorescence has established as the drain and has contributed significantly to the total dry mass. The accumulation of nitrogen was similar in vegetative and reproductive periods. The traits evaluated varied depending on the substrate used, influenced by physical and chemical properties of the same. The growth, dry matter and nitrogen distribution potted gerbera cultivars Cherry and Red are influenced by physical and chemical characteristics of substrates, with better results in substrates with bulk density of less than 530 kg m-3 and pH values between 5.5 and 6.8

  17. Yield potential of pigeon pea cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield potential of twelve vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajun) cultivars was evaluated at two locations in eastern Kenya during 2012 and 2013 cropping years. Pigeon pea pod numbers, seeds per pod, seed mass, grain yield and shelling percentage were quantified in three replicated plots, arranged in a...

  18. Climate-driven coral reorganisation influences aggressive behaviour in juvenile coral-reef fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Judith E.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.

    2016-06-01

    Globally, habitat degradation is altering the abundance and diversity of species in a variety of ecosystems. This study aimed to determine how habitat degradation, in terms of changing coral composition under climate change, affected abundance, species richness and aggressive behaviour of juveniles of three damselfishes ( Pomacentrus moluccensis, P. amboinensis and Dischistodus perspicillatus, in order of decreasing reliance on coral). Patch reefs were constructed to simulate two types of reefs: present-day reefs that are vulnerable to climate-induced coral bleaching, and reefs with more bleaching-robust coral taxa, thereby simulating the likely future of coral reefs under a warming climate. Fish communities were allowed to establish naturally on the reefs during the summer recruitment period. Climate-robust reefs had lower total species richness of coral-reef fishes than climate-vulnerable reefs, but total fish abundance was not significantly different between reef types (pooled across all species and life-history stages). The nature of aggressive interactions, measured as the number of aggressive chases, varied according to coral composition; on climate-robust reefs, juveniles used the substratum less often to avoid aggression from competitors, and interspecific aggression became relatively more frequent than intraspecific aggression for juveniles of the coral-obligate P. moluccensis. This study highlights the importance of coral composition as a determinant of behaviour and diversity of coral-reef fishes.

  19. CULTIVAR RELEASE-CD 115: Soft Wheat Cultivar for colder regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Sergio Marchioro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar CD 115 was developed by the Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola (COODETEC and isrecommended for cultivation in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná. The cultivar is tolerant todiseases and pre-harvest sprouting. The mean grain yield in four years of evaluation was 3,420 kg ha-1, exceeding thecontrols by 7%.

  20. CULTIVAR RELEASE - BRSMG União: common bean cultivar with jalo grain for the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The bean cultivar BRSMG União as a new option of a bean cultivar with jalo grains for the state of Minas Gerais. The cultivar BRSMG União had an average grain yield of 9.8% above the mean of the controls (Jalo EEP 558 and BRS Radiante and was resistant to powdery-mildew.

  1. Carbonate mound evolution and coral diagenesis viewed by U-series dating of deep water corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, N.; Ricard, E.; Blamart, D.; van der Land, C.; Colin, C.; Foubert, A.; van Rooij, D.; van Weering, T.

    2007-12-01

    U-series dating of constructional deep sea corals is a powerful tool to reconstruct the evolution of carbonate mound sediments driven by coral growth, sediment trapping and diagenesis. Here we have investigated in great detail the time framework of constructional corals such as L. pertusa and M. oculata on 5 different mounds of the eastern North Atlantic (on Rockall Bank and in Porcupine Seabight) taken at variable depth and location (610 to 880m water depth). Periods favorable for coral growth are the Holocene and prior interglacials such as marine isotope stage 5 and 7, while glacial coral growth seems inhibited or extremely reduced. Coral development is almost continuous throughout the Holocene since mound re-colonization about 10,500 years ago. Mound accumulation rates vary between 20 and 220 cm/kyr determined from the coral age - depth relationship in each core. Those changes are most likely driven by changes between horizontal and vertical mound accumulation, food supply and ocean circulation. In addition, coral dating allowed to identify an important erosional event recorded in core MD01-2455G from Rockall Bank. Here a 1m thick sediment layer containing ancient corals likely from the start of Holocene re-colonization was displaced (collapsed) from further upslope on top of younger corals of ~2500 to 3000 years age. Prior to the initiation of coral growth diagenesis occurred frequently resulting in (1) the construction of so called carbonate hardgrounds and/or (2) the dissolution of the pre-Holocene coral framework. Solely, the deepest selected core in Porcupine Seabight (MD01-2463G at 880m depth) reveals coral re-colonization on an undisturbed ancient reef structure that dates back to 250,000 years. Diagenesis of earlier coral reef generations leading to coral dissolution leads to a loss of magnetic susceptibility and open system behavior of the coral skeletons with respect to U-series dating. While the processes causing such diagenetic layers are barely

  2. Screening of Carnation Cultivars for Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M R; Kim, J Y; Song, C; Ko, J Y; Na, S Y; Yiem, M S

    1996-12-01

    A total of 33 carnation cultivars cultured in Korea were screened for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Carnations were tested by either inoculating with 5,000 eggs or by transplanting into a mixture of bedding medium and soil infested with an average of 435 second-stage juveniles/300 cm(3) soil. Cultivars, Desio, Castelaro, Kappa, Rara, Izu Pink, Target, and Antalia were highly resistant to M. incognita. Twelve cultivars were moderately resistant, and the remaining 14 cultivars were susceptible. These results were similar to those obtained when the cultivars were subjected to field populations of the condition on a carnation farm.

  3. Metagenomic and ecophysiological analysis of biofilms colonizing coral substrates: "Life after death of coral"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, A., Sr.; Cerqueda-Garcia, D.; Falcón, L. I.; Iglesias-Prieto, R., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    Coral reefs are the most productive ecosystems on the planet and are the most important carbonated structures of biological origin. However, global warming is affecting the health and functionality of these ecosystems. Specifically, most of the Acropora sp. stony corals have declined their population all over the Mexican Caribbean in more than ~80% of their original coverage, resulting in vast extensions of dead coral rubble. When the coral dies, the skeleton begins to be colonized by algae, sponges, bacteria and others, forming a highly diverse biofilm. We analyzed the metagenomes of the dead A. palmata rubbles from Puerto Morelos, in the Mexican Caribbean. Also, we quantified the elemental composition of biomass and measured nitrogen fixation and emission of greenhouse gases over 24 hrs. This works provides information on how the community is composed and functions after the death of the coral, visualizing a possible picture for a world without coral reefs.

  4. Arnfried Antonius, coral diseases, and the AMLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie L. Richardson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of coral diseases, coral pathogens, and the effects of diseases on tropical and subtropical coral reefs are all current, high-profile research areas. This interest has grown steadily since the first report of a coral disease in 1973. The author of this report was Arnfried Antonius and the publication was an abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting of the Association of Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean, or AMLC (then known as the Association of Island Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean. Since Antonius’ pioneering communication he continued working on coral diseases on reefs throughout the world, often documenting the first observation of a novel pathology in a novel location. Each of the coral diseases Antonius first described, in particular black band disease, is the subject of current and ongoing investigations addressing pathogens, etiology, and their effects on coral reefs. Many of the points and observations he made in his early papers are highly relevant to research today. This paper reviews aspects of Antonius’ early work, highlighting contributions he made that include the first in situ experimental studies aimed at discerning coral epizootiology and the first quantitative assessments of the role of environmental factors in coral disease. Antonius’ early findings are discussed in terms of relevant current controversies in this research areaEl estudio de las enfermedades de los corales, los patogenos de los corales y los efectos de estas enfermedades sobre los arrecifes tropicales y subtropicales son actualmente areas importantes de investigacion. El interés en este tema ha crecido continuamente desde el primer informe sobre una enfermedad de coral que se publico en 1973. El autor de este informe fue Arnfried Antonius y la publicacion fue un resumen en el Libro de Programa y Resumenes de la Decima Reunion de la Asociacion de Laboratorios Marinos Islenos del Caribe (conocida ahora como la Asociacion de

  5. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J A Vermeij

    Full Text Available Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency.

  6. Generating viral metagenomes from the coral holobiont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Dawn Weynberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Reef-building corals comprise multipartite symbioses where the cnidarian animal is host to an array of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms, and the viruses that infect them. These viruses are critical elements of the coral holobiont, serving not only as agents of mortality, but also as potential vectors for lateral gene flow, and as elements encoding a variety of auxiliary metabolic functions. Consequently, understanding the functioning and health of the coral holobiont requires detailed knowledge of the associated viral assemblage and its function. Currently, the most tractable way of uncovering viral diversity and function is through metagenomic approaches, which is inherently difficult in corals because of the complex holobiont community, an extracellular mucus layer that all corals secrete, and the variety of sizes and structures of nucleic acids found in viruses. Here we present the first protocol for isolating, purifying and amplifying viral nucleic acids from corals based on mechanical disruption of cells. This method produces at least 50% higher yields of viral nucleic acids, has very low levels of cellular sequence contamination and captures wider viral diversity than previously used chemical-based extraction methods. We demonstrate that our mechanical-based method profiles a greater diversity of DNA and RNA genomes, including virus groups such as Retro-transcribing and ssRNA viruses, which are absent from metagenomes generated via chemical-based methods. In addition, we briefly present (and make publically available the first paired DNA and RNA viral metagenomes from the coral Acropora tenuis.

  7. Changes in biodiversity and functioning of reef fish assemblages following coral bleaching and coral loss

    KAUST Repository

    Pratchett, M.S.

    2011-08-12

    Coral reef ecosystems are increasingly subject to severe, large-scale disturbances caused by climate change (e.g., coral bleaching) and other more direct anthropogenic impacts. Many of these disturbances cause coral loss and corresponding changes in habitat structure, which has further important effects on abundance and diversity of coral reef fishes. Declines in the abundance and diversity of coral reef fishes are of considerable concern, given the potential loss of ecosystem function. This study explored the effects of coral loss, recorded in studies conducted throughout the world, on the diversity of fishes and also on individual responses of fishes within different functional groups. Extensive (>60%) coral loss almost invariably led to declines in fish diversity. Moreover, most fishes declined in abundance following acute disturbances that caused >10% declines in local coral cover. Response diversity, which is considered critical in maintaining ecosystem function and promoting resilience, was very low for corallivores, but was much higher for herbivores, omnivores and carnivores. Sustained and ongoing climate change thus poses a significant threat to coral reef ecosystems and diversity hotspots are no less susceptible to projected changes in diversity and function.

  8. Coral reef fish assemblages at Clipperton Atoll (Eastern Tropical Pacific and their relationship with coral cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora M. Ricart

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Clipperton Atoll, one of the most isolated coral reefs worldwide, is of great scientific interest due to its geomorphology and high levels of endemism. This study explored the reef fish assemblage structure of Clipperton Atoll and its relationship with live coral cover. Nine stations were sampled at three sites and three depths (6, 12 and 20 m around the reef, measuring fish species richness and biomass and hermatypic coral cover (at genus level. We evaluated variation in species richness, biomass and diversity of fish assemblages among sites and depths, as well as the relationship between the entire fish assemblage composition and live coral cover. The results showed that species richness and biomass were similar among sites, but differed across depths, increasing with depth. In contrast, diversity differed among sites but not among depths. Multivariate analyses indicated that fish assemblage composition differed among sites and depths in relation to changes in cover of coral of the genera Pocillopora, Porites, Pavona and Leptoseris, which dominate at different depths. The results showed that fish species richness and diversity were low at Clipperton Atoll and that, in isolated coral reefs with a low habitat heterogeneity and low human disturbance, live coral cover has a significant influence on the spatial variation of the reef fish assemblages. This study highlights the importance of coral habitat structure in shaping coral reef fish assemblages.

  9. Key functional role of the optical properties of coral skeletons in coral ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, Susana; Méndez, Eugenio R; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto

    2017-04-26

    Multiple scattering of light on coral skeleton enhances light absorption efficiency of coral symbionts and plays a key role in the regulation of their internal diffuse light field. To understand the dependence of this enhancement on skeleton meso- and macrostructure, we analysed the scattering abilities of naked coral skeletons for 74 Indo-Pacific species. Sensitive morphotypes to thermal and light stress, flat-extraplanate and branching corals, showed the most efficient structures, while massive-robust species were less efficient. The lowest light-enhancing scattering abilities were found for the most primitive colonial growth form: phaceloid. Accordingly, the development of highly efficient light-collecting structures versus the selection of less efficient but more robust holobionts to cope with light stress may constitute a trade-off in the evolution of modern symbiotic scleractinian corals, characterizing two successful adaptive solutions. The coincidence of the most important structural modifications with epitheca decline supports the importance of the enhancement of light transmission across coral skeleton in modern scleractinian diversification, and the central role of these symbioses in the design and optimization of coral skeleton. Furthermore, the same ability that lies at the heart of the success of symbiotic corals as coral-reef-builders can also explain the 'Achilles's heel' of these symbioses in a warming ocean. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Corals like it waxed: paraffin-based antifouling technology enhances coral spat survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebben, Jan; Guest, James R; Sin, Tsai M; Steinberg, Peter D; Harder, Tilmann

    2014-01-01

    The early post-settlement stage is the most sensitive during the life history of reef building corals. However, few studies have examined the factors that influence coral mortality during this period. Here, the impact of fouling on the survival of newly settled coral spat of Acropora millepora was investigated by manipulating the extent of fouling cover on settlement tiles using non-toxic, wax antifouling coatings. Survival of spat on coated tiles was double that on control tiles. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between percentage cover of fouling and spat survival across all tiles types, suggesting that fouling in direct proximity to settled corals has detrimental effects on early post-settlement survival. While previous studies have shown that increased fouling negatively affects coral larval settlement and health of juvenile and adult corals, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show a direct relationship between fouling and early post-settlement survival for a broadcast spawning scleractinian coral. The negative effects of fouling on this sensitive life history stage may become more pronounced in the future as coastal eutrophication increases. Our results further suggest that targeted seeding of coral spat on artificial surfaces in combination with fouling control could prove useful to improve the efficiency of sexual reproduction-based coral propagation for reef rehabilitation.

  11. Corals like it waxed: paraffin-based antifouling technology enhances coral spat survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Tebben

    Full Text Available The early post-settlement stage is the most sensitive during the life history of reef building corals. However, few studies have examined the factors that influence coral mortality during this period. Here, the impact of fouling on the survival of newly settled coral spat of Acropora millepora was investigated by manipulating the extent of fouling cover on settlement tiles using non-toxic, wax antifouling coatings. Survival of spat on coated tiles was double that on control tiles. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between percentage cover of fouling and spat survival across all tiles types, suggesting that fouling in direct proximity to settled corals has detrimental effects on early post-settlement survival. While previous studies have shown that increased fouling negatively affects coral larval settlement and health of juvenile and adult corals, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show a direct relationship between fouling and early post-settlement survival for a broadcast spawning scleractinian coral. The negative effects of fouling on this sensitive life history stage may become more pronounced in the future as coastal eutrophication increases. Our results further suggest that targeted seeding of coral spat on artificial surfaces in combination with fouling control could prove useful to improve the efficiency of sexual reproduction-based coral propagation for reef rehabilitation.

  12. Density-associated recruitment mediates coral population dynamics on a coral reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramanti, Lorenzo; Edmunds, Peter J.

    2016-06-01

    Theory suggests that density-associated processes can modulate community resilience following declines in population size. Here, we demonstrate density-associated processes in two scleractinian populations on the outer reef of Moorea, French Polynesia, that are rapidly increasing in size following the effects of two catastrophic disturbances. Between 2006 and 2010, predation by the corallivorous crown-of-thorns sea star reduced coral cover by 93 %; in 2010, the dead coral skeletons were removed by a cyclone, and in 2011 and 2012, high coral recruitment initiated population recovery. Coral recruitment was associated with coral cover, but the relationship differed between two coral genera that are almost exclusively broadcast spawners in Moorea. Acroporids recruited at low densities, and the density of recruits was positively associated with cover of Acropora, whereas pocilloporids recruited at high densities, and densities of their recruits were negatively associated with cover of Pocillopora. Together, our results suggest that associations between adult cover and density of both juveniles and recruits can mediate rapid coral community recovery after large disturbances. The difference between taxa in sign of the relationships between recruit density and coral cover indicate that they reflect contrasting mechanisms with the potential to mediate temporal shifts in taxonomic composition of coral communities.

  13. Changes in Biodiversity and Functioning of Reef Fish Assemblages following Coral Bleaching and Coral Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A.J. Graham

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Coral reef ecosystems are increasingly subject to severe, large-scale disturbances caused by climate change (e.g., coral bleaching and other more direct anthropogenic impacts. Many of these disturbances cause coral loss and corresponding changes in habitat structure, which has further important effects on abundance and diversity of coral reef fishes. Declines in the abundance and diversity of coral reef fishes are of considerable concern, given the potential loss of ecosystem function. This study explored the effects of coral loss, recorded in studies conducted throughout the world, on the diversity of fishes and also on individual responses of fishes within different functional groups. Extensive (>60% coral loss almost invariably led to declines in fish diversity. Moreover, most fishes declined in abundance following acute disturbances that caused >10% declines in local coral cover. Response diversity, which is considered critical in maintaining ecosystem function and promoting resilience, was very low for corallivores, but was much higher for herbivores, omnivores and carnivores. Sustained and ongoing climate change thus poses a significant threat to coral reef ecosystems and diversity hotspots are no less susceptible to projected changes in diversity and function.

  14. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef communities in U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) using the Coral Demographics method

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Demographics method is one of two benthic surveys conducted in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) as part of the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program...

  15. The role of microorganisms in coral health, disease and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Koren, Omry; Reshef, Leah; Efrony, Rotem; Zilber-Rosenberg, Ilana

    2007-05-01

    Coral microbiology is an emerging field, driven largely by a desire to understand, and ultimately prevent, the worldwide destruction of coral reefs. The mucus layer, skeleton and tissues of healthy corals all contain large populations of eukaryotic algae, bacteria and archaea. These microorganisms confer benefits to their host by various mechanisms, including photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, the provision of nutrients and infection prevention. Conversely, in conditions of environmental stress, certain microorganisms cause coral bleaching and other diseases. Recent research indicates that corals can develop resistance to specific pathogens and adapt to higher environmental temperatures. To explain these findings the coral probiotic hypothesis proposes the occurrence of a dynamic relationship between symbiotic microorganisms and corals that selects for the coral holobiont that is best suited for the prevailing environmental conditions. Generalization of the coral probiotic hypothesis has led us to propose the hologenome theory of evolution.

  16. Facilitation in Caribbean coral reefs: high densities of staghorn coral foster greater coral condition and reef fish composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Brittany E; Miller, Margaret W; Pausch, Rachel; Richter, Lee

    2017-05-01

    Recovery of the threatened staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) is posited to play a key role in Caribbean reef resilience. At four Caribbean locations (including one restored and three extant populations), we quantified characteristics of contemporary staghorn coral across increasing conspecific densities, and investigated a hypothesis of facilitation between staghorn coral and reef fishes. High staghorn densities in the Dry Tortugas exhibited significantly less partial mortality, higher branch growth, and supported greater fish abundances compared to lower densities within the same population. In contrast, partial mortality, branch growth, and fish community composition did not vary with staghorn density at the three other study locations where staghorn densities were lower overall. This suggests that density-dependent effects between the coral and fish community may only manifest at high staghorn densities. We then evaluated one facilitative mechanism for such density-dependence, whereby abundant fishes sheltering in dense staghorn aggregations deliver nutrients back to the coral, fueling faster coral growth, thereby creating more fish habitat. Indeed, dense staghorn aggregations within the Dry Tortugas exhibited significantly higher growth rates, tissue nitrogen, and zooxanthellae densities than sparse aggregations. Similarly, higher tissue nitrogen was induced in a macroalgae bioassay outplanted into the same dense and sparse aggregations, confirming greater bioavailability of nutrients at high staghorn densities. Our findings inform staghorn restoration efforts, suggesting that the most effective targets may be higher coral densities than previously thought. These coral-dense aggregations may reap the benefits of positive facilitation between the staghorn and fish community, favoring the growth and survivorship of this threatened species.

  17. Textural properties of mango cultivars during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shyam Narayan; Jaiswal, Pranita; Narsaiah, Kairam; Kaur, Poonam Preet; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Ramesh

    2013-12-01

    Firmness and toughness of fruit, peel and pulp of seven different mango cultivars were studied over a ripening period of ten days to investigate the effects of harvesting stages (early, mid and late) on fruit quality. Parameters were measured at equatorial region of fruits using TA-Hdi Texture Analyzer. The textural characteristics showed a rapid decline in their behaviour until mangoes got ripened and thereafter, the decline became almost constant indicating the completion of ripening. However, the rate of decline in textural properties was found to be cultivar specific. In general, the changes in textural attributes were found to be significantly influenced by ripening period and stage of harvesting, but firmness attributes (peel, fruit and pulp) of early harvested mangoes did not differ significantly from mid harvested mangoes, while peel, fruit and pulp firmness of late harvested mangoes were found to be significantly lower than early and mid harvested mangoes.

  18. Relative competitiveness of soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Ouriques Bastiani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the competitiveness between soybean cultivars and barnyardgrass, based on morphological and physiological characteristics of species. The experiments were conducted in completely randomized experimental design, with 4 replications. In the first study, for both soybean and barnyardgrass, it was determined the population of plants in which shoot dry matter became constant and independent of the population (16 plants∙pot−1 or 400 plants∙m−2. In the second study, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the competitiveness of BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass plants, both carried out in replacement series under different proportions of plants∙pot−1 (100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75 and 0:100 between the crop and the weed. The analysis of the species competitiveness was determined through diagrams applied to replacement series experiments and use of relative competitiveness indexes. At 44 days after the emergence of species, the physiological and morphological parameters of the crop and the weed were evaluated. The BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars show similar competitiveness when competing with the barnyardgrass; therefore, the ability of one species to interfere on another is equivalent. For plant height, barnyardgrass displays higher competitiveness compared to BMX Apolo RR, with early cycle and short height. The intraspecific competition is more important to barnyardgrass than interspecific competition with soybean cultivars, resulting in negative effects on the morphological and physiological characteristics of species.

  19. RB975952 – Early maturing sugarcane cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Sampaio Carneiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RB975952 is an early maturing sugarcane cultivar released for the South-Central region of Brazil. It should be harvested between April and May, and it is recommended for planting in environments with medium to high production potential. RB975952 has high resistance levels to the main diseases of the crop, it also has a good shoot development after mechanical harvesting, and high sucrose yields.

  20. "La revolución coral. Estudio sobre la Sociedad Coral de Bilbao y el movimiento coral europeo (1800-1936)" [Reseña

    OpenAIRE

    Olábarri-Gortázar, I. (Ignacio)

    2003-01-01

    Reseña de María Nagore-Ferrer, "La revolución coral. Estudio sobre la Sociedad Coral de Bilbao y el movimiento coral europeo (1800-1936)", Madrid, Instituto Complutense de Ciencias Musicales, 2001, 410 pp. ISBN: 84-89457-21-2

  1. Evaluation of garlic cultivars for polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Chen

    Full Text Available Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity, and MCA (metal chelating activity were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar '74-x' had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC, followed by bulbs of cultivar 'Hanzhong purple'; the bulbs of cultivar 'Gailiang' had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA. The bolts of 'Hanzhong purple' also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar '74-x' had highest protection capability, following by cultivar 'Hanzhong purple', and the bulbs of cultivar 'No. 105 from Korea' had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.

  2. Evaluation of garlic cultivars for polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuxia; Shen, Xiaoqing; Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar '74-x' had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar 'Hanzhong purple'; the bulbs of cultivar 'Gailiang' had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of 'Hanzhong purple' also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar '74-x' had highest protection capability, following by cultivar 'Hanzhong purple', and the bulbs of cultivar 'No. 105 from Korea' had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.

  3. EPA Field Manual for Coral Reef Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Research Program (WQRP) supports development of coral reef biological criteria. Research is focused on developing methods and tools to support implementation of legally defensible biological standards for maintaining biological integrity, which is protected by ...

  4. MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

  5. 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.

    to nature and man-made changes, in every stakeholder, from local population through tourists to managers. This book serves such a purpose by answering most of the questions we ask everyday about corals and reefs....

  6. Coral Reef Watch, Nighttime Temperature, 50 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Coral Reef Watch provides sea surface temperature (SST) products derived from NOAA's Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). This data provides...

  7. EPA Field Manual for Coral Reef Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Research Program (WQRP) supports development of coral reef biological criteria. Research is focused on developing methods and tools to support implementation of legally defensible biological standards for maintaining biological integrity, which is protected by ...

  8. Marine biology: The coral disease triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, John F.

    2015-04-01

    The underlying causes of biodiversity loss can be numerous and difficult to identify. Now evidence suggests that disease outbreaks triggered by warming oceans are a primary cause of the disappearance of Caribbean coral reefs.

  9. Precious Coral Sales Report Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a federally mandated sales log which collects information on sales of raw coral, including weight and revenue. Also includes seller and buyer information....

  10. New protection initiatives announced for coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Off the coasts of some of the South Pacific's most idyllic-sounding atolls, Austin Bowden-Kerby has seen first-hand the heavy damage to coral reefs from dynamite and cyanide fishing. For instance, while snorkeling near Chuuk, an island in Micronesia, he has observed craters and rubble beds of coral, which locals have told him date to World War II ordnance.A marine biologist and project scientist for the Coral Gardens Initiative of the Foundation for the Peoples of the South Pacific, Bowden-Kerby has also identified what he says are some public health effects related to destroyed coral reefs and their dying fisheries. These problems include protein and vitamin A deficiency and blindness, all of which may—in some instances—be linked to poor nutrition resulting from lower reef fish consumption by islanders, according to Bowden-Kerby.

  11. Ecosystem function and biodiversity on coral reefs

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    The article highlights a workshop held in Key West, Florida in November 1993 attended by a group of 35 international scientists where topics of ecosystem function and biodiversity on coral reefs were discussed.

  12. Coral Reef Watch, Temperature Anomaly, 50 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Coral Reef Watch distributes SST anomaly data using a combination of the POES AVHRR Global Area Coverage data, and data from a climatological database. AVHRR...

  13. Spatial refugia mediate juvenile coral survival during coral-predator interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Clare; Doropoulos, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Coral recruitment and juvenile growth are essential processes for coral population maintenance and recovery. A growing body of research has evaluated the influence of reef microstructure on coral settlement and post-settlement survival, showing that physical refugia enhance recruitment. These studies have evaluated coral recruit morality from competition with macroalgae and indirect predation by grazing organisms, but the impact of direct predation by corallivorous piscine species on juvenile corals and how this interacts with reef microstructure is relatively unknown. This study examined whether refugia provided by micro-crevices enhance juvenile coral survival from corallivory. Juvenile corals from two different functional groups, the slow-growing massive Porites lobata and fast-growing branching Pocillopora damicornis, with average nubbin sizes of 1.4 cm × 0.3 cm and 0.5 cm × 1.0 cm (diameter × height), respectively, were attached to experimental tiles using small (1.44 cm3) and large (8.0 cm3) crevice sizes and were monitored for 29 d on a forereef in Palau. Full crevices (four sided) enhanced coral survival compared to exposed microhabitats in both coral taxa, but crevice size did not alter survival rates. Corallivores targeted recruits within crevices regardless of crevice size; dominant predators included small triggerfish (Balistidae), butterflyfish ( Chaetodon), and wrasse ( Cheilinus). Overall, Pocillopora suffered much higher rates of mortality than Porites. All Pocillopora were consumed by day 8 of the experiment, but mortality was significantly delayed in full crevices compared to exposed and partial crevice (three sided) microhabitats. In contrast, Por. lobata located in all microhabitats survived the entire experiment up to 29 d, with high survival in full (>90%) and partial crevices (70%), but only 28% survival in exposed microhabitats. These findings show the importance of crevices as spatial refugia from predators for juvenile corals and

  14. Field manual for investigating coral disease outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Woodley, C. M.; Bruckner, A. W.; McLenon, A.L.; Higgins, J.L.; Galloway, S.B.; Nicholson, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Coral reefs throughout their circumtropical range are declining at an accelerating rate. Recent predictions indicate that 20% of the world’s reefs have been degraded, another 24% are under imminent risk of collapse, and if current estimates hold, by 2030, 26% of the world’s reefs will be lost (Wilkinson 2004). Recent changes to these ecosystems have included losses of apex predators, reductions of important herbivorous fishes and invertebrates, and precipitous declines in living coral cover, ...

  15. Metabolite Profiling of Red Sea Corals

    KAUST Repository

    Ortega, Jovhana Alejandra

    2016-12-01

    Looking at the metabolite profile of an organism provides insights into the metabolomic state of a cell and hence also into pathways employed. Little is known about the metabolites produced by corals and their algal symbionts. In particular, corals from the central Red Sea are understudied, but interesting study objects, as they live in one of the warmest and most saline environments and can provide clues as to the adjustment of corals to environmental change. In this study, we applied gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC–MS) metabolite profiling to analyze the metabolic profile of four coral species and their associated symbionts: Fungia granulosa, Acropora hemprichii, Porites lutea, and Pocillopora verrucosa. We identified and quantified 102 compounds among primary and secondary metabolites across all samples. F. granulosa and its symbiont showed a total of 59 metabolites which were similar to the 51 displayed by P. verrucosa. P. lutea and A. hemprichii both harbored 40 compounds in conjunction with their respective isolated algae. Comparing across species, 28 metabolites were exclusively present in algae, while 38 were exclusive to corals. A principal component and cluster analyses revealed that metabolite profiles clustered between corals and algae, but each species harbored a distinct catalog of metabolites. The major classes of compounds were carbohydrates and amino acids. Taken together, this study provides a first description of metabolites of Red Sea corals and their associated symbionts. As expected, the metabolites of coral hosts differ from their algal symbionts, but each host and algal species harbor a unique set of metabolites. This corroborates that host-symbiont species pairs display a fine-tuned complementary metabolism that provide insights into the specific nature of the symbiosis. Our analysis also revealed aquatic pollutants, which suggests that metabolite profiling might be used for monitoring pollution levels and assessing

  16. Degradation and recovery of Caribbean coral reefs

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes, Gustavo Adolfo

    2009-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems worldwide have been seriously impacted by human activities. The current deteriorated state of coral reef communities is the result of a long history of exploitation. The scientific community has recognized the extent of degradation, its consequences, and how little we have done to avoid further degradation only in the last two decades. Marine reserves are one of the main conservation actions that could help to reduce the impacts of human activities on the ecosystem, part...

  17. Ecological Processes and Contemporary Coral Reef Management

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Dikou

    2010-01-01

    Top-down controls of complex foodwebs maintain the balance among the critical groups of corals, algae, and herbivores, thus allowing the persistence of corals reefs as three-dimensional, biogenic structures with high biodiversity, heterogeneity, resistance, resilience and connectivity, and the delivery of essential goods and services to societies. On contemporary reefs world-wide, however, top-down controls have been weakened due to reduction in herbivory levels (overfishing or disease outbre...

  18. Cyanobacteria in coral reef ecosystems : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Charpy, L.; Casareto, B.E.; Langlade, M. J.; Suzuki, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have dominated marine environments and have been reef builders on Earth for more than three million years (myr). Cyanobacteria still play an essential role in modern coral reef ecosystems by forming a major component of epiphytic, epilithic, and endolithic communities as well as of microbial mats. Cyanobacteria are grazed by reef organisms and also provide nitrogen to the coral reef ecosystems through nitrogen fixation. Recently, new unicellular cyanobacteria that express nitrog...

  19. Coral calcification in a changing ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.

    2010-01-01

    Animals and plants that live in the ocean form skeletons and other hard parts by combining calcium ions and carbonate ions to create calcium carbonate. This process is called calcification. In tropical and subtropical oceans, the calcification of corals and other organisms creates reefs that protect islands, produce beautiful white-sand beaches, and create habitat for thousands of species that live on coral reefs.

  20. Cadmium accumulation in different rice cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars of rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hui [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, also School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang Junli [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, also School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Fang Wei [Biology Department, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Yuan Jiangang [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, also School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yang Zhongyi [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, also School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)]. E-mail: adsyzy@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2006-11-01

    Large areas of contaminated land are being used for agricultural production in some countries due to the high demand for food. To minimize the influx of pollutants to the human food chain through consumption of agricultural products, we propose the concept of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs), i.e. cultivars whose edible parts accumulate a specific pollutant at a level low enough for safe consumption, even when grown in contaminated soil. We tested the feasibility of the PSC concept by growing 43 cultivars of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L., including 20 normal and 23 hybrid cultivars) under a high (75.69-77.55 mg kg{sup -1}) and a low (1.75-1.85 mg kg{sup -1}) cadmium (Cd) exposure. These pot experiments took place in the spring and summer of 2004. At the low level of Cd exposure, 30 out of the 43 tested cultivars were found to be Cd-PSCs. Grain Cd concentrations were highly correlated (p < 0.01) between the two experiments, suggesting that Cd accumulation in rice grain is genotype-dependent and that the selection of PSCs is possible, at least at a certain level of soil contamination. No Cd-PSCs were found under the high level of Cd exposure. Yield was enhanced in some cultivars and depressed in others in response to elevated soil Cd, indicating that farmers cannot rely on yield depression as an indicator of toxicity of the grains. It is therefore important and feasible to screen for PSCs and to establish PSC breeding programs to effectively and efficiently reduce the risk of human exposure to soil pollutants, such as Cd, through crop consumption.

  1. Mass coral bleaching in the northern Persian Gulf, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Kavousi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Coral bleaching events due to elevated temperatures are increasing in both frequency and magnitude worldwide. Mass bleaching was recorded at five sites in the northern Persian Gulf during August and September 2012. Based on available seawater temperature data from field, satellite and previous studies, we suggest that the coral bleaching threshold temperature in the northern Persian Gulf is between 33.5 and 34°C, which is about 1.5 to 2.5°C lower than that in the southern part. To assess the bleaching effects, coral genera counted during 60-minute dives were categorized into four groups including healthy, slightly bleached ( 50% bleached tissue and fully bleached colonies. The anomalously high sea surface temperature resulted in massive coral bleaching (~84% coral colonies affected. Acropora spp. colonies, which are known as the most vulnerable corals to thermal stress, were less affected by the bleaching than massive corals, such as Porites, which are among the most thermo-tolerant corals. Turbid waters, suggested as coral refugia against global warming, did not protect corals in this study since most affected corals were found in the most turbid waters. The 2012 bleaching in the northern Persian Gulf was relatively strong from the viewpoint of coral bleaching severity. Long-term monitoring is needed to understand the actual consequences of the bleaching event on the coral reefs and communities.

  2. Behaviourally mediated phenotypic selection in a disturbed coral reef environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark I McCormick

    Full Text Available Natural and anthropogenic disturbances are leading to changes in the nature of many habitats globally, and the magnitude and frequency of these perturbations are predicted to increase under climate change. Globally coral reefs are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to climate change. Fishes often show relatively rapid declines in abundance when corals become stressed and die, but the processes responsible are largely unknown. This study explored the mechanism by which coral bleaching may influence the levels and selective nature of mortality on a juvenile damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, which associates with hard coral. Recently settled fish had a low propensity to migrate small distances (40 cm between habitat patches, even when densities were elevated to their natural maximum. Intraspecific interactions and space use differ among three habitats: live hard coral, bleached coral and dead algal-covered coral. Large fish pushed smaller fish further from the shelter of bleached and dead coral thereby exposing smaller fish to higher mortality than experienced on healthy coral. Small recruits suffered higher mortality than large recruits on bleached and dead coral. Mortality was not size selective on live coral. Survival was 3 times as high on live coral as on either bleached or dead coral. Subtle behavioural interactions between fish and their habitats influence the fundamental link between life history stages, the distribution of phenotypic traits in the local population and potentially the evolution of life history strategies.

  3. Effects of Nitrogen on Productivity, Grain Quality, and Optimal Nitrogen Rates in Winter Wheat cv. Kumpa-INIA in Andisols of Southern Chile Efecto del Nitrógeno en Productividad, Calidad del Grano y Dosis Óptimas de Nitrógeno en Trigo Invernal cv. Kumpa-INIA en Andisoles del Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Campillo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is one of the main inputs of the winter wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L. in southern Chile. Nitrogen efficient management is basic to optimizing its utilization while decreasing pollution risks and operational costs. Crop response and N use efficiency (NUE, defined as the ratio of yield to mineral N supply, regardless of source are important for evaluating N requirements of winter wheat, and reaching maximum and economic yields. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of N rate on grain yield, calculate the N rate that maximizes yield, and estimate the optimal grain yield rate and quality of high-yielding winter wheat cv. Kumpa-INIA. Five annual N rates were evaluated in a randomized complete block design during two successive winter wheat cropping seasons on a Vilcún series soil of the Pachic Melanudands family (Andisol in La Araucania Region, Chile, and subjected to intensive annual crop rotation. Significant effects (P ≤ 0.01 of N rate on grain yield and quality were found. The optimal physical N rate (OPR in both seasons ranged from 290 to 339 kg ha-1, whereas optimal economic N rate (OER ranged from 248 to 274 kg ha-1, with yields between 10.2 and 10.1 t ha-1. Nitrogen use efficiency associated to OER was high in both seasons (36.9 and 41.2 kg grain kg-1 N and fluctuated in similar ranges. Nitrogen rate increased hectoliter weight and grain protein, but decreased NUE.El N es uno de los principales insumos del cultivo de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. en Chile. Su manejo eficiente optimiza las dosis, disminuye los riesgos de contaminación y los costos de producción. La respuesta del cultivo y eficiencia de uso de N (NUE, definida como la razón de rendimiento y suministro de N mineral, independientemente de la fuente son importantes para evaluar los requerimientos de N y alcanzar rendimientos máximos y económicos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del N en la producción y las dosis que

  4. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Laura; de Goeij, Jasper M; Mueller, Christina E; Struck, Ulrich; Middelburg, Jack J; van Duyl, Fleur C; Al-Horani, Fuad A; Wild, Christian; Naumann, Malik S; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-01-07

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrients in DOM to higher trophic levels on Caribbean reefs via the so-called sponge loop. Coral mucus may be a major DOM source for the sponge loop, but mucus uptake by sponges has not been demonstrated. Here we used laboratory stable isotope tracer experiments to show the transfer of coral mucus into the bulk tissue and phospholipid fatty acids of the warm-water sponge Mycale fistulifera and cold-water sponge Hymedesmia coriacea, demonstrating a direct trophic link between corals and reef sponges. Furthermore, 21-40% of the mucus carbon and 32-39% of the nitrogen assimilated by the sponges was subsequently released as detritus, confirming a sponge loop on Red Sea warm-water and north Atlantic cold-water coral reefs. The presence of a sponge loop in two vastly different reef environments suggests it is a ubiquitous feature of reef ecosystems contributing to the high biogeochemical cycling that may enable coral reefs to thrive in nutrient-limited (warm-water) and energy-limited (cold-water) environments.

  5. Metatranscriptome analysis of the reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata indicates holobiont response to coral disease

    KAUST Repository

    Daniels, Camille Arian

    2015-09-11

    White Plague Disease (WPD) is implicated in coral reef decline in the Caribbean and is characterized by microbial community shifts in coral mucus and tissue. Studies thus far have focused on assessing microbial communities or the identification of specific pathogens, yet few have addressed holobiont response across metaorganism compartments in coral disease. Here, we report on the first metatranscriptomic assessment of the coral host, algal symbiont, and microbial compartment in order to survey holobiont structure and function in healthy and diseased samples from Orbicella faveolata collected at reef sites off Puerto Rico. Our data indicate holobiont-wide as well as compartment-specific responses to WPD. Gene expression changes in the diseased coral host involved proteins playing a role in innate immunity, cytoskeletal integrity, cell adhesion, oxidative stress, chemical defense, and retroelements. In contrast, the algal symbiont showed comparatively few expression changes, but of large magnitude, of genes related to stress, photosynthesis, and metal transport. Concordant with the coral host response, the bacterial compartment showed increased abundance of heat shock proteins, genes related to oxidative stress, DNA repair, and potential retroelement activity. Importantly, analysis of the expressed bacterial gene functions establishes the participation of multiple bacterial families in WPD pathogenesis and also suggests a possible involvement of viruses and/or phages in structuring the bacterial assemblage. In this study, we implement an experimental approach to partition the coral holobiont and resolve compartment- and taxa-specific responses in order to understand metaorganism function in coral disease.

  6. RESISTANCE AND RESILIENCE TO CORAL BLEACHING: IMPLICATIONS FOR CORAL REEF CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The massive scale of the 1997-1998 El Nino-associated coral bleaching event underscores the need for strategies to mitigate biodiversity losses resulting from temperature-induced coral mortality. As baseline sea surface temperatures continue to rise, climate change may represent ...

  7. Miocene reef-coral diversity of Indonesia: unlocking the murky origins of the Coral Triangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santodomingo Aguilar, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Reefs in the Coral Triangle host the richest marine diversity today. While the biodiversity gradients associated with the Coral Triangle are progressively better documented, the mechanisms responsible for the origins and maintenance of this pattern still remain obscure. Until recently, palaeontologi

  8. Metatranscriptome analysis of the reef-buidling coral Orbicella faveolata indicates holobiont response to coral disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille eDaniels

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available White Plague Disease (WPD is implicated in coral reef decline in the Caribbean and is characterized by microbial community shifts in coral mucus and tissue. Studies thus far have focused on assessing microbial communities or the identification of specific pathogens, yet few have addressed holobiont response across metaorganism compartments in coral disease. Here, we report on the first metatranscriptomic assessment of the coral host, algal symbiont, and microbial compartment in order to survey holobiont structure and function in healthy and diseased samples from Orbicella faveolata collected at reef sites off Puerto Rico. Our data indicate metaorganism-wide as well as compartment-specific responses to WPD. Gene expression changes in the diseased coral host involved proteins playing a role in innate immunity, cytoskeletal integrity, cell adhesion, oxidative stress, chemical defense, and retroelements. In contrast, the algal symbiont showed comparatively few expression changes, but of large magnitude, of genes related to stress, photosynthesis, and metal transport. Concordant with the coral host response, the bacterial compartment showed increased abundance of heat shock proteins, genes related to oxidative stress, DNA repair, and potential retroelement activity. Importantly, analysis of the expressed bacterial gene functions establishes the participation of multiple bacterial families in WPD pathogenesis and also suggests a possible involvement of viruses and/or phages in structuring the bacterial assemblage. In this study, we implement an experimental approach to partition the coral holobiont and resolve compartment- and taxa-specific responses in order to understand metaorganism function in coral disease.

  9. INDICATORS OF UV EXPOSURE IN CORALS AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND CORAL BLEACHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compelling aspect of the deterioration of coral reefs is the phenomenon of coral bleaching. Through interactions with other factors such as sedimentation, pollution, and bacterial infection, bleaching can impact large areas of a reef with limited recovery, and it might be induc...

  10. INDICATORS OF UV EXPOSURE IN CORALS AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND CORAL BLEACHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compelling aspect of the deterioration of coral reefs is the phenomenon of coral bleaching. Through interactions with other factors such as sedimentation, pollution, and bacterial infection, bleaching can impact large areas of a reef with limited recovery, and it might be induc...

  11. Identification and prevalence of coral diseases on three Western Indian Ocean coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séré, Mathieu G; Chabanet, Pascale; Turquet, Jean; Quod, Jean-Pascal; Schleyer, Michael H

    2015-06-03

    Coral diseases have caused a substantial decline in the biodiversity and abundance of reef-building corals. To date, more than 30 distinct diseases of scleractinian corals have been reported, which cause progressive tissue loss and/or affect coral growth, reproductive capacity, recruitment, species diversity and the abundance of reef-associated organisms. While coral disease research has increased over the last 4 decades, very little is known about coral diseases in the Western Indian Ocean. Surveys conducted at multiple sites in Reunion, South Africa and Mayotte between August 2010 and June 2012 revealed the presence of 6 main coral diseases: black band disease (BBD), white syndrome (WS), pink line syndrome (PLS), growth anomalies (GA), skeleton eroding band (SEB) and Porites white patch syndrome (PWPS). Overall, disease prevalence was higher in Reunion (7.5 ± 2.2%; mean ± SE) compared to South Africa (3.9 ± 0.8%) and Mayotte (2.7 ± 0.3%). Across locations, Acropora and Porites were the genera most susceptible to disease. Spatial variability was detected in both Reunion and South Africa, with BBD and WS more prevalent on shallow than deep reefs. There was also evidence of seasonality in 2 diseases: the prevalence of BBD and WS was higher in summer than winter. This was the first study to investigate the ecology of coral diseases, providing both qualitative and quantitative data, on Western Indian Ocean reefs, and surveys should be expanded to confirm these patterns.

  12. Characterization of oats (Avena sativa L.) cultivars using machine vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, S; Balamurugan, P

    2013-10-15

    Machine vision or image analysis is an important tool in the study of morphology of any materials. This technique has been used successfully to differentiate the eleven oats cultivars based on morphological characters. The geometry of seeds was measured through image analyzer and the variation was observed and recorded. From the recorded data, the cluster analysis was carried out and it revealed that the cultivars could be grouped into two main clusters based on similarity in the measured parameters. Cultivar Sabzar, UPO 212, OL 9 and OL 88 formed one main cluster. The another main cluster includes cv. Kent, OS 6, UPO 94, HFO 114, OS 7, HJ 8 and JHO 822 with many sub clusters. Among the cultivars HJ 8 and JHO 822 has more similarity in all measured parameters than other cultivars. Thus morphological characterization through seed image analysis was found useful to discriminate the cultivars.

  13. Arrecifes de Coral: Una Coleccion de Actividades en Espanol para Estudiantes de Escuela Intermedia (Coral Reefs: A Spanish Compilation of Activities for Middle School Students).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sharon H.; Newton, R. Amanda; Ortiz, Alida

    This activity book for middle school students on coral reefs is divided into 10 sections. Section 1 is the introduction. Section 2 describes what coral reefs are while section 3 describes how coral reefs reproduce and grow. Section 4 describes where coral reefs are found, and section 5 describes life on a coral reef. Section 6 describes the…

  14. Anthropogenic mortality on coral reefs in Caribbean Panama predates coral disease and bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Katie L; Jackson, Jeremy B C; Angioletti, Christopher V; Leonard-Pingel, Jill; Guilderson, Thomas P

    2012-06-01

    Caribbean reef corals have declined precipitously since the 1980s due to regional episodes of bleaching, disease and algal overgrowth, but the extent of earlier degradation due to localised historical disturbances such as land clearing and overfishing remains unresolved. We analysed coral and molluscan fossil assemblages from reefs near Bocas del Toro, Panama to construct a timeline of ecological change from the 19th century-present. We report large changes before 1960 in coastal lagoons coincident with extensive deforestation, and after 1960 on offshore reefs. Striking changes include the demise of previously dominant staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and oyster Dendrostrea frons that lives attached to gorgonians and staghorn corals. Reductions in bivalve size and simplification of gastropod trophic structure further implicate increasing environmental stress on reefs. Our paleoecological data strongly support the hypothesis, from extensive qualitative data, that Caribbean reef degradation predates coral bleaching and disease outbreaks linked to anthropogenic climate change. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  15. Rooting of stem segments from fig tree cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Rayane Barcelos Bisi; Guilherme Locatelli; Caio Morais de Alcântara Barbosa; Rafael Pio; Rodrigo Vieira Balbi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Although Brazil is the largest fig (Ficus carica L.) producer in the Southern Hemisphere, it mainly uses only one cultivar, 'Roxo de Valinhos'. In addition, propagation is almost entirely through hardwood cuttings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish a propagation method that provides more successful rooting of stem segments of fig cultivars for the purpose of expanding the genetic base of the fig tree. The cultivars used were 'Brunswick', 'Calabacita', 'Negro de Bursa...

  16. Screening of Carnation Cultivars for Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, M. R.; Kim, J. Y.; Song, C.; Ko, J.Y.; Na, S. Y.; Yiem, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 33 carnation cultivars cultured in Korea were screened for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Carnations were tested by either inoculating with 5,000 eggs or by transplanting into a mixture of bedding medium and soil infested with an average of 435 second-stage juveniles/300 cm³ soil. Cultivars, Desio, Castelaro, Kappa, Rara, Izu Pink, Target, and Antalia were highly resistant to M. incognita. Twelve cultivars were moderately resistant, and the re...

  17. Cultivar identification in T. aestivum using highly polymorphic RFLP probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccino, P; Accerbi, M; Corbellini, M

    1993-08-01

    Two probes, specific for HMW-glutenins and γ-gliadins have been used to identify 50 common wheat Italian cultivars, most of which are closely related, and four common wheat cultivars originating outside Italy. The probes revealed complex polymorphic patterns; three probe/enzyme combinations had the necessary sensitivity for the identification of all 54 cultivars. As already shown for potato and barley, the use of four-cutter restriction enzymes and polyacrylamide gels proved particularly useful for detecting polymorphism.

  18. Photosynthetic Diurnal Variation of Soybean Cultivars with High Photosynthetic Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAN Wei-qun; DU Wei-guang; ZHANG Gui-ru; LUAN Xiao-yan; GE Qiao-ying; HAO Nai-bin; CHEN Yi

    2002-01-01

    The photosynthetic characters were investigated among soybean cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency and high yield. The results indicated that: 1) There were significant differences in photosynthetic rate (Ph) and dark respiration rate (DR) under saturation light intensity and appropriate temperature.2) There were a little difference in light compensation point among them. Photo flux density (PFD) were mong the cultivars. Diurnal variation of Pn was shown a curve with two peaks. 4) The cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency were subjected less to photoinhibition than that with high yield. Critical temperatures of photoinhibition in high photosynthetic efficiency cultivars were higher than that of high yield.

  19. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Grisham, Michael Paul; Zhang, Hua; Que, Youxiong

    2015-10-26

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the control cultivar ROC22. From the perspective of cane yield, cultivars FN 40 and YZ 06-407 were well adapted to a wider range of conditions and produced relatively high cane yields in several pilot sites. From the perspective of sucrose yield, cultivars LC 03-1137, FN 38, FN 41, MT 01-77 and LC 05-136 were well adapted to a wide range of conditions and produced relatively high sucrose yields. Based on these results, three high yielding and widely adapted cultivars, namely, FN 39, LC 05-136, and YZ 05-51 were recommended for production in three major Chinese sugarcane planting areas. The results will provide a theoretical basis for recommending the effective use and rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China.

  20. Consumer evaluation of scab-resistant apple cultivars in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. JÖNSSON

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using untrained consumers for sensory evaluation was investigated on Swedish-grown scab-resistant apple cultivars in 2002 (11 cultivars and 2003 (15 cultivars. The consumers evaluated five cultivars each, including the control cultivar ‘Aroma’. Each cultivar was scored for appearance, texture, juiciness, taste and overall impression by a minimum of 100 consumers in 2002 and by 200 in 2003. All quality attributes were positively correlated when calculations were performed across all consumer scores, with overall impression and taste having the strongest association. ‘Rubinola’ and K:1160 emerged as the best liked cultivars overall. Cultivar means were analysed for relationships with some previously scored or measured variables and with consumer profile data. Positive correlations with overall impression were obtained for amount of red colour in 2002, and for sugar levels in 2003. Among consumer profile variables, age had the largest influence on consumer scores, with some indications that older consumers preferred (or at least tolerated soft-fleshed cultivars better than did younger consumers. Minimum number of consumers needed to obtain reliable results was determined by computer simulations indicating that the error rate became stabilized already with 50 consumers.;

  1. Can we measure beauty? Computational evaluation of coral reef aesthetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, A.F.; Guibert, M.; Foerschner, A.; Co, T.; Calhoun, S.; George, E.; Hatay, M.; Dinsdale, E.; Sandin, S.A.; Smith, J.E.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Felts, B.; Dustan, P.; Salamon, P.; Rohwer, F.

    2015-01-01

    The natural beauty of coral reefs attracts millions of tourists worldwide resulting in substantial revenues for the adjoining economies. Although their visual appearance is a pivotal factor attracting humans to coral reefs current monitoring protocols exclusively target biogeochemical parameters,

  2. Calibration of Community-based Coral Reef Monitoring Protocols ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: coral reef monitoring, community-based, calibration. Abstract—Coral reef monitoring (CRM) has been recognised as an important management tool and has ..... Pollution Bulletin 40: 537-550. Wilkinson, C., Green, A., Almany, J. &.

  3. Can we measure beauty? Computational evaluation of coral reef aesthetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, A.F.; Guibert, M.; Foerschner, A.; Co, T.; Calhoun, S.; George, E.; Hatay, M.; Dinsdale, E.; Sandin, S.A.; Smith, J.E.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Felts, B.; Dustan, P.; Salamon, P.; Rohwer, F.

    2015-01-01

    The natural beauty of coral reefs attracts millions of tourists worldwide resulting in substantial revenues for the adjoining economies. Although their visual appearance is a pivotal factor attracting humans to coral reefs current monitoring protocols exclusively target biogeochemical parameters, ne

  4. American Samoa ESI: CASSPT (Coral Areas of Special Significance - Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for "Coral Areas of Special Significance" in American Samoa. Coral Areas of Special Significance were...

  5. Diseases of corals with particular reference to Indian reefs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.

    valderianum, a cyanobacterium causes the PLS Histological observations showed that the tissue was destroyed in PLS The coral bleaching is the only abiotic disease known in the corals Bleaching is triggered by anomalous high water temperature during summer...

  6. Zonation of uplifted pleistocene coral reefs on barbados, west indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesolella, K J

    1967-05-05

    The coral species composition of uplifted Pleistocene reefs on Barbados is very similar to Recent West Indian reefs. Acropora palmata, Acropora cervicornis, and Montastrea annularis are qtuantitatively the most important of the coral species.

  7. Unseen players shape benthic competition on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barott, Katie L; Rohwer, Forest L

    2012-12-01

    Recent work has shown that hydrophilic and hydrophobic organic matter (OM) from algae disrupts the function of the coral holobiont and promotes the invasion of opportunistic pathogens, leading to coral morbidity and mortality. Here we refer to these dynamics as the (3)DAM [dissolved organic matter (DOM), direct contact, disease, algae and microbes] model. There is considerable complexity in coral-algae interactions; turf algae and macroalgae promote heterotrophic microbial overgrowth of coral, macroalgae also directly harm the corals via hydrophobic OM, whereas crustose coralline algae generally encourage benign microbial communities. In addition, complex flow patterns transport OM and pathogens from algae to downstream corals, and direct algal contact enhances their delivery. These invisible players (microbes, viruses, and OM) are important drivers of coral reefs because they have non-linear responses to disturbances and are the first to change in response to perturbations, providing near real-time trajectories for a coral reef, a vital metric for conservation and restoration.

  8. A trait-based approach to advance coral reef science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madin, Joshua S.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Connolly, Sean R.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are biologically diverse and ecologically complex ecosystems constructed by stony corals. Despite decades of research, basic coral population biology and community ecology questions remain. Quantifying trait variation among species can help resolve these questions, but progress has been...... a large amount of variation for a range of biological and ecological processes. Such an approach can accelerate our understanding of coral ecology and our ability to protect critically threatened global ecosystems....

  9. Corals form characteristic associations with symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Kimberley A; Willis, Bette L; Bourne, David G

    2012-05-01

    The complex symbiotic relationship between corals and their dinoflagellate partner Symbiodinium is believed to be sustained through close associations with mutualistic bacterial communities, though little is known about coral associations with bacterial groups able to fix nitrogen (diazotrophs). In this study, we investigated the diversity of diazotrophic bacterial communities associated with three common coral species (Acropora millepora, Acropora muricata, and Pocillopora damicormis) from three midshelf locations of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) by profiling the conserved subunit of the nifH gene, which encodes the dinitrogenase iron protein. Comparisons of diazotrophic community diversity among coral tissue and mucus microenvironments and the surrounding seawater revealed that corals harbor diverse nifH phylotypes that differ between tissue and mucus microhabitats. Coral mucus nifH sequences displayed high heterogeneity, and many bacterial groups overlapped with those found in seawater. Moreover, coral mucus diazotrophs were specific neither to coral species nor to reef location, reflecting the ephemeral nature of coral mucus. In contrast, the dominant diazotrophic bacteria in tissue samples differed among coral species, with differences remaining consistent at all three reefs, indicating that coral-diazotroph associations are species specific. Notably, dominant diazotrophs for all coral species were closely related to the bacterial group rhizobia, which represented 71% of the total sequences retrieved from tissue samples. The species specificity of coral-diazotroph associations further supports the coral holobiont model that bacterial groups associated with corals are conserved. Our results suggest that, as in terrestrial plants, rhizobia have developed a mutualistic relationship with corals and may contribute fixed nitrogen to Symbiodinium.

  10. Destruction of Pacific Corals by the Sea Star Acanthaster planci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesher, R H

    1969-07-18

    Acanthaster planci, a coral predator, is undergoing a population explosion in many areas of the Pacific Ocean. Data on feeding rates, population movements, and stages of infestation were collected along coral reefs of Guam and Palau. Direct observations on destruction of Guam's coral reefs indicate that narrow, fringing reefs may be killed as rapidly as 1 kilometer per month. In a 2(1/2)-year period, 90 percent of the coral was killed along 38 kilometers of Guam's shoreline.

  11. Palmyra Atoll coral reef habitat mapping completion report

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The United States Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF) was established in 1998 by Presidential Executive Order 13089 to lead U.S. efforts to preserve and protect coral reef ecosystems. Current, accurate, and consistent maps greatly enhance efforts to preserve and manage coral reef ecosystems. With comprehensive maps and habitat assessments, coral reef managers can be more effective in designing and implementing a variety of conservation measures, including: • Long-term monitoring programs with ...

  12. Hyperspectral and physiological analyses of coral-algal interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Barott

    Full Text Available Space limitation leads to competition between benthic, sessile organisms on coral reefs. As a primary example, reef-building corals are in direct contact with each other and many different species and functional groups of algae. Here we characterize interactions between three coral genera and three algal functional groups using a combination of hyperspectral imaging and oxygen microprofiling. We also performed in situ interaction transects to quantify the relative occurrence of these interaction on coral reefs. These studies were conducted in the Southern Line Islands, home to some of the most remote and near-pristine reefs in the world. Our goal was to determine if different types of coral-coral and coral-algal interactions were characterized by unique fine-scale physiological signatures. This is the first report using hyperspectral imaging for characterization of marine benthic organisms at the micron scale and proved to be a valuable tool for discriminating among different photosynthetic organisms. Consistent patterns emerged in physiology across different types of competitive interactions. In cases where corals were in direct contact with turf or macroalgae, there was a zone of hypoxia and altered pigmentation on the coral. In contrast, interaction zones between corals and crustose coralline algae (CCA were not hypoxic and the coral tissue was consistent across the colony. Our results suggest that at least two main characteristic coral interaction phenotypes exist: 1 hypoxia and coral tissue disruption, seen with interactions between corals and fleshy turf and/or some species of macroalgae, and 2 no hypoxia or tissue disruption, seen with interactions between corals and some species of CCA. Hyperspectral imaging in combination with oxygen profiling provided useful information on competitive interactions between benthic reef organisms, and demonstrated that some turf and fleshy macroalgae can be a constant source of stress for corals, while

  13. Hyperspectral and physiological analyses of coral-algal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barott, Katie; Smith, Jennifer; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Hatay, Mark; Sandin, Stuart; Rohwer, Forest

    2009-11-26

    Space limitation leads to competition between benthic, sessile organisms on coral reefs. As a primary example, reef-building corals are in direct contact with each other and many different species and functional groups of algae. Here we characterize interactions between three coral genera and three algal functional groups using a combination of hyperspectral imaging and oxygen microprofiling. We also performed in situ interaction transects to quantify the relative occurrence of these interaction on coral reefs. These studies were conducted in the Southern Line Islands, home to some of the most remote and near-pristine reefs in the world. Our goal was to determine if different types of coral-coral and coral-algal interactions were characterized by unique fine-scale physiological signatures. This is the first report using hyperspectral imaging for characterization of marine benthic organisms at the micron scale and proved to be a valuable tool for discriminating among different photosynthetic organisms. Consistent patterns emerged in physiology across different types of competitive interactions. In cases where corals were in direct contact with turf or macroalgae, there was a zone of hypoxia and altered pigmentation on the coral. In contrast, interaction zones between corals and crustose coralline algae (CCA) were not hypoxic and the coral tissue was consistent across the colony. Our results suggest that at least two main characteristic coral interaction phenotypes exist: 1) hypoxia and coral tissue disruption, seen with interactions between corals and fleshy turf and/or some species of macroalgae, and 2) no hypoxia or tissue disruption, seen with interactions between corals and some species of CCA. Hyperspectral imaging in combination with oxygen profiling provided useful information on competitive interactions between benthic reef organisms, and demonstrated that some turf and fleshy macroalgae can be a constant source of stress for corals, while CCA are not.

  14. Breakage and propagation of the stony coral Acropora cervicornis

    OpenAIRE

    Tunnicliffe, Verena

    1981-01-01

    Populations of the staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, often form dense monotypic stands on shallow Caribbean reefs. This coral species has a fragile structure that results in large numbers of broken branches and toppled colonies, especially in high wave activity. Although more than 80% of the corals in the studied population were broken from their bases, most had become reanchored to regrow rapidly. There is little evidence of sexual reproduction, and it appears that this coral has come to...

  15. Benefit of pulsation in soft corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremien, Maya; Shavit, Uri; Mass, Tali; Genin, Amatzia

    2013-05-28

    Soft corals of the family Xeniidae exhibit a unique, rhythmic pulsation of their tentacles (Movie S1), first noted by Lamarck nearly 200 y ago. However, the adaptive benefit of this perpetual, energetically costly motion is poorly understood. Using in situ underwater particle image velocimetry, we found that the pulsation motions thrust water upward and enhance mixing across the coral-water boundary layer. The induced upward motion effectively prevents refiltration of water by neighboring polyps, while the intensification of mixing, together with the upward flow, greatly enhances the coral's photosynthesis. A series of controlled laboratory experiments with the common xeniid coral Heteroxenia fuscescens showed that the net photosynthesis rate during pulsation was up to an order of magnitude higher than during the coral's resting, nonpulsating state. This enhancement diminished when the concentration of oxygen in the ambient water was artificially raised, indicating that the enhancement of photosynthesis was due to a greater efflux of oxygen from the coral tissues. By lowering the internal oxygen concentration, pulsation alleviates the problem of reduced affinity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RuBisCO) to CO2 under conditions of high oxygen concentrations. The photosynthesis-respiration ratio of the pulsating H. fuscescens was markedly higher than the ratios reported for nonpulsating soft and stony corals. Although pulsation is commonly used for locomotion and filtration in marine mobile animals, its occurrence in sessile (bottom-attached) species is limited to members of the ancient phylum Cnidaria, where it is used to accelerate water and enhance physiological processes.

  16. CULTIVAR RELEASE-BRS 217 Flora: Early-maturing soybean cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plínio Itamar de Mello de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cultivar BRS 217 Flora was developed by Embrapa and released forproduction in the states of Goiás, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Mato Grosso and the Distrito Federal, Brazil. It is resistant to stemcanker, frog-eye leaf spot, bacterial pustule, and partially resistant to powdery mildew.

  17. UEL 7: nova cultivar de Dendrobium UEL 7: a new Dendrobium cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available UEL 7 é uma cultivar de Dendrobium nobile desenvolvida no Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Londrina resultante do cruzamento das plantas matrizes D3 x D8 e selecionada pela coloração das flores amarelas e com largura e comprimento semelhantes (7,0 cm, formando praticamente um círculo. As plantas foram polinizadas artificialmente, e as sementes semeadas em meio de cultura in vitro. A cultivar apresenta flores de coloração amarela, labelo com o centro marrom escuro e o pseudobulbo apresenta em mé dia 11 flores. As flores têm durabilidade de aproximadamente 30 dias.UEL 7 is a Dendrobium nobile's cultivar developed at The Department of Agronomy of Universidade Estadual de Londrina and is the result of the crossing between D3 x D8 and selected for its yellow flowers and format with similar width and length (7.0 cm, almost forming a circle. The plants were pollinated artificially, and the seeds sowed in growth media in vitro. The cultivar presents flowers of yellow coloration, labelo with the center dark brown color and the pseudobulb presents 11 flowers on average. The flowers durability is about 30 days.

  18. CULTIVAR RELEASE - FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Costa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563. It is characterized by high yield and grain quality.

  19. 77 FR 32572 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ..., and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs Off the Southern Atlantic States; Exempted Fishing Permit... South Carolina Aquarium to collect, with certain conditions, various species of reef fish, crabs, and...

  20. Fluctuations in coral health of four common inshore reef corals in response to seasonal and anthropogenic changes in water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Nicola K; Tay, Jason K L; Low, Jeffrey; Larson, Ole; Todd, Peter A

    2015-04-01

    Environmental drivers of coral condition (maximum quantum yield, symbiont density, chlorophyll a content and coral skeletal growth rates) were assessed in the equatorial inshore coastal waters of Singapore, where the amplitude of seasonal variation is low, but anthropogenic influence is relatively high. Water quality variables (sediments, nutrients, trace metals, temperature, light) explained between 52 and 83% of the variation in coral condition, with sediments and light availability as key drivers of foliose corals (Merulina ampliata, Pachyseris speciosa), and temperature exerting a greater influence on a branching coral (Pocillopora damicornis). Seasonal reductions in water quality led to high chlorophyll a concentrations and maximum quantum yields in corals, but low growth rates. These marginal coral communities are potentially vulnerable to climate change, hence, we propose water quality thresholds for coral growth with the aim of mitigating both local and global environmental impacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 76 FR 41764 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs off the Southern Atlantic States; Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY: National... artificial reefs without additional authorization. A report on the project findings is due at the end of the...

  2. LEGACY - EOP Settlement colonization and succession patterns of gold coral Kulamana haumeaae in Hawaiian deep coral assemblages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Relational tabular data on corals relevant to the parasitic life history of gold coral. Surveys conducted throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago with attention on...

  3. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C.; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then...

  4. Developing a multi-stressor gradient for coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are often found near coastal waters where multiple anthropogenic stressors co-occur at areas of human disturbance. Developing coral reef biocriteria under the U.S. Clean Water Act requires relationships between anthropogenic stressors and coral reef condition to be es...

  5. Coral Reefs: A Gallery Program, Grades 7-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aquarium in Baltimore, MD. Dept. of Education.

    Gallery classes at the National Aquarium in Baltimore give the opportunity to study specific aquarium exhibits which demonstrate entire natural habitats. The coral reef gallery class features the gigantic western Atlantic coral reef (325,000 gallons) with over 1,000 fish. The exhibit simulates a typical Caribbean coral reef and nearby sandy…

  6. Epizoic acoelomorph flatworms compete with their coral host for zooplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijgerde, T.H.M.; Spijkers, P.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Osinga, R.

    2011-01-01

    Satisfying nutrient requirement of corals is still a major constraint for maintaining corals in marine aquariums. Corals are polytrophic in nature. Heterotrophic feeding on zooplankton is one of the corals’ strategies to overcome nutrient deficiency. Artemia salina nauplii are commonly used as bioca

  7. Coral Reefs: A Gallery Program, Grades 7-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aquarium in Baltimore, MD. Dept. of Education.

    Gallery classes at the National Aquarium in Baltimore give the opportunity to study specific aquarium exhibits which demonstrate entire natural habitats. The coral reef gallery class features the gigantic western Atlantic coral reef (325,000 gallons) with over 1,000 fish. The exhibit simulates a typical Caribbean coral reef and nearby sandy…

  8. Developing a multi-stressor gradient for coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are often found near coastal waters where multiple anthropogenic stressors co-occur at areas of human disturbance. Developing coral reef biocriteria under the U.S. Clean Water Act requires relationships between anthropogenic stressors and coral reef condition to be es...

  9. Light gradients and optical microniches in coral tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eWangpraseurt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Light quantity and quality are among the most important factors determining the physiology and stress response of zooxanthellate corals. Yet, almost nothing is known about the light field that Symbiodinium experiences within their coral host, and the basic optical properties of coral tissue are unknown. We used scalar irradiance microprobes to characterise vertical and lateral light gradients within and across tissues of several coral species. Our results revealed the presence of steep light gradients with PAR (photosynthetically available radiation decreasing by about one order of magnitude from the tissue surface to the coral skeleton. Surface scalar irradiance was consistently higher over polyp tissue than over coenosarc tissue in faviid corals. Coral bleaching increased surface scalar irradiance by ~150% (between 500-700 nm relative to a healthy coral. Photosynthesis peaked around 300 µm within the tissue, which corresponded to a zone exhibiting strongest depletion of scalar irradiance. Deeper coral tissue layers, e.g. ~1000 µm into aboral polyp tissues, harbor optical microniches, where only ~10% of the incident irradiance remains. We conclude that the optical microenvironment of corals exhibits strong lateral and vertical gradients of scalar irradiance, which are affected by both tissue and skeleton optical properties. Our results imply that zooxanthellae populations inhabit a strongly heterogeneous light environment and highlight the presence of different optical microniches in corals; an important finding for understanding the photobiology, stress response, as well as the phenotypic and genotypic plasticity of coral symbionts.

  10. Maintenance of fish diversity on disturbed coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. K.; Dolman, A. M.; Cheal, A. J.; Emslie, M. J.; Pratchett, M. S.; Sweatman, H. P. A.

    2009-03-01

    Habitat perturbations play a major role in shaping community structure; however, the elements of disturbance-related habitat change that affect diversity are not always apparent. This study examined the effects of habitat disturbances on species richness of coral reef fish assemblages using annual surveys of habitat and 210 fish species from 10 reefs on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Over a period of 11 years, major disturbances, including localised outbreaks of crown-of-thorns sea star ( Acanthaster planci), severe storms or coral bleaching, resulted in coral decline of 46-96% in all the 10 reefs. Despite declines in coral cover, structural complexity of the reef framework was retained on five and species richness of coral reef fishes maintained on nine of the disturbed reefs. Extensive loss of coral resulted in localised declines of highly specialised coral-dependent species, but this loss of diversity was more than compensated for by increases in the number of species that feed on the epilithic algal matrix (EAM). A unimodal relationship between areal coral cover and species richness indicated species richness was greatest at approximately 20% coral cover declining by 3-4 species (6-8% of average richness) at higher and lower coral cover. Results revealed that declines in coral cover on reefs may have limited short-term impact on the diversity of coral reef fishes, though there may be fundamental changes in the community structure of fishes.

  11. Terpenoids of Sinularia soft corals: chemistry and bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-ting Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft corals of the genus Sinularia are one of the most widespread soft corals. They are a rich source of bioactive substances with intriguing and unique structural features. The present paper reviews the latest progress in the chemistry and pharmacological activities of terpenoids from Sinularia soft corals and provides a perspective on future areas of research interest.

  12. Coral restoration Bonaire : an evaluation of growth, regeneration and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, H.W.G.; Boomstra, B.; Hurtado-Lopez, N.; Montbrun, A.; Virdis, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Coral restoration of Staghorn (Acropora cervicornis) and Elkhorn (A. palmata) as practiced by the Coral Restoration Foundation Bonaire (CRFB) is shown to be highly successful in terms of growth and survival of new colonies, in both nurseries and transplant locations. Coral restoration is expecte

  13. Sensibilidade de cultivares de algodoeiro ao cloreto de mepiquat Sensibility of cotton cultivars to mepiquat chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Bogiani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade de cultivares de algodoeiro ao cloreto de mepiquat e verificar se ela está relacionada ao ciclo ou à arquitetura da planta. Foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação com seis cultivares de algodoeiro - FiberMax 966, FiberMax 977, Delta Penta, Delta Opal, FMT 501 e FMT 701 - e quatro doses do regulador vegetal à base de cloreto de mepiquat - 0, 7,5, 15 e 22,5 g ha-1 de i.a. -, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com arranjo fatorial 6x4 e quatro repetições. As parcelas experimentais foram constituídas por vasos de 12 L com duas plantas em cada um. As doses do regulador vegetal foram aplicadas sem adjuvante, no estádio de aparecimento dos botões florais, aos 34 dias após a emergência das plântulas. Paralelamente ao experimento com doses, a retenção do regulador pelas folhas das cultivares foi quantificada. O crescimento em altura das plantas de algodoeiro é diminuído com a aplicação do regulador vegetal, e esse efeito se intensifica com o aumento da dosagem aplicada. Existe diferença entre as cultivares estudadas quanto à sensibilidade ao cloreto de mepiquat, sendo que as mais precoces são mais sensíveis. Além da sensibilidade diferenciada, a arquitetura das plantas pode possibilitar maior ou menor deposição do regulador sobre as folhas.The objective of this work was to assess the sensibility of cotton cultivars to mepiquat chloride and to verify if it is related to plant cycle or architecture. A green-house experiment was carried out with six cotton cultivars - FiberMax 966, FiberMax 977, Delta Penta, Delta Opal, FMT 501 e FMT 701 -, and four concentrations of mepiquat chloride plant growth regulator - 0, 7,5, 15 and 22,5 g ha-1 of the active ingredient - in complete block design with a 6x4 factorial arrangement and four replicates. The plots consisted of 12 L pots with two plants per pot. Regulator doses were applied without adjuvants at the beginning of

  14. Yield and quality of strawberry cultivars Produtividade e qualidade de cultivares de morangueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo C Antunes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry cultivation is an important economic activity in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, however the number of offered cultivars to the growers is reduced. The yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cultivars Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre and Sabrosa was evaluated under the climatic conditions of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State. We determined the number, mass, total soluble solids (TSS ºBrix, total titratable acidity (TTA, antocianin level and fresh fruits produced in an experimental unit. We also determined the production of fruits per hectare and per plant. The statistical design used in the experiment was of completely randomized blocks with 6 treatments (cultivars and 4 replicates where the experimental unit was composed of 8 plants. The harvest began in the first half of August, extending to the second half of December, totalling 20 weeks. Plarionfre, Earlibrite and Festival cultivars showed higher production from the first half of October until the end of the first half of November. Camarosa reached higher productivity, mass of plants and fruit weight. There were no differences between the evaluated cultivars in the levels of TSS, antocianin, ATT and pH during the period of evaluation.No estado do Rio Grande do Sul o cultivo do morangueiro é uma atividade econômica importante, entretanto o número de cultivares disponíveis no mercado é bastante reduzido. Assim buscou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade dos frutos de cultivares de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre e Sabrosa, cultivados nas condições climáticas e de solo do município de Pelotas, RS. Determinaram-se, o número, massa fresca e teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST (expresso em ºBrix, acidez total titulável (ATT (expresso em % de ácido cítrico e teor de antocianinas, dos frutos produzidos por unidade experimental. Determinou

  15. Thermal tolerances of reef corals in the Gulf: a review of the potential for increasing coral survival and adaptation to climate change through assisted translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Steve L; Riegl, Bernhard M

    2013-07-30

    Corals in the Gulf withstand summer temperatures up to 10 °C higher than corals elsewhere and have recovered from extreme temperature events in 10 years or less. This heat-tolerance of Gulf corals has positive implications for the world's coral populations to adapt to increasing water temperatures. However, survival of Gulf corals has been severely tested by 35-37 °C temperatures five times in the last 15 years, each time causing extensive coral bleaching and mortality. Anticipated future temperature increases may therefore challenge survival of already highly stressed Gulf corals. Previously proposed translocation of Gulf corals to introduce temperature-adapted corals outside of the Gulf is assessed and determined to be problematical, and to be considered a tool of last resort. Coral culture and transplantation within the Gulf is feasible for helping maintain coral species populations and preserving genomes and adaptive capacities of Gulf corals that are endangered by future thermal stress events.

  16. Thermal stress and coral cover as drivers of coral disease outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Bruno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about how environmental changes such as increasing temperature affect disease dynamics in the ocean, especially at large spatial scales. We asked whether the frequency of warm temperature anomalies is positively related to the frequency of coral disease across 1,500 km of Australia's Great Barrier Reef. We used a new high-resolution satellite dataset of ocean temperature and 6 y of coral disease and coral cover data from annual surveys of 48 reefs to answer this question. We found a highly significant relationship between the frequencies of warm temperature anomalies and of white syndrome, an emergent disease, or potentially, a group of diseases, of Pacific reef-building corals. The effect of temperature was highly dependent on coral cover because white syndrome outbreaks followed warm years, but only on high (>50% cover reefs, suggesting an important role of host density as a threshold for outbreaks. Our results indicate that the frequency of temperature anomalies, which is predicted to increase in most tropical oceans, can increase the susceptibility of corals to disease, leading to outbreaks where corals are abundant.

  17. Ecological Processes and Contemporary Coral Reef Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dikou

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Top-down controls of complex foodwebs maintain the balance among the critical groups of corals, algae, and herbivores, thus allowing the persistence of corals reefs as three-dimensional, biogenic structures with high biodiversity, heterogeneity, resistance, resilience and connectivity, and the delivery of essential goods and services to societies. On contemporary reefs world-wide, however, top-down controls have been weakened due to reduction in herbivory levels (overfishing or disease outbreak while bottom-up controls have increased due to water quality degradation (increase in sediment and nutrient load and climate forcing (seawater warming and acidification leading to algal-dominated alternate benthic states of coral reefs, which are indicative of a trajectory towards ecological extinction. Management to reverse common trajectories of degradation for coral reefs necessitates a shift from optimization in marine resource use and conservation towards building socio-economic resilience into coral reef systems while attending to the most manageable human impacts (fishing and water quality and the global-scale causes (climate change.

  18. Immunity through early development of coral larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C V; Graham, E; Baird, A H

    2012-10-01

    As a determinant of survival, immunity is likely to be significant in enabling coral larvae to disperse and successfully recruit, however, whether reef-building coral larvae have immune defenses is unknown. We investigated the potential presence and variation in immunity in the lecithotrophic larvae of Acropora tenuis through larval development. Enzymes indicative of tyrosinase and laccase-type melanin-synthesis were quantified, and the concentration of three coral fluorescent proteins was measured over six developmental stages; egg, embryo, motile planula, planula post-exposure to crustose coralline algae (CCA; settlement cue), settled, settled post-exposure to Symbiodinium (endosymbiont). Both types of melanin-synthesis pathways and the three fluorescent proteins were present in A. tenuis throughout development. Laccase-type activity and red fluorescence increased following exposure of planula to CCA, whereas tyrosinase-type activity and cyan fluorescence increased following settlement. No change was detected in the measured parameters following exposure to Symbiodinium. This study is the first to document coral larval immune responses and suggests the melanin-synthesis pathways have disparate roles-the laccase-type potentially non-immunological and the tyrosinase-type in cytotoxic defense. Our results indicate that corals have the potential to resist infection from the earliest life history phase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Elevated Temperature and Allelopathy Impact Coral Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Ross, Cliff; Paul, Valerie J

    2016-01-01

    As climate change continues to alter seawater temperature and chemistry on a global scale, coral reefs show multiple signs of degradation. One natural process that could facilitate the recovery of reef ecosystems is coral recruitment, which can be influenced by the benthic organisms in a local habitat. We experimentally tested both a global stressor (increased seawater temperature) and a local stressor (exposure to microcolin A, a natural product from a common marine benthic cyanobacterium) to determine how these stressors impacted coral larval sublethal stress, survival and settlement. Larvae of Porites astreoides had the same survival and settlement as the controls after exposure to increased temperature alone, but elevated temperature did cause oxidative stress. When exposed to natural concentrations of microcolin A, larval survival and settlement were significantly reduced. When larvae were exposed to these two stressors sequentially there was no interactive effect; but when exposed to both stressors simultaneously, there was a synergistic reduction in larval survival and an increase in oxidative stress more than in either stressor treatment alone. Increased seawater temperatures made larvae more susceptible to a concurrent local stressor disrupting a key process of coral reef recovery and resilience. These results highlight the importance of understanding how interactive stressors of varying spatial scales can impact coral demographics.

  20. Lower Mesophotic Coral Communities (60-125 m Depth) of the Northern Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englebert, Norbert; Bongaerts, Pim; Muir, Paul R; Hay, Kyra B; Pichon, Michel; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2017-01-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific remain relatively unexplored, particularly at lower mesophotic depths (≥60 m), despite their potentially large spatial extent. Here, we used a remotely operated vehicle to conduct a qualitative assessment of the zooxanthellate coral community at lower mesophotic depths (60-125 m) at 10 different locations in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and the Coral Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve. Lower mesophotic coral communities were present at all 10 locations, with zooxanthellate scleractinian corals extending down to ~100 metres on walls and ~125 m on steep slopes. Lower mesophotic coral communities were most diverse in the 60-80 m zone, while at depths of ≥100 m the coral community consisted almost exclusively of the genus Leptoseris. Collections of coral specimens (n = 213) between 60 and 125 m depth confirmed the presence of at least 29 different species belonging to 18 genera, including several potential new species and geographic/depth range extensions. Overall, this study highlights that lower mesophotic coral ecosystems are likely to be ubiquitous features on the outer reefs of the Great Barrier Reef and atolls of the Coral Sea, and harbour a generic and species richness of corals that is much higher than thus far reported. Further research efforts are urgently required to better understand and manage these ecosystems as part of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and Coral Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve.

  1. Lower Mesophotic Coral Communities (60-125 m Depth) of the Northern Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englebert, Norbert; Bongaerts, Pim; Muir, Paul R.; Hay, Kyra B.; Pichon, Michel; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2017-01-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific remain relatively unexplored, particularly at lower mesophotic depths (≥60 m), despite their potentially large spatial extent. Here, we used a remotely operated vehicle to conduct a qualitative assessment of the zooxanthellate coral community at lower mesophotic depths (60–125 m) at 10 different locations in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and the Coral Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve. Lower mesophotic coral communities were present at all 10 locations, with zooxanthellate scleractinian corals extending down to ~100 metres on walls and ~125 m on steep slopes. Lower mesophotic coral communities were most diverse in the 60–80 m zone, while at depths of ≥100 m the coral community consisted almost exclusively of the genus Leptoseris. Collections of coral specimens (n = 213) between 60 and 125 m depth confirmed the presence of at least 29 different species belonging to 18 genera, including several potential new species and geographic/depth range extensions. Overall, this study highlights that lower mesophotic coral ecosystems are likely to be ubiquitous features on the outer reefs of the Great Barrier Reef and atolls of the Coral Sea, and harbour a generic and species richness of corals that is much higher than thus far reported. Further research efforts are urgently required to better understand and manage these ecosystems as part of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and Coral Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve. PMID:28146574

  2. High coral cover on a mesophotic, subtropical island platform at the limits of coral reef growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linklater, Michelle; Carroll, Andrew G.; Hamylton, Sarah M.; Jordan, Alan R.; Brooke, Brendan P.; Nichol, Scott L.; Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2016-11-01

    Balls Pyramid is a volcanic monolith rising 552 m from the Tasman Sea, 24 km southeast of the Pacific Ocean's southernmost modern coral reef at Lord Howe Island. High resolution seabed mapping of the shelf surrounding Balls Pyramid has revealed an extensive submerged reef structure in 30-50 m water depth, covering an area of 87 km2. Benthic community composition analysis of high-resolution still images revealed abundant scleractinian corals on the submerged reef, extending to a maximum depth of 94 m. Scleractinian coral occurred predominantly in 30-40 m depth where it comprised 13.3% of benthic cover within this depth range. Average scleractinian coral cover for all transects was 6.7±12.2%, with the highest average transect cover of 19.4±14.3% and up to 84% cover recorded for an individual still image. The remaining substrate comprised mixed benthos with veneers of carbonate sand. Benthic data were shown to significantly relate to the underlying geomorphology. BVSTEP analyses identified depth and backscatter as the strongest correlating explanatory variables driving benthic community structure. The prevalence of scleractinian corals on the submerged reef features at Balls Pyramid, and the mesophotic depths to which these corals extend, demonstrates the important role of this subtropical island shelf as habitat for modern coral communities in the southwest Pacific Ocean. As Balls Pyramid is located beyond the known latitudinal limit of coral reef formation, these findings have important implications for potential coral reef range expansion and deep reef refugia under a changing climate.

  3. Gene expression of corals in response to macroalgal competitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya L Shearer

    Full Text Available As corals decline and macroalgae proliferate on coral reefs, coral-macroalgal competition becomes more frequent and ecologically important. Whether corals are damaged by these interactions depends on susceptibility of the coral and traits of macroalgal competitors. Investigating changes in gene expression of corals and their intracellular symbiotic algae, Symbiodinium, in response to contact with different macroalgae provides insight into the biological processes and cellular pathways affected by competition with macroalgae. We evaluated the gene expression profiles of coral and Symbiodinium genes from two confamilial corals, Acropora millepora and Montipora digitata, after 6 h and 48 h of contact with four common macroalgae that differ in their allelopathic potency to corals. Contacts with macroalgae affected different biological pathways in the more susceptible (A. millepora versus the more resistant (M. digitata coral. Genes of coral hosts and of their associated Symbiodinium also responded in species-specific and time-specific ways to each macroalga. Changes in number and expression intensity of affected genes were greater after 6 h compared to 48 h of contact and were greater following contact with Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Amphiroa crassa than following contact with Galaxaura filamentosa or Turbinaria conoides. We documented a divergence in transcriptional responses between two confamilial corals and their associated Symbiodinium, as well as a diversity of dynamic responses within each coral species with respect to the species of macroalgal competitor and the duration of exposure to that competitor. These responses included early initiation of immune processes by Montipora, which is more resistant to damage after long-term macroalgal contact. Activation of the immune response by corals that better resist algal competition is consistent with the hypothesis that some macroalgal effects on corals may be mediated by microbial pathogens.

  4. Gene expression of corals in response to macroalgal competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Tonya L; Snell, Terry W; Hay, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    As corals decline and macroalgae proliferate on coral reefs, coral-macroalgal competition becomes more frequent and ecologically important. Whether corals are damaged by these interactions depends on susceptibility of the coral and traits of macroalgal competitors. Investigating changes in gene expression of corals and their intracellular symbiotic algae, Symbiodinium, in response to contact with different macroalgae provides insight into the biological processes and cellular pathways affected by competition with macroalgae. We evaluated the gene expression profiles of coral and Symbiodinium genes from two confamilial corals, Acropora millepora and Montipora digitata, after 6 h and 48 h of contact with four common macroalgae that differ in their allelopathic potency to corals. Contacts with macroalgae affected different biological pathways in the more susceptible (A. millepora) versus the more resistant (M. digitata) coral. Genes of coral hosts and of their associated Symbiodinium also responded in species-specific and time-specific ways to each macroalga. Changes in number and expression intensity of affected genes were greater after 6 h compared to 48 h of contact and were greater following contact with Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Amphiroa crassa than following contact with Galaxaura filamentosa or Turbinaria conoides. We documented a divergence in transcriptional responses between two confamilial corals and their associated Symbiodinium, as well as a diversity of dynamic responses within each coral species with respect to the species of macroalgal competitor and the duration of exposure to that competitor. These responses included early initiation of immune processes by Montipora, which is more resistant to damage after long-term macroalgal contact. Activation of the immune response by corals that better resist algal competition is consistent with the hypothesis that some macroalgal effects on corals may be mediated by microbial pathogens.

  5. Gene Expression of Corals in Response to Macroalgal Competitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Tonya L.; Snell, Terry W.; Hay, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    As corals decline and macroalgae proliferate on coral reefs, coral-macroalgal competition becomes more frequent and ecologically important. Whether corals are damaged by these interactions depends on susceptibility of the coral and traits of macroalgal competitors. Investigating changes in gene expression of corals and their intracellular symbiotic algae, Symbiodinium, in response to contact with different macroalgae provides insight into the biological processes and cellular pathways affected by competition with macroalgae. We evaluated the gene expression profiles of coral and Symbiodinium genes from two confamilial corals, Acropora millepora and Montipora digitata, after 6 h and 48 h of contact with four common macroalgae that differ in their allelopathic potency to corals. Contacts with macroalgae affected different biological pathways in the more susceptible (A. millepora) versus the more resistant (M. digitata) coral. Genes of coral hosts and of their associated Symbiodinium also responded in species-specific and time-specific ways to each macroalga. Changes in number and expression intensity of affected genes were greater after 6 h compared to 48 h of contact and were greater following contact with Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Amphiroa crassa than following contact with Galaxaura filamentosa or Turbinaria conoides. We documented a divergence in transcriptional responses between two confamilial corals and their associated Symbiodinium, as well as a diversity of dynamic responses within each coral species with respect to the species of macroalgal competitor and the duration of exposure to that competitor. These responses included early initiation of immune processes by Montipora, which is more resistant to damage after long-term macroalgal contact. Activation of the immune response by corals that better resist algal competition is consistent with the hypothesis that some macroalgal effects on corals may be mediated by microbial pathogens. PMID:25500576

  6. Cultivar and row distance interactions in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise C; Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    yield and seed weight (r=0.72***), whereas the correlation between seed yield and the number of reproductive tillers was negatively correlated (r= - 0.49***). This may reflect choice of cultivars in the experiment with the tetraploid forage cultivar 'Tivoli' having the lowest number of reproductive...

  7. Identifying nitrogen-efficient potato cultivars for organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    In organic farming, nitrogen efficiency of potato might vary among cultivars, even within the same maturity type. We therefore analysed in depth the response to nitrogen of a diverse set of cultivars, grown at different locations (differing in soil type and management) and in four years (differing i

  8. Performance de six cultivars de tomates Lycopersicon esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... de déterminer sur la parcelle après apport d\\'insecticides, les incidences du TYLCV ... others diseases: the yellow leaf curl, bacterial wilt and root knot nematodes. In order to identify performants cultivars, six improved cultivars of tomato were ...

  9. Performance of blueberry cultivars under mild winter conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilberto Sousa Medeiros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evaluation of yield performance is important to find the most adapted blueberry cultivars in a particular region. This research aimed to evaluate the flowering and hasvesting periods, the production per plant, and fruit quality of eight rabbiteye blueberry cultivars (Aliceblue, Bluebelle, Bluegem, Briteblue, Climax, Delite, Powderblue, and Woodard and two highbush blueberries (Georgiagem and O’Neal, in mild winter conditions in Pinhais-PR. Flowering and harvesting periods, production, berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ratio and color of the fruits were evaluated in the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons, when the plants had two and three years old, respectively. Cultivars flowered from August to September, and harvest was concentrated in November and December. Berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids and acidity varied among the cultivars. The average ratios of 14.97 and 13.39 for each crop proved that the cultivars have good fruit quality. There was little variation in fruit color in the two years evaluated. Blueberry cultivars showed the staining characteristics and physical and chemical attributes of quality compatible to blueberry from other traditional regions. Under mild winter conditions, young plants of rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, Climax, Delite, Bluegem and Powderblue, are the most productive, while the highbusch cultivars bear few fruits.

  10. Blueberry cultivars for the Pacific Northwest (PNW 656)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bush habit, berry characteristics, yield potential, and suitability for commercial or homeowner production for 41 highbush, rabbiteye and ornamental blueberry cultivars are presented. This extension guide reviews many of the possible cultivars a commercial grower or homeowner might grow. Standar...

  11. Measurement of lipid transfer protein in 88 apple cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancho, A.I.; Ree, van R.; Leeuwen, van A.; Meulenbroek, E.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Puehringer, H.; Laimer, M.; Martinelli, A.; Zaccharini, M.; Vazquez-Cortes, S.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Clare Mills, E.N.; Zuidmeer, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Fruits are a major cause of food allergy in adults. Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are implicated in severe allergic reactions to fruits, but little is known about LTP content in different cultivars. Objective: Determination of the levels of LTP in a wide range of apple cultivars. Methods

  12. Evaluation of Wheat and Barley Cultivars Tolerance to Metribuzine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi Darbandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of barely and wheat cultivars tolerance to metribuzin, a factorial experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design, with three replications in Greenhouse of Agricultural Research at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments included wheat cultivars (Backcross roshan, Cross Arvand, Bahar, Sepahan, Gascosion, Sayonez, Bam garmsiry, Garmsiri, Ghods, Pishtaz, Chamran and Shoori 6, barely cultivars (Macouyi, Karoon and Bahman and metribuzin application rates ( 0, 175, 350, 700, 1050, 1400 and 2100 gr. ai.ha-1. Metribuzine was applied at 3-4 leaf stage and 3 weeks after herbicide spraying, plants survival and their biomass were determined. Results showed that metribuzin application had a significant effect (p≤0.01 on barley and wheat dry weight. Based on results, mertibuzin application did not affect on barley cultivars up to 30 g.a.i.ha-1 but in wheat varieties lead to significant reduction in their biomass and survival. Increasing of metribuzin rates reduced wheat and barley cultivars biomass (p≤0.01. Barely varieties were less sensitive than wheat cultivars to metribuzine. The highest and the lowest ED50 in wheat cultivars were observed in cross arvand (940 and shoori (25 varieties, respectively. In barley cultivars the highest and lowest ED50 were observed in Macouyi (614 and Karoon (396, respectively.

  13. Effect of cultivar and year on phyllochron in winter barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and growth of leaves in cereals significantly affects grain yield since dry matter accumulation depends on the leaf area that intercepts light. Phyllochron (PHY is defined as time interval between the emergences of successive leaves on the main stem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of year and cultivar on phyllochron in winter barley. Twelve cultivars of winter barley differing in origin and time of anthesis were tested during six growing seasons (GS, from 2002/03 to 2007/08. The highest PHY across GSs was determined in the two-rowed cultivar Cordoba (81.6°Cd and the lowest in the two-rowed cultivar Novosadski 581 (71.0°Cd. The early cultivars had fast leaf development, the medium cultivars medium and the late cultivars slow development, 72.5°Cd, 75.6°Cd and 78.9°Cd, respectively. The tested cultivars showed significant variability in the PHY, which can be used for selecting most adaptable genotypes for specific growing conditions.

  14. New Kiwifruit Cultivar Carves a Firm Niche in European Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ While enhancing the world kiwifruit production by developing new cultivars,CAS researchers are gaining a firm foothold in international kiwifruit market as they prolong their control over the propagation rights of a recently developed novel yellowfleshed cultivar, Jin Tao, in European countries.

  15. Esterase polymorphism marking cultivars of Manihot esculenta, Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gazoli Resende

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Esterase isozymes were used to detected substrate-preference polymorphism in twenty cultivars of Manihot esculenta, and to show cultivar-specific variation of this species. A relatively complex extraction solution of proteins from leaves was needed to show a larger number of esterase isozymes. Similarity between cultivars from six groups ranged from 51 to 96%. The cultivars identified by the same name seemed to be biochemically different regarding esterase isozymes. Esterase isozyme electrophoretic patterns could, therefore, be used to discriminate the cultivars identified by the same name, and to monitor the vegetative propagation of cultivars maintained in the germplasm collection. In breeding strategies, isoesterase analysis could be used to avoid intercrossing between the similar genotypes.Isoenzimas esterases foram usadas no presente estudo, para detectar polimorfismos específicos para diferentes substratos em vinte cultivares de Manihot esculenta, e para mostrar variações específicas de cultivares nesta espécie. Os diferentes cultivares de M. esculenta tem sido mantidos na coleção de germoplasma do Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Maringá (Maringá, PR, e foram provenientes de cultivares tradicionais coletados nas regiões sudoeste e noroeste do Estado. Foi necessário a utilização de uma solução de extração de proteínas relativamente mais complexa, para evidenciar um maior número de isoenzimas esterases. A similaridade entre os cultivares variou de 51 a 96%. Cultivares identificados pelo mesmo nome parecem ser bioquimicamente diferentes para as isoenzimas esterases. Os padrões eletroforéticos das isoesterases podem, portanto, serem usados para discriminar os cultivares que são identificados pelo mesmo nome, e para monitorar a propagação vegetativa dos cultivares mantidos na coleção de germoplasma. A análise das isoesterases pode também ser usada para evitar cruzamentos entre genótipos mais

  16. Adaptability and Genotype x Environment Interaction of Spring Wheat Cultivars in Chile using Regression Analysis, AMMI, and SRAG Adaptabilidad e Interacción Genotipo x Ambiente en Trigos de Primavera utilizando Análisis de Regresión, AMMI y SREG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalma Castillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genetic improvement objectives include obtaining cultivars capable of expressing their maximum potential yield and quality in diverse environments. This make necessary to know and define the environment in which a variety can express its maximum potential yield and quality. The objective of this study was to assess which method is the most efficient to study cultivars response in multiple environments. For this, we analyze the adaptability, stability, and genotype x environment (GxE interaction effect, grain yield, sedimentation, and wet gluten content of 13 spring wheat cultivars sown in six environments in the central-south and southern zones of Chile during two seasons. The data were analyzed by regression analysis, additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI, and the sites regression (SREG model. By this was thus established that SREG analysis is the most efficient for this type of study since, in addition to analyzing stability, adaptability, and effect (GxE, it allows identifying the best cultivar. In this case, 'Pandora-INIA' stands out by exhibiting the best yield (7.38 t ha-1, high sedimentation (36.95 cm³, and wet gluten (41.54% indices in all the environments, and this positions it as a variety having both high yield and quality.Dentro de los objetivos del mejoramiento genético del trigo (Triticum aestivum L. figura la obtención de variedades capaces de expresar su máximo potencial de rendimiento y calidad en diversos ambientes. Por lo cual es necesario conocer y definir el ambiente en que una variedad puede expresar al máximo su potencial de rendimiento y de calidad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar una metodología eficiente para analizar la respuesta de diversos cultivares de trigo a distintos ambientes. Para ello se analizó la adaptabilidad, estabilidad y la interacción Genotipo x Ambiente (GxE de 13 variedades de trigo de primavera, sembradas, en seis ambientes de la

  17. Australian Coral as a Biomaterial: Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to produce effective implants, the materials used must be biocompatible. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a bioactive material similar to the mineral component of teeth and bone which is often used for orbital implants and bone graft applications. HAp can be manufactured from corals via hydrothermal conversion. Coral is particularly useful as a starting material for hydroxyapatite production because of its porous nature. When a porous structure is used tissue ingrowth can occur readily and hence an excellent mechanical bond can be achieved. A large pore size and a high degree of pore interconnections are desirable implant properties. In the present paper a comparison of the properties of four different species of Australian coral has been made to determine the most favourable species to use as a starting material for hydrothermal conversion.

  18. Bacterial community dynamics are linked to patterns of coral heat tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Maren; Seneca, Francois O.; Yum, Lauren K.; Palumbi, Stephen R.; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-02-01

    Ocean warming threatens corals and the coral reef ecosystem. Nevertheless, corals can be adapted to their thermal environment and inherit heat tolerance across generations. In addition, the diverse microbes that associate with corals have the capacity for more rapid change, potentially aiding the adaptation of long-lived corals. Here, we show that the microbiome of reef corals is different across thermally variable habitats and changes over time when corals are reciprocally transplanted. Exposing these corals to thermal bleaching conditions changes the microbiome for heat-sensitive corals, but not for heat-tolerant corals growing in habitats with natural high heat extremes. Importantly, particular bacterial taxa predict the coral host response in a short-term heat stress experiment. Such associations could result from parallel responses of the coral and the microbial community to living at high natural temperatures. A competing hypothesis is that the microbial community and coral heat tolerance are causally linked.

  19. Bacterial community dynamics are linked to patterns of coral heat tolerance

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren

    2017-02-10

    Ocean warming threatens corals and the coral reef ecosystem. Nevertheless, corals can be adapted to their thermal environment and inherit heat tolerance across generations. In addition, the diverse microbes that associate with corals have the capacity for more rapid change, potentially aiding the adaptation of long-lived corals. Here, we show that the microbiome of reef corals is different across thermally variable habitats and changes over time when corals are reciprocally transplanted. Exposing these corals to thermal bleaching conditions changes the microbiome for heat-sensitive corals, but not for heat-tolerant corals growing in habitats with natural high heat extremes. Importantly, particular bacterial taxa predict the coral host response in a short-term heat stress experiment. Such associations could result from parallel responses of the coral and the microbial community to living at high natural temperatures. A competing hypothesis is that the microbial community and coral heat tolerance are causally linked.

  20. High macroalgal cover and low coral recruitment undermines the potential resilience of the world's southernmost coral reef assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Hoey

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are under increasing pressure from anthropogenic and climate-induced stressors. The ability of reefs to reassemble and regenerate after disturbances (i.e., resilience is largely dependent on the capacity of herbivores to prevent macroalgal expansion, and the replenishment of coral populations through larval recruitment. Currently there is a paucity of this information for higher latitude, subtropical reefs. To assess the potential resilience of the benthic reef assemblages of Lord Howe Island (31°32'S, 159°04'E, the worlds' southernmost coral reef, we quantified the benthic composition, densities of juvenile corals (as a proxy for coral recruitment, and herbivorous fish communities. Despite some variation among habitats and sites, benthic communities were dominated by live scleractinian corals (mean cover 37.4% and fleshy macroalgae (20.9%. Live coral cover was higher than in most other subtropical reefs and directly comparable to lower latitude tropical reefs. Juvenile coral densities (0.8 ind.m(-2, however, were 5-200 times lower than those reported for tropical reefs. Overall, macroalgal cover was negatively related to the cover of live coral and the density of juvenile corals, but displayed no relationship with herbivorous fish biomass. The biomass of herbivorous fishes was relatively low (204 kg.ha(-1, and in marked contrast to tropical reefs was dominated by macroalgal browsing species (84.1% with relatively few grazing species. Despite their extremely low biomass, grazing fishes were positively related to both the density of juvenile corals and the cover of bare substrata, suggesting that they may enhance the recruitment of corals through the provision of suitable settlement sites. Although Lord Howe Islands' reefs are currently coral-dominated, the high macroalgal cover, coupled with limited coral recruitment and low coral growth rates suggest these reefs may be extremely susceptible to future disturbances.

  1. High macroalgal cover and low coral recruitment undermines the potential resilience of the world's southernmost coral reef assemblages

    KAUST Repository

    Hoey, Andrew

    2011-10-03

    Coral reefs are under increasing pressure from anthropogenic and climate-induced stressors. The ability of reefs to reassemble and regenerate after disturbances (i.e., resilience) is largely dependent on the capacity of herbivores to prevent macroalgal expansion, and the replenishment of coral populations through larval recruitment. Currently there is a paucity of this information for higher latitude, subtropical reefs. To assess the potential resilience of the benthic reef assemblages of Lord Howe Island (31°32?S, 159°04?E), the worlds\\' southernmost coral reef, we quantified the benthic composition, densities of juvenile corals (as a proxy for coral recruitment), and herbivorous fish communities. Despite some variation among habitats and sites, benthic communities were dominated by live scleractinian corals (mean cover 37.4%) and fleshy macroalgae (20.9%). Live coral cover was higher than in most other subtropical reefs and directly comparable to lower latitude tropical reefs. Juvenile coral densities (0.8 ind.m -2), however, were 5-200 times lower than those reported for tropical reefs. Overall, macroalgal cover was negatively related to the cover of live coral and the density of juvenile corals, but displayed no relationship with herbivorous fish biomass. The biomass of herbivorous fishes was relatively low (204 kg.ha -1), and in marked contrast to tropical reefs was dominated by macroalgal browsing species (84.1%) with relatively few grazing species. Despite their extremely low biomass, grazing fishes were positively related to both the density of juvenile corals and the cover of bare substrata, suggesting that they may enhance the recruitment of corals through the provision of suitable settlement sites. Although Lord Howe Islands\\' reefs are currently coral-dominated, the high macroalgal cover, coupled with limited coral recruitment and low coral growth rates suggest these reefs may be extremely susceptible to future disturbances. © 2011 Hoey et al.

  2. Metabolomics-driven nutraceutical evaluation of diverse green tea cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Fujimura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Green tea has various health promotion effects. Although there are numerous tea cultivars, little is known about the differences in their nutraceutical properties. Metabolic profiling techniques can provide information on the relationship between the metabolome and factors such as phenotype or quality. Here, we performed metabolomic analyses to explore the relationship between the metabolome and health-promoting attributes (bioactivity of diverse Japanese green tea cultivars. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the ability of leaf extracts from 43 Japanese green tea cultivars to inhibit thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. This thrombin-induced phosphorylation is a potential hallmark of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Among the tested cultivars, Cha Chuukanbohon Nou-6 (Nou-6 and Sunrouge (SR strongly inhibited MRLC phosphorylation. To evaluate the bioactivity of green tea cultivars using a metabolomics approach, the metabolite profiles of all tea extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA, revealed differences among green tea cultivars with respect to their ability to inhibit MRLC phosphorylation. In the SR cultivar, polyphenols were associated with its unique metabolic profile and its bioactivity. In addition, using partial least-squares (PLS regression analysis, we succeeded in constructing a reliable bioactivity-prediction model to predict the inhibitory effect of tea cultivars based on their metabolome. This model was based on certain identified metabolites that were associated with bioactivity. When added to an extract from the non-bioactive cultivar Yabukita, several metabolites enriched in SR were able to transform the extract into a bioactive

  3. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMUTAGENIC ACTIVITIES OF TAIF GRAPE (VITIS VINIFERA CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmegid Ibrahim Fahmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extract of grape Vitis vinifera has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and antimutagenic activities and the phenolic compounds play a vital role in determining these activities. Therefore; the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-mutagenic activities as well as the phenolic composition of different grape cultivar extracts collected from Taif region. The grape cultivars namely; Italian, American, Lebanese, Taifyb and Taifye were collected at maturity stage to represent Taif region cultivars. The total concentrations of phenoles were determined for the five cultivar extracts and results indicated that the concentrations ranged from 115-960 mg L-1 Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE. Also, HPLC analysis included was carried out of nine important phenolic compounds namely; Cyanidine chloride, Myricetin, Chrysin, Quercetin, Delphinidine chloride, Malvidine chloride, Naringenin, Galangin and Caffeic acid. Significant differences among cultivars were obtained for each compound. However, the highest cultivar for each compound differed from compound to another. At the same time, DPPH was used to estimate antioxidant activity and the data showed that different grape cultivar extracts were able to quench 47-60% of DPPH radical solution and to exhibited potent radical scavenging activity. Also, antimutagenic activity was measured as a decrease of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice treated with the mutagen Endoxan. Results showed that treatment of mice with grape cultivar extracts resulted in a significant decrease in all types of chromosomal aberrations induced by Endoxan. Also, the anticlastogenic effect was measured using micronulei test and results indicated that all grape cultivar extracts reduced significantly the effect of Endoxan on micronulei test. Finally, treatment of mice with grape cultivar extracts enhanced mitotic index of mice bone marrow cells reduced by Endoxan treatment. The relationship

  4. Impact of Global Warming on Coral Reefs

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    Sirilak CHUMKIEW

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review coral reef responses to climate variability and discuss the possible mechanisms by which climate impacts the coral reef ecosystem. Effects of oceanographic variables such as sea temperature, turbulence, salinity, and nutrients on the coral reef are discussed in terms of their influence on coral growth, reproduction, mortality, acclimation and adaptation. Organisms tend to be limited to specific thermal ranges with experimental findings showing that sufficient oxygen supply by ventilation and circulation only occurs within these ranges. Indirect effects of climate change on the food web are also discussed. Further integrative studies are required to improve our knowledge of the processes linking coral reef responses to future climate change scenarios.Graphical abstract► Incidence of coral reef bleaching on a worldwide scale: location of bleaching reports during 1979 - 2010. Maps are from ReefBase, www.reefbase.org: 1, Arabian Gulf (United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Iran; 2, Red Sea; 3, east Africa; 4, southern Africa (Mozambique, South Africa; 5, Madagascar; 6, Mauritius, Reunion; 7, Seychelles; 8, Chagos; 9, Maldives; 10, Sri Lanka/southern India; 11, Andaman Sea (Andamans, Thailand, Malaysia; 12, South China Sea (Vietnam, Paracel Islands; 13, Philippines; 14, Indonesia; 15, western Australia; 16, Great Barrier Reef; 17, Ryukyu Islands; 18, Mariana Islands; 19, Palau; 20, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu; 21, Fiji; 22, Samoa; 23, French Polynesia (including Moorea; 24, Hawaiian Islands; 25, Easter Island; 26, Galapagos Islands; 27, equatorial eastern Pacific (Costa Rica, Cocos Island, Panama´, Colombia, Ecuador; 28, subtropical eastern Pacific (Mexico; 29, Mesoamerican reef system (Mexico, Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua; 30, Greater Antilles (Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands; 31, Bahamas, Florida; 32, Bermuda; 33, Lesser Antilles; 34, Curaçao, Aruba, Bonaire, Los Roques; 35, Brazil.

  5. Microbial bioenergetics of coral-algal interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ty N.F. Roach

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human impacts are causing ecosystem phase shifts from coral- to algal-dominated reef systems on a global scale. As these ecosystems undergo transition, there is an increased incidence of coral-macroalgal interactions. Mounting evidence indicates that the outcome of these interaction events is, in part, governed by microbially mediated dynamics. The allocation of available energy through different trophic levels, including the microbial food web, determines the outcome of these interactions and ultimately shapes the benthic community structure. However, little is known about the underlying thermodynamic mechanisms involved in these trophic energy transfers. This study utilizes a novel combination of methods including calorimetry, flow cytometry, and optical oxygen measurements, to provide a bioenergetic analysis of coral-macroalgal interactions in a controlled aquarium setting. We demonstrate that the energetic demands of microbial communities at the coral-algal interaction interface are higher than in the communities associated with either of the macroorganisms alone. This was evident through higher microbial power output (energy use per unit time and lower oxygen concentrations at interaction zones compared to areas distal from the interface. Increases in microbial power output and lower oxygen concentrations were significantly correlated with the ratio of heterotrophic to autotrophic microbes but not the total microbial abundance. These results suggest that coral-algal interfaces harbor higher proportions of heterotrophic microbes that are optimizing maximal power output, as opposed to yield. This yield to power shift offers a possible thermodynamic mechanism underlying the transition from coral- to algal-dominated reef ecosystems currently being observed worldwide. As changes in the power output of an ecosystem are a significant indicator of the current state of the system, this analysis provides a novel and insightful means to quantify

  6. Cold-water coral banks and submarine landslides: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mol, Ben; Huvenne, Veerle; Canals, Miquel

    2009-06-01

    This paper aims to review the relation between cold-water coral bank development and submarine landslides. Both are common features on continental margins, but so far it has not been reviewed which effect—if at all—they may have upon each other. Indirect and direct relations between coral banks and landslides are evaluated here, based on four case studies: the Magellan Mound Province in the Porcupine Seabight, where fossil coral banks appear partly on top of a buried slide deposit; the Sula Ridge Reef Complex and the Storegga landslide both off mid-Norway; and the Mauritania coral bank province, associated with the Mauritanian Slide Complex. For each of these locations, positive and negative relationships between both features are discussed, based on available datasets. Locally submarine landslides might directly favour coral bank development by creating substratum where corals can settle on, enhancing turbulence due to abrupt seabed morphological variations and, in some cases, causing fluid seepage. In turn, some of these processes may contribute to increased food availability and lower sedimentation rates. Landslides can also affect coral bank development by direct erosion of the coral banks, and by the instantaneous increase of turbidity, which may smother the corals. On the other hand, coral banks might have a stabilising function and delay or stop the headwall retrogradation of submarine landslides. Although local relationships can be deduced from these case studies, no general and direct relationship exists between submarine landslides and cold-water coral banks.

  7. Bacterial acquisition in juveniles of several broadcast spawning coral species.

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    Koty H Sharp

    Full Text Available Coral animals harbor diverse microorganisms in their tissues, including archaea, bacteria, viruses, and zooxanthellae. The extent to which coral-bacterial associations are specific and the mechanisms for their maintenance across generations in the environment are unknown. The high diversity of bacteria in adult coral colonies has made it challenging to identify species-specific patterns. Localization of bacteria in gametes and larvae of corals presents an opportunity for determining when bacterial-coral associations are initiated and whether they are dynamic throughout early development. This study focuses on the early onset of bacterial associations in the mass spawning corals Montastraea annularis, M. franksi, M. faveolata, Acropora palmata, A. cervicornis, Diploria strigosa, and A. humilis. The presence of bacteria and timing of bacterial colonization was evaluated in gametes, swimming planulae, and newly settled polyps by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using general eubacterial probes and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The coral species investigated in this study do not appear to transmit bacteria via their gametes, and bacteria are not detectable in or on the corals until after settlement and metamorphosis. This study suggests that mass-spawning corals do not acquire, or are not colonized by, detectable numbers of bacteria until after larval settlement and development of the juvenile polyp. This timing lays the groundwork for developing and testing new hypotheses regarding general regulatory mechanisms that control bacterial colonization and infection of corals, and how interactions among bacteria and juvenile polyps influence the structure of bacterial assemblages in corals.

  8. Dynamic stability of coral reefs on the west Australian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Conrad W; Babcock, Russ C; Bancroft, Kevin P; Beckley, Lynnath E; Bellchambers, Lynda M; Depczynski, Martial; Field, Stuart N; Friedman, Kim J; Gilmour, James P; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Kobryn, Halina T; Moore, James A Y; Nutt, Christopher D; Shedrawi, George; Thomson, Damian P; Wilson, Shaun K

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring changes in coral cover and composition through space and time can provide insights to reef health and assist the focus of management and conservation efforts. We used a meta-analytical approach to assess coral cover data across latitudes 10-35°S along the west Australian coast, including 25 years of data from the Ningaloo region. Current estimates of coral cover ranged between 3 and 44% in coral habitats. Coral communities in the northern regions were dominated by corals from the families Acroporidae and Poritidae, which became less common at higher latitudes. At Ningaloo Reef coral cover has remained relatively stable through time (∼28%), although north-eastern and southern areas have experienced significant declines in overall cover. These declines are likely related to periodic disturbances such as cyclones and thermal anomalies, which were particularly noticeable around 1998/1999 and 2010/2011. Linear mixed effects models (LME) suggest latitude explains 10% of the deviance in coral cover through time at Ningaloo. Acroporidae has decreased in abundance relative to other common families at Ningaloo in the south, which might be related to persistence of more thermally and mechanically tolerant families. We identify regions where quantitative time-series data on coral cover and composition are lacking, particularly in north-western Australia. Standardising routine monitoring methods used by management and research agencies at these, and other locations, would allow a more robust assessment of coral condition and a better basis for conservation of coral reefs.

  9. Bacterial acquisition in juveniles of several broadcast spawning coral species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Koty H; Ritchie, Kim B; Schupp, Peter J; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Paul, Valerie J

    2010-05-28

    Coral animals harbor diverse microorganisms in their tissues, including archaea, bacteria, viruses, and zooxanthellae. The extent to which coral-bacterial associations are specific and the mechanisms for their maintenance across generations in the environment are unknown. The high diversity of bacteria in adult coral colonies has made it challenging to identify species-specific patterns. Localization of bacteria in gametes and larvae of corals presents an opportunity for determining when bacterial-coral associations are initiated and whether they are dynamic throughout early development. This study focuses on the early onset of bacterial associations in the mass spawning corals Montastraea annularis, M. franksi, M. faveolata, Acropora palmata, A. cervicornis, Diploria strigosa, and A. humilis. The presence of bacteria and timing of bacterial colonization was evaluated in gametes, swimming planulae, and newly settled polyps by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using general eubacterial probes and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The coral species investigated in this study do not appear to transmit bacteria via their gametes, and bacteria are not detectable in or on the corals until after settlement and metamorphosis. This study suggests that mass-spawning corals do not acquire, or are not colonized by, detectable numbers of bacteria until after larval settlement and development of the juvenile polyp. This timing lays the groundwork for developing and testing new hypotheses regarding general regulatory mechanisms that control bacterial colonization and infection of corals, and how interactions among bacteria and juvenile polyps influence the structure of bacterial assemblages in corals.

  10. Spatial dynamics of benthic competition on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandin, Stuart A; McNamara, Dylan E

    2012-04-01

    The community structure of sedentary organisms is largely controlled by the outcome of direct competition for space. Understanding factors defining competitive outcomes among neighbors is thus critical for predicting large-scale changes, such as transitions to alternate states within coral reefs. Using a spatially explicit model, we explored the importance of variation in two spatial properties in benthic dynamics on coral reefs: (1) patterns of herbivory are spatially distinct between fishes and sea urchins and (2) there is wide variation in the areal extent into which different coral species can expand. We reveal that the size-specific, competitive asymmetry of corals versus fleshy algae highlights the significance of spatial patterning of herbivory and of coral growth. Spatial dynamics that alter the demographic importance of coral recruitment and maturation have profound effects on the emergent structure of the reef benthic community. Spatially constrained herbivory (as by sea urchins) is more effective than spatially unconstrained herbivory (as by many fish) at opening space for the time needed for corals to settle and to recruit to the adult population. Further, spatially unconstrained coral growth (as by many branching coral species) reduces the number of recruitment events needed to fill a habitat with coral relative to more spatially constrained growth (as by many massive species). Our model predicts that widespread mortality of branching corals (e.g., Acropora spp) and herbivorous sea urchins (particularly Diadema antillarum) in the Caribbean has greatly reduced the potential for restoration across the region.

  11. Corals concentrate dissolved inorganic carbon to facilitate calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Nicola; Cohen, Itay; Finch, Adrian A; Erez, Jonathan; Tudhope, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    The sources of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) used to produce scleractinian coral skeletons are not understood. Yet this knowledge is essential for understanding coral biomineralization and assessing the potential impacts of ocean acidification on coral reefs. Here we use skeletal boron geochemistry to reconstruct the DIC chemistry of the fluid used for coral calcification. We show that corals concentrate DIC at the calcification site substantially above seawater values and that bicarbonate contributes a significant amount of the DIC pool used to build the skeleton. Corals actively increase the pH of the calcification fluid, decreasing the proportion of DIC present as CO2 and creating a diffusion gradient favouring the transport of molecular CO2 from the overlying coral tissue into the calcification site. Coupling the increases in calcification fluid pH and [DIC] yields high calcification fluid [CO3(2-)] and induces high aragonite saturation states, favourable to the precipitation of the skeleton.

  12. Are coral reefs victims of their own past success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renema, Willem; Pandolfi, John M; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Bosellini, Francesca R; Klaus, James S; Korpanty, Chelsea; Rosen, Brian R; Santodomingo, Nadiezhda; Wallace, Carden C; Webster, Jody M; Johnson, Kenneth G

    2016-04-01

    As one of the most prolific and widespread reef builders, the staghorn coral Acropora holds a disproportionately large role in how coral reefs will respond to accelerating anthropogenic change. We show that although Acropora has a diverse history extended over the past 50 million years, it was not a dominant reef builder until the onset of high-amplitude glacioeustatic sea-level fluctuations 1.8 million years ago. High growth rates and propagation by fragmentation have favored staghorn corals since this time. In contrast, staghorn corals are among the most vulnerable corals to anthropogenic stressors, with marked global loss of abundance worldwide. The continued decline in staghorn coral abundance and the mounting challenges from both local stress and climate change will limit the coral reefs' ability to provide ecosystem services.

  13. Coral Reefs: An English Compilation of Activities for Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sharon H.; Newton, R. Amanda; Ortiz, Alida

    This activity book on coral reefs for middle school students is divided into 10 sections. Section 1 contains the introduction. Section 2 describes what coral reefs are while section 3 describes how coral reefs reproduce and grow. Section 4 discusses where coral reefs are found and section 5 describes life on a coral reef. Section 6 discusses the…

  14. Coral settlement on a highly disturbed equatorial reef system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Andrew G; Guest, James R; Dunshea, Glenn; Low, Jeffery; Todd, Peter A; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Processes occurring early in the life stages of corals can greatly influence the demography of coral populations, and successful settlement of coral larvae that leads to recruitment is a critical life history stage for coral reef ecosystems. Although corals in Singapore persist in one the world's most anthropogenically impacted reef systems, our understanding of the role of coral settlement in the persistence of coral communities in Singapore remains limited. Spatial and temporal patterns of coral settlement were examined at 7 sites in the southern islands of Singapore, using settlement tiles deployed and collected every 3 months from 2011 to 2013. Settlement occurred year round, but varied significantly across time and space. Annual coral settlement was low (~54.72 spat m(-2) yr(-1)) relative to other equatorial regions, but there was evidence of temporal variation in settlement rates. Peak settlement occurred between March-May and September-November, coinciding with annual coral spawning periods (March-April and October), while the lowest settlement occurred from December-February during the northeast monsoon. A period of high settlement was also observed between June and August in the first year (2011/12), possibly due to some species spawning outside predicted spawning periods, larvae settling from other locations or extended larval settlement competency periods. Settlement rates varied significantly among sites, but spatial variation was relatively consistent between years, suggesting the strong effects of local coral assemblages or environmental conditions. Pocilloporidae were the most abundant coral spat (83.6%), while Poritidae comprised only 6% of the spat, and Acroporidae coral spat. These results indicate that current settlement patterns are reinforcing the local adult assemblage structure ('others'; i.e. sediment-tolerant coral taxa) in Singapore, but that the replenishment capacity of Singapore's reefs appears relatively constrained, which could lead

  15. Calcification by juvenile corals under heterotrophy and elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenkard, E. J.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.; de Putron, S. J.; Starczak, V. R.; Zicht, A. E.

    2013-09-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) threatens the existence of coral reefs by slowing the rate of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) production of framework-building corals thus reducing the amount of CaCO3 the reef can produce to counteract natural dissolution. Some evidence exists to suggest that elevated levels of dissolved inorganic nutrients can reduce the impact of OA on coral calcification. Here, we investigated the potential for enhanced energetic status of juvenile corals, achieved via heterotrophic feeding, to modulate the negative impact of OA on calcification. Larvae of the common Atlantic golf ball coral, Favia fragum, were collected and reared for 3 weeks under ambient (421 μatm) or significantly elevated (1,311 μatm) CO2 conditions. The metamorphosed, zooxanthellate spat were either fed brine shrimp (i.e., received nutrition from photosynthesis plus heterotrophy) or not fed (i.e., primarily autotrophic). Regardless of CO2 condition, the skeletons of fed corals exhibited accelerated development of septal cycles and were larger than those of unfed corals. At each CO2 level, fed corals accreted more CaCO3 than unfed corals, and fed corals reared under 1,311 μatm CO2 accreted as much CaCO3 as unfed corals reared under ambient CO2. However, feeding did not alter the sensitivity of calcification to increased CO2; ∆ calcification/∆Ω was comparable for fed and unfed corals. Our results suggest that calcification rates of nutritionally replete juvenile corals will decline as OA intensifies over the course of this century. Critically, however, such corals could maintain higher rates of skeletal growth and CaCO3 production under OA than those in nutritionally limited environments.

  16. Coral settlement on a highly disturbed equatorial reef system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Bauman

    Full Text Available Processes occurring early in the life stages of corals can greatly influence the demography of coral populations, and successful settlement of coral larvae that leads to recruitment is a critical life history stage for coral reef ecosystems. Although corals in Singapore persist in one the world's most anthropogenically impacted reef systems, our understanding of the role of coral settlement in the persistence of coral communities in Singapore remains limited. Spatial and temporal patterns of coral settlement were examined at 7 sites in the southern islands of Singapore, using settlement tiles deployed and collected every 3 months from 2011 to 2013. Settlement occurred year round, but varied significantly across time and space. Annual coral settlement was low (~54.72 spat m(-2 yr(-1 relative to other equatorial regions, but there was evidence of temporal variation in settlement rates. Peak settlement occurred between March-May and September-November, coinciding with annual coral spawning periods (March-April and October, while the lowest settlement occurred from December-February during the northeast monsoon. A period of high settlement was also observed between June and August in the first year (2011/12, possibly due to some species spawning outside predicted spawning periods, larvae settling from other locations or extended larval settlement competency periods. Settlement rates varied significantly among sites, but spatial variation was relatively consistent between years, suggesting the strong effects of local coral assemblages or environmental conditions. Pocilloporidae were the most abundant coral spat (83.6%, while Poritidae comprised only 6% of the spat, and Acroporidae <1%. Other, unidentifiable families represented 10% of the coral spat. These results indicate that current settlement patterns are reinforcing the local adult assemblage structure ('others'; i.e. sediment-tolerant coral taxa in Singapore, but that the replenishment capacity

  17. The preparation of the rice coral Montipora capitata nubbins for application in coral-reef ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayavel, K; Richmond, R H

    2012-04-01

    Securing adequate and appropriate source material for coral-reef ecotoxicology studies is a significant impediment to conducting various experiments supporting the goal of conserving coral-reef ecosystems. Collecting colonies from wild stocks may be counter to protecting coral reef populations. To address this issue the rice coral Montipora capitata was used to generate sufficient genetically identical nubbins for research purposes. Growth and survival rates of these laboratory-prepared M. capitata nubbins were studied over a period of 90 days. The resulting data support the conclusion that the laboratory-prepared M. capitata nubbins showed successful growth and survival rates and are the best solution to solve the source material issue for lab experimentation. This paper describes the laboratory method used for the preparation and maintenance of these M. capitata nubbins and discusses the benefits and difficulties of using these nubbins in ecotoxicity studies.

  18. NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program: Coral Reef Habitat Mapping Projects in 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps are a critical cornerstone of coral reef management, research and planning, with direct links to management needs in a number of forms. To accurately...

  19. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Coral Colony Size and Condition Surveys since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated by the...

  20. NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program: 2016 Projects Monitoring the Effects of Thermal Stress on Coral Bleaching

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climate change impacts have been identified as one of the greatest global threats to coral reef ecosystems. As temperature rise, mass bleaching, and infectious...

  1. Compatibilidade de enxertia de cultivares de marmeleiros com pereiras Compatibility of pear cultivars on quinces rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeni Fonseca Pinto Tomaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A insuficiência de estudos sobre compatibilidade de porta-enxertos é um dos fatores limitantes ao desenvolvimento da cultura da pereira (Pyrus sp. no Brasil. A utilização do marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga como porta-enxerto para a cultura da pereira apresenta inúmeras vantagens, entre as quais a redução do vigor e a rápida entrada em produção; todavia, sua combinação com algumas cultivares copa apresenta problemas de incompatibilidade de enxertia, podendo ocasionar a ruptura do caule das plantas no pomar. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a compatibilidade de enxertia de algumas cultivares de marmeleiros ('Quince C' e 'Adams' com pereiras ('Packham's Triumph' e 'Kieffer'. As variáveis analisadas foram: diâmetro da secção do tronco no ponto de enxertia, 5 cm abaixo e 5 cm acima do ponto de enxertia, diferença do diâmetro entre porta-enxerto e copa, altura das plantas, volume e massa seca da copa e raízes. Além disso, efetuou-se a observação da conexão vascular no ponto de enxertia através da imersão da base das plantas (abaixo do ponto de enxertia, em solução corante de Ácido Fuccínico 0,08%. Concluiu-se que a cultivar 'Packham's Triumph'apresenta compatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Adams'e 'Quince C', enquanto o híbrido 'Kieffer' apresentou sintomas morfológicos de incompatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Quince C' e 'Adams'.The lack of studies on compatibility of pear cultivars and rootstocks is one of the limiting factors on the development of the pear crop in Brazil. The use of quinces as rootstocks for pear cultivars has several advantages, among them the reduction in vigor and earlier bearing trees, however, its combination with some scions cultivars results in problems of incompatibility , such as lost of trees of the orchard due to break of the graft union. The objective of this study was to determine the compatibility between pears cvs. Packham's Triumph and Kieffer

  2. Why Corals Care about Ocean Acidification: Insights from Ion Microprobe Analyses of Coral Crystals (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.; de Putron, S.; Gaetani, G. A.; Rose, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    Ocean acidification caused by rising levels of atmospheric CO2 is considered a major threat to the future health of coral reef ecosystems across the global tropics and subtropics. Results from laboratory experiments with corals reared under elevated CO2 conditions suggest that coral growth rates may decline by up to 80% of modern values by the end of this century. The mechanism by which ocean acidification impacts the skeletal growth of corals however, is not well-understood, limiting our ability to predict how corals might respond to climate changes outside of the laboratory. We used micro-scale imaging (SEM) and analytical (SIMS) techniques to quantify morphological and compositional changes in the first aragonite crystals accreted by young corals as they metamorphosed from non-calcifying larvae to calcifying polyps in experimental aquaria with seawater saturation states (Ω) ranging from ambient (3.71) to strongly under-saturated (0.22). Aragonite was accreted by all corals, even those reared under strongly under-saturated conditions, indicating that Ω of fluid within the calcifying compartment is maintained well above that of the external seawater environment. However, significant and progressive changes in both crystal morphology and composition with increasing acidification indicate that Ω of the coral’s calcifying fluid changed in proportion to that of the aquarium seawater. With increasing acidification, the normal skeleton of densely-packed bundles of fine aragonite needles gave way to a disordered aggregate of highly faceted rhombs. Sr/Ca ratios of the crystals increased by 13% and Mg/Ca ratios decreased by 45%. By comparing these variations in elemental ratios with results from Rayleigh fractionation calculations, we show that these changes are consistent with a >80% decrease in the amount of aragonite precipitated by the corals from each “batch” of calcifying fluid. The inability of the corals in acidified treatments to achieve the levels of

  3. Phylogenetic diversity of actinobacteria associated with soft coral Alcyonium gracllimum and stony coral Tubastraea coccinea in the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shan; Sun, Wei; Tang, Cen; Jin, Liling; Zhang, Fengli; Li, Zhiyong

    2013-07-01

    Actinobacteria are widely distributed in the marine environment. To date, few studies have been performed to explore the coral-associated Actinobacteria, and little is known about the diversity of coral-associated Actinobacteria. In this study, the actinobacterial diversity associated with one soft coral Alcyonium gracllimum and one stony coral Tubastraea coccinea collected from the East China Sea was investigated using both culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. A total of 19 actinobacterial genera were detected in these two corals, among which nine genera (Corynebacterium, Dietzia, Gordonia, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, Streptomyces, and Candidatus Microthrix) were common, three genera (Cellulomonas, Dermatophilus, and Janibacter) were unique to the soft coral, and seven genera (Brevibacterium, Dermacoccus, Leucobacter, Micromonospora, Nocardioides, Rhodococcus, and Serinicoccus) were unique to the stony coral. This finding suggested that highly diverse Actinobacteria were associated with different types of corals. In particular, five actinobacterial genera (Cellulomonas, Dermacoccus, Gordonia, Serinicoccus, and Candidatus Microthrix) were recovered from corals for the first time, extending the known diversity of coral-associated Actinobacteria. This study shows that soft and stony corals host diverse Actinobacteria and can serve as a new source of marine actinomycetes.

  4. A coral-on-a-chip microfluidic platform enabling live-imaging microscopy of reef-building corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Orr H.; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Gavish, Assaf R.; Stocker, Roman; Vardi, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs, and the unique ecosystems they support, are facing severe threats by human activities and climate change. Our understanding of these threats is hampered by the lack of robust approaches for studying the micro-scale interactions between corals and their environment. Here we present an experimental platform, coral-on-a-chip, combining micropropagation and microfluidics to allow direct microscopic study of live coral polyps. The small and transparent coral micropropagates are ideally suited for live-imaging microscopy, while the microfluidic platform facilitates long-term visualization under controlled environmental conditions. We demonstrate the usefulness of this approach by imaging coral micropropagates at previously unattainable spatio-temporal resolutions, providing new insights into several micro-scale processes including coral calcification, coral–pathogen interaction and the loss of algal symbionts (coral bleaching). Coral-on-a-chip thus provides a powerful method for studying coral physiology in vivo at the micro-scale, opening new vistas in coral biology. PMID:26940983

  5. CULTIVAR RELEASE - CD 120 – wheat cultivar, standard quality soft, for the Southern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Schuster

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar CD 120, developed by the Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola (COODETEC is suitable for cultivation in the VCU wheat-producing regions 1 and 2 of the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. It is tolerant to the major wheat diseases and pre-harvest germination and has soft wheat quality and a 6.5 % higher grain yield (3.678 kg ha-1 than the control.

  6. Abundance and composition of juvenile corals reveals divergent trajectories for coral assemblages across the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchett, Morgan S; Baird, Andrew H; Bauman, Andrew G; Burt, John A

    2017-01-30

    Marked shifts in the composition of coral assemblages are occurring at many locations, but it is unknown whether these are permanent shifts reinforced by patterns of population replenishment. This study examined the composition of juvenile coral assemblages across the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Densities of juvenile corals varied significantly among locations, but were highest where coral cover was highest. Juvenile coral assemblages within the Persian Gulf were dominated by Porites, while no Acropora were recorded. We expect therefore, continued declines in Acropora abundance, while observed dominance of Porites is likely to persist. In the Oman Sea, Pocillopora was the dominant juvenile coral, with Acropora and Stylophora also recorded. This study shows that taxonomic differences in replenishment are reinforcing temporal shifts in coral composition within the southern Persian Gulf, but not in the Oman Sea. Differences in environmental conditions and disturbance regimes likely explain the divergent responses between regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 3. Coral fertilization and adult corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P; Burns, Kathryn A; Heyward, Andrew J

    2004-05-01

    Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to each life stage. In the fertilization experiment, gametes from the scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of VDL-1A and MDL for four hours. The MDL and VDL-1A WAFs inhibited normal fertilization of the corals at 200 microg l(-1) total hydrocarbon content (THC) and 150 microg l(-1) THC respectively. Disturbance of a stable coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis is regarded as a valid measure of sub-lethal stress in adult corals. The state of the symbiosis in branchlets of adult colonies of Acropora formosa was monitored using indicators such as dinoflagellate expulsion and dark-adapted photosystem II yields of dinoflagellate (using pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence). An effect on symbiosis was measurable following 48 h exposure to the lubricants at concentrations of 190 microg l(-1) and 37 microg l(-1) THC for the MDL and VDL-1A respectively. GC/MS revealed that the main constituent of the VDL-1A WAF was the compound coumarin, added by the manufacturer to improve odour. The fragrance containing coumarin was removed from the lubricant formulation and the toxicity towards adult corals re-examined. The coumarin-free VDL-2 exhibited significantly less toxicity towards the adult corals than all of the other oil types tested, with the only measurable effect being a slight but significant drop in photosynthetic efficiency at 280 microg l(-1).

  8. Climate-driven coral reorganisation influences aggressive behaviour in juvenile coral-reef fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, Judith E.; Graham, Nicholas Anthony James; Mia O Hoogenboom

    2016-01-01

    Globally, habitat degradation is altering the abundance and diversity of species in a variety of ecosystems. This study aimed to determine how habitat degradation, in terms of changing coral composition under climate change, affected abundance, species richness and aggressive behaviour of juveniles of three damselfishes (Pomacentrus moluccensis, P. amboinensis and Dischistodus perspicillatus, in order of decreasing reliance on coral). Patch reefs were constructed to simulate two types of reef...

  9. Breeding Potential in Danish Apple Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne

    understanding of the link between phenotypes and the underlying gene-tic background which is crucial in plant breeding. We found a considerable genetic diversity in the collection and no genetic structure. We exposed a high number of accessions in admix and revealed several putative cultivar parentages, never......The diversity in plant genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement of cultivated crop species. Lack of in-depth characterization and evaluation of gene bank accessions is a major obstacle for their potential utilization. The Danish apple (Malus domestica L.) gene bank collection...... be used directly for marker-assisted selection. In addition, we suggest a number of candidate genes involved in the control of several important fruit quality traits. Future studies and breeding attempts can therefore benefit from the results, including genetic fingerprints and pedigree reconstruction...

  10. Adaptability and stability of sweet sorghum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Fillipe de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic stability and adaptability of 25 sweet sorghum cultivars of EmbrapaMaize and Sorghum. The experiments were conducted in five Brazilian environments, three in the state of Minas Gerais, and theothers in Sinop, Mato Grosso and Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. Fresh biomass yield (FBY, and total soluble solids (TSS of the juicewere evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Analysis of variance showed significant genotype byenvironment interaction for both traits. According to the Annicchiarico methodology analysis, genotypes CMSXS634, BRS506, andCMSXS646 were the most stable and adapted for FBY and TSS concomitantly; CMSXS634 being more adapted to favorable environmentsand CMSXS646 being more adapted to unfavorable environments.

  11. Mine waste disposal leads to lower coral cover, reduced species richness and a predominance of simple coral growth forms on a fringing coral reef in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, M D E; Dennis, D; Thomson, D P; Pillans, R D

    2016-04-01

    A large gold mine has been operating at the Lihir Island Group, Papua New Guinea since 1997. The mine disposes of waste rock in nearshore waters, impacting nearby coral communities. During 2010, 2012 we conducted photographic surveys at 73 sites within 40 km of the mine to document impacts of mining operations on the hard coral communities. Coral communities close to the mine (∼2 km to the north and south of the mine) were depaurperate, but surprisingly, coral cover and community composition beyond this range appeared to be relatively similar, suggesting that the mine impacts were limited spatially. In particular, we found mining operations have resulted in a significant decrease in coral cover (4.4% 1.48 km from the disposal site c.f. 66.9% 10.36 km from the disposal site), decreased species richness and a predominance of less complex growth forms within ∼2 km to the north and south of the mine waste disposal site. In contrast to the two 'snapshot' surveys of corals performed in 2010 and 2012, long term data (1999-2012) based on visual estimates of coral cover suggested that impacts on coral communities may have been more extensive than this. With global pressures on the world's coral reefs increasing, it is vital that local, direct anthropogenic pressures are reduced, in order to help offset the impacts of climate change, disease and predation.

  12. Hurricanes and coral bleaching linked to changes in coral recruitment in Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallela, J; Crabbe, M J C

    2009-10-01

    Knowledge of coral recruitment patterns helps us understand how reefs react following major disturbances and provides us with an early warning system for predicting future reef health problems. We have reconstructed and interpreted historical and modern-day recruitment patterns, using a combination of growth modelling and in situ recruitment experiments, in order to understand how hurricanes, storms and bleaching events have influenced coral recruitment on the Caribbean coastline of Tobago. Whilst Tobago does not lie within the main hurricane belt results indicate that regional hurricane events negatively impact coral recruitment patterns in the Southern Caribbean. In years following hurricanes, tropical storms and bleaching events, coral recruitment was reduced when compared to normal years (p=0.016). Following Hurricane Ivan in 2004 and the 2005-2006 bleaching event, coral recruitment was markedly limited with only 2% (n=6) of colonies estimated to have recruited during 2006 and 2007. Our experimental results indicate that despite multiple large-scale disturbances corals are still recruiting on Tobago's marginal reef systems, albeit in low numbers.

  13. Coral disease and health workshop: Coral Histopathology II, July 12-14, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, S.B.; Woodley, Cheryl M.; McLaughlin, S.M.; Work, T.M.; Bochsler, V.S.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Sileo, Louis; Peters, E.C.; Kramarsky-Winters, E.; Morado, J. Frank; Parnell, P.G.; Rotstein, D.S.; Harely, R.A.; Reynolds, T.L.

    2005-01-01

    The health and continued existence of coral reef ecosystems are threatened by an increasing array of environmental and anthropogenic impacts. Coral disease is one of the prominent causes of increased mortality among reefs globally, particularly in the Caribbean. Although over 40 different coral diseases and syndromes have been reported worldwide, only a few etiological agents have been confirmed; most pathogens remain unknown and the dynamics of disease transmission, pathogenicity and mortality are not understood. Causal relationships have been documented for only a few of the coral diseases, while new syndromes continue to emerge. Extensive field observations by coral biologists have provided substantial documentation of a plethora of new pathologies, but our understanding, however, has been limited to descriptions of gross lesions with names reflecting these observations (e.g., black band, white band, dark spot). To determine etiology, we must equip coral diseases scientists with basic biomedical knowledge and specialized training in areas such as histology, cell biology and pathology. Only through combining descriptive science with mechanistic science and employing the synthesis epizootiology provides will we be able to gain insight into causation and become equipped to handle the pending crisis.

  14. Modeling coral calcification accounting for the impacts of coral bleaching and ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Evenhuis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are diverse ecosystems threatened by rising CO2 levels that are driving the observed increases in sea surface temperature and ocean acidification. Here we present a new unified model that links changes in temperature and carbonate chemistry to coral health. Changes in coral health and population are able to explicitly modelled by linking the rates of growth, recovery and calcification to the rates of bleaching and temperature stress induced mortality. The model is underpinned by four key principles: the Arrhenius equation, thermal specialisation, resource allocation trade-offs, and adaption to local environments. These general relationships allow this model to be constructed from a range of experimental and observational data. The different characteristics of this model are also assessed against independent data to show that the model captures the observed response of corals. We also provide new insights into the factors that determine calcification rates and provide a framework based on well-known biological principles for understanding the observed global distribution of calcification rates. Our results suggest that, despite the implicit complexity of the coral reef environment, a simple model based on temperature, carbonate chemistry and different species can reproduce much of the observed response of corals to changes in temperature and ocean acidification.

  15. Coral-associated micro-organisms and their roles in promoting coral health and thwarting diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krediet, Cory J.; Ritchie, Kim B.; Paul, Valerie J.; Teplitski, Max

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, significant advances have been made in characterization of the coral microbiota. Shifts in its composition often correlate with the appearance of signs of diseases and/or bleaching, thus suggesting a link between microbes, coral health and stability of reef ecosystems. The understanding of interactions in coral-associated microbiota is informed by the on-going characterization of other microbiomes, which suggest that metabolic pathways and functional capabilities define the ‘core’ microbiota more accurately than the taxonomic diversity of its members. Consistent with this hypothesis, there does not appear to be a consensus on the specificity in the interactions of corals with microbial commensals, even though recent studies report potentially beneficial functions of the coral-associated bacteria. They cycle sulphur, fix nitrogen, produce antimicrobial compounds, inhibit cell-to-cell signalling and disrupt virulence in opportunistic pathogens. While their beneficial functions have been documented, it is not certain whether or how these microbes are selected by the hosts. Therefore, understanding the role of innate immunity, signal and nutrient exchange in the establishment of coral microbiota and in controlling its functions will probably reveal ancient, evolutionarily conserved mechanisms that dictate the outcomes of host–microbial interactions, and impact the resilience of the host. PMID:23363627

  16. Forecasting decadal changes in sea surface temperatures and coral bleaching within a Caribbean coral reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angang; Reidenbach, Matthew A.

    2014-09-01

    Elevated sea surface temperature (SST) caused by global warming is one of the major threats to coral reefs. While increased SST has been shown to negatively affect the health of coral reefs by increasing rates of coral bleaching, how changes to atmospheric heating impact SST distributions, modified by local flow environments, has been less understood. This study aimed to simulate future water flow patterns and water surface heating in response to increased air temperature within a coral reef system in Bocas del Toro, Panama, located within the Caribbean Sea. Water flow and SST were modeled using the Delft3D-FLOWcomputer simulation package. Locally measured physical parameters, including bathymetry, astronomic tidal forcing, and coral habitat distribution were input into the model and water flow, and SST was simulated over a four-month period under present day, as well as projected warming scenarios in 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. Changes in SST, and hence the thermal stress to corals, were quantified by degree heating weeks. Results showed that present-day reported bleaching sites were consistent with localized regions of continuous high SST. Regions with highest SST were located within shallow coastal sites adjacent to the mainland or within the interior of the bay, and characterized by low currents with high water retention times. Under projected increases in SSTs, shallow reef areas in low flow regions were found to be hot spots for future bleaching.

  17. Modelling coral calcification accounting for the impacts of coral bleaching and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, C.; Lenton, A.; Cantin, N. E.; Lough, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    Coral reefs are diverse ecosystems that are threatened by rising CO2 levels through increases in sea surface temperature and ocean acidification. Here we present a new unified model that links changes in temperature and carbonate chemistry to coral health. Changes in coral health and population are explicitly modelled by linking rates of growth, recovery and calcification to rates of bleaching and temperature-stress-induced mortality. The model is underpinned by four key principles: the Arrhenius equation, thermal specialisation, correlated up- and down-regulation of traits that are consistent with resource allocation trade-offs, and adaption to local environments. These general relationships allow this model to be constructed from a range of experimental and observational data. The performance of the model is assessed against independent data to demonstrate how it can capture the observed response of corals to stress. We also provide new insights into the factors that determine calcification rates and provide a framework based on well-known biological principles to help understand the observed global distribution of calcification rates. Our results suggest that, despite the implicit complexity of the coral reef environment, a simple model based on temperature, carbonate chemistry and different species can give insights into how corals respond to changes in temperature and ocean acidification.

  18. Modeling coral calcification accounting for the impacts of coral bleaching and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, C.; Lenton, A.; Cantin, N. E.; Lough, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are diverse ecosystems threatened by rising CO2 levels that are driving the observed increases in sea surface temperature and ocean acidification. Here we present a new unified model that links changes in temperature and carbonate chemistry to coral health. Changes in coral health and population are able to explicitly modelled by linking the rates of growth, recovery and calcification to the rates of bleaching and temperature stress induced mortality. The model is underpinned by four key principles: the Arrhenius equation, thermal specialisation, resource allocation trade-offs, and adaption to local environments. These general relationships allow this model to be constructed from a range of experimental and observational data. The different characteristics of this model are also assessed against independent data to show that the model captures the observed response of corals. We also provide new insights into the factors that determine calcification rates and provide a framework based on well-known biological principles for understanding the observed global distribution of calcification rates. Our results suggest that, despite the implicit complexity of the coral reef environment, a simple model based on temperature, carbonate chemistry and different species can reproduce much of the observed response of corals to changes in temperature and ocean acidification.

  19. Morphological diversity in fourteen cultivars Tiron village, Kediri, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azis Fuad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tiron village, Kediri is one of central mangoes in Indonesia. Many cultivar of mangoes encountered at this location. This study aims to look at the diversity of mango cultivars in the Tiron Village, Kediri, Indonesia. Mangoes diversity is based on qualitative and quantitative character of each cultivar. The diversity among cultivar indicated by the standard deviation and variance in the eleven quantitative characters of mango. Mango cultivars categorized by phylogeny morphological characters. The method used for phylogeny analysis is an UPGMA method (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean. Phylogenic analysis is based by the qualitative character of the plant. The results showed there were fourteen cultivars of mango in the village of Tiron Kediri have high diversity. Fourteen mango cultivars were categorized four groups. Based on a qualitative character, there are four classes of mango. The first group is the Katul, Podang Urang, and Podang Lumut. The second group is the Gadung, Jaran, Madu, Endog, Pakel, Dodonilo, Ireng, Lanang and Cantek. Santok Kapur into groups to form groups of three and Kopyor fourth. The high diversity in the village mango Tiron Kediri potential for resource in situ germplasm.

  20. Amplifying the benefits of agroecology by using the right cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, D; Laossi, K-R; Lavelle, P; De Carvalho, M H Cruz; Asakawa, N; Botero, C; Barot, S

    2011-10-01

    Tropical soils are particularly vulnerable to fertility losses due to their low capacity to retain organic matter and mineral nutrients. This urges the development of new agricultural practices to manage mineral nutrients and organic matter in a more sustainable way while relying less on fertilizer inputs. Two methods pertaining to ecological engineering and agroecology have been tested with some success: (1) the addition of biochar to the soil, and (2) the maintenance of higher earthworm densities. However, modern crop varieties have been selected to be adapted to agricultural practices and to the soil conditions they lead to and common cultivars might not be adapted to new practices. Using rice as a model plant, we compared the responsiveness to biochar and earthworms of five rice cultivars with contrasted selection histories. These cultivars had contrasted responsivenesses to earthworms, biochar, and the combination of both. The mean relative increase in grain biomass, among all treatments and cultivars, was 94% and 32%, respectively, with and without fertilization. Choosing the best combination of cultivar and treatment led to a more than fourfold increase in this mean benefit (a 437% and a 353% relative increase in grain biomass, respectively, with and without fertilization). Besides, the more rustic cultivar, a local landrace adapted to diverse and difficult conditions, responded the best to earthworms in terms of total biomass, while a modern common cultivar responded the best in term of grain biomass. This suggests that cultivars could be selected to amplify the benefit of biochar- and earthworm-based practices. Overall, selecting new cultivars interacting more closely with soil organisms and soil heterogeneity could increase agriculture sustainability, fostering the positive feedback loop between soils and plants that has evolved in natural ecosystems.

  1. Modern temperate coral growth analysis in North-west Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, K.; Watanabe, T.; Sakamoto, T.

    2011-12-01

    Massive coral skeletal growth parameters (skeletal density, extension and calcification rate) are one of the indexes of coral health and ecological response to the ambient environmental changes such as ocean acidification (OA) and global warming. To predict and evaluate the influence of the environment changes to the coral skeletal growth, the coral skeletal growth model (CGM) is one of the useful tools. The CGM is one of the equations consisted of the coral skeletal parameters as response variables and physical or chemical environmental factor such as sea surface temperature (SST), pH, insolation and so on as explanatory variables. The constructing of CGM is equal to the forming the equation and deciding its coefficients. However, there are no universal coral growth models. The aim of our study is to construct the GCM. It is important to analyze coral growth parameters in the past natural condition by using core of massive coral skeleton for our study. In the natural condition, high-latitude area is the best place to evaluate the influence of OA to coral skeletal growth because OA influence ocean organisms from high-latitude area where predicted to affected due to low SST and low carbonate saturation levels induced by dissolved atmospheric CO2 to the sea compared to tropical-subtropical area.This study shows recent temperate coral growth parameters collected from Kagoshima (c.a. 60years), Kochi (c.a. 25 years) and Wakayama (c.a. 30 years) in North-west Pacific, Japan and discusses the universal coral growth model. We quantified the coral growth parameters with uncertainty for the first time. The chronology was developed by δ 18O variant of coral skeletons making sure the forming time of high-low skeletal density area. To evaluate influence of annual SST, precipitation and insolation to coral calcification rate in the natural condition, we performed the regression tree and multiple regression models analysis. As the results, there were non-significances between

  2. Macroalgae decrease growth and alter microbial community structure of the reef-building coral, Porites astreoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Thurber, Rebecca; Burkepile, Deron E; Correa, Adrienne M S; Thurber, Andrew R; Shantz, Andrew A; Welsh, Rory; Pritchard, Catharine; Rosales, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    With the continued and unprecedented decline of coral reefs worldwide, evaluating the factors that contribute to coral demise is of critical importance. As coral cover declines, macroalgae are becoming more common on tropical reefs. Interactions between these macroalgae and corals may alter the coral microbiome, which is thought to play an important role in colony health and survival. Together, such changes in benthic macroalgae and in the coral microbiome may result in a feedback mechanism that contributes to additional coral cover loss. To determine if macroalgae alter the coral microbiome, we conducted a field-based experiment in which the coral Porites astreoides was placed in competition with five species of macroalgae. Macroalgal contact increased variance in the coral-associated microbial community, and two algal species significantly altered microbial community composition. All macroalgae caused the disappearance of a γ-proteobacterium previously hypothesized to be an important mutualist of P. astreoides. Macroalgal contact also triggered: 1) increases or 2) decreases in microbial taxa already present in corals, 3) establishment of new taxa to the coral microbiome, and 4) vectoring and growth of microbial taxa from the macroalgae to the coral. Furthermore, macroalgal competition decreased coral growth rates by an average of 36.8%. Overall, this study found that competition between corals and certain species of macroalgae leads to an altered coral microbiome, providing a potential mechanism by which macroalgae-coral interactions reduce coral health and lead to coral loss on impacted reefs.

  3. Macroalgae decrease growth and alter microbial community structure of the reef-building coral, Porites astreoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Vega Thurber

    Full Text Available With the continued and unprecedented decline of coral reefs worldwide, evaluating the factors that contribute to coral demise is of critical importance. As coral cover declines, macroalgae are becoming more common on tropical reefs. Interactions between these macroalgae and corals may alter the coral microbiome, which is thought to play an important role in colony health and survival. Together, such changes in benthic macroalgae and in the coral microbiome may result in a feedback mechanism that contributes to additional coral cover loss. To determine if macroalgae alter the coral microbiome, we conducted a field-based experiment in which the coral Porites astreoides was placed in competition with five species of macroalgae. Macroalgal contact increased variance in the coral-associated microbial community, and two algal species significantly altered microbial community composition. All macroalgae caused the disappearance of a γ-proteobacterium previously hypothesized to be an important mutualist of P. astreoides. Macroalgal contact also triggered: 1 increases or 2 decreases in microbial taxa already present in corals, 3 establishment of new taxa to the coral microbiome, and 4 vectoring and growth of microbial taxa from the macroalgae to the coral. Furthermore, macroalgal competition decreased coral growth rates by an average of 36.8%. Overall, this study found that competition between corals and certain species of macroalgae leads to an altered coral microbiome, providing a potential mechanism by which macroalgae-coral interactions reduce coral health and lead to coral loss on impacted reefs.

  4. The diversity of coral associated bacteria and the environmental factors affect their community variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Ying; Ling, Juan; Yang, Qing-Song; Wang, You-Shao; Sun, Cui-Ci; Sun, Hong-Yan; Feng, Jing-Bin; Jiang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Zhou; Wu, Mei-Lin; Dong, Jun-De

    2015-10-01

    Coral associated bacterial community potentially has functions relating to coral health, nutrition and disease. Culture-free, 16S rRNA based techniques were used to compare the bacterial community of coral tissue, mucus and seawater around coral, and to investigate the relationship between the coral-associated bacterial communities and environmental variables. The diversity of coral associated bacterial communities was very high, and their composition different from seawater. Coral tissue and mucus had a coral associated bacterial community with higher abundances of Gammaproteobacteria. However, bacterial community in seawater had a higher abundance of Cyanobacteria. Different populations were also found in mucus and tissue from the same coral fragment, and the abundant bacterial species associated with coral tissue was very different from those found in coral mucus. The microbial diversity and OTUs of coral tissue were much higher than those of coral mucus. Bacterial communities of corals from more human activities site have higher diversity and evenness; and the structure of bacterial communities were significantly different from the corals collected from other sites. The composition of bacterial communities associated with same coral species varied with season's changes, geographic differences, and coastal pollution. Unique bacterial groups found in the coral samples from more human activities location were significant positively correlated to chemical oxygen demand. These coral specific bacteria lead to coral disease or adjust to form new function structure for the adaption of different surrounding needs further research.

  5. 杂交鳢海豚链球菌病病原分离鉴定及药敏试验%Isolation and identification of pathogen Streptococcus iniae in diseased hybrid snakehead (Channa argus♂× Channamaculata♀)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈言峰; 周爱国; 邹青; 陈冠锋; 陈建酬; 张继平; 张辉华

    2015-01-01

    【目的】对广东省中山市某养殖场的患病濒死杂交鳢进行病原分离鉴定及药敏试验,旨在确定病因,为今后生产中有效防控该病提供参考。【方法】从濒死杂交鳢体内分离致病菌,通过其生理生化特征与16S rRNA基因序列分析进行菌株鉴定,并采用纸片扩散法进行药敏试验。【结果】从患病濒死的杂交鳢体内分离获得两株优势菌(ZS2013711-1和ZS2013711-2),根据其生理生化鉴定结果与16S rRNA基因序列分析结果,可鉴定为海豚链球菌(Streptococcusiniae)。两株分离菌株对杂交鳢的半致死剂量(LD50)分别为2.7×105和6.7×105 CFU/g。药敏试验结果显示,该致病菌对头孢噻肟、头孢拉定、头孢唑啉、林可霉素等抗生素高度敏感。【结论】杂交鳢是海豚链球菌的一种新发现宿主,生产中可选用头孢噻肟、头孢拉定、头孢唑啉、林可霉素等药物进行防治。%Objective]The pathogens from diseased hybrid snakehead (Channa argus♂×Channa maculata♀) in an aquafarm in Zhongshan City of Guangdong Province were isolated and identified and antibiotic sensitivity test was per-formed in order to determine the causes and provide references for preventing and controlling this disease effectively.[Method]Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from moribund hybrid snakehead , and they were identified through physio-logical and biochemical characteristics test and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Furthermore , antibiotic sensitivity test was performed through Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. [Result]Two dominant bacterias (ZS2013711-1, ZS2013711-2) were isolated from moribund hybrid snakehead , and they were identified to be Streptococcus iniae according to their physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The half lethal dose values for the iso-lates to healthy hybrid snakehead were 2.7 ×105 and 6.7 ×105 CFU/g, respectively. The results of

  6. Symbiosis increases coral tolerance to ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ohki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the acidity of ocean waters will directly threaten calcifying marine organisms such as reef-building scleractinian corals, and the myriad of species that rely on corals for protection and sustenance. Ocean pH has already decreased by around 0.1 pH units since the beginning of the industrial revolution, and is expected to decrease by another 0.2–0.4 pH units by 2100. This study mimicked the pre-industrial, present, and near-future levels of pCO2 using a precise control system (±5% pCO2, to assess the impact of ocean acidification on the calcification of recently-settled primary polyps of Acropora digitifera, both with and without symbionts, and adult fragments with symbionts. The increase in pCO2 of 100 μatm between the pre-industrial period and the present had more effect on the calcification rate of adult A. digitifera than the anticipated future increases of several hundreds of micro-atmospheres of pCO2. The primary polyps with symbionts showed higher calcification rates than primary polyps without symbionts, suggesting that (i primary polyps housing symbionts are more tolerant to near-future ocean acidification than organisms without symbionts, and (ii corals acquiring symbionts from the environment (i.e. broadcasting species will be more vulnerable to ocean acidification than corals that maternally acquire symbionts.

  7. Photography of Coral Reefs from ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the uses of photography from the International Space Station (ISS) in studying Earth's coral reefs. The photographs include reefs in various oceans . The photographs have uses for science in assisting NASA mapping initiatives, distribution worldwide through ReefBase, and by biologist in the field.

  8. Coral aquaculture to support drug discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal, M.C.; Calado, R.; Sheridan, C.; Alimonti, A.; Osinga, R.

    2013-01-01

    Marine natural products (NP) are unanimously acknowledged as the blue gold in the urgent quest for new pharmaceuticals. Although corals are among the marine organisms with the greatest diversity of secondary metabolites, growing evidence suggest that their symbiotic bacteria produce most of these

  9. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeier, Jacob E.; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A.

    2016-08-01

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management.

  10. Vannisalong Coral pakub kvaliteeti soodsa hinna eest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Tallinnas A. H. Tammsaare tee 116 ja Tartus Teguri 45 asuvas vannisalongis Coral pakutakse põhiliselt vanne ja saunu, kuid müügil on ka dušikabiinid, segistid, valamud, vannitoamööbel, basseinid jm

  11. Resetting predator baselines in coral reef ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Darcy; Conklin, Eric; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Pollock, Kydd; Pollock, Amanda; Kendall, Bruce E.; Gaines, Steven D.; Caselle, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    What did coral reef ecosystems look like before human impacts became pervasive? Early efforts to reconstruct baselines resulted in the controversial suggestion that pristine coral reefs have inverted trophic pyramids, with disproportionally large top predator biomass. The validity of the coral reef inverted trophic pyramid has been questioned, but until now, was not resolved empirically. We use data from an eight-year tag-recapture program with spatially explicit, capture-recapture models to re-examine the population size and density of a key top predator at Palmyra atoll, the same location that inspired the idea of inverted trophic biomass pyramids in coral reef ecosystems. Given that animal movement is suspected to have significantly biased early biomass estimates of highly mobile top predators, we focused our reassessment on the most mobile and most abundant predator at Palmyra, the grey reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos). We estimated a density of 21.3 (95% CI 17.8, 24.7) grey reef sharks/km2, which is an order of magnitude lower than the estimates that suggested an inverted trophic pyramid. Our results indicate that the trophic structure of an unexploited reef fish community is not inverted, and that even healthy top predator populations may be considerably smaller, and more precarious, than previously thought. PMID:28220895

  12. Vannisalong Coral pakub kvaliteeti soodsa hinna eest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Tallinnas A. H. Tammsaare tee 116 ja Tartus Teguri 45 asuvas vannisalongis Coral pakutakse põhiliselt vanne ja saunu, kuid müügil on ka dušikabiinid, segistid, valamud, vannitoamööbel, basseinid jm

  13. Deep Water Coral (HB1402, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The cruise will survey and collect samples of deep-sea corals and related marine life in the canyons in the northern Gulf of Maine in U.S. and Canadian waters. The...

  14. Bathymetry (2011) for Coral Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution depth surface for Coral Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). The...

  15. Ciliate communities consistently associated with coral diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, M. J.; Séré, M. G.

    2016-07-01

    Incidences of coral disease are increasing. Most studies which focus on diseases in these organisms routinely assess variations in bacterial associates. However, other microorganism groups such as viruses, fungi and protozoa are only recently starting to receive attention. This study aimed at assessing the diversity of ciliates associated with coral diseases over a wide geographical range. Here we show that a wide variety of ciliates are associated with all nine coral diseases assessed. Many of these ciliates such as Trochilia petrani and Glauconema trihymene feed on the bacteria which are likely colonizing the bare skeleton exposed by the advancing disease lesion or the necrotic tissue itself. Others such as Pseudokeronopsis and Licnophora macfarlandi are common predators of other protozoans and will be attracted by the increase in other ciliate species to the lesion interface. However, a few ciliate species (namely Varistrombidium kielum, Philaster lucinda, Philaster guamense, a Euplotes sp., a Trachelotractus sp. and a Condylostoma sp.) appear to harbor symbiotic algae, potentially from the coral themselves, a result which may indicate that they play some role in the disease pathology at the very least. Although, from this study alone we are not able to discern what roles any of these ciliates play in disease causation, the consistent presence of such communities with disease lesion interfaces warrants further investigation.

  16. Water Quality Standards for Coral Reef Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Clean Water Act provides a legal framework to protect coastal biological resources such as coral reefs, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows from the damaging effects of human activities. Even though many resources are protected under this authority, water quality stan...

  17. Coral aquaculture to support drug discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal, M.C.; Calado, R.; Sheridan, C.; Alimonti, A.; Osinga, R.

    2013-01-01

    Marine natural products (NP) are unanimously acknowledged as the blue gold in the urgent quest for new pharmaceuticals. Although corals are among the marine organisms with the greatest diversity of secondary metabolites, growing evidence suggest that their symbiotic bacteria produce most of these bi

  18. Studying on rooting ability of olive cultivars region of Tirana

    OpenAIRE

    KOZETA BREGU; FADIL THOMAJ; ANIDA MEMA

    2014-01-01

    The results brought in this study present the rooting ability of semi dendric olive pieces, including the five most important cultivars of the area which are used as oil cultivar ("olive white", “Kushan", "Karre" and "black olive from Ndroq Tirana") or as cultivar used for oil and salting (Boç and red olive). Anchoring (sample) material is taken from three age-old mother plants and with a good health and vegetation condition. Previously pieces are treated with IBA at 4000 ppm concentration. ...

  19. Bacteria associated with the bleached and cave coral Oculina patagonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Omry; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2008-04-01

    The relative abundance of bacteria in the mucus and tissues of Oculina patagonica taken from bleached and cave (azooxanthellae) corals was determined by analyses of the 16S rRNA genes from cloned libraries of extracted DNA and from isolated colonies. The results were compared to previously published data on healthy O. patagonica. The bacterial community of bleached, cave, and healthy corals were completely different from each other. A tight cluster (>99.5% identity) of bacteria, showing 100% identity to Acinetobacter species, dominated bleached corals, comprising 25% of the 316 clones sequenced. The dominant bacterial cluster found in cave corals, representing 29% of the 97 clones sequenced, showed 98% identity to an uncultured bacterium from the Great Barrier Reef. Vibrio splendidus was the most dominant species in healthy O. patagonica. The culturable bacteria represented 0.1-1.0% of the total bacteria (SYBR Gold staining) of the corals. The most abundant culturable bacteria in bleached, cave, and healthy corals were clusters that most closely matched Microbulbifer sp., an alpha-proteobacterium previously isolated from healthy corals and an alpha-protobacterium (AB026194), respectively. Three generalizations emerge from this study on O. patagonica: (1) More bacteria are associated with coral tissue than mucus; (2) tissue and mucus populations are different; (3) bacterial populations associated with corals change dramatically when corals lack their symbiotic zooxanthellae, either as a result of the bleaching disease or when growing in the absence of light.

  20. Chemotaxis by natural populations of coral reef bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tout, Jessica; Jeffries, Thomas C; Petrou, Katherina; Tyson, Gene W; Webster, Nicole S; Garren, Melissa; Stocker, Roman; Ralph, Peter J; Seymour, Justin R

    2015-08-01

    Corals experience intimate associations with distinct populations of marine microorganisms, but the microbial behaviours underpinning these relationships are poorly understood. There is evidence that chemotaxis is pivotal to the infection process of corals by pathogenic bacteria, but this evidence is limited to experiments using cultured isolates under laboratory conditions. We measured the chemotactic capabilities of natural populations of coral-associated bacteria towards chemicals released by corals and their symbionts, including amino acids, carbohydrates, ammonium and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). Laboratory experiments, using a modified capillary assay, and in situ measurements, using a novel microfabricated in situ chemotaxis assay, were employed to quantify the chemotactic responses of natural microbial assemblages on the Great Barrier Reef. Both approaches showed that bacteria associated with the surface of the coral species Pocillopora damicornis and Acropora aspera exhibited significant levels of chemotaxis, particularly towards DMSP and amino acids, and that these levels of chemotaxis were significantly higher than that of bacteria inhabiting nearby, non-coral-associated waters. This pattern was supported by a significantly higher abundance of chemotaxis and motility genes in metagenomes within coral-associated water types. The phylogenetic composition of the coral-associated chemotactic microorganisms, determined using 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing, differed from the community in the seawater surrounding the coral and comprised known coral associates, including potentially pathogenic Vibrio species. These findings indicate that motility and chemotaxis are prevalent phenotypes among coral-associated bacteria, and we propose that chemotaxis has an important role in the establishment and maintenance of specific coral-microbe associations, which may ultimately influence the health and stability of the coral holobiont.

  1. In situ oxygen dynamics in coral-algal interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wangpraseurt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coral reefs degrade globally at an alarming rate, with benthic algae often replacing corals. However, the extent to which benthic algae contribute to coral mortality, and the potential mechanisms involved, remain disputed. Recent laboratory studies suggested that algae kill corals by inducing hypoxia on the coral surface, through stimulated microbial respiration. METHODS/FINDINGS: We examined the main premise of this hypothesis by measuring in situ oxygen microenvironments at the contact interface between the massive coral Porites spp. and turf algae, and between Porites spp. and crustose coralline algae (CCA. Oxygen levels at the interface were similar to healthy coral tissue and ranged between 300-400 µM during the day. At night, the interface was hypoxic (~70 µM in coral-turf interactions and close to anoxic (~2 µM in coral-CCA interactions, but these values were not significantly different from healthy tissue. The diffusive boundary layer (DBL was about three times thicker at the interface than above healthy tissue, due to a depression in the local topography. A numerical model, developed to analyze the oxygen profiles above the irregular interface, revealed strongly reduced net photosynthesis and dark respiration rates at the coral-algal interface compared to unaffected tissue during the day and at night, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that hypoxia was not a consistent feature in the microenvironment of the coral-algal interface under in situ conditions. Therefore, hypoxia alone is unlikely to be the cause of coral mortality. Due to the modified topography, the interaction zone is distinguished by a thicker diffusive boundary layer, which limits the local metabolic activity and likely promotes accumulation of potentially harmful metabolic products (e.g., allelochemicals and protons. Our study highlights the importance of mass transfer phenomena and the need for direct in situ measurements of

  2. In situ oxygen dynamics in coral-algal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangpraseurt, Daniel; Weber, Miriam; Røy, Hans; Polerecky, Lubos; de Beer, Dirk; Suharsono; Nugues, Maggy M

    2012-01-01

    Coral reefs degrade globally at an alarming rate, with benthic algae often replacing corals. However, the extent to which benthic algae contribute to coral mortality, and the potential mechanisms involved, remain disputed. Recent laboratory studies suggested that algae kill corals by inducing hypoxia on the coral surface, through stimulated microbial respiration. We examined the main premise of this hypothesis by measuring in situ oxygen microenvironments at the contact interface between the massive coral Porites spp. and turf algae, and between Porites spp. and crustose coralline algae (CCA). Oxygen levels at the interface were similar to healthy coral tissue and ranged between 300-400 µM during the day. At night, the interface was hypoxic (~70 µM) in coral-turf interactions and close to anoxic (~2 µM) in coral-CCA interactions, but these values were not significantly different from healthy tissue. The diffusive boundary layer (DBL) was about three times thicker at the interface than above healthy tissue, due to a depression in the local topography. A numerical model, developed to analyze the oxygen profiles above the irregular interface, revealed strongly reduced net photosynthesis and dark respiration rates at the coral-algal interface compared to unaffected tissue during the day and at night, respectively. Our results showed that hypoxia was not a consistent feature in the microenvironment of the coral-algal interface under in situ conditions. Therefore, hypoxia alone is unlikely to be the cause of coral mortality. Due to the modified topography, the interaction zone is distinguished by a thicker diffusive boundary layer, which limits the local metabolic activity and likely promotes accumulation of potentially harmful metabolic products (e.g., allelochemicals and protons). Our study highlights the importance of mass transfer phenomena and the need for direct in situ measurements of microenvironmental conditions in studies on coral stress.

  3. Coral thermal tolerance: tuning gene expression to resist thermal stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Bellantuono

    Full Text Available The acclimatization capacity of corals is a critical consideration in the persistence of coral reefs under stresses imposed by global climate change. The stress history of corals plays a role in subsequent response to heat stress, but the transcriptomic changes associated with these plastic changes have not been previously explored. In order to identify host transcriptomic changes associated with acquired thermal tolerance in the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora, corals preconditioned to a sub-lethal temperature of 3°C below bleaching threshold temperature were compared to both non-preconditioned corals and untreated controls using a cDNA microarray platform. After eight days of hyperthermal challenge, conditions under which non-preconditioned corals bleached and preconditioned corals (thermal-tolerant maintained Symbiodinium density, a clear differentiation in the transcriptional profiles was revealed among the condition examined. Among these changes, nine differentially expressed genes separated preconditioned corals from non-preconditioned corals, with 42 genes differentially expressed between control and preconditioned treatments, and 70 genes between non-preconditioned corals and controls. Differentially expressed genes included components of an apoptotic signaling cascade, which suggest the inhibition of apoptosis in preconditioned corals. Additionally, lectins and genes involved in response to oxidative stress were also detected. One dominant pattern was the apparent tuning of gene expression observed between preconditioned and non-preconditioned treatments; that is, differences in expression magnitude were more apparent than differences in the identity of genes differentially expressed. Our work revealed a transcriptomic signature underlying the tolerance associated with coral thermal history, and suggests that understanding the molecular mechanisms behind physiological acclimatization would be critical for the modeling of reefs

  4. CHARACTERIZING CORAL CONDITION USING ESTIMATES OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL COLONY SURFACE AREA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs provide shoreline protection, biological diversity, fishery harvets, and tourism, all values that stem from the physically-complex coral infrastructure. Stony corals (scleractinianss) construct and maintain the reef through deposition of calcium carbonate. Therefore...

  5. Preliminary study on immune effect of Streptococcus iniae inactivated vaccine in Oreochromis niloticus%海豚链球菌灭活疫苗对罗非鱼免疫效果的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊; 黄木珍; 李安兴

    2011-01-01

    Formalin killed vaccines with/without white oil adjuvant were prepared with TBY-1 strain of Streptococcus iniae isolated from freshwater fish. The efficacy of the vaccines were determined in Oreochromis niloticus by bath immersion and intraperitoneal (IP) injection successively. The relative percent survival (RPS) of each immune group was statisticsed. Moreover, the length and weight of the tilapias were measured and analyzed by SPSS. The results showed that the RPS of the fish immuned with bath immersion and then immunized intraperitoneally once with none-adjuvant vaccine and white oil adjuvant were 50. 50% and 71. 10% respectively, and the antibody agglutination titer were 1:4. 8 and 1: 128 respectively. The RPS of fish immuned with bath immersion and then immunized intraperitoneally twice with none-adjuvant vaccine and white oil adjuvant were 82. 50% and 58. 80% respectively, and the antibody agglutination titer were 1∶6.4 and 1∶27.4 re spectively.%将海豚链球菌(Streptococcus iniae)淡水分离株TBY-1菌株灭活后制备成无佐剂和添加白油佐剂的疫苗,利用浸泡和腹腔注射复合免疫方式对罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)进行免疫,比较其相对保护率及血清中抗体凝集效价,以评价佐剂的存在与否及免疫次数对海豚链球菌灭活疫苗的免疫效果的影响,同时还对实验前后罗非鱼的体长体重进行测量和统计,并用SPSS软件进行分析.结果显示,用无佐剂疫苗进行首次浸泡免疫后,再分别用无佐剂疫苗及白油佐剂疫苗注射免疫1次的相对保护率分别为50.50%和71.10%,血清中抗体凝集效价分别为1∶4.8和1∶128;而注射免疫2次的相对保护率分别为82.50%和58.80%,其血清凝集效价分别为1∶6.4和1∶27.4.

  6. BRS 137: cultivar de soja para cultivo no Sul do Brasil BRS 137: soybean cultivar for southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emídio Rizzo Bonato

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A liberação de cultivares de elevado potencial produtivo e com resistência a doenças é fundamental para continuar agregando rendimento na produção brasileira de soja. A cultivar BRS 137 é resultado do programa de melhoramento de soja desenvolvido pela Embrapa. A cultivar apresentou rendimento médio de grãos 2% superior ao da cultivar IAS 5, em 24 ambientes, no Rio Grande do Sul. É resistente à pústula-bacteriana (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines, ao cancro-da-haste (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis, à podridão-parda-da-haste (Phialophora gregata, à mancha-olho-de-rã (Cercospora sojina e ao oídio (Microsphaera diffusa. É indicada para cultivo no Rio Grande do Sul, em semeaduras realizadas a partir de meados de outubro até fim de novembro, com população máxima de 300.000 plantas/ha.The goals of the soybean breeding program for the release of a new cultivar include high yield potential and resistance to diseases in order to improve Brazilian production. The cultivar BRS 137 is a result of the soybean breeding program of Embrapa (Brazil. Prior to its release, the cultivar had shown a mean grain yield potential 2% higher than the cultivar IAS 5 in 24 environments in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Moreover, it is resistant to bacterial pustule (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines, soybean stem canker (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis, brown stem rot (Phialophora gregata, frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora sojina, and powdery mildew (Microsphaera diffusa. The cultivar is being indicated to be cropped in the Rio Grande do Sul state for sowing from mid October to the end of November with a maximum population of 300,000 plants/ha.

  7. Resposta diferencial das cultivares de algodoeiro a Alternaria macrospora Differential response of cotton cultivars to Alternaria macrospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshwant Ramchandra Mehta

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a resposta diferencial de 32 cultivares comerciais do algodoeiro a A. macrospora em casa de vegetação. A inoculação foi realizada em plântulas de 20-25 dias de idade com 25 repetições, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso. As cultivares foram agrupadas através de análise de Scott & Knott. Resistência completa não foi encontrada, sendo que todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis. Houve diferença entre reação de plantas da mesma cultivar. Não obstante, quando algumas plantas das cvs. BRS Antares e Fibermax 986, que mostraram resistência, foram inoculadas com mistura de nove isolados escolhidos ao acaso, as mesmas mantiveram sua resistência a esta mistura. Trabalhos futuros deverão ser realizados para encontrar fontes de resistência a este patógeno em outras espécies de Gossypium.The differential response of 32 commercial cotton cultivars to A. macrospora was studied under greenhouse conditions. Twenty to twentyfive days old plants were inoculated in 25 repetitions in a randomized block design. The cultivars were grouped using the Scott & Knott analysis. Complete resistance was not found and all cultivars were susceptible to the pathogen. Differential reaction within the plants of the same cultivar was observed. However, when some resistant plants of cultivars BRS Antares and Fibermax 986 were inoculated using a mixture of nine randomly selected isolates of A. macrospora, the plants maintained their resistance. Further research is necessary to find sources of resistance to this pathogen in other species of Gossypium.

  8. Community structure of coral reefs on opposite sides of the isthmus of panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portfr, J W

    1974-11-08

    Competition for space amon reef corals includes interspecific destruction by extracoelenteric digestion., rapid growth. and Overtopping. No Caribbean species excela in all strategies, and on western Caribbean coral reefs there is a positive correlation between coral abudance and diversity. On eastern Pacific coral reefs, however. Pocillopora damicornis excludes other corals, and on these reefs there is an inverse relation between coral abundance and diversity, except in areas where distrubances, such as Acanthaster predation offset space monopolization.

  9. Influence of Coral Bleaching on the Fauna of Tutia Reef, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Öhman, M.C.; Lindahl, U.; Schelten, C.K.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, coral reefs of Tanzania were severely affected by bleaching. The coral mortality that followed caused a concern for coral reef degradation and overall resource depletion. In this study, we investigated coral bleaching effects on the coral reef fauna at Tutia Reef in Mafia Island Marine Park, Tanzania. Corals from adjacent reef patches of the species Acropora formosa were transplanted into plots, and reef structure and associated fish assemblages were examined before and after the ble...

  10. Understanding the murky history of the Coral Triangle: Miocene corals and reef habitats in East Kalimantan (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santodomingo, Nadiezhda; Renema, Willem; Johnson, Kenneth G.

    2016-09-01

    Studies on ancient coral communities living in marginal conditions, including low light, high turbidity, extreme temperatures, or high nutrients, are important to understand the current structure of reefs and how they could potentially respond to global changes. The main goal of this study was to document the rich and well-preserved fossil coral fauna preserved in Miocene exposures of the Kutai Basin in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Our collections include almost forty thousand specimens collected from 47 outcrops. Seventy-nine genera and 234 species have been identified. Three different coral assemblages were found corresponding to small patch reefs that developed under the influence of high siliciclastic inputs from the Mahakam Delta. Coral assemblages vary in richness, structure, and composition. Platy coral assemblages were common until the Serravallian (Middle Miocene), while branching coral assemblages became dominant in the Tortonian (Late Miocene). By the late Tortonian massive coral assemblages dominated, similar to modern-style coral framework. Our results suggest that challenging habitats, such as the Miocene turbid habitats of East Kalimantan, might have played an important role during the early diversification of the Coral Triangle by hosting a pool of resilient species more likely to survive the environmental changes that have affected this region since the Cenozoic. Further research that integrates fossil and recent turbid habitats may provide a glimpse into the dynamics and future of coral reefs as "typical" clear-water reefs continue to decline in most regions.

  11. The northernmost coral frontier of the Maldives: The coral reefs of Ihavandippolu Atoll under long-term environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Konstantin S

    2012-12-01

    Ihavandippolu, the northernmost atoll of the Maldives, experienced severe coral bleaching and mortality in 1998 followed by several bleaching episodes in the last decade. Coral cover in the 11 study sites surveyed in July-December of 2011 in the 3-5 m depth range varied from 1.7 to 51%. Reefs of the islands located in the center of Ihavandippolu lagoon have exhibited a very low coral recovery since 1998 and remain mostly degraded 12 years after the impact. At the same time, some reefs, especially in the inner part of the eastern ring of the atoll, demonstrate a high coral cover (>40%) with a dominance of branching Acropora that is known to be one of the coral genera that is most susceptible to thermal stress. The last severe bleaching event in 2010 resulted in high coral mortality in some sites of the atoll. Differences in coral mortality rates and proportion between "susceptible" and "resistant" taxa in study sites are apparently related to long-term adaptation and local hydrological features that can mitigate thermal impacts. Abundant herbivorous fish observed in the atoll prevent coral overgrowth by macroalgae even on degraded reefs. Despite the frequent influence of temperature anomalies and having less geomorphologic refuges for coral survivals than other larger Maldivian atolls, a major part of observed coral communities in Ihavandippolu Atoll exhibits high resilience and potential for further acclimatization to a changing environment.

  12. Lag effects in the impacts of mass coral bleaching on coral reef fish, fisheries, and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Nicholas A J; Wilson, Shaun K; Jennings, Simon; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Robinson, Jan; Bijoux, Jude P; Daw, Tim M

    2007-10-01

    Recent episodes of coral bleaching have led to wide-scale loss of reef corals and raised concerns over the effectiveness of existing conservation and management efforts. The 1998 bleaching event was most severe in the western Indian Ocean, where coral declined by up to 90% in some locations. Using fisheries-independent data, we assessed the long-term impacts of this event on fishery target species in the Seychelles, the overall size structure of the fish assemblage, and the effectiveness of two marine protected areas (MPAs) in protecting fish communities. The biomass of fished species above the size retained in fish traps changed little between 1994 and 2005, indicating no current effect on fishery yields. Biomass remained higher in MPAs, indicating they were effective in protecting fish stocks. Nevertheless, the size structure of the fish communities, as described with size-spectra analysis, changed in both fished areas and MPAs, with a decline in smaller fish (45 cm). We believe this represents a time-lag response to a reduction in reef structural complexity brought about because fishes are being lost through natural mortality and fishing, and are not being replaced by juveniles. This effect is expected to be greater in terms of fisheries productivity and, because congruent patterns are observed for herbivores, suggests that MPAs do not offer coral reefs long-term resilience to bleaching events. Corallivores and planktivores declined strikingly in abundance, particularly in MPAs, and this decline was associated with a similar pattern of decline in their preferred corals. We suggest that climate-mediated disturbances, such as coral bleaching, be at the fore of conservation planning for coral reefs.

  13. Genetic variation of 12 rice cultivars grown in Brunei Darussalam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... Genetic variations of 12 different rice cultivars in Brunei Darussalam were studied using 15 different. SSR markers ..... Principles of plant breeding: John Wiley & Sons Inc.,. New York .... and reproductive development of rice.

  14. introduction and evaluation of improved banana cultivars for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    Central and Eastern Provinces account for 26 %. The rest of the provinces ... from traditional cash crops, especially coffee. (Coffea arabica) ..... Impact Study of the Tissue Culture. Banana. Project in ... local cultivars. INIBAP Newsletter for Asia.

  15. Nonstructural carbohydrates and return bloom potential differ among cranberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    explain low fruit set and biennial bearing tendencies of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Yet, comparisons of nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations during critical phenological stages across cultivars that differ in biennial bearing tendencies and return bloom potential are lacking, particular...

  16. RAPD-based genetic relationships in different Bougainvillea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with authenticating existing knowledge about 21 Bougainvillea cultivars comprisingof 9 hybrids and their parents through RAPD analysis. The 19 degenerate primer sets generated 234 bands from which 158(67.5% were polymorphic. The UPGMA based dendrogram divided 21 cultivars into two major groups with Jaccard’ssimilarity coefficient ranging from 0.51 to 0.942. Group A had three cultivars namely Trinidad, Formosa and Dr. H. B. Singhin which Dr. H.B. Singh was confirmed as a hybrid of other two cultivars. Group B was sub divided into 8 clusters. Theparentages of 7 out of 8 hybirds have been confirmed based on clusters. The study concluded that the RAPD technique issuitable for confirmation of parent-hybrid relationship.

  17. Blueberry estimated harvest from seven new cultivars: fruit and anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzo, Jessica; Stevenson, David; Hedderley, Duncan

    2013-08-15

    This study compares the yields, weights and anthocyanin contents of fruit from a group of seven new cultivars released from the New Zealand blueberry breeding programme and selected for the longest possible combined harvest season. The measured factors were primarily influenced by cultivar, and seasonal variations had relatively minor effects. The late-ripening cultivars 'Velluto Blue' and 'Centra Blue' had the highest fruit yields, anthocyanin contents and estimated total anthocyanin harvestable from a given area. 'Blue Moon' and 'Sky Blue' had the largest fruit sizes. The early-ripening cultivars 'Blue Bayou', 'Blue Moon' and 'Sunset Blue' had the lowest anthocyanin contents. The yield, fruit size and total anthocyanin content results obtained from any single year were highly correlated with the average of the three years, which makes pursuing the evaluation for these traits from a single year and at an early stage of plant development a practical proposition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF INVESTIGATED RAPESEED HYBRIDS AND CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Pospišil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate new winter rapeseed hybrids and cultivars, investigations were conducted at the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, in the period 2009/10 - 2011/12. The trial involved 11 hybrids and 5 cultivars rapeseed of 5 seed producers selling seed in Croatia. The studied rapeseed hybrids and cultivars differed significantly in seed and oil yields, oil content and yield components (seed number per silique and 1000 seed weight. However, a number of hybrids rendered identical results, since the differences in the investigated properties were within statistically allowable deviation. Hybrids Traviata and CWH 119 can be singled out based on the achieved seed and oil yields, and the cultivar Ricco and hybrids CWH 119 and PR46W15 for their high oil content in seed. Hybrids with a larger silique number per plant also achieved a higher seed yield.

  19. development of hardy sorghum cultivars for the arid and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEVELOPMENT OF HARDY SORGHUM CULTIVARS FOR THE ARID AND. SEMI ARID REGIONS .... media and presence or absence ofin vitro selective agents (Amzallag et ...... diversity in India Mustard (Brassica Juncea) and its relationship ...

  20. Chemical desiccation for early harvest in soybean cultivars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamara Pereira; Cileide Maria Medeiros Coelho; Clovis Arruda Souza; Analu Mantovani; Vanderléia Mathias

    2015-01-01

    .... The objective of this work was to assess the production performance and germination seeds in response to differents stages and desiccation chemicals products to early harvest of soybean cultivars...

  1. The use of cultivars of Raphanus sativus for cytokinin bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kubowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Six cultivars of radish (Raphanus sativus were tested for their usefulness in radish cytokinin bioassay by the method of Letham (1971. The best cultivar was found to be 'Sopel Lodu' which responds well to both zeatin and 2iP over a wide range of concentrations. The fresh weight of cotyledons increased at most by 71.5% (if treated with zeatin or 101.0% (if treated with 2iP compared to untreated cotyledons. This cultivar is also sensitive to the partially purified cytokinin-like fraction isolated from the pine (Pinus silvestris cambial region. The cultivar 'Sopel Lodu' is therefore proposed to be a suitable plant for cytokinin bioassays.

  2. Integration of Information on Climate, Soil and Cultivar to Increase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivar to Increase Water Productivity of Maize in. Semi-arid ... 2Department of Soil and Crop Science, Texas A & M University, Texas USA. Abstract .... historical climate data into wet, normal and dry seasons (tercile probability) in particular.

  3. Respose of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Domínguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance to drought is a desired cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. The present study aimed to determine the response of 22 cultivars of common bean during the early stages of vegetative development character. The plants were subjected to irrigation at 70% or 20% of field capacity (FC for seven days and the indicators were measured relative water content, stomatal opening, stomatal index, proline content and total phenols in leaves. The data obtained were processed using a principal component analysis and the variables studied were represented by a bivariate graph (biplot. It was possible to group the cultivars based on their response in tolerant, moderately tolerant and susceptible to water stress condition induced by irrigation at 20% FC. Stomatal opening and relative water content were recommended to be used as criteria for selecting cultivars tolerant to water stress indicators bean. Key words: PCA, Phaseolus vulgaris L., proline, water stress

  4. [Infrared spectroscopy and XRD studies of coral fossils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quan-li; Zhou, Guan-min; Yin, Zuo-wei

    2012-08-01

    Coral fossil is an old remain of multicellular animal on the earth, and formed by various geological processes. The structural characteristics and compositions of the coral fossils with different color and radial texture on the surface were studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction analyses. The results show that the studied coral fossils mainly are composed of SiO2, and the radial microstructure characterized by the calcareous coral cross-section is preserved. It is formed by metasomatism by SiO2. The infrared absorption spectra of the coral fossil with different color and texture are essentially the same, showing typical infrared absorption spectra of the quartz jade. XRD analysis shows that the main components of the coral fossils with different color and texture are consistent and mainly composed of SiO2 with a trace amount of other minerals and without CaCO3.

  5. A comparison of proxy performance in coral biodiversity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Zoe T.

    2013-03-01

    The productivity and health of coral reef habitat is diminishing worldwide; however, the effect that habitat declines have on coral reef biodiversity is not known. Logistical and financial constraints mean that surveys of hard coral communities rarely collect data at the species level; hence it is important to know if there are proxy metrics that can reliably predict biodiversity. Here, the performances of six proxy metrics are compared using regression analyses on survey data from a location in the northern Great Barrier Reef. Results suggest generic richness is a strong explanatory variable for spatial patterns in species richness (explaining 82 % of the variation when measured on a belt transect). The most commonly used metric of reef health, percentage live coral cover, is not positively or linearly related to hard coral species richness. This result raises doubt as to whether management actions based on such reefscape information will be effective for the conservation of coral biodiversity.

  6. New hop (Humulus lupulus L. cultivars from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru SALONTAI

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available The research staff of the Agronomy Institute of Cluj-Napoca breeded the first Romanian hop cultivars officially approved in 1984 by the State Commission for the Testing and Approval of Plant Varieties. The new Humulus lupulus varieties are cv. "Napoca'l", cv. "Aroma" and cv. "Transilvania". The selection method, origin, biological characteristics, productivity and some technological qualities of the new cultivars are discussed in the paper.

  7. EVALUATION FOR SALT STRESS TOLERANCE IN TWO STRAWBERRY CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Al-Shorafa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress conditions have been found to destroy the vital physiological process in plant where slower cell division and cell enlargement or both and limit mineral nutrient uptake with clearly nutritional imbalance. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Station, Mu’tah University, Jordan to evaluate growth responses and mineral composition of two strawberry cultivars to salt stress by different NaCl levels. Six NaCl levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mM and two strawberry cultivars, Camarosa and Albino, were used. Nutrient elements were added at the 0.5-strength Hoagland nutrient concentration. Distilled water supplemented with half strength Hoagland solution was used as control. Number of leaves and runners of both strawberry cultivars were significantly reduced by increasing NaCl level. Growth parameters (shoot, root and total dry weights and root: Shoot ratios were significantly reduced with each increase in salinity level. Camarosa had higher value for all these parameters compared with Albino. Leaf chlorophyll content of both strawberry cultivars was significantly decreased when 25 mM NaCl or higher was applied. Regardless of NaCl level, Camarosa cultivar had significantly higher chlorophyll content compared with Albino. Elevated salinity level significantly increased leaf proline content of both cultivars. Albino leaves accumulated higher proline compared with Camarosa at salinized and non-salinized treatments. Both strawberry cultivars had significantly higher leaf and root Na and Cl contents under salinized conditions compared with non-salinized conditions. Each increase in NaCl level resulted in an increase in leaf and root Na and Cl contents of both cultivars. On contrast, leaf K content was decreased with salinity, root content of this mineral was significantly increased with salinity. It could be recommended to avoid growing ‘Camarosa’ and ‘Albino’ strawberry using irrigation water of 25 m

  8. Androgenesis in anther culture of Lithuanian spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Asakavičiūtė, Rita; Pašakinskienė, Izolda

    2006-01-01

    The method of anther culture was used for the production of doubled haploids in Lithuanian spring barley cultivars. Two methods, (i) regeneration from callus (Szarjeko’s method) and (ii) direct regeneration from embryoids (Caredda’s method) were applied to determine the androgenic potential according to the green regenerant yield and other morphogenetic factors. Green double haploid regenerants were obtained in four Lithuanian spring barley cultivars (‘Aura’, ‘Aidas’, ‘Alsa’ and ‘Auksiniai’) ...

  9. Processamento de tomate seco de diferentes cultivares Dried tomato processing of different cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorivaldo da Silva Raupp

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O tomate seco apresenta um consumo crescente, principalmente como ingrediente de pizzas e lasanhas, e na forma de aperitivo. A pesquisa avaliou o processo de produção de tomate seco de quatro cultivares comerciais (Italiano, Débora Plus, Santa Cruz, Delícia e a qualidade dos produtos prontos. O tomate foi fatiado em quatro cortes longitudinais, sentido pedúnculo-ápice, e as fatias tiveram suas massas loculares removidas. O secador foi regulado nas primeiras três horas para 100ºC, seguido de 80ºC até completar a secagem do produto, o qual apresentou uma umidade residual em torno de 60%. A cv. Delícia produziu a maior perda de 39,8% durante o preparo das fatias frescas, sendo que as perdas para as demais cultivares variaram entre 32,7 a 34,3%. Os rendimentos dos tomates inteiros em produtos prontos foram iguais a: cv. Débora Plus 9,1%; cv. Santa Cruz 8,9%; cv. Delícia 8,6%; e cv. Italiano 8,3%. O maior tempo de secagem de 9 horas e 25 minutos foi para a cv. Delícia; as demais apresentaram um mínimo de 8 horas e 10 minutos (Italiano e um máximo de 8 horas e 35 minutos (Santa Cruz. Os tomates secos das cultivares Italiano e Débora Plus apresentaram-se levemente adocicados; o da cv. Santa Cruz foi ainda menos; e, esta característica foi de difícil percepção para o da cv. Delícia, que também teve uma mastigação não suave e mais prolongada. Apesar da diferença, os produtos tomates secos obtidos a partir dessas cultivares não diferiram significativamente quanto ao paladar quando degustados por provadores não treinados.Consumption of dried tomatoes has been increasing, mainly as an ingredient of pizzas and lasagnas, and also as an appetizer. This study evaluated the production process of four commercial varieties (Italiano, Débora Plus, Santa Cruz, Delícia and the quality of the finished products, which had a moisture content of around 60%. The tomatoes were sliced into four longitudinal cuts in the stalk-apex direction and

  10. The Decline of Coral Reefs: a Political Economy Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs provide economic services like job, food and tourism. Yet, within the past decades, there has been an overwhelming decline in the vitality of coral reefs and their ecosystem. Scientist have not be able to set the record straight regarding their scientific argument on biodiversity and ecological wealth of natural environment. Therefore, actions to recover coral reefs from destruction have proved futile. This paper will analyze the economical values, economic valuation, socioeconomi...

  11. Mass Coral Bleaching in 2010 in the Southern Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Jahson Berhane Alemu I; Ysharda Clement

    2014-01-01

    Ocean temperatures are increasing globally and the Caribbean is no exception. An extreme ocean warming event in 2010 placed Tobago's coral reefs under severe stress resulting in widespread coral bleaching and threatening the livelihoods that rely on them. The bleaching response of four reef building taxa was monitored over a six month period across three major reefs systems in Tobago. By identifying taxa resilient to bleaching we propose to assist local coral reef managers in the decision mak...

  12. Coral community response to bleaching on a highly disturbed reef

    OpenAIRE

    Guest, J R; Low, J; Tun, K.; Wilson, B.; Ng, C.; D. Raingeard; Ulstrup, K. E.; Tanzil, J.T.I.; P. A. Todd; T. C. Toh; McDougald, D.; Chou, L.M.; Steinberg, P D

    2016-01-01

    While many studies of coral bleaching report on broad, regional scale responses, fewer examine variation in susceptibility among coral taxa and changes in community structure, before, during and after bleaching on individual reefs. Here we report in detail on the response to bleaching by a coral community on a highly disturbed reef site south of mainland Singapore before, during and after a major thermal anomaly in 2010. To estimate the capacity for resistance to thermal stress, we report on:...

  13. A global protocol for monitoring of coral bleaching

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, J.; Setiasih, N.; Marshall, P.; Hansen, L

    2004-01-01

    Coral bleaching and subsequent mortality represent a major threat to the future health and productivity of coral reefs. However a lack of reliable data on occurrence, severity and other characteristics of bleaching events hampers research on the causes and consequences of this important phenomenon. This article describes a global protocol for monitoring coral bleaching events, which addresses this problem and can be used by people with different levels of expertise and resources.

  14. Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide on Coral Photosynthesis and Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, T.; Fujimura, H.; Arakaki, T.; Oomori, T.

    2007-12-01

    The widely-observed decline of coral reefs is considered to be caused by changes in the environment by natural and anthropogenic activities. As one important factor, the run-off of various matters from human activities to the coastal seawater poses stresses to the corals by degrading the quality of the seawater. In Okinawa, Japan, red- soil running off from the developed land has been a major environmental issue since 1980s. Hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), a strong active oxygen species, is one of the photochemically formed chemicals in the red-soil-polluted seawater. Recent photochemical studies of seawater showed that HOOH photo-formation was faster in the red- soil-polluted seawater than clean seawater. We studied the effects of HOOH on corals by studying the changes in coral carbon metabolisms such as photosynthesis and calcification, which are indicators of the physiological state of a coral colony. The corals were exposed to various concentrations of HOOH (0, 0.3, 3 μM). Two massive coral species of Porites sp. and Goniastrea aspera and one branch coral of Galaxea facicularis were used for the exposure experiments. The control experiments showed that when no HOOH was added, metabolisms of each coral colony were relatively stable. On the other hand, when HOOH was added to the seawater, we observed obvious changes in the coral metabolisms in all the coral species. When 0.3 μM HOOH was added, photosynthesis decreased by 14% and calcification decreased by 17% within 3 days, compared with the control. When 3 μM HOOH was added, photosynthesis decreased by 21% and calcification decreased by 41% within 3 days, compared with the control. Our study showed that higher concentrations of HOOH posed more stress to the coral colonies.

  15. Phage therapy treatment of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Yossi; F Joseph Pollock; Rosenberg, Eugene; Bourne, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio coralliilyticus is an important coral pathogen demonstrated to cause disease outbreaks worldwide. This study investigated the feasibility of applying bacteriophage therapy to treat the coral pathogen V. coralliilyticus. A specific bacteriophage for V. coralliilyticus strain P1 (LMG23696), referred to here as bacteriophage YC, was isolated from the seawater above corals at Nelly Bay, Magnetic Island, central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the same location where the bacterium was first isola...

  16. White Band Disease transmission in the threatened coral, Acropora cervicornis

    OpenAIRE

    Gignoux-Wolfsohn, S. A.; Marks, Christopher J.; Steven V Vollmer

    2012-01-01

    The global rise in coral diseases has severely impacted coral reef ecosystems, yet often little is known about these diseases, including how they are transmitted. White Band Disease (WBD), for example, has caused unparalleled declines in live Acropora cover, spreading rapidly throughout the Caribbean by unknown means. Here we test four putative modes of WBD transmission to the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis: two animal vectors (Coralliophila abbreviata and C. caribaea) and waterborne tra...

  17. Coral community response to bleaching on a highly disturbed reef

    OpenAIRE

    Guest, J R; Low, J.; Tun, K.; B. Wilson; Ng, C.; Raingeard, D.; K. E. Ulstrup; Tanzil, J. T. I.; Todd, P.A.; Toh, T. C.; McDougald, D; Chou, L.M.; P. D. Steinberg

    2016-01-01

    While many studies of coral bleaching report on broad, regional scale responses, fewer examine variation in susceptibility among coral taxa and changes in community structure, before, during and after bleaching on individual reefs. Here we report in detail on the response to bleaching by a coral community on a highly disturbed reef site south of mainland Singapore before, during and after a major thermal anomaly in 2010. To estimate the capacity for resistance to thermal stress, we report on:...

  18. De novo transcriptome assembly of a sour cherry cultivar, Schattenmorelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus in the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae is one of the most popular stone fruit trees worldwide. Of known sour cherry cultivars, the Schattenmorelle is a famous old sour cherry with a high amount of fruit production. The Schattenmorelle was selected before 1650 and described in the 1800s. This cultivar was named after gardens of the Chateau de Moreille in which the cultivar was initially found. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers for sour cherry, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a sour cherry. We selected the cultivar Schattenmorelle, which is among commercially important cultivars in Europe and North America. We obtained 2.05 GB raw data from the Schattenmorelle (NCBI accession number: SRX1187170. De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 61,053 transcripts in which N50 was 611 bp. Next, we identified 25,585 protein coding sequences using TransDecoder. The identified proteins were blasted against NCBI's non-redundant database for annotation. Based on blast search, we taxonomically classified the obtained sequences. As a result, we provide the transcriptome of sour cherry cultivar Schattenmorelle using next generation sequencing.

  19. Adaptability of soybean cultivars in different crop years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, I O; Rezende, P M; Bruzi, A T; Zambiazzi, E V; Zuffo, A M; Silva, K B; Gwinner, R

    2015-08-07

    Soybean is one of the main sources of foreign exchange credits for Brazil in the agricultural sector. There is increasing interest in growing this leguminous crop, especially in the southern region of Minas Gerais, due to its importance as an alternative for crop rotation with maize. In this respect, the study of the adaptability of new cultivars to the region is indispensable so as to obtain high yields. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 38 soybean cultivars for growing in the summer season in the municipality of Lavras, MG, Brazil, in the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 crop years. The experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with 3 replications and the treatments consisted of 38 cultivars. At the time of harvest, the following assessments were made: grain yield (kg/ha), height of the lowest pod (cm), plant height (cm), and lodging. The data were subjected to individual and combined analysis of variance. The phenotypic mean values were clustered, adopting the Scott and Knott test. For simultaneous selection of multiple traits, the sum of rank index of Mulamba and Mock was adopted. The cultivar TMG 801 RR had the best yield performance; the cultivars Monsoy 8001, MGBR-46 (Conquista), and BRSMG 68 (Vencedora) also stood out. Considering simultaneous selection for grain yield, plant height, height of the lowest pod, and lodging, the cultivar TMG 801 RR is recommended for growing in the summer season in the southern region of Minas Gerais.

  20. Adaptability and stability of strawberry cultivars using a mixed model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Ferreira Costa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although strawberry crops have a strong socio-economic impact on the agricultural sector of Espírito Santo State, there are few studies on the performance of strawberry cultivars in different locations and years under a low tunnel management system (LT. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the parameters of adaptability and stability of strawberry cultivars under LT-protected cultivation using the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetically predicted values. Seven strawberry cultivars were assessed (‘Dover’, ‘Camino Real’, ‘Ventana’, ‘Camarosa’, ‘Seascape’, ‘Diamante’ and ‘Aromas’ in the agricultural years 2006/7, 2007/8 and 2008/9 in three locations in the mountainous region of Espírito Santo State. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with 3 replications and 15 plants per plot. The analysis of deviance for the yield (ton. ha-1 demonstrated that only the effects of genotype and the triple interaction genotype x location x year were significant, which indicates the presence of genetic variability among the cultivars and the inconsistency of the position among the genotypes for combinations of year and location. Considering the selection for yield, adaptability and stability, in LT-protected cultivation, cultivars Camarosa and Aromas are highlighted for expressing average values that were 22% higher than the overall mean of the cultivars (24.55 ton. há-1 in the environments assessed.

  1. SSR Analysis of Genetic Diversity Among 192 Diploid Potato Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In potato breeding, it is difficult to improve the traits of interest at the tetraploid level due to the tetrasomic inheritance. A promising alternative is diploid breeding. Thus it is necessary to assess the genetic diversity of diploid potato germplasm for efficient exploration and deployment of desirable traits. In this study, we used SSR markers to evaluate the genetic diversity of diploid potato cultivars. To screen polymorphic SSR markers, 55 pairs of SSR primers were employed to amplify 39 cultivars with relatively distant genetic relationships. Among them, 12 SSR markers with high polymorphism located at 12 chromosomes were chosen to evaluate the genetic diversity of 192 diploid potato cultivars. The primers produced 6 to 18 bands with an average of 8.2 bands per primer. In total, 98 bands were amplified from 192 cultivars, and 97 of them were polymorphic. Cluster analysis using UPGMA showed the genetic relationships of all accessions tested: 186 of the 192 accessions could be distinguished by only 12 pairs of SSR primers, and the 192 diploid cultivars were divided into 11 groups, and 83.3% constituted the first group. Clustering results showed relatively low genetic diversity among 192 diploid cultivars, with closer relationship at the molecular level. The results can provide molecular basis for diploid potato breeding.

  2. Growth Responses of Wheat Cultivars to Rock Phosphate in Hydroponics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.ASHRAF; RAHMATULLAH; M.A.MAQSOOD; S.KANWAL; M.A.TAHIR; L.ALI

    2009-01-01

    Screening cultivars to grow under conditions of low phosphorus (P) availability and utilize P efficiently from compounds of low solubility in soils may be beneficial to overcome poor plant growth in P-deficient soils.The growth behavior and P utilization efficiency of seven wheat cultivars grown in hydroponics were studied,using rock phosphate as P source.The wheat cultivars grown for 30 days were significantly different in biomass accumulation,P uptake and P utilization efficiency.The dry matter production of all the cultivars was significantly correlated with P uptake,which in turn correlated to the drop in the root medium pH.The ranking of wheat cultivars on the basis of dry matter yield,P uptake and P utilization efficiency was Zamindar 80 > Yccora > C 271 > WL 711 > Barani 83 > PARI 73 > Rohtas.The cultivar Zamindar 80 appeared to possess the best growth potential in P-deficient soils.

  3. Monitoring Coral Health to Determine Coral Bleaching Response at High Latitude Eastern Australian Reefs: An Applied Model for A Changing Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Andrew G; Dalton, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Limited information is available on the bleaching susceptibility of coral species that dominate high latitude reefs along the eastern seaboard of Australia. The main aims of this study were to: (i) monitor coral health and spatial patterns of coral bleaching response at the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP) and Lord Howe Island Marine Park (LHIMP), to determine variability of bleaching susceptibility among coral taxa; (ii) predict coral bleaching thresholds at 30 °S and 31.5 °S, extrapolate...

  4. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum, black spot (Alternaria brassicicola and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  5. Growing coral larger and faster: micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Zac H; Page, Christopher A; Toonen, Robert J; Vaughan, David

    2015-01-01

    Fusion is an important life history strategy for clonal organisms to increase access to shared resources, to compete for space, and to recover from disturbance. For reef building corals, fragmentation and colony fusion are key components of resilience to disturbance. Observations of small fragments spreading tissue and fusing over artificial substrates prompted experiments aimed at further characterizing Atlantic and Pacific corals under various conditions. Small (∼1-3 cm(2)) fragments from the same colony spaced regularly over ceramic tiles resulted in spreading at rapid rates (e.g., tens of square centimeters per month) followed by isogenic fusion. Using this strategy, we demonstrate growth, in terms of area encrusted and covered by living tissue, of Orbicella faveolata, Pseudodiploria clivosa, and Porites lobata as high as 63, 48, and 23 cm(2) per month respectively. We found a relationship between starting and ending size of fragments, with larger fragments growing at a faster rate. Porites lobata showed significant tank effects on rates of tissue spreading indicating sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors. The tendency of small coral fragments to encrust and fuse over a variety of surfaces can be exploited for a variety of applications such as coral cultivation, assays for coral growth, and reef restoration.

  6. Growing coral larger and faster: micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zac H. Forsman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusion is an important life history strategy for clonal organisms to increase access to shared resources, to compete for space, and to recover from disturbance. For reef building corals, fragmentation and colony fusion are key components of resilience to disturbance. Observations of small fragments spreading tissue and fusing over artificial substrates prompted experiments aimed at further characterizing Atlantic and Pacific corals under various conditions. Small (∼1–3 cm2 fragments from the same colony spaced regularly over ceramic tiles resulted in spreading at rapid rates (e.g., tens of square centimeters per month followed by isogenic fusion. Using this strategy, we demonstrate growth, in terms of area encrusted and covered by living tissue, of Orbicella faveolata, Pseudodiploria clivosa, and Porites lobata as high as 63, 48, and 23 cm2 per month respectively. We found a relationship between starting and ending size of fragments, with larger fragments growing at a faster rate. Porites lobata showed significant tank effects on rates of tissue spreading indicating sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors. The tendency of small coral fragments to encrust and fuse over a variety of surfaces can be exploited for a variety of applications such as coral cultivation, assays for coral growth, and reef restoration.

  7. Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world's coral reefs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegh-Guldberg, O. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1999-07-01

    Sea temperatures in many tropical regions have increased by almost 1{degree}C over the past 100 years, and are currently increasing at about 1-2{degree}C per century. Mass coral bleaching has occurred in association with episodes of elevated sea temperatures over the past 20 years and involves the loss of the zooxanthellae following chronic photoinhibition. Mass bleaching has resulted in significant losses of live coral in many parts of the world. This paper considers the biochemical, physiological and ecological perspectives of coral bleaching. It also uses the outputs of four runs from three models of global climate change which simulate changes in sea temperature and hence how the frequency and intensity of bleaching events will change over the next 100 years. The results suggest that the thermal tolerances of reef-building corals are likely to be exceeded every year within the next few decades. Events as severe as the 1998 event, the worst on record, are likely to become commonplace within 20 years. Most information suggests that the capacity for acclimation by corals has already been exceeded, and that adaptation will be too slow to avert a decline in the quality of the world's reefs.

  8. Do tabular corals constitute keystone structures for fishes on coral reefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, J. T.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the changes in community composition of reef fishes by experimentally manipulating the availability of shelter provided by tabular structures on a mid-shelf reef on the Great Barrier Reef. At locations where access to tabular corals ( Acropora hyacinthus and Acropora cytherea) was excluded, a rapid and sustained reduction in the abundance of large reef fishes occurred. At locations where tabular structure was added, the abundance and diversity of large reef fishes increased and the abundance of small reef fishes tended to decrease, although over a longer time frame. Based on their response to changes in the availability of tabular structures, nine families of large reef fishes were separated into three categories; designated as obligate, facultative or non-structure users. This relationship may relate to the particular ecological demands of each family, including avoidance of predation and ultraviolet radiation, access to feeding areas and reef navigation. This study highlights the importance of tabular corals for large reef fishes in shallow reef environments and provides a possible mechanism for local changes in the abundance of reef fishes following loss of structural complexity on coral reefs. Keystone structures have a distinct structure and disproportionate effect on their ecosystem relative to their abundance, as such the result of this study suggests tabular corals may constitute keystone structures on shallow coral reefs.

  9. Avaliação de herbicidas para dois cultivares de mandioca Selectivity of herbicide alternatives for two cassava cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F Biffe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available É importante avaliar a tolerância de variedade de mandioca a novas alternativas de controle químico, com o intuito de ampliar as opções disponíveis. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência, para duas importantes variedades de mandioca cultivadas no Estado do Paraná. Os herbicidas e respectivas doses (g i.a. ha-1 avaliadas foram: diuron (400 e 800, metribuzin (360 e 720, isoxaflutole (60, atrazine (720, S-metolachlor (1.920 e as misturas ametryn + clomazone (1.350+1.900, ametryn+trifluralin (1.500+1.350, isoxaflutole+metribuzin (60+320, isoxaflutole+diuron (60+400, combinados com uso de uma testemunha dupla adjacente a cada tratamento. Os cultivares utilizados neste trabalho foram Fécula Branca e Fibra. Apenas o herbicida S-metolachlor, para ambos os cultivares, e metribuzin (360 g i.a. ha-1, para o cultivar Fibra, não provocaram injúrias. Atrazine provocou redução de estande para o cultivar Fécula Branca aos 60 DAP, mas não foi detectada redução na altura de plantas. Tanto atrazine (para os dois cultivares quanto diuron na dose de 800 g i.a. ha-1 (para o cultivar Fécula Branca afetaram a produtividade de raízes. Dessa forma, atrazine foi considerado não seletivo para ambos os cultivares, e a maior dose de diuron foi também considerada não seletiva para o cultivar Fécula Branca. Há diferenças de tolerância entre os cultivares, sendo o Fibra, de modo geral, mais tolerante aos herbicidas avaliados.It is important to evaluate the tolerance of cassava varieties under new weed chemical control alternatives. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the selectivity of herbicides, applied at pre-emergence, for two important cassava varieties grown in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The herbicides and respective doses (g a.i. ha-1 were: diuron (400 and 800, metribuzin (360 and 720, isoxaflutole (60, atrazine (720, S-metolachlor (1,920 and mixtures ametryn+clomazone (1

  10. The Global Coral Reef Crisis: Trends and Solutions (Coral Reefs: Values, Threats, and the Marine Aquarium Trade)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuman, Craig S. (Reef Check, UCLA)

    2003-02-05

    Second only to tropical rainforests, coral reefs support one of the world's most diverse natural habitats. Over 350 million individuals depend on coral reef resources for food and income. Unfortunately, the Earth is in the midst of a coral reef crisis. Anthropogenic impacts including overfishing, destructive fishing practices, sedimentation and pollution, as well as global climate change, have served to disrupt the natural processes that maintain the health of these ecosystems. Until recently, however, the global extent of the coral reef crisis was unknown. Reef Check was developed in 1996 as a volunteer, community-based monitoring protocol designed to measure the health of coral reefs on a global scale. With goals of education, monitoring, and management, Reef Check has activities in over 60 countries and territories. They have not only provided scientific evidence of the global extent of the coral reef crisis, but have provided the first community based steps to alleviate this urgent situation.

  11. Changes to coral health and metabolic activity under oxygen deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    On Hawaiian reefs, the fast-growing, invasive algae Gracilaria salicornia overgrows coral heads, restricting water flow and light, thereby smothering corals. Field data shows hypoxic conditions (dissolved oxygen (DO2) < 2 mg/L) occurring underneath algal mats at night, and concurrent bleaching and partial tissue loss of shaded corals. To analyze the impact of nighttime oxygen-deprivation on coral health, this study evaluated changes in coral metabolism through the exposure of corals to chronic hypoxic conditions and subsequent analyses of lactate, octopine, alanopine, and strombine dehydrogenase activities, critical enzymes employed through anaerobic respiration. Following treatments, lactate and octopine dehydrogenase activities were found to have no significant response in activities with treatment and time. However, corals subjected to chronic nighttime hypoxia were found to exhibit significant increases in alanopine dehydrogenase activity after three days of exposure and strombine dehydrogenase activity starting after one overnight exposure cycle. These findings provide new insights into coral metabolic shifts in extremely low-oxygen environments and point to ADH and SDH assays as tools for quantifying the impact of hypoxia on coral health. PMID:27114888

  12. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Zealandia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  13. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Maug

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  14. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Tutuila

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  15. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Guguan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  16. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Arakane

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  17. Inhibition of coral recruitment by macroalgae and cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffner, I.B.; Walters, L.J.; Becerro, M.A.; Paul, V.J.; Ritson-Williams, R.; Beach, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    Coral recruitment is a key process in the maintenance and recovery of coral reef ecosystems. While intense competition between coral and algae is often assumed on reefs that have undergone phase shifts from coral to algal dominance, data examining the competitive interactions involved, particularly during the larval and immediate post-settlement stage, are scarce. Using a series of field and outdoor seawater table experiments, we tested the hypothesis that common species of macroalgae and cyanobacteria inhibit coral recruitment. We examined the effects of Lyngbya spp., Dictyota spp., Lobophora variegata (J. V. Lamouroux) Womersley, and Chondrophycus poiteaui (J. V. Lamouroux) Nam (formerly Laurencia poiteaui) on the recruitment success of Porites astreoides larvae. All species but C. poiteaui caused either recruitment inhibition or avoidance behavior in P. astreoides larvae, while L. confervoides and D. menstrualis significantly increased mortality rates of P. astreoides recruits. We also tested the effect of some of these macrophytes on larvae of the gorgonian octocoral Briareum asbestinum. Exposure to Lyngbya majuscula reduced survival and recruitment in the octocoral larvae. Our results provide evidence that algae and cyanobacteria use tactics beyond space occupation to inhibit coral recruitment. On reefs experiencing phase shifts or temporary algal blooms, the restocking of adult coral populations may be slowed due to recruitment inhibition, thereby perpetuating reduced coral cover and limiting coral community recovery. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  18. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Saipan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  19. Flexibility in Algal Endosymbioses Shapes Growth in Reef Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Angela F.; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.; Willis, Bette L.

    2004-06-01

    The relation between corals and their algal endosymbionts has been a key to the success of scleractinian (stony) corals as modern reef-builders, but little is known about early stages in the establishment of the symbiosis. Here, we show that initial uptake of zooxanthellae by juvenile corals during natural infection is nonspecific (a potentially adaptive trait); the association is flexible and characterized by a change in (dominant) zooxanthella strains over time; and growth rates of experimentally infected coral holobionts are partly contingent on the zooxanthella strain harbored, with clade C-infected juveniles growing two to three times as fast as those infected with clade D.

  20. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Sarigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  1. Changes to coral health and metabolic activity under oxygen deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W.A. Murphy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available On Hawaiian reefs, the fast-growing, invasive algae Gracilaria salicornia overgrows coral heads, restricting water flow and light, thereby smothering corals. Field data shows hypoxic conditions (dissolved oxygen (DO2 < 2 mg/L occurring underneath algal mats at night, and concurrent bleaching and partial tissue loss of shaded corals. To analyze the impact of nighttime oxygen-deprivation on coral health, this study evaluated changes in coral metabolism through the exposure of corals to chronic hypoxic conditions and subsequent analyses of lactate, octopine, alanopine, and strombine dehydrogenase activities, critical enzymes employed through anaerobic respiration. Following treatments, lactate and octopine dehydrogenase activities were found to have no significant response in activities with treatment and time. However, corals subjected to chronic nighttime hypoxia were found to exhibit significant increases in alanopine dehydrogenase activity after three days of exposure and strombine dehydrogenase activity starting after one overnight exposure cycle. These findings provide new insights into coral metabolic shifts in extremely low-oxygen environments and point to ADH and SDH assays as tools for quantifying the impact of hypoxia on coral health.

  2. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Agrihan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  3. 10th Anniversary Review: a changing climate for coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Janice M

    2008-01-01

    Tropical coral reefs are charismatic ecosystems that house a significant proportion of the world's marine biodiversity. Their valuable goods and services are fundamental to the livelihood of large coastal populations in the tropics. The health of many of the world's coral reefs, and the goods and services they provide, have already been severely compromised, largely due to over-exploitation by a range of human activities. These local-scale impacts, with the appropriate government instruments, support and management actions, can potentially be controlled and even ameliorated. Unfortunately, other human actions (largely in countries outside of the tropics), by changing global climate, have added additional global-scale threats to the continued survival of present-day coral reefs. Moderate warming of the tropical oceans has already resulted in an increase in mass coral bleaching events, affecting nearly all of the world's coral reef regions. The frequency of these events will only increase as global temperatures continue to rise. Weakening of coral reef structures will be a more insidious effect of changing ocean chemistry, as the oceans absorb part of the excess atmospheric carbon dioxide. More intense tropical cyclones, changed atmospheric and ocean circulation patterns will all affect coral reef ecosystems and the many associated plants and animals. Coral reefs will not disappear but their appearance, structure and community make-up will radically change. Drastic greenhouse gas mitigation strategies are necessary to prevent the full consequences of human activities causing such alterations to coral reef ecosystems.

  4. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Anatahan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  5. Breakage and Propagation of the Stony Coral Acropora cervicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Verena

    1981-04-01

    Populations of the staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, often form dense monotypic stands on shallow Caribbean reefs. This coral species has a fragile structure that results in large numbers of broken branches and toppled colonies, especially in high wave activity. Although more than 80% of the corals in the studied population were broken from their bases, most had become reanchored to regrow rapidly. There is little evidence of sexual reproduction, and it appears that this coral has come to dominate much of the Jamaican reef community by propagation through fragmentation.

  6. Ecological complexity of coral recruitment processes: effects of invertebrate herbivores on coral recruitment and growth depends upon substratum properties and coral species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah W Davies

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The transition from planktonic planula to sessile adult corals occurs at low frequencies and post settlement mortality is extremely high. Herbivores promote settlement by reducing algal competition. This study investigates whether invertebrate herbivory might be modulated by other ecological factors such as substrata variations and coral species identity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The experiment was conducted at the Flower Garden Banks, one of the few Atlantic reefs not experiencing considerable degradation. Tiles of differing texture and orientation were kept in bins surrounded by reef (24 m. Controls contained no herbivores while treatment bins contained urchins (Diadema antillarum or herbivorous gastropods (Cerithium litteratum. Juvenile corals settling naturally were monitored by photography for 14 months to evaluate the effects of invertebrate herbivory and substratum properties. Herbivory reduced algae cover in urchin treatments. Two genera of brooding coral juveniles were observed, Agaricia and Porites, both of which are common but not dominant on adjacent reef. No broadcast spawning corals were observed on tiles. Overall, juveniles were more abundant in urchin treatments and on vertical, rough textured surfaces. Although more abundant, Agaricia juveniles were smaller in urchin treatments, presumably due to destructive overgrazing. Still, Agaricia growth increased with herbivory and substrata texture-orientation interactions were observed with reduced growth on rough tiles in control treatments and increased growth on vertical tiles in herbivore treatments. In contrast to Agaricia, Porites juveniles were larger on horizontal tiles, irrespective of herbivore treatment. Mortality was affected by substrata orientation with vertical surfaces increasing coral survival. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We further substantiate that invertebrate herbivores play major roles in early settlement processes of corals and highlight the need

  7. As atividades turísticas baseadas na alimentação artificial de botos-da-Amazônia (Inia geoffrensis e a legislação ambiental brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cláudio Pinto de Sá Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we evaluate the touristic activity involving the interaction between botos (Inia geoffrensis and humans based on the conditioning through artificial feeding in the light of the environmental legislation, using the Anavilhanas National Park (ANP as case study. The Park is located in the Brazilian Amazon, in Novo Airão city, Amazonas State. This activity has significantly increased over the last years, as well as the literature describing its negative effects. By consulting the specialized literature, analyzing the legal framework and empirical material, it was verified that i legally speaking this practice presents conflicts to some aspects of the Brazilian environmental legislation, ecotourism concepts and functions of the Conservation Units and, ii administratively speaking, the environmental agencies are now taking appropriate steps to mitigate the negative impacts and gradual actions in order to alter the touristic activities to comply with the current environmental legislation. We conclude that there is still a lot to be done for the botos tourism model that occurs in the Brazilian Amazon to be conducted in a sustainable manner, suggesting that the group of heterogeneous actions proposed here be implemented to achieve that.

  8. Desempenho de cultivares de alface na região de Manaus Performance of lettuce cultivars in Manaus region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac N Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Na avaliação de cultivares de hortaliças, os rendimentos médios mais elevados nos ensaios de competição, associados a fatores de qualidade, são utilizados como critérios de recomendação para plantio. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as cultivares de alface Frisella, Deisy, Tender Green, Lollo Bionda, Itapuã 401, Marisa, Verônica, Banchu New Red Fire e Hortência nas condições climáticas da região de Manaus, sob cultivo protegido e a campo. Foram avaliadas as características: massa fresca total, massa fresca comercial, diâmetro da cabeça e altura. As cultivares de alface Marisa, Itapuã 401 e Hortência são opções mais adequadas para o cultivo protegido e a campo na região, incluindo-se para o cultivo a campo a cultivar Verônica, a qual apresentou a melhor produção na avaliação realizada neste ambiente.In the evaluation of vegetable cultivars, the high average yield in the competition assays associated to quality factors are utilized as criteria to recommend cultivars. In the present work we evaluated the lettuce cultivars Frisella, Deisy, Tender Green, Lollo Bionda, Itapuã 401, Marisa, Verônica, Banchu New Red Fire and Hortência under the climatic conditions of the region of Manaus, under protected and conventional cultivation. The evaluated characteristics were: total and commercial weight, plant diameter and height. The lettuce cultivars Marisa, Itapuã 401 and Hortência presented higher production in both environments adding Verônica with best production under conventional cultivation.

  9. Temperature and Light Effects on Extracellular Superoxide Production by Algal and Bacterial Symbionts in Corals: Implications for Coral Bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighi, C.; Diaz, J. M.; Apprill, A.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Increased surface seawater temperature due to global warming is one of the main causes of coral bleaching, a phenomenon in which corals lose their photosynthetic algae. Light and temperature induced production of superoxide and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) by these symbiotic algae has been implicated in the breakdown of their symbiotic association with the coral host and subsequent coral bleaching. Nevertheless, a direct link between Symbiodinium ROS production and coral bleaching has not been demonstrated. In fact, given the abundance and diversity of microorganisms within the coral holobiont, the concentration and fluxes of ROS within corals may involve several microbial sources and sinks. Here, we explore the role of increased light and temperature on superoxide production by coral-derived cultures of Symbiodinium algae and Oceanospirillales bacteria of the genus Endozoicomonas, which are globally common and abundant associates of corals. Using a high sensitivity chemiluminescent technique, we find that heat stress (exposure to 34°C vs. 23°C for 2hr or 24hr) has no significant effect on extracellular superoxide production by Symbiodinium isolates within clades B and C, regardless of the level of light exposure. Exposure to high light, however, increased superoxide production by these organisms at both 34°C and 23°C. On the other hand, extracellular superoxide production by Endozoicomonas bacteria tested under the same conditions was stimulated by the combined effects of thermal and light stress. The results of this research suggest that the sources and physical triggers for biological superoxide production within corals are more complex than currently assumed. Thus, further investigations into the biological processes controlling ROS dynamics within corals are required to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning coral bleaching and to aid in the development of mitigation strategies.

  10. Understanding coral reefs in an impacted world: Physiological responses of coral reef organisms to coastal pollution and global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Kegler, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are facing a multitude of anthropogenic disturbances at ever higher frequencies and magnitudes. As a consequence, these ecologically and economically important ecosystems are degrading worldwide. Reef managers lack knowledge on how fish, corals and coral larvae respond to the effects of local and global stressors. This thesis reveals the significance of chemical pollution from localized sources. Two common pollutants (diesel and a surfactant) caused metabolic changes in a fish and...

  11. Large-amplitude internal waves sustain coral health during thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gertraud M.; Wall, Marlene; Taylor, Marc; Jantzen, Carin; Richter, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    Ocean warming is a major threat for coral reefs causing widespread coral bleaching and mortality. Potential refugia are thus crucial for coral survival. Exposure to large-amplitude internal waves (LAIW) mitigated heat stress and ensured coral survival and recovery during and after an extreme heat anomaly. The physiological status of two common corals, Porites lutea and Pocillopora meandrina, was monitored in host and symbiont traits, in response to LAIW-exposure throughout the unprecedented 2010 heat anomaly in the Andaman Sea. LAIW-exposed corals of both species survived and recovered, while LAIW-sheltered corals suffered partial and total mortality in P. lutea and P. meandrina, respectively. LAIW are ubiquitous in the tropics and potentially generate coral refuge areas. As thermal stress to corals is expected to increase in a warming ocean, the mechanisms linking coral bleaching to ocean dynamics will be crucial to predict coral survival on a warming planet.

  12. Impacts of the 1998 and 2010 mass coral bleaching events on the Western Gulf of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthacheep, Makamas; Yucharoen, Mathinee; Klinthong, Wanlaya; Pengsakun, Sittiporn; Sangmanee, Kanwara; Yeemin, Thamasak

    2013-11-01

    A long-term study of coral reef ecology in the Gulf of Thailand provides a good opportunity to examine the temporal variation on the impact of mass coral bleaching at those reef sites. We compared the bleaching and mortality of corals between the mass bleaching events in 1998 and 2010 at a coral community in the Western Gulf of Thailand. The aim was to identify the coral species which were most likely to suffer from (and to be able to tolerate) changes in seawater temperature. Significant differences in the susceptibility of the coral taxa to bleaching events between the years 1998 and 2010 and among coral species were documented. Bleaching was significantly different between the most dominant corals. Diploastrea heliopora was the most resistant coral to bleaching in both years. Some coral species showed more resistance to bleaching in 2010. The coral mortality following the mass bleaching events in 1998 and 2010 varied significantly between the years and the coral taxa. Mortality of some dominant coral taxa was also lower in 2010. Seven coral species, i.e. Astreopora myriophthalma, Pachyseris rugosa, Turbinaria mesenterina, Goniastrea pectinata, Favia pallida, F. maritima, Favites halicora, Platygyra daedalea and Galaxea fascicularis, were tolerant to the coral bleaching events. An ecosystem-based approach to managing coral reefs in the Gulf of Thailand is needed to identify appropriate marine protected area networks and to strengthen marine and coastal resource policies in order to build coral reef resilience.

  13. The influence of fire-coral colony size and agonistic behaviour of territorial damselfish on associated coral reef fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Isabela Carolina Silva; de Araújo, Maria Elisabeth; da Cunha, Simone Rabelo; Pereira, Pedro Henrique Cipresso

    2015-07-01

    Branching hydrocorals from the genus Millepora play an important ecological role in South Atlantic reefs, where branching scleractinian corals are absent. Previous studies have shown a high proportion of reef fish species using branching fire-coral colonies as shelter, breeding, and feeding sites. However, the effects of Millepora spp. colony size and how the agonistic behaviour of a competitive damselfish affect the associated reef fish community are still unknown. The present study examined how fire-coral colony volume and the presence of a highly territorial and aggressive damselfish (Brazilian endemic Stegastes fuscus) affects the reef fish community associated with the fire-coral Millepora alcicornis. M. alcicornis colonies were surveyed from September 2012 to April 2013 at Tamandaré Reefs off Northeast Brazil. Our results show that the abundance and richness of coral associated fish was positively correlated with M. alcicornis coral colony volume. Additionally, behaviour of S. fuscus, the most abundant reef fish species found associated with fire-coral colonies (almost 57% of the fish community), was also influenced by fire-coral colony volume. There was a clear trend of increased agonistic behaviour and feeding on coral polyps as colony volume increased. This trend was reversed for the non-occupational swimming category, which decreased as M. alcicornis colony volume increased. Behavioural ontogenetic changes were also detected for S. fuscus individuals. Juveniles mainly showed two distinct behaviours: sheltered on coral branches and feeding on coral polyps. In contrast, adults presented greater equitability among the behavioural categories, mostly non-occupational swimming around coral colonies and agonistic behaviour. Lastly, S. fuscus individuals actively defended fire-coral colonies from intruders. A large number of agonistic interactions occurred against potential food competitors, which were mainly roving herbivores, omnivores, and sessile

  14. Controlling outbreaks of the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish using a single injection of common household vinegar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström-Einarsson, Lisa; Rivera-Posada, Jairo

    2016-03-01

    Outbreaks of the destructive coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, present a considerable threat to coral reefs worldwide, and mitigating their impact has proven challenging. The most effective methods to control A. planci require injecting individual starfish with lethal chemicals. While some of these are highly effective, their administration often requires permits, training and access to specialised equipment. We aimed to identify a widely available and highly efficient alternative. We discovered that common household vinegar is lethal to A. planci individuals when injected at the base of one their arms. A single injection of 25 ml vinegar induced functional mortality in coral reefs.

  15. Discordant coral-symbiont structuring: factors shaping geographical variation of Symbiodinium communities in a facultative zooxanthellate coral genus, Oculina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydet, Karine Posbic; Hellberg, Michael E.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the factors that help shape the association between corals and their algal symbionts, zooxanthellae ( Symbiodinium), is necessary to better understand the functional diversity and acclimatization potential of the coral host. However, most studies focus on tropical zooxanthellate corals and their obligate algal symbionts, thus limiting our full comprehension of coral-algal symbiont associations. Here, we examine algal associations in a facultative zooxanthellate coral. We survey the Symbiodinium communities associated with Oculina corals in the western North Atlantic and the Mediterranean using one clade-level marker ( psbA coding region) and three fine-scale markers ( cp23S- rDNA, b7sym15 flanking region, and b2sym17). We ask whether Oculina spp. harbor geographically different Symbiodinium communities across their geographic range and, if so, whether the host's genetics or habitat differences are correlated with this geographical variation. We found that Oculina corals harbor different Symbiodinium communities across their geographical range. Of the habitat differences (including chlorophyll a concentration and depth), sea surface temperature is better correlated with this geographical variation than the host's genetics, a pattern most evident in the Mediterranean. Our results suggest that although facultative zooxanthellate corals may be less dependent on their algal partners compared to obligate zooxanthellate corals, the Symbiodinium communities that they harbor may nevertheless reflect acclimatization to environmental variation among habitats.

  16. The influence of colony size and coral health on the occupation of coral-associated gobies (Pisces: Gobiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiemer, L.; Niedermüller, S.; Herler, J.

    2009-03-01

    Fishes of the genus Gobiodon are habitat specialists by their association with Acropora corals. Little is known about the parameters that define host coral quality for these fishes, in particular their breeding pairs. Data were collected in the northern Red Sea using 10 × 1-m belt transects in different reefs and zones. Gobiid density was highly correlated with coral density over all sites and zones, and the more specialized goby species preferred coral species that are less vulnerable to environmental stress. Moreover, the occupation rate of corals by goby breeding pairs significantly increased with colony size and decreased with partial mortality of colonies. Logistic regression showed that both coral size (being most important) and partial mortality are key factors influencing the occupation by breeding pairs. This study provides the first evidence that breeding pairs of coral-associated gobiids have more advanced habitat requirements than con-specifics in other social states. As coral reefs are threatened worldwide and habitat loss and degradation increase, this information will help predict the potential effects on those reef fishes obligatorily associated with live corals.

  17. Microsatellite multiplex assay for the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster cf. planci

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.

    2015-03-20

    Population outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster spp.) represent one of the most significant biological disturbances on Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Here, we combine 15 published and 11 newly isolated polymorphic microsatellite markers from the coral-eating starfish, A. cf. planci and describe their integration into four multiplex PCRs. All markers were polymorphic with a mean of 11.7 ± 1.9 SE alleles per locus and an average observed heterozygosity of 0.619 ± 0.049 SE across 195 genotyped individuals from the Great Barrier Reef. This multiplex assay provides an effective means of investigating the population dynamics of crown-of-thorns starfish and the initiation and spread of population outbreaks.

  18. From cholera to corals: Viruses as drivers of virulence in a major coral bacterial pathogen

    KAUST Repository

    Weynberg, Karen D.

    2015-12-08

    Disease is an increasing threat to reef-building corals. One of the few identified pathogens of coral disease is the bacterium Vibrio coralliilyticus. In Vibrio cholerae, infection by a bacterial virus (bacteriophage) results in the conversion of non-pathogenic strains to pathogenic strains and this can lead to cholera pandemics. Pathogenicity islands encoded in the V. cholerae genome play an important role in pathogenesis. Here we analyse five whole genome sequences of V. coralliilyticus to examine whether virulence is similarly driven by horizontally acquired elements. We demonstrate that bacteriophage genomes encoding toxin genes with homology to those found in pathogenic V. cholerae are integrated in V. coralliilyticus genomes. Virulence factors located on chromosomal pathogenicity islands also exist in some strains of V. coralliilyticus. The presence of these genetic signatures indicates virulence in V. coralliilyticus is driven by prophages and other horizontally acquired elements. Screening for pathogens of coral disease should target conserved regions in these elements.

  19. From cholera to corals: Viruses as drivers of virulence in a major coral bacterial pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weynberg, Karen D.; Voolstra, Christian R.; Neave, Matthew J.; Buerger, Patrick; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Disease is an increasing threat to reef-building corals. One of the few identified pathogens of coral disease is the bacterium Vibrio coralliilyticus. In Vibrio cholerae, infection by a bacterial virus (bacteriophage) results in the conversion of non-pathogenic strains to pathogenic strains and this can lead to cholera pandemics. Pathogenicity islands encoded in the V. cholerae genome play an important role in pathogenesis. Here we analyse five whole genome sequences of V. coralliilyticus to examine whether virulence is similarly driven by horizontally acquired elements. We demonstrate that bacteriophage genomes encoding toxin genes with homology to those found in pathogenic V. cholerae are integrated in V. coralliilyticus genomes. Virulence factors located on chromosomal pathogenicity islands also exist in some strains of V. coralliilyticus. The presence of these genetic signatures indicates virulence in V. coralliilyticus is driven by prophages and other horizontally acquired elements. Screening for pathogens of coral disease should target conserved regions in these elements. PMID:26644037

  20. Novo cultivar de mamona: IAC-226(Tarabay New castor bean cultivar IAC-226 (Tarabay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Savy Filho

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve um novo cultivar de mamona (Ricinus communis 1., IAC-226 (Tarabay originado de linhagem pura, obtida do cruzamento controlado entre o 'Pindorama' e o 'Campinas': trata-se de germoplasma adaptado às condições climáticas normais de cultura no Estado de São Paulo, material de porte alto (250-350cm, diâmetro de copa de 215cm e ciclo vegetativo médio (180 dias, a partir da emergência. A produção econômica é dada pelos racemos primários, secundários, terciários e quaternários, com 19, 30, 23 e 28% da produção total respectivamente, elevado potencial produtivo (2.681kg/ha de sementes e 1.233kg/ha de óleo, e frutos indeiscentes.The characteristics of a new castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultivar, named IAC-226 (Tarabay, obtained by hybridization between 'Pindorama' and 'Campinas', and selected by the pedigree method, are reported. The origin, characteristics of the plant and fruits such as seed weight and yield are described. Remarkable traits are: tall height indehiscent fruits, adaptation and outstanding yield ability with mean value of 2,681kg of seeds/ha and 1,233kg of oil/ha.