WorldWideScience

Sample records for copyright

  1. Copyright

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ‘Talent is always conscious of its own abundance, and does not object to sharing.’ Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, The First Circle When authors submit an article for publication, most publishers will ask for a signature from the author on a copyright form. The relationship between an author and the publisher is then a partnership but one that many authors are reluctant to enter into. After all, why should a publisher take copyright from an author of an article when the author had the idea and has done all the hard work for the content of the article? In response to this question, publishers will generally claim that copyright transfer agreements protect authors from copyright infringements such as plagiarism, libel and unauthorised uses as well as protecting the integrity of the article. Copyright in the UK was originally concerned with preventing the unlawful copying of printed material in the 17th century in response to the then new technology of book printing. The first copyright act in the UK, the Statute of Anne in 1710, was subtitled ‘An Act for the Encouragement of Learning’, and granted privileges and monopolies to book printers. Since then, copyright law has evolved to incorporate many forms of communication, including photography, film, music, computers, engraving, designs on t-shirts and digital technology among other forms of media. The most recent act in the UK is the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. While copyright covers an author’s right to copy, distribute and revise the work, it does not protect ideas – just their fixation or expression. The moment that an idea is fixed or expressed physically, copyright starts and does not have to be registered. In this article, Pippa Smart provides an overview of the legal framework that protects authors and publishers. Jyoti Shah, Commissioning Editor

  2. Copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, P

    2016-03-01

    'Talent is always conscious of its own abundance, and does not object to sharing.' Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, The First Circle When authors submit an article for publication, most publishers will ask for a signature from the author on a copyright form. The relationship between an author and the publisher is then a partnership but one that many authors are reluctant to enter into. After all, why should a publisher take copyright from an author of an article when the author had the idea and has done all the hard work for the content of the article? In response to this question, publishers will generally claim that copyright transfer agreements protect authors from copyright infringements such as plagiarism, libel and unauthorised uses as well as protecting the integrity of the article. Copyright in the UK was originally concerned with preventing the unlawful copying of printed material in the 17th century in response to the then new technology of book printing. The first copyright act in the UK, the Statute of Anne in 1710, was subtitled 'An Act for the Encouragement of Learning', and granted privileges and monopolies to book printers. Since then, copyright law has evolved to incorporate many forms of communication, including photography, film, music, computers, engraving, designs on t-shirts and digital technology among other forms of media. The most recent act in the UK is the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. While copyright covers an author's right to copy, distribute and revise the work, it does not protect ideas--just their fixation or expression. The moment that an idea is fixed or expressed physically, copyright starts and does not have to be registered. In this article, Pippa Smart provides an overview of the legal framework that protects authors and publishers. Jyoti Shah, Commissioning Editor.

  3. Copyright Catechism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edmund B.

    1993-01-01

    Provides a basic introduction to copyright through a question-and-answer format. Topics covered include definition of copyright, copyright notices and registration, rights to owners, duration, software, civil and criminal penalties, the work-made-for-hire doctrine, fair use, transfer, international scope, licenses, and student materials. (EAM)

  4. COPYRIGHT CLAMPDOWN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China is creating a mechanism to protect copyrights against Internet file swappingAs a writer who pens books and the occasional song lyrics, Huang Jiwei has discovered an interesting contrast. For the lyrics he wrote years ago for the pop song Friends, he receives payments whenever the song is played in karaoke bars or used as a ring tone for mobile phones. But for reproductions of his articles and books on websites, Huang

  5. Coase and copyright

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreiken, F.H.; Koepsell, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    The call for more copyright legislation and enforcement is controversial. It requires more state regulation and potentially undermines public values, economic efficiency, and fundamental rights. This seems the way forward because creative industries and governments frame copyright as an ordinary

  6. Questions of copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfray, Caroline; Emery, Marie-Pierre; Conway, Katrin; Acquadro, Catherine

    2012-01-31

    The Berne Convention and the national laws on intellectual property fully apply to PRO instruments. The identification of and access to an original PRO instrument is often associated with copyright ownership. This is the copyright holder of the instrument who will control its access (distribution and reproduction), its adaptation or modification, and its translation. Copyright is a means to protect the integrity of an instrument. The ownership of an instrument should be defined in the beginning between all parties involved, and each step of the instrument's life, including distribution, should be anticipated for purpose of copyright.

  7. Coase and copyright

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreiken, F.H.; Koepsell, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    The call for more copyright legislation and enforcement is controversial. It requires more state regulation and potentially undermines public values, economic efficiency, and fundamental rights. This seems the way forward because creative industries and governments frame copyright as an ordinary pro

  8. Reforming Copyright Is Possible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    The tantalizing vision of universal access to the cultural and scientific heritage of humanity seemed close to fulfillment in 2008, when Google announced the settlement of a class-action lawsuit charging that its Google Book Search project infringed copyright by scanning in-copyright books from major research-library collections. But it was not to…

  9. Lexicography, Terminography and Copyright

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elektroniese publikasies en verspreiding op die Internet word oorweeg en bespreek, en ten slotte ... minographer's legal position are abundant, being defined in terms of national copyright laws and ..... hoW to translate most things. As Trittipo ...

  10. Copyright Goes Philosophical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Carlin

    2012-01-01

    Last month brought an explosion of breaking news about intellectual-property issues, including copyright--the public battle over Internet-piracy bills in Congress, with ideological alliances crisscrossing standard lines, and sponsors turning against their own bills; the Supreme Court decision, "Golan v. Holder," which strengthened copyright…

  11. Online Copyright Dilemmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China struggles to strike a balance between the interests of copyright holders, Internet service providers and the public China’s Internet surfer population of 162 million is one of the largest in the world, second only to that of the United States. But

  12. Information Law and Copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Peter A.

    1986-01-01

    Because of information law's inability to keep up with rapid changes in information technology and impreciseness of the law, copyrighting of databases poses unique problems. Interpretation of fair use doctrine, privately owned computer "downloading," impact of federal electronic filing, and questions concerning information businesses need to be…

  13. MedlinePlus FAQ: Copyrighted and Non-Copyrighted Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/faq/copyrightfaq.html Question: Is the material on MedlinePlus copyrighted? To use the sharing features ... Answer: MedlinePlus contains both copyrighted and non-copyrighted material. Please see our copyright information page . Restrictions may ...

  14. Copyright

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Selection and translation of an article previously pub- lished in the Chinese language implies that this article has not been published in the English language or any other foreign language before; that a translation of this article is not under consideration for publication else- where; that the publication of the translated article has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as - tacitly or explicitly - by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out.

  15. Copyright

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Submission of a manuscript or translation of an article previously published in the Chinese language implies that this article has not been published in the English language or any other foreign language before; that a translation of this article is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that the publication of the translated article has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as- tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out. The author warrants that his/her contribution is original and that he/she has full power to make this grant.

  16. Copyright

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Submission of a manuscript or translation of an article previously published in the Chinese language implies that this article has not been published in the English language or any other foreign language before; that a translation of this article is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that the publication of the translated article has been approved by all co-authors, if any,as well as - tacitly or explicitly - by the responsible authodties at the institution where the work was carded out.

  17. Copyright

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Submission of a manuscript implies:that the work described has not been published before(except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture,review,or thesis);that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere;that its publication has been approved by all co-authors,if any,as well as--tacitly or explicitly--by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out.The author warrants that his/her contribution is original

  18. Copyright

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Submission of a manuscript implies:that the work described has not been published before(except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture,review,or thesis);that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere;that its publication has been approved by all co-authors,if any,as well as-tacitly or explicitly-by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried

  19. Copyright

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Submission of a manuscript implies:that the work described has not been published before(except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture,review,or thesis);that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere;that its publication has been approved by all co-authors,if any,as well as--tacitly or explicitly--by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carded out.The author warrants that his/her contribution is original and that he/she has full power to make this grant.The author

  20. MedlinePlus: Copyright Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Copyright Information URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/copyright.html Copyright Information To use ... the Magazine and NIH MedlinePlus Salud The FAQs ( https://medlineplus.gov/faq/faq.html ) The same content ...

  1. Copyright agencies in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI; Yonggang; WANG; Jingui

    2009-01-01

    Based on a study of copyright agencies in Beijing area,this paper reviews the historical development of the work of copyright agencies and their agents.It analyzes their business related problems that these copyright agencies and agents are facing today.This paper also proposes a few remedial measures that may usher this copyright industry into a more sustainable development and also with a more promising outlook.

  2. Copyright in the digital classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Draska, Meridee S

    2003-01-01

    Copyright law was developed to protect the rights of authors. Many educators are aware of copyright law, but they may not be aware of how it applies to them or of the law's scope in regards to computer technology. As the computer is used increasingly to disseminate information, teaching professionals also must have knowledge of the applications of the law to this developing technology. This article reviews the laws defining copyright and fair use. It examines case law regarding copyright, computers, and the Internet. Recommendations for using computers to disseminate class materials to students are discussed.

  3. Photography as a copyright work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brankov Boba M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The original holder of copyright has moral rights and property rights according to the law. Photograph can be regarded as copyright work, if it meets the criteria stipulated by the legal definition of copyright work: a photo must be created by a human being, it must have a spiritual content, spiritual content above must have the appropriate form and must be an original work. Committee on Constitutional and Legislative Affairs in January 2016 submitted to the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia a proposal to adopt authentic interpretation of the provisions of article 2, paragraph 2 of Copyright Law. The purpose of this proposal is that each routinely made photo, which is downloaded in digital form, can not be considered as a copyright work. The proposal of the authentic interpretation above is the motive of this article. This work is focused on the elements of photograph as copyright work, copyright infringement due to unauthorized use of photographs, with special reference to the infringement of copyright through social networks.

  4. Comics, Copyright and Academic Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Deazley

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the extent to which UK-based academics can rely upon the copyright regime to reproduce extracts and excerpts from published comics and graphic novels without having to ask the copyright owner of those works for permission. In doing so, it invites readers to engage with a broader debate about the nature, demands and process of academic publishing.

  5. The New Rules of Copyright

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salpeter, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Complying with, and teaching young people about, copyright in an educational setting often feels burdensome. That's because copyright laws were not designed to facilitate the sort of sharing and collaborating that has become widespread in the digital age. The innovative nonprofit organization Creative Commons turns the process around, making the…

  6. Google Runs Afoul Of Copyright

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Internet company’s unauthorized digitization of Chinese books angers authors and writers’ organizations The sudden fame of Zhang Hongbo,Deputy Executive Director of theChina Written Works CopyrightSociety (CWWCS), started whenhis organization began probing into Google

  7. Multimedia authentication for copyright protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mingsheng

    2017-06-01

    Multimedia contents are easy to be copied and modified, so it is important to use authentication technology to ensure reliability and copyright security. Multimedia authentication technology is usually divided into digital signature and digital watermarking. In this paper, we introduce some basic image and video authentication technology, such as PCA algorithm and image signature method based on DCT coefficient, LSB -based digital image watermark, SVD-based digital image watermark, and video watermark. Through these digital content security technology, digital contents can be ensured security

  8. Principles of the continental copyright law

    OpenAIRE

    Matveev A.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that there are two key copyright law traditions: English–American and Roman–Germanic copyright laws. The French and German copyright law is in the vanguard of the continental copyright law, with the copyright law of Russia being among the others in this copyright law system. However, the Russian copyright law has some specific characteristics. Copyright law is based on the defined principles. The purpose of the present article is to define the principles Continental Copyright Law....

  9. General Information on Copyright. Circular 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Copyright Office.

    In this circular, the United State Copyright Office answers questions that are frequently asked about copyright. A definition of copyright is given and the items that can be copyrighted are listed. Four categories of items which cannot be copyrighted are also explained. Copyright procedures for unpublished and published works are outlined, and the…

  10. Canadian Copyright: History, Change, and Potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sara Bannerman

    2011-01-01

      The foundation of international copyright since 1886 has been the Berne Convention-the world's first broadly multilateral copyright treaty, which still acts as the cornerstone of international copyright today...

  11. Copyright in Context: The OCLC Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1988-01-01

    Discusses topics related to OCLC adoption of guidelines for the use and transfer of OCLC-derived records, including the purpose of OCLC; the legal basis of copyrighting; technological change; compilation copyright; rationale for copyright of the OCLC database; impact on libraries; impact on networks; and relationships between OCLC and libraries. A…

  12. Copyright Updates for K-12 Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendell G.

    2016-01-01

    Copyright concerns continue to bedevil K-12 librarians, who are often called upon to act as the copyright officers in public schools. This article describes recent copyright developments of concern to these librarians in three areas: a recent court case involving a university library, pending legislation supported by ALA, and a regulatory update.…

  13. The copyright book a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, William S

    2014-01-01

    Through five editions since 1981, this book has offered the most comprehensive accessible guide available to all aspects of copyright law. Now, with the sixth edition, The Copyright Book has been thoroughly updated to cover copyright for the Internet age, discussing a range of developments in the law since 2000. The only book written for nonlawyers that covers the entire field of copyright law, it is essential reading for authors, artists, creative people in every medium, the companies that hire them, users of copyrighted material, and anyone with an interest in copyright law from a policy perspective. New material includes greatly expanded coverage of infringement and fair use, with detailed discussion of recent decisions, including the Grateful Dead, Google, and HathiTrust cases. The new edition considers such topics as open access, the defeat of the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA), file sharing, e-reserves, the status of "orphan works," and the latest developments under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (...

  14. Copyleft vs. Copyright: A Marxist Critique

    OpenAIRE

    Söderberg, Johan

    2002-01-01

    Copyright was invented by and for early capitalism, and its importance to that system has grown ever since. To oppose copyright is to oppose capitalism. Thus, Marxism is a natural starting point when challenging copyright. Marx's concept of a 'general intellect', suggesting that at some point a collective learning process will surpass physical labour as a productive force, offers a promising backdrop to understand the accomplishments of the free software community. Furthermore, the chief conc...

  15. Update on copyright issues and open access

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    When writing an article an author encounters several moments where he is confronted with copyright whether he likes it or not or whether he is interested in the topic or not. Unfamiliarity or lack of interest with copyright can create an unbalance in the careful package of the balances which copyright is and thus hinder innovation of the process of scholarly communication. The Dutch SURF Foundation together with its British counterpart JISC have developed a © toolkit which supports and assists authors, librarians, legal offices and publishers to (re)phrase publishing agreements and copyright policies of institutions of higher education to achieve maximum access to scientific output.

  16. 28 CFR 512.21 - Copyright provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copyright provisions. 512.21 Section 512.21 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH Research § 512.21 Copyright provisions. (a) An employee of the Bureau may not...

  17. Managing copyright in higher education a guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Ferullo, Donna L

    2014-01-01

    Written by the director of the University Copyright Office at Purdue University who holds both law and library science degrees, this is complete, authoritative guide is a must-purchase for every institution of higher education seeking to comply with the copyright law and thus avoid potential liability exposure.

  18. The Future of Copyright Management: European Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Michele

    This paper presents European perspectives on the future of copyright management. The first section is an overview of intellectual property rights in Europe, including differences between copyright countries and "droit d'auteur" countries. The second section addresses European Community legal policy, including examples related to the…

  19. Copyright for librarians the essential handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Berkman Center for Internet and Society

    2012-01-01

    "Copyright for Librarians" (CFL) is an online open curriculum on copyright law that was developed jointly with Harvard’s Berkman Center for Internet and Society. Re-designed as a brand new textbook, "Copyright for Librarians: the essential handbook" can be used as a stand-alone resource or as an adjunct to the online version which contains additional links and references for students who wish to pursue any topic in greater depth. Delve into copyright theory or explore enforcement. With a new index and a handy Glossary, the Handbook is essential reading for librarians who want to hone their skills in 2013, and for anyone learning about or teaching copyright law in the information field.

  20. 38 CFR 43.34 - Copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 43.34 Copyrights. The Federal awarding agency reserves a...

  1. 32 CFR 33.34 - Copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 33.34 Copyrights. The Federal awarding agency reserves a...

  2. 40 CFR 31.34 - Copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 31.34 Copyrights. The Federal awarding agency reserves a...

  3. limits of copyright protection in contemporary nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Convention'), the Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual ... the definition and meaning of copyrights, and the nature of digital products subject to ..... a lot of bilateral and multi-lateral agreements, treaties and ...

  4. The Photocopying Revolution and the Copyright Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Louise

    1975-01-01

    The impact and threat to the publishing industry due to the increased use of photocopying services is discussed. Present inadequacies in the copyright law are analyzed and possible remedial legislation suggested in terms of licensed photocopying proposals. (EH)

  5. Copyright for archivists and records managers

    CERN Document Server

    Padfield, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This comprehensive manual outlines copyright law in the UK with special reference to materials relevant to archive and records collections such as maps, legal records, records of local authorities, and more.

  6. Bloomsday: Copyright Estates and Cultural Festivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Rimmer

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Copyright estates have been unduly empowered by the extension of the term of copyright protection in Europe, the United States, Australia and elsewhere. The Estate of the Irish novelist, James Joyce, has been particularly aggressive in policing his revived copyrights. The "keepers of the flame" have relied upon threats of legal action to discourage the production of derivative works based upon the canonical texts of the novelist. The Estate has also jealously guarded the reputation of the author by vetoing the use of his work in various scholarly productions. Most radically of all, the grandson Stephen Joyce threatened to take legal action to prevent the staging of "Rejoyce Dublin 2004", a festival celebrating the centenary of Bloomsday. In response, the Irish Parliament rushed through emergency legislation, entitled the Copyright and Related Rights (Amendment Act 2004 (Ireland to safeguard the celebrations. The legislation clarified that a person could place literary and artistic works on public exhibition, without breaching the copyright vested in such cultural texts. Arguably, though, the ad hoc legislation passed by the Irish Parliament is inadequate. The Estate of James Joyce remains free to exercise its suite of economic and moral rights to control the use and adaptation of works of the Irish novelist. It is contended that copyright law needs to be revised to promote the interests of libraries and other cultural institutions. Most notably, the defence of fair dealing should be expanded to allow for the transformative use of copyright works, particularly in respect of adaptations and derived works. There should be greater scope for compulsory licensing and crown acquisition of revived copyrights.

  7. THE DURATION OF RIGHTS CONFERRED BY COPYRIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia DUMITRU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The duration of copyright protection has been a controversial issue. And yet never completed. It was and is the key issue of copyright, the same as are those concerning the recognition of their nature and content. If the first law to protect a new creation, gave the exclusive right for the author as long as a year, today its duration is, basically the whole life of the author’s plus 70 years for the heirs. Some argue that it is unwise. Others that should not be as such at all. In reality, the copyright in the widest sense of the term of copyright for the purposes of law complex that regulates the relations between the author with his work and of the relations between the authors and others on his work, this right never ceases. The oldest sculpture (Venus Wilfredo, paintings of Ardeche, Vezere and Altamira, even if you do not know who created them, will belong forever, not just in the consciousness of humanity as a whole, but also according to unwritten rules of law before the law was created by humans, to whose who created them. Even if you do not know who created them and say that they belong to the universal culture. As everyone’s works that were created right after the rules of law were created by humans, but before the recognition of copyright by special laws, will belong forever to the universal culture as well. As for the right created by and after recognizing and codifying copyright notice that he is trying to harmonize the interests of authors and those of the public and to make peace between the author with his audience in a more general interest, and the solution for reconciliation and / or harmonization was limiting the length of some of the attributes of copyright. A solution that makes copyright law without a right to have the benefits after a while, that every owner has of his property. Furthermore, the link between the author and his work remains eternal because none other than the author may not claim ever to be the author of

  8. Webpages on copyright in Canadian academic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony G Horava

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic libraries value the web as being a vital channel for communicating information and policies to their user community. Designing a webpage on copyright is a challenging task that requires a consideration of the medium and the message. This article proposes a conceptual model and proactive approach for integrating policy objective and goals into the development of a copyright webpage, based on key elements of the library’s involvement in academia. To complement this theoretical approach, an analysis of Canadian academic library websites was conducted in order to gage the effectiveness of copyright webpages, in the Canadian legal context, according to the model as well as related design issues of visibility and access.

  9. Copyright, an Incentive or a Burden?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A copyright provides protection for original artistic or literary work and is valid for the life of the owner plus 70 years. There is a growing tension between creative practices that require access to content that is often copyrighted, and increasingly restrictive intellectual property laws and policies governing access to copyrighted content. Very recently this has played out in the law suit between the media corporation Viacom and the Internet portal YouTube, which is owned by Google. This is against the background of a steadily emerging open source and creative commons culture. Milestones in the open source movement are the OpenOffice office suite, Netscape's publication of the source code for its product as open software, Google's library project, various free archives for scientific dissemination, such as Cornell University's ArXiv.

  10. Collective management of copyright and related rights

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    In the course of the last decade, collective management organizations (CMOs) have become the nerve centres of copyright licensing in virtually every country. Their expertise and knowledge of copyright law and management have proven essential to make copyright work in the digital age. This book, an extensively revised and updated edition of the only major work on the legal status of CMOs, offers an indepth analysis of the various operating CMO models, their rights and obligations vis-a-vis both users and members, acquisition of legal authority to license, and (most important) the rights to license digital uses of protected material and build (or improve current) information systems to deal with ever more complex rights management and licensing tasks. All the chapters have been updated since the 2005 edition, and a new chapter on multiterritorial licensing has been added. Factors considered include the following: * role of 'families' such as the International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers ...

  11. 44 CFR 13.34 - Copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 13.34 Copyrights. The Federal awarding agency reserves a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license to reproduce...

  12. 45 CFR 92.34 - Copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL, AND TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 92.34 Copyrights. The Federal awarding agency reserves a royalty-free...

  13. 28 CFR 66.34 - Copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 66.34 Copyrights. The Federal awarding agency reserves a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license to...

  14. 22 CFR 135.34 - Copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 135.34 Copyrights. The Federal awarding agency reserves a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license to...

  15. 13 CFR 143.34 - Copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 143.34 Copyrights. The Federal awarding agency reserves a royalty-free, nonexclusive...

  16. 21 CFR 1403.34 - Copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 1403.34 Copyrights. The Federal awarding agency reserves a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license to...

  17. 14 CFR 1273.34 - Copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 1273.34 Copyrights. The Federal awarding agency reserves a royalty-free...

  18. 36 CFR 1207.34 - Copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 1207.34 Copyrights. The Federal awarding agency reserves a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license to reproduce, publish or otherwise...

  19. 76 FR 72000 - Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Geological Survey Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice...., Suite 200, Kennesaw, GA 30144, on U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/133,666, and a divisional patent application to be filed shortly at the Patent and Trademark Office, both entitled ``Anaerobic...

  20. Stealing the Goose: Copyright and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory McGreal

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is the world's largest knowledge common and the information source of first resort. Much of this information is open and freely available. However, there are organizations and companies today that are trying to close off the Internet commons and make it proprietary. These are the “copyright controllers.” The preservation of the commons and expanding access to digital content and applications are very important for distance educators. The educational exemptions for “fair use” in the United States and “fair dealing” in the Commonwealth countries are integral to any understanding of copyright, which was instituted for the dissemination of knowledge, and not, as is commonly believed, to protect the rights of the copyright owners. Copyright law was expressly introduced to limit their rights. Yet, these controllers are successfully turning a “copy” right into a property right. The traditional rights of learning institutions are being taken away. The balance for researchers should be restored. Research and learning must be allowed the broad interpretation that was intended in the original laws.

  1. 43 CFR 12.74 - Copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copyrights. 12.74 Section 12.74 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative...

  2. Librarian Copyright Literacy: Self-Reported Copyright Knowledge among Information Professionals in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estell, Allison; Saunders, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Librarians often act as default copyright experts at their institutions and thus must have an awareness of copyright law and practices. Nevertheless, there is little in the scholarly literature about how well informed librarians are about copyright law. Through a national survey of professional librarians, this study illustrates librarians'…

  3. THE COPYRIGHT IN THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel Ioan MURZEA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary society has imposed new demands in the development and application of copyright as a result of structural changes which occur as a result of developments in science, technology and especially communication technologies and of informatics. Legal doctrine highlights axiomatic truth according to which the “environment created by technological developments” brings forward the profound informational dimension of human being in the contemporary society. In this context the integration and the harmonization of legislation of the Member States of the European Union leads to a complex and dynamic process by which the copyright called to legally protect intellectual creation in contemporary society, acquires a universal vocation in the contemporary society, because there are no barriers or impediments in its spreading especially due to the phenomenon of multiplication and improvement of means of information and communication

  4. The Great Game and the copyright villain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Rosenblatt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the reactions of Sherlock Holmes fans and enthusiasts to assertions of intellectual property ownership and infringement by putative rights holders in two eras of Sherlockian history. In both the 1946–47 and 2013–15 eras, Sherlock Holmes devotees villainized the entities claiming ownership of intellectual property in Holmes, distancing those entities from Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and casting them as greedy and morally bankrupt. Throughout each era, Sherlockians did not shy away from creating transformative works based on the Holmes canon over the objections of putative rights holders. This complicates the usual expectation that copyright assertions against fans are likely to chill fan production. The essay explores possible reasons why Sherlockian fandom might differ from other fandoms in this respect, including the role of the Great Game form of Sherlockian fandom in shaping fan attitudes toward their subject.

  5. Copyright and Distance Education: The Impact of the Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Copyright in the United States can be traced back to the U.S. Constitution in 1787. To encourage authorship of creative works, Congress created a limited monopoly in Section 106 of the Copyright Act of 1790. To balance this monopoly, Congress drafted Section 107 which provides public access to creative works through fair use. Revisions were…

  6. Novel copyright protection scheme for digital content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Kefeng; Wang Meihua; Mo Wei; Zhao Xinhua

    2006-01-01

    A novel copyright protection scheme for digital content is presented, which is a private watermarking scheme based on the watermark embedding in the DCT domain and watermark extraction using independent component analysis (ICA). The system includes the key for watermark extraction and the host image. The algorithm splits the original image into blocks and classifies these blocks based on visual masking, that is, noise visibility function (NVF). Watermark components with different strength are inserted into chosen direct current components of DCT coefficients according to the classifier. The watermark extraction is based on the characteristic of the statistic independence of the host image, watermark and key. Principle component analysis (PCA) whitening process and FastICA techniques are introduced to ensure a blind watermark extraction without requiring the original image. Experimental results show the proposed technique is robust under attacks such as image filtering and adding noise, cropping and resizing. In addition, the proposed private watermarking system can be improved to the application of the DTV content protection system.

  7. Copyright law and academic radiology: rights of authors and copyright owners and reproduction of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, E J; Westenberg, L

    1995-05-01

    Desktop computer hardware and software provide many new and accessible avenues for increased academic productivity, but some activities may have legal implications. The advent of technologies such as scanners, the ever-increasing number of electronic bulletin boards, and the development of the "information superhighway" affect the concept of copyright and require authors and publishers to reconsider their legal rights and obligations when they create or publish new works or modify existing ones. For example, with desktop scanners, almost any image, published or otherwise, can be copied, enhanced, and manipulated. Moreover, many radiologists have access to copyrighted digital radiologic teaching file images, such as those from the University of Iowa or the University of Washington, which are available (and "downloadable") on the Internet. Because "downloading" (or "uploading") a document or image is essentially making a copy of that document or image, copyright laws and the rights that they afford authors are involved.

  8. Copyrights - Living With a 1909 Law, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Carol

    1975-01-01

    Article emphasizes the difficulties in obtaining copyright permission, present contractual agreements between instructor and university for copyrighting educational materials, and protection against copyright violations. (Author)

  9. Copyright in the age of online access : Alternative compensation systems in EU copyright law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Miranda Branco Tomé Quintais, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    The large majority of the EU population uses the Internet. For many individuals, their online acts of enjoyment and expression are restricted by copyright. For users and rights holders alike, the existing model of exclusivity with enforcement is problematic. Online enforcement is either impossible

  10. 75 FR 67777 - Copyright Office; Federal Copyright Protection of Sound Recordings Fixed Before February 15, 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... works. The Copyright Office Study Faced with the uncertain patchwork of State laws that cover pre- 1972... is to cover the effect of federal coverage on the preservation of such sound recordings, the effect... commercial recordings encompass a wide range of genres: ragtime and jazz, rhythm and blues, gospel, country...

  11. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  12. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  13. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  14. 76 FR 41075 - Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Rules and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 251 Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Rules and Procedures AGENCY: Copyright... making an amendment to its regulations by removing Part 251 Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Rules of Procedure. In 2004, Congress replaced the Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels with three Copyright...

  15. Private Use, Public Policy: Copyright and Home Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, David

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between copyright and the new technologies. The legal responses to copyright violations and to cases regarding fair use, as well as international efforts to protect copyright with respect to noncommercial use are considered. (CHC)

  16. 7 CFR 1250.542 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information... AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and Information § 1250.542 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit...

  18. Educational implications for copyright in a digital world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallek, H; Schleyer, T K

    1999-09-01

    Statutory law and court cases currently leave fair use of copyrighted material poorly defined and fail to provide effective guidance for the use of others' work. Copyright legislation is undergoing significant change, accelerated by the evolution of computing and communication technologies. This paper reviews copyright issues, fair use guidelines, and applicable laws and statutes to help administrators and educators understand and comply with copyright regulations. The paper describes principles of copyright and ownership, the rights of copyright holders, and the conditions under which copyrighted material can be used by others. Recently introduced legislation, such as the 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act, may significantly affect how educators can use copyrighted material in the future. The integration of computer and communication technology into education raises a number of intellectual property issues for dental schools. This paper provides some general guidelines regarding copyright issues in academic environments.

  19. An Old Copyright Principle Sank Apple's Suit Against Microsoft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibson, Steve

    1992-01-01

    .... Ruling on the Apple vs. Microsoft copyright infringement lawsuit, the court found that Apple's Lisa and Macintosh PCs had used many ideas that originated at Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center and thus were not subject to Apple's copyright...

  20. Navigating the Copyright Landscape: Practical Considerations for Librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Carter Conlogue

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Copyright is central to teaching activities in higher education. Using copyrighted materials in education requires careful analysis and understanding of copyright basics. A review of the literature demonstrates that librarians are the primary resource on campus for information about copyright. A sampling of small to moderate-size, private university and college websites, and a survey of the librarians at those institutions suggest that libraries and librarians are the sole providers of copyright information for their campus. This paper examines how and what kinds of copyright information librarians at private, small to moderate-size institutions provide to their patrons and offers commentary from librarians who are currently the copyright contact on campus. The authors discuss how to use copyright expertise to build a professional niche and serve the profession as well as how to identify new opportunities for professional growth and career advancement.

  1. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright infringement liability. 1327.201 Section 1327.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent...

  2. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1160... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1160.505 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  3. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1150... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1150.184 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  4. 7 CFR 1260.215 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications... AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1260.215 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications...

  5. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1230.88 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents..., leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications inure to...

  6. Crime and Punishment: Are Copyright Violators Ever Penalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Carrie

    2004-01-01

    Is there a Web site that keeps track of copyright Infringers and fines? Some colleagues don't believe that copyright violators are ever penalized. This question was asked by a reader in a question and answer column of "School Library Journal". Carrie Russell is the American Library Association's copyright specialist, and she will answer selected…

  7. 37 CFR 201.1 - Communication with the Copyright Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; requests for Copyright Office speakers; requests for approvals of computer generated application forms... addressed to: Copyright GC/I&R, P.O. Box 70400, Washington, DC 20024-0400. 3 All litigation material is time... submitted for recordation should be mailed to Copyright Office, Notices of Termination, P.O. Box...

  8. Crime and Punishment: Are Copyright Violators Ever Penalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Carrie

    2004-01-01

    Is there a Web site that keeps track of copyright Infringers and fines? Some colleagues don't believe that copyright violators are ever penalized. This question was asked by a reader in a question and answer column of "School Library Journal". Carrie Russell is the American Library Association's copyright specialist, and she will answer selected…

  9. Clash of cultures: integrating copyright and consumer law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.; Guibault, L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - This article seeks to deal with the fundamental conceptual differences between consumer law and copyright law that render the application of consumer law to copyright-law related conflicts difficult. Design/methodology/approach - Following a normative approach to copyright and consumer law

  10. 76 FR 66758 - Remedies for Small Copyright Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ...The U.S. Copyright Office is undertaking a study at the request of Congress to assess whether and, if so, how the current legal system hinders or prevents copyright owners from pursuing copyright infringement claims that have a relatively small economic value (``small copyright claims''); and recommend potential changes in administrative, regulatory, and statutory authority to improve the adjudication of these small copyright claims. The Office thus seeks comment on how copyright owners have handled small copyright claims and the obstacles they have encountered, as well as potential alternatives to the current legal system that could better accommodate such claims. This is a general inquiry and the Office will publish additional notices on this topic.

  11. The copyright wars three centuries of trans-atlantic battle

    CERN Document Server

    Baldwin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Today’s copyright wars can seem unprecedented. Sparked by the digital revolution that has made copyright—and its violation—a part of everyday life, fights over intellectual property have pitted creators, Hollywood, and governments against consumers, pirates, Silicon Valley, and open-access advocates. But while the digital generation can be forgiven for thinking the dispute between, for example, the publishing industry and Google is completely new, the copyright wars in fact stretch back three centuries—and their history is essential to understanding today’s battles. The Copyright Wars—the first major trans-Atlantic history of copyright from its origins to today—tells this important story. Peter Baldwin explains why the copyright wars have always been driven by a fundamental tension. Should copyright assure authors and rights holders lasting claims, much like conventional property rights, as in Continental Europe? Or should copyright be primarily concerned with giving consumers cheap and easy ac...

  12. Authorship in Croatian copyright legislation from 1846 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Velagić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate and present concepts of the author and his/her copyright work in copyright legislation that entered into force in Croatia from 1846 to 2007. 17 legal documents (acts, corrigenda, amendments were investigated using the content analysis method. The analysis of the results gives an insight into various cultural and sociological dimensions of authorship in the given time-frame. Special attention was paid to definitions of the author and his/her copyright work, examples of copyright works and exceptions related to the duration of copyright for different kinds of copyright works. As there had been no systematic overview of such legal documents in the available literature, they were briefly described in the first part of the paper, highlighting the important articles that stress the role of authors and their copyright work. In the analysis and summary we provide a systematic overview of the main concepts, with a special review of copyright laws in relation to new technologies and artistic forms: it is their relationship that testifies to the complexity of the term 'copyright work'. The paper shows that the basic perception of the author, his/her copyright works and their relations in the analysed copyright legislation has not changed significantly during this period of time. All legal documents refer to the examples of copyright work, and in 1957 a definition of copyright work was included, according to which copyright work is every spiritual (later referred to as intellectual creation. The concept of the author is strongly linked with the concept of author's copyright work. Various examples of copyright works allow us to see the difference between works that are permanent (e.g. literary works, music works, art works and works that are yet to be protected by copyright thanks to the development of technology and new features of artistic expression (e.g. photography, movies, computer programs. The process of

  13. Comparative Study of Copyright Trade between China and UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ting

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to promote the development of Chinese copyright trade by comparing copyright trade between China and UK and finding out on which aspects China lags behind UK. With the deepening of Chinese reform and opening up, China has improved its copyright system and accelerated the development of our copyright trade. However, there still is a big gap compared with UK and other developed countries. Based on the comparative study of copyright trade between UK and China, we draw a conclusion so as to promote the development of China's copyright trade. We mainly adopted comparative research method, statistical research method and Empirical research methods in this study. The results show there is a big gap between China and UK on legal system, management of intellectual property right and main information channels etc. China still has a long way to go.

  14. The social construction of copyright ethics and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Sheila; Rhoades, Gary

    2010-06-01

    This study is based on analysis of copyright policies and 26 interviews with science and engineering faculty at three research universities on the topic of copyright beliefs, values, and practices, with emphasis on copyright of instructional materials, courseware, tools, and texts. Given that research universities now emphasize increasing external revenue flows through marketing of intellectual property, we expected copyright to follow the path of patents and lead to institutional emphasis of policies and practices that enhanced universities' intellectual property portfolios, accompanied by an increase in copyrighting by professors. Although this pattern occurred with regard to institutions, professors offered a more varied pattern, with some fully participating in commercialization of copyright and embracing entrepreneurial values, while others resisted or subverted commercial activity in favor of traditional science and engineering values.

  15. Copyright? What Copyright?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese translation of Harry Potter’s latest adventure is already available in China, long before the book’s official release date and despite stricter anti-piracy measures About a month ago, Sun Shunlin was shocked when a friend hand-ed him a gift.

  16. Copyright licenses and legal deposit practices of grey multimedia materials

    OpenAIRE

    Debbie L. Rabina; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the type of copyright license under which grey multimedia materials are published makes a difference in terms of their inclusion in library catalogs. The two types of copyright licenses examined are Creative Commons and traditional copyright, and the library catalogs examined is that of the United States Library of Congress and national catalogs of countries represented in the population of the study. The population included grey multimedia ma...

  17. Copyright law: how it affects your hospital and you.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S A

    1987-10-01

    Nurse administrators, inservice educators, and other nursing supervisors need to be aware of how copyright law affects the use of educational materials in hospitals, medical centers, and nursing homes. The United States' Copyright Act of 1976, along with Congressional guidelines and federal rulings, have a great deal to say regarding photocopying, off-air videotaping, and use of materials borrowed from lending libraries. Examples of copyright infringement are given, with suggestions for avoiding them.

  18. Copyright: Regulation Out of Line with our Digital Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail J. McDermott

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief overview of the current state of copyright law in the United States, focusing on the negative impacts of these policies on libraries and patrons. The article discusses four challenges current copyright law presents to libraries and the public in general, highlighting three concrete ways intellectual property law interferes with digital library services and systems. Finally, the author suggests that a greater emphasis on copyright literacy and a commitment among the library community to advocate for fairer policies is vital to correcting the imbalance between the interests of the public and those of copyright holders.

  19. 77 FR 14686 - Claims for Patent and Copyright Infringement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Part 1245 RIN 2700-AD63 Claims for Patent and Copyright Infringement AGENCY... necessary to file a claim for patent or copyright infringement, and they also provide for written... INFORMATION: On July 26, 2011, the Administrator published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) for...

  20. 38 CFR 17.266 - Copyrights and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copyrights and patents. 17.266 Section 17.266 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants for Exchange of Information § 17.266 Copyrights and patents. If a grant-supported program...

  1. 76 FR 44504 - Claims for Patent and Copyright Infringement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Part 1245 RIN 2700-AD63 Claims for Patent and Copyright Infringement AGENCY... considers necessary to file a claim for patent or copyright infringement, and they also provide for written... Act (51 U.S.C. 20113) authorizes the Administrator of NASA to settle administrative claims of...

  2. 48 CFR 2453.227 - Patents, data, and copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patents, data, and copyrights. 2453.227 Section 2453.227 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 2453.227 Patents, data, and copyrights....

  3. Moving to a New Beat: Copyright Protection for Choreographic Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Melanie

    1977-01-01

    The new copyright law expressly includes "choreographic works" as subject matter for copyright, but its treatment of choreography has flaws, including the lack of definition and dealing with choreographies created before the act becomes effective. These and other problems are discussed. (LBH)

  4. The United States Copyright Law: A Guide for Music Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Schools of Music, Reston, VA.

    Music educators are informed of the applications of the 1976 revision of the United States copyright law to the use of sheet music, audiovisual recordings, and dramatic and choreographic works. Material is divided into five sections. Section 1 outlines the primary rights of copyright holders with regard to phonorecords, derivative works,…

  5. The Copyright/Design Interface in Denmark (and Scandinavia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Rosenmeier, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the interface in copyright and design law in Denmark and with accounts also for Norway and Sweden. It is pointed out how Scandinavian courts have historically employed several strategies to limit copyright protection of works of applied art including 1) “raising the bar...

  6. 77 FR 37605 - Registration of Claims to Copyright

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... arrangement of functional physical movements such as sports movements, exercises, and other ordinary motor..., and particularly in claims of copyrightable authorship in selection and arrangement of exercises or of... the copyrightability of the selection and arrangement of preexisting exercises, such as yoga...

  7. 42 CFR 61.19 - Copyright and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copyright and reproduction. 61.19 Section 61.19 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.19 Copyright and reproduction. Where the work...

  8. Who owns the information in the medical record? Copyright issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Judith

    2011-01-01

    As part of every private healthcare practice and healthcare facility, documentation of patients' healthcare, diagnoses and treatment are an ongoing requirement with legal connotations. The question that may arise is whether copyright can subsist in patient medical records, and if so, what benefit may arise from ownership of such copyright.

  9. The Graphic Arts and the New Copyright Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, Wayne

    This paper briefly summarizes the Copyright Act recently passed by the United States Congress as it relates to graphic arts and points out that the law ignores the major problem facing that field: the lack of copyright protection for typography and typeface designs. It then explains the reasoning used for denying protection to typography and…

  10. Machines as readers: A solution to the copyright problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAMOS Michael I.

    2005-01-01

    Copyright and its international complications have presented a significant barrier to the Universal Digital Library (UDL)'s mission to digitize all the published works of mankind and make them available throughout the world. We discuss the effect of existing copyright treaties and various proposals, such as compulsory licensing and the public lending right that would allow access to copyrighted works without requiring permission of their owners. We argue that these schemes are ineffective for purposes of the UDL. Instead, making use of the international consensus that copyright does not protect facts, information or processes, we propose to scan works digitally to extract their intellectual content, and then generate by machine synthetic works that capture this content, and then translate the generated works automatically into multiple languages and distribute them free of copyright restriction.

  11. EU DIRECTIVES IN THE FIELD OF COPYRIGHT AND RELATED RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria MARINESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to underline the evolution and the importance of the European Directives in the field of copyright and related rights, their contribution to the development of the law and the national implementation, namely their transposition into Romanian Law no. 8/1996 on copyright and related rights. For this purpose, the article will analyze the historical evolution of the European Directives in the field of copyright and related rights and their most important dispositions. Given the wide range of subject matter with which it is concerned, the European Directives in the field of copyright and related rights address to enforcement, protection of databases, protection of computer programs, resale right, satellite and cable, term of protection, rental and lending rights, copyright and related rights in the information society, orphan works and management of copyright and related rights. Taking into account the wild range of subjects that European Directives in the field of copyright and related rights address, it is important to observe the permanent interest of the European legislator on the harmonization of the law on copyright and related rights. In this way, the result was the adoption of 7 directives in a 10-year interval between 1991 and 2001, and of 4 directives, including the one for the modification of the Directive on the term of protection, also in a 10-year interval between 2004 and 2014. Despite the extensive process of harmonization, copyright law in the Member States of the European Union is still largely linked to geographical boundaries of sovereign states.

  12. Copyright protection of images in the digital environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbotson, J

    1997-03-01

    All creators of copyright-protected works are re-assessing the protection and exploitation of their works in the digital environment. This article attempts to define 'digital' in a copyright context. It reminds artists and photographers of the essentials of copyright as they already apply in the UK before it looks at how those essentials may apply to images circulating in the digital environment. Finally it covers some of the key issues which artists and other creators are now having to address in their day to day work.

  13. Copyright Solutions for Institutional Repositories: A Collaboration With Subject Librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Leary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates using subject librarians to conduct copyright clearance in an institutional repository (IR. At Utah State University, the library assures copyright clearance for faculty scholarship, thereby garnering input of faculty scholarship into the IR. Currently, subject librarians are not widely participating in routine IR work; however, the involvement of subject librarians with the IR offers benefits to the subject librarians and the institution as a whole. This article provides a model for institutions needing new solutions for copyright clearance using subject librarians and discusses the rationale, benefits and challenges of adopting this model.

  14. Stage Staffing Scheme for Copyright Protection in Multimedia

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Sumit; Nandi, Sukumar

    2011-01-01

    Copyright protection has become a need in today's world. To achieve a secure copyright protection we embedded some information in images and videos and that image or video is called copyright protected. The embedded information can't be detected by human eye but some attacks and operations can tamper that information to breach protection. So in order to find a secure technique of copyright protection, we have analyzed image processing techniques i.e. Spatial Domain (Least Significant Bit (LSB)), Transform Domain (Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and there are numerous algorithm for watermarking using them. After having a good understanding of the same we have proposed a novel algorithm named as Stage Staffing Algorithm that generates results with high effectiveness, additionally we can use self extracted-watermark technique to increase the security and automate the process of watermark image. The proposed algorithm provides protection in three stages. We have implemented the ...

  15. Omnify: Investigating the Visibility and Effectiveness of Copyright Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potharaju, Rahul; Seibert, Jeff; Fahmy, Sonia; Nita-Rotaru, Cristina

    The arms race between copyright agencies and P2P users is an ongoing and evolving struggle. On the one hand, content providers are using several techniques to stealthily find unauthorized distribution of copyrighted work in order to deal with the problem of Internet piracy. On the other hand, P2P users are relying increasingly on blacklists and anonymization methods in order to avoid detection. In this work, we propose a number of techniques to reveal copyright monitors' current approaches and evaluate their effectiveness. We apply these techniques on data we collected from more than 2.75 million BitTorrent swarms containing 71 million IP addresses. We provide strong evidence that certain nodes are indeed copyright monitors, show that monitoring is a world-wide phenomenon, and devise a methodology for generating blacklists for paranoid and conservative P2P users.

  16. 77 FR 51068 - Remedies for Small Copyright Claims: Additional Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ...This is the second request for public comment pertaining to a study undertaken by the U.S. Copyright Office at the request of Congress on the topic of adjudicating small copyright claims. The study will assess whether and, if so, how the current legal system hinders or prevents copyright owners from pursuing claims that have a relatively small economic value and will discuss, with appropriate recommendations, potential changes in administrative, regulatory, and statutory authority. At this time, the Office seeks additional comments on some of the possible alternatives. The Copyright Office also announces two public meetings following the comment period, to be held during November 2012 in New York and Los Angeles, respectively.

  17. The Necessity to collectivize copyright - and dangers thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    This article describes and discusses the effects of collective rights administration of (individual) copyright. It points out that collectivization is driven either by en economic argument relating to the reduction of transaction costs or a cultural one relating to the protection of authors....... It then claims that collectivization has the potential to affect copyright as it is perceived in the Berne Convention and in traditional copyright legislation fundamentally. The effects include a basic shift in copyright from a system based on property rules to a system based also on liability rules. The article...... then discusses how to best deal with these effects. It recommends that action is considered to identify and possibly remove internal barriers to beneficial collectivization, regulate societies effectively to secure innovation-interest, and  to protect the interests of authors more effectively....

  18. Copyright and mass digitization a cross-jurisdictional perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Borghi, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In an age where works are increasingly being used, not only as works in the traditional sense, but also as carriers of data from which information may be automatically extracted for various purposes, Borghi and Karapapa consider whether mass digitisation is consistent with existing copyright principles, and ultimately whether copyright protection needs to be redefined, and if so how? The work considers the activities involved in the process of mass digitization identifying impediments to the increasing number of such projects such as the inapplicability of copyright exceptions, difficulties in rights clearance, and the issue of 'orphan' and out-of-print works. It goes on to examine the concept of 'use' of works in light of mass digital technologies and how it impinges on copyright law and principles; for example considering whether scanning and using optical character recognition in mass digital projects qualify as transformative use, or whether text mining on digitial repositories should be a permitted act...

  19. Copyright, digital media literacies and preservice teacher education

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Dezuanni; Cushla Kapitzke; Radha Iyer

    2010-01-01

    This article considers copyright knowledge and skills as a new literacy that can be developed through the application of digital media literacy pedagogies. Digital media literacy is emerging from more established forms of media literacy that have existed in schools for several decades and have continued to change as the social and cultural practices around media technologies have changed. Changing requirements of copyright law present specific new challenges for media literacy education bec...

  20. Copyright Detection System for Videos Using TIRI-DCT Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nirmal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The copyright detection system is used to detect whether a video is copyrighted or not by extracting the features or fingerprints of a video and matching them with fingerprints other videos. The system is mainly used for copyright applications of multimedia content. The copyright detection system depends on an algorithm to extract fingerprints which is the TIRI-DCT Algorithm of a video followed by an approximate search algorithm which is the Inverted File Based Similarity Search. To find whether a video is copyrighted or not, the query video is taken and the feature values of the video are extracted using the fingerprint extraction algorithm, it extracts feature values from special images called frames constructed from the video. Each frame represents a part or a segment of the video and contains both temporal and spatial information of the video segment. These images are called Temporally Informative Representative Images (TIRI. The fingerprints of all the videos in the database are extracted and stored in advance. The approximate search algorithm searches the fingerprints which is stored in the database and produces the closest matches to the fingerprint of the query video and based on the match the query video is found whether it is a copyrighted video or not.

  1. The Canadian University Copyright Specialist: A Cross-Canada Selfie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Patterson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of a 2015 study of Canadian university copyright officers, which were presented at the ABC Copyright Conference in Halifax in May 2016. The study’s primary aim was to generate a snapshot of this emerging profession. Who are the people occupying copyright positions at Canadian universities? What do they call themselves? What is their academic background? What kind of copyright education and training do they have? Where do they fit into the structure of the organization? The study’s secondary aim was to probe the intersection of copyright and academic freedom: not the academic freedom of faculty members in creating and using copyright-protected works, but the academic freedom of the copyright officer in interpreting copyright, providing copyright information, teaching and writing about copyright, and engaging in advocacy efforts. The results indicate that the typical Canadian university copyright officer holds an MLS degree or equivalent but has no formal copyright or legal education; works exclusively as a copyright officer within the library system; and is very new to copyright work. Just under half of the copyright officers surveyed have academic freedom, and of those, almost none have considered the implications of this for their copyright work. The author argues that the position of university copyright officer should have faculty status so that the copyright officer can exercise academic freedom as they negotiate the changing and contentious copyright landscape. Cet article décrit les résultats d’une enquête menée en 2015 auprès des agents du droit d’auteur dans les universités canadiennes. Ces résultats ont d’abord été présentés lors du congrès ABC Copyright qui a eu lieu en mai 2016 à Halifax. Cette enquête avait comme objectif principal de fournir un portrait de la situation actuelle de cette profession émergente. Qui sont les personnes qui occupent des postes en droit d

  2. Fair use versus fair return: copyright legislation and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, I L; Curtis, M E

    1984-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the ramifications of legislative recognition of the concept of fair use in the Copyright Act of 1976. The fair use concept, while of small consequence in its normative origins, has turned out to be the foundation of the most perplexing and divisive issues in the new legislative guidelines governing copyright. Legislative recognition of the concept of fair use, coupled with enormous growth of a new technology--extending from xerography to on-line database systems--creates de facto exemptions to both the intent and content of new copyright guidelines. The issue is not one of limiting use or suppressing information, but of mechanisms for safeguarding the rights of copyright holders, be they authors or publishers, and insuring the free flow of information by providing a proper return on both intellectual creativity and capital expenditures. The authors argue that the elimination, or at least curtailment of fair use doctrine, coupled with an increase in technological approaches to reporting of secondary use of copyrighted material, will benefit all sections of the knowledge industry. Authors will receive proper royalties on use; publishers will be able to sell more books and journals at lower prices; and librarians will be liberated from extensive chores such as monitoring usage or determining fee schedules and transferences. The issue is one of fair return--an issue obscured and ultimately subverted by fair use.

  3. The commerce of ideas: copyright in the digital era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisse, M E; Tolva, J N

    1996-01-01

    Copyright law concerns the rights of an individual to make copies of published works. Changes in technology, be they the introduction of the printing press or the proliferation of photocopy machines, affect how these "copy rights" are interpreted. The transmission of published works over digital networks and the introduction of new and relatively inexpensive ways to conduct commerce over the same networks will have a profound effect on how medical school faculty protect their own published works and how they make use of the published works of others. When copyright law moves from tangible objects such as books and journals to intangible bits carried over a network, many historic notions about the nature of publications and libraries will be called into question. The authors review the history of copyright law and some basic concepts of copyright, particularly "first sale" and "fair use." They also discuss the effects past technological changes have had on the law and on the often-competing concerns of authors, publishers, and readers/users. Finally, they discuss the implications for medical schools of digital publications, digital libraries, and the proposed changes to copyright law.

  4. A 'Sound' Policy? The RIAA and The Copyright Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick Schnee

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  The Recording Industry of America (RIAA has made headlines1 and garnered a fair amount of criticism in recent years, both for the first jury trial against an individual copyright infringer2 and for its litigation tactics.3 In the midst of the RIAA‘s aggressive litigation, issues related to proof have come to the forefront, particularly regarding the use of Internet Protocol (IP addresses4 to determine the identity of alleged copyright infringers.5 Additionally, the RIAA and other organizations have sought to hold individuals owning unsecured wireless routers6 liable for any illegal file-sharing that takes place through the individual‘s router.7 The RIAA, in their vigilant defense of copyrighted material, has gone too far and legislative action is needed to provide protection for unwary consumers from the aggressive tactics of the RIAA.

  5. Injunctions against mere conduit of information protected by copyright

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld Jakobsen, Søren; Petersen, Clement Salung

    2011-01-01

    This paper includes an in-depth analysis of EU law and Scandinavian law on injunctions against internet access providers (IAPs) performing as mere conduit of information protected by copyright. In recent Scandinavian case law, courts have granted preliminary injunctions which have caused IAPs...... to either shut down specific internet connections allegedly used to infringe copyright or to block access to internet content, which allegedly infringed applicable copyright rules. This paper considers some significant legal challenges, which are emerging in the wake of this case law, and which should...... attract attention in all European member states. Firstly, it is shown that rules on preliminary injunctions are generally unable to safeguard the significant legitimate interests of third parties, which may be harmed by such relief, and that a proper implementation of Art. 8(3) of the Infosoc Directive...

  6. Copyright and the Use of Images as Biodiversity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi Egloff

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy is the discipline responsible for charting the world’s organismic diversity, understanding ancestor/descendant relationships, and organizing all species according to a unified taxonomic classification system. Taxonomists document the attributes (characters of organisms, with emphasis on those can be used to distinguish species from each other. Character information is compiled in the scientific literature as text, tables, and images. The information is presented according to conventions that vary among taxonomic domains; such conventions facilitate comparison among similar species, even when descriptions are published by different authors. There is considerable uncertainty within the taxonomic community as to how to re-use images that were included in taxonomic publications, especially in regard to whether copyright applies. This article deals with the principles and application of copyright law, database protection, and protection against unfair competition, as applied to images. We conclude that copyright does not apply to most images in taxonomic literature because they are presented in a standardized way and lack the individuality that is required to qualify as ‘copyrightable works’. There are exceptions, such as wildlife photographs, drawings and artwork produced in a distinctive individual form and intended for other than comparative purposes (such as visual art. Further exceptions may apply to collections of images that qualify as a database in the sense of European database protection law. In a few European countries, there is legal protection for photographs that do not qualify as works in the usual sense of copyright. It follows that most images found in taxonomic literature can be re-used for research or many other purposes without seeking permission, regardless of any copyright declaration. In observance of ethical and scholarly standards, re-users are expected to cite the author and original source of any image that

  7. 37 CFR 202.3 - Registration of copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... materials and appropriate filing fee in check, money order, or Copyright Office deposit account charge; or... under paragraphs (b)(4) through (b)(10) of this section, the “year in which creation of this work was completed”, as called for by the application, means the latest year in which the creation of any...

  8. 77 FR 59339 - Patents, Data, and Copyrights; CFR Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 227 Patents, Data, and Copyrights; CFR Correction In Title 48 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 2 (Parts 201--299), revised as of October 1,...

  9. 75 FR 38543 - Patent, Trademark and Copyright Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Patent, Trademark and Copyright Acts AGENCY: Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of..., Bridgeville, PA 15017 on U.S. Patent No. 6,485,696 B1, entitled ``Recovery/Removal of Metallic Elements...

  10. The Bookshelf: Digitisation and Access to Copyright Items in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstein, Vigdis Moe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the challenges faced in digitising copyright-protected books and other materials within the National Library of Norway. Design/methodology/approach: Following a description of Bokhylla, or The Bookshelf, the paper outlines the strategies adopted within the National Library of Norway…

  11. Religiosity and Music Copyright Theft among Canadian Baptist Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Bruce G.; Francis, Leslie J.; Henderson, Amanda J.; Robbins, Mandy; Linkletter, Jody

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the views of 706 Canadian Baptist youth (between the ages of 14 and 18 years) on the moral issue of music copyright theft, and explores the influence on these views of age, sex, Sunday church attendance, personal prayer, personal Bible reading, and conservative Bible believing. The participants were attending Springforth 2005…

  12. The Necessity to collectivize copyright - and dangers thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    This article describes and discusses the effects of collective rights administration of (individual) copyright. It points out that collectivization is driven either by en economic argument relating to the reduction of transaction costs or a cultural one relating to the protection of authors. It t...

  13. Codes of conduct and copyright enforcement in Cyberspace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, P.B.; Stamatoudi, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter critically examines the rise of codes of conduct that deal with copyright enforcement. Its focus will be on codes binding ISPs and other online intermediaries offering similar services, such as providers of user-generated content (UGC) platforms. While solutions in the United States and

  14. PERFORMING RIGHT IN CACHE COPYRIGHT LAW OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Makkawaru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Performing Right (Performing Rights in the corpus of laws in Indonesia have not been strong in the rule and the protection of the law. Although the Copyright ACT in recent times revision rule has been loaded but still very narrow so there can take to become a rule of law that can reverse engineer the behavior of society (notably the community of users of copyrighted songs and music to stick with it.This paper tries to do a review of the literature and the law. The birth of Act No. 28 by 2014 about copyright gives the feel of a broader legal and encouraged to provide protection of economic rights (economic right over Copyrights in particular Performing Right with an emphasis on fostering recognition of Collective Management Institutions, as well as on Related Rights protection for emphasis that gives economic maximization of existing opportunities of performing actors, producer ponogram, and broadcasters. And thus, created a large corpus of law in the field of Performing Right in Indonesia.

  15. Empirical evidence for policy in telecommunication, copyright & broadcasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation contains nine articles with an empirical focus in copyright, telecommunication, and broadcasting. These articles address different research questions and employ a variety of methodological approaches. They all share an economic foundation and the aim to contribute to evidence based

  16. Copyrights and Conversations: Intellectual Property in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Janice R.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that, by approaching conventions of citation and prohibitions against plagiarism in the classroom from the perspective of copyright issues, students can come to a greater understanding of the nature of scholarship. Makes recommendations for teaching students about the issues involved, and suggests ways that authors, teachers, and…

  17. Copyright Policy and Practice in Electronic Reserves among ARL Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David R.; Cross, William M.; Edwards, Phillip M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of 110 ARL institutions regarding their copyright policies for providing electronic reserves. It compiles descriptive statistics on library practice as well as coding responses to reveal trends and shared practices. Finally, it presents conclusions about policy making, decision making and risk aversion…

  18. Copyright Protection for Modifiable Digital Content Based on Distributed Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heejae; Kim, Jong

    Today, users themselves are becoming subjects of content creation. The fact that blog, wiki, and UCC have become very popular shows that users want to participate to create and modify digital content. Users who participate in composing content also want to have their copyrights on their modification parts. Thus, a copyright protection system for the content which can be modified by multiple users is required. However, the conventional DRM (Digital Rights Management) systems like OMA DRM are not suitable for the modifiable content because they do not support the content created and modified by different users. Therefore in this paper, we propose a new copyright protection system which allows each modifier of the content created and modified by multiple users to have one's own copyright. We propose data formats and protocols, and analyze the proposed system in terms of the correctness and security. Performance evaluation in the view of response time shows that the proposed system is 2 to 18 times shorter than other comparative schemes.

  19. Copyright at the Bedside: Should We Stop the Spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Robin; Newman, John

    2013-01-01

    We recently published an article in the New England Journal of Medicine describing a crisis in cognitive testing, as doctors and medical researchers increasingly face copyright claims in sets of questions used for testing mental state. We encouraged the creation of a cultural norm in medicine, in which medical researchers would ensure continued availability of their tests through open source licensing for any copyrights that might exist. In this piece, we consider the legal side of the question. Although copyrights are being copiously asserted in medical testing, are those rights valid, and should they be upheld? The legal precedents in this area are anything but clear, and the courts are divided in the few analogous circumstances that have arisen. We examine analogies in standardized testing, computer compilations and baseball pitching forms to consider the marvelous question of how to conceptualize a process-which is the purview of patent law-when that process consists of words-which are the purview of copyright law. We also look from an economics perspective at the issue of investment and value creation in the development of de facto standards. Legal scholars are so often in the position of looking backwards, teasing out solutions to problems that have developed within a doctrinal or theoretical area. Rarely does one have the opportunity to affect the course of events before problems become so deeply entrenched that they are intractable. This is such a moment, and the legal and medical fields should take advantage of the opportunities presented.

  20. The Copyright Book: A Practical Guide. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, William S.

    In response to important changes in copyright law as the United States accommodates itself to the Berne Convention and develops means to take account of new technologies, this guide puts these changes in a form and context that will make sense to persons who are concerned about their rights under the law. New material in the fourth edition of this…

  1. Reclaiming Fair Use: How to Put Balance Back in Copyright

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufderheide, Patricia; Jaszi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In the increasingly complex and combative arena of copyright in the digital age, record companies sue college students over peer-to-peer music sharing, YouTube removes home movies because of a song playing in the background, and filmmakers are denied a distribution deal when some permissions "i" proves undottable. Patricia Aufderheide and Peter…

  2. European intermediary liability in copyright: A tort-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelopoulos, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    With the adoption and subsequent national implementation of the E-Commerce Directive’s safe harbour regime, the architecture set up in Europe for the civil liability of internet intermediaries for the copyright infringements of others has become two-tiered: at a first stage, it is necessary to exami

  3. Filtering for Copyright Enforcement in Europe after the Sabam cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, S.; Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.

    2012-01-01

    Sabam, a Belgian collective rights management organisation, wanted an internet access provider and a social network site to install a filter system to enforce copyrights. In two recent judgments, the Court of Justice of the European Union decided that the social network site and the internet access

  4. Copyrights and Conversations: Intellectual Property in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Janice R.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that, by approaching conventions of citation and prohibitions against plagiarism in the classroom from the perspective of copyright issues, students can come to a greater understanding of the nature of scholarship. Makes recommendations for teaching students about the issues involved, and suggests ways that authors, teachers, and…

  5. Codes of conduct and copyright enforcement in Cyberspace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, P.B.; Stamatoudi, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter critically examines the rise of codes of conduct that deal with copyright enforcement. Its focus will be on codes binding ISPs and other online intermediaries offering similar services, such as providers of user-generated content (UGC) platforms. While solutions in the United States and

  6. Approaches to Copyright Education for Faculty in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Zerkee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study surveyed copyright administrators at Canadian universities about their methods of providing copyright training to faculty and non-faculty instructors, the frequency and topics of education provided, and the modes of communication used to reach instructors. Copyright administrators were also asked to rate the perceived effectiveness of their educational opportunities. Respondents feel that in-person education is most effective for providing copyright training to instructors, though a significant number of respondents do not believe that all instructors at their institutions are made adequately aware of copyright educational opportunities. Lack of time and staffing resources affect many copyright administrators. These challenges are leading many to develop more systematic approaches to reaching instructors. Communication and education are being provided directly to individual departments and by working with administrators and others at the department level. Considering the siloed nature of many copyright offices and positions, this study aims to share the approaches being taken by copyright administrators to educate instructors about their rights and responsibilities with regard to copyright and teaching. Introduction Cette étude a sondé des agents du droit d’auteur des universités canadiennes sur les méthodes utilisées pour offrir des formations à des professeurs et autres employés, la fréquence et les sujets abordés lors de ces formations ainsi que les moyens utilisés pour communiquer avec cette clientèle. Les agents du droit d’auteur ont également évalué l’efficacité perçue de leurs formations. Les répondants croient que la formation en personne est la façon la plus efficace de former les professeurs même si un nombre significatif de répondants croient que les professeurs à leur établissement ne soient pas suffisamment informés des possibilités d’enseignement portant sur le droit d’auteur. Le manque

  7. Transparent System for Digital Media Copyright Protection in Mobile Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Cheng; ZHANG Lihe; WANG Yongbin; LIU Jianbo

    2006-01-01

    At present, in mobile business, the secure environment in the terminal of users has not been embedded, many cryptology-based methods can not be directly used to protect the copyright of digital media. Under this situation, a transparent system based on watermark for digital right management and digital copyright protection is proposed in this paper. The transparent system is called WDRM (watermark-based digital rights management) and transparent to users. Its core is WDRM Agent. In this paper, system inner model and procession are designed in detail at first, including the registration, the downloading, the super distribution, and the cooperation. Because the watermark embedding and the extraction algorithms are the kernel in this architecture, we also discuss how to choose and design the algorithms. Then we establish a package for all algorithms in WDRM Agent.

  8. Ebooks Licensing and Canadian Copyright Legislation: A Few Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony G Horava

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebooks have become increasingly common in collection development strategies. The availability and delivery of monographs in digital formats has gained significantly in popularity in many libraries, particularly in the academic sector. Licensing is the common method of acquiring ebooks, whether as a subscription or a purchase. Libraries have had to transform selection and workflow processes in order to acquire ebooks in an efficient manner. Little attention, however, has been paid to the interplay between licensing as a contractual arrangement and the statutory rights available under Canadian copyright law. Fair dealing is a concept of critical importance in Canadian copyright, as it provides the foundation for user rights in support of culture, learning, and innovation. There are other provisions of specific value for libraries, such as interlibrary loans and access by persons with perceptual disabilities. This article will examine these issues and proposes a few strategies that libraries can adopt to ensure that statutory rights are not eroded in licensing agreements

  9. Culture and Copyright, Coexisting: Preserving Culture in a Digital World

    OpenAIRE

    McMichael, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    From music to literature to film, an increasing amount of culturally significant information is being published in digital formats. Vendors like the iTunes Store or Audible are already specializing in digital-only information. With copyrights restricting libraries’ usage and thus collection of digital material, there exists the potential of culturally relevant information (i.e. songs, works of fiction, visual content) to remain under-archived by libraries globally. The...

  10. Copyright, Patent, and Trade Secret Protection of Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    claim passes muster under section 101. However, if theI mathemacical algocithm is merely presented and solved by the claimed invencion , as was the case in...case of copyright infringement or ma- merits. See Midway Mfg. Co. v. Bandai- sonable likelihood of success on the merits America , Inc., 546 F.Supp. 125...in Mackay Radio & Telegraph Co. v. Radio Corp. of America , 306 U. S. 86, the applicant sought a patent on a directional antenna system in which the

  11. The Aereo dilemma and copyright in the cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Horten

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aereo is a cloud-based startup company that offers people the possibility to watch live (or nearly live television on computing devices and smartphones. It was sued by the major US broadcasters for copyright liability and the case went to the Supreme Court where Aereo lost. It encapsulates a dilemma facing courts in the US and EU – that a ruling to shut down Aereo, on the basis that it is unlawful under copyright law, could threaten innovation in areas such as the cloud. The Aereo case turned on a narrow point of US copyright law, which this paper discusses. The core issue for this paper was to analyse the legal dispute between Aereo and the broadcasters as documented in the court papers, including transcripts of the hearing, and submissions in support of both parties. A key finding was that the technical design and characterisation of the service lay at the heart of the argument over copyright. The US courts deliberated at length as whether Aereo is more like a cable TV company, or is it merely an equipment provider, providing a digital video recorder in the cloud. The paper discusses whether technical design matters or whether the substantive effect could be the determining factor. The paper then broadens the perspective to examine the position of cloud service providers. It does so in general terms, using amicus curiae briefs and other documentation from the US court case, before concluding with a consideration of the EU position. An important finding is that the complexities of content acquisition, transmission and format-shifting will generate considerable legal uncertainty.

  12. Streaming Video Games: Copyright Infringement or Protected Speech?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Evert Elias Jungar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Streaming video games, that is, live broadcasting playing video games on the internet, is incredibly popular. Millions tune into twitch.tv daily to watch eSport tournaments, their favourite streamer, and chat with other viewers. But all is not rosy in the world of streaming games. Recently, some game developers have aggressively exercised their copyright to, firstly, claim part of the streamers’ revenue, and secondly, control the context in which their game is shown. The article analyzes whether game developers have, and should have, such rights under EU copyright law. Reaching the conclusion that video game streams infringe the game developer’s right to communicate their works to the public, I argue that freedom of expression can and should be used to rein in their rights in certain cases. Subjecting the lawfulness of streams to game developers’ good will risks stifling the expressions of streamers. The streamers, their audience, and even the copyright holders, would be worse off for it.

  13. Image Right and Copyright Law in Europe: Divergences and Convergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Synodinou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the multiplicity of image rights in Europe and the classical conflictual relationship between the right to one’s own image and copyright law. First, the paper analyses the main mechanisms of legal protection of a person’s image in selected jurisdictions, in both the civil law and the common law tradition. It is deduced that the civil law approach based on the right of privacy or the right of personality is expressed mainly either via a duality, reflecting the extra-patrimonial and the patrimonial attributes to one’s own image, or via the recognition of a single right with a dual nature. On the other hand, the protection granted to the right to one’s own image in the United Kingdom is piecemeal in nature, since it is based on a broad interpretation of the classic torts of breach of confidence and passing off, which fails to provide a coherent and effective legal framework for protecting the intangible asset of a person’s image, both in terms of its dignitary and its economic identity. After pinpointing the major differences in terms of protecting the right to one’s own image in Europe, the emphasis is placed on the relationship between image rights and copyright law. A classic approach considers image rights as an external limitation of copyright law, and therefore typifies the relationship between image rights and copyright law as being primarily conflictual in nature. Nonetheless, it is also possible to focus on the convergences between the right to one’s own image and copyright law, since both refer to intangible assets that combine both extra-patrimonial and patrimonial interests. In this respect, copyright law could serve as a model for the eventual creation of a European patrimonial right to one’s own image. While the idea of promoting the recognition or establishment of a new intellectual property right for protecting the economic attributes of a person’s image in EU Member States’ domestic

  14. Taxonomic information exchange and copyright: the Plazi approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egloff Willi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large part of our knowledge on the world's species is recorded in the corpus of biodiversity literature with well over hundred million pages, and is represented in natural history collections estimated at 2 – 3 billion specimens. But this body of knowledge is almost entirely in paper-print form and is not directly accessible through the Internet. For the digitization of this literature, new territories have to be chartered in the fields of technical, legal and social issues that presently impede its advance. The taxonomic literature seems especially destined for such a transformation. Discussion Plazi was founded as an association with the primary goal of transforming both the printed and, more recently, "born-digital" taxonomic literature into semantically enabled, enhanced documents. This includes the creation of a test body of literature, an XML schema modeling its logic content (TaxonX, the development of a mark-up editor (GoldenGATE allowing also the enhancement of documents with links to external resources via Life Science Identifiers (LSID, a repository for publications and issuance of bibliographic identifiers, a dedicated server to serve the marked up content (the Plazi Search and Retrieval Server, SRS and semantic tools to mine information. Plazi's workflow is designed to respect copyright protection and achieves extraction by observing exceptions and limitations existent in international copyright law. Conclusion The information found in Plazi's databases – taxonomic treatments as well as the metadata of the publications – are in the public domain and can therefore be used for further scientific research without any restriction, whether or not contained in copyrighted publications.

  15. Online Copyright Enforcement, Consumer Behavior and Market Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, Luis; Claussen, Jörg; Peukert, Christian

    find that the shutdown led to significant but short-lived declines in piracy levels. The streaming piracy market quickly recovered due to the existence of alternative unlicensed platforms, leading to limited substitution into licensed consumption. The fact that the post-shutdown market structure......Taking down copyright-infringing websites is a way to reduce consumption of pirated media content and increase licensed consumption. We analyze the consequences of the shutdown of the most popular German video streaming website - kino.to - in June 2011. Using individual-level clickstream data, we...

  16. COPYRIGHT PROTECTION FOR CREATIVE INDUSTRIES: COMPARISON AMONG CHINA AND EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA ORTEGA NUERE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact and creativity has increase in the last years in Europe. It was focused by an United Nations report on creative economy in 2008 .Cooperation and trade in goods and services has increased. Today, the EU is the biggest destination for China's exports and the second supplier to China. For the EU, China is the second trading partner, after the United States. Based on current agreements between the two continents, we can mention the following documents that justify our research: The bilateral issues and cooperation, including people-to-people exchanges in 20111; EU-China Youth Policy Dialogue about education, culture and youth policies;2 The EU-China high level people to people dialogue, celebrated in Chengdu, 2012.3 EU-China Business Summit, which took place in September 2012, in Brussels.4 The EU is committed to strengthening its partnership with China, as demonstrated by the fourteenth EU-China summit that took place in Beijing, 2012.5 Also there are some forums and conferences that are relevant for our research such as, the EU- China high level cultural forum celebrated, in Brussels 2010;6 Beijing in 2011; the Louvre in 2012,7 and the China- EU Seminar on cultural and creative industries cooperation.8 The rights of intellectual property law are more vulnerable in the cultural and creative sector.For this reason, it is essential that we protect ideas and designs; they are the new creations and they need to be sheltered. In this article, we are going to explain what intellectual property (IP law is, specifically copyright, and how it began to appears in China in order to understand the concept of copyright To gather this information, we will discuss the copyright protection for creative industries in China. And we will do a brief comparison about the copyright protection for creative industries in EU, including legal mechanisms in EU that relates to China. The methodology is the investigation and examination of documentation and we will

  17. Semi-Fragile Watermarking for Copyright Protection and Image Authentication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ji-feng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a semi-fragile watermarking technology for copyright protection and image authentication. We transform the image into wavelet domain and group the four adjacent wavelet coefficients. Utilizing the characteristics of the human visual system, we embed a digital signal into the average of the four adjacent wavelet coefficients since the mean has better stability than single wavelet coefficient. This method needn't original image when extracts the watermark. Experimental results show the effectiveness of this method which is robust to common image process and fragile to malicious attack.

  18. Conflict-of-interest, copyright and other declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, W C; Ng, K H

    2010-11-01

    Declarations of exclusive publication, author contribution, conflict-of-interest and copyright transfer are important formalities required by most biomedical journals. Conflict-of-interest may be personal, commercial, political, academic or financial. It is particularly important for authors to provide a full and complete disclosure of any financial relationship with a commercial organisation that may have an interest in the contents of the submitted manuscript. Editors, editorial board members and reviewers should also declare any possible conflicts-of-interest. The handling of conflict-of-interest during manuscript preparation, peer review and editorial decision making impacts the credibility of published articles and scientific research in general.

  19. Copyright over Works Reproduced and Published Online by Search Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rengifo García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Search engines are an important technological tool that facilitates the dissemination and access to information on the Internet. However, when it comes to works protected by authors rights, in the case of continental law, or Copyright, for the Anglo-Saxon tradition, it is difficult to define if search engines infringe the rights of the owners of these works. In the face of this situation, the US and Europe have employed the exceptions to autorights and Fair Use to decide whether search engines infringes owners rights. This article carries out a comparative analysis of the different judicial decisions in the US and Europe on search engines and protected works.

  20. Online Copyright Enforcement, Consumer Behavior and Market Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, Luis; Claussen, Jörg; Peukert, Christian

    Taking down copyright-infringing websites is a way to reduce consumption of pirated media content and increase licensed consumption. We analyze the consequences of the shutdown of the most popular German video streaming website - kino.to - in June 2011. Using individual-level clickstream data, we...... find that the shutdown led to significant but short-lived declines in piracy levels. The streaming piracy market quickly recovered due to the existence of alternative unlicensed platforms, leading to limited substitution into licensed consumption. The fact that the post-shutdown market structure...

  1. Online Copyright Enforcement, Consumer Behavior, and Market Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, Luis; Claussen, Jörg; Peukert, Christian

    Taking down copyright-infringing websites is a way to reduce consumption of pirated media content and increase licensed consumption. We analyze the consequences of the shutdown of the most popular German video streaming website - kino.to - in June 2011. Using individual-level clickstream data, we...... find that the shutdown led to significant but short-lived declines in piracy levels. The streaming piracy market quickly recovered due to the existence of alternative unlicensed platforms, leading to limited substitution into licensed consumption. The fact that the post-shutdown market structure...

  2. A view of the evolving DOE software copyright policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    In May of 1988, the US Department of Energy (DOE) announced a change in its policy with respect to the copyrighting of computer software by its Management and Operating (M and O) contractors. The intent of this revision is to allow the contractors to secure copyrights for all scientific and technical software funded by the Department except in those cases where such action (1) would be detrimental to national security, (2) would not enhance the appropriate transfer or commercialization of the software, (3) would have a negative impact on US industrial competitiveness, or (4) would prevent DOE from meeting its obligations under international treaties and agreements. Classified computer software and that developed with Naval Reactors funding are specifically excluded from the new policy. This paper will discuss foreseeable changes to, and the potential impacts on, the National Energy Software Center (NESC) program and the role the Center will play in implementation of the policy. The NESC was established almost thirty years ago as the Argonne Code Center, a cooperative undertaking to encourage the sharing of reactor design and engineering codes among Atomic Energy Commission contractors and the transfer of AEC computing technology to industry. A brief history of the Center and a description of its present operation will be provided as background for the author's perspective. 4 refs.

  3. Copyright Failure and the Protection for Tables and Compilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis K W Khong

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Current copyright laws in all jurisdictions are lacking explicit provisions for protecting many types of contemporary art. It remains unclear to what extent ideas should be copyrightable as art, if at all; or whether an artwork’s commercial nature provides a decisive factor regarding appropriation. Certain situations seem plainly inappropriate, such as artists needing to seek legal counsel in conjunction with creating their artwork: inappropriate in its financial extravagance and in its inevitable curb on creativity. As such, it is incumbent upon courts and legislatures to analyze the issue and to provide guidance. It is the author’s finding that strong moral rights and a vibrant public domain are not necessarily at odds with each other, especially when parties are open to communication. Laws operate to provide structure when parties do not make other arrangements amongst themselves; contracts between artists and galleries, artists and publishers, even artists and other artists may provide the highest degree of satisfaction for specific parties to a specific situation. Not surprisingly, parties with legal or business interests in art and parties with artistic interests in art would communicate better if they understood each other’s situations. Hopefully the issues will continue to be the focus of some thought on all platforms such that informed legal decisions can be made and artists can pursue and protect their creative productions, no matter their format.

  4. Technological measures of protection in the copyright system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital exploitation of works often exceed the limit to which the holder can control the exploitation of their intellectual creations, and the protection provided by legal norms are, in the era of a fast exchange of information, may prove to be insufficiently effective. For these reasons, the rights holders are increasingly opting for preventive care through placement of physical obstacles to the exploitation of copyright works, generic called technological protection measures (known as digital right management (DRM. Simultaneously with the development of the application of these measures flows the process of finding ways to circumvent them. Therefore, the effectiveness of technological measures depends on exactly the question of their legal protection, which now exists in most of modern legal systems. However, in the normative solutions there are differences, which reflect the problems in finding adequate forms of protection. They mostly stem from the fact that the sanctioning of circumvention (or preparatory actions of technological measures put into the question the purpose of copyright protection in general. Hence, in this paper we tried to point out the normative solutions accepted in modern legal systems and practical implications of what they have. Conclusion that arises is that the legal shaping of technological measures is not completed and that further technological developments open new dilemmas.

  5. Author’s contract in the Albanian copyright law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oltion Spiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relation between the author and his/her artistic creation is very specific and at the same time a strong one. Such relation defies any property and affective connection that an individual may have with an object (Caron, 2011, 25. Copyright constitutes precisely the legal embodiment of the author’s intimate relationship with his/her work. Copyright is a plurality of legal provisions that belongs to the author of the work, in order to protect his/her ownership and eventually the commercial exploitation of such work. In this context, the author, through legal provisions and international conventions duly ratified by Albania, enjoys a relevant legal arsenal in order to defend his/her artistic works so that such works may have a live of its own (Vivant & Bruguière 2009, 23. One of these legal measures is the contract, which in legal doctrine is well known as the author’s contract. By means of such contract, the author has the right to distribute, reproduce, license or certify rights related to his/her artistic work. In this regard, the contract is an irreplaceable tool in the hands of the author to distribute the work and to give it an undeniable value, turning it into one of the most valuable intangible assets in civil circulation. The contract of the author, as the name indicates it, is a contract that obeys to the rules of civil law with respect to the quality of the parties, the characteristics of the object of the contract, its conclusion, the determination of remuneration and the term of duration. On the other hand, it is undeniable that the contract of the author contains rules which are not specifically contemplated by the Civil Code, such as rules relating to the form, interpretation and existence of some sui generis contracts provided in Law 9380 / 2005 “On copyright and related rights” (hereinafter referred to as “Law 9380/2005” or “Law on Copyright” as well as in the Draft Law On Authors Rights (hereinafter referred

  6. Robust image watermarking using DWT and SVD for copyright protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjito, Bambang; Suryani, Esti

    2017-02-01

    The Objective of this paper is proposed a robust combined Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The RGB image is called a cover medium, and watermark image is converted into gray scale. Then, they are transformed using DWT so that they can be split into several subbands, namely sub-band LL2, LH2, HL2. The watermark image embeds into the cover medium on sub-band LL2. This scheme aims to obtain the higher robustness level than the previous method which performs of SVD matrix factorization image for copyright protection. The experiment results show that the proposed method has robustness against several image processing attacks such as Gaussian, Poisson and Salt and Pepper Noise. In these attacks, noise has average Normalized Correlation (NC) values of 0.574863 0.889784, 0.889782 respectively. The watermark image can be detected and extracted.

  7. Copyright Protection of Color Video Using Digital Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Masoumi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A huge amount of digital multimedia data is broadcasting daily over the internet. Since digital data can be easily duplicated, intellectual property right protection techniques have become an important issue. In this study, a robust algorithm based on DWT for video copyright protection is proposed. Firstly, the RGB video is converted into YUV color component video, then, in order to make the watermark imperceptible, the luminance layer is only used to embed the watermark and the chrominance layer is left unchanged. In this algorithm, DWT is performed on both watermark image and video I-frames. Using a multiplicative hiding method, watermark image is embedded in its corresponding frequency coefficients of DWT in video I-frames. Based on experimental results the presented method maintains the high transparency of video stream meanwhile resist the watermark against a variety of attacks like: noisy attacks, filtering attacks, blurring attack and compression attacks.

  8. Copyright and personal use of CERN’s computing infrastructure

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    (La version française sera en ligne prochainement)The rules covering the personal use of CERN’s computing infrastructure are defined in Operational Circular No. 5 and its Subsidiary Rules (see http://cern.ch/ComputingRules). All users of CERN’s computing infrastructure must comply with these rules, whether they access CERN’s computing facilities from within the Organization’s site or at another location. In particular, OC5 clause 17 requires that proprietary rights (the rights in software, music, video, etc.) must be respected. The user is liable for damages resulting from non-compliance. Recently, there have been several violations of OC5, where copyright material was discovered on public world-readable disk space. Please ensure that all material under your responsibility (in particular in files owned by your account) respects proprietary rights, including with respect to the restriction of access by third parties. CERN Security Team

  9. Robust watermarking on copyright protection of digital originals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, C; Hu, X Y, E-mail: guchong527@gmail.co, E-mail: emma_huxy@yahoo.com.c [College of Packaging and Printing Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin, 300222 (China)

    2010-06-01

    The issues about the difference between digital vector originals and raster originals were discussed. A new algorithm based on displacing vertices to realize the embedding and extracting of digital watermarking in vector data was proposed after that. The results showed that the watermark produced by the method is resistant against translation, scaling, rotation, additive random noise; it is also resistant, to some extent, against cropping. This paper also modified the DCT raster image watermarking algorithm, using a bitmap image as watermark embedded into target images, instead of some meaningless serial numbers or simple symbols. The embedding and extraction part of these two digital watermark systems achieved with software. Experiments proved that both algorithms are not only imperceptible, but also have strong resistance against the common attracts, which can prove the copyright more effectively.

  10. The Resilience of Music Copyrights: Technological Innovation, Copyright Disputes and Legal Amendments Concerning the Distribution of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Albinsson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the Internet and the convenient, although often illicit, file-sharing of copyrighted artistic products which it made possible has put Intellectual Property Right/IPR laws under stress. It is not the first and possibly not the last time that this phenomenon has occurred in connection with a technological shift. This paper contains a short history of the fundamentals of the processes which led to the incorporation of new means of distribution of artistic products in the Intellectual Property Rights regulations. It starts with music printing technology in Venice around the year 1500. It takes a leap to the recording devices of four centuries later. Via the introduction of broadcast devices, it ends with the blank media levies. The paper describes the events in the countries that created the first legal documents for these four types of technological inventions. Arguments pro and con IPR law differ but stakeholder positions remain the same.

  11. Copyright Protection of Color Imaging Using Robust-Encoded Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cedillo-Hernandez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a robust-encoded watermarking method applied to color images for copyright protection, which presents robustness against several geometric and signal processing distortions. Trade-off between payload, robustness and imperceptibility is a very important aspect which has to be considered when a watermark algorithm is designed. In our proposed scheme, previously to be embedded into the image, the watermark signal is encoded using a convolutional encoder, which can perform forward error correction achieving better robustness performance. Then, the embedding process is carried out through the discrete cosine transform domain (DCT of an image using the image normalization technique to accomplish robustness against geometric and signal processing distortions. The embedded watermark coded bits are extracted and decoded using the Viterbi algorithm. In order to determine the presence or absence of the watermark into the image we compute the bit error rate (BER between the recovered and the original watermark data sequence. The quality of the watermarked image is measured using the well-known indices: Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, Visual Information Fidelity (VIF and Structural Similarity Index (SSIM. The color difference between the watermarked and original images is obtained by using the Normalized Color Difference (NCD measure. The experimental results show that the proposed method provides good performance in terms of imperceptibility and robustness. The comparison among the proposed and previously reported methods based on different techniques is also provided.

  12. 37 CFR 201.23 - Transfer of unpublished copyright deposits to the Library of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... copyright deposits to the Library of Congress. 201.23 Section 201.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.23 Transfer of unpublished copyright deposits to the Library of Congress. (a) General. This section...

  13. 37 CFR 201.24 - Warning of copyright for software lending by nonprofit libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... software lending by nonprofit libraries. 201.24 Section 201.24 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.24 Warning of copyright for software lending by nonprofit libraries. (a) Definition. A Warning of Copyright for...

  14. 37 CFR 251.2 - Purpose of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Arbitration Royalty Panels. 251.2 Section 251.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Organization § 251.2 Purpose of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels....

  15. 37 CFR 251.7 - Actions of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Arbitration Royalty Panels. 251.7 Section 251.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Organization § 251.7 Actions of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels....

  16. 37 CFR 251.6 - Composition and selection of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels. 251.6 Section 251.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Organization § 251.6 Composition and selection of...

  17. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., Research, and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1209.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or...

  18. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1215.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product...

  19. 78 FR 66337 - Request for Comments on Department of Commerce Green Paper, Copyright Policy, Creativity, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Request for Comments on Department of Commerce Green Paper, Copyright Policy, Creativity, and Innovation... development that were identified in the Department's Green Paper on Copyright Policy, Creativity, and...

  20. 75 FR 47464 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... circumvention of copyright protection systems for access control technologies which was published July 27, 2010... Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 201 Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Final...

  1. 37 CFR 201.14 - Warnings of copyright for use by certain libraries and archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by certain libraries and archives. 201.14 Section 201.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.14 Warnings of copyright for use by certain libraries and archives. (a) Definitions. (1) A Display Warning...

  2. 37 CFR 201.6 - Payment and refund of Copyright Office fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Copyright Office fees. 201.6 Section 201.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF... letters or packages will be at the remitter's risk. Remittances from foreign countries should be in the... retained in the Copyright Office, transferred for the permanent collections or other uses of the Library...

  3. An Experimental Copyright Moratorium: Study of a Proposed Solution to the Copyright Photocopying Problem. Final Report to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilprin, Laurence B.

    The Committee to Investigate Copyright Problems (CICP), a non-profit organization dedicated to resolving the conflict known as the "copyright photocopying problem" was joined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), a large national publisher of technical and scientific standards, in a plan to simulate a long-proposed…

  4. The Author as Agent of Information Policy: The Relationship between Economic and Moral Rights in Copyright

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Margaret Ann; Gerolami, Natasha

    2009-01-01

    A historical and theoretical analysis of the copyright environment demonstrates that both the economic rights associated with copyright and the moral rights often associated with copyright perform social functions. The latter have not been as universally embraced or adopted as the former. The lack of enthusiasm for moral rights is argued to be…

  5. 26 CFR 514.5 - Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS FRANCE Withholding of Tax § 514.5 Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals. (a) Exemption from tax. Royalties for the right to use copyrights, patents, designs,...

  6. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1280.231 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed through the use of...

  7. 7 CFR 1212.62 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Promotion, Research, and Information § 1212.62 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product... invention, any patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications developed through...

  8. 26 CFR 509.110 - Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.110 Patent and copyright... copyrights, artistic and scientific works, patents, designs, plans, secret processes and formulae,...

  9. 7 CFR 1219.57 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and..., and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.57 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions,...

  10. The Texaco Copyright Case: Step Two on the Way to the Supreme Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbinghouse, Carol

    1995-01-01

    Reviews developments in the Texaco v. American Geophysical Union copyright case that involves photocopying scientific journal articles for researchers. Highlights include the Copyright Clearance Center role; fair use; purpose of the use, i.e., commercial or nonprofit; the nature of the copyrighted work; amount copied; and effect on the potential…

  11. 78 FR 61337 - Request for Comments on Department of Commerce Green Paper, Copyright Policy, Creativity, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... Request for Comments on Department of Commerce Green Paper, Copyright Policy, Creativity, and Innovation... on Copyright Policy, Creativity, and Innovation in the Digital Economy (Green Paper) released on July... Commerce's Internet Policy Task Force (Task Force) released Copyright Policy, Creativity, and Innovation in...

  12. Networks of power in digital copyright law and policy political salience, expertise and the legislative process

    CERN Document Server

    Farrand, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this book, Benjamin Farrand employs an interdisciplinary approach that combines legal analysis with political theory to explore the development of copyright law in the EU. Farrand utilises Foucault's concept of Networks of Power and Culpepper's Quiet Politics to assess the adoption and enforcement of copyright law in the EU, including the role of industry representative, cross-border licensing, and judicial approaches to territorial restrictions. Focusing in particular on legislative initiatives concerning copyright, digital music and the internet, Networks of Power in Digital Copyright Law and Policy: Political Salience, Expertise and the Legislative Process demonstrates the connection between copyright law and complex network relationships. This book presents an original socio-political theoretical framework for assessing developments in copyright law that will interest researchers and post-graduate students of law and politics, as well as those more particularly concerned with political theory, EU and c...

  13. Protecting Copyrights on the Internet——Local authorities' efforts to tackle on line piracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey

    2009-01-01

    @@ Vice-Minister Yan Xiao-hong from the National Copyright Administration of China(NCAC),Assistant Minister Chong Ouan from the Ministry of Commerce(MOFCOM)and Mr Antoine Seillan,Counsellor of the EC Delegation to China were in Yingchuan on June 18,to open a seminar on-line piracy copyright protection and enforcement on the internet involving more than 80 officials from China's local copyright authorities,cultural bureaus and judiciary.

  14. Off with their heads! Copyright infringement in the Canadian online higher educational environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Edmonds

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Issues of copyright infringement are contentious for academia in the online environment. The educational community on campus must carefully consider how digital materials are used, created and disseminated online given that present laws that regulate these actions are not well developed. It can seem like anyone’s guess on how to proceed in order to avoid copyright infringement. This paper offers current descriptions of intellectual property, copyright laws, infringements, and plagiarism in a Canadian context with a view on creating, using and disseminating digital works. The impact of copyright infringement on students and faculty in higher education is explored and some suggestions are made for protective practice.

  15. 75 FR 43825 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Requirements for Rulemaking Proceeding The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (``DMCA'') was enacted to implement... policy issues pertaining to jailbreaking and smartphones fall within the competence of other...

  16. 78 FR 13094 - Remedies for Small Copyright Claims: Third Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ...The United States Copyright Office is requesting public comment for the third time on the topic of adjudicating small copyright claims. The Office is studying whether and, if so, how the current legal system hinders or prevents copyright owners from pursuing copyright claims that have a relatively small economic value and will discuss, with appropriate recommendations, potential changes in administrative, regulatory, and statutory authority. At this time, the Office seeks additional comments on possible alternatives to the current system to improve the adjudication of such claims.

  17. 26 CFR 513.4 - Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals. 513.4 Section 513.4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS IRELAND Withholding of Tax § 513.4 Patent and copyright royalties and...

  18. Flexible copyright: the law and economics of introducing an open norm in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Noll, R.; van Gompel, S.; Guibault, L.; Weda, J.; Poort, J.; Akker, I.; Breemen, K.

    2012-01-01

     This study analyses the law and economics of introducing flexibility in the system of exceptions and limitations in Dutch copyright law. Such flexibility would exist in an open norm, on the basis of which the courts can decide whether certain uses of copyrighted material are permissible or not, in

  19. Characteristics of the People's Court's Order to Compensate Damages for Copyright Infringement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lumin; Zhang Xuesong

    2005-01-01

    @@ The issue of damages has long been a hard nut to crack in court hearings of cases of dispute over copyright infringement. Recently, the Beijing Higher People's Court has found out, while conducing a study of 206 copyright infringement cases (162 cases of first instance and 44 cases of second instance), the following eight characteristics of the People's Court's ruling on compensation of damages.

  20. Copyright and Creative Commons License: Can Educators Gain Benefits in the Digital Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamlert, Wariya

    2014-01-01

    In this society of digital environment, to keep pace with the technological change that causes the difficulties of information access together with royalty fees remunerated for making use of copyrighted materials, Creative Commons (CC) license is introduced. However, debates on the issues of copyright and CC license have widely arisen. This…

  1. Academe, Technology, Society, and the Market: Four Frames of Reference for Copyright and Fair Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Amy; Diaz, Veronica; Wagoner, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that varied and often understated uses of copyrighted materials exist in academic settings. Introduces four "frames" of reference: Academic, Technological, Social, and Market. Presents court cases relevant to each frame. Explores two scenarios involving use of copyrighted materials. As technology increases both access and control, the…

  2. Flexible copyright: the law and economics of introducing an open norm in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Noll, R.; van Gompel, S.; Guibault, L.; Weda, J.; Poort, J.; Akker, I.; Breemen, K.

    2012-01-01

     This study analyses the law and economics of introducing flexibility in the system of exceptions and limitations in Dutch copyright law. Such flexibility would exist in an open norm, on the basis of which the courts can decide whether certain uses of copyrighted material are permissible or not,

  3. Using copyright to promote access to public sector information: a comparative survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasserand, C.; Hugenholtz, P.B.

    2012-01-01

    This study, which is part of a three-part report on Using Copyright to Enhance Access to Information and Creative Content, examines the role that copyright plays in facilitating access to and reuse of public sector information. It briefly describes the laws, national policies and government practice

  4. Gateway or Gatekeeper: The Implications of Copyright and Digitalization on Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Leigh; McCain, Thomas A.

    1997-01-01

    Offers a conceptual framework to consider the issues surrounding copyright, education, and the digitalization of society. Traces the history of copyright through the evolution of communication media--its role in creating and distributing knowledge. Considers the dialectical relationship between communication as transmission and communication as…

  5. Open access is almost here: navigating through copyright, fair use, and the TEACH Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Margaret G

    2010-02-01

    Dealing with the complexities of copyright, fair use, the TEACH Act, and the concept of open access can confuse even the most experienced educator. Online education has added to the dilemma. This article discusses the latest information on copyright issues, current guidelines for interpreting fair use and incorporating the TEACH Act, and recent developments in open access publishing.

  6. Asking for Permission: A Survey of Copyright Workflows for Institutional Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Ann; Ramirez, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    An online survey of institutional repository (IR) managers identified copyright clearance trends in staffing and workflows. The majority of respondents followed a mediated deposit model, and reported that library personnel, instead of authors, engaged in copyright clearance activities for IRs. The most common "information gaps" pertained to the…

  7. What's Yours Is Mine: An Investigation of Current Copyright Policies of Education Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katrina A.

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the current copyright policies of 21 education journals published by academic societies, universities and university presses, and commercial publishers. For the sample I chose only journals with a copyright policy on the journal or publisher web site, and I then analyzed the content of the policies in order to answer…

  8. 37 CFR 201.9 - Recordation of agreements between copyright owners and public broadcasting entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... between copyright owners and public broadcasting entities. 201.9 Section 201.9 Patents, Trademarks, and... Recordation of agreements between copyright owners and public broadcasting entities. (a) License agreements... published pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works, and one or more public broadcasting entities, and...

  9. 75 FR 72790 - Copyright Policy, Creativity, and Innovation in the Internet Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Innovation in the Internet Economy AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S... economy has been reopened and will extend until 5 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST) on December 10, 2010... copyrighted works online and the relationship between copyright law and innovation in the Internet...

  10. Book Review: Judiciary-Friendly Forensics of Software Copyright Infringement (Vinod Polpaya Bhattathiripad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luís Próspero Sanchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bhattathiripad, Vinod Polpaya. (2014. Judiciary-Friendly Forensics of Software Copyright Infringement. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 273 pages. ISBN: 978-1466658042. Print/e-book: US $195.90. Each chapter: US$37.50. Reviewed by Pedro Luís Próspero Sanchez, University of Sao PauloJudiciary-Friendly Forensics of Software Copyright Infringement is a book by Dr. Vinod Polpaya Bhattathiripad, published by IGI-Global as part of its Research Essentials series. The book discusses the forensics of software copyright infringement and highlights theoretical, functional, and procedural matters in the investigation of copyright infringement of software products, as well as the development of forensic technologies to detect and avoid software piracy. It is of interest to software forensic experts, lawyers in the field of copyright infringement, judges, software professionals, and students.

  11. CONTU revisited: the case against copyright protection for computer programs in machine-readable form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, P

    1984-09-01

    Professor Samuelson casts a critical eye on the Final Report of the National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works (CONTU) which recommended that copyright protection be extended to machine-readable versions of computer programs. CONTU appears to have misunderstood computer technology and misinterpreted copyright tradition in two significant respects. The Commission failed to take into account the historical importance of disclosure of the contents of protected works as a fundamental goal of both the copyright and patent laws. It also erroneously opined that the utilitarian character of a work was no bar to its copyrightability when both the statute and the case law make clear that utilitarian works are not copyrightable. Since computer programs in machine-readable forms do not disclose their contents and are inherently utilitarian, copyright protection for them is inappropriate. Congress acted on CONTU's recommendation without understanding the significance of these conceptual flaws. Professor Samuelson recommends the creation of a new form of intellectual property law specifically designed for machine-readable programs.

  12. PROSPECTS FOR LEGAL REGULATION OF COPYRIGHT OBJECTS IN COMPLIANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Sopilko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our research is an analysis of ways to improve legal protection of copyright and related rights in accordance with current legislation, major threats and areas for improvement in the context of European integration. Methods: Using the methods of comparison and analysis in conjunction with formal legal determined by the nature and content of the legal protection of copyright. Application of the method of analysis, induction, analogy and formal-legal method allowed to determine the legal means of protection of copyright. The use of formal legal method, comparative analysis and synthesis grounded proposals to address the shortcomings in the current legislation. Results:. In the context of bringing national laws in line with EU legislation, the author considers it appropriate to finalize the draft Law of Ukraine "On Amendments to the Law of Ukraine" On Copyright and Related Rights "(relating to activities of collective management organizations" in order to protect the proprietary rights of copyright and related rights proprietors. А computer game should be given a definition and included in Article 2 of the Law of Ukraine "On Copyright and Related Rights". In addition, it is necessary to amend other acts governing liability for infringements of rights to this object. Until the definition of a computer game as an object of intellectual property rights is given and the above laws and the Code of Administrative Offences are amended, there is no legal basis to bring any persons to administrative responsibility. Discussion: In this article the author examines special aspects of legal protection of copyright objects in accordance with current legislation. At the same time, in the process of research the author places greater focus on shortcomings in current legislation and proposes the main directions of improvement of current legislation in accordance with international law in the context of protection of copyright objects

  13. Copyright Law Basics for the Nursing Professional: Part 1: Using the Work of Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVelle, Meghan B; LaVelle, Beth Elchek; Port, Kenneth L; Sherlock, Jacob T

    2015-01-01

    This article covers the basics of Copyright Law as applicable to the use of protected resources and the sharing of information by nurse professionals. It explores frequently cited justifications for copyright violation, including the doctrine of Fair Use and the Technology and Copyright Harmonization Act. It also discusses why those justifications may or may not apply to the nurse professional who teaches in a clinical setting or at a conference.(See CE Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPD/A2).

  14. Law of the cloud: on the supremacy of the user interface over copyright law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavera De Filippi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing technologies are commonly used for delivering content or information to users who no longer need to store this data onto their own devices. This is likely to have an important impact on the effectivity of copyright law in the context of online applications, insofar as the underlying infrastructure of the cloud is such that is allows cloud operators to control the manner in which and the extent to which users can exploit such content - regardless of whether it is protected by copyright law or it has already fallen in the public domain. This article analyses the extent to which the provisions of copyright law can potentially be bypassed by cloud computing applications whose interface is designed to regulate the access, use and reuse of online content, and how these online applications can be used to establish private regimes of regulation that often go beyond the scope of the traditional copyright regime.

  15. 77 FR 27096 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Copyright License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Copyright License AGENCY: National Aeronautics... documentation described in NASA Case No. KSC-12909 entitled ``Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks,''...

  16. Slip-sliding away - Some Reflections on Recent Developments in Copyright and their Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Nilsson

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Copyright is undoubtedly a very complicated matter. For that very reason it might be useful now and again to look beyond the jungle of treaties, directives, laws, decrees and contracts, and try to establish where we are actually heading. Then we can ask ourselves whether the direction taken is the one we would like to see. My purpose in writing this article is to demonstrate how the ‘balance’, which was always considered to be a crucial goal of copyright regulation, has been gradually undermined, to the detriment of the consumers of information and culture. I will also try to illustrate how copyright has become distanced from what was once its very foundations. If we look more closely at recent developments there are primarily two factors which merit special attention, namely 1 the widespread revision of copyright legislation and 2 The increasing regulation by contract.

  17. Copyright Law Basics for the Nursing Professional: Part 2: Protecting Your Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVelle, Meghan B; LaVelle, Beth Elchek; Port, Kenneth L; Sherlock, Jacob T

    2016-01-01

    This article is a continuation of the discussion of Copyright Law (found in JNPD 31:5) as it applies to nursing professionals. This part focuses on the definition of "work made for hire" and how nursing professional development specialists can both protect and share their own work. Many nurses assume that they own the works they create, but authorship is not necessarily the same as ownership. Misunderstanding copyrights could put one's job and hard work at risk!

  18. Characteristics of the People's Court's Order to Compensate Damages for Copyright Infringement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Lumin; Zhang; Xuesong

    2005-01-01

      The issue of damages has long been a hard nut to crack in court hearings of cases of dispute over copyright infringement. Recently, the Beijing Higher People's Court has found out, while conducing a study of 206 copyright infringement cases (162 cases of first instance and 44 cases of second instance), the following eight characteristics of the People's Court's ruling on compensation of damages.……

  19. What Constitutes Evidence for Copyright Policy? Digital Proceedings of ESRC Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Kretschmer, Martin; Towse, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The Symposium ‘What constitutes evidence for copyright policy?’ held at Bournemouth University on 8 November, 2012 was part of the ESRC Festival of Social Science. It was organised by Professors Ruth Towse and Martin Kretschmer as a cooperative initiative between the Centre for IP Policy and Management at BU and CREATe, University of Glasgow with the aim of exploring the concept of evidence as employed in copyright policy making, and challenge the concept from a social science per...

  20. Price Discrimination, Copyright Law, and Technological Innovation: Evidence From The Introduction of DVDs

    OpenAIRE

    Mortimer, Julie Holland

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the welfare effects of intellectual property protection, accounting for firms' optimal responses to legal environments and technological innovation. I examine firms' use of indirect price discrimination in response to U.S. copyright law, which effectively prevents direct price discrimination. Using data covering VHS and DVD movie distribution, I explain studios' optimal pricing strategies under U.S. copyright law, and determine optimal pricing strategies under E.U. copyrig...

  1. Copyright protection in digital museum based on digital holography and discrete wavelet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhibin Li; Fei Xia; Gang Zheng; Junyong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    @@ A new method to protect the copyright of digital museum based on digital holography is proposed. The Fresnel hologram of watermark image is embedded in the object to be protected through discrete wavelet transform (DWT). After the watermark detection, the copyright information appears in the reconstructed hologram. With the higher redundancy feature in the hologram, the proposed technique can actually survive several kinds of image processing. Experimental results prove that the presented method has good robustness in image protection.

  2. FAIR USE VS COPYRIGHT NON-COMPLIANCE AMONG THE ACADEMIC COMMUNITY IN UNIVERSITIES OF DEVELOPING NATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. SABUJ KUMAR CHAUDHURI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to assess whether the copyrighted resources in the universities arebeing used following fair use principle or not and if there is any copyright management policyin the universities to manage the access to those resources .Quantitative data regarding the useof resources in the library collected through online (using survey monkey web platform andoffline were computed through statistical software (MINITAB version 13.CopyrightResources are not used complying fair use principles in the universities of West Bengal andthere is no copyright management policy in any university of West Bengal. Considering similar economic conditions, the findings are equally applicable in other developing nations. Study was conducted among the universities of West Bengal. However result of the study is applicable to universities in all eveloping nations. This study can inform the entire academic community regarding fair use and can make university or appropriate authority feel the need to design and develop balanced and well-defined copyright management policy for the universities. There is close relation in between fair use and economic condition of that country. The unique context of fair use of copyrighted resources in the universities of West Bengal can add to the body of literature related with intellectual property rights in the universities and form the basis, for further comprehensive study.

  3. Combining digital watermarking and fingerprinting techniques to identify copyrights for color images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shang-Lin; Chen, Chun-Che; Shen, Wen-Shan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a copyright identification scheme for color images that takes advantage of the complementary nature of watermarking and fingerprinting. It utilizes an authentication logo and the extracted features of the host image to generate a fingerprint, which is then stored in a database and also embedded in the host image to produce a watermarked image. When a dispute over the copyright of a suspect image occurs, the image is first processed by watermarking. If the watermark can be retrieved from the suspect image, the copyright can then be confirmed; otherwise, the watermark then serves as the fingerprint and is processed by fingerprinting. If a match in the fingerprint database is found, then the suspect image will be considered a duplicated one. Because the proposed scheme utilizes both watermarking and fingerprinting, it is more robust than those that only adopt watermarking, and it can also obtain the preliminary result more quickly than those that only utilize fingerprinting. The experimental results show that when the watermarked image suffers slight attacks, watermarking alone is enough to identify the copyright. The results also show that when the watermarked image suffers heavy attacks that render watermarking incompetent, fingerprinting can successfully identify the copyright, hence demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  4. Combining Digital Watermarking and Fingerprinting Techniques to Identify Copyrights for Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Lin Hsieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a copyright identification scheme for color images that takes advantage of the complementary nature of watermarking and fingerprinting. It utilizes an authentication logo and the extracted features of the host image to generate a fingerprint, which is then stored in a database and also embedded in the host image to produce a watermarked image. When a dispute over the copyright of a suspect image occurs, the image is first processed by watermarking. If the watermark can be retrieved from the suspect image, the copyright can then be confirmed; otherwise, the watermark then serves as the fingerprint and is processed by fingerprinting. If a match in the fingerprint database is found, then the suspect image will be considered a duplicated one. Because the proposed scheme utilizes both watermarking and fingerprinting, it is more robust than those that only adopt watermarking, and it can also obtain the preliminary result more quickly than those that only utilize fingerprinting. The experimental results show that when the watermarked image suffers slight attacks, watermarking alone is enough to identify the copyright. The results also show that when the watermarked image suffers heavy attacks that render watermarking incompetent, fingerprinting can successfully identify the copyright, hence demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  5. A Novel Digital Image Watermarking Scheme on Copyright Protection Based on Network Manufacture Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Quan; WANG Jin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel wavelet-domain digital image watermarking scheme on copyright protection based on network manufacture environment. It codes the watermarking with error correcting coding and encrypts the watermarking with chaotic encryption. It embeds the watermarking into the coefficients which have large absolute values in the middle-frequency parts got by Discrete Wavelet Transform(DWT)repeatedly. The extraction doesn't need the original image. Experiment results show that the proposed scheme is easy to implement, and has good robustness to some attacks, such as JPEG compression, average filtering, median filtering, wiener filtering, pepper & salt noise, especially to cropping and scaling. In order to solve the problem of the copyright protection of the network manufacture production, the problems of digital image production such as tamper preventing and watermarking attacks preventing and so on are discussed. It solves the problems of manufacture information such as secure exchange and transmissions and production copyright protection and so on.

  6. User illusion: ideological construction of ‘user-generated content’ in the EC consultation on copyright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Erickson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent policy consultations by the UK Intellectual Property Office, the US Patent and Trademark Office and the European Commission (EC have highlighted the importance of user-generated content in debates to reform copyright. User-generated content (UGC – often combining existing copyright material with transformative creativity – remains a contested terrain, with no clear or widely accepted definition. This paper examines how various stakeholders in the 2014 EC consultation on copyright attempted to shape the definition of UGC in order to suit their interests, sometimes aligning or conflicting with other stakeholder groups. Data from 203 written responses by registered stakeholders (authors, platform intermediaries and users were subjected to a discourse analysis methodology. Key arguments and policy preferences from each stakeholder group are identified and discussed.

  7. Revealing Originality of Song Works: An Analysis to the Copyright Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derezka Gunti Larasati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is to describe the defining criteria of originality of song works. The aspect of originality is important to make such work be protected by Copyright Law. In this research, the criteria to define originality are based on certain doctrines and/or theories of originality that may vary case by case. The use of such doctrines and/or theories are necessary, since the stipulations regarding originality in the Indonesian Copyright Act has not been considered suffice. With regard to the song works, the criteria of originality may be different from other works. Therefore, a comprehensive research on the characteristics of song as a work is also important. This research is a qualitative research with prescriptive design. The research depicts the use of certain doctrines and/or theories as supplementary provisions to the Copyright Law in defining the originality of songs, which have specific characteristics resulted from their author’s creations and intellectuals.

  8. Copyright Highway-Photocopying as Fair Use -Williams & Wilkins Co. v. United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨翼

    2014-01-01

    Fair use doctrine is easily controversial and difficult to judge, and owning to the coming of the new age, fair use doctrine becomes more troublesome. This paper will hold the balance between the right of reproduction of library and the publisher interests by approaching a case under these four elements:the requirement for the Purpose and character of the use; The nature of the copyrighted work; The amount and substantiality of the works used in relation to the copy⁃righted work as a whole;The effect of the use upon the potential market for and value of the copyrighted work.

  9. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 15(2), 2016 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 15(2), 2016. Copyright © 2016 ... NHLS, Dr. George Mukhari Academic Hospital, South Africa. 2School of Public ... consumed by the youth of poor socio- economic .... performance in detecting the constitu- ents. The time of ..... small pupils and high blood pressure with tachycardia is ...

  10. Assessing the economic contribution of the copyright-based industries: remarks and alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Noll, R.; Poort, J.

    2011-01-01

    The World Intellectual Property Organization promotes the surveying of the economic contribution of copyright and has published a guide to this effect (WIPO, 2003). This position paper argues that the usefulness of the guide (and resulting studies) is limited. This is done by discussing the economic

  11. 36 CFR 1254.62 - Does NARA have archival materials protected by copyright?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does NARA have archival materials protected by copyright? 1254.62 Section 1254.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... MATERIALS Copying Archival Materials General Information § 1254.62 Does NARA have archival...

  12. A Robust Blind Quantum Copyright Protection Method for Colored Images Based on Owner's Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Shahrokh; Gheibi, Reza; Houshmand, Monireh; Nagata, Koji

    2017-08-01

    Watermarking is the imperceptible embedding of watermark bits into multimedia data in order to use for different applications. Among all its applications, copyright protection is the most prominent usage which conceals information about the owner in the carrier, so as to prohibit others from assertion copyright. This application requires high level of robustness. In this paper, a new blind quantum copyright protection method based on owners's signature in RGB images is proposed. The method utilizes one of the RGB channels as indicator and two remained channels are used for embedding information about the owner. In our contribution the owner's signature is considered as a text. Therefore, in order to embed in colored image as watermark, a new quantum representation of text based on ASCII character set is offered. Experimental results which are analyzed in MATLAB environment, exhibit that the presented scheme shows good performance against attacks and can be used to find out who the real owner is. Finally, the discussed quantum copyright protection method is compared with a related work that our analysis confirm that the presented scheme is more secure and applicable than the previous ones currently found in the literature.

  13. 75 FR 13764 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Rights in Data and Copyrights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... only when the very nature of the contractor's work is comprised of limited rights data or restricted... Regulation; Information Collection; Rights in Data and Copyrights AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD... extension of a previously approved information collection requirement concerning rights in data and...

  14. Effectiveness of Department of Defense Policies on Copyrighted Media: Bazaar Occurrences in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    5500.07 states, “DoD personnel shall perform their official duties lawfully and comply with the highest ethical standards.”106 Yet, Secretary Carter’s...52 Ethical Cultural Effects... businesses of Hollywood and film, music, and software production studios. As technology grows, making reproductions and sharing of this copyrighted

  15. Juggling copyright and open access in the 21st century: a South African case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muswelanto, S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the establishment of an Institutional Repository (IR) one of the first questions the organisation should ask is: ‘How could we promote Open Access (OA) and still adhere to the restrictions of copyright? The Council for Scientific and Industrial...

  16. Copyrights and Creative Commons Licensing: Pedagogical Innovation in a Higher Education Media Literacy Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitzke, Cushla; Dezuanni, Michael; Iyer, Radha

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role of copyrights in contemporary media literacies. It argues that, provided they are ethical, young people's engagement with text should occur in environments that are as free from restriction as possible. Discussion of open culture ecologies and the emergent education commons is followed by a theorisation of both…

  17. Music2Share - Copyright-Compliant Music Sharing in P2P Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalker, Ton; Epema, Dick H.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Lagendijk, R. (Inald) L.; van Steen, Martinus Richardus; van Steen, Maarten

    2004-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are generally considered to be free havens for pirated content, in particular with respect to music. We describe a solution for the problem of copyright infringement in P2P networks for music sharing. In particular, we propose a P2P protocol that integrates the functions

  18. "Fair Use" for Electronic Age: Debate over Copyright Law Heats Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoughry, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    Users and producers of copyrighted materials are working to determine "fair use" guidelines, like those established in 1976 for printed materials, music, radio, and television programs, to govern access to online documents. Debate is over the need for and feasibility of extending compensation regulations to electronic materials. (MSE)

  19. Copyright Law and Content Protection Mechanisms: Digital Rights Management for Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Barbara L.; Duff, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    The integration of new technologies using digital media materials in preservice and inservice programs to prepare educational personnel presents both opportunities and challenges for teacher educators in special education. The TEACH Act of 2002 provided some guidelines for appropriate use of copyrighted materials in face-to-face, televised, and…

  20. 76 FR 60398 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... included in the educational library of a college or university's film or media studies department and that... scope of a class of works was the proper balance to the valid concerns of both educators and copyright... prohibition on circumvention of works in the proposed class. Perhaps the proper balance can be resolved...

  1. On the Improvement of the "Copyright Law" of Korea for Library Services for Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hee-Yoon; Kim, Sin-Young

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important issues for world libraries at the present time is to extend copyright limitations and exceptions for reproduction, for library preservation and distribution services including lending and ILL/DDS, the printout and transmission of Internet information resources, copying of library materials which are rarely available…

  2. Copyright and Fair Use in the Digital Age: Q and A with Peter Lyman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Peter.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of copyright law in managing intellectual property rights in a digital age. Topics include the application of fair use to digital materials; the impact of information technology in defining intellectual property rights; and the need for change in the notion of fair use. (KRN)

  3. Ideas, Their Time Has Come: An Argument and a Proposal for Copyrighting Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, David B.

    1982-01-01

    Exclusion of ideas from copyright protection is an antiquated and indefensible notion. Traditional infringement tests do not provide adequate incentive or protection to idea creators. Innovations such as limited duration monopoly or own/sell option are reasonable. (AVAIL: Albany Law School of Union University, 80 New Scotland Ave., Albany, NY…

  4. Managing the Contents of the Indian Institute of Astrophysics Archives — Copyright Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdie, C.; Vagiswari, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss some of the challenges faced by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA) archives with reference to the use of both physical and digital contents and the attempts made to keep the balance between providing access and not infringing the copyright laws.

  5. Copyright in the Age of Photocopiers, Word Processors, and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Marjorie Hodges; Shaw, Brian B.

    2003-01-01

    Widespread digital infringement of the copyrighted material now has made security firms, night-vision goggles, and metal detectors common in movie previews. The current national controversy over peer-to-peer file sharing of music highlights the difficult questions facing colleges and universities as they grapple with dramatic technological…

  6. UNESCO Chair in Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Set Up in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The ceremony marking the establishment ofUNESCO chair in copyright and neighbouringrights was held in the Renmin University ofChina(PUC).Mr.Koichiro Matsuura,DirectorGeneral of the United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organisation(UNESCO)attended the ceremony.At which,Mr.Matsuura

  7. Copyright or copyleft? An analysis of property regimes for software development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, PB

    2005-01-01

    Two property regimes for software development may be distinguished. Within corporations, on the one hand, a Private Regime obtains which excludes all outsiders from access to a firm's software assets. It is shown how the protective instruments of secrecy and both copyright and patent have been stren

  8. Breaks, Flows, and Other In-Between Spaces: Rethinking Piracy and Copyright Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujen

    2006-01-01

    This article uses three case studies to examine the intersecting developments of technology, capitalism, and globalization through the contradictions and paradoxes of copyright governance and piracy. China is used as a case study to investigate the relations among the state, law, and global capitalism. (Contains 7 tables and 9 notes.)

  9. Breaks, Flows, and Other In-Between Spaces: Rethinking Piracy and Copyright Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujen

    2006-01-01

    This article uses three case studies to examine the intersecting developments of technology, capitalism, and globalization through the contradictions and paradoxes of copyright governance and piracy. China is used as a case study to investigate the relations among the state, law, and global capitalism. (Contains 7 tables and 9 notes.)

  10. "Droit d'Auteur,""Copyright" and Neighboring Rights at the Crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Andre

    Although the concepts of "droit d'auteur" (author's right) and copyright derive from different traditions, they are nearly synonymous in that both protect original works of the mind against reproduction or representation made without consent of the author or the author's successors in title. Implications of the electronic age for both of…

  11. Awareness and Perception of Copyright Among Teaching Faculty at Canadian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Di Valentino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the background, methodology, and results of a study undertaken in 2014 to determine university faculty awareness and perceptions of copyright as it affects their teaching. An online survey questionnaire was distributed to teaching faculty across Canada, seeking feedback about the copyright policies and training opportunities at their institutions, where they go for copyright assistance, and how they would respond to various copyright-related scenarios that may arise in the course of teaching. Most of the respondents are aware of the copyright policies or guidelines at their universities, but much fewer know whether or not their institution offers copyright training. Of those who are aware of training opportunities, only one third have taken advantage of them. When needing assistance, faculty members are most likely to go to a librarian or to the institution’s copyright policy. Responses to the four scenarios suggest that faculty members are more likely to share digital copyrighted materials (including online works with their students, whereas they are more likely to ask permission or guidance when it comes to print materials. Comments from the respondents touch upon issues of the complexity of copyright, and the often time-consuming process of obtaining permissions for the use of copyrighted materials in teaching. This study was supported by an Ontario Graduate Scholarship. Cet article décrit le contexte, la méthodologie, et les résultats d’une étude préliminaire entreprise en 2014 pour déterminer la sensibilisation et les perceptions du personnel universitaire du droit d’auteur en ce qui concerne l’enseignement et l’apprentissage. Un questionnaire d’un sondage en ligne était distribué (via les associations universitaires à l’équipe enseignante dans tout le Canada, cherchant des commentaires sur les politiques du droit d’auteur et les possibilités de formation aux institutions, où elle recherche

  12. Technological measures for controlling the use of copyrighted works of authorship in the information society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Vidoje

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Information technology has given rise to the problem of controlling the use of copyrighted works of authorship from their unauthorized use. In this context, one of the effective solutions is the application of technological protection measures, which are aimed at a more efficient application of the protection measures prescribed by the law. Technological protection measures imply the use of any technology, device or component which may be aimed at preventing or restricting an unauthorized use of a protected work of authorship, which has not been approved by the author or holder of some related right. Generally, all these measures may be classified into three basic groups: technological measures aimed at controlling access, technological measured aimed at controlling exploitation, and technological measures aimed at protecting the integrity of the work of authorship. Considering their technical characteristics and mode of application, they may be hardware-based measures, software-based measures, or a combination thereof. Modern technology has enabled the development of digital systems which entail a controlled use of copyrighted works and facilitate obtaining licences for their exploitation. They are commonly known as digital rights management (DRM. The DRM system should provide for a compromise between safeguarding the intellectual property rights of the copyright holder, the end user privacy, and system costs. The envisaged goals are achieved by employing various cryptographic measures. The process of developing technological protection measures is accompanied by concurrent attempts to circumvent the application of these measures. Thus, the effectiveness of these measures primarily depends on their legal protection, which has been recognized by a vast majority of legal systems, we now know the most modern legal system. However, the normative solutions are not uniform. The observed differences actually reflect problems in finding adequate forms

  13. The monkey selfie: copyright lessons for originality in photographs and internet jurisdiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Guadamuz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a macaque monkey used a camera belonging to British photographer David Slater in Indonesia to take a self-portrait. The selfie picture became famous worldwide after it was published in the British media. In 2014 Slater sent a removal request to Wikimedia Commons, which indicated that the picture was in the public domain because it had been taken by the monkey and animals cannot own copyright works. While most of the legal analysis so far has been centred around US law, this article takes a completely different approach. Re-assessing jurisdictional issues, I examine the case from a UK and European perspective. The monkey selfie is of importance to internet policy: it has a lot to teach us about online jurisdiction. Under current originality rules, David Slater has a good copyright claim for ownership of the picture.

  14. The Reform of the Copyright System of the European Union. Status quaestionis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio López-Tarruella Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explain the process to amend the copyright system that has been initiated by the European Union with the purpose of creating a Digital Single Market. The mechanisms that the European Commission proposes to achieve this objective are exclusive of an economic integration organization such as the European Union. They include the binomial country of origin-mutual recognition principles, the mechanisms to fight against the fragmentation of the Internal Market and the proposal to increase the harmonization in the Member States copyright legislations. Through the text, a review of the recent case law of the Court of Justice of European Union is also provided.

  15. Sabine Nuss, Private property and public goods of information in view of copyright and copyleft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo, pubblicato in inglese dalla rivista “Crítica Bibliotecológica: Revista de las Ciencias de Información Documental” nel 2010 e disponibile presso l’archivio E-Lis, affronta la questione del copyright in una prospettiva marxista. La scarsità artificiale di beni pubblici – compresi quelli dell’informazione e della conoscenza – è la condizione della mercificazione capitalista. I monopoli intellettuali si [...

  16. Investigating Copyright Terminology and Collocations in Polish, English, Japanese and German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzaskawka Paula

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the comparison of key terminology in the field of copyright in the Polish, English, Japanese and German languages. The research material consists of copyright acts binding in Poland, Great Britain, the United States of America, Japan and Germany. The terminology has been compared in order to reveal similarities and differences in the meaning. Firstly, statutory terms from the Polish, English (British and American, German and Japanese acts will be presented and discussed. Also, a list of functional equivalents (Polish, English, German and Japanese will be presented. The task was to search for functional equivalents, and if there is partial equivalence or no equivalence, an equivalent was provided according to techniques of providing equivalents for non-equivalent terms (c.f. Kłos, Matulewska, Nowak-Korcz 2007. They were made in such a way that equivalents will correspond with the reality of the laws in the above mentioned languages. The terms have been extracted with the usage of AntConc (corpus linguistics software. The method of analysis of comparable texts has been applied as well as the one based on three categories of equivalence by Šarčević (1997: “near equivalence”, “partial equivalence” and “non-equivalence”. Special attention has been paid to system-bound terminology existing in those five legal systems. To sum up, it should be borne in mind that the copyright law has been unified almost world-wide. As a result many countries have adopted similar or almost identical principles in this respect. Therefore, there is a significant convergence of meanings of analysed copyright terms with only slight differences resulting from deeply ingrained local and national legal traditions.

  17. Report on National Conference on Ethics, Copyrights, and Plagiarism in Research and Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somen Chakravorty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH, Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India partnered with Society for Social Development and Peoples Action (SDPA to organize a National Conference on Ethics, Copyrights and Plagiarism in Research & Publications at AYUSH- Sabhagar, New Delhi on 8th August 2015. The conference was aimed at raising awareness about copyright infringement, enhancing knowledge about Intellectual Property Right issues/laws etc and guiding participants to prevent plagiarism. The conference was attended by 125 delegates including Medical and library professionals, researchers and students from ten states across the country. Four scientific sessions on Intellectual property rights- changing concerns, IPR issues in Research & Publications, IPR laws and judicial institution, Internet & Challenges to IPR were held; key speakers of the sessions being Prof. Alka Chawla, Dr. Somen Chakraborty and Dr. Deepankar Mukherjee respectively. The conference concluded with a set of recommendations collated from the papers presented, speeches delivered and individual feedback from the participants. Dr. Raj K. Manchanda in his closing remarks thanked the organising team of both SDPA and CCRH. He further assured to organize events on copyright subjects every year for benefit of all.

  18. A novel lossless robust watermarking method for copyright protection of biomedical image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhigang; Deng, Xiaohong; Zeng, Feng; Liu, Huiwen; Chen, Liang

    2013-03-01

    Nanoscience and Nanotechnology promotes the development of biomedical imaging devices, more and more valuable biomedical images are transmitted through the open network, and their copyright suffers a major challenge. This paper proposes a new lossless robust watermarking method to realize biomedical image's copyright protection. For high-resolution biomedical images, the redundant theory and histogram shifting method based on image block's difference are utilized to repeatedly embed copyright watermark into different color channels. In the extracting procedure, each layer's watermark information can be extracted from watermarked image respectively, and the final watermark is judged by the voting theory. The redundant scheme and voting theory guarantees the watermark can resist against random noise's attack well. Besides, in order to reduce the watermark overhead in embedding procedure, the histogram narrowing down technique is used to tackle with those image blocks would overflows and underflows. Experimental results showed that the proposed method outperformed the existing semi-fragile reversible watermarking scheme and provided a great robustness against moderate JPEG compression and salt-pepper and Gaussian noise.

  19. Open exchange of scientific knowledge and European copyright: The case of biodiversity information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi Egloff

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development is helping the European to prepare for an integrative system for intelligent management of biodiversity knowledge. The infrastructure that is envisaged and that will be further developed within the Programme “Horizon 2020” aims to provide open and free access to taxonomic information to anyone with a requirement for biodiversity data, without the need for individual consent of other persons or institutions. Open and free access to information will foster the re-use and improve the quality of data, will accelerate research, and will promote new types of research. Progress towards the goal of free and open access to content is hampered by numerous technical, economic, sociological, legal, and other factors. The present article addresses barriers to the open exchange of biodiversity knowledge that arise from European laws, in particular European legislation on copyright and database protection rights.We present a legal point of view as to what will be needed to bring distributed information together and facilitate its re-use by data mining, integration into semantic knowledge systems, and similar techniques. We address exceptions and limitations of copyright or database protection within Europe, and we point to the importance of data use agreements. We illustrate how exceptions and limitations have been transformed into national legislations within some European states to create inconsistencies that impede access to biodiversity information.Conclusions. The legal situation within the EU is unsatisfactory because there are inconsistencies among states that hamper the deployment of an open biodiversity knowledge management system. Scientists within the EU who work with copyright protected works or with protected databases have to be aware of regulations that vary from country to country. This is a major stumbling block to international collaboration and is an

  20. Setenta anos depois: direitos autorais em Noel Rosa Seventy years later: Noel Rosa's copyrights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel do Amaral Arbix

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Um regime ótimo de direitos autorais, ao tomar fundamento no estímulo ao desenvolvimento de novos bens intelectuais, depende de limites bem traçados. Este artigo procura aferir a funcionalidade desses direitos no que diz respeito a composições musicais, de sorte a avaliar, nesse campo específico, a maleabilidade da proteção aos direitos autorais e sua adequação à criação de novas obras. Para tanto, remete-se à experiência criativa de e sobre noel rosa, expoente do samba brasileiro. A marcada assunção de riscos por autores de obras derivadas, a formalização irregular das relações jurídicas entre titulares de direitos autorais e a profissionalização de determinados autores são constatadas como respostas diretas aos incentivos legais pertinentes. A incerteza decorrente dessas respostas expõe a dessintonia entre alguns dos objetivos das normas analisadas e seus efeitos práticos.An optimal copyright regime, based on fostering the development of new intellectual works, depends on well designed limitations. This article aims to analyze such rights' functionality with respect to musical works, in order to evaluate, in this field specifically, the flexibility of copyright protection and its adequacy for the creation of new works. To perform such task, the creative process of brazilian samba expert, noel rosa, is examined. A remarkable assumption of risks by derivative works' authors, the irregular formalization of legal relations between copyright owners and the profissionalization of certain authors are seen as direct answers to the legal incentives currently in force. The uncertainty derived from such answers exposes the tension between some of the analyzed norms' objectives and their actual effects.

  1. Open exchange of scientific knowledge and European copyright: The case of biodiversity information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, Willi; Patterson, David J; Agosti, Donat; Hagedorn, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Background. The 7(th) Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development is helping the European Union to prepare for an integrative system for intelligent management of biodiversity knowledge. The infrastructure that is envisaged and that will be further developed within the Programme "Horizon 2020" aims to provide open and free access to taxonomic information to anyone with a requirement for biodiversity data, without the need for individual consent of other persons or institutions. Open and free access to information will foster the re-use and improve the quality of data, will accelerate research, and will promote new types of research. Progress towards the goal of free and open access to content is hampered by numerous technical, economic, sociological, legal, and other factors. The present article addresses barriers to the open exchange of biodiversity knowledge that arise from European laws, in particular European legislation on copyright and database protection rights. We present a legal point of view as to what will be needed to bring distributed information together and facilitate its re-use by data mining, integration into semantic knowledge systems, and similar techniques. We address exceptions and limitations of copyright or database protection within Europe, and we point to the importance of data use agreements. We illustrate how exceptions and limitations have been transformed into national legislations within some European states to create inconsistencies that impede access to biodiversity information. Conclusions. The legal situation within the EU is unsatisfactory because there are inconsistencies among states that hamper the deployment of an open biodiversity knowledge management system. Scientists within the EU who work with copyright protected works or with protected databases have to be aware of regulations that vary from country to country. This is a major stumbling block to international collaboration and is an impediment to the

  2. Daddy’s Car: Artificial Intelligence as a Creative Tool for Copyright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alberto Díaz Limón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This year on September 19th, Sony CSL, a software developer company, announced to the world, the creation of the first musical work whose ownership belongs to Artificial Intelligence. This paper analyzes the legal consequences of such a statement, and it’s conceptual and legal limits within the Copyright Universe (with fundament on International Treaties; in order to assess whether we are in presence of new legal-authorial figure that invite us to think over the subjects of protection in our laws or whether the applicable normativity may resolve these hypotheses in favor Artificial Intelligence, instead of juridical persons.

  3. A WAVELET TRANSFORM BASED WATERMARKING ALGORITHM FOR PROTECTING COPYRIGHTS OF DIGITAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an algorithm of Digital Watermarking based on Biorthogonal Wavelet Transform. Digital Watermarking is a technique to protect the copyright of the multimedia data. The position of the watermark can be detected without using the original image by utilizing the correlation between the neighbours of wave co-efficient. The strength of Digital watermark is obtained according to the edge intensities resulting in good robust and Imperceptible. Results show that the proposed watermark algorithm is invisible and has good robustness against common image processing operations.

  4. Copyright for Interactive Systems: Stratagems for Tourism and Cultural Heritage Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla-Ficarra, Francisco V.; Cipolla-Ficarra, Miguel; Ficarra, Valeria M.

    We present a series of strategies followed from the interactive design for the realization of a hypermedia system aimed at promoting in an original, simple and universal way the cultural and tourism heritage of a wide rural area in two Italian regions: Emilia Romagna and Lombardy. Besides, the main stratagems followed are disclosed to overcome the existing hurdles when it comes to copyright for the free diffusion of the tourism view of the area, such as can be photography or video, for instance. Finally, we present the first vademecum to be considered before making on-line and off-line interactive systems in Italy.

  5. An indirect watermark hiding in discrete cosine transform–singular value decomposition domain for copyright protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arup Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Digital image watermarking has emerged as a promising solution for copyright protection. In this paper, a discrete cosine transform (DCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD) based hybrid robust image watermarking method using Arnold scrambling is proposed and simulated to protect the copyright of natural images. In this proposed scheme, before embedding, watermark is scrambled with Arnold scrambling. Then, the greyscale cover image and encrypted watermark logo are decomposed into non-overlapping blocks and subsequently some selected image blocks are transformed into the DCT domain for inserting the watermark blocks permanently. For better imperceptibility and effectiveness, in this proposed algorithm, watermark image blocks are embedded into singular values of selected blocks by multiplying with a feasible scaling factor. Simulation result demonstrates that robustness is achieved by recovering satisfactory watermark data from the reconstructed cover image after applying common geometric transformation attacks (such as rotation, flip operation, cropping, scaling, shearing and deletion of lines or columns operation), common enhancement technique attacks (such as low-pass filtering, histogram equalization, sharpening, gamma correction, noise addition) and jpeg compression attacks. PMID:28680684

  6. Digital Watermarking – A Solution for Copyright Protection of Multimedia Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Kandhil

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent progress in the digital multimedia technologies has offered any facilities in the transmission, reproduction & manipulation of data. However, this advancement has also brought thechallenge such as copyright protection for content providers. Digital Watermarking is one of the proposed solutions for copyright protection of multimedia data. This technique is better than Digital Signature and other methods because it does not increase overhead. Digital Watermarking is not an older Field. There are manyresearch are going in this field. Researchers have invented technique those increase the Security, Capacity and Imperceptibility of Watermarked Images. Here, in this Thesis our main focus is on providing robustness for web applications i.e. we provide the security to images those are stored in remote server so that unauthorized customer will not receive the image from server becausethe image is watermarked by using the Algorithm described in this research work and if the customer will hack the image then he / she will get the distorted image.

  7. Academic community about copyright related with open access. Case study at Transilvania University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bârsan, M. I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The movement for open access to scientific information aims to transform education and research through the provision, free of charge, of the literature in scientific journals, to all researchers, regardless of the country they carry out their activity in or the institution they are affiliated to, while observing the natural award and quotation rules. In order to have his/her article published in a quality scientific journal, the author is almost always requested to transfer the copyrights to the respective journal's editor. The editor thus becomes the only one authorized to decide if and in what way the text is to be published after the initial issue - e.g., through its inclusion in a scientific database. The paper It considers the claims for copyright ownership in research papers by universities, academics, and publishers by drawing on the literature, a survey of academic authors from Transilvania University. There were analysed concerning the professors' opinion on the AUTHOR – UNIVERSITY – EDITOR relationship. The sample was considerate with academic staff from Law. Engineering, Literature and Economic Science Faculties.

  8. A copyright protection scheme for digital images based on shuffled singular value decomposition and visual cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, B Pushpa; Singh, Kh Manglem; Roy, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new watermarking algorithm based on the shuffled singular value decomposition and the visual cryptography for copyright protection of digital images. It generates the ownership and identification shares of the image based on visual cryptography. It decomposes the image into low and high frequency sub-bands. The low frequency sub-band is further divided into blocks of same size after shuffling it and then the singular value decomposition is applied to each randomly selected block. Shares are generated by comparing one of the elements in the first column of the left orthogonal matrix with its corresponding element in the right orthogonal matrix of the singular value decomposition of the block of the low frequency sub-band. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme clearly verifies the copyright of the digital images, and is robust to withstand several image processing attacks. Comparison with the other related visual cryptography-based algorithms reveals that the proposed method gives better performance. The proposed method is especially resilient against the rotation attack.

  9. Possibilities for retracing of copyright violations on current video game consoles by optical disk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmler, Frank; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2014-02-01

    This paper deals with the possibilities of retracing copyright violations on current video game consoles (e.g. Microsoft Xbox, Sony PlayStation, ...) by studying the corresponding optical storage media DVD and Blu-ray. The possibilities of forensic investigation of DVD and Blu-ray Discs are presented. It is shown which information can be read by using freeware and commercial software for forensic examination. A detailed analysis is given on the visualization of hidden content and the possibility to find out information about the burning hardware used for writing on the optical discs. In connection with a forensic analysis of the Windows registry of a suspects PC a detailed overview of the crime scene for forged DVD and Blu-ray Discs can be obtained. Optical discs are examined under forensic aspects and the obtained results are implemented into automatic analysis scripts for the commercial forensics program EnCase Forensic. It is shown that for the optical storage media a possibility of identification of the drive used for writing can be obtained. In particular Blu-ray Discs contain the serial number of the burner. These and other findings were incorporated into the creation of various EnCase scripts for the professional forensic investigation with EnCase Forensic. Furthermore, a detailed flowchart for a forensic investigation of copyright infringement was developed.

  10. Analysis of Copyright of Fan Stories%同人作品的著作权分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩沁远

    2016-01-01

    As the information dissemination media grows, culture emerging industries are constantly emerging;fan fiction is one of them.They are the works recreated by original part which are different from daily in the context of imitation and deductive works academic discussed.On the one hand,it enriches the spiritual and cultural life of the public to a certain extent,but on the other hand,because of the legal definition for copyright protection is not clear and lack of corresponding specification mechanism,many problems aroused when related infringement and infringe-ment dispute .In order to protect and regulate related industries,the establishment of copyright Law should take ref-erence of the western copyright domain while limit the definition of fan stories.%随着信息传播媒介的不断升级,文化新兴产业也在不断涌现,同人作品正是其中之一. 借由原作品部分设定再创作而完成的同人作品,不同于日常语境中的山寨作品,也异于学界讨论的演绎作品. 一方面,它在一定程度上丰富了社会公众的精神文化生活;另一方面,却因其处于法律定义未明确的著作权保护灰色区域,而缺少相应的规范机制,在涉及侵权与被侵权争论时面临诸多问题. 著作权法应在对同人作品定义做出限定的同时,引入西方著作权领域内已逐步成型的"合理使用制度",从而保护和规范相关产业.

  11. Reducing input data via image categorization to improve the speed of copyright content management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kanami; Watanabe, Eriko

    2015-02-01

    An optical correlator has the advantage of high data transfer speed and parallel operation. However, in copyright content management systems (CCMSs), the numerous video files that need to be downloaded from the Internet and input to the optical correlator constitute a bottleneck. This paper proposes an image categorization method for CCMSs that uses the difference in the color features between animation and live-action images to remove this bottleneck and increase the speed of CCMSs. The results of experiments conducted indicate that the proposed method achieves a live-action video true rejection rate of 86.7 % and an animation video false rejection rate of 13.3 %. This indicates that the proposed method can improve the overall speed of a CCMS more than twice the original speed.

  12. An Approach of Digital Image Copyright Protection by Using Watermarking Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Reza, Md Selim; Alam, Md Golam Robiul; Islam, Serajul

    2012-01-01

    Digital watermarking system is a paramount for safeguarding valuable resources and information. Digital watermarks are generally imperceptible to the human eye and ear. Digital watermark can be used in video, audio and digital images for a wide variety of applications such as copy prevention right management, authentication and filtering of internet content. The proposed system is able to protect copyright or owner identification of digital media, such as audio, image, video, or text. The system permutated the watermark and embed the permutated watermark into the wavelet coefficients of the original image by using a key. The key is randomly generated and used to select the locations in the wavelet domain in which to embed the permutated watermark. Finally, the system combines the concept of cryptography and digital watermarking techniques to implement a more secure digital watermarking system.

  13. An Adaptive Watermarking Technique for the copyright of digital images and Digital Image Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Perwej, Yusuf; Perwej, Asif; 10.5121/ijma.2012.4202

    2012-01-01

    The Internet as a whole does not use secure links, thus information in transit may be vulnerable to interruption as well. The important of reducing a chance of the information being detected during the transmission is being an issue in the real world now days. The Digital watermarking method provides for the quick and inexpensive distribution of digital information over the Internet. This method provides new ways of ensuring the sufficient protection of copyright holders in the intellectual property dispersion process. The property of digital watermarking images allows insertion of additional data in the image without altering the value of the image.In this paper investigate the following relevant concepts and terminology, history of watermarks and the properties of a watermarking system and applications. We are proposing edge detection using Gabor Filters. In this paper we are proposed least significant bit (LSB) substitution method to encrypt the message in the watermark image file. The benefits of the LSB ...

  14. DCT based multipurpose watermarking technique for image copyright notification and protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜守达; 陆哲明; 吴昊天

    2004-01-01

    A multipurpose image watermarking technique based on DCT is proposed to notify and protect the copyright of digital products. In order to achieve this objective, the DCT coefficients of each image block are divided into two parts for embedding the visible and invisible watermarks. The visible watermark is embedded in each DC DCT coefficient and most of the AC DCT coefficients of every block, and the invisible watermark in the rest. Based on the characteristics of Human Visual System (HVS) , the embedding strength of the visible watermark is varied in accordance with the underlying content of the host image. The invisible watermark is embedded in a quaternity of midrange frequencies. Experimental results show that the visible watermark is hard to remove and the invisible watermark is robust to common digital signal processing operations.

  15. DWT-SVD BASED SECURED IMAGE WATERMARKING FOR COPYRIGHT PROTECTION USING VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushila Kamble

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new robust watermarking technique for copyright protection based on Discrete Wavelet Transform and Singular Value Decomposition is proposed. The high frequency subband of the wavelet decomposed cover image is modified by modifying its singular values. A secret key is generated from the original watermark with the help of visual cryptography to claim the ownership of the image. The ownership of the image can be claimed by superimposing this secret key on the extracted watermark from the watermarked image. The robustness of the technique is tested by applying different attacks and the visual quality of the extracted watermark after applying these attacks is good. Also, the visual quality of the watermarked image is undistinguishable from the original image.

  16. The Copyright Modernization Act: A Guide for Post-Secondary Instructors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin Soper

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In November 2012, the educational provisions of the Copyright Modernization Act were proclaimed in force,thereby introducing a number of significant changes to the Canadian Copyright Act. These changes includethe expansion of fair dealing to include the purpose of education, the addition of new educational exceptionsfor the online transmission of lessons and the use of work freely available through the internet, and a numberof amendments that make existing educational exceptions more technologically accommodating. This paperconsiders the significance of these changes for post-secondary instructors, first contextualizing the changes inrelation to recent fair dealing jurisprudence, and then considering their significance for everyday instructionalpractice. Drawing on influential court decisions and the commentary of academics and lawyers, the paper notonly describes how the changes to the Copyright Act have expanded the rights and exceptions available toinstructors, but also identifies a number of unresolved questions about how the changes should be applied inpractice. Despite these areas of uncertainty, the paper concludes that the changes bode well for post-secondaryinstructors, as they relax many long-standing restrictions around the use of copyrighted works for educationalpurposes.En novembre 2012, les dispositions éducatives de la Loi sur la modernisation du droit d’auteur ont étéproclamées avec force. Elles apportaient un certain nombre de changements significatifs à la Loi du Canadasur le droit d’auteur. Ces changements comprennent l’élargissement de l’utilisation équitable pour y inclure lebut de l’éducation, l’addition de nouvelles exceptions éducatives pour la transmission de leçons en ligne etl’utilisation de travaux disponibles à volonté sur internet, ainsi qu’un certain nombre de modifications auxexceptions éducatives existantes qui tiennent davantage compte de la technologie. Cet article examine

  17. Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES) - U.S. Copyright TXu 1-901-039

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Lantz, Margaret W [ORNL; Hauser, Katie R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Information security continues to evolve in response to disruptive changes with a persistent focus on information-centric controls and a healthy debate about balancing endpoint and network protection, with a goal of improved enterprise/business risk management. Economic uncertainty, intensively collaborative styles of work, virtualization, increased outsourcing and ongoing compliance pressures require careful consideration and adaptation. The Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES) provides a measure (i.e., a quantitative indication) of reliability, performance, and/or safety of a system that accounts for the criticality of each requirement as a function of one or more stakeholders interests in that requirement. For a given stakeholder, CSES accounts for the variance that may exist among the stakes one attaches to meeting each requirement. The basis, objectives and capabilities for the CSES including inputs/outputs as well as the structural and mathematical underpinnings contained in this copyright.

  18. A Semi-Blind Reference Watermarking Scheme Using DWT-DCT-SVD for Copyright Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana Murty. P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a semi-blind watermarking scheme using Discrete Wavelet Transform, Discrete Cosine Transform and Singular Value Decomposition for copyright protection. We used a gray scale image as a watermark to hide in another gray scale image as a cover image. The cover image is modified (Zig-Zag and divided to number of blocks of size n x n. We find the spatial frequency of each block and kept a threshold on this spatial frequency to form a reference image. Then the reference image is transformed into wavelet domain. A DCT is applied to the HF band of DWT decomposition reference image. We hide the watermark into reference image by modifying the singular values of transformed DCT coefficients with the singular values of watermark. The proposed algorithm provides a good imperceptibility and robust for various attacks.

  19. Copyright in the digital era: a pilot on behaviours, social perception and consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aliprandi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Questo paper illustra la predisposizione di una ricerca empirica condotta in occasione di una tesi di dottorato e fornisce un resoconto sommario dei risultati ottenuti. La ricerca è dedicata al tema “Il diritto d'autore nell'era digitale: comportamenti, percezione sociale e livello di consapevolezza” ed è stata condotta attraverso una web-survey disponibile online per la compilazione tra il febbraio e il giugno 2011. Nel paper si procederà dapprima a spiegare gli obbiettivi della ricerca e a presentare il questionario su cui è basata la survey. Si citeranno i principali nodi metodologici incontrati nella predisposizione della ricerca e i metodi utilizzati per la raccolta e l'analisi dei dati. Poi si renderà conto del numero totale delle risposte utili raccolte e della loro distribuzione per variabili demografiche (area geografica, età, titolo di studio, occupazione, tipologia di utenti. Si entrerà quindi nel cuore dei risultati raccolti, concentrandoci unicamente sui dati relativi allo Studio 1 – Italia, che denota la maggior rappresentatività delle risposte. Il commento dei dati raccolti (espressi in alcuni casi con l'ausilio di grafici a barre verrà condotto sulla base dei tre macro-temi della ricerca: comportamenti (ovvero come gli utenti della rete sono soliti acquisire contenuti creativi e software; opinioni e percezione (ovvero come gli utenti della rete si rapportano al problema del copyright, quali sono le loro opinioni e percezioni rispetto ai temi più caldi in materia; livello di consapevolezza (ovvero qual è l'effettivo livello di informazione e consapevolezza dei meccanismi di funzionamento del copyright da parte dei comuni utenti della rete e non degli “addetti ai lavori”.

  20. Open Access to Scientific Works: Axiology, History and Chosen Aspects of Copyright Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Hetman-Krajewska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Problems concerning Open Access to human creative works, especially scientific works is complex. Development of research and growing number of scholarly papers as well as other materials demand systemic solutions – both in national and international perspective. The article outlines legal and practical problems concerning Open Access to scientific works – the basic phenomenon tending to ensure free development of sciences in the context of local, European and international cooperation and progress. The author describes the history of Open Access movement, starting in the 1980s with the development of free software trend and followed by Creative Commons licensing solutions. The first decade of the new millennium has brought many great strides in popularization of Open Access. Many initiatives of this kind have appeared launched by various actors. The basic legal problems of Open Access are obtaining research materials to on-line repositories and – on the other hand – liability of repository providers in the context of potential breaches of copyright.

  1. A multiple copyright identification watermarking algorithm based on code division multiple access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Fan; Li Jie; Su Yuting; Zhang Chun tian

    2008-01-01

    A multiple watermarking algorithm is presented according to the multiple accessing technique of the code division multiple access (CDMA) system. Multiple watermarks are embedded into digital images in the wavelet transform domain. Each of the watermarks is embedded and extracted independently without impacts to each other. Multiple watermarks are convolution encoded and block interleaved, and the orthogonal Gold sequences are used to spread spectrum of the copyright messages. CDMA encoded watermark messages are embedded into the wavelet sub-bands excluding the wavelet HH1 sub-bands. The embedment amplitude is decided by Watson's perceptual model of wavelet transform domain, and the embedment position in the selected wavelet sub-bands is decided randomly by a pseudo-random noise (PN) sequence. As a blind watermarking algorithm, watermarks are extracted without original image. The watermarking capacity of proposed algorithm is also discussed. When two watermarks are embedded in an image at the same time, the capacity is larger than the capacity when a single watermark is embedded, and is smaller than the sum of the capacity of two separately embedded watermarks. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm improves the detection bits error rate (BER) observably, and the multiple watermarks have a preferable robustness and invisibility.

  2. An Adaptive Watermarking Technique for the copyright of digital images and Digital Image Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Perwej

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Internet as a whole does not use secure links, thus information in transit may be vulnerable to interruption as well. The important of reducing a chance of the information being detected during the transmission is being an issue in the real world now days. The Digital watermarking method provides for the quick and inexpensive distribution of digital information over the Internet. This method provides new ways of ensuring the sufficient protection of copyright holders in the intellectual property dispersion process. The property of digital watermarking images allows insertion of additional data in the image without altering the value of the image. This message is hidden in unused visual space in the image and stays below the human visible threshold for the image. Both seek to embed information inside a cover message with little or no degradation of the cover-object. In this paper investigate the following relevant concepts and terminology, history of watermarks and the properties of a watermarking system as well as a type of watermarking and applications. We are proposing edge detection using Gabor Filters. In this paper we are proposed least significant bit (LSB substitution method to encrypt the message in the watermark image file. The benefits of the LSB are its simplicity to embed the bits of the message directly into the LSB plane of cover-image and many techniques using these methods. The LSB does not result in a human perceptible difference because the amplitude of the change is little therefore the human eye the resulting stego image will look identical to the cover image and this allows high perceptual transparency of the LSB. The spatial domain technique LSB substitution it would be able to use a pseudo-random number generatorto determine the pixels to be used for embedding based on a given key. We are using DCT transform watermark algorithms based on robustness. The watermarking robustness have been calculated by the Peak Signal to

  3. An Adaptive Watermarking Technique for the copyright of digital images and Digital Image Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Perwej

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Internet as a whole does not use secure links, thus information in transit may be vulnerable to interruption as well. The important of reducing a chance of the information being detected during the transmission is being an issue in the real world now days. The Digital watermarking method provides for the quick and inexpensive distribution of digital information over the Internet. This method provides new ways of ensuring the sufficient protection of copyright holders in the intellectual property dispersion process. The property of digital watermarking images allows insertion of additional data in the image without altering the value of the image. This message is hidden in unused visual space in the image and stays below the human visible threshold for the image. Both seek to embed information inside a cover message with little or no degradation of the cover-object. In this paper investigate the following relevant concepts and terminology, history of watermarks and the properties of a watermarking system as well as a type of watermarking and applications. We are proposing edge detection using Gabor Filters. In this paper we are proposed least significant bit (LSB substitution method to encrypt the message in the watermark image file. The benefits of the LSB are its simplicity to embed the bits of the message directly into the LSB plane of cover-image and many techniques using these methods. The LSB does not result in a human perceptible difference because the amplitude of the change is little therefore the human eye the resulting stego image will look identical to the cover image and this allows high perceptual transparency of the LSB. The spatial domain technique LSB substitution it would be able to use a pseudo-random number generator to determine the pixels to be used for embedding based on a given key. We are using DCT transform watermark algorithms based on robustness. The watermarking robustness have been calculated by the Peak Signal

  4. Public Law 94-553-Oct. 19, 1976. An Act For the General Revision of the Copyright Law, Title 17 of the United States Code, and for Other Purposes. Title 17-Copyrights. Ninety-Fourth Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The copyright law of the United States is amended in its entirety by this act that takes effect in 1978. Literary works; musical works; dramatic works; pantomimes and choreographic works; pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works; motion pictures and other audiovisual works; and sound recordings are included in the subject matter of copyright.…

  5. Organizational Placement and Perceived Legitimacy and Authority of Copyright Information Dissemination and Management in the Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albitz, Rebecca S.

    2012-01-01

    Copyright plays a central role in numerous activities within higher education, and educating a university community about copyright law should be a priority, if only to protect the institution from lawsuits. But, based upon a literature review, institutions devote a more resources to other intellectual property activities--plagiarism detection,…

  6. Copyright and Industrial Design, How a Line Should be Drawn? Works of Applied Arts, its Protection in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Felipe Álvarez Amézquita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As works of applied arts have been situated normally at the grey area between copyright and industrial property, this article discusses three different approaches about how they should be protected. It particularly focuses on the case of industrial designs which might be considered as copyrighted works. Subject to the fulfilment of copyright criterions and particularly the requisites for works of art and for the work of applied arts, the article proposes that Colombian and Andean Communitarian Law should embrace the partial accumulation system of protection for such creations.

  7. Of Otakus and Fansubs: A Critical Look at Anime Online in Light of Current Issues in Copyright Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan S. Hatcher

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The advent of digital technology and increased global connectivity has, to put it mildly, caused some ripples for the entertainment industry specifically and copyright law generally. In the aftermath, many are searching for new ways to incorporate the benefits of digital copies and the internet while minimizing the harms. To some, the anime industry and its fans offer examples of how an industry can benefit and even grow from allowing copyright infringement. This article examines the anime industry in-depth with this suggestion in mind and places the industry among current copyright policy debates, such as those suggested by Lawrence Lessig.

  8. Toward a Human Rights Method for Measuring International Copyright Law’s Compliance with International Human Rights Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Al-Sharieh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available States parties to international copyright instruments are required to give effect to their obligations under international copyright law and fulfil their international human rights obligations with respect to striking a balance between the human rights of the authors of intellectual works and human rights of the users of those same works. The High Commissioner of Human Rights has concluded that such balance ‘is one familiar to intellectual property law’. This conclusion assumes that international copyright law is already compliant with international human rights law. However, international copyright law instruments are not clear about how to reach an appropriate balance between these rights and, as a result, different stakeholders in the international copyright community seek and defend varied versions of balance which are not necessarily consistent. Concurrently, international human rights law bodies and scholars have examined the human rights of authors and users of intellectual works through a copyright law lens, missing a chance to articulate a clear human rights principle of balance. A proper human rights balance between authors’ and users’ human rights recognises the limited nature of both sets of human rights, rejects any hierarchy between them, and interprets them in conformity with the notion of the interdependence and indivisibility of human rights.

  9. Copyright Authorization Statement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Should the article be accepted and published by Meteorological and Environmental Research,the author hereby grants exclu-sively to the editorial department of Meteorological and Environmental Research the digital reproduction

  10. Copyright Authorization Statement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Should the article be accepted and published by Meteorological and Environmental Research,the author hereby grants exclu-sively to the editorial department of Meteorological and Environmental Research the digital reproduction

  11. ECONOMICS OF COPYRIGHT:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MLR

    advanced microeconomic analytical skills and a high level of legal understanding of .... future activities in using patents encompass data collection of R&D output by ... Modern development issues related to management, e-commerce, rights ... One of the most important economic insights into the intellectual property is.

  12. The Conflicts and Regulations of Micro-blogging Copyright%微博版权冲突及其治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹举

    2012-01-01

    As an emerging network application, micro-blogging is popular among netizens yet poses new questions in copyright. According to related legal regulations, micro-bloggers can claim copyright as long as their contents are original. However, since most micro-bloggers are not aware of copyright, various types of conflicts concerning the copyright arise frequently. This is harmful to the innovation of micro-blogging contents and harmonious competition among enterprises. Given the cultural characteristics of micro-blogging and real difficulties in its copyright protection, the regulations of micro-blogging copyright should be based on the strategy in which autonomy is coordinated with the law.%微博作为新兴的网络应用备受网民青睐,但在版权保护方面也提出了新的课题。根据相关法律规定,只要微博内容符合独创性标准,便可主张版权。然而,现实之中由于微博版权意识的普遍缺乏,各种类型的微博版权冲突频频发生,这并不利于微博内容的创新和企业间的和谐竞争。考虑到微博的文化特性及其版权法律保护的实际困难,微博版权治理应秉持自治与法治相协调的基本策略。

  13. Direitos autorais, informação e tecnologia: impasses e potencialidades | Copyright, information and technology - impasses and potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Silva Biscalchin

    2011-10-01

    Abstract The subject of authorship needs a multidisciplinary approach to unveil its complexity and to understand the discussions about how the digital age mobilizes new ways of dealing with intellectual property. Thus we must transpose the limits of information science and engage the key concepts of a number of other disciplines that pervade this issue. The article presents a review of the concept of authorship, underlining legal aspects of copyright and its relationship with the Internet. It also conducts a brief reflection on Information Science journals and how they address new opportunities for law-making as concerns emerging paradigm shifts caused by technology. Keywords Copyright, Authorship, Internet, Informational Capitalism, Information Science.

  14. 版权法上的公共领域研究%On public domain in copyright law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄汇

    2009-01-01

    Public domain is a core rule of copyright law, under which various creative materials are available for an author to use without charge or liability for infringement, hence ensuring the effective implementation of copyright law.Public domain is characterized by openness, public ownership, irrevocability and formality. Based on the premise that the author's work will not be interfered, public domain ultimately aims at the enlargement of its own universe and prosperity of the culture of human society. Its introduction into copyright law satisfies both historical and logical demands. Without its acknowledgement,copyright cannot be justified. In that sense, public domain and copyright can be deemed as twins. Public domain is not only an existing institution, but also an ideological tendency or a methodology. It has evaluative and inspective values towards copyright. It is an important precondition of copy-rights, and what is more, an important measure for controlling the expansion and realizing the purpose of copyright.%公共领域是版权法的核心,它是保证作者有效运用各种创作素材从而使版权的其余部分得以良好运转的工具.公共领域具有开放性、有主性、不可撤销性和程序性等特征,它以保证作者的创作为前提,却最终以自身的不断扩大和人类社会的文化繁衍为依归.公共领域在版权法上的生成既是历史的,更是逻辑的.没有公共领域的被承认,也就没有版权的正当性可言,因此公共领域和版权实际上一同诞生.公共领域不仅是一种制度存在物,它更是一种思想倾向和方法论,公共领域对版权具有评价和检视功能,它既是版权运行的重要前提,又是控制版权扩张和实现版权目的的重要手段.

  15. 78 FR 78341 - Extension of Comment Period for Public Comments on Department of Commerce Green Paper, Copyright...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ..., Creativity, and Innovation in the Digital Economy (Green Paper). The purpose of this notice is to announce an... Extension of Comment Period for Public Comments on Department of Commerce Green Paper, Copyright Policy, Creativity, and Innovation in the Digital Economy AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office,...

  16. 网络环境下的著作权保护%The Copyright Protection under the Network Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 孔令歆

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development of network technology promotes the speed of transmission and sharing of information. At the same time it brings greater challenge to the copyright protection under the network environment. Strengthening the protection of the copyright under the network environment can effectively protect the property rights and the personal right of the copyright owner and motivate the creativeness of the copyright owner as well as the network operation, which can promote the social harmony and stability.%网络技术的飞速发展,不仅深刻变革了人们的社会生活方式,同时也给网络环境下的著作权保护带来了巨大的挑战。加强对网络环境下著作权的保护,可以有效维护著作权人的财产权和人身权,充分调动著作权人的积极性促进网络的良好运行,从而推进社会的和谐稳定。

  17. International Copyright Trade: Theory and Perfecting%国际版权贸易:理论与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋茂凝

    2001-01-01

    International copyright trade came into being late in the 19th century. It was popularized rapidly after the World WarⅡ, and it became one of the main international trade forms. In the practical activities concerning international copyright trade, lawmakers should pay special attention to the following related law problems: selling the copyright short, coordinating economic rights and spiritual rights, restricting copyright to each other, having breach of contract concur with act of tort and infringement. To perfect the law system gradually, we ought to put emphasis on the reality, acting on the legislative tendency of the whole world.%国际版权贸易产生于19世纪末,在第二次世界大战后迅速普及开来,并成为一种主要的国际贸易形式。在国际版权贸易的实践活动中,卖绝版权、经济权利与精神权利的协调、对版权贸易的限制、版权的双重转让、违约行为与侵权行为的竞合等有关法律问题,应引起立法者的充分重视。我国应尊重现实,顺应国际立法趋势,逐步完善有关法律制度。

  18. 37 CFR 201.33 - Procedures for filing Notices of Intent to Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Trade Agreement Implementation Act of December 8, 1993, Public Law No. 103-182. (2) Reliance party means... in the Notice of Intent to Enforce is available online in the Copyright Office History Documents (COHD) file through the Library of Congress electronic information system LC MARVEL through the...

  19. 37 CFR 201.20 - Methods of affixation and positions of the copyright notice on various types of works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Methods of affixation and positions of the copyright notice on various types of works. (a) General. (1... constitute examples of acceptable methods of affixation and position of notice: 1 Works published in a form.... (i) Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works. The following constitute examples of acceptable...

  20. 78 FR 28770 - Scope of the Register of Copyright's Exclusive Authority Over Statements of Account Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... to the Register on April 17, 2013. \\2\\ The National Music Publishers' Association, Inc., the Songwriters Guild of America, the Nashville Songwriters Association International, the Church Music Publishers... that the CRJs enjoy such authority. May 1, 2013. Maria A. Pallante, Register of Copyrights....

  1. Perceptions of Pennsylvania School Librarians Regarding Their Role in Providing Copyright Advice to Students, Teacher, and Administrators in Their School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the perceptions of Pennsylvania school librarians about the role they play in providing copyright guidance to the students, teachers, and administrators in their school during the 2011-2012 school year. Using two electronic mailing lists for Pennsylvania school librarians, the researcher posted an email asking…

  2. Sketching the outline of a ghost: the fair balance between copyright and fundamental rights in intermediary third party liability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelopoulos, C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this article is to analyse the concept of a fair balance between conflicting fundamental rights in the context of intermediary liability for third party copyright infringement. Design/methodology/approach - European Legal Method. Findings - Fair balance is the appropriate

  3. Propiedad intelectual y conocimiento público: Derechos del investigador y del ciudadano sobre el copyright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feltrero Oreja, Roberto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual property is meant to be the key concept to drive the development of information society in the 21st century. The ethical, moral and social principles underlying both early design of Internet architecture and intellectual property laws provide a framework to claim for the publicity of information as the main requirement for cultural, technical and scientific knowledge development. However, new information technologies allow copyright owners to extend their control of both legitimate uses and misuses of copyrighted material. New models of copyright licenses are analyzed and proposed to protect fair use of cognitive work, particularly public scientific and humanistic knowledge, to the extent decided by the author himself.

    El concepto de propiedad intelectual está llamado a ser la clave que oriente el desarrollo de la sociedad de la información en el siglo XXI. Los principios éticos, morales y sociales que subyacen tanto al diseño de las arquitecturas primitivas de Internet como a las leyes vigentes sobre propiedad intelectual se fundamentan en la publicidad de la información como el requisito básico para el desarrollo de conocimientos culturales, técnicos y científicos. Sin embargo, las nuevas tecnologías de la información también proporcionan los medios para extender el control tecnológico de todos los usos, legítimos e ilegítimos, del material protegido con copyright. Se analizan nuevos modelos de copyright y se proponen las licencias libres como forma de protección activa por el propio autor de los usos legítimos de su trabajo cognitivo, especialmente si se trata de conocimiento científico o humanístico subvencionado públicamente.

  4. On the Copyright Protection and Innovation of Copyright Authorized Mode of Electronic Books%电子书版权保护与版权授权模式的创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘靖雯

    2011-01-01

    版权保护是电子书发展的瓶颈之一。本文从分析电子书的营销模式着手,探讨了其核心竞争力与内容版权的关系,阐述了授权障碍表象下电子书产业链上各主体利益失衡的本质,对创新授权策略提出建议。%Copyright protection of e-book is the bottleneck of development.From the analysis of the e-book marketing mode,this paper discusses relationship between its core competence and the content copyright,and expounds the imbalance of the subjects on the e-book

  5. Fundamentals of establishment of the European model of implementation of copyright and related rights of national scientific and educational staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyova Tetiana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available National higher education system has considerable scientific and educational potential. In higher education the educational process and scientific research are interrelated, and the scientific and teaching staff are the main participants of intellectual creative activity, that creates scientific works. Declaratively the state creates conditions for motivation (encouragement of scientists’ creativity, but universities generally do not pay compensation to the authors (performers for using the results of their intellectual activity, which indicates the absence of civilized mechanism of implementing the rights in this area. It is also an indicator of the absence of effective methods of copyright protection by the state. The study does not cover all the aspects of the target problem, because the prospect of the further study is seen in the matters, related to the emergence and implementation of copyright in higher education.

  6. On Copyright of Audiovisual Works%视听作品著作权问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董思远

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the connotation and denotation of audiovisual works, analyzes the relationship between audiovisual works and videos and then by drawing on audiovisual works copyright legislations in other countries and balancing interests between producers and authors of audiovisual works, puts forward some opinions and suggestions for the “copyright law”amendment.%本文介绍了视听作品的涵义和外延,分析了视听作品和录像制品的关系,然后通过借鉴各国有关视听作品著作权归属的立法,平衡视听作品制片人和作者之间的利益,试图为《著作权法》的修改提出一些意见和建议。

  7. Self-enforcing or self-executing? What Computational Copyright can learn from LKIF Transaction Configurations for Eurobonds

    OpenAIRE

    Conetta, Orlando; Schafer, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Uptake of Artificial Intelligence approaches in commercial practice has been low. By contrast, “Copyright by design” (DRM) and “Privacy by Design” have emerged as (commercially) successful applications of computer technology to legal issues, and are now closer to realizing the formalist ideal of a self-enforcing law than traditional approaches to legal AI and their attempt to model legal reasoning explicitly. DRM, and to a lesser extend PETs, have however also their de...

  8. The Limits of Fair Use in Military Scholarship: When, How, and From Whom to Request Permission to Use Copyrighted Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    infringement is distinct from plagiarism , both concepts arise from the concern for an author’s right to maintain control over her intellectual work...product.48 Some courts refer to copyright infringement as a form of plagiarism .49 It is certainly cause for concern that a judge advocate engaged in...note 44, para. 4-1. 47 Id. para. 4-2a. 48 Stuart P. Green, Plagiarism , Norms, and the Limits of Theft Law: Some Observations on the use of

  9. The Property Rights of the Author according to the Law on Copyright and Related Rights of the Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Vlorë Bekteshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Copyright, for a long time has not been regulated or protected at the desired level. The right on intellectual property, as a right of a particular kind and as the right of non-material property, is of particular importance for the contemporary reality. The copyright, in its content, enjoys the rights of personal and property nature. The natural rights, for a long time, have been characterized as very personal rights that relate to the creator of the work itself. This has probably been because in the early times it was impossible the multiplication of the author's work because the handwriting of the work has been a rare process and difficult. Later, with the invention of the typing machine, it was noticed that the works can be easily multiplied, as such came the need to protect the authors and their rights by providing to the authors reward in the case when their work is violated. Property rights are inseparable rights for the authors, which often serve also as stimulus for the creation of new works, but also provide reward for the effort given on the creation of the work. Law on Copyright of theRepublicofKosovois in accordance with the rules of the European Union, but the judicial practice is not in accordance with the Law. This happens because in the reality, the property rights and the moral rights are subject to violations, and as a result is violated even one of the primary and contemporary goals: the law should serve as an incentive for the authors to write and on the other side to satisfy the public with the scientific works. As such, the research objective of this paper is to present the property rights of copyright, the basics of the transfer of these rights, studied also at the comparative aspect.

  10. A generic semi-implicit coupling methodology for use in RELAP5-3D{copyright}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumiller, D.L.; Tomlinson, E.T.; Weaver, W.L.

    2000-09-01

    A generic semi-implicit coupling methodology has been developed and implemented in the RELAP5-3D{copyright} computer program. This methodology allows RELAP5-3D{copyright} to be used with other computer programs to perform integrated analyses of nuclear power reactor systems and related experimental facilities. The coupling methodology potentially allows different programs to be used to model different portions of the system. The programs are chosen based on their capability to model the phenomena that are important in the simulation in the various portions of the system being considered. The methodology was demonstrated using a test case in which the test geometry was divided into two parts each of which was solved as a RELAP5-3D{copyright} simulation. This test problem exercised all of the semi-implicit coupling features which were installed in RELAP5-3D0. The results of this verification test case show that the semi-implicit coupling methodology produces the same answer as the simulation of the test system as a single process.

  11. 试论建筑作品著作权的保护%On the Architectural Works Copyright Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马悦

    2011-01-01

    Modern architecture is not only the shelter,but also is the unique artistic condensation of the designer's idea which is known as architectural works in copyright law.The architectural works was explicitly included in the works range in the newly revised Copyright Law in 2001 in China.In this paper,based on the complex law relationships in the construction field,the author clarified the subject of the copyright of architectural works,and focused on analysis of special exercise of the personal rights and property rights in architectural works,to reach a deeper understanding and protection of the obligee.%现代建筑已经不仅仅是住所,而是凝结了设计者思想的作品,这种体现了建筑设计者独有艺术创造的作品在著作权法上被称为建筑作品,我国在2001年新修订的《著作权法》中明确将建筑作品包括在作品的范围内。文章通过建筑工程领域的复杂法律关系,理清建筑作品著作权的主体,着重分析了建筑作品著作人身权和财产权的特殊行使,已达到更深入的对权利人的理解和保护。

  12. Increasing availability, data privacy and copyrights of digital content via a pilot project of the National Library of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula Pääkkönen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, data privacy and copyrights are topics which the National Library of Finland (NLF is currently working on to increase the availability of digital content. Currently, in Finland, the digital collection of newspapers, journals and ephemera at the digi.kansalliskirjasto.fi service is available for everyone, where, e.g., newspapers are available for the years 1771-1910. The material after that period is visible in the six legal deposit libraries all over Finland. Researchers, especially, but also other customer segments are demanding better access to digital content.  We at the NLF are searching for ways to open the collections to wider audiences.  Therefore, we have established a pilot project, where we are experimenting with new modes of operation in opening digital content for education and research. In the pilot project, Aviisi, the participants are media houses, copyright organisations, universities, schools, public libraries, archives, museums and research organisations.We are creating tailored contract models to improve our responsiveness to copyright and data privacy issues. Beside the contract modes, we are also working with the technical solutions and communicating with the participants about possible ways to utilise digital content. Our objective is that, by the end of the project, we will have clarified legal, technical and availability questions, so that we will be prepared for most common scenarios and can proceed with the pilot projects, and then onwards after the overall success of all our pilot projects.Currently, we have fifteen pilot projects (hereafter, pilots running, which cover about 40,000 people in the Mikkeli region, where about 4,000 of those people are directly involved in the pilots as an estimate of students, teachers, researchers or other contact points. In this paper, we will discuss the pilots, how we have approached them to use digital content and attempted to increase the availability to the content

  13. Win-win situation of technology and copyright%技术与版权的共赢

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晋

    2016-01-01

    In the era of network copyright, today's headlines as a aggregation of information recommendation platform, what isthenatureofbehavior?Theyshouldpayattentiontotheinnovationofthetimes,butalsorespectthecopyright,cooperate with the news source to achieve cooperation, and realize value sharing, cooperation and authorization. On the one hand, they should safeguard the interests of the copyright owners, at the same time, they should also encourage technological innovation,acceleratetheflowofinformation,promoteculturalprosperity,andachievemutualbenefitofallparties.%在网络著作权时代,“今日头条”作为一款聚合类信息推荐平台,行为到底属于何种定性?是否侵犯现有法律规定?发现要注重时代技术的创新,还应该尊重著作权,应与源头新闻源取得合作共识,实现价值共享和更多的授权与合作。期待在维护好版权人利益的同时,鼓励技术创新,加快信息流动,促进文化繁荣,实现各方利益的共赢互利。

  14. Fan filmmaking and copyright in a global world: Warhammer 40,000 fan films and the case of Damnatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walliss

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a proliferation, both online and off-line, of films produced by amateurs inspired by mainstream films, TV shows, and novels. As with much other fan production, fan films exist in, at best, a legally gray area since they are produced by amateurs, rather than by the media companies that own the copyrights to the films and novels that provide both their inspiration and settings. I examine the phenomenon of fan filmmaking, focusing on films produced by fans of the Warhammer 40,000 (W40K tabletop battle game. In particular, I examine the case of Damnatus: The Enemy Within (Damnatus: Feind Im Innern, 2005, a German-made fan film set in the W40K universe, which was banned from release by the game's rights holder, the UK company Games Workshop, in 2007. Damnatus offers an interesting case study in both the ongoing struggle between rights holders and textual poachers and the tensions that can exist between different legal understandings of copyright in an increasingly globalized world.

  15. Cyclonic multiphase flow measurement system GLCC{copyright}1 for oil well capacity evaluation; Sistema de medicion de flujo multifasico mediante tecnologia ciclonica GLCC{copyright}1 para aforo de pozos petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy-Alcantar, J. M; Cervantes-Martinez, G; Cruz-Maya, J. A; Hernandez-Buenfil, M. A; Ramirez-Antonio, I [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F, (Mexico)]. E-mail: mgodoy@imp.mx

    2008-10-15

    This paper shows the development of a portable multiphase flow measurement system based in cyclonic separation technology GLCC{copyright}1. This system is aimed for oil well measurement and was developed in three phases; the first devoted to the geometric design of a cyclonic separator by means of designs sofware GLCCV7.8 and the selection of measurement instrumentation and flux control valves. In the second phase, the automatic control system was designed for the implementation of four control strategies each one related with a possible scenario of the well behavior. The third constitutes the integration of the measurement and control devices through a user interface aimed for visualization, information processing and system's operation and control. Experimental results in oil well measurements show the efficiency and workability of the integrated system. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se muestra el desarrollo de un sistema portatil para la medicion de flujo multifasico, basado en la tecnologia de separacion ciclonica GLCC{copyright}1 y su utilizacion el aforo de pozos petroleros. El desarrollo del sistema se compone de tres fases, la primera se orienta hacia el diseno geometrico de un separador tipo ciclonico por medio del simulador GLCCV 7.8, asi como el dimensionamiento y la seleccion de los instrumentos de medicion y valvulas de control de flujo. En la segunda fase, se lleva a cabo la etapa de diseno del control automatico del sistema, el cual se fundamenta en el desarrollo e implantacion de cuatro estrategias de control basadas en el comportamiento dinamico de las variables de produccion del pozo; la tercera fase, la constituye el desarrollo de una interfaz para la integracion y operacion conjunta de los componentes de medicion y control del sistema, asi como de visualizacion, procesamiento y almacenamiento de la informacion. Se muestran los resultados experimentales de una prueba de medicion realizada en campo, las mediciones obtenidas muestran la

  16. 对数字作品著作权保护的思考%Thoughts on the Protection of the Copyright of Digital Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤珊红

    2001-01-01

    The emergence of digital works has brought new problems to the existing intellectual property system.As the traditional copyright law system lags behind the rapid development of network economy,the copyright systems in many countries are being improved,so are the relevant international pacts.This paper mainly discusses the digitalization right of traditional works,the copyright and copyright ownership of digital works,the copyright processing in the development of digital works and the countermeasures for the copyright protection in the network environment.

  17. 論電視節目版式之著作權保護 Copyright Protection for TV Program Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    張瑞星 Ruey-Hsing Chang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 電視節目版式(TV program format)的國際授權產值已達千億臺幣之多,但法律對電視節目版式究竟是否給予保護並無確定見解,此亦造成電視節目版式遭抄襲的情況嚴重。本文自分析電視節目版式之內涵及國際間各相關案例之處理情形著手,認為未經授權利用他人已公開節目版式的類型,就節目版式的高價值性、創作的高經濟誘因、版式的高具體表達性而言,若將此階段的電視節目版式歸類為概念,其著作權法保護似有不周;本文亦自各國案例的推論、概念與表達二分原則及美國最高法院Feist Publications v. Rural Telephone Service Co.之法理發現:凡將節目元素(包含抽象節目概念及具體場景、音樂、圖像、劇本等)加以創作性的選擇編排而使演出的結構、順序、組織、流程及風格具備特殊性,並可使觀眾明顯識別其為同一系列電視節目;凡達到此具體程度者,可受著作權法保護,若否,則應認定為概念而不受著作權法保護。 International licensing of TV program formats is worth hundreds of billions of dollars. The lack of legal consequences for plagiarizing another’s program format naturally leads to a great tendency to engage in copyright infringement. Most international courts support that an advanced published TV program format which is definitely not a simple idea but a more concrete expression is eligible for copyright protection because of its high resource investment and strong economic incentive for creators. This article argues that if an creative compilation of “facts” can be protected, according to the US Supreme Court Case in Feist Publications v. Rural Telephone Service Co., an creative compilation of “ideas” must also be worthy of protection. Along with analyzing international cases and Idea/Expression Dichotomy, this article concludes that if creativity and specificity is

  18. 建築設計之著作權研究 Study of Copyright for Architectural Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    蘇南 Nan Su

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 建築著作相較其他著作於我國立法甚晚,相較其他著作,如電腦軟體、商品、工業產品、影音、動漫等有著繁複的階段,因為建築著作的圖面完成,即為建築著作,但其後尚有依照圖面所製之建築模型與建築物,並且過程迭有更動,更牽涉建築法規,其原創性之認定困難,問題眾多。就起始階段而言,著作權歸屬即可能有問題,創作參與者可能有執業建築師、聘僱之建築師及建築設計師等,更有可能是國外建築師設計,國內建築師作安全考核,過往有學者提出以負擔安全責任因素,故認著作權應歸屬執業建築師,如此是否合乎著作權法之精神,非無疑義。另建築物因已有民法上出租規 定,然模型與建築圖說是否無出租權之可能,此雖我國現行無相關研究,惟實務不乏特殊用途建築圖說出租情況,本文認應予探討。另建築著作體系龐大,諸如草圖、規劃圖、設計圖、結構、水電、施工說明、透視、建築模型、建築物、室內設計等圖說,究竟保護範圍若何;按建築師觀點應全然納入,惟此不無影響他人依建築規範設計而致侵權之衝突。是諸多建築著作爭議,應予比較國內外法律及實務並深入研究,以利我國就建築著作有更為細緻之立法。 Architectural works in our legislation are very late compared to other works, such as computer program, commodities, industrial products, audio, video, animation, and so have a complex phase. The final outcomes of building design are called architectural works, but then buildings are constructed in accordance with drawings and models of buildings. Because architectural works must be according to Building Codes, then the originality of architectural works is difficult to identify. On the initial stage, the copyright ownership may be a problem: architectural works may be created by the

  19. Case study of perception about the copyright of the digital libraries in Mainland China with Hong Kong and Taiwan, China as the reference system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN; Qingdong; ZHANG; Wende

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the perception of the librarians in mainland China about the copyright during the development of digital libraries with Hong Kong Special Administrative Region(HK SAR)and Taiwan,China as the reference system,through questionnaire survey of copyright cases of the digital libraries by investigating the digital library builders and librarians of 30 universities from mainland China,HK SAR and Taiwan,China ranked among the top 500 in the Academic Ranking of World Universities(SJTU Version).The report holds that:1)The copyright law shall evolve with the times and be revised from time to time;2)it is imperative to popularize and educate in the copyright law;3)the guidelines for the use of the copyright law of the education industry shall be developed as soon as possible;and 4)the Collective Management of Copyright Regulations shall be enforced as early as possible.

  20. How Large Is the "Public Domain"? A Comparative Analysis of Ringer's 1961 Copyright Renewal Study and HathiTrust CRMS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, John P.

    2017-01-01

    The 1961 Copyright Office study on renewals, authored by Barbara Ringer, has cast an outsized influence on discussions of the U.S. 1923-1963 public domain. As more concrete data emerge from initiatives such as the large-scale determination process in the Copyright Review Management System (CRMS) project, questions are raised about the reliability…

  1. Libraries and the Pickle (PCLE) of Content Management Schemes: Survey of Pending Copyright Policy Battles and Their Implications for School Libraries, Free Speech, Access to Information, and Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Mary; Wilson, Cicely Reed

    2003-01-01

    Explains the copyright policy battles now pending in Congress and the courts, with a discussion of what they mean for free speech, access to information, and democratic culture in school libraries. (MES)

  2. Copyright Law of the People's Republic of China (Revised in 2010)%中华人民共和国著作权法(2010年修订)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chapter Ⅰ General Provisions Article 1 This Law is enacted, in accordance with the Constitution for the purposes of protecting the copyright of authors in their literary,artistic and scientific works and rights related to copyright,of encouraging the creation and dissemination of works which would contribute to the construction of socialist spiritual and material civilization, and of promoting the development and flourishing of socialist culture and sciences.

  3. A Study of the Copyright P rotection of P ress Websites%新闻机构网站的版权问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟真; 庄廷江; 徐杰

    2015-01-01

    互联网和移动互联网技术带来的媒介融合和新闻聚合导致新闻业的不正当竞争加剧,新闻机构网站的版权问题日益成为新闻业成功战略转型不可或缺的一环。新闻机构网站面临着严重的版权困境:版权利益遭到肆意掠夺、版权维权的效果不佳等,这直接影响新闻业和网络产业的健康发展。新闻机构网络版权问题产生的原因主要是新闻版权相关立法的稳定性和统一性欠缺,其根源在于新闻版权理念的滞后。%The media convergence and news aggregation in journalism brought about by the Internet and mobile Internet technology naturally led to the increasing unfair competition in the journalistic circle. The news agency websites copyright issue has become an integral part of the successful strategic transformation in journalism. News agencies are faced with a grievous copyright dilemma:Se-vere copyright infringement and poor effect of copyright protection of press websites make us think over the significant meaning of copyright protection of the press and the whole country. The main reasons are the lack of copyright policies' stability and unity, and the weak base of copyright management. Its root lies in the outdated concept of copyright management.

  4. 著作权行政管理体制改革研究%The Study of Copyright Administrative System Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彦

    2016-01-01

    The copyright administrative system includes three aspects: the administration of copyright enforcement, the administration of international copyright, and the administrative protection of copyright. According to current status of the copyright administrative system and foreign experiences, this article gives the following suggestions: copyright administrative institutions should be separated from the press and publishing department, which could then be an independent department, or merged with other intellectual property administrative department; the public administration function of our copyright administration department should be refined, focusing on administrative effects; according to international conventions, we should also solve copyright disputes solely through judicial process, relieving the international pressure on the government.%著作权行政管理的内容包括对著作权法实施的管理、对涉外著作权的管理以及对著作权的行政保护三个方面。根据目前著作权行政管理的现状,参考国外的经验,提出如下建议:将著作权管理机构与新闻出版部门脱离,或者独立,或者与其他知识产权管理部门合并,强化其著作权管理的独立性;细化我国版权管理部门对著作权的公共管理职能,注重管理效果;按照国际惯例,将著作权侵权纠纷完全交由司法途径解决,减轻我国政府来自于国际社会的知识产权保护不利的压力。

  5. How the Academic Journal to Get the Digital Copyright in Its Transition%学术期刊转型如何获得数字版权

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT:The digital transition of traditional academic journals will face the problem of copyright obtaining the digital copyright. This paper analyzes the current status of the digital copyright in the transition of academic journals, and probes into the paths for obtaining the digital copyright in the transition of academic journals including the establishment of the concept of“fulfilling the authorization before conducting the transmission”, the cooperation with the copyright collective management organization, the creation of different digital copyright authorization models, and the development of journals’ professional cluster, etc.%传统学术期刊数字化转型将面临数字版权获取问题。分析了学术期刊转型中的数字版权问题现状,探讨了学术期刊转型中获得数字版权的途径,包括树立“先授权后传播”的观念、与著作权集体管理组织合作、设立不同的数字版权授权模式、发展期刊专业集群等。

  6. [Copyright and right to know].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Roger

    2010-10-01

    Imagine that one of the texts published this month in the Canadian Family Physician (CFP) you are interested and want to send to a friend. Nothing more easy, is not it? You simply make a copy or import it and send the attached document. Although this document was protected, many ways you would have easy access to be saved under another format or by printing just as it appears on the screen. You could also ask the librarian for a hospital, university or medical association to which you belong, to the steps for you. In fact, nowadays, getting a paper published in the MFC or in another medical journal is relatively easy.

  7. The Infringement Risk of Mobile Library Copyright and Preventive Strategy%移动图书馆著作权侵权风险及规避

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王代礼; 杨芹

    2015-01-01

    移动图书馆在资源建设和提供服务的过程中涉及复杂的著作权保护问题,也面临众多侵权的风险.为规避著作权侵权风险,建设移动图书馆应采取以下对策:建立著作权风险评估机制、充分利用法定许可、多途径获取合法授权、著作权声明与读者教育结合及加强著作权保护技术的应用.%The process of resources construction and services for mobile library involves complex copyright protection, also encounter a lot of infringement risk. For avoiding the risk of copyright infringement, the mobile library should take the following measures: establish the mechanism for assessing risks of copyright infringement, make full use of the legal license, obtain legal authorization in plenty of ways, combine the copyright knowledge and reader education, and strengthen the application of copyright protection technology.

  8. 科技期刊编辑应加强著作权意识%Enhance sci-tech journal editors awareness of protecting copyright

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖丽娟; 严美娟

    2011-01-01

    More issues on copyright occur in the editing of sci-tech journals but usually neglected. Taking the medical journal for instance, the rights of authorship and attribution, alteration, integrity, ownership of property and delegation of authority are discussed from the perspective of copyright laws. It is stressed that the editors' awareness of protecting copyright be enhanced.%以医学期刊为例,从著作权法角度对科技期刊作者署名权及署名单位、作品的修改权及保护作品完整权、财产权等问题进行探讨,呼吁科技期刊编辑切实提高著作权意识。

  9. Patient-reported outcomes instruments: bridging the gap between international copyright laws and common practice for developers and users--a case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfray, Caroline

    2009-12-01

    Copyright laws are intended to protect the rights of authors in their literary, scientific, and artistic works. The recent controversy about the standardized version of the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire between Elizabeth Juniper and Eirini Grammatopoulou et al. is an example of the difficulties inherent to copyright faced by developers and users of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments. This brief communication presents the basics of international copyright laws (i.e., the Berne Convention), the facts behind the controversy, and our analysis of the case based on our experience as a distributing center of PRO instruments. We conclude that better communication between developers and users would prevent most unfortunate complications and misunderstandings.

  10. Reforming Copyright in the Context of Exercise of the Human Right to Free Expression on the Internet: An Actual Problems of the Modern International Legal Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Shugurova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss major trends in the area of reforming of copyright in the light of full exercise of internationally recognized human right to expression regarding the digital environment, especially the Internet, and demonstrate the significant situation when intellectual property rights, mainly author’s exclusive rights, build a lot of troubles for the information human rights. The article also looks at the changes in the understanding the relation between copyright and the human right to freedom of expression and information on the Internet. Much attention is paid to new moments in the modern doctrine of intellectual property that is inspired by process of digitization of author’s rights. There is conducted the approach to addressing copyright as one of the digital human rights resulted from property rights and right of creators to protection of their moral and economic interests. However, authors of the article departure from postulate that copyright is the human rights to a certain degree only. Moreover, this article examines the international legal approach to seeking the balance between the human right to freedom of expression, opinion and information, on the one hand, and copyright, especially as regards the Internet, on the other hand. There has been argued that key role in elaborating and adopting the principled standards in this sphere belongs to international law, including international law of human rights. In addition, the latter, as authors have ascertained, must correspond to international law of intellectual property rights, international information law, and international competition law. The study focus on various aspects of solving the problem of adapting copyright to the digital environment.

  11. Research and Realization of IPTV Digital Copyright Management Solution%IPTV数字版权管理解决方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋华龙; 刘智广

    2011-01-01

    随着三网融合步伐的加快,网络电视(IPTV)的普及已成为必然。如何保证IPTV在制作、分发、传播和收看各个环节的安全,建立有效可行的访问控制和版权保护措施是内容创作者和版权所有者普遍关注的焦点。在详细讨论了实现IPTV数字版权管理相关技术的基础上,给出了一种IPTV数字版权管理的解决方案,基于该方案设计并实现了IPTV数字版权管理的演示系统,演示结果表明该方案能对IPTV中音视频媒体的版权进行有效保护。%With quick pace of integration of broadcast,TV network,telecommunication network and internet,Internet Protocol television(IPTV) becomes popular.The content originator and copyright owner focus on how to ensure safety of production,distribution,transmission,and watch for IPTV and establish effective and feasible access control and copyright protection measures.Based on detailed discussion of realizing relevant technologies of IPTV digital copyright management,this paper gives a resolution of IPTV digital copyright management.Based on this solution,a presentation system of IPTV digital copyright management is designed and realized.The result of presentation shows that this solution can effectively protect copyright of IPTV's audio and video media.

  12. 文化企业版权担保融资现状与出路%Current Situation and Way out of Cultural Enterprise Copyright Guaranty Financing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛彦国

    2015-01-01

    作为一种融资手段,版权担保为文化企业带来了希望。版权担保融资的特点是可设立担保的版权类型众多、邻接权可设立担保、未来作品可设立担保以及版权许可使用产生的债权可设立担保。但是,由于在理论上、法律环境上和实践上的困境,使版权担保融资的应用程度有限。在现有法律环境下,改善文化企业版权担保融资的路径主要包括结束理论上无价值的争端、完善版权担保评估制度、政府支持和参与其中以及改变文化企业单一的盈利模式。版权担保融资关系到知识产权、文化企业和银行业务的发展,也关系到国家贸易安全。%As a means of financing, guaranty financing brings the hope to cultural enterprise. The characteristics of copyright guaranty financing are as follows: there are various guaranty objects with many types of copyrights, neighboring right can guarantee, future work can guarantee, the claims from copyright licensing use can guarantee. However, by reason of theoretical, legal and practical dilemmas, the application level of copyright guaranty financing is limited. Under the current legal environment, the methods of improving cultural enterprise copyright guaranty financing are as follows: ending worthless disputes, improving copyright guaranty evaluation system, government's support and participation, changing the single profit model of culture enterprise. Copyright guaranty financing has relation to copyright, cultural enterprise and bank's business development, in addition, it has relation to national trade safety.

  13. Copyright and New Technologies. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Courts, Civil Liberties, and the Administration of Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First and Second Sessions on Copyrights and New Technologies (November 20, 1985, and August 7, 1986).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

    Conducted to investigate copyright questions that have arisen from the development of new communications technologies which were not foreseen when the copyright law was rewritten in 1976, these hearings are particularly concerned with the areas of low-power television (LPTV) and satellite communications. Following session opening remarks,…

  14. Probe into the Copyright of Mobile Phone Publishing Industry%手机出版业中的版权问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隗静秋

    2012-01-01

    The mobile phone publishing presents so many superiorities that widely different from the Internet. However, a good deal of issues concerning copyright protection still exist, such as related laws and regulations being imperfect, the main body of copyright infringement being hard to determine, the effect of collective management of copyright be limited, and the digital copyright protection technology being immature etc. Therefore, some constructive countermeasures are set forth in order to regulate and promote the development of mobile phone publishing industry in China.%手机出版业在我国正迅猛发展,它具有异于互联网的诸多优势。文章对手机出版中的版权问题进行了探讨,指出当前手机出版业存在相关法律法规不健全、侵权主体难界定、著作权集体管理作用有限、数字版权保护技术不成熟等诸多版权保护问题。文章针对这些问题提出了3点对策。

  15. Copyright: Twentieth Century Music Corp. v. Aiken--Infringement Liability of a Restaurant Owner for Reception of Radio Broadcast for the Enjoyment of His Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma Law Review, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The acts of a hotel or restaurant proprietor who receives a radio broadcast of a copyrighted musical composition and makes the broadcast available to his customers have been held to be both public and for profit. Whether the acts of the hotel or proprietor constitute a performance--for which infringement liability would exist--is doubtful. (LBH)

  16. Copyright Issues Relevant to Digital Preservation and Dissemination of Pre-1972 Commercial Sound Recordings by Libraries and Archives. CLIR Publication No. 135

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besek, June M.

    2005-01-01

    This report addresses the question of what libraries and archives are legally empowered to do to preserve and make accessible for research their holdings of pre-1972 commercial recordings, the large aural legacy that is not protected by federal copyright. The report is one of a series of studies undertaken by the National Recording Preservation…

  17. Why cherry-picking never leads to harmonisation: the case of the limitations on copyright under Directive 2001/29/EC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guibault, L.

    2010-01-01

    The article examines whether the norms laid down in the Directive in relation to the exceptions and limitations on copyright and related rights can be conducive to a sensible degree of harmonisation across the European Union. Before discussing the degree of harmonisation achieved so far by the Direc

  18. ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF COPYRIGHT-BASED INDUSTRIES AND IMPACT ON EMPLOYMENT AND PERFORMANCE INDICATORS IN KNOWLEDGE-BASED SOCIETY DEVELOPING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ZAMAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic dimension of copyright-based industries sector in Romania is becoming of higher interest, on the one hand, for policy-makers taking into consideration its increasing contribution to GDP, employment, foreign trade and investment and, on the other hand, as a multidimensional vector for social inclusion, increasing self-confidence, supporting better education in a globalised and multicultural world.The opening of the Romanian economy and society has contributed to higher employment in the creative activities. The new jobs - “high-knowledge jobs” in creative activities or in “non-creative industries” – have several features that could support higher performance. We underline the size and features of employment in the copyright-based industry sector and in core activities in Romania and some performance of labour force. On one hand, press freedom, the increase in the role of civil society, the elimination of censorship represented positive influence factors for new jobs creation in the cultural industries. In this way, the copyright-based industries have become a factor of tension reduction and increased flexibility on the labour market. On the other hand, there are big differences regarding the value of the operational profit per employee and its evolution in time among the core component industries. The analysis of the core copyright industries with respect to the size and evolution of the operational profit per employee, both in the overall sector and the component industries, led us to an interesting and useful classification of the core industries which could be helpful for better decision-making and copyright industries policies.

  19. 版权合理使用制度的法经济学分析%Law and Economics Analysis of the Copyright Fare Use System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘廷华

    2014-01-01

    由于作品具有非排他性和非竞争性特征,法律必须为版权提供保护以激励创作积极性。但版权制度本身也会产生一定的成本,可能造成作品不能得到充分利用而降低资源配置效率。基于利益平衡的考虑,必须利用版权合理使用制度对著作人的版权设置必要的限制,以纠正由于交易成本过高、正外部性和反公地悲剧等因素引起的市场失灵,确保版权合理使用带来的收益大于著作权人因此而遭受的损害。%Because of works′two characteristics: non-excludability and non -rivalry, the law must provide protection for copyright to stimulate creative enthusiasm .But copyright system itself will produce a certain cost , which may cause the works can not be fully utilized and reduce the efficiency of resource allocation .W must use the copyright fair use sys-tem to set the necessary limits considered interests balance in order to correct market failure due to high transaction costs , externalities and the Tragedy of Anti -Commons and ensure benefits from fair use of copyright other than the damage of copyright owner may suffer.

  20. 微信平台作品著作权的保护∗%On Protecting Copyright Works on WeChat Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余筱兰

    2016-01-01

    微信公众账号和微信个人账号转发的文字、图片、视频和录音等是否构成作品,需要根据“独创性”和“可复制性”来判断。微信平台转发作品侵犯著作权人的多项著作权。已发表作品电子化权属于著作权人。电子化权在我国表现为信息网络传播权。我国«信息网络传播权保护条例»对«著作权法»第33条第2款的排除,值得商榷。微信平台上作品著作权侵权行为需要通过完善立法来规制。%Whether text,images,video and audio forwarded on WeChat public accounts and WeChat person-al account can be called works,which should be judged by “originality”and “replicability”.Forwarded works on WeChat platform infringes many of the copyrights of the copyright owner.Published works'elec-tronic right belongs to the copyright owner.Electronic right is information network transmission right in our country.The Information Network Transmission Right Protection Ordinance of our country derecognizes the second paragraph of article 33 of the Copyright Act,which is open to question.Works copyright infringement on WeChat platform should be regulated through perfecting legislation.

  1. Contermeasures for the Copyright of Institutional Repository Resources%机构知识库资源版权问题的解决策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠楠

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of resources in institutional repositories makes the copyright ownership of resources complex. The first prerequisite for institutional repository to transmit resources by network and preserve resources permanently is to obtain license from copyright holders of resources, no matter who is the copyright holder of resources. Getting full support from copyright law, obtaining the license of publishers towards the preservation behavior of resources in institutional repositories, regulating the management of resources in institutional repositories strictly and restricting the users' application of resources in institutional repositories are effective contermeasures for the copyright of institutional repository resources.%机构知识库资源种类繁多,使资源的版权归属呈现出复杂性的特征。不论资源版权归属何方,机构知识库对资源合理地进行网络传播、长期保存的首要前提都是获得来自资源版权持有者的授权许可。国家著作权法律法规的大力支持、出版商对机构知识库资源存储行为的许可、机构知识库自身资源管理行为的严格规范、机构知识库用户资源使用行为的约束限制,均是解决机构知识库资源版权问题的有效对策。

  2. Author's rights in the digital age: how Internet and peer-to-peer file sharing technology shape the perception of copyrights and copywrongs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijana Micunovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Author's rights and copyright law have gone through quite a few changes in the 'post-print' culture of binary systems, digital formations and techno-practices. Technological development supports new concept of author's rights by promoting free internet and digital market, as well as new contemporary experience of culture that is being rooted in digital technology, mass communication and the world of multimedia and virtuality. Though computer and digital technology have served both authors and users in various ways, they have also served as a very fertile ground for sharing copyrighted content thus leading to numerous copyright infringements and conflicts with the copyright law. The aim of this paper is to identify and analyze the ways in which computer and digital technology have given rise to new trends in the production (e.g. remix culture and consumption (e.g. peer-to-peer file sharing technology of culture, but also to determine how new forms of distribution, use and sharing of digital content changed and shaped the perception of authorship in the 21st century. In order to analyze the dynamic, nature and structure by which new digital and networking technologies are affecting the concept of authorship and author's rights and to test the consistency of previously established hypotheses, we conducted a survey amongst general public. Altogether 535 questionnaires were completed. Data was analyzed using SPSS tool and quantitative method of analysis. In the analysis special attention was given to both, the concept of authorship in the digital environment and the concept of peer-to-peer file sharing technology as not so new, but still very popular networked architecture for distributing, using and sharing digital content. Results have shown that most of the respondents use peer-to-peer file sharing technology to access, consume and/or share different cultural content (e.g. movies, music, books, etc. while violating the rights of copyright holders

  3. Related Issues about Legal Protection of Micro-Blog Copyright%微博著作权法律保护相关问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡卫萍

    2014-01-01

    Although the length of micro-blog content is short and words are limited,the copyright problem of micro-blog still exists.Legal recognition and infringement responsibility that be investigated of micro-blog copyright will be the main content of legal protection.While there are some questions need to think about:how to confirm micro-blog copyright?How to define the standards on micro-blog copyright infringement,improve evidence mechanism and confirm the compensation standard according to the type of infringement?At the same time,the protection of micro-blog copyright not only needs the law protect, but also depends on the moral level and self-discipline of the Internet user.Only combining a sound legal system with a noble online moral,we can realize the real legal protection of micro-blog copyright.%微博内容虽短小精炼,却并不因此否定其著作权的存在。微博著作权的法律确认和对微博著作权侵权责任之追究,成为微博经济发展需求下的微博著作权保护的主要内容。而如何确认微博著作权,如何依据微博著作权的侵权类型明确微博著作权侵权标准、完善微博著作权侵权证据制度、确定微博著作权侵权损害赔偿标准,则是需要大家审慎思考的问题。同时,微博著作权法律保护,单靠侵权防范的法律规制是不够的,还得依赖于网络用户的道德水准与自律水平。只有完善的法律制度与高尚的网络道德相结合,才能最终实现微博著作权的法律保护。

  4. The Copyright of Human Figures Photography and Its Restraint%论人像摄影的著作权及其限制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马蒂; 朱江

    2015-01-01

    权利的相互交叉性是民事权利种类多样化的自然结果,在权利异其主体的情况下极易引发权利冲突。鉴于摄影不同于其他作品的特性,并非所有摄影都当然成为著作权法意义上的作品,应根据摄影作品所包含的创作性成分、是否具有创作的意思等因素来判定一个人像摄影是否受著作权保护。对于受著作权保护的委托人像摄影作品而言,其可能同时并存着作者著作权、作品载体所有权和被摄者肖像权三种合法权利。由于委托摄影作品的著作权主体常常与相片所有权主体相分离,在著作权人不掌握著作权物质化载体的情况下,受托人著作权的行使在很大程度上要受制于委托人所有权和肖像权,著作权具体权利的实现成为事实不能。因此与其徒留理论意义的受托人著作权,不如修改委托作品著作权归属原则,将著作权赋予委托人,以实现委托人像摄影作品权利主体的统一,充分实现委托作品的可利用性。%The intersectionality of right is the natural result of the civil rights diversity. In case the body of right is changed, it is easy to cause the right conflict. Given the nature of the photography is different from other works, not all the photo works certainly own the copyright. To judge if a photo should be protected with the copyright should be based on its creativity composition and meaning. As for the commissioned portrait photography works, it may contain at the same time the author’s copyright ownership, work carrier ownership and portrait rights of the photographed. As the subject of copyright of the commissioned photography is often separated with the photo ownership subject, the realization of copyright becomes actually impossible. Therefore, instead of leaving theoretical significance of copyright, it is better to modify the attribution principle of copyright ownership of the commissioned works, the

  5. Open by default: a proposed copyright license and waiver agreement for open access research and data in peer-reviewed journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrynaszkiewicz Iain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Copyright and licensing of scientific data, internationally, are complex and present legal barriers to data sharing, integration and reuse, and therefore restrict the most efficient transfer and discovery of scientific knowledge. Much data are included within scientific journal articles, their published tables, additional files (supplementary material and reference lists. However, these data are usually published under licenses which are not appropriate for data. Creative Commons CC0 is an appropriate and increasingly accepted method for dedicating data to the public domain, to enable data reuse with the minimum of restrictions. BioMed Central is committed to working towards implementation of open data-compliant licensing in its publications. Here we detail a protocol for implementing a combined Creative Commons Attribution license (for copyrightable material and Creative Commons CC0 waiver (for data agreement for content published in peer-reviewed open access journals. We explain the differences between legal requirements for attribution in copyright, and cultural requirements in scholarship for giving individuals credit for their work through citation. We argue that publishing data in scientific journals under CC0 will have numerous benefits for individuals and society, and yet will have minimal implications for authors and minimal impact on current publishing and research workflows. We provide practical examples and definitions of data types, such as XML and tabular data, and specific secondary use cases for published data, including text mining, reproducible research, and open bibliography. We believe this proposed change to the current copyright and licensing structure in science publishing will help clarify what users – people and machines – of the published literature can do, legally, with journal articles and make research using the published literature more efficient. We further believe this model could be adopted across

  6. Open by default: a proposed copyright license and waiver agreement for open access research and data in peer-reviewed journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynaszkiewicz, Iain; Cockerill, Matthew J

    2012-09-07

    Copyright and licensing of scientific data, internationally, are complex and present legal barriers to data sharing, integration and reuse, and therefore restrict the most efficient transfer and discovery of scientific knowledge. Much data are included within scientific journal articles, their published tables, additional files (supplementary material) and reference lists. However, these data are usually published under licenses which are not appropriate for data. Creative Commons CC0 is an appropriate and increasingly accepted method for dedicating data to the public domain, to enable data reuse with the minimum of restrictions. BioMed Central is committed to working towards implementation of open data-compliant licensing in its publications. Here we detail a protocol for implementing a combined Creative Commons Attribution license (for copyrightable material) and Creative Commons CC0 waiver (for data) agreement for content published in peer-reviewed open access journals. We explain the differences between legal requirements for attribution in copyright, and cultural requirements in scholarship for giving individuals credit for their work through citation. We argue that publishing data in scientific journals under CC0 will have numerous benefits for individuals and society, and yet will have minimal implications for authors and minimal impact on current publishing and research workflows. We provide practical examples and definitions of data types, such as XML and tabular data, and specific secondary use cases for published data, including text mining, reproducible research, and open bibliography. We believe this proposed change to the current copyright and licensing structure in science publishing will help clarify what users - people and machines - of the published literature can do, legally, with journal articles and make research using the published literature more efficient. We further believe this model could be adopted across multiple publishers, and invite

  7. Open by default: a proposed copyright license and waiver agreement for open access research and data in peer-reviewed journals

    OpenAIRE

    Hrynaszkiewicz Iain; Cockerill Matthew J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Copyright and licensing of scientific data, internationally, are complex and present legal barriers to data sharing, integration and reuse, and therefore restrict the most efficient transfer and discovery of scientific knowledge. Much data are included within scientific journal articles, their published tables, additional files (supplementary material) and reference lists. However, these data are usually published under licenses which are not appropriate for data. Creative Commons CC...

  8. Ownership of Copyright in Works Created in Employment Relationships: Comparative Study of the Laws of Colombia, Germany and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Herrera Diaz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Great quantities of copyrighted works around the world are produced in the context of labor law Relationships. The ownership of these works has been regulated in different ways by the national laws of each country, and the only attempt of legal harmonization has been found in the European Community regarding computer programs created in the course of employment. The sovereignty and territoriality principles by with each country can enact its own laws in its territory to rule on the ownership question has been applied by countries. As an example, Germany and United States have regulated the subject in their respective national copyright laws. Nonetheless, there are similarities and differences in the ways that these two countries regulate the ownership of economic rights. In other countries, such as Colombia, lawmaker have established a legal rule regarding the ownership of moral rights in copyrighted works, but does not define a clear rule on the important issue of the economic rights in such works. This ambiguity has caused legal uncertainty, raising the question as to whether these types of rights belong to employees, private contractors, freelancers or employers. Taking into account the current issues that can arise in works created in employment relationships, this paper will make a comparative study of the laws of Colombia, Germany and the United States of America.

  9. Ownership of copyright in works created in employment relationships: comparative study of the laws of Colombia, Germany and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Herrera Diaz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Great quantities of copyrighted works around the world are produced in the context of labor law Relationships. The ownership of these works has been regulated in different ways by the national laws of each country, and the only attempt of legal harmonization has been found in the European Community regarding computer programs created in the course of employment. The sovereignty and territoriality principles by with each country can enact its own laws in its territory to rule on the ownership question has been applied by countries. As an example, Germany and United States have regulated the subject in their respective national copyright laws. Nonetheless, there are similarities and differences in the ways that these two countries regulate the ownership of economic rights. In other countries, such as Colombia, lawmaker have established a legal rule regarding the ownership of moral rights in copyrighted works, but does not define a clear rule on the important issue of the economic rights in such works. This ambiguity has caused legal uncertainty, raising the question as to whether these types of rights belong to employees, private contractors, freelancers or employers. Taking into account the current issues that can arise in works created in employment relationships, this paper will make a comparative study of the laws of Colombia, Germany and the United States of America.

  10. The Standard for the Approval of Promethean Works in Copyright Law%版权法上作品独创性的认定标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡晓东

    2011-01-01

    要获得版权保护,作品必须具有独创性,在版权法上简单地说,独创性不是复制原作,而是具备最低限度的创造性。即使是相当简单的作品只要其表达展示了必要的独创性就可获得保护。论述了作品获得版权保护条件之一独创性的标准,并结合美国司法判例分析了几种特殊作品具备独创性认定的条件。%To be eligible for copyright protection,a work must be "original".Simply stating,the original means it is not copied,and exhibits a minimal amount of creativity.Nevertheless,relatively simple works are entitled to copyright protection as long as the necessary quantum of originality is present.This paper will review the level of creativity required for copyright protection,and examine cases that applied the requisite creativity threshold to different combinations of public domain shapes and text.

  11. 未发表学术成果著作权侵权案例研究%Research on Copyright Infringement Casesof Unpublished Academic Achievement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮云志

    2013-01-01

    Based on copyright infringement case study of the unpublished academic achievements , this paper first discusses the research necessity of unpublished academic achievements copyright infringement .Secondly , the paper elaborates the ways and means by which the others know and then plagiarizes the unpublished academic achievements , namely, academic cooperation and academic exchange , academic guidance and academic review as well as posthumous academic achievements preservation , and thereby provides a train of thought for unpublished academic achievements copyright protection .%基于未发表学术成果著作权侵权案例研究,论述未发表学术成果著作权侵权研究的必要性,分类阐述他人知晓进而抄袭或剽窃未发表学术成果的途径和方式,即学术合作与学术交流、学术指导与学术评审以及遗著保管等,从而为未发表学术成果著作权保护提供某种思路。

  12. 用戶著作權侵權之網路服務業者責任 Internet Service Provider Liability for Subscriber Copyright Infrigement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    蔡蕙芳 Hui-Fang Tsai

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available 網路服務業者的責任可說是網路上最具爭議的問題。本文的目的在於從一般性原則上討論用戶涉及著作權侵權時,網路服務業者是否可能成立民事侵權與刑事犯罪責任。個案的深入討論並不在本文範圍內。本文首先介紹美國侵權法上網路服務業者責任,內容包括法院判決、學說見解與國會立法。其次,本文將從刑法理論來分析用戶成立直接正犯之同時,網路服務業者可能構成共同正犯、正犯後正犯或共犯。此外,也將分別檢討正犯與共犯之成立要件。最後,本文將檢討我國法上相關法律如何適用以解決網路服務 業者責任,並提出增訂網路服務業者責任規定之建議。 The liability of internet service provider (ISP is perhaps the most controversial legal issue to emerge from cyberspace. The purpose of this paper is to explore the general principles as to whether there should be civil and criminal liability for ISP concerning subscriber copyright infringement. An in-depth treatment of case study is beyond the scope of this paper. The first section provides an overview of the doctrine of ISP copyright infringement liability in America, followed by the introduction of judicial decisions, opinions of scholars and new legislation. Focusing on criminal liability that could be imposed upon ISP for copyright infringement initiated by subscribers, the second section seeks to illustrate the observation that the individuals who post copyright infringement materials act as principals in the first degree, and ISP would qualify as an accomplice, principal in the second degree, or accessory to the crimes. Furthermore, this section discusses in turn the qualifications for the perpetrators and accomplices. Finally, the third section reviews the current Taiwan tort and criminal law and its application to ISP and concludes that the Taiwan copyright law should make specific provision for

  13. La revista Medicina y Seguridad en el Trabajo y el respeto al derecho de autoría Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo journal and protecting copyright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Veiga de Cabo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El autor recuerda los principios básicos internacionales que amparan los derechos de autor aprobados por el Convenio de Berna para la Protección de las Obras Literarias y Artística, la Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos y el Derecho de la Unión Europea del Tratado de Maastricht. Se analizan las circunstancias generales que amparan la autoría, y en particular en el marco de la biomedicina y de las ciencias de la Salud, así como las principales características del mercado editorial y los cambios que se han producido en los últimos años. Se describen los principales factores asociados a la aparición de la iniciativa Open Access y su compromiso con la preservación del Copyright y los derechos de autor. Se presenta la licencia Creative Commons como alternativa eficaz en la gestión de los derechos de autoría. Por último, se declara la adhesión oficial de la revista Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo a la licencia Creative Commons bajo modalidad Reconocimiento -NoComercial - SinObraDerivada (by-nc-nd.The author reviews the international basic principles of Copyrights approved by the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Treaty of Maastricht on the European Union Right. General circumstances to protect Copyrights are analyzed; in particular in Biomedicine and Health Sciences fields, as well as some other specific characteristics related with the publishing market and the main changes suffered in those fields throughout the years. This document describes the relevant factors associated with the emergence of the Open Access initiative and its commitment protecting Copyright. Creative Commons is presented as an effective alternative to preserve Copyrights. Finally, the Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo journal officially declares its adhesion to Creative Commons under the Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (by-nc-nd license.

  14. 开放存取:未来版权保护的可选模式%Open Access: An Optional Mode of Copyright Protection for Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚鹤徽

    2011-01-01

    开放存取是20世纪末国际科学界、学术界、图书馆界为了推动科研成果的交流和共享、利用新兴的互联网络进行广泛学术传播和交流的运动,它表明现有的版权制度无法有效调节版权人与社会公众之间的利益关系。从本质上看,开放存取是利用传统版权法所建立起的一个与旧有体制相对立的版权保护模式。在未来信息时代,开放存取极有可能发展成为和传统版权保护模式并行的版权保护模式,从而与传统版权保护模式密切配合,共同构成未来网络环境下的版权保护模式。%Open Access is a movement held by international scientific community,academia and the library staff in the end of the 20th century,aiming at promoting the exchange and share of research results,taking the advantage of emerging Internet to disseminate and exchange academic works,which reflects that the existing intellectual property system can not effectively regulate the interest relations between the intellectual property holder and the public.In essence,it is the use of a traditional copyright protection system to establish a copyright protection system which is opposing the traditional protection system.In the future of information era,open access is likely to develop into another copyright protection model,which will go hand in hand with traditional copyright protection model and constitute the future copyright protection model in the environment of network technology.

  15. 盗版、反盗版激励与版权市场演化%Piracy, Anti-piracy Incentives and Evolution of Copyright Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宏波; 张铭洪; 王斌

    2012-01-01

    As we know, genuine and piracy products have large price disparity and small quality difference, so conducive to technological progress and long-term development of genuine industry. But the academic research of the attitude taken on the piracy has yet to reach an agreement. Innovation is the collective product of the development of human civilization, intellectual property simply to define the private right of the innovator is not conducive to the spread of advanced knowledge, integration and further innovation. The piracy is the effective way of technology diffusion and the global share of human civilization. So what conditions are of the piracy to exist, enter and quit the market? What kind of impact do the piracy and anti-piracy have exactly on firms, consumers, the government, and overall social welfare? On this basis, should the government and copyright providers cope with piracy heavily? In short, there are not only plenty of studies on the piracy based on consumer choice or multi-main game competition, but also the analysis on the impact of piracy and anti-piracy on market parties and its change. It is easy to see that in the market composed by the copyright provider, piracy, consumer and government, the previous studies analyze the demands, prices and profits for the genuine and piracy as a clue to answer above contentious issue. However, due to different perspective and path, there is lack of comprehensive study on the copyright market competition and the game process, and the previous studies did not answer the issues whether market equilibrium exist and how to find optimal genuine price. Therefore, we can not fully explain the decision-making mechanism, supply and demand mechanism, pricing mechanism in copyright market. Based on previous studies, we introduce differentiated consumer utility function and set a multi-player game model which includes copyright provider, pirate, government and consumer. By random test, we numerically simulate welfare

  16. The"Consensus on the Use of Copyrighted Works" and Its Bearing upon the Participatory Culture' s Copyright Environment%"版权作品使用共识"与参与式文化的版权政策环境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤杰

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental conflict between digital participatory culture represented by "user generated content" and the modern copyright regime has been widely acknowledged.However, a comprehensive analysis of the following three aspects, namely, recent legislative initiatives and legal cases in the North American juris-prudence regarding the use of copyrighted works, new marketing strategies and profit-making modes achieved by moderately relaxing copyright protection in the copyright industry, and the quasi-copyright norms spontaneously established by participatory culture practitioners, reveals that there exists a principled consensus of the use of copyrighted work.It provides a new perspective and dimension in creating a congenial copyright environment for the orderly blossoming of participatory culture.%以"用户创造内容"为代表的参与式文化形态与现代版权保护体系之间产生了冲突,但通过对近年来北美立法及司法机构关于使用版权作品的法律规定及判例、版权产业适度放松版权保护而成就的新型营销乃至盈利模式以及参与式文化创作者群体自发形成的准版权规范进行梳理,发现这三者之间存在着一种原则性的"版权作品使用共识". 这为我们考察如何为参与式文化的有序繁荣构建适宜的版权政策环境提供了新的视角与维度.

  17. 3D打印技术对著作权制度的冲击与回应%Challenges and Resolutions for Copyright Institution of 3D Printing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫

    2015-01-01

    The 3D printing bring a lot of significant challenges to Copyright Institution,such as lay Copyright Law great stress on the task that should clear and definite the boundary of "Copy" as quickly as possible,sway some provisions of limitations on Rights under the "Fair Use" regulation,and query the rationality that mitigate or annul a punishment due to the "Technological Neutrality" principle. Based on the Comparative Studies of Regulations on the Protection of Layout-designs of Integrated Circuits, the thesis advises that it is necessary for Copyright Institution to enlarge the content of "Copy",revise the provisions of "Fair Use" and make innovations on technology management process to answer these challenges.%3D打印技术的出现对著作权制度产生了巨大冲击,它不仅加剧了明确作品“复制”行为范围的迫切性,动摇了“合理使用”限制中部分规定的必要性,还使得对于“技术中立”原则引致侵权责任减免的合理性受到质疑。为回应相关技术发展带来的挑战,结合《集成电路布图设计保护条例》保护模式对比探讨,认为有必要适时拓宽“复制”行为范围,进一步规范“合理使用”的行使,创新技术管理模式以完善著作权制度。

  18. A Brief Analysis of Copyright Infringement and Its Counter Measures%浅析版权侵权及其防范举措

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宏亮; 罗涛涛

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of copyright industry, copyright infringement, becoming a severe question, has caused irreversible consequences. From the perspective of copyright infringement, this thesis analyses its manifestations and consequences, including the anudience, the obligee and the culture innovation. Meanwhile, this thesis also discusses legal liablities of the infringing entity from three aspects: civil liability, administrative liability and criminal liability. In the end of the thesis, we offer some suggestions and counterplans from the perspectives of the construction of legal system, the function of units, the cycle mechanism and macro-control.%随着版权产业在我国的高速发展,版权侵权日渐突显出其问题,对我国文化产业衍生出了不可逆转的严重后果。本文以版权侵权为视角,分析了版权侵权的表现形式和所产生的影响,其主要波及到受众、权利人和文化创新及产业方面。同时在此基础上本文探讨了版权侵权单位所要承担的法律责任,主要从民事责任、行政责任和刑事责任三方面展开。最后从法律制度建设、单位作用、循环机制及行政调控等方面提出侵权问题防范的对策和建议。

  19. Analysis on Copyright and Legal Features of Open-Source Software%开源软件著作权及其法律特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹甜; 钱力; 田春来

    2015-01-01

    为了完善开源软件知识产权保护办法,本文通过分析著作权法及相应法律法规的适用性,归纳了开源软件的著作权法律特征,并结合开源软件发展历史和基本概念,说明了开源软件协议合同约定特点及权属调整。尽管开源软件的代码完全开放,使用者可以无限制复制使用,但是其著作权仍受到法律约束。开源软件权利人以许可证协议方式自主调整了部分权利,使开源软件知识产权具有协议约束继承性、代码完全开放性和担保责任免除性等特征。%In order to improve the protection of intellectual property rights for open-source software, through analysis of the applicability of copyright law and relevant regulations, the paper summarizes the characteristics of copyright law. According to the history of open source software and its basic concepts, the paper explains the char-acteristics of its license and the adjustment of ownership. Although the code is open to users who can copy and use without restriction, but the copyright is still restricted by law. The right holder has adjusted some rights by means of the license, which makes the intellectual property rights have the characteristics of the inheritance of the license, the completely open of the code and the guarantee liability exemption.

  20. 一种基于文本特征提取的版权保护方法%New Copyright Protection Method Based on Text Feature Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷军程; 黄同成; 柳小文

    2012-01-01

    On the Internet, the illegal copying and piracy of text are becoming increasingly serious,so there is an urgent need for effective text copyright protection method. This paper proposed a new text copyright protection method based on text feature extraction and text classification techniques. The experiments show that the proposed algorithm can distinguish the different authors and can effectively classify a controversial literary works, and identify the real author. Therefore the method can assist to resolve the copyright disputes of dispute works (especially the famous works) to maintain integrity.%互联网上,文本非法复制和盗版现象日益严重,因此迫切需要有效的文本版权保护方案.借助于特征提取方法和文本分类技术,针对具有版权争议的文字作品,提出了一种基于文本特征提取的作者识别方法.实验结果表明,提出的算法能够区别出不同作者的文字作品,能有效地把一个具有争议的文字作品进行分类,并识别出作者.因此该方法可以辅助解决争议作品(特别是著名作者的争议作品)的版权纠纷,打击盗版,维护诚信.

  1. ‘Show me the money!’ An insight into the Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA and its interaction with Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinusha Mendis

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper will be to provide a case study of the Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA and its inter-action with Higher Education Institutions (HEIs. The paper will begin by introducing and expanding on the concept of higher education institutions and how they have had to adapt to copyright reproduction, especially from the mid twentieth century, with the advent of the photocopy machine. The paper will touch upon the copyright laws that have attempted to regulate copying within HEIs in the UK and consider whether it has been a success or not. The paper will then carry out a study in to CLA and will aim to raise and answer the following question: what really happens to the money that is collected from HEIs by the CLA and distributed through the Authors Licensing and Collecting Society (ALCS and Publishers Licensing Society (PLS? Is the license fee collected from HEIs fairly distributed amongst the right holders? Having looked at both HEIs and collecting societies (CLA specifically, the paper will consider whether collecting societies are the best practical solution we have or whether we are putting up with a system that we have come to know? The UUK v CLA case revealed the dangerous side of collecting societies, especially that of CLA and questioned its motives and aims. In offering a solution, the system in USA will be considered where the US law allows for two or more competing collecting societies in one area. Does competition combat an abuse of a dominant position, which is what we have in the UK and is this the way forward for the UK? Or does competition curtail creativity? Whilst some of these questions have been answered by the author, others have been left open for consideration.

  2. El análisis económico del derecho de autor y del copyright, un estudio del equilibrio entre los intereses público y privado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Pérez Gómez Tétrel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available La propiedad intelectual ha sido concebida para responder, tanto a la necesidad de protección del autor de una obra del intelecto, como al beneficio que la sociedad pueda sacar del acceso a dichas creaciones intelectuales, generando así un equilibrio entre los diferentes actores. Los sistemas digitales de comunicación han puesto en jaque dicho equilibrio. Conviene preguntarse ¿es capaz la protección otorgada por el derecho a la creación intelectual, de establecer un equilibrio en las relaciones entre creador (autor y la sociedad (consumidor? ¿En qué medida el análisis económico comparado del derecho de autor y del copyright puede contribuir al modelo económico de este equilibrio? ¿Hasta qué punto, el rol desempeñado por las industrias de la comunicación está rompiendo este equilibrio? El objetivo de este artículo es analizar diversos aspectos del derecho de autor y del copyright, a la luz del análisis económico del derecho.

  3. A Discussion of the Translation of Compulsory License in Copyright Law%著作权法中compulsory license的中译名辨析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曼

    2014-01-01

    Chinese scholars usually translate compulsory license into “强制许可” instead of “法定许可” during their research on copyright law documents.Nevertheless,this paper holds that this method is not correct by considering academic papers,judicial cases and legal practice in foreign countries,in which com⁃pulsory license and statutory license both can be understood as“法定许可”.In addition,compulsory license shall be translated differently both in patent law and copyright law due to different environment.%国内学界在研究著作权法外文文献时,往往将compulsory license翻译为强制许可而非法定许可。然而,对国外学术论文、司法判例和立法实践的考察发现,上述翻译实为不妥,即在著作权法中compulsory license和statutory license通常都被用来表达法定许可这一概念。由于语境不同,compulsory license在著作权法和专利法中应作不同翻译。

  4. El análisis económico del derecho de autor y del copyright, un estudio del equilibrio entre los intereses público y privado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Pérez Gómez Tétrel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La propiedad intelectual ha sido concebida para responder, tanto a la necesidad de protección del autor de una obra del intelecto, como al beneficio que la sociedad pueda sacar del acceso a dichas creaciones intelectuales, generando así un equilibrio entre los diferentes actores. Los sistemas digitales de comunicación han puesto en jaque dicho equilibrio. Conviene preguntarse ¿es capaz la protección otorgada por el derecho a la creación intelectual, de establecer un equilibrio en las relaciones entre creador (autor y la sociedad (consumidor? ¿En qué medida el análisis económico comparado del derecho de autor y del copyright puede contribuir al modelo económico de este equilibrio? ¿Hasta qué punto, el rol desempeñado por las industrias de la comunicación está rompiendo este equilibrio? El objetivo de este artículo es analizar diversos aspectos del derecho de autor y del copyright, a la luz del análisis económico del derecho.

  5. Theory and Practice of Library Servica and Copyright Protection%图书馆服务与著作权保护的理论与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石薇芬

    2011-01-01

    随着信息网络的不断发展,图书馆文献服务与著作权保护的冲突问题日益严重。本文通过相关的法律视角,结合我国目前实践中的众多问题和经验教训,分析了想要解决我国图书馆服务与著作权保护之间的争论应该采取哪些办法,同时,对图书馆信息网络传播权的这方面的问题重点进行了讨论,根据问题提出了初步的解决方案。%With the continuous development of information networks, the conflict between library services and copyright protec- tion documents is growing, this paper, from file perspective of relevant law, combined with our current practice of many issues and lessons learned, analysis the measures should be taken of the debate between the library services and copyright protection, while the library informetion network transmission right were discussed, and put forward preliminary solutions according to the issues.

  6. Beyond Oil on Canvas: New Media and Presentation Formats Challenge International Copyright Law’s Ability to Protect the Interests of the Contemporary Artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Ann Torsen

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Current copyright laws in all jurisdictions are lacking explicit provisions for protecting many types of contemporary art. It remains unclear to what extent ideas should be copyrightable as art, if at all; or whether an artwork’s commercial nature provides a decisive factor regarding appropriation. Certain situations seem plainly inappropriate, such as artists needing to seek legal counsel in conjunction with creating their artwork: inappropriate in its financial extravagance and in its inevitable curb on creativity. As such, it is incumbent upon courts and legislatures to analyze the issue and to provide guidance. It is the author’s finding that strong moral rights and a vibrant public domain are not necessarily at odds with each other, especially when parties are open to communication. Laws operate to provide structure when parties do not make other arrangements amongst themselves; contracts between artists and galleries, artists and publishers, even artists and other artists may provide the highest degree of satisfaction for specific parties to a specific situation. Not surprisingly, parties with legal or business interests in art and parties with artistic interests in art would communicate better if they understood each other’s situations. Hopefully the issues will continue to be the focus of some thought on all platforms such that informed legal decisions can be made and artists can pursue and protect their creative productions, no matter their format.

  7. A photographer called “archive”: the copyright complexity on photographic works Um fotógrafo chamado “arquivo”: a complexidade dos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Boni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available For a long time photography was not accepted as an intelectual creation and for that reason did not have support of copyrights. However, the use of photography by society has changed rapidly and it is not possible to think about culture and information without the influence of photography. This paper is aimed at delineating characteristics of photography legal protection and analyzing copyright efficiency in photography, media and society interrelation. Por muito tempo a fotografia não foi aceita como obra intelectual, e por isso não tinha escopo nas legislações de direitos autorais. Mas seu uso pela sociedade modificou-se rapidamente e hoje não é possível pensar em cultura e informação sem a influência da fotografia. Este artigo se propõe a delinear as características da proteção jurídica autoral da fotografia e analisar a efetividade da lei de direitos autorais na relação da fotografia com a mídia e a sociedade.

  8. Evolution Study on Recognition Standard of Copyright Infringement in U.S%美国版权侵权认定标准演化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王渊

    2016-01-01

    美国法院按照以下两个程序认定被告是否侵权并在此过程中确定侵权认定标准:首先,原告对作品是否拥有有效的版权;第二,被告是否侵犯了原告的版权。“被告是否侵犯了原告的版权”认定也有两步:一是被告是否事实上抄袭了原告作品,二是被告是否抄袭了原告作品中受版权保护的表达部分并足以构成侵权。而对于“抄袭是否足以构成侵权”的判断就是“实质相似”判断。在美国,随着时间的变化、技术的发展和人们认识的变化,不同的巡回法院在不同的阶段对“实质相似”判断方法是不同的,依时间变化分别有专家证言与抽象测试法、一般观察者的“整体判断”测试法、“整体概念和感觉”测试法(后来改进为“外在/内在”测试法)、“作品所针对的对象”测试法、“更敏锐的观察者”分析法和“抽象-过滤-比较”测试法。%Recognition standard of copyright infringement is determined by courts in case. The courts judge whether the defendant violate the exclusive rights of copyright owner according two main procedures. First, the plaintiff must alege and prove ownership of a valid copyright. Second,the plaintiff must prove that the defendant violated one of the exclusive rights of copyright owner. Recognition to whether the defendant violates the exclusive rights of copyright owner has two main elements. One is whether the defendant copied from the plaintiff’s work in fact. The other is whether the defendant copied enough of plaintiff’s protected expression to constitute infringement. The second judgment is substantial similarity analysis. In different circuit courts the methods of substantial similarity analysis are different in different stages with time changing, the development of technology,and the change of people’s opinion. The methods of substantial similarity analysis have Expert Testimony and Abstractions Test

  9. The Study on the Copyright Issues of Digital Library's Integrated Service%数字图书馆集成服务的版权问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁文枢

    2012-01-01

    随着数字图书馆的蓬勃发展,集成服务已是大势所趋,其服务方式和结果更为多样化、人性化,侵犯作者权利的可能性更大、过程更复杂.故数字图书馆向用户提供集成检索服务时,既要明确服务范围、规范服务内容、控制用户利用服务结果的后续行为,又要使相关链接清晰地反映网页转换的过程.数字图书馆提供数字参考咨询服务时,要合理地编制衍生作品、规范地传递文献资料,并控制用户进行复制等行为.在提供馆际互借服务时,数字图书馆要严格记录用户对作品的使用目的及使用次数,适当向以营利为目的的用户收费.虽然个性化信息服务中的个性化信息不损害作者的财产权利,但仍应保护作者的精神权利;同时,用户只能基于个人使用目的享受个性化服务.%With the vigorous development of digital library, integrated service has become a trend and its methods and results are more diverse and humane, thus the infringement of copyright owners' rights is becoming more complex. When providing integrated search service, digital library should not only clear the scope and standards of the service but also control users' following use of results. What's more, links are required to reflect the conversion of webpage. When providing digital reference service, digital library ought to compile derivative works and pass literature reasonably. At the same time, digital library should control users' coping works and so on- Digital library is called to record users' purpose and their frequency of use when offering inter-library loan service, thus business users being charged with reasonable tees. Personalized information will not harm copyright owners' property right, but their moral right should be protected While personalized service ought to be limited to personal use.

  10. COPYRIGHT PROTECTION FOR IMAGES IN DIGITAL MUSEUMS%数字博物馆中的图像版权保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈晓峰; 茅艳

    2012-01-01

    With the rising of digital museums, people pay more attention to copyright protection of images in digital museums. At first digital watermarking and digital museums are introduced; then the copyright protection problem for images in digital museum with digital watermarking technology is discussed; then a novel SVD-based blind digital image watermarking algorithm is proposed. The algorithm pre-processes a watermark by Arnold chaos map, then according to the watermark's size, divide the original image into a number of child-blocks, each of which is decomposed with matrix SVD method. The algorithm realizes watermark embedding by comparing adjacent image blocks' largest SVD values. Experiment results show that the algorithm is strongly robust against JPEG lossy-compression, cropping, noising or other attacks.%随着数字博物馆的不断发展,关于数字博物馆中的图像版权保护越来越受到人们的重视.首先对数字水印技术和数字博物馆进行介绍,然后就数字水印技术用于解决数字博物馆中图像版权保护问题进行探讨,提出一种新的基于奇异值分解的盲数字图像水印算法.利用Arnold混沌映射将水印进行预处理,并接水印的大小把原始图像分成若干个子块,利用矩阵的奇异分解方法分解每个子块,通过比较调整相邻图像块最大奇异值来完成水印的嵌入.实验结果表明,该算法对于JPEG有损压缩、剪切、加噪声等攻击具有很强的鲁棒性.

  11. Digital Audio Watermarking Algorithm for Media Copyright Management%用于版权管理的数字音频水印算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵学敏; 郭宇弘; 邹学强; 刘建; 颜永红

    2011-01-01

    该文提出了一种用于多媒体资料版权管理的自同步音频盲水印算法.由于版权应用需要通过解码结果得到素材的使用情况,对解码结果时间精度有一定要求,同时对鲁棒性和不可感知性要求也较高.针对之前算法存在鲁棒性不够,时间精度低的问题.该文提出的算法利用扩频的方法和音频信号的短时相关的特性提高嵌入水印的鲁棒性的同时,通过心理声学模型的应用改善算法的不可感知性.算法通过合理设计了水印信息帧结构和同步策略提高了解码结果的时间精度.实验结果表明,该文的方法在具有很高不可感知性的情况下,能够有效地抵抗各种常见的音频编辑操作.%A blind audio watermarking algorithm with self-synchronization for copyright protection is proposed. In the application of media copyright management, the decoding results should have a time precision, better robustness and fidelity. However, most of algorithms can not provide enough robustness and time precision. To deal with these problems, in this paper, spread spectrum theory and the short-time relevance of audio signal are used to generate a watermark. To improve the fidelity of audio, a psychoacoustic auditory model is further used. Moreover, special synchronization strategy and watermark message frame structure are used to get a high time precision decoding results. Experimental results show that the watermarking scheme is robust against common audio editing attacks while keeping the watermarked audio a high perceptual quality.

  12. ORNL Automated-In-Motion Evaluation Environment (AIMVEE) User Training and Testing Materials - U.S. Copyright TXu 1-797-273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The AIMVEE/WIM system electronically retrieves deployment information, identifies vehicle automatically, and determines total weight, individual wheel weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing, and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle in motion. The AIMVEE/WIM system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE/WIM system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide actual weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility. The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) system is an unique enhancement to the AIMVEE/WIM system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale and is included in the AIMVEE computer code base. The material copyrighted is the ORNL Automated-In-Motion Vehicle Evaluation Environment (AIMVEE)/Weigh-In-Motion User Training and Testing material. It includes instructional material in the set-up, operation and tear-down of the AIMVEE/WIM system. It also includes a final exam associated with the training.

  13. 基于Web Service的音乐作品版权登记系统%Music Copyright Registration System Based on Web Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红星; 孔羽; 郭之超

    2014-01-01

    Web Service技术是面向服务架构以及实现信息系统集成的重要技术。它采用HTTP协议,通过Web接收和响应外部系统的请求信息,实现远程调用。Web Service技术以其跨平台性在Web应用程序开发中得到了广泛应用。以开发一个基于Web Service的音乐作品版权登记系统为例,介绍了该系统的总体架构,分析了Web Service技术实现的工作原理,并给出了通过Web Service接口提交音乐作品的实现方法。%Web Service technology is an important technology of service-oriented architecture and realizing system integration. It uses the HTTP protocol,through the Web to receive and respond to the request of the external system information,realize the remote invocation. Web Service technology has been widely used in Web application development. This paper takes the development of the music copyright registration system based on Web Service as example,introduces the overall architecture of the system,analyses the working principle of Web Service technology,and presents the submitted method online through Web service.

  14. 基于DCT和神经网络的视频版权保护算法%VIDEO COPYRIGHT PROTECTION ALGORITHMS BASED ON DCT AND NEURAL NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉杰; 张媛媛

    2012-01-01

    In view of a series of problems for the current digital watermarking using in video copyright protection and anti-attacking* propose an effective algorithm based on the use of DCT(discrete cosine transform), digital watermarking, neural networks and encryption technologies. Firstly the algorithm uses Arnold transform at the original watermarking for scrambling processing. Embed the watermarking in the video based on neural network, and use it to achieve the blind extraction of watermarking. Experimental results show that the algorithm has good invisibility and robustness.%针对目前数字水印技术对视频版权保护和抵抗攻击时存在的一系列问题,提出了基于DCT、数字水印、神经网络和数据加密等技术的有效算法.该算法首先将原始水印信息采用Arnold变换进行置乱处理,然后运用神经网络将水印嵌入到宿主视频中,提取时利用确定的神经网络实现水印的盲提取.实验结果表明,该算法具有较好的不可见性和鲁棒性.

  15. 瓦片数据版权保护方法及应用研究%Research on Methods and Applications of Copyright Protection for Tile Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任娜; 朱长青; 任树敬

    2012-01-01

    随着“天地图”等网站的建设与不断发展,地理信息资源的共建共享得到了积极推动.然而,网络环境下瓦片数据非法下载、违法使用等安全问题日益严重和突出,如何保护网络环境下瓦片数据版权是当前迫切需要解决的问题.为了节省存储空间,海量瓦片数据存储方式往往采用索引机制,这种存储机制与常见的图像、栅格地图等数据对水印技术的要求不同.本文首先着重分析了采用索引机制存储的瓦片数据特征及其对水印技术的要求;在水印信息生成方面,采用了m序列生成无意义水印信息,而在水印嵌入方面,提出了映射机制的瓦片数据数字水印嵌入算法,采用红色和绿色通道生成的映射函数,将水印信息嵌入到蓝色通道中,其中水印检测为水印嵌入的逆过程;最后,实现了水印技术的瓦片数据实时版权保护系统,并通过了实例验证.%With the construction and development of the sites such as the national "Map World" recently attracted a growing interest from the scientific and industrial communities, and mainly due to the large number of possible applications capable to provide map service, a crucial issue is arising when dealing with tile map web service publication in copyright protection. According to the need of having a confident and secure communication of tile map in the network environment, a novel mapping mechanism based on watermarking algorithm for tile map is presented here, in such a way that the invisible and robust watermark could be embedded effectively. In the network environment, the geographic data is usually stored in the form of tiles at service terminals, while indexing mechanism is often used as the storage method in order to save the huge amount of tile map. However, the tile map stored by indexing mechanism has different watermarking technology requirements with the common image and raster map data. So, the characteristics and

  16. 农业网络图片版权保护方法与策略%The method and strategy of image copyright protection on agriculture network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小斌; 郑可锋; 钱秋平

    2009-01-01

    网上传播的图片由于极易复制修改而存在大量的盗版和侵权现象,已造成农业领域中网络原创网片和高质量图片显著减少,影响农业图片信息正常的共享利用.文章在综合比较分析了醒目图像水印、数字图像水印、图片元数据、图片禁复制、图片禁搜索、图片浏览器等图片版权保护方法的优缺点的基础上,提出了农业网络图片版权保护策略,可应对图片复制、修改、下载、截图等盗用方法,促进农业网络图片的合法传播和利用.%The phenomenon of pirate and copyright infringement has been a common issue because of easy replication and modification of electronic images, leading to the decreasing number of original and high-quality images and affecting their shared use on agricultural network. To fight against the infringement behaviours such as image copying, modifying, downloading or screenshot, some effective and useful methods were analysed and compared in this study, including eye-catching image watermark ing, digital image watermarking, image metadata storing, forbidden image replication,forbidden image searching and image browse in an appropriate client browser. By comparing the advantages and disadvantages of different methods,one reasonable strategy was putting forward to promote legal spreading and utilization of electronic images in agricultural network.

  17. On Video-sharing Website’ s Copyright Indirect Infringement Liability%视频分享网站著作权间接侵权责任研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹淑芬

    2016-01-01

    我国现行法律中没有著作权间接侵权的明确表述,这造成了理论与实践、立法与司法的脱节。间接侵权应和直接侵权、共同侵权严格区分。在过错认定中应当首先考察视频分享网站是否已经意识到了涉案视频的存在,即采用主观标准。但在判断相关事实是否构成“红旗规则”时,宜采用客观标准。在免责条件中,要改造“通知—删除”规则,将免责条件变为归责要件,逐步强化视频分享网站的注意义务。%There is no definite statement on the indirect copyright infringement in our existing relevant laws, which results in the disconnection between theory and practice, legislative and judicial to some extent. Indirect infringement is different from the direct in-fringement and joint infringement, and indirect infringement liability should be specified in legislation. In the determination of wrongs, it should be on the top of list to examine whether video sharing sites are aware of the existence of the video involved, namely the subjec-tive standard is involved. But in judging whether the relevant facts or circumstances constitute the“red flag rule”, the objective stand-ard is involved. It’ s available to adopt changing duty of care and common sense and professional knowledge of the video sharing sites to determine specific wrongs. For the discretion of video sharing site’ s care duty,“contact rules” and“profit rules” can be involved. To reduce the occurrence of tort, in the exception condition, “notice-delete rules” should be improved; exception condition should be changed to liability condition;gradually strengthen the care duty of the video sharing site.

  18. Obtaining Copyright Permission to Digitize Published Works Remains a Significant Barrier. A review of: George, Carole A. “Testing the Barriers to Digital Libraries: A Study Seeking Copyright Permission to Digitize Published Works.” New Library World 106.1214/1215 (2005: 332-42.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Haigh

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To assess the effectiveness and efficiency of the copyright permission seeking process and to suggest improvements in order to improve outcomes. Design – Workflow study. Setting – Carnegie Mellon University Libraries, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Sample – A random sample of titles published 1999-2001 was selected from the library’s circulating collection. After eliminating duplicates, technical reports, theses, dissertations, and missing items, the sample comprised 337 titles. Of these titles, 70% were books, and 56% were from commercial publishers. From this a working sample of 273 titles was derived, comprising those titles protected by copyright and with the rights owner clearly indicated. About 73% of this working sample appeared to be out-of-print; their median publication year was 1981. Method – In this two year study (1999-2001, a random sample of books was selected, and pertinent bibliographic and copyright holder information researched and recorded. Permission letters were sent and, six weeks later, follow-up letters were sent to nonrespondents. The letter allowed respondents four options: 1. Grant full permission to digitize the work and provide unrestricted Web access; 2. Grant permission to digitize the work and provide read-only Web access, limited to Carnegie Mellon University users; 3. Declare that they do not hold the rights, and hopefully provide information to identify and locate the actual rights holder; 4. Deny permission for digitization. Results were then recorded and analyzed. Main results – Of the 273 letters mailed, a clear ‘yes’ or ‘no’ reply was obtained for just over half (52% of the documents. Sixteen percent of the rights holders could not be found (the letter was returned, or a referral proved impossible to locate and contact. Another 25% of the copyright holders simply did not reply, and 7% were otherwise problematic. Of the 143 ‘yes’ or ‘no’ responses, 54% denied permission

  19. 媒介融合背景下版权机制存在的问题及影响因素分析%Analysis on the Problems and Influencing Factors of Copyright Mechanism under the Background of Media Convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲武; 黄先蓉

    2016-01-01

    我国版权机制经过多年的发展取得显著的成就。媒介融合背景下,由于版权主体增多、版权客体扩充、权利内容扩张、版权法律滞后、版权市场无序等带来的版权授权模式迟滞、交易平台作用有限、保护机制疲软等问题,严重阻碍版权机制的发展,难以平衡权利人、传播者和社会公众的利益。本文重点分析媒介融合背景下影响版权机制的因素及其具体表现,为今后制定版权机制发展策略提供参考。%After the years of development, China' s copyright mechanism has made remarkable achievements. Under the background of media convergence, the license pat ern lags behind the needs mass authorization of copyright, the trading platforms of copyright have limitations and the copyright protection mechanism is weak due to copyright subject increasing, copyright object expansion, copyright content expansion, lag of copyright law and disorder of copyright market. These problems seriously impede the development of copyright mechanism and also difficult to balance the interests among the authors, communicators and the public. The paper focuses on the analysis of the factors and specific performance which influence copyright mechanism under the background of media convergence, in order to provide a reference for the future development of copyright mechanism.

  20. Research on the Innovation of the Legislation of the Govemment Information Copyright Management System%政府信息著作权管理制度立法创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦珂

    2012-01-01

    与私人拥有的著作权相比,政府信息著作权的主体、客体、权利行使和经济补偿等都有明显的特殊性,这是制定政府信息著作权保护政策必须考量的因素。欧盟、英国、美国等对政府信息著作权分别有不同的立法。我国政府信息著作权管理制度的立法应坚持利益平衡原则,明晰享有著作权的政府信息类型,合理界定政府信息著作权的归属,完善政府信息著作权的转移规范,健全反政府信息著作权垄断制度,确立政府信息著作权的补偿政策。%Compared with the copyright of private ownership, the subject, the object, the right exertion and the financial compensation of the government information copyright have distinct peculiarities, and this is the factor which must be considered while formulating the protection policy of the government information copyright. The European Union, Britain, the United States have different legislations of the government information copyright. The legislation of government information copyright management system should adhere to the principle of interest balance, clear the type of government information which has the copyright, reasonably define the ownership of the government information copyright, improve the transfer specification of the government information copyright, perfect the anti-monopoly system of the government information copyright, and establish the compensation policy of the government information copyright.

  1. 專論/數位環境的著作權法制思考/賴文智;王文君 | Rethinking Copyright Law System in Digital Environment / Wen-chi Lai;Wen-chun Wang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    賴文智、王文君

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available

    本文研究議題為著作權法制面對數位環境衝擊之制度調整思考。本文首先說明數位與網路科技不僅為當代社會著作利用帶來相當多的變化,也使著作權制度面 臨諸多困難議題。藉由對著作權法制發展史與著作權法第1條規定的檢視,本文提出「促進著作流通利用」乃達致著作權法各項立法目的之共同且最主要之途徑(方 法),並嘗試在此脈絡下,檢視合理使用、公開傳輸權、權利管理電子資訊、防盜拷措施的保護及著作權仲介團體條例等制度設計。最終重申並闡釋「促進著作流通 利用」乃是用以檢視著作權制度是否合於當代社會需求之關鍵。

    At first, this paper raises the question on the impacts of Copyright System in digital environment. From reviewing history of Copyright System and Article 1 of Copyright Act, this paper holds that encouraging circulation and use of copyrighted work is main purpose of Copyright Act. This paper describes that facing digital and network technologies, the use of copyrighted work in our society has several changes. These changes, from the point of view that the main purpose of Copyright System is encouraging circulation and use of copyrighted work, make Copyright System facing several difficult issues. Finally, this paper examines several issues of Copyright System, such as, fair use, right of public transmission, electronic rights management information, protection of technological protection measures and Copyright Intermediary Organization Act. Encouraging circulation and use of copyrighted work is always the key of examining whether the Copyright System fit the need of current society.

    頁次:30-38

  2. 37 CFR 202.12 - Restored copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Uruguay Round Agreements Act, Public Law 103-465. (b) Definitions. (1) For the purposes of this section, restored work and source country, have the definition given in the URAA and § 201.33(b) of this chapter. (2... screen. (iv) Pictorial, graphic and sculptural works. With the exception of 3-dimensional works of art...

  3. Collective Agreements for the Clearance of Copyrights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    hailed as a promising tool to solve some of copyright’s problems relating to mass uses of works. It is pointed out how ECL builds on users generated rights managements structures (CMOs) but owes its specific effectiveness to a legislator’s willingness to provide a third-party effect of the collective...

  4. 77 FR 18742 - Copyright Office Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... government, including the responsibility to set sound monetary policies and develop a budget derived... in a single work that is not a work made for hire, for the policy reasons discussed below and after... policy dictate the recovery of less than the direct cost of providing the service. This approach is...

  5. Photocopying and the New Copyright Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Craig B.; Halley, Fred S.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the time, ease, and cost of obtaining permission to use photocopied journal articles for library reserve use. Findings from correspondence with 20 journals indicated that photocopying permission is usually easy to obtain and free. Results are discussed in reference to teaching, the professional implications of the accessibility of…

  6. 77 FR 3506 - Copyright Office Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... some applicants wish to seek expedited registration and would be willing to pay a premium for such... prospective litigation, customs matters, or contract or publishing deadlines that necessitate the expedited... Handling would be absent and the service would be offered as a premium service for those who are willing...

  7. A Case Study of Nigerian Copyright Commission

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    physical facilities or products (Inegbenebor, 2006); while civil service in the present ... servants, who work in government departments or agencies. Public ... maintenance and running costs on facilities, curbing public corruption, promoting.

  8. Robust copyright protection using multiple ownership watermarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Lee, In-Kwon

    2015-02-01

    Generally, conventional transform (DWT and DFT, etc.) -based watermarking techniques provide only one spectrum plane for embedding the watermark, thus the embedding watermark information can be easily removed. To solve this problem, we propose an efficient cellular automata (CA) based watermarking method that CA transform (CAT) with various gateway values can provide many transform planes for watermark embedding according to various CA rules. In this paper, multiple ownership watermarks are first recorded in the form of an elemental image array (EIA), simultaneously, and then the recorded EIA as the watermark data is embedded into the CAT coefficient. An additional advantage of this proposed method is that EIA is composed of many elemental images and each elemental image has its own property of watermarks. Even though most data of elemental images are lost, the watermarks can be reconstructed from the remaining elemental images successfully. Experimental results show that the proposed technique provides good image quality and is robust in varying degree to some image processing attacks.

  9. Page | 89 A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COPYRIGHT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Although there is no judicial pronouncement or practice direction to regulate the execution of ..... 82For instance, when the NCC raided Ariaria International market, Aba, Abia .... It is also unethical and an affront to public policy to pass on the.

  10. The Copyright Issue on Chinese Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1. Introduction Standardization is an important fundamental technical work for national economic and social development.With the economic globalization and fast development of science and technology, standards have gone deep into many fields of the economy and social life, the importance of standards is becoming more and more prominent.

  11. Computer Security: protect CERN - respect copyrights

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2014-01-01

    Are you a physicist who does complex mathematical calculations? Are you a webmaster who regularly embeds visual contents? Do you regularly present to large audiences? Are you an engineer who does sophisticated simulations of heat transfers, structural stability or electric circuits? Are you a technician who often uses CAD software? Do you like listening to music while being at CERN? Go ahead!   But make sure that you have legitimately obtained the software/images/music/videos you are using and hold valid licenses to run your software. Using illegal or pirated software/images/music/videos is not a trivial offense. It violates the CERN Computing Rules (OC5) and puts the Organization at risk! Vendors deserve credit and compensation. So make sure to buy your software via legitimate channels and use a valid and honestly obtained license. This also applies to “shareware” and software under open licenses, which might also come with a cost. Usually, only “freeware&rd...

  12. 交易成本理论分析下数字图书著作权的交易研究%Research on Transaction Costs Theory Analysis under Digital Books Copyright Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振宁

    2015-01-01

    The theory of transaction cost in public policy and played an important role in the process of trading,this article has carried on the related research based on transaction cost theory to the problem of digital books copyright trade.Under the com-parison with the traditional publishing house of books copyright,analyses the characteristics of digital books copyright trade, and puts forward some of today's press the problems existing in the digital books copyright trade,finally aimed at these prob-lems,with the transaction cost theory analyzes the research of digital books copyright trade.%交易成本理论在公共政策学和交易过程中起到了重要作用,本文就基于交易成本理论对数字图书著作权的交易问题进行了相关研究。在与传统出版社图书著作权的比较之下,分析了数字图书版权交易的特点,并提出了当今出版社数字图书版权交易中存在的问题,最后针对出现的这些问题,用交易成本理论分析了数字图书著作权的交易的研究。

  13. 浅析微博著作权侵权的认定与立法建议%On Determination and Legislative Proposals of Infringement of Copyright about Micro-blog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹欢艳

    2012-01-01

    随着网络技术不断更新,微博作为一种新型的网络信息沟通平台,在改变人们生活方式的同时,必然对传统著作权保护的内容提出挑战,新的著作权侵权方式随之而来。在微博享受著作权保护的前提下,分析微博著作权侵权行为的具体表现,旨在提出规范微博著作权侵权的立法思考。%With the constant updation of network technology,micro-blog as a new type of information and communication platform,changes the life style of people and inevitablely challenges the contents which the traditional copyright protects.Thus,comes the new way of copyright infringement.On the premise of copyright protection of the micro-blog,this paper analyzes the specific forms of copyright infringement of micro-blog,and puts forward legislative proposals of regulate the copyright infringement of micro-blog.

  14. 机构知识库HathiTrust的版权管理研究及其启示%Research about Copyright Management of HathiTrust Institutional Repository

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚凤

    2014-01-01

    HathiTrust was initial y conceived as an IR col aboration of the thirteen universities of the Commit ee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC). HathiTrust used strict, detailed copyright policy, and special y established copyright database. Copyright database stores and keeps on tracking copyright of each volume which copyright status is updated automatical y. We elaborate nineteen at ributes and seventeen reasons of HathiTrust copyright database with the examples. Final y we discussed the HathiTrust Rights Management effect on institutional repositories of China.%HathiTrust是由美国机构合作委员会(CIC)图书馆联盟下的13所大学合作发起的机构知识库项目。HathiTrust采用了严格、详尽的版权管理政策,建立了专门的版权数据库。版权数据库里存储并持续追踪HathiTrust每卷作品的版权信息,实现版权状态的自动更新。文章列举了HathiTrust版权数据库中定义的19种属性类别和17种原因代码,并结合HathiTrust中具体的版权处理实例进行了说明。最后阐述了HathiTrust版权数据管理对我国机构知识库建设的启示。

  15. Probe into the Copyright Income Division of Couples in Divorce of China%夫妻离婚的著作权收益分割问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁

    2015-01-01

    夫妻离婚的著作权收益分割,既涉及婚姻法领域,也与著作权法密切相关. 由于《婚姻法》对知识产权权利本身及知识产权收益在夫妻财产中的定位模糊,使得在夫妻离婚知识产权分割的司法实践中,普遍存在认定不统一、判决随意的现象. 对有关夫妻离婚著作权收益分割的法律规定及存在问题进行梳理和归纳,可以明确婚前著作权及其收益属于夫妻个人财产,著作权及其收益的归属应以著作权获得的时间而不是以收益的取得时间为准,并且夫妻离婚时对未实现收益的著作权分割应适用比例原则,以体现公平合理性.%The copyright income division of couples in divorce is closely involved in Marriage Law as well as Copyright Law. Because of the fuzzy definition of intellectual property right itself and the intellectual property income in the Marriage Law of China, it became a u-niversal phenomenon that the determination is not unified and the judgment is random in the juridical practice of intellectual property division of couples in divorce of China. By summarizing and analyzing the exiting problems in the regulations, especially the related theory of copyright income division of couples in divorce of China, these issues can be made clear that the premarital copyright and copyright income should belong to matrimonial personal property, and the judgment of ownership of copyright and copyright income should be on the copyright′s acquisition time rather than benefit′s acquisition time, also the division of unrealized copyright income should apply the principle of proportionality to embody the fairness and reasonableness.

  16. Address on the Occasion of the Meeting of the Second Committee of Governmental Experts on Problems in the Field of Copyright and of the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations Raised by Transmission via Space Satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, Rene

    These opening remarks by the Director General of Unesco briefly discuss that organization's activities in the area of copyright within the field of satellite communication. They were addressed to members of a committee whose purpose is to determine whether the protection of signals transmitted by communications satellites does or does not require…

  17. 我国数字出版产业版权保护体系的构建与完善%The Establishment and Improvement of Copyright Protection System of Chinese Digital Publishing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇红; 刘盼盼; 倪玉莎

    2012-01-01

    随着信息技术和互联网的飞速发展,数字出版已逐渐成为最具活力的新兴朝阳产业.加强版权保护成为数字出版产业发展的关键.本文阐明了数字出版产业与版权保护的内在相关性,分析了我国数字出版产业版权保护存在的问题,并且从立法、行政、司法和社会保护等层面提出完善我国数字出版产业版权保护体系的建议.%With the rapid development of information technology and the internet, digital publishing has gradually become the most dynamic sunrise industry. To strengthen the copyright protection has become the key issue for the development of digital publishing industry. The internal relationship between the digital publishing industry and copyright protection is stat-ed ; existing problems of digital publishing industry' s copyright protection are analyzed; suggestions to improve the copy-right protection system of digital publishing industry from the legislative, executive, judicial and social protection aspects are put forward.

  18. Survey on digital publishing copyright for journals sponsored by the China Association for Science and Technology%中国科协科技期刊数字出版版权问题调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程维红; 任胜利; 路文如; 严谨; 王应宽; 方梅

    2012-01-01

    Based on a survey on digital publishing copyright for all 1 050 journals sponsored by the China Association for Science and Technology (CAST) in 2011, we found that 64. 3% of these journals signed Copyright Transfer Statement (or Copyright and License Agreement) to authors. We also analyzed 265 copyright transfer statements of these journals, and found that the description of " Information Network Transmission Right" in these statements was less accurate. Some of the statements do not involve permission of use and related fee regulations.%问卷调查结果显示,2011年中国科协所属1050种科技期刊中有64.3%与作者签订了书面的《版权转让协议》。对从期刊自建网站上下载的265份中文版《版权转让协议》的分析结果表明,有关“信息网络传播权”的条款表述的准确率较低,许多协议书中缺少有关“信息网络传播权”的许可使用代理权条款和支付“信息网络传播权”报酬的条款。

  19. A Study on the Risk and Countermeasure of Copyright Infringement of Characteristic Database%特色数据库著作权侵权风险及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴高; 韦楠华

    2014-01-01

    首先分析了特色数据库的内容收集三大来源,即馆藏特色文献、已购数字资源和网络资源,然后探讨了特色数据库著作权侵权的三大风险即侵犯权利人复制权、信息网络传播权和技术措施权,最后从完善管理、适用法律和应用技术三个维度提出了特色数据库避免著作权侵权的现实对策。%The article first analyses there are three content sources in making characteristic database:characteristic literature resources of library, purchased digital resources and network resources.Then it discusses three risks of copyright infringement of characteristic database:infringement of reproduction right , communication right of information network of the copyright owner and technical measures right.Finally, it advances the measures from three facets:perfecting the copyright management system of mak-ing characteristic database, accurately applying the copyright restriction regulations and applying technology to limit illegally usage of works.

  20. Diamond open access and open peer review : An analysis of the role of copyright and librarians in the support of a shift towards open access in the legal domain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, Esther

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to support initiatives that stimulate volunteer involvement in creating qualitatively good conversations about the law on the internet. The article’s core argument is that policies on open access, copyright and library services all concentrate nowon the results of scholarly

  1. Research on Development Strategy of Hebei Book Copyright Trade Competitiveness%河北图书版权贸易竞争力研究和发展策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张苗; 耿小红

    2014-01-01

    With the publishing industry rapidly improvement in degree of internationalization ,the status of book copy-right trade has become particularly important .Especially for Hebei province ,the book copyright trade is one of the ef-fective measures for publishing enterprise survival and development in the fierce competition in the market .This arti-cle focuses on the status of Hebei book copyright trade ,identify gaps and problems in the book input and output in previous years ,and make recommendations in the development of Hebei book copyright trade in the future .%随着出版业国际化程度迅速提高,图书版权贸易的地位变得尤其重要。对于河北这一出版大省来说,图书版权贸易是出版企业在激烈的市场竞争中生存发展的有效措施之一。着重探讨河北图书版权贸易的现状,在历年的图书引进和输出比较中找出存在的差距与问题,并对今后河北图书版权贸易的发展提出了建议。

  2. Database Copyright Issues in the Integration of Public Digital Cultural Resources%公共数字文化资源整合中的数据库版权问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰

    2015-01-01

    公共文化机构存在三种不同类型的数据库:开放存取数据库、自建数据库和商业数据库,在资源整合的过程中,它们分别涉及不同的版权问题.需要规划好资源整合的版权策略,包括强化版权意识,注意保护被整合的数据库的知识产权;充分利用版权例外,最大限度实现资源整合;加强与数据库商的协商,利用约定许可规避整合的版权风险;加强版权法规建设,赋予公共文化机构更多权利以利资源整合;在整合中注意保护自身数据库资源的知识产权等,从而推动公共数字文化资源整合.%There are three different types of databases in public cultural institutions: open access databases, self-built databases, and commercial databases. In the process of resources integration, they are involved in different copyright issues. The copyright strategies of resources integration are needed to be well planned: we should strengthen the copyright awareness, pay attention to the protection of copyrights of the integrated databases and make full use of copyright exceptions to maximize the integration of resources. Meanwhile, it's also recommended to strengthen consultation with the database providers to avoid the copyright risk of resource integration by using the agreed licensing, to strengthen the construction of copyright laws and regulations, and to give the public cultural institutions more rights to facilitate the resources integration and to protect the intellectual property rights of their own database resources, etc. All these measures serve the purpose of the promotion of the integration of public digital cultural resources.

  3. 中国媒体产业模式变化和相应著作权保护体系特点的研究%Chinese Media Industry Model Change and Characteristics of the Corresponding Copyright Protection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗乐均

    2014-01-01

    中国媒体产业发展迅猛,市场广大,并根据政府相关政策调整着相应的发展模式。在媒体产业的模式转变过程中,中国面临着电子信息供应短缺的困难。而这些被新媒体所传递的电子信息又经常发生著作权问题。本研究将分析中国现存著作权法体系的特点以及中国相应的保护方法,特别是针对侵犯著作权的刑事处分,行政裁定和司法程序等内容。中国现在很有必要修改与知识产权相关的文化政策、著作权法以及明确相应的版权规定。%Chinese media industry is developing rapidly, the majority of the market and adjust the appropriate mode according to the development of government policy. Paradigm shift in the media industry process, China is facing a shortage of electronic infor-mation supply difficulties. These electronic information is passed new media and often occurs copyright issues. The study will ana-lyze the characteristics of China's existing copyright law system and China's corresponding protection methods, especially for copy-right infringement criminal sanctions, administrative rulings and judicial procedures and so on. China is now necessary to modify cultural policies related to intellectual property, copyright law, and clear the appropriate copyright regulations.

  4. The Trend of Strengthening Copyright Protection in TPP and China’s Response%论 TPP 中强化著作权保护之趋向及中国应对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂红; 刘宇

    2015-01-01

    Driven by the United States,the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)is intended to be a high-quality and high-standard regional trade agreement.Accordingly,the rules of copyright in TPP may also reach a higher level of protection.In this context,to further clarify the potential impact of these rules as well as China’s basic position,it is necessary to conduct a comparative research combining existing international standards of copyright protection.Through the analysis of new TPP text,it discovers that the articles of property right,copyright protection period,re-strictions and exceptions of copyright,technical measures and rights management information have appeared the trend of strengthening copyright protection,which reflects the legal nature of TRIPS-plus in general and may have a greater impact on China’s current copyright system. Therefore,China can take the coping strategies including strengthening corresponding research at the legal level,rational design of national copyright system on the basis of accurate self-positio-ning,active preparations of proof plans in terms of rule convergence,and the expansion of dis-course right of formulating related international rules of copyright in the course of implementing the free trade agreement strategy.%在美国的推动下,跨太平洋伙伴关系协议(TPP)意图塑形为高质量和高标准的区域贸易协定。相应地,其中有关著作权的规则亦可能达到较高的保护水准。在此背景下,为进一步明晰其潜在影响以及中国的基本立场,有必要结合现有的著作权保护国际标准开展比较研究。通过新近的文本分析,可发现该协议在著作财产权、著作权保护期限、权利的限制和例外、技术措施和权利管理信息等规则中呈现出强化著作权保护的趋向。这种趋向总体上体现出“TRIPS 协定递增”的法律性质,对中国现行著作权制度或产生较大影响。对此,中国可采取的应对策略包

  5. Raw data for 'Spin-on doping of germanium-on-insulator wafers for monolithic light sources on silicon'. Published by Japanese Journal of Applied Physics (JJAP). Copyright 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Attili, Abdelrahman; Kako, Satoshi; Husain, Muhammad; Gardes, Frederic; Arimoto, Hideo; Higashitarumizu, Naoki; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Saito, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    This dataset contains the raw data for spin-on doping experiments of Ge-on-insulator wafers for light emission purposes. Summary of this dataset in the form of figures were published Japanese Journal of Applied Physics (JJAP). Copyright 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.\\ud Citation:\\ud Abdelrahman Zaher Al-Attili, Satoshi Kako, Muhammad K. Husain, Frederic Y. Gardes, Hideo Arimoto, Naoki Higashitarumizu, Satoshi Iwamoto, Yasuhiko Arakawa, Yasuhiko Ishikawa, and Shinichi Saito. "Spin-...

  6. Raw data for 'Spin-on doping of germanium-on-insulator wafers for monolithic light sources on silicon'. Published by Japanese Journal of Applied Physics (JJAP). Copyright 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Attili, Abdelrahman; Kako, Satoshi; Husain, Muhammad; Gardes, Frederic; Arimoto, Hideo; Higashitarumizu, Naoki; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Saito, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    This dataset contains the raw data for spin-on doping experiments of Ge-on-insulator wafers for light emission purposes. Summary of this dataset in the form of figures were published Japanese Journal of Applied Physics (JJAP). Copyright 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics. Citation: Abdelrahman Zaher Al-Attili, Satoshi Kako, Muhammad K. Husain, Frederic Y. Gardes, Hideo Arimoto, Naoki Higashitarumizu, Satoshi Iwamoto, Yasuhiko Arakawa, Yasuhiko Ishikawa, and Shinichi Saito. "Spin-...

  7. The Application of WBS-RBS in Copyright Risk Identification of Network Information Collection%WBS-RBS在网络信息采集著作权风险识别研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘震; 张文德

    2011-01-01

    首先把网络信息采集划分为用户上传信息采集、与第三方机构合作信息采集、运营商独立信息采集三种形式,按信息资源是否具有版权以及其载体形式的不同构造信息采集WBS,并依据侵权风险的种类构建著作权风险RBS。然后使用WBS.RBS方法对网络信息采集过程中的著作权侵权风险点进行识别,同时构造RBM模型并对风险点进行数据处理和风险评价分析。最后以用户上传信息采集精神权利RBM的构建为例,完成风险的量化、排序和分析。%Separating information collection into three forms : user uploading information collection,third-party agency information collection and operator information collection. Accordance to the copyright and the different forms of the carriers of information resources, this paper constructs WBS of information collection process. Copyright risk RBS is constructed based on the types of risk infringement. WBS-RBS method can accurately identify copyright risk infringement during information collection process , constructing RBM of risk points and getting risk infringement assessment and analysis. Finally this paper takes user uploading information collection as an example to construct the moral right RBM, and completes quantification , sorting and analysis of copyright risk infringement.

  8. Copyright Limitations and Exceptions for People with Printed Matter Reading Disabilities%著作权法对印刷品阅读障碍者的限制和例外

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓光; 吴丹凌

    2014-01-01

    The balance should be kept between the effective protection of copyright and the realization of public interests, especially between the effective protection and education, research and information acquisition. It’ s important to note that this balance must facilitate effective and timely access to works and benefit people with visual impairment and printed matter reading disabilities. This article summarizes international rules concerning the copyright exceptions for visually impaired people, compares legislation in relevant countries and analyzes the deficiencies in Article 12 of current Chinese copyright law. In sum, the author suggests the scope of fair use for visually impaired people be broadened and balance be kept between the interests of copyright owners and those of visually impaired people.%著作权的有效保护与公共利益的实现之间,尤其是与教育、研究和获得信息之间保持平衡,值得注意的是这种平衡必须为有效和及时地获取作品提供便利,限于使视力障碍或其他印刷品阅读障碍者受益。文章从有关视障人士著作权例外的国际规定、相关国家立法比较、我国著作权法第22条的缺失进行检视,建议拓宽视障人士合理使用的适用范围,在著作权人与视障人士利益之间保持平衡。

  9. 机构知识库建设中的版权问题及其对策%The Copyright Problems in the Construction of Institutional Repository and Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧芳

    2016-01-01

    In the development process of institutional repository, the copyright issue is its main development bottleneck, the study on institutional repository's copyright problems and their solutions is conducive to the better centralized management and long-term preservation of the academic achievements, and to further improve the management of the research outputs. This paper expounds the concept and features of the institutional repository, discusses the ownership forms of the copyright, and analyzes the main bottlenecks encountered by the institutional repository in aspect of copyright, and puts forward some solutions for solving the problems in the construction of the institutional repository such as the lack of law's dependable extent, the shortage of government support, and the deficiency of knowledge sharing range, etc. for promoting the sustainable, steady and healthy development of the institutional repository.%在机构知识库发展过程中,版权问题是其主要发展瓶颈,研究机构知识库的版权问题及解决对策,有利于更好地对学术成果长期集中管理和保存,进一步完善科研产出管理. 阐释了机构知识库的概念、特点,梳理了其版权归属形态,分析了机构知识库在版权方面遭遇的主要瓶颈,对机构知识库建设过程中出现的法律依靠力、政府对机构知识库支持力、知识共享力范围不足等问题,提出了解决途径,以促进机构知识库的持续稳定健康发展.

  10. 亚洲国家顶级图书馆网站版权政策比较研究%A Comparative Research on Top Library Websites′ Copyright Policies of Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付立宏; 闫金双

    2012-01-01

    本文选取亚洲7国10个顶级图书馆网站,围绕受保护的作品类型、版权归属及权利声明、用户使用权限、外部链接免责声明、技术保护措施和权利管理信息政策六个方面,对其版权政策进行全方位的分析比较,直陈其得失,并指出图书馆网站版权政策建设的努力方向。%This article selects ten top library websites of seven countries in Asia,analyses and compares their copyright policies around the protected works type,copyright owner and library rights,user permission,disclaimer of external links,protective technical measures and rights management information statements.Then the paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages,and points out the development direction of library website copyright policies.

  11. 国外数字图书馆建设中的著作权保护研究进展综述%Summary of New Study Achievement in Copyright Protection in Foreign Digital Library Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯文语; 马海群

    2011-01-01

    文章从数字图书馆资源数字化、馆藏化、数据库建设、馆际互借及文献传递过程中的著作权问题等方面,系统梳理了近几年国外数字图书馆所面临著作权问题的研究进展,又对美国、英国、俄罗斯、加拿大、澳大利亚及欧盟等国家和地区针对数字图书馆著作权问题的相关政策及解决办法方面的研究进展进行归纳阐述,最后提出了笔者的一些建议.%From the aspects of digitized library resources,collection,database construction,interlending and document delivery process in terms of copyright issues,this article arranges the copyright problems systematically faced by foreign digital libraries research progress in the last few years,generalizes and expounds the copyright issues and related policy solutions for digital libraries research progress of the countries and regions such as the United States,Britain,Russia,Canada,Australia,and the European Union.Finally,the author proposed some recommendations.

  12. Apple' s iTunes Online Music Store: the Future Copyright Protection Model?%苹果iTunes在线音乐商店:版权制度的未来模式?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚鹤徽

    2011-01-01

    自P2P技术出现之后,版权人开始无法有效地控制网络上的私人复制行为,于是苹果iTunes在线音乐商店作为一种应对策略得以产生。自2001年推出以来,苹果iTunes在线音乐商店凭借其独创的技术保护措施取得了良好的经济效益。苹果iTunes在线音乐商店开创了网络环境下版权保护的新模式。但是由于苹果iTunes在线音乐商店的技术保护手段过分强化对作品利用的控制,过度干预了消费者正常利用作品的权利。因此不符合未来版权保护模式的基本要求,不是网络环境下未来版权保护模式的理想之选。%Copyright owners cannot control the private copying effectively on the network due to the emergence of P2P technology. As a countermeasure, Apple's iTunes online music store comes into being. Since its launch in 2001, by virtue of its original technical protection measures, iTunes has achieved good economic results. ITunes creates an innovative model in copyright protection in the network environment, hut it uses technical means to strengthen the control of copyright works, and therefore, unduly interferes in consumer's normal exploitation of musical works. Thus it is not in line with the basic requirement of the future copyright protection model and not an ideal copyright protection model in the network environment.

  13. From DMX to Noank: Exploration on Patterns of Balancing Knowledge Sharing and Copyright Protection%从DMX到Noank:平衡知识共享与版权保护模式的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建华; 董昌; 刘可静

    2012-01-01

    The contradiction of knowledge sharing and copyright protection in cyberspace puts the current copyright protection system in predicament. The Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School suggests 3 new copyright management patterns, i.e., DMX, Coop and Noank, to tackle the situation. To summarize and draw the ideas and methods of the 3 patterns, this paper studies the 3 patterns .The origin, the guiding concepts, main components, the operational scheme and evolution process of 3 patterns are introduced and analyzed; the creative points of the 3 patterns and the inspiration for the study of balancing knowledge sharing and copyright protection are summarized. It is found out that the Berkman Center has constructed new patterns to balance knowledge sharing and copyright protection by taking the legality of using digitalcontent freely in cyberspace as the breakthrough point and adopting a corporate strategy over Internet. It further indicates that, since digital content has properties of public goods, new patterns should take this essential feature as the startin~ noint.%互联网环境下知识共享与版权保护的矛盾使现有版权管理制度陷于困局。哈佛大学法学院贝克曼中心为此提出了三种新版权管理模式DMX、Coop和Noank。为总结和借鉴这三种模式解决问题的思路和方法,本文介绍和分析了这三种模式的产生背景、指导思想、基本构成、运行流程和演进过程,总结了三个模式的创新之处及其对开展知识共享与版权保护平衡研究的启示。结果发现,贝克曼中心把网络空间数字内容自由使用的合法性作为突破点,采取基于网络的合作策略,促成了知识共享与版权保护创新模式的构建。这进一步表明,新机制的建立应该以互联网环境下的数字内容具有公共物品属性这一基本特征为出发点。

  14. A Study on Predicaments and Countermeasures of Copyrightable News Works Protection in the Context of Internet%网络环境下新闻作品版权保护困境与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王靖

    2016-01-01

    In recent years with the circumstance of internet popularization, copyright infringements have been increasing gradually, affected by various factors. Particularly, online and mobile media illegally repost contents originated in print media and other traditinal media in high frequancy. These behaviors have brought major impacts on the sustainable developement of traditional media such as newspaper agencies, who are, in most cases, key sources of original news. This dissertation is based on the interdiscipline of journalism and legal knowledge. It practically studies copyright protection of news articles in the internet. It analyse not only main patterns and features of online copyright infringement, but also subjective and objective factors which causes the predicament of news copyright protection. Meanwhile, it presents strategies which could enhance the protection of news copyrights technically and legally, based on the observation of media environment in China.%近年来,由于多方面的原因,网络环境下著作权纠纷逐渐增多,尤其是网络及移动新媒体非法转载传统媒体版权新闻作品而引发的著作权案件时有发生,已严重影响到作为新闻作品原创主力的报社等传统媒体的生存和发展。从新闻和法律跨界融合研究的角度,对网络环境下新闻作品的版权保护问题进行实践层面的研究,详细分析了网络环境下新闻作品版权侵权的主要方式、特征以及造成新闻作品版权保护困境的主客观方面的原因,同时结合我国传媒的实际,重点从法律完善及技术策略等方面提出了加强新闻作品版权保护的策略建议。

  15. The Imposition Strategy and Improvement of the KTV Music Copyright Fees:based on the Cooperative Game Theory and the Shapley Model%基于Shapley模型的KTV音乐版权费征收策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹景林; 王昭; 戴明泽

    2014-01-01

    在KTV中收取音乐版权费可以激发音乐人的创作热情,推动我国文化产业蓬勃发展。然而这涉及到唱片公司、音乐著作人、 KTV场所经营者等多方面的利益,将版权费在多个主体间进行合理分配成为当务之急。本文基于合作博弈论中的Shapley模型,对当前我国KTV音乐版权费用的征收方式进行了分析。结合当前存在的问题提出了“版权费与经营收益挂钩,版权费按Shapley模型分配”的解决方式,既保证了KTV经营者、消费者的利益,又能将版权费用在音乐著作权人之间进行合理分配。为解决Shapley模型的缺陷,本文基于具体问题,提出了“贡献因子”、“渴望函数”、“意愿因子”等概念,对原始Shapley模型进行加权改进,并结合具体案例对模型进行了解释与验证。最后对模型的应用进行了评价,并提出进一步的研究方向。%Collecting music copyright fees in KTV can stir musicians' enthusiasm and boom cultural industry in our country. However, this involves various benefits from record companies, musicians, KTV business operators. Therefore, distributing cop-yright fees among these parts reasonably is becoming an urgent affair. Based on the cooperative game theory and the Shapley Model, how to levy KTV music copyright fees should be dealt with nowadays. With the current problem, the solution is posed---"combining the copyright fee with management income and allocating the copyright fees based on the Shapley model", which can promise the benefits between KTV operators and customers, and also can allocate the copyright fees among musician copyright owners fairly. To add power factors to the original Shapley model for compensating the disadvantages , some concepts are intro-duced, such as"Contribution Factor", "Desirability Function" and"Willingness Factor". Besides, combining concrete examples to explain the results and analysis of the model is

  16. Research on the Scientific System Construction of the Chinese Books Copyright Trade%中国图书版权贸易的科学化体系建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾曼

    2015-01-01

    With the quickening of the economic globalization,China's book publishing industry also gradually connect with the world and began to face the fierce market competition.In recent years,the number of China's import of books has reached tens of thousands of species,but the proportion of import and export of domestic library faces serious imbalance.In terms of book copyright export,the number of Chinese books and the import of books have a great gap between the number of book copyright import and export of unbalanced,which shall causes our full attention,we should analyze the reasons by powerful means to nar-row the book rights deficit,so as to promote the development of book copyright trade in our country.%随着经济全球化进程的日益加快,中国的图书出版行业也逐渐开始与世界接轨,并且开始面临着激烈的市场竞争。近些年来,我国进口图书的数量已经达到了几万种,但是我国图书进出口的比例严重失调。在图书版权出口方面,中国图书的数量与进口图书的数量之间具有较大的差距,图书版权进出口的不平衡应当引起我们充分的重视,我们要分析其中原因,通过有力的手段来缩小图书版权的逆差,从而促进我国图书版权行业的发展。

  17. The Analysis on Approaches of Internet Copyright Protection of China, America and Europe%中、美、欧网络版权保护路径简析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕长军

    2015-01-01

    在应对数字技术、网络技术对版权的挑战中,中、美、欧三法域根据自己的法律传统、保护目的以及本国(地区)的国情选择了不同的路径。美国是用改造传统的版权理论,以“复制权+发行权”来解决网络版权问题;奉行版权权利高保护主义的欧洲采用的是以“复制权+对外传播权”的路径;中国采用的是第三条路径,即为权利人创设一项新的权利“信息网络传播权”。本文就三种路径作一简要叙述和分析,以求抛砖引玉。%With the development of digital and Internet technology, the copy ̄right protection has faced challenges. Subject to legal traditions, legislative intent as well as their own national conditions, the three legal areas, China, America and Europe, chose different approaches to deal with the problems. America, remolding the traditional copyright theory, deals with copyright issues with the framework of“the right of reproduction plus the right of distribution”. Europe adopts another approach that combines the right of reproduction with the right of communication. While China chose the third approach that the copyright owners are entitled a new right called Information Network Transmission Right. The essay here makes a brief and analyzes the three approaches.

  18. 在先著作权与商标权的冲突与协调新探%The latest analysis of the conflict and coordination between the prior copyright and trademark rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹玲容

    2016-01-01

    The conflict between copyright and trademark rights is the main form in the intellectual property rights conflict.The trademark law tends to over-protect the trademark rights when there is a conflict between copyright and trademark rights.That is not consistent with the intellectual property law theory and the provisions of the copy-right law.It also make not harmonious to intellectual property law enforcement system.To solve this problem well, we can improve the rights loss system of trademark law,and changes form the power of declaring invalidation of the registered trademark from the executive to judiciary.%在知识产权的权利冲突中,著作权与商标权之间的冲突是其主要表现形式。我国现行《商标法》协调二者冲突的条款过于倾向对在后商标权的保护,与知识产权法的理论及我国《著作权法》的规定不相符,实践中也易导致知识产权执法体制的不协调。完善商标法中的权利丧失制度,将宣告注册商标无效的权力从行政权变更为司法权,能很好地解决这一问题。

  19. 数字著作权交易制度价值考量--基于经济法视角%The Value Consideration of Digital Copyright Transaction System Based on the Perspective of Economic Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史辉

    2016-01-01

    对于复杂、系统的著作权交易问题转化为具体理论工具分析的学术问题,本文主要从制度的价值考量入手,基于经济法视角和学科理论对数字著作权交易制度进行价值考量,进一步阐释知识产权制度的内部矛盾与外部性适应问题。以期这种制度的价值研究有利于著作权交易制度的完善,使市场、政府和司法之间的张力缓和,使其制度在应然价值的追求上实现使然的状态。%For complex,system of copyright trade transformation for the analysis of specific theoretical tool of academic problems,this thesis starts from the consideration of the value of the system,based on the value consideration from the perspective of the economic law and the theory of digital copyright trading system,made further interpretation of the intellectual property system internal conflicts and external adaptation problems. In order that the study of the value of this system is conducive to the perfection of the copyright trading system,the tension between the market,the government and the judiciary,so that the system should be in the pursuit of the ideal value to achieve the result of the state.

  20. Direito autoral e economia criativa: a construção de uma economia preocupada com a criatividade | Copyrights and the creative economy: the construction of an economy preoccupied with creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Wachowicz

    2011-10-01

    the construction of a Regulatory Framework for the Creative Economy in Brazil. This is based on the understanding that the Creative Economy and Sustainable Development promotes the human, social and technologically inclusive way, i.e. it is not a simple vision of economic growth. This is because the new concepts inherent in the Creative Economy embrace the use of technological tools (ICTs in its interface with education, architecture, design, training of creative, the Local Productive Arrangement (APL and the creative industries (CIs. Keywords Copyright, Creative Economy, Sustainable development

  1. Research of DCI Coding Scheme and Digital Certificates in Digital Copyright Protection%数字版权保护中DCI编码方案及数字证书研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨树林; 孙丽; 胡洁萍

    2012-01-01

    Digital copyright identifier provides a unique identity for digital content on the Internet and the technology foundation,ensures accurate location and retrieval of digital works,confirmming the copyright entity in network environment.The top priority is that DCI(digital copyright identifier) system must be established as soon as possible.On the concept and design principles of DCI,it analyses of relevant foreign research status,proposes coding scheme for copyright protection of our country's DCI,and gives encryption mechanisms in the mobile Internet application,digital certifi-cates,and DCI embedded program.Using the above method,it shows good compatibility,easy integration with the Interna-tional DOI(digital object identifier),encryption and digital certificates are designed for applications on the mobile Internet.%数字版权标志符为数字内容在互联网上提供唯一的版权身份标志,为确保在网络环境中能够精准定位和检索数字作品、确认版权主体提供了技术基础。建立数字版权标志符体系是我国数字版权管理发展的迫切要求。通过研究DCI(数字版权标志符)的概念、设计原则,分析了国外相关研究的现状,提出了适合我国版权保护的DCI编码方案,并给出了应用于移动互联网的加密机制、数字证书及DCI嵌入方案。研究结果表明,采用上述方法,兼容性好,易于与国际上的DOI(digital object identifier)接轨,加密机制及数字证书的设计适合在移动互联网上应用。

  2. An Analysis of the Authorship of Film Work and the Ownership of Copyright%影视作品的作者身份和著作权归属问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣庆云

    2011-01-01

    Based on the different understanding of the creative act and the nature of copyright for works,the two family of laws have a different understanding of the authorship for film and television works,and they adopt different legislative models.The provisions of the author's identity and scope are not clear in our country.As for the ownership of film and television works' copyright,our country's legislative model is not only contrary to the jurisprudence,the author's rights have not been given due respect,and to return to the civil law of the authentic is the correct way.Meanwhile,to change the confusion of the signature for authors between the film and television work and the copyright,we should improve legislation to respect the author,and it is necessary to define "the producer" and make clear requirements about the signature for film and television works of copyright holders.%基于对作品创作行为和著作权性质的不同理解,两大法系对影视作品的作者身份也有不同的理解,并采取了不同的立法处理模式。目前,我国著作权法对作者的身份和范围的规定均不够明确。在影视作品著作权归属问题上,我国著作权法的立法模式不仅有悖法理,作者的权利也未得到应有的尊重,正确的做法是回到大陆法系的正宗。同时,为解决影视作品作者和著作权人署名不规范的问题,国家应尽快完善相关立法,科学界定"制片者"定义,同时对影视作品著作权人的署名做出明确要求。

  3. The Revelations of Copyright Strategic Management of Publishing Companies in Europe and America%欧美出版企业版权战略管理对我国出版企业的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚

    2011-01-01

    基于国内出版界版权战略管理实践现状和出版学界理论研究现实,分析了欧美发达国家出版企业的版权管理情况并总结相关经验,以期为我国出版企业版权战略管理提供有益参考。%This paper introduces the copyright strategic management of publishing companies in Europe and America,summerizes their experiences in macroscopic background,support system and specific policies and acquired some revelations for Chinese publishing companies.

  4. The Implementation of Access Monitoring in Copyright Protection for Vector Data%访问监控在矢量数据版权保护中的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟; 白桂梅; 张富

    2012-01-01

    Access monitoring is the core content of monitoring service, which is the key to realize copyright protection for Vector Data. Based on access monitoring, copyright protection on vector data can effectively make up for the disadvantages of data' s being unprotected after decrypted and post-detection of digital watermarking technology. Through analyzing the access process of vector data, the author proposed clearly to set up monitoring points during data input and output, including loading, saving and other forms of output monitoring, such as releasing, printing, printing screen- Finally, the paper probes into monitoring mechanism and the monitoring process of access monitoring.%访问监控是监控服务的核心研究内容,是矢量数据版权保护实现的关键,能有效弥补数据解密后不再被保护以及数字水印技术事后检测的缺点.本文通过分析矢量数据访问过程,在数据输入、输出设置监控点,将访问监控内容分解为读取、保存监控以及发布、打印、拷屏等其他方式的输出监控,同时,本文对访问监控的监控机制、监控流程进行了深入探讨.

  5. The Law and Economic Analysis of Copyright Fair Use Issue in Google Digital Library --On Perfecting the Relevant Regulation of Copyright Law in Our Country%谷歌数字图书馆著作权合理使用问题的法经济学分析——兼论我国著作权法相关规定的完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚鹤徽

    2012-01-01

    著作权法合理使用制度在法经济学上的正当性在于市场失灵,主要表现为交易成本过高和正外部性无法有效地内部化。从表面上看,谷歌为构建其数字图书馆,未经授权扫描他人作品的行为构成著作权侵权。然而,谷歌扫描他人图书的行为面临着著作权市场上交易成本过高和正外部性难以有效地内部化的市场失灵。由于市场无法完成作品资源的优化配置,谷歌的行为宜认定为合理使用,以充分释放网络技术的能量,造福于社会公众。%The legitimacy of law and economics of fair use system in copyright law is market failure, mainly assumes for transaction costs too high and positive externality unable to effectively internalization. On the surface, for the construction of the dig- ital library, Google Unauthorized scanning works of others constitutes copyright infringement. However, Google scan others books facing market failure of transaction costs too high and positive externality cannot be effectively internalization in the copyright mar- ket. Since the market can't complete the works of optimal allocation of resources, Google's behavior should be identified as fair use, in order to release the energy of the network technology, better service to the public.

  6. Production, consumption and text in music industry: The problem of copyrightMüzik endüstrisinde üretim, tüketim ve metin: Telif sorunsalı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Darcan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the relevance of the concept of copyright, which took its modern form in the last century, to the present conditions specific to music in the light of technological and cultural changes. Firstly, it provides a basic definition of copyright along with examples related to its implementation. Then, it dwells on production, distribution and consumption dimensions of music, addressing their differences between 20th and 21st centuries. The main cause of these differences is that there have been radical changes in technology and that reflections of these changes on cultural field have created a completely new paradigm. One of the characteristics of this new paradigm is that unprecedented creativity techniques and ideas are emerged in conjunction with the continuing intertwinement of the consumption and production dimensions of music. The article tries to express all these issues in relation to the need of alteration of the copyright concept, and discusses new alternatives to copyright, especially the most prominent one being Creative Commons. Pointing out the potential developments, it emphasizes the need of reformulation of the laws and regulations related to copyright.   Özet Bu makale, bugünkü biçimini geçtiğimiz yüzyılda almış olan telif hakları konseptinin müzik özelinde günümüz koşullarına uygunluğunu, teknolojik ve kültürel değişimler ışığında incelemeye çalışır. Bu bağlamda, ilk olarak bu konseptin kısa bir tanımına ve uygulanmasına ilişkin örneklere yer verir; ardından ise müziğin üretim, dağıtım ve tüketim boyutları üzerinde durarak 20. yüzyıl ile 21. yüzyıl arasındaki farklara değinir. Bu farkların temel sebebi, teknolojide görülen değişimler ile bu değişimlerin kültürel alana yansımasının tamamen yeni bir durum meydana getirmiş olmasıdır. Bu yeni durumun niteliklerinden biri de, müziğin tüketim ve üretim boyutlarının her geçen gün daha

  7. 政府加值資訊著作權交易平台之設計與管理 The Copyright Trading Platform for Government Added-information: A Study of Planning and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-yeou Chiu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available 本文提出一網路交易平台之實驗性設計與政策建議,功能擴及政府 加值資訊著作權之歸屬查詢、政府資訊出版單位與民間加值業者經營互動之模式、政府資訊之管理等,實現政府資訊之授權機制。「政府加值資訊著作權交易平台」之管理設計所涉及之查詢欄位頗多,不論內容敘述、權利敘述或交易描述等,皆藉既有制度作相關之對映設計,並特就檢索協定與政府資訊內容之數位物件識別碼作詳細建議和規劃。本研究之精神目標在於為電子化政府下的政府資訊建造與研擬一個符合「數位內容與文化創意產業」發展的整合願景。This paper aims at the issues of electronic trading in copyright objects and its impacts and implications for government information. The copyright trading platform for government added-information identifies some specific functions and elements of trading models that have been proposed. New mapping elements of content description, rights description and trading description are being developed whereby rights in digital works can be traded electronically. For government information that are dependent on dissemination and publishing of copyright objects, the developments of protocol and digital object identifier also have substantial implications, which are suggested in this paper. Its purpose is to identify implications for information society in general, and for government information market in particular, on the one hand, to exploit the opportunities of Digital contents and cultural creation industry created by new technologies.

  8. Copyright Protection of Product Design:from the Aspect of 3 D Printing%产品设计图著作权保护研究--以3D打印为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 欧阳

    2014-01-01

    Product design is the key factor in 3 D printing,which is protected by copyright as drawing work.As the value of design is embodied in the manufacturing of products,the 3D printing using it should be deemed as the reproduction of copyright law,and should provide protection to it.In defi-ning the scope of design,we should choose the most restrict standard and take experts as the subject in defining whether the design and the accused protection is the same or similar.In the phase of pro-tection,we should also solve the problem of right publication,provision of reproduction directly from physical production,and develop new related right.Through these measures,the copyright in the 3D printing can be effectively protected,and promote the manufacturing and dissemination through 3D printing.%产品设计图是3D打印的关键要素,作为图形作品受到著作权保护。由于产品设计图的价值主要体现在产品制造过程中,因此根据其进行3D打印并制造产品的行为应当被认为是著作权法上的复制行为,而且应当对其提供著作权保护。在确定保护范围时,应当根据现有最为严格的标准,以设计专家作为判别设计图与产品是否构成相同或者近似。在进行保护时,还需要解决权利公示问题,要对根据产品进行直接3D打印复制行为提供保护,并且设定新的邻接权。通过这些措施,可以有效地保护3D打印领域的著作权,并鼓励通过3D打印制造和传播作品。

  9. Analysis of AMLC test results in the light of Copyright Law and scientific research moral%AMLC检测结果之《著作权法》与科研道德分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锐锋

    2012-01-01

    使用AMLC为检测工具,检测国内某医学期刊2011年第1~4期所发表的139篇论文中存在的学术不端问题,检出可疑对象21篇,发现合法发表6篇(4.3%),存在学术不端15篇(10.8%)。并据此进行著作权分析和科研道德分析。指出AMLC的检测结果存在“假阳性”问题。提出大力推广应用AMLC,从编辑出版各环节防范学术不端的同时,应科学分析AMLC的检测结果,对“假阳性”结果应加以剔除,同时应加强科研道德教化和《著作权法》的普及教育,加强立法,坚决打击侵犯著作权的行为等一系列措施。%With the fast development of information technology, it is more convenient to acquire and use the desired information, which results in frequent academic infringements. Using AMLC as the tool, we tested the academic misconduct in the first four issues of a domestic medical journal published in 2011. Of 139 tested papers, 6 papers (4. 3%) are free of misconduct, 21 are suspectable, and 15 (10.8%) are detected having academic misconduct. However, we find that the suspectable or detected misconduct is somewhat exaggerated according to the Copyright Law and scientific research moral. This paper point out that, while popularizing AMLC to prevent academic misconduct, we should analyze the test results scientifically, and screen out those "false" results. We should also strengthen universal education to people in terms of Copyright Law and scientific research moral, reinforce legislation, and fight firmly against copyright infringements.

  10. 著作權法「防盜拷措施」條款例外規定要點之檢討 The Review of Regulations Concerning the Exceptions of Anti-piracy Measures Clauses in Taiwan Copyright Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    章忠信 Chung-Hsin Chang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available 「科技保護措施」是著作權人在數位網路環境下,以技術保護其權利的重要手段,國際著作權法制對於這些「科技保護措施」,再以法律保護,使其不被任意破解或規避。然而,這些規定對於廣大的公眾利益究竟有何負面影響,非無疑義。我國著作權法在2004 年9 月1 日增訂「防盜拷措施」條款後,主管機關終於在2006 年3 月23 日發布「防盜拷措施」排除適用範圍之認定要點,即「著作權法第80 條之2 第3 項各款內容認定要點」,本文針對此一要點的訂定背景與內容作簡要介紹與分析,期望引起各界的關注,也可以為本要點下一次的檢討修正作準備。 Technological Protection Measures (TPMs is an important method for copyright owners to employ technology to protect his right under digital internet environment. International copyright treaty establishes legal regime to prevent those TPMs from crack or circumvention. However, what negative side effects those regulations may cause to the public interest needs to be evaluated. Taiwan amended its Copyright Law and introduced so-call Anti-piracy Measures clauses on Sep. 1, 2004. In addition, the Competent Authority released the regulations concerning the details of exceptions and limitations set forth in Paragraph 3 of Article 80ter on Mar. 23, 2006. This Article summarizes the background and analysis the details of the regulations. The purpose of this Article is to raise the public concern to this issue. It may also make a preparation to amend the Regulation.

  11. On Vicarious Liability Rules of Copyright Law---Reviewing Related Regulations Perfection of China%论著作权法替代责任制度--兼评我国立法相关条款的完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚鹤徽

    2013-01-01

    Vicarious Liability , as an important rule in the traditional civil tort law , primarily used in em-ployer-employee relationship , guardianship relationship , reflects the values of civil law protecting the inter-ests of vulnerable parties and seeking a reasonable distribution of unfortunately harm .The United States copy-right law , also through cases introduced this rules , gradually identified types of vicarious liability cases , bring-ing the judicial protection of copyright with great convenience .Vicarious liability in the field of copyright law not only reflects the law ’ s moral values of fairness and justice , but also meets the requirements of economic ef-ficiency .Article 22 of paragraph 4 in China's the Right of Communication through Information Network Regula-tions are about vicarious liability rules , but its liability requirements has defects , putting Internet service pro-viders overweight supervision and control obligation , and conflicting with indirect infringement rule .When es-tablishing the copyright vicarious liability rules under Network environment , we need analyze the status of net-work operators , assess their source of profit and supervision control ability and avoid interference with its nor-mal business activities .%作为民法侵权责任法中的重要制度,替代责任主要适用于雇佣和监护关系,体现了民法保护弱势群体、合理分配不幸损害的价值理念。在著作权领域,美国率先通过判例引入替代责任,并逐渐将适用这一规则的案件类型化,为著作权保护提供了极大的便利。著作权替代责任制度不仅体现了法的公平正义价值取向,也符合法的经济效率要求。我国《信息网络传播权保护条例》第22条第4款是关于替代责任的规定,但其责任构成要件存在缺陷,给网络服务提供商施加了过重的监督控制义务,且与间接侵权规则相冲突。网络环境下建立著作权替代责任规则

  12. On Legislation Architecture of Copyright Exceptions Applicable to Libraries of China%可适用于我国图书馆的著作权例外立法框架研究^*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国彬

    2012-01-01

    The article analyzed the legal basis to build a legislative framework of copyright exceptions applicable to li- braries. Based on this analysis, it pointed nut seven principles for setting up such a legislative framework, which includes: be open to the international world while based on national conditions; applying a three-step test to the legislative frame- work; considering both general copyright exceptions and specific copyright exceptions; considering both statutory copyright exceptions and creative commons; considering both quantitative requirements and non-quantitative requirements; including a dynamic review process. Then it proposed seven items in terms of the legislation contents, which include: general guide- lines; library qualifications; fair use for libraries; statutory and compulsory license permissions; the exceptions to reproduc- tion right; the exceptions to communication fight through information network; as well as the exceptions to circumvention of technological measures. 14 refs.%现有著作权法中有关著作权例外的规定很难满足图书馆的实际需求。在分析法理依据的基础上,提出构建适用我国图书馆的著作权例外的七项原则:关注世界,立足国情:以三步检验法为我国图书馆著作权例外立法框架的基准:合理协调概括性著作权例外与适用特定目的的著作权例外:合理协调针对若干项与单独某项的著作权专有使用权的例外;合理协调法定著作权例外与声明性著作权例外;合理协调量化规定与非量化规定;动态审查。进而提出七项基本内容:我国图书馆著作权例外的概括性规定;图书馆著作权例外的主体资格认定:图书馆可适用的合理使用;图书馆可适用的法定许可与强制许可;图书馆可适用的复制权例外;图书馆可适用的信息网络传播权例外;图书馆可适用的技术措施规避例外。参考文献14。

  13. 政府加值資訊著作權交易平台之設計與管理 The Copyright Trading Platform for Government Added-information: A Study of Planning and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong-yeou Chiu; Ming-Hsiang Cheng

    2004-01-01

    本文提出一網路交易平台之實驗性設計與政策建議,功能擴及政府 加值資訊著作權之歸屬查詢、政府資訊出版單位與民間加值業者經營互動之模式、政府資訊之管理等,實現政府資訊之授權機制。「政府加值資訊著作權交易平台」之管理設計所涉及之查詢欄位頗多,不論內容敘述、權利敘述或交易描述等,皆藉既有制度作相關之對映設計,並特就檢索協定與政府資訊內容之數位物件識別碼作詳細建議和規劃。本研究之精神目標在於為電子化政府下的政府資訊建造與研擬一個符合「數位內容與文化創意產業」發展的整合願景。This paper aims at the issues of electronic trading in copyright objects and its impacts and implications for government information. The copyright trading platform for government added-information identifies some specific functions and elements of trading models...

  14. 国内Android定制手机系统中的版权困境及其应对%Study on the Obstacle of Copyright in Chinese Custom Android System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇

    2014-01-01

    As the largest share of China’s smart phone market,Android operating system is popular among many Chinese enterprises which develop the phone system because of its openness.However,through analyzing parts of Android ’s copyright,domestic enterprises will face many obstacles of copyright in the course of customizing local Android system. In order to solve these obstacles,our country should regulate the right and obligations of open-source software from the perspective of legislation and guide the domestic development enterprise set up correlative guild to embark the road of in-dependent smart phone system research and development.%Android操作系统作为占据国内市场份额最大的一套移动智能终端操作系统,以其开源性获得了国内众多手机系统开发企业的青睐。但是,具体分析Android系统各组成部分的版权机制,可以发现国内企业在对这样一款开源操作系统进行定制时仍面临着诸多版权问题,如开源协议的法律效力不甚明确、手机系统自身存在的版权瑕疵、追责困难等。针对上述问题,我国应当从立法上对开源软件权利义务关系进行规范,同时引导国内手机系统开发企业建立相应的行业协会,真正走上自主研发智能手机操作系统的道路。

  15. 利用综合特征提取的数字图像版权保护算法%Digital Image Copyright Protection Scheme Using Joint Feature Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范礼; 高铁杠; 杨群亭

    2011-01-01

    In order to protect and validate the ownership of digital multimedia works, a novel copyright authentication watermarking scheme, contrasted with the conventional robust watermarking scheme, is proposed. The joint feature extracted in proposed scheme consists of the luminance feature and the texture feature, wherein, the clustering function of generalized brain-state-in-a-box neural network (gBSB) and histogram statistical moment are employed to describe luminance and texture respectively. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme is adequately resilient to some malicious attacks, and it is practicable and reliable to be applied to the application in copyright protection.%为了有效地保护和验证数字媒体作品的版权信息,提出一种区别于传统嵌入式鲁棒水印的数字水印算法.算法中所提取的特征是由区域亮度和纹理特性所组成的综合特征,其中亮度特征的提取利用了扩展盒中脑神经网络(gBSB)的聚类功能,对于区域的纹理特征,则是通过分析其直方图统计矩来提取的.仿真结果表明,该水印方案对于常规的信号处理及几何变换攻击具有良好的鲁棒性,是一种实用的、有效的数字图像版权保护水印算法.

  16. 简论国际因素对中国大陆图书版权贸易的影响%A Discuss on the Influence of International Factors on the Copyright Trade in Mainland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡菊兰

    2012-01-01

    长期以来,学术界主要从国内角度而较少从国际角度来解释大陆图书版权贸易巨额逆差的成因,因此难以做到在宏观认识上有所突破。本文认为,在全球化大背景下,现有国际秩序没有大变的情况下,中国大陆图书版权贸易逆差虽然会逐步缩小,但是逆差的趋势短时间无法逆转。不仅如此,中国大陆与国际体系主要强国美国和英国的版权贸易的赤字状况可能还会延续较长时间,因为这是处于国际秩序低端位置的国家在文化贸易方面的普遍结果。%for a long time, the academic circle explains the cause of the huge deficit of copyright trade in mainland China more from domestic level and less from the international level. Therefore, it is difficult to understand the situation from the macroscopic view. The paper holds that, in globalization background, the existing international order will not change greatly, and the copyright trade deficit of mainland China will gradually narrow, but it is impossible for the deficit situation to reverse in a short time. It is the general results in the culture trade for the countries at the lower end of the international order position.

  17. On the Standard Awareness of References Citing in Monographs and Copyright Protection%文献征引中的规范意识与著作权保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连举

    2015-01-01

    Monographs can not be completed without citing references.References citing in monographs plays the role of offering supporting evidence and disclosing information sources, which is beneficial to reader's re-trieval and statistical appraisal.However, some monographs pay less attention to the correctness and standard of references citing, such as disorderly labeling system, improper mode of references citing, poor awareness of copy-right, etc..The statistical errors affect the reliability of academic statistics and bring negative influences to tracing and searching, which makes academic appraisal work lack of accuracy and objectivity.Therefore, the standard awareness of references citing shall be improved by paying more attention to the scientific and correct citing of ref-erences, editors'proofreading and copyright protection.%学术论著离不开文献征引。文献征引对论著内容起着支持佐证和揭示其信息来源的作用,既便利读者检索又有益于统计评价。但有些论著对文献征引著录的正确性、规范性重视程度不够,标注体系混乱,征引方式失妥,版权意识淡薄,其数据的误差影响了学术统计源的可靠性,对追踪检索也带来不利因素,使得学术评价工作失去了准确性和客观性。这就要求提升文献征引的规范意识,重视引文的科学性和准确性,注意编辑校对,加强文献征引的著作权保护。

  18. Anonymous and Traceable Copyright Protection Protocol Based on Mobile Devices%基于移动设备的匿名可追踪版权保护协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜堃; 王晓明

    2012-01-01

    Anonymous and traceable copyright protection protocol based on mobile devices was put forward in this paper. Firstly,others can not track the user by using the changing identity to replace user's true identity in the protocol. The anonymous nature exists in the protocol. Secondly, the protocol uses the method that one password only applies one fingerprint watermark so that the protocol resists the fake attack. Thirdly, while using one-way hash function to verify the identity of participators and the digital content, the protocol transfers the calculating works to the trusted center RA with enough computing ability from mobile users. The two behaviors reduce the mobile's calculating works, and improve efficiency. In addition, the copyright watermark and fingerprint watermark embedded in the digital product are used to trace the traitor when finding one or more illegal copies of the digital product So the protocol has the ability of traitor tracing. The analysis indicates that the protocol is secure and practical.%提出了基于移动设备的匿名可追踪的版权管理协议.首先,它使用不断变换的临时身份来代替用户的真实身份,使其他人不可能跟踪到用户,它关注用户动态,具有匿名性;其次,使用一次口令申请一个水印的方法来抵抗假冒攻击;再次,采用单向哈希函数的认证方法对用户身份、数字内容进行验证;协议中的一些计算由可信中心完成,以减少移动用户的计算量,提高效率.另外在数字产品中嵌入版权水印和指纹水印,当发现非法副本时,它可以对叛逆者进行追踪,具有可追踪性.分析表明,该协议是安全有效的.

  19. 考虑消费者版权意识差异的信息产品定价策略%The Pricing Strategy of Information Goods Considering the Consumer’s Copyright Consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭梅; 邓流生; 沈娜利; 陈伟

    2012-01-01

    Based on copyright consciousness difference,consumers are divided into ethical consumers and unethical consumers.The pricing strategy of information products monopolist and its impact on the creator are analyzed.The results show that the monopolists’ optimal pricing has a big difference because of consumer structure and market sensitivity,and there is no single fixed pricing strategy.High price strategy can win the support of the ethical consumer.But when there is a piracy threat,the monopolist may suffer loss of profits due to price sensitivity of general consumers,and the lower unit variable costs,the greater the loss of profits.In addition,creators’expected pricing should be lower than the monopolist’s optimal pricing.The improvement of copyright rate cannot guarantee increased revenue to the creator,so there is a need for pricing coordination.%依据消费者的版权意识差异将消费者细分为伦理消费者和普通消费者,研究了信息产品垄断厂商的最优定价策略及其对艺术创作者的影响。研究表明:垄断厂商的最优定价因消费者结构、市场敏感性等因素而存在较大差异,没有一个固定的定价策略。高价策略可以得到伦理消费者的支持,但当存在盗版威胁时,垄断厂商因普通消费者的价格敏感特性而面临利润损失,单位可变成本越低,利润损失越大。此外,艺术创作者的期望定价要低于垄断厂商的最优定价,提高版权费率并不能保证给艺术创作者带来收益增加,双方存在定价协调问题。

  20. Research on Books Copyright Problems under Publishing Industry Cultural Perspective%出版产业文化视角下的图书著作权问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小静

    2015-01-01

    出版产业包括所有与图书作品出版和发行相关的服务,是我国图书类产业中的一个十分重要的领域,出版产业的健康发展,能够丰富艺术产品,提升我国的文化软实力。作为文化产业中的龙头,新闻出版业必须从根本上解决传统出版业中一直存在的基本矛盾,这就缺少不了图书著作权的保驾护航。%The publishing industry includes all services related to books publication and distribution,is a very important in the book industry of China.The healthy development of the publishing industry can enrich art products,promote the cultural soft power of our country.As a cultural industry leader,press and publication industry must fundamentally solve the basic contra-diction of traditional publishing industry which has always been,it is necessery of book copyright.

  1. 论AppStore在中美网络版权法上的性质%On the Nature of Application Store in Copyright Law of China and the US

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文

    2013-01-01

    App Store即application store,通常译为“应用程序商店”,由美国苹果公司于2008年3月首创,2009年以来其他运营商也纷纷崛起,现已形成庞大的前瞻性市场。苹果作为主导者,仅2011-2012年就发生了几起举国关注的版权纠纷,如“作家联盟诉苹果案”、“大百科诉苹果案”。中国的《信息网络传播权保护条例》新司法解释刚于2013年1月1日起正式实施。App Store在版权法上的性质和责任,及商业模式与版权保护之争,已成为新法背景下的重要命题。%Application store, usually named as“App Store”, is created firstly by the U.S. company Apple. Inc. in March 2008. Since 2009, there was a rise of other carriers and application store has been a huge market now. Apple, as a leader, was involved in series of legal disputes during 2011 to 2012, such as “Writers’ Union v. Apple”,“Encyclopedia Book v. Apple.” China’s newest judicial interpretation on “Information Network Dissemination Right Protection Ordinance” came into force on January 1, 2013. App Store’s nature, business models liabilities and protection in copyright law has become an important issue in legislative and practical levels.

  2. ARMONIZACIÓN DE LOS DERECHOS DE AUTOR EN LA COMUNIDAD ANDINA: HACIA UN NUEVO RÉGIMEN COMÚN Copyright harmonization in the andean community: through a new common regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cerda Silva

    2011-01-01

    ón normativa.The Andean Community, which started late in the sixties, is one of the main processes of integration in Latino America, that currently involves Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. In 1993, as part of the process of integration, the Andean Community adopted the Decision 351 that sets forth a common regime on copyright and neighboring rights. That regime was a first step in the legal harmonization on that matter for those countries, which still preserve their domestic law, in so far as it does not infringe the provisions of the Decision. However, the efficiency of the common regime as an instrument for harmonization within the Andean Community has been reduced because of the course of the years, challenges of new technologies, and emerging bilateralism, among other causes. At the same time, even when tolerated by the common regime, significant differences between the domestic law of country members obstacle the proper functioning of the internal, particularly en el context of digital economy. Those circumstances made explicit the need for updating the common regime in order to facilitate the integration of the Andean Community. This article describes briefly the Decision 351, and then analyzes the main limitations of the in force common regime in order to identify the issues that require an urgent legal harmonization within the Andean Community. Then, this article suggests some those issues on which the Andean Community must emphasize its harmonization when updating the common regime -copyright scope, exceptions and limitations, public domain, and copyright enforcement- and makes some recommendations on strategies to achieve that legal harmonization.

  3. On The Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances and the Upgrading of China's Copyright Law%论《视听表演北京条约》及我国著作权法的完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 黄亮

    2014-01-01

    《北京条约》是在国际条约体系存在缺陷、利益的平衡与博弈以及传播技术迅速变革的背景下诞生的。该条约在妥善处理与其他条约关系的同时,在表演者权利的客体、内容、适用领域、转让方式和保护期限等五个方面进行了发展和完善,形成了自己的制度优势。我国《著作权法》与《北京条约》相协调,应合理界定表演者概念、暂不规定表演者出租权、申请保留广播和向公众传播的权利、合理规定权利转让方式,以期更好地与国际接轨,有效地保护视听表演者的权利。%The Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances is concluded in the background of the defects of international treaty system, the balance and game of interests and the rapid progress of transmission technology.The treaty deals with the relationship with other treaties reasonably, and develops and improves five aspects of audiovisual performers'rights:the objects, contents, field of ap-plication, transfer means, and term of protection, which form its institutional advantage.China's Copyright Law should be harmonized with the treaty, define the term of audiovisual performers reasonably, not stipulate performre s'er ntla rights temporarily, apply for keeping the rights of broadcasting and public transmission, regulate the ways ofr ight transfer carefully, in order to be geared to international conventions, and protect the rights of audiovisual performers effectively.

  4. COPYRIGHT PROTECTION FOR CREATIVE INDUSTRIES: COMPARISON AMONG CHINA AND EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina ORTEGA NUERE; Silvia Maria GONZALEZ

    2013-01-01

    The impact and creativity has increase in the last years in Europe. It was focused by an United Nations report on creative economy in 2008 .Cooperation and trade in goods and services has increased. Today, the EU is the biggest destination for China's exports and the second supplier to China. For the EU, China is the second trading partner, after the United States. Based on current agreements between the two continents, we can mention the following documents that justify our research: The bil...

  5. AJCEMl2002027I2214 COPYRIGHT 2002 AFR J CLIN EXP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There had been an under reporting of the disease in the country despite the ... structure and mechanism of virus (4,5). The rabies ..... Hospital records of human rabies and anti- .... These replicate and lyse the cells to release progeny phage. .... examined with a light microscope in a well-illuminated ...... image 3 sub $.m.

  6. 15 Minutes of Shame? Copyright Issues in Celebrity Sex Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenfeld, Shelly

    2013-01-01

    It's the tape that launched a thousand clips Paris Hilton's Celebrity Sex Video became a form of "Must See TV". Celebrities are used to performing for the camera. But when Hilton was caught on video, she reacted as many participants do when their celebrity sex tapes are revealed they file a lawsuit. This article explores the vario...

  7. Robust Image Watermarking in the Wavelet Domain for Copyright Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Dehghan, Hamed

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a new approach to image watermarking in wavelet domain is presented. The idea is to hide the watermark data in blocks of the block segmented image. Two schemes are presented based on this idea by embedding the watermark data in the low pass wavelet coefficients of each block. Due to low computational complexity of the proposed approach, this algorithm can be implemented in real time. Experimental results demonstrate the impercepti-bility of the proposed method and its high robustness against various attacks such as filtering, JPEG compres-sion, cropping, noise addition and geometric distortions.

  8. Copyright Protection of Compression Video(MPEG-2) Using Watermark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, J.U.; Kim, I.T. [Myungji University, Yongin (Korea)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, an MPEG-2 based technique for embedding digital watermarks into MPEG-2 video is proposed. The technique hides watermarking information into the DCT coefficients of each frame from MPEG-2 video. Several experiments have been conducted to show the performance in different conditions : the location of embedding watermarks, the change of Bitrates, and relocation of I-pictures in the MPEG video. (author). 12 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. 2016 Copyright © 2016, CRISA Publications PATTERNS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of substance use among university students in ... The result of the study indicated that current alcohol use was reported by 67.5%,. Cigarette ... parental guidance and the unlimited sus- ceptibility ...

  10. 78 FR 66865 - Acquisition Regulation: Patents, Data, and Copyrights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ...). 4. Weapons Related Inventions DOE believes that the existing definition of ``weapons related subject invention'', included in appropriate contracts, needs to be renumbered, and procedures for allocation of rights to such inventions need to be clarified. These changes, and other minor modifications,...

  11. 2014 Copyright © 2014, CRISA Publications SELF-CONTROL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABStrAct. The study explored the relationship between self-control and alcohol consumption ... Self-control is a personality variable and refers to a ... of their actions, the situations in which they occur ..... trait self-control, and the guidance of.

  12. Copyright and the Value of the Public Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kristofer; Heald, Paul; Homberg, Fabian; Kretschmer, Martin; Mendis, Dinusha

    2015-01-01

    This research report documents the results of a year-long knowledge exchange initiative undertaken between the Intellectual Property Office, researchers at the University of Glasgow CREATe Centre, and more than two dozen UK businesses and innovators, to explore how value is generated from the public domain. The study was supported by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the Intellectual Property Office (IPO). The core research team consisted of Dr. Kristofer Erickson (Lord Kelv...

  13. Better Enforcement of Online Copyright Would Help, Not Harm, Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Legislation introduced in Congress last month (the "Combating Online Infringement and Counterfeits Act") would take an aggressive and needed stand against online piracy, a growing problem that hurts American consumers and costs Americans jobs. Critics of the legislation argue that this bill would hurt free speech, encourage censorship in foreign…

  14. 76 FR 4072 - Registration of Claims of Copyright

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... of such photographic databases or of groups of published photographs should contact the Visual Arts..., stock photography agencies have been able to obtain registrations covering all the photographs added to... Visual Arts Division has accepted some online applications for registration of photographic databases...

  15. 78 FR 22913 - Review of Copyright Royalty Judges Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ...); Final Determination at 49-62 (analyzing SDARS rates within a ``zone of reasonableness'').\\4\\ As this... reproduction and distribution of musical works under section 801(b)(1) and finding that such rates satisfied all four factors without any need for adjustment). Here, instead of analyzing a range of...

  16. Re-thinking copyright through the copy in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sezneva, O.

    2013-01-01

    How one copy of a film or a single is made illegal, while its identical twin is treated as legitimate? By drawing from the material collected in Russia on the illegal copying and distribution of video and musical contents, this paper moves beyond the definition of media piracy in legal terms, and

  17. Book Review: Stars (Copyright 1985, Golden Press; New York)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigza, R. N., Jr.

    2009-06-01

    Stars is a part of the Golden Guides collection produced by Golden Press. It is a small 160 page paperback guide to the constellations, the sun, the moon, planets, and other celestial bodies. The book is convenient to carry along wherever you go, making it an easy to access reference material.

  18. An Adaptive Watermarking Technique for Copyright Protection of Digital Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.S.; Lee, B.Y.; Park, S.H. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Chung, T.Y. [Kangnung National University, Kangnung (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    This paper proposes a new watermark embedding and extraction technique which extends the direct sequence spread spectrum technique. The proposed technique approximates the complexity of image and block in spatial domain using Laplacian filtering and watermark is adaptively embeded in the mid-frequency DCT components. Local parity bits are attached to higher-frequency DCT components and they are used to detect extraction errors and correct those errors. In extraction process, the proposed method boosts the higher frequency components of image and extracts the watermark by demodulation and this information is verified and adjusted by parity bits. Experimental results show it is invisible and robust to several external attacks. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. 2015 Copyright © 2015, CRISA Publications ALCOHOL uSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    services for the drinker, thereby perpetuating the cycle of drinking, domestic violence and family ... breakdown, and child abuse and neglect. A recent ... problems such as quarrels and fights with .... age of 9 years of formal education, which, ..... makes two important observations. First, drinking portends problems not only for.

  20. 1/27 DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND COPYRIGHT IN THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Background paper delivered at the Legal, Privacy, and Security Issues in Information ... threats in the increased legal and technological protection measures that grant .... cyber offence relating to the unauthorised access to, interception of or.

  1. 2016 Copyright © 2016, CRISA Publications ASSeSSing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sectional study, the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) was applied to measure these traits and ... sive behaviors to cope with interpersonal conflicts ... primary motivation. The current ... Scale. (SURPS) was used to evaluate the four.

  2. A Novel Digital Watermarking Technique for Video Copyright Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulami Ghosh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid growth of internet and technology, protecting digital data is becoming very urgent. In this paper a novel watermarking technique is proposed where both visible and invisible watermarks are embedded in a video. Digital data can be copied easily without any degradation in quality, so the protection of the data is necessary. Digital watermarking is a technology to embed additional information into the host signal to ensure security and protection of multimedia data. The video frames contain both the watermarks, so it is more robust to attacks. The watermarking scheme described here deals with embedding and extraction of the watermarks. Discrete Wavelet transform (DWT is used to embed the invisible watermark and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR is calculated to measure efficiency of this method.

  3. Re-thinking copyright through the copy in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sezneva, O.

    2013-01-01

    How one copy of a film or a single is made illegal, while its identical twin is treated as legitimate? By drawing from the material collected in Russia on the illegal copying and distribution of video and musical contents, this paper moves beyond the definition of media piracy in legal terms, and in

  4. Towards Text Copyright Detection Using Metadata in Web Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Marios; Korfiatis, Nikolaos; Bokos, George

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the semantic content identifier (SCI), a permanent identifier, computed through a linear-time onion-peeling algorithm that enables the extraction of semantic features from a text, and the integration of this information within the permanent identifier. Design/methodology/approach: The authors employ SCI to…

  5. 37 CFR 202.16 - Preregistration of copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... within one of the following classes of works: (i) Motion pictures; (ii) Sound recordings; (iii) Musical... expression, as follows: (A) For a motion picture, filming of the motion picture must have commenced; (B) For... motion pictures, such a description should include the following information to the extent known at...

  6. Fair Use and Unpublished Works. Joint Hearing on S. 2370 and H.R. 4263, Bills To Amend Section 107 of Title 17, United States Code...before the Subcommittee on Patents, Copyrights, and Trademarks of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary and the Subcommittee on Courts, Intellectual Property, and the Administration of Justice of the House Committee on the Judiciary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

    This hearing was called to consider two bills that would amend the section of the United States Code relating to fair use, to clarify that such section applies to both published and unpublished copyrighted works. Recent judicial developments are reviewed which suggest that the fair use doctrine does not apply to the subsequent uses of unpublished…

  7. Right Relief for the Right of the Film and Television Workers:Copyright Law of “Chinese Seventeenth Draft Provisions”%影视作品部分权利人的权利救济--兼评我国《著作权法送审稿》第十七条之规定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史本军

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,cases about the infringement on the rights of movie and TV work copyright holders are increasing.Due to the diversity of movie and TV works authorships and the complexity of authorization,there have been a lot of puzzles relating to the right remidium of the copyright holders,as well as many problems about the appliances of laws.This paper tries to exam the practical cases and the evolution of relating laws and rules,pointing out that under the authorization of some copyright holders of the movie and TV works,one of the holders or the consignee can claim financial reimbursement when there is infringement on the copyright of the works.%近些年来,影视作品权利人权利被侵害案件不断增多,因为影视作品署名的多样性与授权关系的复杂性致使部分权利人的权利救济遇到很多的困惑,由此不断涌现新的法律适用问题。通过实践案例以及有关法律法规规定的演变,在影视作品部分权利人授权的情况下,在遇到作品被侵害时,权利人之一或被委托人可以就侵权行为主张经济损害赔偿。

  8. 浅析国土资源科技创新成果著作权管理--以中国地质调查局计算机软件登记为例%Analysis of Copyright Administration in Relation to Achievements of Technical Innovation on Land and Resources-A Case Study of Computer Software Registration in China Geological Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓丽; 王学评; 兰晓双; 陈杨

    2016-01-01

    Through making statistical analysis on numerical tendency, software copyright owners’ distribution, and copyright classiifcation feature, this paper gives us something that can relfect the software copyright registration status of China Geological Survey. And on this basis, some problems that we face in software copyright administration of land and resources are pointed out. These include lack of awareness of registration, and low enthusiasm. On account of this, this paper offers that we should devote efforts to step up our publicity initiatives, create incentives, and encourage registration. In addition, policy suggestions concerning promoting the ability of science & technology innovation must be improved so as to boost the outcome & transformation of achievements of technical innovation on land and resources.%通过对中国地质调查局软件著作权登记信息的数量趋势、软件著作权人分布和著作权分类特征进行统计,分析了中国地调局软件著作权登记现状。在此基础上,结合国土资源软件著作权管理中存在的登记意识欠缺、登记积极性不高等问题,提出从加强宣传、建立激励机制和鼓励登记三方面入手,进一步提升国土资源科技创新能力的政策建议,以促进国土资源科技创新性成果的产出和转化。

  9. 关于微博作品著作权保护的调查报告--这里没有免费的午餐%Investigation Report on Copyright Protection of Micro-Blog Works:There’s No Free Lunch Here

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦嘉伟; 张杰; 陈波; 尚晓; 王月嘉; 程露

    2016-01-01

    With the development of the times,the micro—blog applications on the internet are rising rapidly.However,micro blog copyright infringement event occurs.Therefore,it is necessary to respond to the following questions:Is Micro blogging works have copyright and the right of ownership;under what circumstances micro blogging works may have infringement;how to protect micro blogging works copyright.%随着时代的发展,微博应用也在互联网上迅速崛起。然而微博作品侵权的事件时有发生,为此需要对以下问题作出回应:微博作品是否具有可版权以及其权利归属;在何种情况之下微博微博作品可能存在侵权;如何对微博作品的著作权进行保护。

  10. 著作財產權存續期間之經濟分析⎯⎯以數位權利管理科技的影響為中心 An Economic Analysis of Copyright Terms ― Focusing on the Architectural Changes by Digital Rights Management Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    王明禮 Ming-Li Wang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available 美國 1998 年通過之著作權存續期間延長法(Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, CTEA),其合憲性雖在Eldred v. Ashcroft 一案中得到法院肯定,其立法智慧卻飽受質疑。本文從Eldred 案中Akerlof 等經濟學家之論述出發,以經濟分析之方法探討著作權保護之社會成本,並以數位權利管理科技(digital rights management, DRM)之發展與其可能影響為論述之重點。 本文發現,對著作權獨占之絕對損失與著作授權交易成本兩大問題,理想的DRM 科技的確可以提供一定程度的緩和效果。視著作類型、利用型態及所考慮成本之性質,DRM 帶來的幫助大小有別,但整體而言,並非吾人得以忽略。因此隨著DRM 科技成熟,從效率的觀點反對著作權存續期間延長的基礎將日漸薄弱。然而,DRM 不旦發展前景仍未明朗,且即使是完美的DRM 也不能完全排除著作權保護所帶給社會的成本。如果進一步考慮保障著作權人絕對控制可能引起的反動,以及反規避條款或類似立法之執行成本,則立法者在著作權存續期間之斟酌上,實應更加審慎。台灣的立法者應將美國的CTEA 視為前車之鑑,而非效法之對象。 The Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 (CTEA, while having survived a surprisingly strong constitutional challenge in Eldred v. Ashcroft, remains controversial on efficiency ground. This article seeks to provide an economic analysis of the social costs of prolonged copyright terms, taking into account the potential of digital rights management (DRM technologies. The article suggests DRM technologies, when properly designed, may reduce the dead weight loss of copyright monopolies and the transaction costs of copyright licensing, seemingly strengthening the argument for prolonged or even perpetual copyright protection. Current DRM technologies are nevertheless far from ideal. With

  11. 侵害境外作品著作权纠纷案件中权属的认定--《托马斯 & 朋友》音像制品著作权纠纷案评析%Identifying the Ownership in the Foreign Copyright Disputes:the Case of Thomas & Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶宇

    2014-01-01

    The identification of copyright ownership is not only the logical starting point of copyright dispute cases, but also the important basis for the Court’s judgments. Whether the plaintiff put an adequate proof or not plays a decisive role in the identiifcation of copyright ownership. Some provisions of the Supreme People’s Court on Evidence in Civil Procedures has explicitly pointed out the formality of extraterritorial evidence. When the plaintiff ’s proof cannot meet the requirements of the formality of extraterritorial evidence, whether a people’s Court should choose to strictly deny the plaintiff ’s claim or comprehensively identify the copyright ownership based on other complementary evidences, whether some administrative approval documents could be regarded as a direct evidence for indentifying the ownership of import audio-visual products or not, and how to evaluate the sellers of illicit publications? All these issues are related to the balance and tradeoff among several legal interests and legal values made by Judge, which have instructive signiifcance for the rational allocation on the rights and obligations of the litigants.%著作权权属的认定是人民法院审理著作权纠纷案件的逻辑起点,也是人民法院判决的重要依据。原告的举证充分与否对权属的认定起着决定性作用。《最高人民法院关于民事诉讼证据的若干规定》对域外证据的形式要件作出了明确规定,当原告所举之证不能满足域外证据的形式要件时,人民法院是严格地以此为由驳回原告诉讼请求,还是结合其他证据综合认定著作权权利归属;行政审批材料能否成为进口音像制品权属认定中的直接证据;如何评价非法出版物销售商的销售行为,这些问题都涉及法官对不同法益与法律价值之间的平衡与取舍,对当事人的权利、义务合理性配置具有指导意义。

  12. 数字网络环境中著作权实现的困境与出路--基于 P2 P技术背景下美国音乐产业的实证分析%The Dilemma and Solution of Copyright Realization in Digital Network Environment---A Positive Analysis of U.S.Music Industry in the Background of P2P Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅夏英; 姜福晓

    2014-01-01

    数字网络技术给著作权的保护带来了巨大的挑战。技术保护措施、侵权诉讼以及逐级响应机制等既有网络著作权保护方式已陷入困境。网络著作权与传统财产权、著作权的差异、新技术发展的不可预测性以及来自盗版的竞争,要求网络环境下必须采取以授权为中心的整体性著作权实现机制。随着云技术、大数据以及3D打印技术等新兴技术的发展,整体性著作权实现机制在网络环境中将发挥越来越重要的作用。%The digital network technology has presented great challenge to the protection of copyright .The current measures for network copyright protection , such as technical protection measures , copyright infringe-ment actions and graduated response regime , have fallen into a dilemma .An integrated mechanism of copy-right realization centered on copyright licensing should be adopted considering differences among the digital copyright , tangible property and traditional copyright , the unpredictable nature of new technologies and the challenge from piracy .With the development of the emerging technologies such as cloud computing , big data and 3D printing, the integrated mechanism of copyright realization will play an increasingly important role in the internet environment .

  13. 「數位內容產業發展條例草案」有關著作權規範之檢討 A Review to Copyright-Related Provisions in the Bill of the Act for the Development of Digital Content Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    章忠信 Chung-Hsin Chang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available 研議中的「數位內容產業發展條例(草案)」目前由經濟部工業局所主導,先委託資策會科技法律中心研擬條例草案,再進行各界意見彙整與機關協商,預計近期完成行政院版本草案,再提立法院審議,其內容包括網際網路服務、內容軟體、無限寬頻、數位遊戲、電腦動畫、行動應用服務及數位出版典藏等,其中有諸多議題與著作權法制有關,包括著作權設質登記、著作權人不明或失聯或出版品數位化之法定授權制度、資料庫之保護,以及ISP 業者針對數位內容侵害著作權行為之責任等,本文就該等議題脫離著作權法,於數位內容產業發展基本法中另作規定一事,提出反對意見,另逐一 就相關議題之背景、草案條文之內容以及各國立法情形作分析說明,同時提出修正建議,期望引起各界關注,共同討論,以使各該條文更臻完善。 A bill concerning the act for the development of digital content industry, draft by Technology Law Center of Institute of Information Industry, is introduced by the Industry Bureau, MOE. The Industry Bureau is collecting the public suggestions and consulting with other agencies. A formal draft is expected to submit to Legislative Yuan by the Executive Yuan in the near time. Among other things, there are several issues concerning copyright in the bill, such as registration of copyright mortgage, the exploitation of orphan works, statutory license of articles in periodicals, protection of database, infringement liability of ISP. This Article strongly objects the approach to address those issues in the bill other than in Copyright law. In addition, it analyses all the provisions concerning copyright with their backgrounds, comparison of international legal regime. Finally, it submits some suggestions for further discussion and raising concerns by the public.

  14. Analysis on the Recycle Policy of Government Information Resources in Britain With the Perspective of the Copyright Management%英国政府信息资源再利用政策分析──以著作权管理为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田大治

    2012-01-01

    The recycle policy of government information resources in Britain is influenced directly by the copyright system. The value orientation of British government for the copyright of government information influences the formulation of the recycle policy of government information resources. At the same time, British legislation idea and system arrangement have been innovated in carrying out the national information strategy and promoting the development of government information industry. The recycle policy of government information resources in Britain takes various authorization modes, implements char'ge policies, and introduces the competition mechanism. Its applicability of policy system, the necessity of legislation transformation, the rationality of charge system, the specification of competition mechanism and the feasibility of the innovation mode have reference significances for the government information resource management in China.%英国政府信息资源再利用政策受到其著作权制度的直接影响。英国在政府信息著作权问题上的价值取向影响了政府信息资源再利用政策的制定,同时其立法理念与制度安排在落实国家信息战略、推动政府信息产业发展方面得到了不断的创新。英国政府信息资源再利用采取多种授权模式,实行收费政策,引入竞争机制,其政策制度的适用性、立法变革的必要性、收费制度的合理性、竞争机制的规范性、创新模式的可行性对我国政府信息资源管理具有借鉴意义。

  15. 版权保护与软件业盗版关系的实证研究——基于51个国家的数据分析%The empirical research on relationship between copyright protection and software piracy——based on the analysis of 56 sample countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚颉靖; 彭辉

    2011-01-01

    The software industry is the core and soul of the information industry,the basic and strategic industry of national economic development,and the key to information technology.However,with the rapid development of the software industry,software piracy has become increasingly serious threat to the software industry.The paper made an empirical analysis on the effects of copyright protection on software piracy based on the analysis of 56 Sample countries,The outcome revealed that the elasticity coefficient of strength of copyright protection on software piracy is 0.524.%软件产业作为信息产业的核心和灵魂,是国民经济发展的基础性和战略性产业,是信息化建设的关键环节,然而伴随着软件产业的飞速发展,软件盗版问题也越来越严重,它已经成为威胁软件产业的主要问题。以2006年51个国家的横截面数据为研究样本,对版权保护与软件业盗版率的关系进行了实证分析。结果显示,版权保护对抑制软件业盗版具有显著影响,其弹性系数为0.524。

  16. The Improvement of Copyright Law's Security System for Visually Impaired under the Vision of "Marrakesh Treaty."%《马拉喀什条约》视野下著作权法视障者保障制度之完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常公元

    2014-01-01

    《马拉喀什条约》是世界知识产权组织2013年通过的里程碑式条约,其为视障者便利获取作品提供了大量限制与例外。为履行《马拉喀什条约》对缔约国设定的义务,充分保障视障者在获取信息、接受教育、享受艺术等方面与正常人的机会均等,在我国《著作权法》修订中应遵循条约的基本精神,将视障者保障制度加以完善。应对受益人、无障碍格式版、“被授权实体”等予以系统规制;将为视障者提供的版权限制与例外的范围进行适当调整;鼓励无障碍格式版的跨境交换;为视障者获取作品而规避技术措施提供法律支持。%“Marrakesh Treaty” is a landmark treaty in 2013 by the World Intellectual Property Or-ganization, which works to facilitate access for the visually impaired people to provide a lot of limi-tations and exceptions.To fulfill its obligations and fully protect the equality of opportunities for the visually impaired normal access to information, access to education, the arts, etc.The amend-ment of “Copyright Law” should follow the basic spirit of this treaty to perfect security system for the visually impaired persons.“Authorized entity” and other systems to be regulated; The scope of copyright limitations and exceptions for the visually impaired will provide appropriate adjust-ments;Encouraging cross-border exchange of accessible format version; Providing legal support for the visually impaired against technological measures to get work.

  17. 评美国国会图书馆的DVD技术措施例外条款——兼论我国著作权法俩外条款的完善%Review of the DVD Technical Measure Exception Clauses in the US Library of Congress Study on the Improvement of Exception Clauses in Copyright Law in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚鹤徽

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the US Library of Congress has promulgated six kinds of circumvention of technica measure exceptions. One of exceptions is the circumvention of DVD technical measure exceptions. Th( circumvention of DVD technical measure exceptions allows the public to circumvent technical measure,, on the DVD movies which are based on comments, the education, shooting documentary films, productinc. non-profit films. But the exception has the strict applicable condition and narrow applicable scope, is unable to properly solve the contradiction on using DVD movies between copyright owners and the public The Copyright Law in China related technical measures should learn the experience and lessons o legislation from the US Library of Congress, perfect types of technical measures, determine the righ applicable scope of exceptions, and ensure technical measure exceptions realize its efficacy.%2010年,美国国会图书馆颁布了6种规避技术措施例外情形,例外情形之一为规避DVD技术措施例外。规避DVD技术措施例外使社会公众可以基于评沦、教育、拍摄记录影片、制作非营利影视作品的目的规避DVD影片上的技术措施。但是,该项例外适用条件严格,适用范围狭窄,无法妥善解决DVD影片使用上著作权人和社会公众之间的矛盾。我国著作权法中有关技术措施的立法应吸取美国国会图书馆的经验与教训,完善技术措施例外类型,确定合适的例外情形适用范围,确保技术措施例外规定发挥其应有功效。

  18. Aplicación de la Recuperación del Orden de Inserción a la Protección de los Derechos de Autor Mediante Marcas de Agua Digitales Application of the Insertion Order Recovery of Copyright Protection Using Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. González

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una metodología que permita a las técnicas de marcas de agua digitales cumplir con el requisito de la protección de los derechos de autor, cuando un determinado material digital contiene varias marcas de agua diferentes. Para esto, se propone un método general para resolver el problema, que consiste en asignar correctamente la propiedad intelectual del material digital mediante la recuperación del orden de inserción de marcas de agua, suponiendo que el propietario es aquel que insertó su marca inicialmente. Los resultados muestran que el uso técnica propuesta es viable como sistema de apoyo en la tarea de protección de los derechos de autorThe objective of the present study is to present a methodology which allows digital watermarking technology to comply with requirements for protecting authors copyrights when a given digital material contains various different watermarks. For this, a general method is proposed for resolution of the problem which consists of correctly assigning the intellectual property of the digital material by recovering the order of insertion of the watermark, supposing that the owner was the one who first inserted his mark. The results show that the use of the proposed technique is viable as a support system in the task of protecting author’s rights

  19. 论3D打印产品设计图作品的使用者利益--以美国判例为启示%On the users’ rights of 3D printing product design:a case study of American copyright law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿昊晖

    2015-01-01

    数字技术以及网络技术所带动的3D 打印技术的发展,可能使3D 打印产品设计图作品的使用为著作权人所垄断。因此,如何明确设计图作品使用者的权益,成为一个值得探讨的问题。从著作权法的实践可知,认定使用者权益的实质在于使用行为的分析与使用者身份的区分。结合3D打印使用行为的内容以及使用者的身份可知,默示许可、首次销售规则、合理使用构成了三种不同的路径,默示许可着重于许可协议的补充,首次销售规则关注使用权的转让,而合理使用则是对使用行为的兜底性考量。%With the development of 3D printing and network technologies, the 3D printing product design may be monopolized by the copyright holder. Therefore, to identify users’ rights has become a problem worthy of discussion. From the uses of 3D printing and the identities of users, there are such three different approaches as implied license, first sale rules and fair use, of which the first emphasizes the supplement provision, the second concerns the right of transfer, and the third is a miscellaneous provision for uses.

  20. Analysis of the Conflicts between Sound Trademark Right and Music Work Copyright:speaking from Protectable Subject stipulated in 15(1) of TRIPS%声音商标权和音乐作品著作权冲突探析--从TRIPS第15条第1款“可保护的客体”规定说起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱文娟

    2014-01-01

    从TRIPS协议第15条第1款“可保护的客体”之规定起,国际社会对于知识产权法律体系逐步细化,声音商标跃入人们的视野。声音商标的出现,不仅为声音商标权人带来了新的利润,也带来了新的利益纠纷。对于声音商标权与音乐作品著作权的冲突,虽有充分保护在先权利模式与多种知识产权的兼容模式珠玉在前,但在我国新出台的《商标法》将声音商标列入保护客体后,我国仍应积极思考如何应对二者冲突,并为日后定纷止争作好未雨绸缪的准备。%Ever since protectable subject was stipulated in 15 (1) of the TRIPS, the international community has gradually refined intellectual property legal system, and sound trademarks have leaped into people's view. The emergence of sound trademarks not only brings new profits to sound trademark owner, but also triggers new interest disputes. Although there are fully protected prior right mode which is compatible with a variety of intellectual property right to settle the conflicts between sound trademark right and music work copyright, especially after the sound trademark is included in China's newly issued Trademark Law, we should ponder upon how to address the conflicts so as to take precautions against possible deputes in the future.

  1. Summary and Analysis of Library Network Copyright Disputes in China---Commemorating the Tenth Anniversary of the Promulgation and Implementation of Regulations on the Protection of the Right to Network Dissemination of Information (2)%我国与图书馆有关的网络版权纠纷案件举要与分析--《信息网络传播权保护条例》颁布实施十周年纪念(二)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦珂

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the focus, defense and influencing factors of library network copyright disputes in China since the implementation of Regulations on the Protection of the Right to Network Dissemination of Information in 2006, and expounds the important norms for risk aversion to reveal the legislative background and original intention of laws and regulations profoundly, aiming to help library community to correctly understand the their connotations, to grasp the boundaries of copyright, thus improving the copyright management system and mechanism constantly, preventing the risk of infringement effectively and resolving copyright crisis.%文章通过对2006年《信息网络传播权保护条例》实施以来我国图书馆界发生的部分典型网络版权纠纷案件的审理焦点、抗辩理由、影响案件走向的因素以及规避责任风险若干重要规范的分析与阐释,使图书馆能更深刻地认识法律法规的立法背景和本意,正确理解法律法规内涵,科学把握利用版权行为的边界,不断完善版权管理体系与机制,有效防范侵权风险,及时化解版权危机。

  2. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 13(2), 2014 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PAttern of PSYchoActiVe SuBStAnce uSe in the northern region of nigeriA ... based on the World Health Organization guidelines for students' substance-use surveys. The mean age ... tial impact on the mental health of the ... tics of the inmates.

  3. New Copyright Challenges and Opportunities for Academic Librarians in Hong Kong in the Digital Information Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirley; Leung; Colin; Storey

    2002-01-01

    1 Introduction High-speed networking can now deliver Information tomillions of users in seconds.Users In turn can download thedata in electronic format or just print them out with a fewstrokes of the keyboard.The data can be easily saved,reorganized and modified electronocally.While informationtechnology provides fast and easy ways to distributeinformation,it also presents challenges.Easy access tocopyrighted materials is resulting in the unauthorizedreproduction of all kinds of information,forcing info...

  4. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 13(1), 2014 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reported use of legal drugs (76.9%, n=307) and alcohol was the most frequently reported drug (n= 236, ... illicit drug use among university students ... poor academic performance (Alao, 2007;. Malete ... from all completed clients' intake forms.

  5. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 15(2), 2016 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was a cross-sectional study in which a random sample of 3,763 students aged 10 to 19 years. ... Keywords: Smoking, drinking, drug prevalence, multiple substance use, adolescents,. Botswana. ... work performance. Road traffic ...

  6. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 14(1), 2015 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the reliability and dimensional structure of the Alcohol Use Disorders. Identification .... problems related to alcohol consumption and sexual ..... on the performance of the AUDIT in general .... alcohol use among university students.

  7. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 15(1), 2016 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    teMPerAMent AnD the riSK of Alcohol, toBAcco, AnD cAnnABiS uSe ... faculty sample of 211 university students (41% male, n=87) at a university in .... academic performance, thus limiting up- .... ten have you consumed alcoholic drinks.

  8. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 14(2), 2015 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fiable risk factor whose intervention can improve the ... accurately assessing the current severity of drug and .... and nervous breakdown 19(10.6%). Recognition of .... 13 (7.3%). Schizophrenia. 8 (4.5%). Bulimia. 7 (3.9%). Anorexia. 7 (3.9%).

  9. 7 CFR 1206.52 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Promotion, Research, and Information § 1206.52 Patents,...

  10. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 14(2), 2015 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Psychology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria ... and focus group discussions were conducted with selected service users. Barriers to the .... clinical psychologist in the whole of Bay- ... semi-structured interview guide contain- ... self and an ill relative to the hospital for ... that they had to leave their work, trade.

  11. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 14(1), 2015 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Psychology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa. ABStrAct. This study evaluated a South African outpatient drug counselling centre's motivational ..... ferred by data from a non-experimental study our findings ...

  12. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 14(2), 2015 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Psychology, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana. ABStrAct. Stressful life ... In this study, the association between stressful life events and alcohol use among young ...... and Experimental Research, 37, Sup- plement s1.

  13. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 12(1), 2013 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    these developments for contemporary Nigerian society and recommends that alcohol policies should be .... ticles, Cochrane Library, EBSCOhost and. Sociological ..... have been defined. .... ''social norms theories of alcohol con- ... pect in the sense that the content engages .... any reason for making such choices. Addi-.

  14. Copyright Protection of Choreographic Works%舞蹈作品的版权保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云

    2007-01-01

    舞蹈作品是受版权法保护的客体,但我国版权法对于舞蹈作品的界定并不十分清楚,实践中保护的范围过于狭窄,一些具有独创性的作品如冰上芭蕾不被保护.舞蹈作品中被保护的构成因素在理论界是有争议的,争论的焦点在于舞蹈作品是指舞蹈动作的设计还是舞蹈动作的设计加上舞蹈演员的表演,解决舞蹈作品由哪些部分构成的问题对于保护舞蹈作品本身具有重要意义.原创性是舞蹈作品保护的必要条件,从版权保护的角度来说,舞蹈作品的原创性指的是整个舞蹈编排设计的原创性而不是单个动作的原创性,因此,一些舞蹈动作和现存作品的动作相同或类似并不必然构成侵权.

  15. 2013 Copyright © 2013, CRISA Publications PictoriAl WArningS on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalence of smoking among adolescents and youth, the etiology of tobacco smoking needs to be .... ning to quit and to have self-efficacy for quitting, and .... patterns covered through the interviews, ..... mation disclosure and smoking risk.

  16. 2015 Copyright © 2015, CRISA Publications A QuAlitAtiVe StuDY of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and network/snowball sampling technique, twenty-nine self administered open ended .... consumption and patterns of drinking are related to burden ..... From their disclosures their average daily volumes ...... Drinking. Journal of Adolescence,.

  17. 2016 Copyright © 2016, CRISA Publications Prior SuBStAnce uSe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A post-hoc test was conducted using LSD to show multiple comparison effect. Furthermore, the t-test ... have implications on the involvement of psychologists and other mental experts in the ... Stunell, Power, Floyd & Quinlan, 2006). Generally ...

  18. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 13(1), 2014 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Department of Public Health, Hedmark University College, Elverum, Norway;. 4National ... Adult (18+ years old) Malawian men and women's alcohol use and social drinking norms were ... students drink substantially more than ..... .14) while the opposite pattern emerged .... binge-drinking than the Malawian general.

  19. Perceptual Copyright Protection Using Multiresolution Wavelet-Based Watermarking And Fuzzy Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Ming-Shing

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an efficiently DWT-based watermarking technique is proposed to embed signatures in images to attest the owner identification and discourage the unauthorized copying. This paper deals with a fuzzy inference filter to choose the larger entropy of coefficients to embed watermarks. Unlike most previous watermarking frameworks which embedded watermarks in the larger coefficients of inner coarser subbands, the proposed technique is based on utilizing a context model and fuzzy inference filter by embedding watermarks in the larger-entropy coefficients of coarser DWT subbands. The proposed approaches allow us to embed adaptive casting degree of watermarks for transparency and robustness to the general image-processing attacks such as smoothing, sharpening, and JPEG compression. The approach has no need the original host image to extract watermarks. Our schemes have been shown to provide very good results in both image transparency and robustness.

  20. 78 FR 71498 - Copyright Office Fees: Cable and Satellite Statement of Account Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... of these determinations, the Office conducted another cost study using an alternative activity-based... not intend for the Office to establish waivers for STELA-based fees. Notably, the Office does not... SA3 form for cable systems with 400,000 or fewer subscribers that would face a financial hardship if...