WorldWideScience

Sample records for copyright

  1. Copyright

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ‘Talent is always conscious of its own abundance, and does not object to sharing.’ Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, The First Circle When authors submit an article for publication, most publishers will ask for a signature from the author on a copyright form. The relationship between an author and the publisher is then a partnership but one that many authors are reluctant to enter into. After all, why should a publisher take copyright from an author of an article when the author had the idea and has done all the hard work for the content of the article? In response to this question, publishers will generally claim that copyright transfer agreements protect authors from copyright infringements such as plagiarism, libel and unauthorised uses as well as protecting the integrity of the article. Copyright in the UK was originally concerned with preventing the unlawful copying of printed material in the 17th century in response to the then new technology of book printing. The first copyright act in the UK, the Statute of Anne in 1710, was subtitled ‘An Act for the Encouragement of Learning’, and granted privileges and monopolies to book printers. Since then, copyright law has evolved to incorporate many forms of communication, including photography, film, music, computers, engraving, designs on t-shirts and digital technology among other forms of media. The most recent act in the UK is the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. While copyright covers an author’s right to copy, distribute and revise the work, it does not protect ideas – just their fixation or expression. The moment that an idea is fixed or expressed physically, copyright starts and does not have to be registered. In this article, Pippa Smart provides an overview of the legal framework that protects authors and publishers. Jyoti Shah, Commissioning Editor

  2. Copyright Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Copyright Information URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/copyright.html Copyright Information To use ... the Magazine and NIH MedlinePlus Salud The FAQs ( https://medlineplus.gov/faq/faq.html ) The same content ...

  3. Copyright protection

    OpenAIRE

    Plchotová, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to offer a straightforward manual to anyone who authors their own original work or who utilises the original work of other creators. As such, it is necessary to briefly and clearly explain the historical development and essential terms of authorship as a concept and the origin of the need for copyright protection. Furthermore, this thesis includes chapters on copyright protection development specifically in the Czech Republic and the current definition of related law...

  4. Copyright of Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Elaine; Wang, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the importance of copyright, considers the main causes of copyright infringement in electronic publishing, discusses fair use of a copyrighted work, and suggests methods to safeguard copyrighted electronic publishing, including legislation, contracts, and technology. (Author/LRW)

  5. Copyright: A Survival Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Presentation for HASS PhD students given on 24th October 2017. The presentation provides an overview about copyright, Fair Dealing, and how to seek permission for Third Party copyrighted material. The presentation does not include legal advice.

  6. The Copyright Surveillance Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Zajko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Creative works are now increasingly distributed as digital “content” through the internet, and copyright law has created powerful incentives to monitor and control these flows. This paper analyzes the surveillance industry that has emerged as a result. Copyright surveillance systems identify copyright infringement online and identify persons to hold responsible for infringing acts. These practices have raised fundamental questions about the nature of identification and attribution on the internet, as well as the increasing use of algorithms to make legal distinctions. New technologies have threatened the profits of some media industries through copyright infringement, but also enabled profitable forms of mass copyright surveillance and enforcement. Rather than a system of perfect control, copyright enforcement continues to be selective and uneven, but its broad reach results in systemic harm and provides opportunities for exploitation. It is only by scrutinizing copyright surveillance practices and copyright enforcement measures that we can evaluate these consequences.

  7. Lexicography, Terminography and Copyright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The focus of this article is on copyright issues with specific reference to lexicography and terminography. Lexicographers and terminographers are in the peculiar position of being both creators of copyrightable products and users of copyrighted products. An inventory of accrued rights, the nature of dictionaries as subjects of copyright, national laws and international conventions, terminographical and lexicographical practice, the copyright status of dictionary elements, as well as infringement pitfalls, is made in order to propose guidelines on the legal position of the compilation and publishing of dictionaries. Electronic publications and dissemination on the Internet is considered and discussed, and contractual agreements protecting mutual rights is offered as a final conclusion.

    Keywords: author’s right (copyright; copyright (author's right; copyright infringement; copyright issue; copyright law; copyrightable product; copyrighted product; database storage system; denominator; economic right; electronic communication network; fair use; infringement; intellectual property; intellectual property right; lexicographer; lexicography; macrostructure; microstructure; moral right; tangible medium; terminographer; terminography; terminologist; terminology

     

    Leksikografie, terminografie en outeursreg

    In hierdie artikel word gefokus op outeursregkwessies met spesifieke verwysing na die leksikografie en terminografie. Leksikograwe en terminograwe bevind hulle in 'n vreemde situasie deurdat hulle sowel skeppers van outeursregbare produkte is as gebruikers van outeursberegte produkte. 'n Inventaris word opgestel van toegevalle regte, die aard van woordeboeke as onderworpe aan outeursreg, nasionale wette en internasionale konvensies, terminografiese en leksikografiese praktyk, die outeursregstatus van woordeboekelemente, asook van slaggate rakende outeursregskending ten einde riglyne vir die regsposisie van die samestelling

  8. Screenshots and Copyright

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    The present article attempts to show how important and easy it is to use authentic material in the classroom. However, the teacher who copies news reports from the Internet may infringe the copyright law. The article offers a comparative analysis of copyright laws in Common Law countries and the EU countries in relation to fair use. The article…

  9. The Copyright Royalty Tribunal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brylawski, E. Fulton

    1977-01-01

    The regulatory and adjudicative structure of the newly-created Copyright Royalty Tribunal is described and guidelines for its functioning are examined. Problems in data reporting and in the determination of ownership of copyrights of works used by compulsory licensees are among the issues addressed. (LBH)

  10. Copyright or Contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okerson, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Most authors and publishers of electronic information believe that current copyright law does not address technical capabilities or reader uses and have turned to contracts or licenses to define the rights of owners and users. Discusses copyrights, fair use, and licenses and highlights licensing's unresolved issues: use and users; archiving;…

  11. The Copyright Agency Limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Caroline

    1993-01-01

    The evolution and functions of Australia's Copyright Agency Limited are described. The agency is a copyright collecting organization which collectively administers the rights of authors and publishers whose works are copied in education, and enters into blanket agreements with educational authorities outside the existing statutory license. Some…

  12. Copyright Essentials for Linguists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Newman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses copyright issues that linguists confront in their capacity as users and creators of scholarly work. It is organized in a simple question-answer format. Questions 1-3 present the basics of U.S. copyright law, including the fundamental nature of copyright as a bundle of intellectual property rights and the role of registration. Questions 4-5 treat issues of copyright notice. Questions 6-8 explain licenses, especially Creative Commons licenses, and the function of an Author's Addendum. Questions 9-10 look at copyright in the context of online open access publishing. Question 11 discusses the concept of Fair Use. Question 12 analyzes the problem of what are called Orphan Works. Questions 13-19 explore issues of copyright ownership, including Work for Hire, joint authorship, and attribution. Questions 20-22 deal with copyright with specific reference to fieldwork situations and indigenous rights. The paper concludes with a brief presentation of key sources for further study and clarification.

  13. Introduction, Copyright's Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Netanel, Neil

    2008-01-01

    The United States Supreme Court famously labeled copyright “the engine of free expression” because it provides a vital economic incentive for much of the literature, commentary, music, art, and film that makes up our public discourse. Yet today’s greatly expanded copyright law often does the opposite—it can be used to quash news reporting, political commentary, church dissent, historical scholarship, cultural critique, and artistic expression. In Copyright’s Paradox, Neil Weinstock ...

  14. Contra Copyright, Again

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy McElroy

    2011-01-01

    This revised version of the author’s 1985 article “Contra Copyright” includes a new, introductory section explaining the background of the author’s path to copyright abolitionism. The main article surveys various libertarian debates on this issue, including the anti-intellectual property (IP) views of Benjamin Tucker and the pro-IP views of Lysander Spooner. McElroy argues that the issue of copyright hinges on the question: can ideas be property? Because only scarce goods can be property, and...

  15. Copyright Preemption of Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Bohannan, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This Article argues that both courts and scholars are wrong in their categorical approaches to preemption of contracts under the Copyright Act, and proposes an intermediate approach that recognizes the importance of both contract rights and federal policy in preemption analysis. First, it argues that both courts and scholars have misapplied preemption law to breach of contract claims. Although the two sides tend to favor opposite results, they take equally categorical approaches. Categori...

  16. Copyright protection in music industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kammermayerová, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the copyright protection in the music industry is discussed. I am focusing in particular on the description of copyright, rights related to copyright, collective management and protection of these rights. In the beginning, I mention the national, international and European sources of copyright and I am explaining the concepts of copyright, copyright work (including musical and processed work of art), and authoring. Furthermore, I explore the copyright law in terms of its origin,...

  17. Copyright protection in online media

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Thuy Duong

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with protection of copyright within online media, with a focus on personal blogs. The author presents definition of basic terms of copyright, especially definition of usage of the work and description of way of use, and deals with the issue of liability for copyright infringement and identification of persons who carry the responsibility. This thesis is also dedicated to copyrights itself and its instruments of enforcement. Increased focus is put on available jurisdi...

  18. Copyright Resources for School Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Yvonne M.; Johnson, Nicole M.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a collection of annotated citations for online resources of interest to school librarians; the focus is on copyright law, related information, and guidelines. The citations are organized by themes based on common issues. Copyright protects originally created works, including movies, recorded music performances, novels,…

  19. Comics, Copyright and Academic Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Deazley

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the extent to which UK-based academics can rely upon the copyright regime to reproduce extracts and excerpts from published comics and graphic novels without having to ask the copyright owner of those works for permission. In doing so, it invites readers to engage with a broader debate about the nature, demands and process of academic publishing.

  20. Criteria for Copyrightability in Russian Copyright Doctrine and Judicial Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Kashanin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the current state of the debate on the minimum level of creativity needed for works to be copyrightable, including dominant principles in Russian jurisprudence and judicial practice, principal trends and contradictions that arise in the course of the application of various criteria for copyrightability. An analysis of the judicial practice of recent years warrants the conclusion that standards of creativity as a criterion for copyrightability have dropped drastically. Today’s standards are similar to those of the former American ‘sweat of the brow’ doctrine. But, unlike foreign legal systems that set comparatively low standards of protectability, the Russian judiciary has not yet evolved mechanisms of compensation for risks of monopolization of public domain content. First of all, there is no practice of granting exclusive rights to a work that is similar to an earlier work but has been created independently. Secondly, the practice of refusing protection to non-unique, standard, generally known, and generally available content is dying out. Thirdly, there is currently a trend for giving a large scope of protection to works of low authorship. As a result, exclusive rights are granted to standard or generally accessible content – content that must belong to the public domain – which puts unjustified restrictions on the creative activities of other authors. Moreover, it makes their legal status unpredictable as it establishes a basis for unintended copyright violations being penalized. This amounts to a classical case of overprotection.

  1. Working within the Law: Copyright Questions Answered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Susan S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses copyright issues: what can be copyrighted, rights of copyright holders, avoiding copyright infringement, using copyrighted works, and addresses for more information concerning copyright laws. (CT)

  2. Lexicography, terminography and copyright | Alberts | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: author's right (copyright); copyright (author's right); copyright infringement; copyright issue; copyright law; copyrightable product; copyrighted product; database storage system; denominator; economic right; electronic communication network; fair use; infringement; intellectual property; intellectual property right; ...

  3. THE UGANDA COPYRIGHT AND NEIGHBOURING RIGHTS BILL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the concept and philosophy of copyright. It also discusses copyright infringement with special reference to ICT. Furthermore, the paper examines international provisions related to copyright and reviews the Copyright Law Model. The paper also identifies gaps in the Uganda Copyright Bill, 2002 and ...

  4. 77 FR 3506 - Copyright Office Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... creativity. The copyright law itself is designed to promote and protect authorship and this includes... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Office [Docket No. 2012-1] Copyright Office Fees AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice of Inquiry; Fees. SUMMARY: The U.S. Copyright Office is in...

  5. Design Copyright: The Latest Judicial Hint

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Hemphill; Jeannie Suk

    2013-01-01

    The most intriguing aspect of the debate over fashion copyright is the occasion it presents for rethinking the expansive copyright law we currently have. C. Scott Hemphill (Columbia Law) & Jeannie Suk (Harvard Law)

  6. The Teacher and the Copyright Law: Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Bernard

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes the Alex Caughran article on the teacher and the copyright law, concluding that copyright law is a complicated field and to oversimplify it is a disservice to teachers. See also CS 705 949. (RD)

  7. Copyright Updates for K-12 Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendell G.

    2016-01-01

    Copyright concerns continue to bedevil K-12 librarians, who are often called upon to act as the copyright officers in public schools. This article describes recent copyright developments of concern to these librarians in three areas: a recent court case involving a university library, pending legislation supported by ALA, and a regulatory update.…

  8. 48 CFR 227.7203-9 - Copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-9 Copyright. (a) Copyright license. (1) The clause at... rights licenses obtained under the clause. When non-standard license rights in computer software or computer software documentation will be negotiated, negotiate the extent of the copyright license...

  9. The copyright book a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, William S

    2014-01-01

    Through five editions since 1981, this book has offered the most comprehensive accessible guide available to all aspects of copyright law. Now, with the sixth edition, The Copyright Book has been thoroughly updated to cover copyright for the Internet age, discussing a range of developments in the law since 2000. The only book written for nonlawyers that covers the entire field of copyright law, it is essential reading for authors, artists, creative people in every medium, the companies that hire them, users of copyrighted material, and anyone with an interest in copyright law from a policy perspective. New material includes greatly expanded coverage of infringement and fair use, with detailed discussion of recent decisions, including the Grateful Dead, Google, and HathiTrust cases. The new edition considers such topics as open access, the defeat of the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA), file sharing, e-reserves, the status of "orphan works," and the latest developments under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (...

  10. Update on copyright issues and open access

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    When writing an article an author encounters several moments where he is confronted with copyright whether he likes it or not or whether he is interested in the topic or not. Unfamiliarity or lack of interest with copyright can create an unbalance in the careful package of the balances which copyright is and thus hinder innovation of the process of scholarly communication. The Dutch SURF Foundation together with its British counterpart JISC have developed a © toolkit which supports and assists authors, librarians, legal offices and publishers to (re)phrase publishing agreements and copyright policies of institutions of higher education to achieve maximum access to scientific output.

  11. Search Engine Liability for Copyright Infringement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, B.; O'Brien, D.; Fitzgerald, A.

    The chapter provides a broad overview to the topic of search engine liability for copyright infringement. In doing so, the chapter examines some of the key copyright law principles and their application to search engines. The chapter also provides a discussion of some of the most important cases to be decided within the courts of the United States, Australia, China and Europe regarding the liability of search engines for copyright infringement. Finally, the chapter will conclude with some thoughts for reform, including how copyright law can be amended in order to accommodate and realise the great informative power which search engines have to offer society.

  12. Developing new copyright services in academic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga-Lill Nilsson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of academic librarians in handling copyright-related issues, including their required skills and knowledge about copyright. IP (intellectual property issues have become more important in publishing and in accessing and reusing scientific research, and new technology and delivery mechanisms have increased copyright issues. Due to the complications and general confusion about copyright, there is a growing need for official support. Academic librarians often have only an informal mandate to work in this area and therefore lack confidence, sufficient knowledge and training. They seldom have the authority to work with copyright education in a formalized way. Legitimacy can be achieved by collaborating with other university units with an interest in copyright. Co-operation with other libraries and library organizations is also an important way to share experiences and increase knowledge about copyright. Libraries can contribute to improved IP services once they have established that copyright is a library matter, found tools for copyright education and embedded these activities into library routines.

  13. Non-Book Materials and Copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Paul T.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews Australian copyright laws as they apply to photographs, slides, overhead transparencies, filmstrips, sound and video recordings, and films. Responsibilities of the library as user are discussed. (RAO)

  14. Managing copyright in higher education a guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Ferullo, Donna L

    2014-01-01

    Written by the director of the University Copyright Office at Purdue University who holds both law and library science degrees, this is complete, authoritative guide is a must-purchase for every institution of higher education seeking to comply with the copyright law and thus avoid potential liability exposure.

  15. Copyright | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Where copyright is held by IDRC Unless otherwise stated, the copyright to material on this website is held by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC). IDRC permits reading, downloading, copying, redistributing, printing, linking and searching, for non-commercial or academic purposes, of any of its content, ...

  16. Getting Our Values around Copyright Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessig, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Copyright is essential to a diverse and rich culture. Yet the platform--the technology--through which individuals get access to their culture has changed radically. The existing system of copyright thus cannot work in the digital age and needs also to be changed, radically. In this article, the author shares three observations on the way to…

  17. Economics of copyright: Challenges and perspectives | Stojkov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article outlines the prominence of economic analysis of copyright, not only within the academic community, but also in the legal practice. The successful cooperation of law and economics in the field of copyright calls for advanced microeconomic analytical skills and a high level of legal understanding of intellectual ...

  18. 45 CFR 602.34 - Copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements § 602.34 Copyrights. The Federal awarding agency reserves a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable... purposes: (a) The copyright in any work developed under a grant, subgrant, or contract under a grant or...

  19. The Copyright Controversy: Issues and Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Stella, Ed.; Stillman, Mary E., Ed.

    1972-01-01

    The edited transcript of the Copyright Panel at the 9th Information Retrieval Colloquium is presented. In addition to the panel presentation and audience discussion, this issue carries, as appendix material, some of the documents which sparked much of the current copyright debate. (Author/NH)

  20. Copyright and the Assurance of Quality Courseware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Virginia M.

    Issues related to the illegal copying or piracy of educational software in the schools and its potential effect on quality software availability are discussed. Copyright violation is examined as a reason some software producers may be abandoning the school software market. An explanation of what the copyright allows and prohibits in terms of…

  1. Copyright for librarians the essential handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Berkman Center for Internet and Society

    2012-01-01

    "Copyright for Librarians" (CFL) is an online open curriculum on copyright law that was developed jointly with Harvard’s Berkman Center for Internet and Society. Re-designed as a brand new textbook, "Copyright for Librarians: the essential handbook" can be used as a stand-alone resource or as an adjunct to the online version which contains additional links and references for students who wish to pursue any topic in greater depth. Delve into copyright theory or explore enforcement. With a new index and a handy Glossary, the Handbook is essential reading for librarians who want to hone their skills in 2013, and for anyone learning about or teaching copyright law in the information field.

  2. Copyright, Culture, and Community in Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Burk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Communities that interact on-line through computer games and other virtual worlds are mediated by the audiovisual content of the game interface. Much of this content is subject to copyright law, which confers on the copyright owner the legal right to prevent certain unauthorized uses of the content. Such exclusive rights impose a limiting factor on the development of communities that are situated around the interface content, as the rights, privileges, and exceptions associated with copyright generally tend to disregard the cultural significance of copyrighted content. This limiting effect of copyright is well illustrated by examination of the copying of content by virtual diaspora communities such as that formed around the game Uru: Ages of Myst; thus, the opportunity for on-line communities to legally access the graphical elements on which those communities are built is fraught with potential legal liability. This presents the reciprocal situation from efforts to protect the cultural properties of indigenous communities as traditional knowledge. Reconsideration of current copyright law would be required in order to accommodate the cohesion of on-line communities and related cultural uses of copyrighted content.

  3. Copyright Ownership in a Networked Multimedia Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vernon E.

    1994-01-01

    The explosion of computer communications in the United States has spurred the development of many new technologies. One of these new technologies is Mosaic and the World-Wide Web. Mosaic is a user interface that uses the internet as a backbone for communications. The Mosaic interface enables a user to manipulate text, images and graphics produced by different authors. The flexibility that Mosaic offers raises significant copyright issues. This paper attempts to analyze these issues using current copyright law as a framework. The author then goes on to offer a different analysis that may result from future developments in copyright law.

  4. Protecting Government Works: The Copyright Issue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manz, Paul C; Zelenka, Michael J; Wittig, Raymond S; Smith, Sally A

    2002-01-01

    ...; the alternatives that would permit the Government to own the copyright in government works ; the ability to allow private sector companies to assign coauthored works; and the importance to a federal technology manager of such protection.

  5. Copyright law and distance nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Jacqueline; White, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    The authors present essential information regarding the copyright law and online education. This information provides the reader specific aids to assist in designing and implementing distance education courses within the bounds of the Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization Act and fair use guidelines. From their research, the authors, who are distance education experts, offer a wide array of educational and legal data to inform nurse educators.

  6. Bloomsday: Copyright Estates and Cultural Festivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Rimmer

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Copyright estates have been unduly empowered by the extension of the term of copyright protection in Europe, the United States, Australia and elsewhere. The Estate of the Irish novelist, James Joyce, has been particularly aggressive in policing his revived copyrights. The "keepers of the flame" have relied upon threats of legal action to discourage the production of derivative works based upon the canonical texts of the novelist. The Estate has also jealously guarded the reputation of the author by vetoing the use of his work in various scholarly productions. Most radically of all, the grandson Stephen Joyce threatened to take legal action to prevent the staging of "Rejoyce Dublin 2004", a festival celebrating the centenary of Bloomsday. In response, the Irish Parliament rushed through emergency legislation, entitled the Copyright and Related Rights (Amendment Act 2004 (Ireland to safeguard the celebrations. The legislation clarified that a person could place literary and artistic works on public exhibition, without breaching the copyright vested in such cultural texts. Arguably, though, the ad hoc legislation passed by the Irish Parliament is inadequate. The Estate of James Joyce remains free to exercise its suite of economic and moral rights to control the use and adaptation of works of the Irish novelist. It is contended that copyright law needs to be revised to promote the interests of libraries and other cultural institutions. Most notably, the defence of fair dealing should be expanded to allow for the transformative use of copyright works, particularly in respect of adaptations and derived works. There should be greater scope for compulsory licensing and crown acquisition of revived copyrights.

  7. Copyright case a victory for science publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen

    An important victory for the financial health and future of scientific journals was won July 23 when Judge Pierre Leval of the Federal District Court in New York handed down his decision on the copyright infringement suit, American Geophysical Union, et al. v. Texaco Inc. Leval ruled that profit-making companies cannot photocopy copyrighted journal articles without permission and without compensating the copyright holder.The class action suit was brought in 1985 by AGU and six other scientific publishers on behalf of 8500 publishers worldwide who make their titles available for legal copying under licenses granted by the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. This licensing system was designed in cooperation with major corporations to facilitate compliance with the 1976 Copyright Act. Although more than 200 companies now use the center, some corporations, such as Texaco, have not. The suit was initiated to force compliance with copyright law. The current decision is very important because it establishes legal precedents on the “fair use” issue.

  8. Copyright, an Incentive or a Burden?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A copyright provides protection for original artistic or literary work and is valid for the life of the owner plus 70 years. There is a growing tension between creative practices that require access to content that is often copyrighted, and increasingly restrictive intellectual property laws and policies governing access to copyrighted content. Very recently this has played out in the law suit between the media corporation Viacom and the Internet portal YouTube, which is owned by Google. This is against the background of a steadily emerging open source and creative commons culture. Milestones in the open source movement are the OpenOffice office suite, Netscape's publication of the source code for its product as open software, Google's library project, various free archives for scientific dissemination, such as Cornell University's ArXiv.

  9. Collective management of copyright and related rights

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    In the course of the last decade, collective management organizations (CMOs) have become the nerve centres of copyright licensing in virtually every country. Their expertise and knowledge of copyright law and management have proven essential to make copyright work in the digital age. This book, an extensively revised and updated edition of the only major work on the legal status of CMOs, offers an indepth analysis of the various operating CMO models, their rights and obligations vis-a-vis both users and members, acquisition of legal authority to license, and (most important) the rights to license digital uses of protected material and build (or improve current) information systems to deal with ever more complex rights management and licensing tasks. All the chapters have been updated since the 2005 edition, and a new chapter on multiterritorial licensing has been added. Factors considered include the following: * role of 'families' such as the International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers ...

  10. Webpages on copyright in Canadian academic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony G Horava

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic libraries value the web as being a vital channel for communicating information and policies to their user community. Designing a webpage on copyright is a challenging task that requires a consideration of the medium and the message. This article proposes a conceptual model and proactive approach for integrating policy objective and goals into the development of a copyright webpage, based on key elements of the library’s involvement in academia. To complement this theoretical approach, an analysis of Canadian academic library websites was conducted in order to gage the effectiveness of copyright webpages, in the Canadian legal context, according to the model as well as related design issues of visibility and access.

  11. Stealing the Goose: Copyright and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Rory

    2004-01-01

    The Internet is the world's largest knowledge common and the information source of first resort. Much of this information is open and freely available. However, there are organizations and companies today that are trying to close off the Internet commons and make it proprietary. These are the "copyright controllers." The preservation of the…

  12. 28 CFR 66.34 - Copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copyrights. 66.34 Section 66.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE... reproduce, publish or otherwise use, and to authorize others to use, for Federal Government purposes: (a...

  13. 7 CFR 3016.34 - Copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copyrights. 3016.34 Section 3016.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL...

  14. 77 FR 18742 - Copyright Office Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... would recover a significant part of the costs to the Office for services that benefit both copyright owners and the public, and provide full cost recovery for many services which benefit only or primarily... public by creating a more robust public record. The Office therefore sees a clear benefit to offering a...

  15. 89 A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COPYRIGHT ENFORCEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    developing countries did not have intellectual property ('IP') laws prior to the ... musical and literary works play an important role in the economy of these .... Ekereuwem [2012] 4 NWLR (pt 1290) 207; F.C.D.A v. .... 37 K M Garnett, J E Rayner& G Davies, Copinger and Skone James on Copyright (14th ed., London, Sweet and.

  16. Faculty, Copyright Law and Online Course Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Phyllis C.

    2006-01-01

    Copyright and fair use laws that regulate educational materials seem to be fairly well understood by the U.S. courts and educators for use in face-to-face (f2f) classrooms (Post and Trempus, 1998). Ever-changing revisions to these laws blur the distinction between tangible and intangible materials shared with students in f2f, online and hybrid…

  17. Stealing the Goose: Copyright and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory McGreal

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is the world's largest knowledge common and the information source of first resort. Much of this information is open and freely available. However, there are organizations and companies today that are trying to close off the Internet commons and make it proprietary. These are the “copyright controllers.” The preservation of the commons and expanding access to digital content and applications are very important for distance educators. The educational exemptions for “fair use” in the United States and “fair dealing” in the Commonwealth countries are integral to any understanding of copyright, which was instituted for the dissemination of knowledge, and not, as is commonly believed, to protect the rights of the copyright owners. Copyright law was expressly introduced to limit their rights. Yet, these controllers are successfully turning a “copy” right into a property right. The traditional rights of learning institutions are being taken away. The balance for researchers should be restored. Research and learning must be allowed the broad interpretation that was intended in the original laws.

  18. Canada, Copyright, and the Common Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslett, K. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Advocacy on public policy issues such as copyright is a common concern of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and the Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL). Duane Webster has been instrumental in facilitating a collaborative approach to such advocacy. Part of this involves concerted efforts to ensure that fair use (United…

  19. 76 FR 72000 - Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts AGENCY: U.S... Consultants, 1255 Roberts Boulevard NW., Suite 200, Kennesaw, GA 30144, on U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/133,666, and a divisional patent application to be filed shortly at the Patent and Trademark...

  20. THE COPYRIGHT IN THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel Ioan MURZEA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary society has imposed new demands in the development and application of copyright as a result of structural changes which occur as a result of developments in science, technology and especially communication technologies and of informatics. Legal doctrine highlights axiomatic truth according to which the “environment created by technological developments” brings forward the profound informational dimension of human being in the contemporary society. In this context the integration and the harmonization of legislation of the Member States of the European Union leads to a complex and dynamic process by which the copyright called to legally protect intellectual creation in contemporary society, acquires a universal vocation in the contemporary society, because there are no barriers or impediments in its spreading especially due to the phenomenon of multiplication and improvement of means of information and communication

  1. JPEG digital watermarking for copyright protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy G. Ivanenko

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of the multimedia technology, copyright protection has become a very important issue, especially for images. The advantages of easy photo distribution are discarded by their possible theft and unauthorized usage on different websites. Therefore, there is a need in securing information with technical methods, for example digital watermarks. This paper reviews digital watermark embedding methods for image copyright protection, advantages and disadvantages of digital watermark usage are produced. Different watermarking algorithms are analyzed. Based on analysis results most effective algorithm is chosen – differential energy watermarking. It is noticed that the method excels at providing image integrity. Digital watermark embedding system should prevent illegal access to the digital watermark and its container. Requirements for digital watermark are produced. Possible image attacks are reviewed. Modern modifications of embedding algorithms are studied. Robustness of the differential energy watermark is investigated. Robustness is a special value, which formulae is given further in the article. DEW method modification is proposed, it’s advantages over original algorithm are described. Digital watermark serves as an additional layer of defense which is in most cases unknown to the violator. Scope of studied image attacks includes compression, filtration, scaling. In conclusion, it’s possible to use DEW watermarking in copyright protection, violator can easily be detected if images with embedded information are exchanged.

  2. Collective Agreements for the Clearance of Copyrights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas; Rognstad, Ole-Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This contribution analyses and discusses the use of collective management organizations (CMOs) in copyright. More concretely, it examines the use and effects of extended collective licenses (ECL). This model of rights management has been developed in the Nordic countries and has for some time been...... hailed as a promising tool to solve some of copyright’s problems relating to mass uses of works. It is pointed out how ECL builds on users generated rights managements structures (CMOs) but owes its specific effectiveness to a legislator’s willingness to provide a third-party effect of the collective...

  3. The Great Game and the copyright villain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Rosenblatt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the reactions of Sherlock Holmes fans and enthusiasts to assertions of intellectual property ownership and infringement by putative rights holders in two eras of Sherlockian history. In both the 1946–47 and 2013–15 eras, Sherlock Holmes devotees villainized the entities claiming ownership of intellectual property in Holmes, distancing those entities from Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and casting them as greedy and morally bankrupt. Throughout each era, Sherlockians did not shy away from creating transformative works based on the Holmes canon over the objections of putative rights holders. This complicates the usual expectation that copyright assertions against fans are likely to chill fan production. The essay explores possible reasons why Sherlockian fandom might differ from other fandoms in this respect, including the role of the Great Game form of Sherlockian fandom in shaping fan attitudes toward their subject.

  4. Revisionary Copyright: A Ghost of the Past or a Current Trap to Assignments of Copyright?

    OpenAIRE

    Torremans, Paul L.; Otero García-Castrillón, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide copyright assignments that contain a choice of law clause are the norm. National copyright laws in the United Kingdom and Spain do, however, contain provisions on reversionary copyright in their transition provision. These provisions would, if applicable, terminate the assignment 25 years after the death of the author and hand the copyright back to the author's successors in title rather than the assignees. From a choice of law pwerspective this becomes a classification issue. This ...

  5. Librarian Copyright Literacy: Self-Reported Copyright Knowledge among Information Professionals in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estell, Allison; Saunders, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Librarians often act as default copyright experts at their institutions and thus must have an awareness of copyright law and practices. Nevertheless, there is little in the scholarly literature about how well informed librarians are about copyright law. Through a national survey of professional librarians, this study illustrates librarians'…

  6. What's Wrong with Copyright: Educator Strategies for Dealing with Analog Copyright Law in a Digital World

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, J. Patrick; McGrail, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    Current copyright law was formulated before the digital technology became widely available and well before Web 2.0 changed the way that information is created and shared. J. Patrick McGrail and Ewa McGrail argue that copyright law has failed to keep up with the social and legal changes that have accompanied the technological developments of the…

  7. Copyright Catechism II. Practical Answers to Everyday School Dilemmas. Copyright Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This book contains valid, real-world copyright questions posed by real-life educators--all answered by a knowledgeable and experienced school attorney. Poor economic conditions have driven publishers to be more aggressive with pursuing improper use of their copyrighted materials. At the same time, new technologies are complicating old copyright…

  8. Copyright law and academic radiology: rights of authors and copyright owners and reproduction of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, E J; Westenberg, L

    1995-05-01

    Desktop computer hardware and software provide many new and accessible avenues for increased academic productivity, but some activities may have legal implications. The advent of technologies such as scanners, the ever-increasing number of electronic bulletin boards, and the development of the "information superhighway" affect the concept of copyright and require authors and publishers to reconsider their legal rights and obligations when they create or publish new works or modify existing ones. For example, with desktop scanners, almost any image, published or otherwise, can be copied, enhanced, and manipulated. Moreover, many radiologists have access to copyrighted digital radiologic teaching file images, such as those from the University of Iowa or the University of Washington, which are available (and "downloadable") on the Internet. Because "downloading" (or "uploading") a document or image is essentially making a copy of that document or image, copyright laws and the rights that they afford authors are involved.

  9. Copyright in the age of online access : Alternative compensation systems in EU copyright law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Miranda Branco Tomé Quintais, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    The large majority of the EU population uses the Internet. For many individuals, their online acts of enjoyment and expression are restricted by copyright. For users and rights holders alike, the existing model of exclusivity with enforcement is problematic. Online enforcement is either impossible

  10. EU Digital Regulation Versus Copyright: A Way to Reconcile Digital Economy and Copyright?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvon Thiec

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In September 2016, the European Commission presented a proposal for a Directive on copyright in the Digital Single Market, part of a package that also includes the transposition into European law of the Marrakesh Treaty and its effects on the European Union’s relations with third countries, as well as the regulation on online transmissions of broadcasting organisations. The copyright directive is of major importance in the context of digital regulation as it proposes a new related right for press publishers and a new mechanism aiming to give rightholders better control over the use and remuneration of their works on Internet. The proposal also narrows the liability exemption under the e-commerce directive, which has given platforms that provide access to protected works a way out of concluding licensing agreements with rightholders. The draft directive proposes three exceptions to copyright to reinforce digital use in education, protection of the cultural heritage and text-and-data mining. The aim of this paper is to present and to comment on the copyright directive and offer an overview of the opinions that are starting to emerge among different stakeholders.

  11. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability. ...

  12. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability. ...

  13. 37 CFR 354.1 - Material questions of copyright law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... copyright law. 354.1 Section 354.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF... Material questions of copyright law. (a) Discretionary referrals. The Copyright Royalty Judges may seek guidance from the Register of Copyrights with respect to a material question of substantive law, concerning...

  14. 37 CFR 201.1 - Communication with the Copyright Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication with the Copyright Office. 201.1 Section 201.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.1 Communication with the Copyright Office...

  15. Educational Implications for Copyright in a Digital World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallek, Heiko; Schleyer, Titus K. L.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews copyright issues, fair use guidelines, and applicable principles of copyright and ownership, the rights of copyright holders, and the conditions under which copyrighted material can be used by others. Notes possible affects of the 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act and intellectual property issues on dental schools. (Author/DB)

  16. Private Copyright and Public Communication: Free Speech Endangered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Lyman Ray

    1975-01-01

    Contending that potential conflict between copyright and free speech inevitable if present provisions of the copyright bill providing copyright for television are enacted, the author suggests an alternative approach based on analysis of English and American background, copyright and the law of unfair competition, and policies of the copyright…

  17. 76 FR 41075 - Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Rules and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Royalty and Distribution Reform Act of 2004 was signed into law creating the Copyright Royalty Judges, Public Law 108-419, 118 Stat. 2341. The Act replaced the royalty panels with three Copyright Royalty... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 251 [Docket No. 2011-5] Copyright Arbitration...

  18. Copyright Law and the Leadership Classroom: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Cindy; Jones, David

    2008-01-01

    For many educators the fair use provision of the Copyright Act of 1976 and the subsequent Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization (TEACH) Act offer "carte blanche" use of various forms of media in the classroom. As Siva Vaidhyanathan (2001) notes, "Copyright myths have had as much power as copyright laws" (p. 5). The…

  19. Broken Links and Broken Laws: Copyright Confusion Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Discusses copyright laws and litigation that have implications for online copyright. Highlights include the Sonny Bono Copyright Extension Act; the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA); Eldred v. Ashcroft; tradeoffs between private interests and the public domain; and intellectual property licensing. (LRW)

  20. Copyright and the Professoriate: A Primer and Some Recent Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Copyright branch of American law is summarized and two copyright issues of interest to academics are discussed. Ownership of copyright in works produced in the university and what "fair uses" of copyrighted works may be made by teacher-scholars are discussed. The Salinger v. Random House, Inc. case is described. (MLW)

  1. Navigating the Copyright Landscape: Practical Considerations for Librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Carter Conlogue

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Copyright is central to teaching activities in higher education. Using copyrighted materials in education requires careful analysis and understanding of copyright basics. A review of the literature demonstrates that librarians are the primary resource on campus for information about copyright. A sampling of small to moderate-size, private university and college websites, and a survey of the librarians at those institutions suggest that libraries and librarians are the sole providers of copyright information for their campus. This paper examines how and what kinds of copyright information librarians at private, small to moderate-size institutions provide to their patrons and offers commentary from librarians who are currently the copyright contact on campus. The authors discuss how to use copyright expertise to build a professional niche and serve the profession as well as how to identify new opportunities for professional growth and career advancement.

  2. Complete Copyright for K-12 Librarians and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    School librarians and educators have specific copyright questions that are often glossed over in larger books on the subject. Now, thanks to best-selling copyright authority Carrie Russell, there's a resource just for them, offering clear guidance for providing materials to students while carefully observing copyright law. Using whimsical…

  3. Clash of cultures: integrating copyright and consumer law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.; Guibault, L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - This article seeks to deal with the fundamental conceptual differences between consumer law and copyright law that render the application of consumer law to copyright-law related conflicts difficult. Design/methodology/approach - Following a normative approach to copyright and consumer law

  4. Implication of Copyright Provisions for Literary Works in Films and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emphasis of copyright is on original literary works, films, sound recordings and others. The focus of this paper is to discuss the various provisions of the copyright law as they affect films, video and by extension video CD. The study examines the various interpretations of the provisions of the copyright law as they affect ...

  5. Crime and Punishment: Are Copyright Violators Ever Penalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Carrie

    2004-01-01

    Is there a Web site that keeps track of copyright Infringers and fines? Some colleagues don't believe that copyright violators are ever penalized. This question was asked by a reader in a question and answer column of "School Library Journal". Carrie Russell is the American Library Association's copyright specialist, and she will answer selected…

  6. The Legal Status of the Federal Copyright Law. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Ralph A.; Nolte, M. Chester

    The historical and legal background of the Federal Copyright Law with special implications for education was studied within five general areas of concern. The areas included: (1) historical development, (2) copyright revision issues, (3) principles of copyright law embodied in state and Federal statutes, (4) decisions of the courts pertaining to…

  7. Securing the Future of Copyright Users’ Rights in Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Sharieh, Saleh

    2018-01-01

    The Copyright Act includes a set of copyright infringement exceptions that permit the unauthorized use of copyrighted works in order to serve public interest objectives. The Supreme Court of Canada liberally interpreted these exceptions as “users’ rights” by relying on the purpose of the Act,

  8. Copyright Notice, Deposit and Registration Under S. 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, George; Cooper, Barry A.

    1976-01-01

    Chapter 4 of S. 22 requires that works bear a copyright notice, but greatly reduces the penalties for an incorrect or nonexisting notice. It also establishes an optional system of copyright registration. The 12 sections of Chapter 4 are discussed in depth and compared to the existing copyright law. (LBH)

  9. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright infringement liability. 1327.201 Section 1327.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and...

  10. The copyright wars three centuries of trans-atlantic battle

    CERN Document Server

    Baldwin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Today’s copyright wars can seem unprecedented. Sparked by the digital revolution that has made copyright—and its violation—a part of everyday life, fights over intellectual property have pitted creators, Hollywood, and governments against consumers, pirates, Silicon Valley, and open-access advocates. But while the digital generation can be forgiven for thinking the dispute between, for example, the publishing industry and Google is completely new, the copyright wars in fact stretch back three centuries—and their history is essential to understanding today’s battles. The Copyright Wars—the first major trans-Atlantic history of copyright from its origins to today—tells this important story. Peter Baldwin explains why the copyright wars have always been driven by a fundamental tension. Should copyright assure authors and rights holders lasting claims, much like conventional property rights, as in Continental Europe? Or should copyright be primarily concerned with giving consumers cheap and easy ac...

  11. Authorship in Croatian copyright legislation from 1846 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Velagić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate and present concepts of the author and his/her copyright work in copyright legislation that entered into force in Croatia from 1846 to 2007. 17 legal documents (acts, corrigenda, amendments were investigated using the content analysis method. The analysis of the results gives an insight into various cultural and sociological dimensions of authorship in the given time-frame. Special attention was paid to definitions of the author and his/her copyright work, examples of copyright works and exceptions related to the duration of copyright for different kinds of copyright works. As there had been no systematic overview of such legal documents in the available literature, they were briefly described in the first part of the paper, highlighting the important articles that stress the role of authors and their copyright work. In the analysis and summary we provide a systematic overview of the main concepts, with a special review of copyright laws in relation to new technologies and artistic forms: it is their relationship that testifies to the complexity of the term 'copyright work'. The paper shows that the basic perception of the author, his/her copyright works and their relations in the analysed copyright legislation has not changed significantly during this period of time. All legal documents refer to the examples of copyright work, and in 1957 a definition of copyright work was included, according to which copyright work is every spiritual (later referred to as intellectual creation. The concept of the author is strongly linked with the concept of author's copyright work. Various examples of copyright works allow us to see the difference between works that are permanent (e.g. literary works, music works, art works and works that are yet to be protected by copyright thanks to the development of technology and new features of artistic expression (e.g. photography, movies, computer programs. The process of

  12. Authorship in Croatian copyright legislation from 1846 to 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Velagić, Zoran; Hocenski, Ines

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate and present concepts of the author and his/her copyright work in copyright legislation that entered into force in Croatia from 1846 to 2007. 17 legal documents (acts, corrigenda, amendments) were investigated using the content analysis method. The analysis of the results gives an insight into various cultural and sociological dimensions of authorship in the given time-frame. Special attention was paid to definitions of the author and his/her copyright w...

  13. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM... the rental, sale, leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit of...

  15. Making the Transition as the New Copyright Librarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Regina Algenio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The corpus of academic librarianship literature notes very little material in relation to the work of new copyright librarians. However, the number of academic libraries hiring librarians to fill these positions is increasing, and the need for such literature is real and pertinent. The purpose of this research is to assist incoming copyright librarians with practical, evidence-based guidance for colleagues just starting out in roles focused on copyright issues. The author drew from professional experience as a first-time copyright librarian at a Carnegie One academic institution in the United States. The author highlights the value of constructing a copyright educational foundation for the university community, cultivating a community of practice, establishing best practices around copyright questions and the utility of effective, vetted copyright resources. Understanding the finer details of a copyright librarian’s job are important, as academic libraries are hiring candidates for other scholarly communication positions, and the applicants are expected to know American copyright law.

  16. The Graphic Arts and the New Copyright Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, Wayne

    This paper briefly summarizes the Copyright Act recently passed by the United States Congress as it relates to graphic arts and points out that the law ignores the major problem facing that field: the lack of copyright protection for typography and typeface designs. It then explains the reasoning used for denying protection to typography and…

  17. Royalty Fees Part I: The Copyright Clearance Center and Publishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiblum, Paula; Ardito, Stephanie C.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of copyrights, royalty fees, and intellectual property focuses on the Copyright Clearance Center and publishers. Topics include results of a survey of library and information science journal publishers; how users verify royalty fees; how publishers determine fees; royalty fee reporting; and terms and conditions imposed on electronic…

  18. Development, concept and scope of copyright protection in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development, concept and scope of copyright protection in Nigeria: an overview. ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This forms the aim of this paper which focuses essentially on basic issues relating to the development, concept and the scope of protection afforded copyright in ...

  19. Copyright law and freedom of expression in South Africa | Holland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article acknowledges the conflict between copyright law and freedom of expression right in South Africa; it recognises the tension and conflict of the fundamental rights that is evident in the two case laws discussed. The author laments the absence of copyright provisions under the Bill of Rights of the Constitution as laid ...

  20. IMPOSITION OF A COPYRIGHT LEVY IN NIGERIA: LEGAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as well as cinematograph films. ... adversely affect production of cultural goods or creativity in the society. In order to ... for future production of creative and cultural goods. ..... of copyright and constitutional provisions, which provide for freedom of speech.52 Copyright in itself restrains others from using the expression of the.

  1. 42 CFR 61.19 - Copyright and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copyright and reproduction. 61.19 Section 61.19 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.19 Copyright and reproduction. Where the work accomplished...

  2. Filtering the internet for copyrighted content in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelopoulos, C.

    2009-01-01

    One issue that has been frequently discussed in the IRIS plus series is the unauthorised supply of copyright protected works via the Internet. The resulting threat of copyright infringements could, at least partly, be prevented through the use of Internet filters, an option that forms the subject of

  3. Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization Act Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Marc S.

    2017-01-01

    Educational institutions continually work to balance between providing students with access to data and protecting copyright owner's exclusive rights. The Copyright Act of 1976, effective in 1978, provided exemptions for live and distance education. As digital technology grew in capability, its capabilities were incorporated in distance education,…

  4. In Depth: Interactive Copyright Education for 3D Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of makerspaces and 3D services in libraries means new opportunities to utilize library expertise, partnerships, and exemptions to inform patrons about copyright in creative environments. Wide access to 3D printing, trademarks, and patents are relevant topics, but this paper only focuses on copyright. Little to no literature has been produced about how to educate makers about copyright for 3D objects. This paper will present a framework to encourage creators of 3D objects to analyze and interpret copyright information for their own purposes. It also discusses the process of designing and embedding learning tools into the database for SHAPES, a project for inter-library loans of 3D renderings. NOTE: New information about the methods and progress of this project has been added since the Kraemer Copyright Conference.

  5. Injunctions against mere conduit of information protected by copyright

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld Jakobsen, Søren; Petersen, Clement Salung

    2011-01-01

    This paper includes an in-depth analysis of EU law and Scandinavian law on injunctions against internet access providers (IAPs) performing as mere conduit of information protected by copyright. In recent Scandinavian case law, courts have granted preliminary injunctions which have caused IAPs...... to either shut down specific internet connections allegedly used to infringe copyright or to block access to internet content, which allegedly infringed applicable copyright rules. This paper considers some significant legal challenges, which are emerging in the wake of this case law, and which should...... requires rules, which take into due consideration the special aspects related to enforcement of copyright on the internet through IAPs. Secondly, it is shown that the termination of internet connections and the blocking of access to internet content may not support the public policies behind copyright law...

  6. EU DIRECTIVES IN THE FIELD OF COPYRIGHT AND RELATED RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria MARINESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to underline the evolution and the importance of the European Directives in the field of copyright and related rights, their contribution to the development of the law and the national implementation, namely their transposition into Romanian Law no. 8/1996 on copyright and related rights. For this purpose, the article will analyze the historical evolution of the European Directives in the field of copyright and related rights and their most important dispositions. Given the wide range of subject matter with which it is concerned, the European Directives in the field of copyright and related rights address to enforcement, protection of databases, protection of computer programs, resale right, satellite and cable, term of protection, rental and lending rights, copyright and related rights in the information society, orphan works and management of copyright and related rights. Taking into account the wild range of subjects that European Directives in the field of copyright and related rights address, it is important to observe the permanent interest of the European legislator on the harmonization of the law on copyright and related rights. In this way, the result was the adoption of 7 directives in a 10-year interval between 1991 and 2001, and of 4 directives, including the one for the modification of the Directive on the term of protection, also in a 10-year interval between 2004 and 2014. Despite the extensive process of harmonization, copyright law in the Member States of the European Union is still largely linked to geographical boundaries of sovereign states.

  7. African Copyright and Access to Knowledge Network (ACA2K ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... copyright climate could limit access to knowledge goods and thereby hinder ... Congratulations to the first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows! ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  8. 76 FR 66758 - Remedies for Small Copyright Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... instructions. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Catherine Rowland, Counsel, Office of Policy and International... Involvement: State courts do not have expertise in copyright jurisprudence. As noted above, Section 1338 of...

  9. Copyright and mass digitization a cross-jurisdictional perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Borghi, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In an age where works are increasingly being used, not only as works in the traditional sense, but also as carriers of data from which information may be automatically extracted for various purposes, Borghi and Karapapa consider whether mass digitisation is consistent with existing copyright principles, and ultimately whether copyright protection needs to be redefined, and if so how? The work considers the activities involved in the process of mass digitization identifying impediments to the increasing number of such projects such as the inapplicability of copyright exceptions, difficulties in rights clearance, and the issue of 'orphan' and out-of-print works. It goes on to examine the concept of 'use' of works in light of mass digital technologies and how it impinges on copyright law and principles; for example considering whether scanning and using optical character recognition in mass digital projects qualify as transformative use, or whether text mining on digitial repositories should be a permitted act...

  10. Demystifying the role of copyright as a tool for economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RV

    ... regard is one of creating a conducive environment through political (and economic) stability, and not one of actually ..... Coach 2010 ..... influenced by the civil law tradition, have incorporated bad civil law elements into English copyright law ...

  11. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions of this subpart shall be the property of the United States Government as represented by the Board..., leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications inure to the...

  12. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... funds collected under the provisions of this subpart are the property of the United States Government as... the rental, sale, leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or...

  13. Intellectual Property and Copyright Issues in Online Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Edit

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of intellectual property and copyright issues as they relate to online learning environments. Includes a historical perspective; laws and regulations; liability; Web-related issues; higher education; distance learning; compliance strategies; and policy recommendations. (Author/LRW)

  14. The Necessity to collectivize copyright - and dangers thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    This article describes and discusses the effects of collective rights administration of (individual) copyright. It points out that collectivization is driven either by en economic argument relating to the reduction of transaction costs or a cultural one relating to the protection of authors....... It then claims that collectivization has the potential to affect copyright as it is perceived in the Berne Convention and in traditional copyright legislation fundamentally. The effects include a basic shift in copyright from a system based on property rules to a system based also on liability rules. The article...... then discusses how to best deal with these effects. It recommends that action is considered to identify and possibly remove internal barriers to beneficial collectivization, regulate societies effectively to secure innovation-interest, and  to protect the interests of authors more effectively....

  15. EU copyright protection of works created by artificial intelligence systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bøhler, Helene Margrethe

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with copyright regulation of works created by artificial intelligence systems. The rapid advances in artificial intelligence are calling into question some of the fundamental assumptions upon which intellectual property law rests. Currently, the European framework of copyright law does not take non-human innovation into account. Meanwhile, advances in artificial intelligence are quickly making machine-generation of creative works a reality. Institutions of the Europea...

  16. Should copyright be transferred before a manuscript is accepted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2017-10-01

    Academic journals that undergo a process of academic scrutiny often pass a stage of peer review and subsequent editorial approval. In a process that can take weeks or months (in some cases, even years), an author aims to satisfy the requirements of peer reviewer and editorial scrutiny that would merit publication of their work. It is customary to, in traditional, non-open access journals, to then sign over copyright to the publisher, upon which the publisher then issues a proof, and the manuscript is then published. Even though it is obvious that an author would not submit to a journal with the objective of having it rejected, the issue of the timing of copyright transfer is one which does not appear to have been discussed in the literature, possibly because the order of transfer, i.e., after acceptance of a paper for publication, seems naturally logical. With the modernization of online submission systems, the transfer of copyright tends to occur online, after acceptance. However, on occasion, some journals request the transfer of copyright before peer review and editorial processing occurs, i.e., upon the act of submission. This letter examines three cases of Springer Nature plant science journals that demand the transfer of copyright to the journal's society upon submission, in direct violation of their instructions for authors. Authors have no right to challenge this discrepancy, nor can they complete submission in accordance with the instructions for authors because they are forced to submit copyright upon submission. Not only does transfer of copyright at such an early stage of the publishing process constitute a waste of authors' time-a precious commodity in a cut-throat field of science-in the three cases indicated in this paper, they may constitute a violation of authors' rights. The ethics of this request by the journals and publisher need to be debated.

  17. The Copyright/Design Interface in Denmark (and Scandinavia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Rosenmeier, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the interface in copyright and design law in Denmark and with accounts also for Norway and Sweden. It is pointed out how Scandinavian courts have historically employed several strategies to limit copyright protection of works of applied art including 1) “raising the bar......” to keep works with “clear functional intentions” out of copyright (as seen in Norway and until recently also in Sweden) and 2) narrowing the scope of protection (seen in all three nations). It is finally pointed out how, presently, it is doubtful to what extent the de-velopment in EU law will allow...... these models developed in national law to continue....

  18. Copyright and the Use of Images as Biodiversity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi Egloff

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy is the discipline responsible for charting the world’s organismic diversity, understanding ancestor/descendant relationships, and organizing all species according to a unified taxonomic classification system. Taxonomists document the attributes (characters of organisms, with emphasis on those can be used to distinguish species from each other. Character information is compiled in the scientific literature as text, tables, and images. The information is presented according to conventions that vary among taxonomic domains; such conventions facilitate comparison among similar species, even when descriptions are published by different authors. There is considerable uncertainty within the taxonomic community as to how to re-use images that were included in taxonomic publications, especially in regard to whether copyright applies. This article deals with the principles and application of copyright law, database protection, and protection against unfair competition, as applied to images. We conclude that copyright does not apply to most images in taxonomic literature because they are presented in a standardized way and lack the individuality that is required to qualify as ‘copyrightable works’. There are exceptions, such as wildlife photographs, drawings and artwork produced in a distinctive individual form and intended for other than comparative purposes (such as visual art. Further exceptions may apply to collections of images that qualify as a database in the sense of European database protection law. In a few European countries, there is legal protection for photographs that do not qualify as works in the usual sense of copyright. It follows that most images found in taxonomic literature can be re-used for research or many other purposes without seeking permission, regardless of any copyright declaration. In observance of ethical and scholarly standards, re-users are expected to cite the author and original source of any image that

  19. Where Does Creativity Come From? and Other Stories of Copyright

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This Commentary on Lydia Pallas Loren, Untangling the Web of Music Copyrights, 53 Case W. Res. L. Rev. 673 (2003), observes that debates over a variety of copyright law issues can be - and in fact, often are - structured in narrative terms, rather than in terms of doctrine, policy, or empirical inquiry. I suggest a series of such narratives, each framed by a theme drawn from a feature film. The Commentary suggests that we should recognize more clearly the role of narrative in intellectual pro...

  20. Nigerian popular films: copyright and originality | Effiong | Lwati: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay attempts to examine the effect of copyright activities on Nigerian popular films. To an extent, it is to show how these activities have affected the distribution of films produced by Nigerians and the rising wave of returning to the cinema halls. Movie producers have expressed disappointment in the loss of their ...

  1. Religiosity and Music Copyright Theft among Canadian Baptist Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Bruce G.; Francis, Leslie J.; Henderson, Amanda J.; Robbins, Mandy; Linkletter, Jody

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the views of 706 Canadian Baptist youth (between the ages of 14 and 18 years) on the moral issue of music copyright theft, and explores the influence on these views of age, sex, Sunday church attendance, personal prayer, personal Bible reading, and conservative Bible believing. The participants were attending Springforth 2005…

  2. 37 CFR 202.3 - Registration of copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... separate continuation sheet, CON 2, must be used to list contents titles, i.e., titles of independent works... on current events, either local, national, or international in scope. A newspaper contains a broad... other copyright claimant of a work, or the owner of any exclusive right in a work, or the duly...

  3. "Originality" and "Reproduction" in Copyright Law with Special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turning to lessons from foreign jurisdictions, this note explores from a copyright perspective the fact that photographs are produced mechanically and more often than not without any effort or mental input. A minute number are taken for anything but personal use and in the digital age photographs tend to have a high degree ...

  4. The Bookshelf: Digitisation and Access to Copyright Items in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstein, Vigdis Moe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the challenges faced in digitising copyright-protected books and other materials within the National Library of Norway. Design/methodology/approach: Following a description of Bokhylla, or The Bookshelf, the paper outlines the strategies adopted within the National Library of Norway…

  5. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... who is entitled to receive a royalty payment under this part, they shall retain the required fee in a... royalty fees shall be valid after the expiration of the three-year period. Public broadcasting entities... make available to the Copyright Royalty Judges, upon request, information concerning fees deposited in...

  6. Reclaiming Fair Use: How to Put Balance Back in Copyright

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufderheide, Patricia; Jaszi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In the increasingly complex and combative arena of copyright in the digital age, record companies sue college students over peer-to-peer music sharing, YouTube removes home movies because of a song playing in the background, and filmmakers are denied a distribution deal when some permissions "i" proves undottable. Patricia Aufderheide and Peter…

  7. Facing the Grim Realities in CBI: Copyright and Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This paper focuses on two major issues in the third stage of the implementation and dissemination process for computer based instruction (CBI)--copyright and documentation. The purpose, special problems, and different approaches or methods of copywriting and documenting CBI materials are discussed. Tables outline the types of information required…

  8. The United States Copyright Law: A Guide for Music Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    On October 19, 1976, President Ford signed the nation's first comprehensive revision of our copyright law since 1909. It became fully effective on January 1, 1978 and it is a law that will need to be understood by music educators both to improve their teaching and to protect themselves and their schools from incurring liability or being sued. This…

  9. A century of Dutch copyright law: auteurswet 1912-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, B.; Quaedvlieg, A.; Visser, D.

    2012-01-01

    On September 23, 1912, the Dutch Copyright Act - Auteurswet - was enacted. A century after its enactment the Dutch law is one of the world's oldest 'living' acts of the author's rights tradition. While the Act has seen many small and large amendments since its adoption in 1912, it has never been

  10. The Film Collector, the FBI, and the Copyright Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Francis M., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Current developments in both the civil and criminal law as they relate to the hobby of film collecting are analyzed. The first-sale doctrine, court cases involving copyrights of films, and the role of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in confiscating films on behalf of the Film Security Office of the Motion Picture Association of America are…

  11. Copyrights and Conversations: Intellectual Property in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Janice R.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that, by approaching conventions of citation and prohibitions against plagiarism in the classroom from the perspective of copyright issues, students can come to a greater understanding of the nature of scholarship. Makes recommendations for teaching students about the issues involved, and suggests ways that authors, teachers, and…

  12. Some Optimism About Fair Use and Copyright Law

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This short paper reflects on the emergence of codes of best practices in fair use, highlighting both the relationship between the best practices approach and an institutional perspective on copyright and the relationship between the best practices approach and social processes of innovation and creativity.

  13. Access to Knowledge in Africa: The Role of Copyright | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-01-01

    Jan 1, 2010 ... ... IP will benefit immensely from this book and the broader ACA2K project's work. ... scholarly publications, journals and learning materials in general. ... This book is based on the work of the African Copyright and Access to ...

  14. 75 FR 38543 - Patent, Trademark and Copyright Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Patent, Trademark and Copyright Acts AGENCY: Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of prospective intent to award exclusive license. SUMMARY: The... Technologies Group, Inc., 253 Portman Lane, Suite 107, Bridgeville, PA 15017 on U.S. Patent No. 6,485,696 B1...

  15. Online Copyright Enforcement, Consumer Behavior and Market Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, Luis; Claussen, Jörg; Peukert, Christian

    Taking down copyright-infringing websites is a way to reduce consumption of pirated media content and increase licensed consumption. We analyze the consequences of the shutdown of the most popular German video streaming website - kino.to - in June 2011. Using individual-level clickstream data, we...

  16. Online Copyright Enforcement, Consumer Behavior, and Market Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, Luis; Claussen, Jörg; Peukert, Christian

    Taking down copyright-infringing websites is a way to reduce consumption of pirated media content and increase licensed consumption. We analyze the consequences of the shutdown of the most popular German video streaming website - kino.to - in June 2011. Using individual-level clickstream data, we...

  17. Copyright Policy and Practice in Electronic Reserves among ARL Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David R.; Cross, William M.; Edwards, Phillip M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of 110 ARL institutions regarding their copyright policies for providing electronic reserves. It compiles descriptive statistics on library practice as well as coding responses to reveal trends and shared practices. Finally, it presents conclusions about policy making, decision making and risk aversion…

  18. Approaches to Copyright Education for Faculty in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Zerkee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study surveyed copyright administrators at Canadian universities about their methods of providing copyright training to faculty and non-faculty instructors, the frequency and topics of education provided, and the modes of communication used to reach instructors. Copyright administrators were also asked to rate the perceived effectiveness of their educational opportunities. Respondents feel that in-person education is most effective for providing copyright training to instructors, though a significant number of respondents do not believe that all instructors at their institutions are made adequately aware of copyright educational opportunities. Lack of time and staffing resources affect many copyright administrators. These challenges are leading many to develop more systematic approaches to reaching instructors. Communication and education are being provided directly to individual departments and by working with administrators and others at the department level. Considering the siloed nature of many copyright offices and positions, this study aims to share the approaches being taken by copyright administrators to educate instructors about their rights and responsibilities with regard to copyright and teaching. Introduction Cette étude a sondé des agents du droit d’auteur des universités canadiennes sur les méthodes utilisées pour offrir des formations à des professeurs et autres employés, la fréquence et les sujets abordés lors de ces formations ainsi que les moyens utilisés pour communiquer avec cette clientèle. Les agents du droit d’auteur ont également évalué l’efficacité perçue de leurs formations. Les répondants croient que la formation en personne est la façon la plus efficace de former les professeurs même si un nombre significatif de répondants croient que les professeurs à leur établissement ne soient pas suffisamment informés des possibilités d’enseignement portant sur le droit d’auteur. Le manque

  19. Ebooks Licensing and Canadian Copyright Legislation: A Few Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony G Horava

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebooks have become increasingly common in collection development strategies. The availability and delivery of monographs in digital formats has gained significantly in popularity in many libraries, particularly in the academic sector. Licensing is the common method of acquiring ebooks, whether as a subscription or a purchase. Libraries have had to transform selection and workflow processes in order to acquire ebooks in an efficient manner. Little attention, however, has been paid to the interplay between licensing as a contractual arrangement and the statutory rights available under Canadian copyright law. Fair dealing is a concept of critical importance in Canadian copyright, as it provides the foundation for user rights in support of culture, learning, and innovation. There are other provisions of specific value for libraries, such as interlibrary loans and access by persons with perceptual disabilities. This article will examine these issues and proposes a few strategies that libraries can adopt to ensure that statutory rights are not eroded in licensing agreements

  20. Public licenses and public domain as alternatives to copyright

    OpenAIRE

    Köppel, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The work first introduces the area of public licenses as a space between the copyright law and public domain. After that, consecutively for proprietary software, free and open source software, open hardware and open content, it maps particular types of public licenses and the accompanying social and cultural movements, puts them in mutual as well as historical context, examines their characteristics and compares them to each other, shows how the public licenses are defined by various accompan...

  1. The Aereo dilemma and copyright in the cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Horten

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aereo is a cloud-based startup company that offers people the possibility to watch live (or nearly live television on computing devices and smartphones. It was sued by the major US broadcasters for copyright liability and the case went to the Supreme Court where Aereo lost. It encapsulates a dilemma facing courts in the US and EU – that a ruling to shut down Aereo, on the basis that it is unlawful under copyright law, could threaten innovation in areas such as the cloud. The Aereo case turned on a narrow point of US copyright law, which this paper discusses. The core issue for this paper was to analyse the legal dispute between Aereo and the broadcasters as documented in the court papers, including transcripts of the hearing, and submissions in support of both parties. A key finding was that the technical design and characterisation of the service lay at the heart of the argument over copyright. The US courts deliberated at length as whether Aereo is more like a cable TV company, or is it merely an equipment provider, providing a digital video recorder in the cloud. The paper discusses whether technical design matters or whether the substantive effect could be the determining factor. The paper then broadens the perspective to examine the position of cloud service providers. It does so in general terms, using amicus curiae briefs and other documentation from the US court case, before concluding with a consideration of the EU position. An important finding is that the complexities of content acquisition, transmission and format-shifting will generate considerable legal uncertainty.

  2. Streaming Video Games: Copyright Infringement or Protected Speech?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Evert Elias Jungar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Streaming video games, that is, live broadcasting playing video games on the internet, is incredibly popular. Millions tune into twitch.tv daily to watch eSport tournaments, their favourite streamer, and chat with other viewers. But all is not rosy in the world of streaming games. Recently, some game developers have aggressively exercised their copyright to, firstly, claim part of the streamers’ revenue, and secondly, control the context in which their game is shown. The article analyzes whether game developers have, and should have, such rights under EU copyright law. Reaching the conclusion that video game streams infringe the game developer’s right to communicate their works to the public, I argue that freedom of expression can and should be used to rein in their rights in certain cases. Subjecting the lawfulness of streams to game developers’ good will risks stifling the expressions of streamers. The streamers, their audience, and even the copyright holders, would be worse off for it.

  3. Copyright for Movie Night: Film Screenings on Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela D. Willi Hooper

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available I undertook this paper so that I, along with other librarians and educators, could better understand how to comply with copyright law, conserve university resources, and streamline services to students regarding the procurement of public performance rights (PPR for films and other audiovisual resources. Student groups frequently screen films on campuses, and accepted legal interpretations of sections 101 and 106 of the 1976 Copyright Act indicate that a specific license should be sought for any public performance of a copyrighted audiovisual work. My review of PPR information on the public websites of the 38 members of the ORBIS-Cascade Alliance (an academic library consortium in the Northwest points to the potential for greater collaboration with student affairs professionals and other campus departments to provide more accurate and complete information about PPR and library audiovisual resources (e.g., DVDs or streaming media that have PPR attached. Campus-focused resources about PPR should include information about fair use, educational exemptions, public domain, open licenses, and library-licensed content that comes with PPR. The academic library community could undertake a project to enhance the accessibility of accurate and supportive PPR information to student groups by creating tools or best practices. This area is ripe for more current research.

  4. Image Right and Copyright Law in Europe: Divergences and Convergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Synodinou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the multiplicity of image rights in Europe and the classical conflictual relationship between the right to one’s own image and copyright law. First, the paper analyses the main mechanisms of legal protection of a person’s image in selected jurisdictions, in both the civil law and the common law tradition. It is deduced that the civil law approach based on the right of privacy or the right of personality is expressed mainly either via a duality, reflecting the extra-patrimonial and the patrimonial attributes to one’s own image, or via the recognition of a single right with a dual nature. On the other hand, the protection granted to the right to one’s own image in the United Kingdom is piecemeal in nature, since it is based on a broad interpretation of the classic torts of breach of confidence and passing off, which fails to provide a coherent and effective legal framework for protecting the intangible asset of a person’s image, both in terms of its dignitary and its economic identity. After pinpointing the major differences in terms of protecting the right to one’s own image in Europe, the emphasis is placed on the relationship between image rights and copyright law. A classic approach considers image rights as an external limitation of copyright law, and therefore typifies the relationship between image rights and copyright law as being primarily conflictual in nature. Nonetheless, it is also possible to focus on the convergences between the right to one’s own image and copyright law, since both refer to intangible assets that combine both extra-patrimonial and patrimonial interests. In this respect, copyright law could serve as a model for the eventual creation of a European patrimonial right to one’s own image. While the idea of promoting the recognition or establishment of a new intellectual property right for protecting the economic attributes of a person’s image in EU Member States’ domestic

  5. Image Right and Copyright Law in Europe: Divergences and Convergences

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Synodinou

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the multiplicity of image rights in Europe and the classical conflictual relationship between the right to one’s own image and copyright law. First, the paper analyses the main mechanisms of legal protection of a person’s image in selected jurisdictions, in both the civil law and the common law tradition. It is deduced that the civil law approach based on the right of privacy or the right of personality is expressed mainly either via a duality, reflecting the extra-patrimo...

  6. Copyright over Works Reproduced and Published Online by Search Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rengifo García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Search engines are an important technological tool that facilitates the dissemination and access to information on the Internet. However, when it comes to works protected by authors rights, in the case of continental law, or Copyright, for the Anglo-Saxon tradition, it is difficult to define if search engines infringe the rights of the owners of these works. In the face of this situation, the US and Europe have employed the exceptions to autorights and Fair Use to decide whether search engines infringes owners rights. This article carries out a comparative analysis of the different judicial decisions in the US and Europe on search engines and protected works.

  7. Strong Copyright + DRM + Weak Net Neutrality = Digital Dystopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Bailey Jr.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Three critical issues—a dramatic expansion of the scope, duration, and punitive nature of copyright laws; the ability of Digital Rights Management (DRM systems to lock-down digital content in an unprecedented fashion; and the erosion of Net neutrality, which ensures that all Internet traffic is treated equally—are examined in detail and their potential impact on libraries is assessed. How legislatures, the courts, and the commercial marketplace treat these issues will strongly influence the future of digital information for good or ill.

  8. Copyright Failure and the Protection for Tables and Compilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis K W Khong

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Current copyright laws in all jurisdictions are lacking explicit provisions for protecting many types of contemporary art. It remains unclear to what extent ideas should be copyrightable as art, if at all; or whether an artwork’s commercial nature provides a decisive factor regarding appropriation. Certain situations seem plainly inappropriate, such as artists needing to seek legal counsel in conjunction with creating their artwork: inappropriate in its financial extravagance and in its inevitable curb on creativity. As such, it is incumbent upon courts and legislatures to analyze the issue and to provide guidance. It is the author’s finding that strong moral rights and a vibrant public domain are not necessarily at odds with each other, especially when parties are open to communication. Laws operate to provide structure when parties do not make other arrangements amongst themselves; contracts between artists and galleries, artists and publishers, even artists and other artists may provide the highest degree of satisfaction for specific parties to a specific situation. Not surprisingly, parties with legal or business interests in art and parties with artistic interests in art would communicate better if they understood each other’s situations. Hopefully the issues will continue to be the focus of some thought on all platforms such that informed legal decisions can be made and artists can pursue and protect their creative productions, no matter their format.

  9. Technological measures of protection in the copyright system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital exploitation of works often exceed the limit to which the holder can control the exploitation of their intellectual creations, and the protection provided by legal norms are, in the era of a fast exchange of information, may prove to be insufficiently effective. For these reasons, the rights holders are increasingly opting for preventive care through placement of physical obstacles to the exploitation of copyright works, generic called technological protection measures (known as digital right management (DRM. Simultaneously with the development of the application of these measures flows the process of finding ways to circumvent them. Therefore, the effectiveness of technological measures depends on exactly the question of their legal protection, which now exists in most of modern legal systems. However, in the normative solutions there are differences, which reflect the problems in finding adequate forms of protection. They mostly stem from the fact that the sanctioning of circumvention (or preparatory actions of technological measures put into the question the purpose of copyright protection in general. Hence, in this paper we tried to point out the normative solutions accepted in modern legal systems and practical implications of what they have. Conclusion that arises is that the legal shaping of technological measures is not completed and that further technological developments open new dilemmas.

  10. Author’s contract in the Albanian copyright law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oltion Spiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relation between the author and his/her artistic creation is very specific and at the same time a strong one. Such relation defies any property and affective connection that an individual may have with an object (Caron, 2011, 25. Copyright constitutes precisely the legal embodiment of the author’s intimate relationship with his/her work. Copyright is a plurality of legal provisions that belongs to the author of the work, in order to protect his/her ownership and eventually the commercial exploitation of such work. In this context, the author, through legal provisions and international conventions duly ratified by Albania, enjoys a relevant legal arsenal in order to defend his/her artistic works so that such works may have a live of its own (Vivant & Bruguière 2009, 23. One of these legal measures is the contract, which in legal doctrine is well known as the author’s contract. By means of such contract, the author has the right to distribute, reproduce, license or certify rights related to his/her artistic work. In this regard, the contract is an irreplaceable tool in the hands of the author to distribute the work and to give it an undeniable value, turning it into one of the most valuable intangible assets in civil circulation. The contract of the author, as the name indicates it, is a contract that obeys to the rules of civil law with respect to the quality of the parties, the characteristics of the object of the contract, its conclusion, the determination of remuneration and the term of duration. On the other hand, it is undeniable that the contract of the author contains rules which are not specifically contemplated by the Civil Code, such as rules relating to the form, interpretation and existence of some sui generis contracts provided in Law 9380 / 2005 “On copyright and related rights” (hereinafter referred to as “Law 9380/2005” or “Law on Copyright” as well as in the Draft Law On Authors Rights (hereinafter referred

  11. Copyright and personal use of CERN’s computing infrastructure

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    (La version française sera en ligne prochainement)The rules covering the personal use of CERN’s computing infrastructure are defined in Operational Circular No. 5 and its Subsidiary Rules (see http://cern.ch/ComputingRules). All users of CERN’s computing infrastructure must comply with these rules, whether they access CERN’s computing facilities from within the Organization’s site or at another location. In particular, OC5 clause 17 requires that proprietary rights (the rights in software, music, video, etc.) must be respected. The user is liable for damages resulting from non-compliance. Recently, there have been several violations of OC5, where copyright material was discovered on public world-readable disk space. Please ensure that all material under your responsibility (in particular in files owned by your account) respects proprietary rights, including with respect to the restriction of access by third parties. CERN Security Team

  12. Robust watermarking on copyright protection of digital originals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, C; Hu, X Y, E-mail: guchong527@gmail.co, E-mail: emma_huxy@yahoo.com.c [College of Packaging and Printing Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin, 300222 (China)

    2010-06-01

    The issues about the difference between digital vector originals and raster originals were discussed. A new algorithm based on displacing vertices to realize the embedding and extracting of digital watermarking in vector data was proposed after that. The results showed that the watermark produced by the method is resistant against translation, scaling, rotation, additive random noise; it is also resistant, to some extent, against cropping. This paper also modified the DCT raster image watermarking algorithm, using a bitmap image as watermark embedded into target images, instead of some meaningless serial numbers or simple symbols. The embedding and extraction part of these two digital watermark systems achieved with software. Experiments proved that both algorithms are not only imperceptible, but also have strong resistance against the common attracts, which can prove the copyright more effectively.

  13. Copyright Protection of Color Imaging Using Robust-Encoded Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cedillo-Hernandez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a robust-encoded watermarking method applied to color images for copyright protection, which presents robustness against several geometric and signal processing distortions. Trade-off between payload, robustness and imperceptibility is a very important aspect which has to be considered when a watermark algorithm is designed. In our proposed scheme, previously to be embedded into the image, the watermark signal is encoded using a convolutional encoder, which can perform forward error correction achieving better robustness performance. Then, the embedding process is carried out through the discrete cosine transform domain (DCT of an image using the image normalization technique to accomplish robustness against geometric and signal processing distortions. The embedded watermark coded bits are extracted and decoded using the Viterbi algorithm. In order to determine the presence or absence of the watermark into the image we compute the bit error rate (BER between the recovered and the original watermark data sequence. The quality of the watermarked image is measured using the well-known indices: Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, Visual Information Fidelity (VIF and Structural Similarity Index (SSIM. The color difference between the watermarked and original images is obtained by using the Normalized Color Difference (NCD measure. The experimental results show that the proposed method provides good performance in terms of imperceptibility and robustness. The comparison among the proposed and previously reported methods based on different techniques is also provided.

  14. THE COPYRIGHT ON THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY EXPERT REPORT. CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Sorin Fântână

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, according to the law, the expert is treated as a witness, and the expertise - presented as a report - is treated as a work implemented in support of justice only. Referring to the intellectual property, an expert report is often a research work with pronounced character of investigation. According to the copyright law, such a unique work should be cited even in the court device resolution, scientifically commented, as bibliographical source. The immediate consequence in support of the act of justice is that, unlike the jurisprudence - which in many countries is not a source of law, having an informative character only, a written report - especially the technical work – cannot be commented by any court. Evaluated as technical work, an expert report on the one hand should be treated as such - cited - by the courts of law and on the other hand implemented according to the rules imposed in the scientific works: documented, with a minimum number of references to and quotations from serious sources, including previous expert reports from completed files. We think that such an approach of the expert report would lead to a significant improvement of the justice act at least in Business Law.

  15. Copyright in a Digital Age: Practical Guidance for Information Professionals in the Midst of Legal Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Robert S.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses copyright issues pertaining to information use on the Internet. Topics include digital copyright interpretations; court rulings on copyright infringement; copyright advice from the Copyright Clearance Center; rights management models; technology as a solution; and developing corporate copyright policies. (LRW)

  16. Conference Session I: Mitigating Risk at the Front Lines: The Copyright First Responders Program. Presented by Kyle Courtney, Copyright Advisor, the Office for Scholarly Communication, Harvard University.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara R. Benson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a summary of Kyle Courtney's Invited Presentation at the 2017 Kraemer Copyright Conference titled "Mitigating Risk at the Front Lines:  The Copyright First Responders Program."  After reading this article you will better understand the method and purpose of the First Responders Program and, hopefully, like me, you will be ready to volunteer your institution to add to the growing list of libraries engaged in this hub-and-spoke model of copyright information system.

  17. Breakout Session: “Workshopping” Copyright Questions and Practical Solutions. Presented by Kyle Courtney, Copyright Advisor, the Office for Scholarly Communication, Harvard University.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach Van Stanley

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During a breakout session at the 2017 copyright conference, Kyle K. Courtney led a discussion focused on practical solutions to common copyright issues. Foremost among these is risk assessments, which involve judgments of risk versus reward. Kyle recommends taking reasonable steps to minimize risk through steps such as disclaimers, fair use, and identifying authorship. To combat copyright issues, copyright professionals must have proper awareness of each individual situation. Given the resources and skills available to librarians, Kyle advises that librarians have special abilities to handle issues such as orphan works. To make judgment calls, individuals must take information on a case-by-case basis. In addition to understanding individual objects concerning their copyright status, information professionals must also understand the different views taken by rights holders, as some are more open than others to use of the copyrighted object. Kyle also discussed what is copyrightable based on measures such as tangibility in a fixed medium and the somewhat unreliable “sweat of the brow” test. Kyle also gave useful tips such as utilizing 17 U.S. Code § 108(h to copy works in their last 20 years of copyright terms without permission under certain circumstances. Kyle recommended continued exploration of potential solutions for copyright issues as new and novel issues arise.

  18. Lessons in Copyright Activism: K-12 Education and the DMCA 1201 Exemption Rulemaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Digital learning is being transformed by changes in copyright law. This article discusses the author's personal journey as a copyright education activist through two rounds of rulemaking proceedings before the Copyright Office concerning the anti-circumvention provisions of one part of the copyright law, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act…

  19. 37 CFR 201.23 - Transfer of unpublished copyright deposits to the Library of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... copyright deposits to the Library of Congress. 201.23 Section 201.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.23 Transfer of unpublished copyright deposits to the Library of Congress. (a) General. This section prescribes...

  20. An Experimental Copyright Moratorium: Study of a Proposed Solution to the Copyright Photocopying Problem. Final Report to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilprin, Laurence B.

    The Committee to Investigate Copyright Problems (CICP), a non-profit organization dedicated to resolving the conflict known as the "copyright photocopying problem" was joined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), a large national publisher of technical and scientific standards, in a plan to simulate a long-proposed…

  1. 75 FR 47464 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies AGENCY: Copyright... nonsubstantial correction to its regulation announcing the prohibition against circumvention of technological... the final rule governing exemption to prohibition on circumvention of copyright protection systems for...

  2. Copyrights of the judge. What if we can prove that the Copyrights could improve –in some aspects– the Justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier André Murillo Chávez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available How to make that our Judges improve the quality of their Decisions? We know that the search for an answer to that question has become the hunting of the “Holy Grail”. In this sense, this work constitutes a proposal of using copyrights as a mean to achieve this goal. We believe that giving some copyrights over the Decisions to the Judges could generate incentives to improve their quality. Although some national legislations exclude these official texts from the Copyright system, the international normative frame allow the National Governments to give copyrights over the Judge’s Decisions. We believe this will encourage the improvement in the elaboration of these key documents for the Justice in our Countries. Having in mind this, taking the Peruvian, Spanish and Colombian normative, this paper studies this possibility.

  3. 37 CFR 201.14 - Warnings of copyright for use by certain libraries and archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by certain libraries and archives. 201.14 Section 201.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.14 Warnings of copyright for use by certain libraries and archives. (a) Definitions. (1) A Display Warning of...

  4. 37 CFR 251.2 - Purpose of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... carrier royalty fees and digital audio recording devices and media payments deposited with the Register of... Arbitration Royalty Panels. 251.2 Section 251.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY...

  5. Teaching via the Internet: A Brief Review of Copyright Law and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jiang; Dagley, Dave

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on legal problems related to copyright that might arise from teaching via the Internet. Discusses the basics of copyright law; owner's rights; subject matter of copyright; copyright requirements; infringement action and remedies; the fair-use doctrine; guidelines for classroom copying; two views about controls on the Internet; the White…

  6. 75 FR 26278 - The Register of Copyrights’ and the Copyright Royalty Judges’ authority to determine the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... law were referred to the Register of Copyrights concerning the authority of the Register of Copyrights... questions of substantive law for her consideration: Does the Register of Copyrights have the authority under... law. That motion was denied by the Copyright Royalty Judges on March 30, 2010. Order Denying Motion...

  7. Copyrighted Software | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copyrighted Software Software, for which the originating site HAS asserted copyright, is not publicly terms of the developer's contract with DOE. Requests for copyrighted software from those other than DOE contractors or governmental entities are referred by ESTSC to the copyright holder for licensing. Software on

  8. DMCA Section 104 Report: A Report of the Register of Copyrights Pursuant to [Section] 104 of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Copyright Office.

    As required under section 104 of Public Law No. 105-304, this Report evaluates the effects of title I of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998 and the development of electronic commerce and associated technology on the operation of sections 109 and 117 of title 17, U.S.C. It also evaluates the relationship between existing and…

  9. A Touchy Question for Trainers: Are You Guilty of Copyright Rip Off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Presents an interview with Jack L. Copeland, President of Training Media Distributors Association on training and the copyright-piracy problem. Discusses video piracy and other unauthorized uses of materials in relation to the new copyright law. (CSS)

  10. Modification, translation and adaptation of questionnaires: should copyright laws be observed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniper, Elizabeth F

    2009-06-01

    This commentary is intended to start a discussion about whether people should be allowed to modify, translate, adapt or sell copyrighted questionnaires without the permission of the developer (copyright-holder).

  11. Cost recovery in geographic information systems and conflicts with copyright law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jon L.

    1993-10-01

    The ability to recover cost by the sale of geographic information is dependent upon the ownership of the copyright in and to that information. The ownership of the copyright turns upon whether one entity is an employee of the other or whether the copyrightable work falls within certain statutorily defined categories in the copyright law. Absent the specific requirements being fulfilled the ownership of the data may not be exactly as the parties expect.

  12. Copyright as Innovation Policy: Google Book Search from a Law and Economics Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Lichtman

    2009-01-01

    The copyright system has long been understood to play a critical role when it comes to the development and distribution of creative work. Copyright serves a second fundamental purpose, however: it encourages the development and distribution of related technologies such as hardware that might be used to duplicate creative work and software that can manipulate it. When it comes to issues of online infringement, then, copyright policy serves two goals, not one: protect the incentives copyright h...

  13. 78 FR 42872 - Communication with the U.S. Copyright Office: Revised Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... required by that form and its accompanying instructions. Computation of the copyright royalty fee shall be... distant signal equivalents and the copyright royalty fee shall be in accordance with the procedures set... Office and to make advance deposits into that account. Deposit Account holders can charge copyright fees...

  14. Recalibrating Some Copyright Conceptions: Toward a Shared and Balanced Approach to Educational Copying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumi Graham

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of Canada’s publicly-funded educational institutions have operated since the 1990s under blanket reprographic licences. But recent Copyright Act amendments and Supreme Court decisions in several copyright cases have added legislative and judicial weight to the idea that copyright encompasses both private owners’ rights and public users’ rights in the form of infringement exceptions such as fair dealing. Many educational institutions have responded to these changes by moving toward greater reliance on statutory users’ rights and direct licensing with copyright owners, and by moving away from blanket collective licensing. Not unexpectedly, copyright owners and the societies and collectives that represent them see the changes in copyright law in a different light. Copyright owners’ and educators’ variant conceptions of the kinds of educational copying that are compensable pose a challenging policy problem in need of a principled solution that upholds the legislative underpinnings of copyright law and is perceived to be fair. This article attempts to frame a balanced understanding of underlying issues by considering the nature and purpose of copyright, the purpose of copyright collectives, what is meant by fair dealing, and, ultimately, how we should think about copyright. It suggests that meaningful change may not be achievable without concerted attention paid to the language we use to think and talk about copyright in order to construct a combat-free shared space in which learning, inquiry, and the production of creative works are fostered and, when appropriate, rewarded fairly.

  15. 37 CFR 201.6 - Payment and refund of Copyright Office fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Return of deposit copies. Copies of works deposited in the Copyright Office pursuant to law are either... Congress, or disposed of according to law. When an application is rejected, the Copyright Office reserves... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment and refund of...

  16. Copyright Issues for the Creators and Users of Information in the Electronic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses issues that deal with the interface of copyright law and online systems. Areas of change needed to maintain the balance between users and creators of electronic information are identified, limits of the Copyright Act are explored, and it is suggested that existing copyright law can be applied to electronic information. (four references)…

  17. Copyright in Alberta Schools. Information about the Print License with CANCOPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Issues connected with copyright and the copying of published print materials are discussed in question and answer form for teachers in Alberta (Canada) schools. Twenty-five questions are answered. The Copyright Act gives the copyright owner, usually the author or publisher, the sole right to copy or permit someone to copy his or her work. It also…

  18. 78 FR 45196 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Rights in Data and Copyrights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... comments only and cite Information Collection 9000-0090, Rights in Data and Copyrights, in all... cite OMB Control No. 9000-0090, Rights in Data and Copyrights, in all correspondence. Dated: July 18...; Information Collection; Rights in Data and Copyrights AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services...

  19. 75 FR 13764 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Rights in Data and Copyrights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    .... Please cite OMB Control No. 9000-0090, Rights in Data and Copyrights, in all correspondence. Dated: March...; Information Collection; Rights in Data and Copyrights AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... approved information collection requirement concerning rights in data and copyrights. Public comments are...

  20. 37 CFR 201.24 - Warning of copyright for software lending by nonprofit libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... software lending by nonprofit libraries. 201.24 Section 201.24 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... copyright for software lending by nonprofit libraries. (a) Definition. A Warning of Copyright for Software... packaging that contains the computer program which is lent by a nonprofit library for nonprofit purposes. (b...

  1. Bits and Pieces--Copyright Law and Australian Libraries in 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, Annabelle

    1997-01-01

    Discusses issues in Australian libraries related to copyright in the digital environment. Examines what constitutes a digital copy; exceptions/limitations; the extent of liability of those who communicate/transmit digital copyright-protected works; how uses of material can be monitored/controlled; and the process of copyright reform in Australia…

  2. Copyright Law in Australia--Fair Dealing for Research or Study Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar (Andy); Hancock, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Explores several issues involving provisions of the Australian copyright law that allow for "fair dealing for the purpose of research and study" in the use of copyrighted materials. Discusses liability of libraries for improper oversight of illegal photocopying of books and other copyrighted materials. Reviews recent efforts to improve…

  3. 26 CFR 509.110 - Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.110 Patent and copyright... copyrights, artistic and scientific works, patents, designs, plans, secret processes and formulae, trademarks...

  4. 26 CFR 514.5 - Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS FRANCE Withholding of Tax § 514.5 Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals. (a) Exemption from tax. Royalties for the right to use copyrights, patents, designs, secret...

  5. Teaching an Invisible Subject: How are we Educating Faculty about Copyright?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Zerkee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Copyright can be an invisible issue for instructors because infringement or improper use of copyright-protected material will not impede teaching. Copyright law is nuanced and open to interpretation; it is not always clear whether a particular action is compliant or not. This poster will share the results of the presenter’s Canada-wide survey of university copyright administrators, exploring institutions’ provision of copyright education to instructors. The presenter found more questions rather than answers as a result of the survey. Most respondents do no assessment of their copyright instruction, and instead are comfortable relying on experience, questions from faculty, and anecdotal evidence to form an impression of instructors’ familiarity with copyright rules. Is informal appraisal adequate for ensuring that libraries and copyright offices are fulfilling their responsibility to encourage and enable the confident and lawful use of copyright-protected material? What other evidence could be gathered to inform copyright administrators’ efforts? This poster will encourage participants to think about copyright education at their institutions, will share the results of the survey, including approaches being taken by universities across Canada, and will share Simon Fraser University's approaches to instructor education

  6. KEEPING THE NATION'S ASSETS THROUGH THE LEGAL PROTECTION OF COPYRIGHT WORKS OF CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Makkawaru

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia positioned copyright art and culture based on its strength as a nation or community rights over an Alliance grouping of the society which can give the effect of distortions in its protection. Which institution can be megurus and oversee the interests between countriesCultivate ideas/ideas in the fields of art, literature and science in the context of intellectual property rights (HKI categorized into areas of HKI named Copyright (Copyright. The scope of the rights provided for the protection of copyright in the context of this very broad following elements known in several countries. There is a different understanding about the copyright status of culture from both the substance of the right nor of the appreciation of the case which threatens foreign claims copyright over the culture of Indonesia

  7. Developing Countries and Copyright in the Information Age - The Functional Equivalent Implementation of the WCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Pistorius

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital technology has had a profound impact on copyright law. The implementation of the WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT and the enforcement of technological protection measures have led to disparate forms of copyright protection for digital and analogue media. The balance between authors’ rights and the right of the public to access copyright works has been distorted. Copyright law is playing an ever-increasing crucial role in the Information Society. Developing countries are especially disadvantaged by diminished access to works. In this article it is argued that adherence to the principle of functional equivalence in implementing the anti-circumvention provisions of the WCT will ensure that the copyright balance is maintained and will advance the development agenda.

  8. Networks of power in digital copyright law and policy political salience, expertise and the legislative process

    CERN Document Server

    Farrand, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this book, Benjamin Farrand employs an interdisciplinary approach that combines legal analysis with political theory to explore the development of copyright law in the EU. Farrand utilises Foucault's concept of Networks of Power and Culpepper's Quiet Politics to assess the adoption and enforcement of copyright law in the EU, including the role of industry representative, cross-border licensing, and judicial approaches to territorial restrictions. Focusing in particular on legislative initiatives concerning copyright, digital music and the internet, Networks of Power in Digital Copyright Law and Policy: Political Salience, Expertise and the Legislative Process demonstrates the connection between copyright law and complex network relationships. This book presents an original socio-political theoretical framework for assessing developments in copyright law that will interest researchers and post-graduate students of law and politics, as well as those more particularly concerned with political theory, EU and c...

  9. IP Things as Boundary Objects: The Case of the Copyright Work

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this article is to initiate the exploration of the meanings and functions of the things of intellectual property: the work of authorship (or copyright work) in copyright, the invention in patent, and the mark and the sign in trademark. The article focuses firstly on the example of copyright work. Relevant challenges are both technological and conceptual, because these things blend the material and the immaterial. Works are neither as clearly defined nor as clearly limited as copyr...

  10. Internet Search Engines: Copyright's "Fair Use" in Reproduction and Public Display Rights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeweler, Robin

    2007-01-01

    Terms that describe Internet functionality pose interpretative challenges for the courts as they determine how these activities relate to a copyright holder's traditional right to control reproduction...

  11. 7 CFR 1212.62 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES... other income from the rental, sales, leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights...

  12. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES... the rental, sale leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or...

  13. Off with their heads! Copyright infringement in the Canadian online higher educational environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Edmonds

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Issues of copyright infringement are contentious for academia in the online environment. The educational community on campus must carefully consider how digital materials are used, created and disseminated online given that present laws that regulate these actions are not well developed. It can seem like anyone’s guess on how to proceed in order to avoid copyright infringement. This paper offers current descriptions of intellectual property, copyright laws, infringements, and plagiarism in a Canadian context with a view on creating, using and disseminating digital works. The impact of copyright infringement on students and faculty in higher education is explored and some suggestions are made for protective practice.

  14. 76 FR 60398 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... ``access'' to copyrighted works, e.g., decryption or hacking of access controls such as passwords or serial... availability for use of copyrighted works is whether the measure supports a distribution model that benefits... work, those limitations may benefit the public by providing ``use-facilitating'' models that allow...

  15. Gateway or Gatekeeper: The Implications of Copyright and Digitalization on Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Leigh; McCain, Thomas A.

    1997-01-01

    Offers a conceptual framework to consider the issues surrounding copyright, education, and the digitalization of society. Traces the history of copyright through the evolution of communication media--its role in creating and distributing knowledge. Considers the dialectical relationship between communication as transmission and communication as…

  16. Differences and similarities between patents, registered designs and copyrights : Empirical evidence from the netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Mischa C.; Masurel, Enno

    2012-01-01

    Most of the literature on intellectual property protection focuses on patenting and neglects alternatives, such as registered designs and copyrights. The literature that includes these alternatives generally treats them as nominal alternatives, and ignores the fact that copyrights are cheaper and

  17. Key Copyright Issues in African Distance Education: A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Caroline B.

    2011-01-01

    This report draws primarily on the results of the recently concluded African Copyright and Access to Knowledge (ACA2K) Project, which investigated copyright and access to learning materials in face-to-face, distance education (DE), and dual-mode tertiary educational institutions in Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Senegal, South Africa,…

  18. Copyright Renewal for Libraries: Seven Steps toward a User-Friendly Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin L.

    2010-01-01

    Copyright law is a source of a great deal of bewilderment and frustration to academic librarians. Beyond the basics of copyright protection and fair use, most librarians struggle to grasp the complexity of the law and the roadblocks it presents to access and use. This article attempts to elucidate some of those complexities by suggesting seven…

  19. Basic copyright law for use of materials in childbirth education classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Nayna C

    2005-01-01

    Copyright is federal law that creates a monopoly to protect the property rights of authors and creators and their original works. Copyright law creates an exception for classroom use, but educators must always give full attribution for any work they use in teaching.

  20. Copyright Law for Librarians and Educators: Creative Strategies and Practical Solutions. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Copyright in the world of digital information is changing at a fevered pace, even as educators and librarians digitize, upload, download, draw on databases, and incorporate materials into Web-based instruction. It's essential to stay abreast of the basics of copyright law and fair use. Kenneth D. Crews has completely revised his classic text to…

  1. Asking for Permission: A Survey of Copyright Workflows for Institutional Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Ann; Ramirez, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    An online survey of institutional repository (IR) managers identified copyright clearance trends in staffing and workflows. The majority of respondents followed a mediated deposit model, and reported that library personnel, instead of authors, engaged in copyright clearance activities for IRs. The most common "information gaps" pertained to the…

  2. Safe Harbor for Service Providers Under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yeh, Brian; Jeweler, Robin

    2004-01-01

    .... Title II of the DMCA amended chapter 5 of the Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. 501 et seq., and created a new 512 to limit the liability of service providers for claims of copyright infringement relating to materials on-line...

  3. Flexible copyright: the law and economics of introducing an open norm in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Noll, R.; van Gompel, S.; Guibault, L.; Weda, J.; Poort, J.; Akker, I.; Breemen, K.

    2012-01-01

     This study analyses the law and economics of introducing flexibility in the system of exceptions and limitations in Dutch copyright law. Such flexibility would exist in an open norm, on the basis of which the courts can decide whether certain uses of copyrighted material are permissible or not,

  4. From "Piracy" to Payment: Audio-Visual Copyright and Teaching Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The changing circumstances in Australia governing the use of broadcast television and radio material in education are examined, from the uncertainty of the early 1980s to current management of copyrighted audiovisual material under the statutory licensing agreement between universities and an audiovisual copyright agency. (MSE)

  5. 26 CFR 513.4 - Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals. 513.4 Section 513.4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS IRELAND Withholding of Tax § 513.4 Patent and copyright royalties and film...

  6. Of Steeds and Stalking Horses: Academics Meet Publishers on the Field of Copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, James

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the issues involved in reforming the copyright law and redefining fair use as it applies to electronic documents. Highlights include access to and privileges of the Internet, technological development, the evolution of copyright, licenses and fees, the position of publishers and academics, costs, and conditions for creating a stable…

  7. Copyright Question: Using Audiovisual Works in a Satellite-Delivered Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Jamie S.; Switzer, Ralph V., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the question of copyright violation of audiovisual materials when used in a Master's of Business Administration (MBA) degree offered via satellite transmission through Colorado State University. Topics discussed include fair use; definitions of literary works, performance, and transmission; and the need to revise the 1976 Copyright Act to…

  8. Copyright and Computer Generated Materials – Is it Time to Reboot the Discussion About Authorship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Fitzgerald

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer generated materials are ubiquitous and we encounter them on a daily basis, even though most people are unaware that this is the case. Blockbuster movies, television weather reports and telephone directories all include material that is produced by utilising computer technologies. Copyright protection for materials generated by a programmed computer was considered by the Federal Court and Full Court of the Federal Court in Telstra Corporation Limited v Phone Directories Company Pty Ltd.  The court held that the White and Yellow pages telephone directories produced by Telstra and its subsidiary, Sensis, were not protected by copyright because they were computer-generated works which lacked the requisite human authorship.The Copyright Act 1968 (Cth does not contain specific provisions on the subsistence of copyright in computer-generated materials. Although the issue of copyright protection for computer-generated materials has been examined in Australia on two separate occasions by independently-constituted Copyright Law Review Committees over a period of 10 years (1988 to 1998, the Committees’ recommendations for legislative clarification by the enactment of specific amendments to the Copyright Act have not yet been implemented and the legal position remains unclear. In the light of the decision of the Full Federal Court in Telstra v Phone Directories it is timely to consider whether specific provisions should be enacted to clarify the position of computer-generated works under copyright law and, in particular, whether the requirement of human authorship for original works protected under Part III of the Copyright Act should now be reconceptualised to align with the realities of how copyright materials are created in the digital era.

  9. Copyright Law Basics for the Nursing Professional: Part 1: Using the Work of Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVelle, Meghan B; LaVelle, Beth Elchek; Port, Kenneth L; Sherlock, Jacob T

    2015-01-01

    This article covers the basics of Copyright Law as applicable to the use of protected resources and the sharing of information by nurse professionals. It explores frequently cited justifications for copyright violation, including the doctrine of Fair Use and the Technology and Copyright Harmonization Act. It also discusses why those justifications may or may not apply to the nurse professional who teaches in a clinical setting or at a conference.(See CE Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPD/A2).

  10. 7 CFR 1206.52 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research...

  11. A Secure Watermarking Scheme for Buyer-Seller Identification and Copyright Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Fawad; Sattar, Farook; Siyal, Mohammed Yakoob; Yu, Dan

    2006-12-01

    We propose a secure watermarking scheme that integrates watermarking with cryptography for addressing some important issues in copyright protection. We address three copyright protection issues—buyer-seller identification, copyright infringement, and ownership verification. By buyer-seller identification, we mean that a successful watermark extraction at the buyer's end will reveal the identities of the buyer and seller of the watermarked image. For copyright infringement, our proposed scheme enables the seller to identify the specific buyer from whom an illegal copy of the watermarked image has originated, and further prove this fact to a third party. For multiple ownership claims, our scheme enables a legal seller to claim his/her ownership in the court of law. We will show that the combination of cryptography with watermarking not only increases the security of the overall scheme, but it also enables to associate identities of buyer/seller with their respective watermarked images.

  12. Internet Search Engines: Copyright's "Fair Use" in Reproduction and Public Display Rights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeweler, Robin

    2007-01-01

    .... If so, is the activity a "fair use" protected by the Copyright Act? These issues frequently implicate search engines, which scan the web to allow users to find content for uses, both legitimate and illegitimate...

  13. 75 FR 61419 - Inquiry on Copyright Policy, Creativity, and Innovation in the Internet Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ...The Department of Commerce's Internet Policy Task Force is conducting a comprehensive review of the relationship between the availability and protection of online copyrighted works and innovation in the Internet economy. The Department, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) seek public comment from all interested stakeholders, including rights holders, Internet service providers, and consumers on the challenges of protecting copyrighted works online and the relationship between copyright law and innovation in the Internet economy. After analyzing the comments submitted in response to this Notice, the Internet Policy Task Force intends to issue a report that will contribute to the Administration's domestic policy and international engagement in the area of online copyright protection and innovation.

  14. 75 FR 74749 - Federal Copyright Protection of Sound Recordings Fixed Before February 15, 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ..., Room LM-401, James Madison Building, 101 Independence Ave., SE., Washington, DC 20559, between 8:30 a.m... of the General Counsel, U.S. Copyright Office, LM-403, James Madison Building, 101 Independence...

  15. Slip-sliding away - Some Reflections on Recent Developments in Copyright and their Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Nilsson

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Copyright is undoubtedly a very complicated matter. For that very reason it might be useful now and again to look beyond the jungle of treaties, directives, laws, decrees and contracts, and try to establish where we are actually heading. Then we can ask ourselves whether the direction taken is the one we would like to see. My purpose in writing this article is to demonstrate how the ‘balance’, which was always considered to be a crucial goal of copyright regulation, has been gradually undermined, to the detriment of the consumers of information and culture. I will also try to illustrate how copyright has become distanced from what was once its very foundations. If we look more closely at recent developments there are primarily two factors which merit special attention, namely 1 the widespread revision of copyright legislation and 2 The increasing regulation by contract.

  16. Law of the cloud: on the supremacy of the user interface over copyright law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavera De Filippi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing technologies are commonly used for delivering content or information to users who no longer need to store this data onto their own devices. This is likely to have an important impact on the effectivity of copyright law in the context of online applications, insofar as the underlying infrastructure of the cloud is such that is allows cloud operators to control the manner in which and the extent to which users can exploit such content - regardless of whether it is protected by copyright law or it has already fallen in the public domain. This article analyses the extent to which the provisions of copyright law can potentially be bypassed by cloud computing applications whose interface is designed to regulate the access, use and reuse of online content, and how these online applications can be used to establish private regimes of regulation that often go beyond the scope of the traditional copyright regime.

  17. Copyright on the internet: achieving security through electronic devices an artificial intelligence approach

    OpenAIRE

    Niebla Zatarain, Jesus Manuel

    2018-01-01

    This thesis aims to provide a novel approach to ensure copyright compliance online, appropriate for the Internet of Things and the robotic revolution. To achieve this, three different aims are pursued: - A novel application of “by design” solutions to copyright protection is introduced and its advantages and disadvantages discussed from a jurisprudential and doctrinal perspective. - On the basis of this, a new theoretical framework for legal AI is developed that draws on ...

  18. Copyright Law Basics for the Nursing Professional: Part 2: Protecting Your Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVelle, Meghan B; LaVelle, Beth Elchek; Port, Kenneth L; Sherlock, Jacob T

    2016-01-01

    This article is a continuation of the discussion of Copyright Law (found in JNPD 31:5) as it applies to nursing professionals. This part focuses on the definition of "work made for hire" and how nursing professional development specialists can both protect and share their own work. Many nurses assume that they own the works they create, but authorship is not necessarily the same as ownership. Misunderstanding copyrights could put one's job and hard work at risk!

  19. Website Blocking: Evolution or Revolution? 10 Years of Copyright Enforcement by Private Third Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Marja Wesselingh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Copyright enforcement by private third parties – does it work uniformly across the EU? Since the inception of Napster, home copying of digital files has taken flight. The first providers of software or infrastructure for the illegal exchange of files were held contributory or vicariously liable for copyright infringement. In response, they quickly diluted the chain of liability to such an extent that neither the software producers, nor the service providers could be held liable. Moving further down the communication chain, the rights holders are now requiring Internet Service Providers (ISPs that provide access to end customers to help them with the enforcement of their rights. This article discusses case law regarding the enforcement of copyright by Internet Access Providers throughout Europe. At first glance, copyright enforcement has been harmonised by means of a number of directives, and article 8(3 of the Copyright Directive (2001/29/EC regulates that EU Member States must ensure the position of rights holders with regard to injunctions against ISPs. Problem solved? Case law from Denmark, Ireland, Belgium, Norway, England, The Netherlands, Austria and the Court of Justice of the EU was studied. In addition, the legal practice in Germany was examined. The period of time covered by case law is from 2003 to 2013; the case law gives insight into the differences that still exist after implementation of the directive.

  20. Investigating the issue of copyright and security measures in digital libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Ahmadi Fasih

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, digital libraries have been the primary source of retrieving necessary information. IT helps many scholars have the access to recently published value added researches around the world. However, information security and copyright concerns are among the most important issues and there must be good rules and regulation to protect authors against any sort of copyright violation. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find out about the status of copyright issues in one of Iranian libraries. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 96 librarian experts. Cronbach alpha is equal to 0.76, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. The results of our investigation indicate that although expert believe the status of copyright is in desirable level when the level of significance is five percent, there are some concerns on some issues. In other words, experts believed that all copyrights are not well protected and digital libraries do not follow governmental rules and regulation on fully protecting authors’ rights. In addition, experts believed that the security of sources available on digital libraries is not well protected.

  1. Sports Uniforms and Copyright: Implications for Applied Art Educators from the Star Athletica Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara R. Benson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of one decision, Star Athletica, the Supreme Court selected the appropriate test to delineate the line between copyrightable creative expression and non-copyrightable functional work, reversed a long-standing rule about the inability to copyright fashion, and changed the game for graphic and industrial designers wishing to protect the more pragmatic pieces of their art. This article proceeds with a brief history of the Star Athletica case, including the lower court judgments, a discussion of the Supreme Court holding in the case, the applicability of the Supreme Court holding to fashion, graphic design, and industrial design industries going forward, and concludes with some final thoughts about the implications of the outcome of the case.

  2. User illusion: ideological construction of ‘user-generated content’ in the EC consultation on copyright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Erickson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent policy consultations by the UK Intellectual Property Office, the US Patent and Trademark Office and the European Commission (EC have highlighted the importance of user-generated content in debates to reform copyright. User-generated content (UGC – often combining existing copyright material with transformative creativity – remains a contested terrain, with no clear or widely accepted definition. This paper examines how various stakeholders in the 2014 EC consultation on copyright attempted to shape the definition of UGC in order to suit their interests, sometimes aligning or conflicting with other stakeholder groups. Data from 203 written responses by registered stakeholders (authors, platform intermediaries and users were subjected to a discourse analysis methodology. Key arguments and policy preferences from each stakeholder group are identified and discussed.

  3. Revealing Originality of Song Works: An Analysis to the Copyright Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derezka Gunti Larasati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is to describe the defining criteria of originality of song works. The aspect of originality is important to make such work be protected by Copyright Law. In this research, the criteria to define originality are based on certain doctrines and/or theories of originality that may vary case by case. The use of such doctrines and/or theories are necessary, since the stipulations regarding originality in the Indonesian Copyright Act has not been considered suffice. With regard to the song works, the criteria of originality may be different from other works. Therefore, a comprehensive research on the characteristics of song as a work is also important. This research is a qualitative research with prescriptive design. The research depicts the use of certain doctrines and/or theories as supplementary provisions to the Copyright Law in defining the originality of songs, which have specific characteristics resulted from their author’s creations and intellectuals.

  4. a Review of Digital Watermarking and Copyright Control Technology for Cultural Relics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Hou, M.; Hu, Y.

    2018-04-01

    With the rapid growth of the application and sharing of the 3-D model data in the protection of cultural relics, the problem of Shared security and copyright control of the three-dimensional model of cultural relics is becoming increasingly prominent. Followed by a digital watermarking copyright control has become the frontier technology of 3-D model security protection of cultural relics and effective means, related technology research and application in recent years also got further development. 3-D model based on cultural relics digital watermarking and copyright control technology, introduces the research background and demand, its unique characteristics were described, and its development and application of the algorithm are discussed, and the prospects of the future development trend and some problems and the solution.

  5. Book review: ‘Digital Libraries: Reconciling Copyright Law and Cultural Heritage Policy’, Estelle Derclaye (ed.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringnalda, Allard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/305951696

    2014-01-01

    Copyright law and cultural heritage policy are an odd couple. Although they have the same aims – or, more accurately, should have the same aims – they are often in conflict. Cultural heritage policy aims to preserve and make accessible works that are deemed to be part of our shared culture – books,

  6. To copyright Dikoša tsa setšo or not: Pondering the challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this feat, the article will touch on and address both the following aspects:(a) intangible cultural expression (music) in the context of intellectual property and copyright regimes; and (b) intangible cultural expression (music) in the context of indigenous traditional knowledge systems. Lastly, a brief review will be given of the ...

  7. 77 FR 15327 - Notice of Public Hearings: Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... not guarantee an opportunity to testify at these hearings. The Office stresses that factual arguments are at least as important as legal arguments. The hearings provide an opportunity to explain and, in... presentations of facts and legal argument, followed by questions from Copyright Office staff. In addition to the...

  8. A Robust Blind Quantum Copyright Protection Method for Colored Images Based on Owner's Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Shahrokh; Gheibi, Reza; Houshmand, Monireh; Nagata, Koji

    2017-08-01

    Watermarking is the imperceptible embedding of watermark bits into multimedia data in order to use for different applications. Among all its applications, copyright protection is the most prominent usage which conceals information about the owner in the carrier, so as to prohibit others from assertion copyright. This application requires high level of robustness. In this paper, a new blind quantum copyright protection method based on owners's signature in RGB images is proposed. The method utilizes one of the RGB channels as indicator and two remained channels are used for embedding information about the owner. In our contribution the owner's signature is considered as a text. Therefore, in order to embed in colored image as watermark, a new quantum representation of text based on ASCII character set is offered. Experimental results which are analyzed in MATLAB environment, exhibit that the presented scheme shows good performance against attacks and can be used to find out who the real owner is. Finally, the discussed quantum copyright protection method is compared with a related work that our analysis confirm that the presented scheme is more secure and applicable than the previous ones currently found in the literature.

  9. Juggling copyright and open access in the 21st century: a South African case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muswelanto, S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the establishment of an Institutional Repository (IR) one of the first questions the organisation should ask is: ‘How could we promote Open Access (OA) and still adhere to the restrictions of copyright? The Council for Scientific and Industrial...

  10. The Pedagogical Potential of Video Remix: Critical Conversations about Culture, Creativity, and Copyright

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Appropriation, transformation and remix are increasingly recognized as significant aspects of digital literacy. This article considers how one form of digital remix--the video remix--might be used in classrooms to introduce critical conversations about representation, appropriation, creativity and copyright. The first half of the article explores…

  11. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 16(1), 2017 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 16(1), 2017. Copyright © 2017 ... Linear regression showed that males are more likely to abuse alcohol than females. (β= -.17; t = -3.47; ..... gerians through depression, suicide, road traffic accidents ...

  12. 78 FR 61337 - Request for Comments on Department of Commerce Green Paper, Copyright Policy, Creativity, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... music licensing, the Copyright Office's work on orphan works and mass digitization, and the Intellectual... practices and industry-specific guidelines to help those looking to use existing works make informed choices... primarily driven by the industries involved. But [[Page 61340

  13. On the Improvement of the "Copyright Law" of Korea for Library Services for Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hee-Yoon; Kim, Sin-Young

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important issues for world libraries at the present time is to extend copyright limitations and exceptions for reproduction, for library preservation and distribution services including lending and ILL/DDS, the printout and transmission of Internet information resources, copying of library materials which are rarely available…

  14. 76 FR 26769 - Federal Copyright Protection of Sound Recordings Fixed Before February 15, 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... protection of other kinds of potentially copyrightable works. It also discussed the belief of some in the... appropriate for discussion. Day 1, Session 1--Assessing the Landscape: What are the legal and cultural...--Effects of Federalization on Preservation, Access, and Value: What benefits would federalization have with...

  15. Your Introduction to Film-T.V. Copyright, Contracts and Other Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minus, Johnny; Hale, William Storm

    This introductory-level book surveys all legal aspects of film and television production. In addition to central issues of copyright, lawsuits, dealing with lawyers, libel, insurance, taxes, union contracts and the Federal Communications Commission, important peripheral topics--such as raising money, buying equipment, distribution, pirate usage,…

  16. 75 FR 72790 - Copyright Policy, Creativity, and Innovation in the Internet Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ...The Department of Commerce's Internet Policy Task Force announces that the closing deadline for submission of comments responsive to the October 5, 2010 Notice of Inquiry on copyright policy and innovation in the Internet economy has been reopened and will extend until 5 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST) on December 10, 2010.

  17. 76 FR 78866 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... educational purposes by kindergarten through twelfth grade educators. Proponent: Media Education Lab at the... Knowledge. 10B. Legally acquired digital media (motion pictures, sound recordings, and e-books) for personal... initiated a rulemaking proceeding in accordance with provisions added by the Digital Millennium Copyright...

  18. Software, Copyright, and Site-License Agreements: Publishers' Perspective of Library Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happer, Stephanie K.

    Thirty-one academic publishers of stand-alone software and book/disk packages were surveyed to determine whether publishers have addressed the copyright issues inherent in circulating these packages within the library environment. Twenty-two questionnaires were returned, providing a 71% return rate. There were 18 usable questionnaires. Publishers…

  19. Copyright or copyleft? An analysis of property regimes for software development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, PB

    2005-01-01

    Two property regimes for software development may be distinguished. Within corporations, on the one hand, a Private Regime obtains which excludes all outsiders from access to a firm's software assets. It is shown how the protective instruments of secrecy and both copyright and patent have been

  20. Computer Software: Copyright and Licensing Considerations for Schools and Libraries. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mary Hutchings

    This digest notes that the terms and conditions of computer software package license agreements control the use of software in schools and libraries, and examines the implications of computer software license agreements for classroom use and for library lending policies. Guidelines are provided for interpreting the Copyright Act, and insuring the…

  1. Training Your Faculty about Copyright When the Lawyer Isn't Looking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Administrators in higher-education institutions are faced with an often-conflicting landscape of laws, court cases, adopted practices, rules of thumb, and folk wisdom related to copyright concerns on their campuses. Ask any ten faculty member and receive ten different responses about what constitutes fair use, who owns content created for courses,…

  2. 78 FR 13094 - Remedies for Small Copyright Claims: Third Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... comments regarding how a small copyright claims system might be structured and function, including from... sides--especially in cases with a degree of legal complexity--and the system should be designed to... claims system, including how the voluntary or mandatory nature of such a system might affect the analysis...

  3. Music2Share - Copyright-Compliant Music Sharing in P2P Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalker, Ton; Epema, Dick H.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Lagendijk, R. (Inald) L.; van Steen, Martinus Richardus; van Steen, Maarten

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are generally considered to be free havens for pirated content, in particular with respect to music. We describe a solution for the problem of copyright infringement in P2P networks for music sharing. In particular, we propose a P2P protocol that integrates the functions

  4. Music2Share --- Copyright-Compliant Music Sharing in P2P Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalker, T.; Epema, D.; Hartel, P.; Lagendijk, I.; van Steen, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are generally considered to be free havens for pirated content, in particular with respect to music. We describe a solution for the problem of copyright infringement in P2P networks for music sharing. In particular, we propose a P2P protocol that integrates the functions

  5. Copyright Policies and the Deciphering of Fair Use in the Creation of Reserves at University Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Thomas H. P.; Lipinski, Tomas A.; Buchanan, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper stems from the results of a systematic study of research library policy regarding application and interpretation of copyright law to reserves and electronic reserves. A thorough legal framework is provided from which the study's results are interpreted, and suggestions for research library compliance are provided.

  6. Awareness and Perception of Copyright Among Teaching Faculty at Canadian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Di Valentino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the background, methodology, and results of a study undertaken in 2014 to determine university faculty awareness and perceptions of copyright as it affects their teaching. An online survey questionnaire was distributed to teaching faculty across Canada, seeking feedback about the copyright policies and training opportunities at their institutions, where they go for copyright assistance, and how they would respond to various copyright-related scenarios that may arise in the course of teaching. Most of the respondents are aware of the copyright policies or guidelines at their universities, but much fewer know whether or not their institution offers copyright training. Of those who are aware of training opportunities, only one third have taken advantage of them. When needing assistance, faculty members are most likely to go to a librarian or to the institution’s copyright policy. Responses to the four scenarios suggest that faculty members are more likely to share digital copyrighted materials (including online works with their students, whereas they are more likely to ask permission or guidance when it comes to print materials. Comments from the respondents touch upon issues of the complexity of copyright, and the often time-consuming process of obtaining permissions for the use of copyrighted materials in teaching. This study was supported by an Ontario Graduate Scholarship. Cet article décrit le contexte, la méthodologie, et les résultats d’une étude préliminaire entreprise en 2014 pour déterminer la sensibilisation et les perceptions du personnel universitaire du droit d’auteur en ce qui concerne l’enseignement et l’apprentissage. Un questionnaire d’un sondage en ligne était distribué (via les associations universitaires à l’équipe enseignante dans tout le Canada, cherchant des commentaires sur les politiques du droit d’auteur et les possibilités de formation aux institutions, où elle recherche

  7. Technological measures for controlling the use of copyrighted works of authorship in the information society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Vidoje

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Information technology has given rise to the problem of controlling the use of copyrighted works of authorship from their unauthorized use. In this context, one of the effective solutions is the application of technological protection measures, which are aimed at a more efficient application of the protection measures prescribed by the law. Technological protection measures imply the use of any technology, device or component which may be aimed at preventing or restricting an unauthorized use of a protected work of authorship, which has not been approved by the author or holder of some related right. Generally, all these measures may be classified into three basic groups: technological measures aimed at controlling access, technological measured aimed at controlling exploitation, and technological measures aimed at protecting the integrity of the work of authorship. Considering their technical characteristics and mode of application, they may be hardware-based measures, software-based measures, or a combination thereof. Modern technology has enabled the development of digital systems which entail a controlled use of copyrighted works and facilitate obtaining licences for their exploitation. They are commonly known as digital rights management (DRM. The DRM system should provide for a compromise between safeguarding the intellectual property rights of the copyright holder, the end user privacy, and system costs. The envisaged goals are achieved by employing various cryptographic measures. The process of developing technological protection measures is accompanied by concurrent attempts to circumvent the application of these measures. Thus, the effectiveness of these measures primarily depends on their legal protection, which has been recognized by a vast majority of legal systems, we now know the most modern legal system. However, the normative solutions are not uniform. The observed differences actually reflect problems in finding adequate forms

  8. The Legal Nature of Video Games – Adapting Copyright Law to Multimedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Simon Stein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Copyright Law, video games are still a contentious matter. The multimedia nature of games brings up the question on how to define their legal nature. While there are several original underlying works in video games such as computer programs, artistic works, musical works, dramatic works etc., video games enjoy protection as films or audiovisual works respectively in many jurisdictions, making video games an arrangement of a multiplicity of works. However, some have argued to define video games as a single 'multimedia work' rather than a product of many works of copyright.This article analyses the different types of original and derivative works contained in video games before evaluating the necessity and feasibility of a multimedia category of work, arguing in favour of the current system.

  9. PROTECTION OF WORKS TITLES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF COPYRIGHT PROTECTION AND TRADEMARK PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George-Mihai IRIMESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is assessing the possibilities of protecting the titles of works. One possibility is the protection by means of registered or unregistered trademarks. This route presents difficulties because of the distinctiveness perspective. In this sense, the European case-law has recently developed a constant practice and outlined a series of criteria that should be taken into consideration when examining a trademark consisting of a title. Another possibility is protecting the title under the provisions of the copyright law. From this respect, the practice has not yet determined a constant practice. However, the dominant opinion is that the originality criterion should be taken into consideration when assessing the protection of a tile. Finally, brief conclusion are made, including short remarks on the cumulative protection of titles, both as trademarks and under the copyright law.

  10. "Originality" and "Reproduction" in Copyright Law with Special Reference to Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Harms

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Turning to lessons from foreign jurisdictions, this note explores from a copyright perspective the fact that photographs are produced mechanically and more often than not without any effort or mental input. A minute number are taken for anything but personal use and in the digital age photographs tend to have a high degree of mobility and are also ephemeral and without any commercial value. It is accordingly difficult to justify in general terms copyright protection for photographs. Two of the main legal issues in this context are the criteria for originality and the meaning of the reproduction of a photograph. These two issues form the central point of discussion in this contribution.

  11. Some Problems Associated With the Application of Copyright Law Within the Music Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslav Skoro

    2009-01-01

    This work examines the historical, philosophical and legal particulars relating to copyright law and intellectual property as an intangible work, as well as, the practical application of those rights with emphasis on the particular effects of computerisation and the emergance of the internet on the business results of the music industry. A question is raised as to whether it is businessly ethical for a legal entity to accrue considerable material gain as the result of illegal usage of copywri...

  12. Language, copyright and geographic segmentation in the EU Digital Single Market for music and film

    OpenAIRE

    Estrella Gomez Herrera; Bertin Martens

    2015-01-01

    The EU seeks to create a seamless online Digital Single Market for media products such as digital music and film. The territoriality of the copyright regime is often perceived as an obstacle that induces geographical segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence on the extent of market segmentation in the EU on the supply and demand side and measures the contribution of several drivers of this market segmentation. We use data from the Apple iTunes country stores in 27 EU Member States ...

  13. Games as Cultural Heritage: Copyright Challenges for Preserving (Orphan) Video Games in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Henrike

    2015-01-01

    The long-term preservation of complex works such as video games comes with many challenges. Emulation, currently the most adequate preservation strategy for video games, requires several acts that are technically possible, but closely governed and restricted by copyright law and technical protection measures. Without prior authorisation from the rightsholder(s), it is therefore difficult to legally emulate these works. However, games often have several rightsholders that are in some cases nea...

  14. Copyright, Crime and Computers: New Legislative Frameworks for Intellectual Property Rights Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Urbas, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers intellectual property rights (IPR) enforcement from the perspective of criminal law, and in particular, drawing on recent Australian legislative reforms concerning copyright, cybercrime, covert investigations, mutual assistance and extradition, prosecution and sentencing options, as well as proceeds of crime recovery. The complex interaction of these laws suggests that the field of IPR enforcement offers numerous investigative, prosecutorial and judicial options beyond ...

  15. COPYRIGHT – OVERVIEW; COPYRIGHT CONTENTS – PARTICULARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidia IONESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Art, under its various forms, including writings, drawings, inventions, represents the material externalization of the human intellect. The creator, i.e. the author, must benefit from all the rights resulting from his/her creation and protect it, so that the latter is recognized to belong to them, throughout time. The property right over the creation is different, depending on who has created it, its importance, if the creation has been produced in collaboration with others or by exclusivity, the type thereof. Once acknowledging and registering the property right over the creation, the author shall benefit also from all the other related rights, respectively the right to reproduce, distribute, import, lend, broadcast the creation on television, respectively any right aiding in bringing it to the knowledge of third parties in a controlled fashion and with the appropriate pay due for it.

  16. Open exchange of scientific knowledge and European copyright: The case of biodiversity information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi Egloff

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development is helping the European to prepare for an integrative system for intelligent management of biodiversity knowledge. The infrastructure that is envisaged and that will be further developed within the Programme “Horizon 2020” aims to provide open and free access to taxonomic information to anyone with a requirement for biodiversity data, without the need for individual consent of other persons or institutions. Open and free access to information will foster the re-use and improve the quality of data, will accelerate research, and will promote new types of research. Progress towards the goal of free and open access to content is hampered by numerous technical, economic, sociological, legal, and other factors. The present article addresses barriers to the open exchange of biodiversity knowledge that arise from European laws, in particular European legislation on copyright and database protection rights.We present a legal point of view as to what will be needed to bring distributed information together and facilitate its re-use by data mining, integration into semantic knowledge systems, and similar techniques. We address exceptions and limitations of copyright or database protection within Europe, and we point to the importance of data use agreements. We illustrate how exceptions and limitations have been transformed into national legislations within some European states to create inconsistencies that impede access to biodiversity information.Conclusions. The legal situation within the EU is unsatisfactory because there are inconsistencies among states that hamper the deployment of an open biodiversity knowledge management system. Scientists within the EU who work with copyright protected works or with protected databases have to be aware of regulations that vary from country to country. This is a major stumbling block to international collaboration and is an

  17. Setenta anos depois: direitos autorais em Noel Rosa Seventy years later: Noel Rosa's copyrights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel do Amaral Arbix

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Um regime ótimo de direitos autorais, ao tomar fundamento no estímulo ao desenvolvimento de novos bens intelectuais, depende de limites bem traçados. Este artigo procura aferir a funcionalidade desses direitos no que diz respeito a composições musicais, de sorte a avaliar, nesse campo específico, a maleabilidade da proteção aos direitos autorais e sua adequação à criação de novas obras. Para tanto, remete-se à experiência criativa de e sobre noel rosa, expoente do samba brasileiro. A marcada assunção de riscos por autores de obras derivadas, a formalização irregular das relações jurídicas entre titulares de direitos autorais e a profissionalização de determinados autores são constatadas como respostas diretas aos incentivos legais pertinentes. A incerteza decorrente dessas respostas expõe a dessintonia entre alguns dos objetivos das normas analisadas e seus efeitos práticos.An optimal copyright regime, based on fostering the development of new intellectual works, depends on well designed limitations. This article aims to analyze such rights' functionality with respect to musical works, in order to evaluate, in this field specifically, the flexibility of copyright protection and its adequacy for the creation of new works. To perform such task, the creative process of brazilian samba expert, noel rosa, is examined. A remarkable assumption of risks by derivative works' authors, the irregular formalization of legal relations between copyright owners and the profissionalization of certain authors are seen as direct answers to the legal incentives currently in force. The uncertainty derived from such answers exposes the tension between some of the analyzed norms' objectives and their actual effects.

  18. Daddy’s Car: Artificial Intelligence as a Creative Tool for Copyright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alberto Díaz Limón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This year on September 19th, Sony CSL, a software developer company, announced to the world, the creation of the first musical work whose ownership belongs to Artificial Intelligence. This paper analyzes the legal consequences of such a statement, and it’s conceptual and legal limits within the Copyright Universe (with fundament on International Treaties; in order to assess whether we are in presence of new legal-authorial figure that invite us to think over the subjects of protection in our laws or whether the applicable normativity may resolve these hypotheses in favor Artificial Intelligence, instead of juridical persons.

  19. Copyright for Interactive Systems: Stratagems for Tourism and Cultural Heritage Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla-Ficarra, Francisco V.; Cipolla-Ficarra, Miguel; Ficarra, Valeria M.

    We present a series of strategies followed from the interactive design for the realization of a hypermedia system aimed at promoting in an original, simple and universal way the cultural and tourism heritage of a wide rural area in two Italian regions: Emilia Romagna and Lombardy. Besides, the main stratagems followed are disclosed to overcome the existing hurdles when it comes to copyright for the free diffusion of the tourism view of the area, such as can be photography or video, for instance. Finally, we present the first vademecum to be considered before making on-line and off-line interactive systems in Italy.

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Information Hiding Techniques for Copyright Protection of Text Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Taleby Ahvanooey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ceaseless usage of web and other online services, it has turned out that copying, sharing, and transmitting digital media over the Internet are amazingly simple. Since the text is one of the main available data sources and most widely used digital media on the Internet, the significant part of websites, books, articles, daily papers, and so on is just the plain text. Therefore, copyrights protection of plain texts is still a remaining issue that must be improved in order to provide proof of ownership and obtain the desired accuracy. During the last decade, digital watermarking and steganography techniques have been used as alternatives to prevent tampering, distortion, and media forgery and also to protect both copyright and authentication. This paper presents a comparative analysis of information hiding techniques, especially on those ones which are focused on modifying the structure and content of digital texts. Herein, various text watermarking and text steganography techniques characteristics are highlighted along with their applications. In addition, various types of attacks are described and their effects are analyzed in order to highlight the advantages and weaknesses of current techniques. Finally, some guidelines and directions are suggested for future works.

  1. Copyright protection of remote sensing imagery by means of digital watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Mauro; Bartolini, Franco; Cappellini, Vito; Magli, Enrico; Olmo, Gabriella; Zanini, R.

    2001-12-01

    The demand for remote sensing data has increased dramatically mainly due to the large number of possible applications capable to exploit remotely sensed data and images. As in many other fields, along with the increase of market potential and product diffusion, the need arises for some sort of protection of the image products from unauthorized use. Such a need is a very crucial one even because the Internet and other public/private networks have become preferred and effective means of data exchange. An important issue arising when dealing with digital image distribution is copyright protection. Such a problem has been largely addressed by resorting to watermarking technology. Before applying watermarking techniques developed for multimedia applications to remote sensing applications, it is important that the requirements imposed by remote sensing imagery are carefully analyzed to investigate whether they are compatible with existing watermarking techniques. On the basis of these motivations, the contribution of this work is twofold: (1) assessment of the requirements imposed by the characteristics of remotely sensed images on watermark-based copyright protection; (2) discussion of a case study where the performance of two popular, state-of-the-art watermarking techniques are evaluated by the light of the requirements at the previous point.

  2. Access to digital representations of color images: a copyright and communications law perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patrice A.

    1996-03-01

    There has been work going forward on the development of a frame of reference for locating and invoking digital information services and objects over communications systems and pathways having computational capabilities. An important concept in this context is the notion of a `digital object' as a set of sequences of bits, including a unique identifier for the object called a `handle.' A digital object may incorporate digital works and other representations of digital information in which copyright, patent, trade secret or other rights or interest are claimed, although this need not always be the case. For commercial enterprise to take full advantage of the global information infrastructure, it is helpful to develop a flexible terminology for thinking about digital information from a copyright perspective; in this regard, the concept of `digital work' will be suggested. Clearance of rights and interests in connection with the contents of digital objects should be treated separately from compliance with procedures for accessing digital objects viewed as entities that incorporate and identify contents. A suggested legal framework will be discussed.

  3. A copyright protection scheme for digital images based on shuffled singular value decomposition and visual cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, B Pushpa; Singh, Kh Manglem; Roy, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new watermarking algorithm based on the shuffled singular value decomposition and the visual cryptography for copyright protection of digital images. It generates the ownership and identification shares of the image based on visual cryptography. It decomposes the image into low and high frequency sub-bands. The low frequency sub-band is further divided into blocks of same size after shuffling it and then the singular value decomposition is applied to each randomly selected block. Shares are generated by comparing one of the elements in the first column of the left orthogonal matrix with its corresponding element in the right orthogonal matrix of the singular value decomposition of the block of the low frequency sub-band. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme clearly verifies the copyright of the digital images, and is robust to withstand several image processing attacks. Comparison with the other related visual cryptography-based algorithms reveals that the proposed method gives better performance. The proposed method is especially resilient against the rotation attack.

  4. Possibilities for retracing of copyright violations on current video game consoles by optical disk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmler, Frank; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2014-02-01

    This paper deals with the possibilities of retracing copyright violations on current video game consoles (e.g. Microsoft Xbox, Sony PlayStation, ...) by studying the corresponding optical storage media DVD and Blu-ray. The possibilities of forensic investigation of DVD and Blu-ray Discs are presented. It is shown which information can be read by using freeware and commercial software for forensic examination. A detailed analysis is given on the visualization of hidden content and the possibility to find out information about the burning hardware used for writing on the optical discs. In connection with a forensic analysis of the Windows registry of a suspects PC a detailed overview of the crime scene for forged DVD and Blu-ray Discs can be obtained. Optical discs are examined under forensic aspects and the obtained results are implemented into automatic analysis scripts for the commercial forensics program EnCase Forensic. It is shown that for the optical storage media a possibility of identification of the drive used for writing can be obtained. In particular Blu-ray Discs contain the serial number of the burner. These and other findings were incorporated into the creation of various EnCase scripts for the professional forensic investigation with EnCase Forensic. Furthermore, a detailed flowchart for a forensic investigation of copyright infringement was developed.

  5. Breakout Session: Fight for Your Right to Copy: How One Library Acquired the Copyright Permissions Service and Reduced Students’ Costs. Presented by Emily Riha, Copyright Permissions Coordinator, University of Minnesota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Strittmatter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Emily Riha, Copyright Permissions Coordinator at the University of Minnesota, presented at the 2017 Kraemer Copyright Conference her experience when the process of securing copyright permissions moved from Printing Services to the University Libraries.

  6. Copy-Right for Software and Computer Games: Strategies and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatollah Ayoubi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Copy-right has been initially used in cultural and art industries. From that time there have been two different approaches to the matter: the commercial-economic approach which is concerned with the rights of suppliers and investors; and the other approach, the cultural one, which is especially concerned with the rights of author. First approach is rooted in Anglo-American countries, while the other is originally French. Expansion of the computer market, and separating software and hardware markets caused to the so-called velvet-rubbery, which refers to the illegal reproduction in the market. Therefore, there were some struggles all over the world to protect rights of their producers. In present study, beside the domestic and international difficulties these strategies would encounter, this article has reviewed different strategies to face this challenge.

  7. Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES) - U.S. Copyright TXu 1-901-039

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Lantz, Margaret W [ORNL; Hauser, Katie R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Information security continues to evolve in response to disruptive changes with a persistent focus on information-centric controls and a healthy debate about balancing endpoint and network protection, with a goal of improved enterprise/business risk management. Economic uncertainty, intensively collaborative styles of work, virtualization, increased outsourcing and ongoing compliance pressures require careful consideration and adaptation. The Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES) provides a measure (i.e., a quantitative indication) of reliability, performance, and/or safety of a system that accounts for the criticality of each requirement as a function of one or more stakeholders interests in that requirement. For a given stakeholder, CSES accounts for the variance that may exist among the stakes one attaches to meeting each requirement. The basis, objectives and capabilities for the CSES including inputs/outputs as well as the structural and mathematical underpinnings contained in this copyright.

  8. 37 CFR 201.31 - Procedures for copyright restoration in the United States for certain motion pictures and their...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and before March 1, 1989, without the notice required by U.S. copyright law. I certify that the... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for copyright... American Free Trade Agreement. 201.31 Section 201.31 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE...

  9. The issue of exceptions from the transmission and operation of radio and television broadcasting in the Copyright Act

    OpenAIRE

    Petera, Jaromír

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 the Parliament of the Czech Republic adopted an amendment of Act No. 121/2000 on Copyright Law and Rights Related to Copyright [hereinafter Copyright Act]. The Copyright Act amendment set up three new exceptions to the author's exclusive right to exploit his or her work. The author deals with harmony of these three exceptions with international copyright law system and European copyright law. In the broad context the author discusses problems related to the changing scope of the excep...

  10. 77 FR 71101 - Electronic Filing in the Copyright Office of Notices of Intention To Obtain a Section 115...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... available at: http://www.copyright.gov/laws/rulemaking.html . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Section... whether a Notice filed in the Copyright Office is sufficient as a matter of law under this section, that... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 201 [Docket No. RM 2012-4] Electronic Filing in...

  11. 77 FR 31237 - Electronic Filing in the Copyright Office of Notices of Intention To Obtain a Section 115...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... law, such notices may be filed in the Office only when the public records of the Copyright Office do... filed in the Copyright Office is sufficient as a matter of law under this section, that issue shall be... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 201 [Docket No. RM 2012-4] Electronic Filing in...

  12. Freedom as in a Self-Sustainable Community: The Free Software Movement and Its Challenge to Copyright Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun-Ling

    2006-01-01

    Copyright law, together with the market logic it carries, penetrates deeply into our daily life. The copyright regime is so restrictive that it turns a normal learning process into a series of potential copyright violations. The Free Software Movement (FSM) represents a substantial community effort to counter this trend. It seeks to supersede the…

  13. 36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or contain copyrighted material... Distribution of United States Information Agency Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States § 1256.100 What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright...

  14. Copyright Law and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langran, Elizabeth; Langran, Robert; Bull, Glen

    2005-01-01

    Consumers are inundated with sound and images. A child today may see more images in a week than an individual in the 19th century viewed in a lifetime. These images were presented in a read-only format throughout the 20th century. A child watching television was a passive observer. The inclusion of authoring programs such as iMovie and Movie Maker…

  15. Lexicography, Terminography and Copyright

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stern from the very nature of a dictionary as a specific kind of intellectual pro- perty type, because of ... --The most important convention that binds us today, is still the Berne Con- ention, as ..... These units or data element categories are described ... terminologist to use these terms as well as their definitions to a large extent.

  16. MAP user's manual copyright

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillsbury, R.D. Jr.

    1991-12-01

    The program MITMAP represents a set of general purpose, two- dimensional, finite element programs for the calculation of magnetic fields. It consists of the program MAP and MAP2DJ. The two programs are used to solve different electromagnetic problems, but they have a common set of subrountines for pre- and postprocessing. Originally separate programs, they have been combined to make modification easier. The manuals, however, will remain separate. The program MAP is described in this manual. MAP is applicable to the class of problems with two-dimensional-planar or axisymmetric - geometries, in which the current density and the magnetic vector potential have only a single nonvanishing component. The single component is associated with the direction that is perpendicular to the plane of the problem and is invariant with respect to that direction. Maxwell's equations can be reduced to a solver diffusion equation in terms of the single, nonvanishing component of the magnetic vector potential for planar problems and to a single component of a vector potential for planar problems and to a single component of a vector diffusion equation for axisymmetric problems. The magnetic permeability appears in the governing equation. The permeability may be a function of the magnetic flux density. In addition, any electrically conducting material present will have eddy currents induced by a time varying magnetic field. These eddy currents must be included in the solution process. This manual provides a description of the structure of the input data and output for the program. There are several example problems presented that illustrate the major program features. Appendices are included that contain a derivation of the governing equations and the application of the finite element method to the solution of the equations

  17. Conference Session II: Creation or Evolution: Can Copyright Bring the Peace? Presented by Kenneth D. Crews, attorney, Gipson Hoffman & Pancione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marley C. Nelson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Kenneth Crews gives an overview of the history of copyright law, using creation and evolution as touchstones for the quick leaps and long crawls made in this discipline.  Using multiple examples, the often-contentious history of copyright law is presented in an approachable and understandable manner.  Tensions between many of the forces that have shaped, and still are shaping, copyright law are discussed, including the tension between creators and consumers of copyrightable materials.  In the end, both forces are shown to be not only important to, but necessary for, the development of U.S. copyright law.  The program closed with a call to action for attendees to speak out on copyright law and to become part of the forces that continue to create change in this discipline.

  18. Knowledgeability of Copyright Law among Librarians and Library Paraprofessionals Employed in Adult Services at a Large Public Library System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Bridget M.

    Since public libraries contain copyrighted works in the form of print, electronic or audiovisual sources, librarians and library paraprofessionals need to possess sufficient knowledge of United States copyright law to meet the information needs of patrons successfully and legally. A literature review revealed that minimal works address this topic.…

  19. When Push Comes to Shove: A Hype-Free Guide to Evaluating Technical Solutions to Copyright Infringement on Campus Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic Frontier Foundation, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This paper is intended to help institutions of higher education critically evaluate the principal technological tools and policies being used to enforce copyright on campus networks. It first explores where the goals of copyright holders and universities overlap and where they conflict. It then discusses the pros and cons of the major solutions…

  20. Organizational Placement and Perceived Legitimacy and Authority of Copyright Information Dissemination and Management in the Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albitz, Rebecca S.

    2012-01-01

    Copyright plays a central role in numerous activities within higher education, and educating a university community about copyright law should be a priority, if only to protect the institution from lawsuits. But, based upon a literature review, institutions devote a more resources to other intellectual property activities--plagiarism detection,…

  1. Wired in the Ivory Tower: Access and Copyright Issues Surrounding the Internet and Higher Education in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shade, Leslie Regan

    1995-01-01

    Examines issues of access, copyright, and intellectual property in the global information infrastructure. Highlights include policy application to higher education; policy platforms; access and gender equity; copyright and intellectual property; the National Information Infrastructure; digital libraries and electronic publishing; and balancing the…

  2. National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works (CONTU), Meeting Number One (Washington, D.C., October 8, 1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Copyright Office.

    The first meeting of the National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works (CONTU) established some basic premises and procedures. Commissioners representing various interests concerned with copyright legislation (librarians, publishers, consumers and lawyers) discussed the responsibility of the Commission to review copyright…

  3. OER Quality and Adaptation in K-12: Comparing Teacher Evaluations of Copyright-Restricted, Open, and Open/Adapted Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmons, Royce

    2015-01-01

    Conducted in conjunction with an institute on open textbook adaptation, this study compares textbook evaluations from practicing K-12 classroom teachers (n = 30) on three different types of textbooks utilized in their contexts: copyright-restricted, open, and open/adapted. Copyright-restricted textbooks consisted of those textbooks already in use…

  4. Photocopying and the Law: A Guide for Librarians and Teachers and Other Suppliers and Users of Photocopies of Copyright Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Copyright Council, Sydney.

    Some possible uses to which the photocopying of copyright works can be put under the Copyright Act of 1968 are explored. The topics considered are "substantial part," fair dealing in relation to research, private study and published criticisms or reviews, photocopying limitations, illustrations and multiple copies. The law, as…

  5. Analysis of the relation of copyright and work content in judicial verdicts of USA, UK and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Sadeghi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to copyright system, the normal standard for protecting literary and artistic works is originality hence the international copyright treaties such as Berne convention, while emphasizing on originality are avoiding imposing other mandatory standards for protecting such works. However, these works are different forms of expression of various ideas and accordingly, comprise different contents. In some cases, the works contents are inconsistent with religious and national values and norms or society custom and laws. There are conflicts between protecting copyright as an intellectual property right and other moral, religious and legal priorities in the society. For resolving this conflict and answering the question whether work content will affect copyright protection, countries have adopted different approaches. From the perspective of the work content, this article through a comparative study of approaches and judicial verdicts of the USA, the UK and Canada, infers two general views: the work content does not have any impacts on copyright protection and the work content have impacts on copyright protection. In addition, some supporters of second view believe in content impact on existence of copyright in a work and other supporters believe that content has impacts on some enforcements of copyright.

  6. Copyright and Industrial Design, How a Line Should be Drawn? Works of Applied Arts, its Protection in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Felipe Álvarez Amézquita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As works of applied arts have been situated normally at the grey area between copyright and industrial property, this article discusses three different approaches about how they should be protected. It particularly focuses on the case of industrial designs which might be considered as copyrighted works. Subject to the fulfilment of copyright criterions and particularly the requisites for works of art and for the work of applied arts, the article proposes that Colombian and Andean Communitarian Law should embrace the partial accumulation system of protection for such creations.

  7. Of Otakus and Fansubs: A Critical Look at Anime Online in Light of Current Issues in Copyright Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan S. Hatcher

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The advent of digital technology and increased global connectivity has, to put it mildly, caused some ripples for the entertainment industry specifically and copyright law generally. In the aftermath, many are searching for new ways to incorporate the benefits of digital copies and the internet while minimizing the harms. To some, the anime industry and its fans offer examples of how an industry can benefit and even grow from allowing copyright infringement. This article examines the anime industry in-depth with this suggestion in mind and places the industry among current copyright policy debates, such as those suggested by Lawrence Lessig.

  8. Copyright, and the Regulation of Orphan Works: A comparative review of seven jurisdictions and a rights clearance simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Favale, Marcella; Homberg, Fabian; Kretschmer, Martin; Mendis, Dinusha; Secchi, Davide

    2013-01-01

    About This report is a collaboration between the Centre for Intellectual Property Policy & Management (www.cippm.org.uk), Bournemouth University (BU), the Department for Human Resources & Organisational Behaviour, The Business School, BU, and CREATe, the RCUK Centre for Copyright & New Business Models (www.create.ac.uk). The Hargreaves Review stated: “The problem of orphan works – works to which access is effectively barred because the copyright holder cannot be traced – represents th...

  9. The Text in the Machine: American Copyright Law and the Many Natures of Software, 1974-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Gerardo Con

    This article is a case study in the history of software copyright in the United States from 1974 to 1978. It focuses on the work of a group called the National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works. CONTU, as this group was known, faced the problem of choosing which ontology of software-by which I mean a conception of the nature of software as an invention-should serve as the conceptual underpinning for the law of software copyright. In particular, the commissioners needed to decide whether computer programs are texts, machines, means to communicate with machines, or many of these things at once. CONTU's history shows how the discursive emergence of software as a new technology has been shaped by the convergence of commercial interests, the transmission of technical knowledge to lay audiences, and idiosyncratic views on the nature of information technology and human creativity.

  10. Are blocking injunctions against ISPs allowed in Europe? Copyright enforcement in the post-Telekabel EU legal landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelopoulos, C.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the national courts of the EU Member States, in an attempt to stem the flow of rampant online copyright infringement, have increasingly turned to the issuance of blocking injunctions against the intermediaries whose websites and networks are used by third parties to commit

  11. Perceptions of Pennsylvania School Librarians Regarding Their Role in Providing Copyright Advice to Students, Teacher, and Administrators in Their School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the perceptions of Pennsylvania school librarians about the role they play in providing copyright guidance to the students, teachers, and administrators in their school during the 2011-2012 school year. Using two electronic mailing lists for Pennsylvania school librarians, the researcher posted an email asking…

  12. Quality, merit, aesthetics and purpose: an inquiry into EU copyright law's eschewal of other criteria than originality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gompel, S.; Lavik, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the rule that no other criteria than originality shall be applied to determine the eligibility for protection of works, as contained in a few EU Directives on copyright (i.e. the Computer Programs Directive, the Term Directive and the Database Directive). While aimed to

  13. Copyright Laws and Fair Use in the Digital Era: Implications for Distance-Education Programs in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhon, Tommie; Ennis-Cole, Demetria; Lawhon, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Practical information on the necessity for community colleges, instructors, and students to understand and abide by the copyright laws is essential. Whether developing, structuring, maintaining, or presenting courses, or instructing students on the development of their own papers, one must be knowledgeable about plagiarism, the Fair Use Act, and…

  14. Using a Two-Tier Test to Assess Students' Understanding and Alternative Conceptions of Cyber Copyright Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chien; Chan, Pei-Shan; Wu, Huan-Chueh

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding of cyber copyright laws. This study developed a two-tier test with 10 two-level multiple-choice questions. The first tier presented a real-case scenario and asked whether the conduct was acceptable whereas the second-tier provided reasons to justify the conduct. Students in Taiwan…

  15. 26 CFR 1.871-11 - Gains from sale or exchange of patents, copyrights, or similar property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., copyright, secret process or formula, goodwill, trademark, trade brand, franchise, or other like property... which is effectively connected for the taxable year with the conduct of a trade or business in the..., relating to transfers of franchises, trademarks, and trade names, do not apply in determining whether a...

  16. Pirates and Samaritans : a decade of measurements on peer production and their implications for net neutrality and copyright

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwelse, J.A.; Garbacki, P.; Epema, D.H.J.; Sips, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study traces the evolution of commons-based peer production by a measurement-based analysis of case studies and discusses the impact of peer production on net neutrality and copyright law. The measurements include websites such as suprnova.org, youtube.com, and facebook.com, and the

  17. 37 CFR 201.34 - Procedures for filing Correction Notices of Intent to Enforce a Copyright Restored under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Office History Documents (COHD) file through the Library of Congress electronic information system... Congress Information System (LOCIS). Alternative ways to connect through Internet are the World Wide Web... them through the Library of Congress Home Page on the World Wide Web by selecting the copyright link...

  18. Propiedad intelectual y conocimiento público: Derechos del investigador y del ciudadano sobre el copyright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feltrero Oreja, Roberto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual property is meant to be the key concept to drive the development of information society in the 21st century. The ethical, moral and social principles underlying both early design of Internet architecture and intellectual property laws provide a framework to claim for the publicity of information as the main requirement for cultural, technical and scientific knowledge development. However, new information technologies allow copyright owners to extend their control of both legitimate uses and misuses of copyrighted material. New models of copyright licenses are analyzed and proposed to protect fair use of cognitive work, particularly public scientific and humanistic knowledge, to the extent decided by the author himself.

    El concepto de propiedad intelectual está llamado a ser la clave que oriente el desarrollo de la sociedad de la información en el siglo XXI. Los principios éticos, morales y sociales que subyacen tanto al diseño de las arquitecturas primitivas de Internet como a las leyes vigentes sobre propiedad intelectual se fundamentan en la publicidad de la información como el requisito básico para el desarrollo de conocimientos culturales, técnicos y científicos. Sin embargo, las nuevas tecnologías de la información también proporcionan los medios para extender el control tecnológico de todos los usos, legítimos e ilegítimos, del material protegido con copyright. Se analizan nuevos modelos de copyright y se proponen las licencias libres como forma de protección activa por el propio autor de los usos legítimos de su trabajo cognitivo, especialmente si se trata de conocimiento científico o humanístico subvencionado públicamente.

  19. Fundamentals of establishment of the European model of implementation of copyright and related rights of national scientific and educational staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyova Tetiana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available National higher education system has considerable scientific and educational potential. In higher education the educational process and scientific research are interrelated, and the scientific and teaching staff are the main participants of intellectual creative activity, that creates scientific works. Declaratively the state creates conditions for motivation (encouragement of scientists’ creativity, but universities generally do not pay compensation to the authors (performers for using the results of their intellectual activity, which indicates the absence of civilized mechanism of implementing the rights in this area. It is also an indicator of the absence of effective methods of copyright protection by the state. The study does not cover all the aspects of the target problem, because the prospect of the further study is seen in the matters, related to the emergence and implementation of copyright in higher education.

  20. Legal Realism in Action: Indirect Copyright Liability's Continuing Tort Framework and Sony’s de facto Demise

    OpenAIRE

    Menell, Peter S.; Nimmer, David

    2007-01-01

    The Supreme Court’s indirect copyright liability standard, derived in Sony Corporation of America v. Universal City Studios from patent law and reasserted in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd, is widely seen as creating a safe harbor for distributors of dual use technologies. Yet, when one looks to cases decided since Sony, legislative enactments, and the decisions of technology companies in the marketplace, a very different reality emerges. This article explores and explains ...

  1. Propiedad intelectual y conocimiento público: Derechos del investigador y del ciudadano sobre el copyright

    OpenAIRE

    Feltrero Oreja, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Intellectual property is meant to be the key concept to drive the development of information society in the 21st century. The ethical, moral and social principles underlying both early design of Internet architecture and intellectual property laws provide a framework to claim for the publicity of information as the main requirement for cultural, technical and scientific knowledge development. However, new information technologies allow copyright owners to extend their control of both legitima...

  2. Cyclonic multiphase flow measurement system GLCC{copyright}1 for oil well capacity evaluation; Sistema de medicion de flujo multifasico mediante tecnologia ciclonica GLCC{copyright}1 para aforo de pozos petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy-Alcantar, J. M; Cervantes-Martinez, G; Cruz-Maya, J. A; Hernandez-Buenfil, M. A; Ramirez-Antonio, I [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F, (Mexico)]. E-mail: mgodoy@imp.mx

    2008-10-15

    This paper shows the development of a portable multiphase flow measurement system based in cyclonic separation technology GLCC{copyright}1. This system is aimed for oil well measurement and was developed in three phases; the first devoted to the geometric design of a cyclonic separator by means of designs sofware GLCCV7.8 and the selection of measurement instrumentation and flux control valves. In the second phase, the automatic control system was designed for the implementation of four control strategies each one related with a possible scenario of the well behavior. The third constitutes the integration of the measurement and control devices through a user interface aimed for visualization, information processing and system's operation and control. Experimental results in oil well measurements show the efficiency and workability of the integrated system. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se muestra el desarrollo de un sistema portatil para la medicion de flujo multifasico, basado en la tecnologia de separacion ciclonica GLCC{copyright}1 y su utilizacion el aforo de pozos petroleros. El desarrollo del sistema se compone de tres fases, la primera se orienta hacia el diseno geometrico de un separador tipo ciclonico por medio del simulador GLCCV 7.8, asi como el dimensionamiento y la seleccion de los instrumentos de medicion y valvulas de control de flujo. En la segunda fase, se lleva a cabo la etapa de diseno del control automatico del sistema, el cual se fundamenta en el desarrollo e implantacion de cuatro estrategias de control basadas en el comportamiento dinamico de las variables de produccion del pozo; la tercera fase, la constituye el desarrollo de una interfaz para la integracion y operacion conjunta de los componentes de medicion y control del sistema, asi como de visualizacion, procesamiento y almacenamiento de la informacion. Se muestran los resultados experimentales de una prueba de medicion realizada en campo, las mediciones obtenidas muestran la

  3. Fan filmmaking and copyright in a global world: Warhammer 40,000 fan films and the case of Damnatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walliss

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a proliferation, both online and off-line, of films produced by amateurs inspired by mainstream films, TV shows, and novels. As with much other fan production, fan films exist in, at best, a legally gray area since they are produced by amateurs, rather than by the media companies that own the copyrights to the films and novels that provide both their inspiration and settings. I examine the phenomenon of fan filmmaking, focusing on films produced by fans of the Warhammer 40,000 (W40K tabletop battle game. In particular, I examine the case of Damnatus: The Enemy Within (Damnatus: Feind Im Innern, 2005, a German-made fan film set in the W40K universe, which was banned from release by the game's rights holder, the UK company Games Workshop, in 2007. Damnatus offers an interesting case study in both the ongoing struggle between rights holders and textual poachers and the tensions that can exist between different legal understandings of copyright in an increasingly globalized world.

  4. Collective Agreements for the Clearance of Copyrights – The Case of Collective Management and Extended Collective Licenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas; Rognstad, Ole-Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This contribution analyses and discusses the use of collective management organizations (CMOs) in copyright. More concretely, it examines the use and effects of extended collective licenses (ECL). This model of rights management has been developed in the Nordic countries and has for some time been...... hailed as a promising tool to solve some of copyright’s problems relating to mass uses of works. It is pointed out how ECL builds on users generated rights managements structures (CMOs) but owes its specific effectiveness to a legislator’s willingness to provide a third-party effect of the collective...... agreements entered into by representative CMOs. In the final part some of the challenges to ECLs arising from internationalisation and individualisation are identified and discussed. The article is part of a research project on “User Generated Law” and uses the methodologies developed as part of this....

  5. A Pirate too Needs to be Heard: Procedural Compromises in Online Copyright Infringement Cases in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorna Mysoor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Online copyright infringement is one of the toughest challenges the content industry has faced in the twenty first century. Article 8(3 of the Information Society Directive, implemented under section 97A of the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, provides an injunctive remedy in response to such online infringement. Given the elusive nature of the website operators and the sheer number of their users, rights owners have turned to the Internet Service Providers (ISPs to implement the injunctions granted under section 97A to block websites with infringing content. In their battle to keep pace with online infringers, the UK courts have permitted significant compromises to the procedures while granting these injunctive blocking orders. One of the pioneers in this line of cases in the UK is the Pirate Bay case (TPB case, which ruled as a matter of law that the procedure under Section 97A does not require the alleged infringers to be made parties to those proceedings. TPB case also marks the trend of the ISPs consenting to an order of injunction, and not defending the proceedings. This has resulted in the absence of any adverse party in the proceedings under section 97A. This threatens the basic tenets of procedural fairness and propriety, having adverse consequences on both the substantive and procedural aspects, evident in the cases that followed TPB case. This article examines the aspects of the judgment in TPB case that led to these procedural compromises, whether it had any basis in the pre-existing case law, what the nature of an injunction under section 97A is and how the subsequent line of cases have followed TPB case as a precedent. It further explores the adverse consequences of the procedural compromises and whether any safeguards are available against such compromises.

  6. 論電視節目版式之著作權保護 Copyright Protection for TV Program Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    張瑞星 Ruey-Hsing Chang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 電視節目版式(TV program format)的國際授權產值已達千億臺幣之多,但法律對電視節目版式究竟是否給予保護並無確定見解,此亦造成電視節目版式遭抄襲的情況嚴重。本文自分析電視節目版式之內涵及國際間各相關案例之處理情形著手,認為未經授權利用他人已公開節目版式的類型,就節目版式的高價值性、創作的高經濟誘因、版式的高具體表達性而言,若將此階段的電視節目版式歸類為概念,其著作權法保護似有不周;本文亦自各國案例的推論、概念與表達二分原則及美國最高法院Feist Publications v. Rural Telephone Service Co.之法理發現:凡將節目元素(包含抽象節目概念及具體場景、音樂、圖像、劇本等)加以創作性的選擇編排而使演出的結構、順序、組織、流程及風格具備特殊性,並可使觀眾明顯識別其為同一系列電視節目;凡達到此具體程度者,可受著作權法保護,若否,則應認定為概念而不受著作權法保護。 International licensing of TV program formats is worth hundreds of billions of dollars. The lack of legal consequences for plagiarizing another’s program format naturally leads to a great tendency to engage in copyright infringement. Most international courts support that an advanced published TV program format which is definitely not a simple idea but a more concrete expression is eligible for copyright protection because of its high resource investment and strong economic incentive for creators. This article argues that if an creative compilation of “facts” can be protected, according to the US Supreme Court Case in Feist Publications v. Rural Telephone Service Co., an creative compilation of “ideas” must also be worthy of protection. Along with analyzing international cases and Idea/Expression Dichotomy, this article concludes that if creativity and specificity is

  7. Indústria criativa: direitos de autor e acesso à cultura | Creative Industry: copyrights and access to culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Márcio Buainain

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo tem por objetivo apresentar uma breve reflexão sobre a indústria criativa – pontuando sua gênese, evolução, delimitação de seu objeto e atividades que a compõem – e o acesso aos bens culturais. Reconhece-se a importância da lei de direitos autorais como marco básico para o funcionamento e crescimento sustentável e harmônico da indústria criativa, mas aqui se argumenta, com base no amplo levantamento feito pelo IBGE, que as dificuldades de acesso à cultura enfrentadas pela maioria da população brasileira são pouco relacionadas às falhas da legislação autoral. Para tanto, o artigo contem duas partes. Na primeira se apresenta a indústria criativa, tendo como base as metodologias que a Conferência das Nações Unidas para Comércio e Desenvolvimento (UNCTAD e a Organização Mundial da Propriedade Intelectual (OMPI utilizam para delimitar a importância socioeconômica desta indústria. Na segunda resumem-se informações do Suplemento de Cultura da Pesquisa de Informações Básicas Municipais (MUNIC-IBGE, de 2006, procurando indicar a precariedade das condições de acesso à cultura na maior parte do território nacional. As conclusões apontam que, a despeito da lei autoralista ser imperfeita e incompleta – características imanentes de leis que não conseguem acompanhar o dinamismo dos avanços sociais e tecnológicos –, ela não obsta de todo o acesso a bens culturais; fatores de ordem pessoal e material contribuem para o maior ou menor acesso a estes bens, tais como nível educacional, políticas públicas, fomento do governo na área da cultura, disponibilidade de bens culturais públicos e infraestrutura de cultura. Palavras-chave indústria criativa, acesso à cultura, lei de direito autoral Abstract The article presents an overview of the creative industries and access to cultural goods in Brazil. The copyright laws are relevant but insufficient for the development of this industry. To the

  8. "I spy, with my little sensor": fair data handling practices for robots between privacy, copyright and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Burkhard; Edwards, Lilian

    2017-07-01

    The paper suggests an amendment to Principle 4 of ethical robot design, and a demand for "transparency by design". It argues that while misleading vulnerable users as to the nature of a robot is a serious ethical issue, other forms of intentionally deceptive or unintentionally misleading aspects of robotic design pose challenges that are on the one hand more universal and harmful in their application, on the other more difficult to address consistently through design choices. The focus will be on transparent design regarding the sensory capacities of robots. Intuitive, low-tech but highly efficient privacy preserving behaviour is regularly dependent on an accurate understanding of surveillance risks. Design choices that hide, camouflage or misrepresent these capacities can undermine these strategies. However, formulating an ethical principle of "sensor transparency" is not straightforward, as openness can also lead to greater vulnerability and with that security risks. We argue that the discussion on sensor transparency needs to be embedded in a broader discussion of "fair data handling principles" for robots that involve issues of privacy, but also intellectual property rights such as copyright.

  9. CHALLENGES OF INTERPRETING THE NOTION OF SOFTWARE COPYRIGHTS IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND SOCIO-POLITICAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona DUMITRAȘCU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Every country has it’ s own interpretation and enforcement of copyrights. The challenge is in case of a conflict of interpretations to create a common structure accepted by all parties as a base of mutual understanding and agreement. ESCIA guidelines seek to provide a scalable assessment framework which in turn can be a tool for research and development of structures to deal with the different cultural and social economic circumstances of the different countries / the assessment of which system is dominant is an ongoing, ever-changing debate for which you need the guideline tools to steer the discussion in the right direction which is a challenge on it’s own.the digital economy is the most important part of the global economy.The digital transformation of international production requires regulation,governing, investor behaviour. The negative impact of manipulation of data obtained from consumers by global powerfull multinationals is to be considered a major insentive for a rigourus monitorization and regulation of international productions. The diversity of interests, political and finacial, make fair regulations covering all aspects of the situation, extremlely difficult, in addition to the ever chainging parameters governing the subject as such. The complexity of the matter should not prevent an indepth assassement and solution seeking policy.

  10. Assessment of RELAP5-3D copyright using data from two-dimensional RPI flow tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    The capability of the RELAP5-3D copyright computer code to perform multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis was assessed using data from steady-state flow tests conducted at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). The RPI data were taken in a two-dimensional test section in a low-pressure air/water loop. The test section consisted of a thin vertical channel that simulated a two-dimensional slice through the core of a pressurized water reactor. Single-phase and two-phase flows were supplied to the test section in an asymmetric manner to generate a two-dimensional flow field. A traversing gamma densitometer was used to measure void fraction at many locations in the test section. High speed photographs provided information on the flow patterns and flow regimes. The RPI test section was modeled using the multi-dimensional component in RELAP5-3D Version BF06. Calculations of three RPI experiments were performed. The flow regimes predicted by the base code were in poor agreement with those observed in the tests. The two-phase regions were observed to be in the bubbly and slug flow regimes in the test. However, nearly all of the junctions in the horizontal direction were calculated to be in the stratified flow regime because of the relatively low velocities in that direction. As a result, the void fraction predictions were also in poor agreement with the measured values. Significantly improved results were obtained in sensitivity calculations with a modified version of the code that prevented the horizontal junctions from entering the stratified flow regime. These results indicate that the code's logic in the determination of flow regimes in a multi-dimensional component must be improved. The results of the sensitivity calculations also indicate that RELAP5-3D will provide a significant multi-dimensional hydraulic analysis capability once the flow regime prediction is improved

  11. Console modification in the video game industry an empirical study of the technological protection measure reforms of the Australian Copyright Act 1968 (Cth)

    OpenAIRE

    Raval, Melchor Inigo

    2017-01-01

    The Australian-United States Free Trade Agreement expanded the access rights provisions, including the technological protection measures (TPM) and anti-circumvention prohibitions in the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), to address the unauthorised distribution of copyrighted content, colloquially referred to as piracy. Copyright users object to these "paracopyright" principles being implemented as criminal penalties and restrictive Digital Rights Management (DRM). Evidence that piracy has persisted...

  12. Breakout Session: International Treaties, Copyright Law, and the Future of the U.S.A. Presented by Kenneth D. Crews, attorney, Gipson Hoffman and Pancione.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posie Aagaard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nearly every nation in the world enacts laws that explicitly govern domestic copyright, dictating rights reserved for authors and specifying other important legal terms. Both geographical borders and the less well-defined borders of the internet affect determinations of copyright. On a global scale, nations enact international copyright treaties to achieve harmonization of certain aspects of copyright law that would otherwise create challenges or conflicts in enforcement of policies between individual nations. However, member nations may need to adjust domestic laws to bring them into alignment with the terms of the international treaties. International law expert Dr. Kenneth Crews discussed the evolution of copyright law and described how precedents set by some nations historically influenced geographic and sociopolitical peers. He also discussed how existing international copyright treaties address issues that continue to reveal weaknesses or compelling needs that cannot easily be served through existing copyright law. Lastly, Dr. Crews provided an update on the landmark 2013 Marrakesh VIP Treaty, which establishes special copyright provisions to accommodate individuals with print disabilities, and reported on his work commissioned by WIPO to study the status of copyright law exceptions in nations around the world.

  13. Copyright Cartels or Legitimate Joint Ventures? What the MusicNet and Pressplay Litigation Means for the Entertainment Industry's New Distribution Models

    OpenAIRE

    Landy, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Starr v. Sony BMG Music Entertainment illustrates the inherent tension between copyright holders seeking to enforce their exclusive rights and antitrust doctrine. In Starr, competing record labels pooled their copyrights into digital distribution joint ventures, MusicNet and Pressplay. Such collaboration toes a thin line between cartel-like ...

  14. DMCA, CTEA, UCITA ... Oh My! An Overview of Copyright Law and Its Impact on Library Acquisitions and Collection Development of Electronic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Leslie A.; Wu, Michelle M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of traditional copyright law was to encourage the creation of works based on and to ensure reasonable access to original thought. Despite this harmonious intent, an intrinsic tension exists between libraries and copyright holders, as the former promotes "free" access to information that ultimately reduces the income of the…

  15. DOI - Digital Object Identifier : A revolution in the management and trading of copyrighted information over the Internet in the third millenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Žnideršič

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of information technology in recent years has brought over also the problem of the protection of author's rights related to copyrighted works on electronic media. Information and law specialists were intensively working on this problem for several years and the result has been a new system of labelling copyrighted works on the Internet, called DOI (Digitial Object Identifier. The system was developed in the United States. At the time of the presenta tion of DOI at the Bookfair in Frankfurt, 250.000 author works were labelled with DOI. The system is universal and enables the inclusion of the present standard identifiers (ISBN, ISSN, SICI. The fact that DOI identifier stays "glued on" forever, makes the identification of the carrier of copyright possible at any moment. The DOI system presents the infrastructure system for trading in and use of copyrighted works over the Internet in the third millenium.

  16. Breakout Session: Copyright: The Ethical Imperative for Librarians. Presented by Martin Garnar, Dean of the Kraemer Family Library, the University of Colorado Colorado Springs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesina A. Phillips

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Martin Garnar, in his presentation “Copyright: The Ethical Imperative for Librarians,” discusses the evolution of the American Library Association's Code of Ethics as an indicator of the changing relationship between librarianship and copyright education. Updates to the Code of Ethics, and in particular the 2014 adoption of an interpretation of Article IV, offer a vision of librarians as active parties in the discussion of intellectual property rights. This interpretation includes a series of statements about what librarians "should" do in their roles as information professionals in order to navigate copyright within their roles and interactions with users, and to uphold a fair balance between rights holders and users.

  17. Patient-reported outcomes instruments: bridging the gap between international copyright laws and common practice for developers and users--a case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfray, Caroline

    2009-12-01

    Copyright laws are intended to protect the rights of authors in their literary, scientific, and artistic works. The recent controversy about the standardized version of the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire between Elizabeth Juniper and Eirini Grammatopoulou et al. is an example of the difficulties inherent to copyright faced by developers and users of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments. This brief communication presents the basics of international copyright laws (i.e., the Berne Convention), the facts behind the controversy, and our analysis of the case based on our experience as a distributing center of PRO instruments. We conclude that better communication between developers and users would prevent most unfortunate complications and misunderstandings.

  18. Reforming Copyright in the Context of Exercise of the Human Right to Free Expression on the Internet: An Actual Problems of the Modern International Legal Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Shugurova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss major trends in the area of reforming of copyright in the light of full exercise of internationally recognized human right to expression regarding the digital environment, especially the Internet, and demonstrate the significant situation when intellectual property rights, mainly author’s exclusive rights, build a lot of troubles for the information human rights. The article also looks at the changes in the understanding the relation between copyright and the human right to freedom of expression and information on the Internet. Much attention is paid to new moments in the modern doctrine of intellectual property that is inspired by process of digitization of author’s rights. There is conducted the approach to addressing copyright as one of the digital human rights resulted from property rights and right of creators to protection of their moral and economic interests. However, authors of the article departure from postulate that copyright is the human rights to a certain degree only. Moreover, this article examines the international legal approach to seeking the balance between the human right to freedom of expression, opinion and information, on the one hand, and copyright, especially as regards the Internet, on the other hand. There has been argued that key role in elaborating and adopting the principled standards in this sphere belongs to international law, including international law of human rights. In addition, the latter, as authors have ascertained, must correspond to international law of intellectual property rights, international information law, and international competition law. The study focus on various aspects of solving the problem of adapting copyright to the digital environment.

  19. Copyright: Twentieth Century Music Corp. v. Aiken--Infringement Liability of a Restaurant Owner for Reception of Radio Broadcast for the Enjoyment of His Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma Law Review, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The acts of a hotel or restaurant proprietor who receives a radio broadcast of a copyrighted musical composition and makes the broadcast available to his customers have been held to be both public and for profit. Whether the acts of the hotel or proprietor constitute a performance--for which infringement liability would exist--is doubtful. (LBH)

  20. Before Photocopying This Article or Videotaping That Television Show, Make Sure You Understand the "Fair Use" Provision of the Copyright Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Martha

    1984-01-01

    School boards can formulate policies concerning the reproduction and use of copyrighted materials based on recent court interpretations of the following general factors in "fair use" exemption: reasons for copying, nature of reproduced material, amount of work as a whole copied, and effect of copying on potential market for copyrighted…

  1. ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF COPYRIGHT-BASED INDUSTRIES AND IMPACT ON EMPLOYMENT AND PERFORMANCE INDICATORS IN KNOWLEDGE-BASED SOCIETY DEVELOPING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ZAMAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic dimension of copyright-based industries sector in Romania is becoming of higher interest, on the one hand, for policy-makers taking into consideration its increasing contribution to GDP, employment, foreign trade and investment and, on the other hand, as a multidimensional vector for social inclusion, increasing self-confidence, supporting better education in a globalised and multicultural world.The opening of the Romanian economy and society has contributed to higher employment in the creative activities. The new jobs - “high-knowledge jobs” in creative activities or in “non-creative industries” – have several features that could support higher performance. We underline the size and features of employment in the copyright-based industry sector and in core activities in Romania and some performance of labour force. On one hand, press freedom, the increase in the role of civil society, the elimination of censorship represented positive influence factors for new jobs creation in the cultural industries. In this way, the copyright-based industries have become a factor of tension reduction and increased flexibility on the labour market. On the other hand, there are big differences regarding the value of the operational profit per employee and its evolution in time among the core component industries. The analysis of the core copyright industries with respect to the size and evolution of the operational profit per employee, both in the overall sector and the component industries, led us to an interesting and useful classification of the core industries which could be helpful for better decision-making and copyright industries policies.

  2. Author's rights in the digital age: how Internet and peer-to-peer file sharing technology shape the perception of copyrights and copywrongs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijana Micunovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Author's rights and copyright law have gone through quite a few changes in the 'post-print' culture of binary systems, digital formations and techno-practices. Technological development supports new concept of author's rights by promoting free internet and digital market, as well as new contemporary experience of culture that is being rooted in digital technology, mass communication and the world of multimedia and virtuality. Though computer and digital technology have served both authors and users in various ways, they have also served as a very fertile ground for sharing copyrighted content thus leading to numerous copyright infringements and conflicts with the copyright law. The aim of this paper is to identify and analyze the ways in which computer and digital technology have given rise to new trends in the production (e.g. remix culture and consumption (e.g. peer-to-peer file sharing technology of culture, but also to determine how new forms of distribution, use and sharing of digital content changed and shaped the perception of authorship in the 21st century. In order to analyze the dynamic, nature and structure by which new digital and networking technologies are affecting the concept of authorship and author's rights and to test the consistency of previously established hypotheses, we conducted a survey amongst general public. Altogether 535 questionnaires were completed. Data was analyzed using SPSS tool and quantitative method of analysis. In the analysis special attention was given to both, the concept of authorship in the digital environment and the concept of peer-to-peer file sharing technology as not so new, but still very popular networked architecture for distributing, using and sharing digital content. Results have shown that most of the respondents use peer-to-peer file sharing technology to access, consume and/or share different cultural content (e.g. movies, music, books, etc. while violating the rights of copyright holders

  3. La revista Medicina y Seguridad en el Trabajo y el respeto al derecho de autoría Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo journal and protecting copyright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Veiga de Cabo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El autor recuerda los principios básicos internacionales que amparan los derechos de autor aprobados por el Convenio de Berna para la Protección de las Obras Literarias y Artística, la Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos y el Derecho de la Unión Europea del Tratado de Maastricht. Se analizan las circunstancias generales que amparan la autoría, y en particular en el marco de la biomedicina y de las ciencias de la Salud, así como las principales características del mercado editorial y los cambios que se han producido en los últimos años. Se describen los principales factores asociados a la aparición de la iniciativa Open Access y su compromiso con la preservación del Copyright y los derechos de autor. Se presenta la licencia Creative Commons como alternativa eficaz en la gestión de los derechos de autoría. Por último, se declara la adhesión oficial de la revista Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo a la licencia Creative Commons bajo modalidad Reconocimiento -NoComercial - SinObraDerivada (by-nc-nd.The author reviews the international basic principles of Copyrights approved by the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Treaty of Maastricht on the European Union Right. General circumstances to protect Copyrights are analyzed; in particular in Biomedicine and Health Sciences fields, as well as some other specific characteristics related with the publishing market and the main changes suffered in those fields throughout the years. This document describes the relevant factors associated with the emergence of the Open Access initiative and its commitment protecting Copyright. Creative Commons is presented as an effective alternative to preserve Copyrights. Finally, the Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo journal officially declares its adhesion to Creative Commons under the Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (by-nc-nd license.

  4. 用戶著作權侵權之網路服務業者責任 Internet Service Provider Liability for Subscriber Copyright Infrigement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    蔡蕙芳 Hui-Fang Tsai

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available 網路服務業者的責任可說是網路上最具爭議的問題。本文的目的在於從一般性原則上討論用戶涉及著作權侵權時,網路服務業者是否可能成立民事侵權與刑事犯罪責任。個案的深入討論並不在本文範圍內。本文首先介紹美國侵權法上網路服務業者責任,內容包括法院判決、學說見解與國會立法。其次,本文將從刑法理論來分析用戶成立直接正犯之同時,網路服務業者可能構成共同正犯、正犯後正犯或共犯。此外,也將分別檢討正犯與共犯之成立要件。最後,本文將檢討我國法上相關法律如何適用以解決網路服務 業者責任,並提出增訂網路服務業者責任規定之建議。 The liability of internet service provider (ISP is perhaps the most controversial legal issue to emerge from cyberspace. The purpose of this paper is to explore the general principles as to whether there should be civil and criminal liability for ISP concerning subscriber copyright infringement. An in-depth treatment of case study is beyond the scope of this paper. The first section provides an overview of the doctrine of ISP copyright infringement liability in America, followed by the introduction of judicial decisions, opinions of scholars and new legislation. Focusing on criminal liability that could be imposed upon ISP for copyright infringement initiated by subscribers, the second section seeks to illustrate the observation that the individuals who post copyright infringement materials act as principals in the first degree, and ISP would qualify as an accomplice, principal in the second degree, or accessory to the crimes. Furthermore, this section discusses in turn the qualifications for the perpetrators and accomplices. Finally, the third section reviews the current Taiwan tort and criminal law and its application to ISP and concludes that the Taiwan copyright law should make specific provision for

  5. ‘Show me the money!’ An insight into the Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA and its interaction with Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinusha Mendis

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper will be to provide a case study of the Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA and its inter-action with Higher Education Institutions (HEIs. The paper will begin by introducing and expanding on the concept of higher education institutions and how they have had to adapt to copyright reproduction, especially from the mid twentieth century, with the advent of the photocopy machine. The paper will touch upon the copyright laws that have attempted to regulate copying within HEIs in the UK and consider whether it has been a success or not. The paper will then carry out a study in to CLA and will aim to raise and answer the following question: what really happens to the money that is collected from HEIs by the CLA and distributed through the Authors Licensing and Collecting Society (ALCS and Publishers Licensing Society (PLS? Is the license fee collected from HEIs fairly distributed amongst the right holders? Having looked at both HEIs and collecting societies (CLA specifically, the paper will consider whether collecting societies are the best practical solution we have or whether we are putting up with a system that we have come to know? The UUK v CLA case revealed the dangerous side of collecting societies, especially that of CLA and questioned its motives and aims. In offering a solution, the system in USA will be considered where the US law allows for two or more competing collecting societies in one area. Does competition combat an abuse of a dominant position, which is what we have in the UK and is this the way forward for the UK? Or does competition curtail creativity? Whilst some of these questions have been answered by the author, others have been left open for consideration.

  6. Beyond Oil on Canvas: New Media and Presentation Formats Challenge International Copyright Law’s Ability to Protect the Interests of the Contemporary Artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Ann Torsen

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Current copyright laws in all jurisdictions are lacking explicit provisions for protecting many types of contemporary art. It remains unclear to what extent ideas should be copyrightable as art, if at all; or whether an artwork’s commercial nature provides a decisive factor regarding appropriation. Certain situations seem plainly inappropriate, such as artists needing to seek legal counsel in conjunction with creating their artwork: inappropriate in its financial extravagance and in its inevitable curb on creativity. As such, it is incumbent upon courts and legislatures to analyze the issue and to provide guidance. It is the author’s finding that strong moral rights and a vibrant public domain are not necessarily at odds with each other, especially when parties are open to communication. Laws operate to provide structure when parties do not make other arrangements amongst themselves; contracts between artists and galleries, artists and publishers, even artists and other artists may provide the highest degree of satisfaction for specific parties to a specific situation. Not surprisingly, parties with legal or business interests in art and parties with artistic interests in art would communicate better if they understood each other’s situations. Hopefully the issues will continue to be the focus of some thought on all platforms such that informed legal decisions can be made and artists can pursue and protect their creative productions, no matter their format.

  7. El análisis económico del derecho de autor y del copyright, un estudio del equilibrio entre los intereses público y privado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Pérez Gómez Tétrel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La propiedad intelectual ha sido concebida para responder, tanto a la necesidad de protección del autor de una obra del intelecto, como al beneficio que la sociedad pueda sacar del acceso a dichas creaciones intelectuales, generando así un equilibrio entre los diferentes actores. Los sistemas digitales de comunicación han puesto en jaque dicho equilibrio. Conviene preguntarse ¿es capaz la protección otorgada por el derecho a la creación intelectual, de establecer un equilibrio en las relaciones entre creador (autor y la sociedad (consumidor? ¿En qué medida el análisis económico comparado del derecho de autor y del copyright puede contribuir al modelo económico de este equilibrio? ¿Hasta qué punto, el rol desempeñado por las industrias de la comunicación está rompiendo este equilibrio? El objetivo de este artículo es analizar diversos aspectos del derecho de autor y del copyright, a la luz del análisis económico del derecho.

  8. El análisis económico del derecho de autor y del copyright, un estudio del equilibrio entre los intereses público y privado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Pérez Gómez Tétrel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available La propiedad intelectual ha sido concebida para responder, tanto a la necesidad de protección del autor de una obra del intelecto, como al beneficio que la sociedad pueda sacar del acceso a dichas creaciones intelectuales, generando así un equilibrio entre los diferentes actores. Los sistemas digitales de comunicación han puesto en jaque dicho equilibrio. Conviene preguntarse ¿es capaz la protección otorgada por el derecho a la creación intelectual, de establecer un equilibrio en las relaciones entre creador (autor y la sociedad (consumidor? ¿En qué medida el análisis económico comparado del derecho de autor y del copyright puede contribuir al modelo económico de este equilibrio? ¿Hasta qué punto, el rol desempeñado por las industrias de la comunicación está rompiendo este equilibrio? El objetivo de este artículo es analizar diversos aspectos del derecho de autor y del copyright, a la luz del análisis económico del derecho.

  9. “Reprodução Proibida”: Financiamento público e direitos de cópia privados | Reproduction forbidden: public financing and private copyrights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. S. Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Esse texto apresenta um sumário das pesquisas realizadas pelo Grupo de Políticas Públicas para Acesso à Informação GPOPAI desde 2006 sobre o financiamento público de conteúdos científicos. Os resultados apontam que, apesar do intenso investimento público no Brasil, o setor privado vem se apropriando e impondo barreiras ao acesso a livros técnico-científicos e artigos científicos – neste caso, em especial, as editoras estrangeiras. No que se refere ao software produzido na academia, os dados apontam para uma completa indiferença da comunidade e à ausência de políticas públicas para o seu acesso. De modo geral, os resultados indicam para a necessidade de uma reforma na lei de direitos autorais, de modo a atualizá-la face as novas tecnologias de informação e comunicação e a atender ao interesse público do acesso ao conhecimento que as tecnologias digitais proporcionam. Palavras-chave acesso ao conhecimento, direitos autorais, financiamento público, ciência Abstract This paper presents a summary of research conducted since 2006 on public funding of scientific contents by the Public Policy Group for Access to Information (GPOPAI. The results suggest that in the case of technical and scientific books and scientific articles, the private sector is creating and imposing barriers to access to knowledge, despite of intensive public investments in Brazil. In relation to software produced by universities, the community is completely indifferent and there is a lack of public policies for its access. Overall, the results indicate the need for a profound reform and update of copyright law regarding new information and communication technologies, considering the public interest in access to knowledge. Keywords access to knowledge, copyright, public investiment, science

  10. 法律經濟學與著作權共舞 Shall We Dance? When Law and Economics Meets Copyright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    胡心蘭 Hsin-Lan Hu

    2008-12-01

    1970s, Law and Economics emerged as a wholly new field of legal research and study. Economics provides not only a behavioral theory to predict how people respond to changes in laws, but also a useful normative standard for evaluating law and policy. In the eyes of economists, laws are instruments for achieving important social goals, namely, resources allocative efficiency. In the area of Copyright Law, economic analysis has taken an important role in examining the conflict of interests between copyright owners and public. Scholars and experts of law and economics have been working to find out the most efficient way to allocate the scarce resource and to maximize social welfare – in copyright law, is the Constructional object of promoting the progress of science and useful art. In this article, the author will first introduce the movement of Law and Economic Analysis, and illustrate the development and the central contentions of different schools. The author will also present a briefly historical background of the U.S. Copyright Act, in which, the economic factors and the growth of technologies pour a heavy influence into the development of that Act. Next, the author will describe the various approaches employed by the Law and Economic analysis, through first defining some basic concepts of economics analysis, and then try to apply Law and Economic analysis to the U.S. copyright law, particularly in the copyright infringement cases which involved the application of Fair Use Doctrine, in order to survey the advantages and limits of the adoption of Law and Economic analysis, under the ultimate object of “Promoting the Science and Useful Art.”

  11. Protecting Government Works: The Copyright Issue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manz, Paul C; Zelenka, Michael J; Wittig, Raymond S; Smith, Sally A

    2002-01-01

    The federal government, through its employees and contractors, produces commercially valuable inventions and information every day, often without any protection of the intellectual property involved...

  12. Computer Security: protect CERN - respect copyrights

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2014-01-01

    Are you a physicist who does complex mathematical calculations? Are you a webmaster who regularly embeds visual contents? Do you regularly present to large audiences? Are you an engineer who does sophisticated simulations of heat transfers, structural stability or electric circuits? Are you a technician who often uses CAD software? Do you like listening to music while being at CERN? Go ahead!   But make sure that you have legitimately obtained the software/images/music/videos you are using and hold valid licenses to run your software. Using illegal or pirated software/images/music/videos is not a trivial offense. It violates the CERN Computing Rules (OC5) and puts the Organization at risk! Vendors deserve credit and compensation. So make sure to buy your software via legitimate channels and use a valid and honestly obtained license. This also applies to “shareware” and software under open licenses, which might also come with a cost. Usually, only “freeware&rd...

  13. 77 FR 72788 - Copyright Office Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... proposed fees failed to recover half of the actual operating costs of the cable and satellite program, and... Study for Setting Cable and Satellite SOA Filing Fees The original cost study for the Office's...-personnel costs to address concerns that an aberrant year may have an undue impact on the proposed fees. The...

  14. Copyright and Wire Broadcasting Under Belgian Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namurois, Albert

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of a case whereby substantial damages, if not criminal proceedings, will sanction, according to circumstances, both television organizations and those who in certain conditions distribute their programs by wire or communicate them to the public. (Author/HB)

  15. After Access: Canadian Education and Copyright Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Michael

    2006-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of the Internet in the 1990s, the Canadian government developed a well-regarded strategy for addressing the emerging issues posed by the "information highway." The strategy featured legal reforms to address privacy and e-commerce, administrative reforms for the government online initiative, and connectivity…

  16. Hollywood, o copyright e o TPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Luchetti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se dedica a explorar una serie de cláusulas relativas a derechos de autor y conexos del capítulo de propiedad intelectual del Acuerdo Transpacífico de Asociación Económica, el más ambicioso tratado de libre comercio que se haya concluido desde la conformación de la OMC. Conocido también como TPP (por las siglas en inglés, el acuerdo fue firmado el 4 de febrero de 2016 por doce países de la Cuenca del Pacífico. El artículo se orienta a contextualizar la negociación de estándares en derechos de autor en el TPP como parte de la estrategia de Estados Unidos para conseguir mayores niveles de protección.

  17. International copyright: principles, law, and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldstein, Paul

    2001-01-01

    ... and Broadcasting Organizations (Rome Convention) 37 §2.2.1.1. History 37 §2.2.1.2. Protection of Performers 38 §2.2.1.3. Protection of Producers of Phonograms 39 §2.2.1.4. Protection of Broadcasters ...

  18. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  19. limits of copyright protection in contemporary nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... modes of protection of intellectual property, and has left the law completely in a .... “Nigerian Computer Software Protection in Nigeria" [www ...... H. Ryder & Smith, “Public key Encryptocraph Standards: R.S.A. Data Security”,.

  20. Copyright, Property and the Film Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Francis M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Legal issues surrounding the collecting of movies are analyzed with the conclusion that neither law nor public policy supports a cause for action against the ultimate consumer of film prints and that it is not in a studio's economic interest to bring such actions against collectors. (JT)

  1. 專論/數位環境的著作權法制思考/賴文智;王文君 | Rethinking Copyright Law System in Digital Environment / Wen-chi Lai;Wen-chun Wang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    賴文智、王文君

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available

    本文研究議題為著作權法制面對數位環境衝擊之制度調整思考。本文首先說明數位與網路科技不僅為當代社會著作利用帶來相當多的變化,也使著作權制度面 臨諸多困難議題。藉由對著作權法制發展史與著作權法第1條規定的檢視,本文提出「促進著作流通利用」乃達致著作權法各項立法目的之共同且最主要之途徑(方 法),並嘗試在此脈絡下,檢視合理使用、公開傳輸權、權利管理電子資訊、防盜拷措施的保護及著作權仲介團體條例等制度設計。最終重申並闡釋「促進著作流通 利用」乃是用以檢視著作權制度是否合於當代社會需求之關鍵。

    At first, this paper raises the question on the impacts of Copyright System in digital environment. From reviewing history of Copyright System and Article 1 of Copyright Act, this paper holds that encouraging circulation and use of copyrighted work is main purpose of Copyright Act. This paper describes that facing digital and network technologies, the use of copyrighted work in our society has several changes. These changes, from the point of view that the main purpose of Copyright System is encouraging circulation and use of copyrighted work, make Copyright System facing several difficult issues. Finally, this paper examines several issues of Copyright System, such as, fair use, right of public transmission, electronic rights management information, protection of technological protection measures and Copyright Intermediary Organization Act. Encouraging circulation and use of copyrighted work is always the key of examining whether the Copyright System fit the need of current society.

    頁次:30-38

  2. 75 FR 67777 - Copyright Office; Federal Copyright Protection of Sound Recordings Fixed Before February 15, 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... (not an image); Microsoft Word; WordPerfect; Rich Text Format (RTF); or ASCII text file format (not a..., spoken, or other sounds, but not including the sounds accompanying a motion picture or other audiovisual... general, Federal law is better defined, both as to the rights and the exceptions, and more consistent than...

  3. Twin Evils: Government Copyright and Copyright-like Controls Over Government Information

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gellman, Robert

    1995-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, several factors work together to allow agencies to deny public access to or effective use of uncopyrighted government information, restrict use of that information, or charge royalties...

  4. Diamond open access and open peer review : An analysis of the role of copyright and librarians in the support of a shift towards open access in the legal domain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, Esther

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to support initiatives that stimulate volunteer involvement in creating qualitatively good conversations about the law on the internet. The article’s core argument is that policies on open access, copyright and library services all concentrate nowon the results of scholarly

  5. Address on the Occasion of the Meeting of the Second Committee of Governmental Experts on Problems in the Field of Copyright and of the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations Raised by Transmission via Space Satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, Rene

    These opening remarks by the Director General of Unesco briefly discuss that organization's activities in the area of copyright within the field of satellite communication. They were addressed to members of a committee whose purpose is to determine whether the protection of signals transmitted by communications satellites does or does not require…

  6. HitRECord: Cultura remix y copyright. Una experiencia en primera persona en el interior de la Compañía de Producción hitRECord.

    OpenAIRE

    Sabater Planelles, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    El Proyecto que hemos desarrollado, mezcla investigación y experiencia en primera persona entorno a dos temas principales con la finalidad de abordarlos, experimentarlos y comprenderlos de la mejor manera en el contexto actual. Mantienen una estrecha confrontación entre ellos y gran relación con la comunidad online hitRECord. Éstos son el copyright y la cultura remix. HitRECord es una plataforma online impulsada en el 2010 por el actor y artista Joseph Gordon-Levitt, convertida en una ...

  7. Direito autoral e economia criativa: a construção de uma economia preocupada com a criatividade | Copyrights and the creative economy: the construction of an economy preoccupied with creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Wachowicz

    2011-10-01

    the construction of a Regulatory Framework for the Creative Economy in Brazil. This is based on the understanding that the Creative Economy and Sustainable Development promotes the human, social and technologically inclusive way, i.e. it is not a simple vision of economic growth. This is because the new concepts inherent in the Creative Economy embrace the use of technological tools (ICTs in its interface with education, architecture, design, training of creative, the Local Productive Arrangement (APL and the creative industries (CIs. Keywords Copyright, Creative Economy, Sustainable development

  8. 政府加值資訊著作權交易平台之設計與管理 The Copyright Trading Platform for Government Added-information: A Study of Planning and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-yeou Chiu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available 本文提出一網路交易平台之實驗性設計與政策建議,功能擴及政府 加值資訊著作權之歸屬查詢、政府資訊出版單位與民間加值業者經營互動之模式、政府資訊之管理等,實現政府資訊之授權機制。「政府加值資訊著作權交易平台」之管理設計所涉及之查詢欄位頗多,不論內容敘述、權利敘述或交易描述等,皆藉既有制度作相關之對映設計,並特就檢索協定與政府資訊內容之數位物件識別碼作詳細建議和規劃。本研究之精神目標在於為電子化政府下的政府資訊建造與研擬一個符合「數位內容與文化創意產業」發展的整合願景。This paper aims at the issues of electronic trading in copyright objects and its impacts and implications for government information. The copyright trading platform for government added-information identifies some specific functions and elements of trading models that have been proposed. New mapping elements of content description, rights description and trading description are being developed whereby rights in digital works can be traded electronically. For government information that are dependent on dissemination and publishing of copyright objects, the developments of protocol and digital object identifier also have substantial implications, which are suggested in this paper. Its purpose is to identify implications for information society in general, and for government information market in particular, on the one hand, to exploit the opportunities of Digital contents and cultural creation industry created by new technologies.

  9. 著作權法「防盜拷措施」條款例外規定要點之檢討 The Review of Regulations Concerning the Exceptions of Anti-piracy Measures Clauses in Taiwan Copyright Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    章忠信 Chung-Hsin Chang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available 「科技保護措施」是著作權人在數位網路環境下,以技術保護其權利的重要手段,國際著作權法制對於這些「科技保護措施」,再以法律保護,使其不被任意破解或規避。然而,這些規定對於廣大的公眾利益究竟有何負面影響,非無疑義。我國著作權法在2004 年9 月1 日增訂「防盜拷措施」條款後,主管機關終於在2006 年3 月23 日發布「防盜拷措施」排除適用範圍之認定要點,即「著作權法第80 條之2 第3 項各款內容認定要點」,本文針對此一要點的訂定背景與內容作簡要介紹與分析,期望引起各界的關注,也可以為本要點下一次的檢討修正作準備。 Technological Protection Measures (TPMs is an important method for copyright owners to employ technology to protect his right under digital internet environment. International copyright treaty establishes legal regime to prevent those TPMs from crack or circumvention. However, what negative side effects those regulations may cause to the public interest needs to be evaluated. Taiwan amended its Copyright Law and introduced so-call Anti-piracy Measures clauses on Sep. 1, 2004. In addition, the Competent Authority released the regulations concerning the details of exceptions and limitations set forth in Paragraph 3 of Article 80ter on Mar. 23, 2006. This Article summarizes the background and analysis the details of the regulations. The purpose of this Article is to raise the public concern to this issue. It may also make a preparation to amend the Regulation.

  10. Estimation of neutron mean wavelength from rocking curve dataThis work is a contribution of NIST, an agency of the US Government, and not subject to copyright laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, K. J.; Chowdhuri, Z.; Snow, W. M.; Richardson, J. M.; Dewey, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    At NIST, an in-beam neutron lifetime experiment is underway. In part of the experiment, a neutron detector is calibrated. The accuracy of the detector calibration depends, in part, on how accurately the mean wavelength of a neutron beam can be estimated from rocking curve data. Based on a stochastic model for neutron scattering, we simulate rocking curve data. To speed up the simulation, an importance sampling method is used. For the cases studied, importance sampling reduces the execution time of the simulation code by over a factor of 500. For simulated data, the statistical bias of the mean wavelength estimate is found to be 0.004%. This work is a contribution of NIST, an agency of the US Government, and not subject to copyright laws.

  11. 著作權法「防盜拷措施」條款例外規定要點之檢討 The Review of Regulations Concerning the Exceptions of Anti-piracy Measures Clauses in Taiwan Copyright Law

    OpenAIRE

    章忠信 Chung-Hsin Chang

    2006-01-01

    「科技保護措施」是著作權人在數位網路環境下,以技術保護其權利的重要手段,國際著作權法制對於這些「科技保護措施」,再以法律保護,使其不被任意破解或規避。然而,這些規定對於廣大的公眾利益究竟有何負面影響,非無疑義。我國著作權法在2004 年9 月1 日增訂「防盜拷措施」條款後,主管機關終於在2006 年3 月23 日發布「防盜拷措施」排除適用範圍之認定要點,即「著作權法第80 條之2 第3 項各款內容認定要點」,本文針對此一要點的訂定背景與內容作簡要介紹與分析,期望引起各界的關注,也可以為本要點下一次的檢討修正作準備。 Technological Protection Measures (TPMs) is an important method for copyright owners to employ technology to protect his right under digital internet environment. International copyright treaty establishes legal regime to prevent tho...

  12. ARMONIZACIÓN DE LOS DERECHOS DE AUTOR EN LA COMUNIDAD ANDINA: HACIA UN NUEVO RÉGIMEN COMÚN Copyright harmonization in the andean community: through a new common regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cerda Silva

    2011-01-01

    ón normativa.The Andean Community, which started late in the sixties, is one of the main processes of integration in Latino America, that currently involves Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. In 1993, as part of the process of integration, the Andean Community adopted the Decision 351 that sets forth a common regime on copyright and neighboring rights. That regime was a first step in the legal harmonization on that matter for those countries, which still preserve their domestic law, in so far as it does not infringe the provisions of the Decision. However, the efficiency of the common regime as an instrument for harmonization within the Andean Community has been reduced because of the course of the years, challenges of new technologies, and emerging bilateralism, among other causes. At the same time, even when tolerated by the common regime, significant differences between the domestic law of country members obstacle the proper functioning of the internal, particularly en el context of digital economy. Those circumstances made explicit the need for updating the common regime in order to facilitate the integration of the Andean Community. This article describes briefly the Decision 351, and then analyzes the main limitations of the in force common regime in order to identify the issues that require an urgent legal harmonization within the Andean Community. Then, this article suggests some those issues on which the Andean Community must emphasize its harmonization when updating the common regime -copyright scope, exceptions and limitations, public domain, and copyright enforcement- and makes some recommendations on strategies to achieve that legal harmonization.

  13. Kıbrıs Türk Hukukunda İletişim Etiği Çerçevesinde Telif Hakkı Sorunları / Copyright Problems in the Turkish Cypriot Law within the Framework of Communication Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Ayhan Dolunay; Gökçe Keçeci

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Regarding the issue of copyright, our study firstly defines the concepts of “visual communication” and “communication ethics”, mentions the origin of copyrights; and then discusses the copyrights in the Turkish Cypriot Law and the copyright issue in terms of Turkish law and Common Law due to the relations with Turkish Cypriot Law. Finally, this study will deliver concrete solution proposals upon the improvement of copyrights from the perspective of Turkish Cypriot Law.   ...

  14. 76 FR 9229 - Administration of Copyright Office Deposit Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... three of which opposed it. Most notably, the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) challenged the....'' The words ``a considerable amount of business'' will be replaced by ``12 or more transactions a year... goal is to better serve rights-holders who engage in regular, multiple registrations and other...

  15. 77 FR 29257 - Registration of Copyright: Definition of Claimant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... intestate succession.'' 17 U.S.C. 201(d)(1) In subsection 201(d)(2), Congress further stated that ``[a]ny of...., Morris v. Business Concepts, Inc., 259 F.3d 65, 70 (2d Cir. N.Y. 2001). As the Second Circuit makes clear... Pictures Entertainment, Inc., 402 F.3d 881 (9th Cir. 2005), quoting, 4 Business and Commercial Litigation...

  16. 2017 Copyright © 2017, CRISA Publications HARMFUL USE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the augmented CAGE questionnaire, alcohol-risk perception scale, and the religiosity scale. ... to determine the factors that predict al- cohol abuse. The role of ... Test (AUDIT). Each item has a ..... test of model with reciprocal effects between ...

  17. Copyright, Patent, and Trade Secret Protection of Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    programs, patent in- ment counts on the ground that Apple fringement, unfair competition, and misap- failed to comply with the procedural re- propriation...operation of appellants’ claimed in- khms: of art in the computer field and refers to mi. so £0w. lemnts. Fo a uber f haslie. s graum agenra-prpoe...cornmis- how to arrange the informatiors on each sion from plaintiff for sales he had facili- screen. It is the organization of the JMS Eated . During

  18. Access to knowledge in Africa The role of copyright

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    But this book, and the work of the ACA2K project, is not pioneering only because ...... Library codes of ethics have an important role to play, not only in guiding users' ..... In the case of other kinds of works owned by a body corporate, protection ...

  19. 78 FR 66865 - Acquisition Regulation: Patents, Data, and Copyrights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... least burden on society, consistent with obtaining regulatory objectives, taking into account, among... rulemaking or policy that may affect family well-being. This rulemaking will have no impact on the autonomy...

  20. 1/27 DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND COPYRIGHT IN THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2001-03-08

    Mar 8, 2001 ... The Functional Equivalent Implementation of the WCT*. T Pistorius**. 1. Introduction .... legitimately tread, the anti-circumvention legislation of the US and the EU ... These exceptions include (free or paid for) exceptions relating to the ... South Africa's efforts to wage war against cyber crime. Section 86 of the.

  1. 76 FR 4072 - Registration of Claims of Copyright

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... of published photographs should contact the Visual Arts Division for permission and guidance on... online registration has been available for basic registration claims, it has not yet been made generally... is registered is primarily photographic in nature. In fact, the Visual Arts Division has accepted...

  2. 7 CFR 1260.215 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF..., residual payments, or other income from the rental, sale, leasing, franchising, or other uses of such...

  3. African Copyright and Access to Knowledge Network (ACA2K ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Accueil · Ce que nous faisons ... The team will examine the existing legal framework in each country and ... Un chercheur subventionné par le CRDI retient l'attention de la communauté internationale pour son travail relatif au taux de mortalité ...

  4. Limits of Copyright Protection in Contemporary Nigeria: Re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the world has witnessed astronomical advancement in scientific and technological innovations which have changed the face of modern society, leading many thinkers to term this present civilization 'the jet age'. This technological advancement has had enormous impact on the ...

  5. 78 FR 22913 - Review of Copyright Royalty Judges Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... impact on the structure of the industries involved and on generally prevailing industry practices. 17 U.S... time of the commencement of the PSS SDARS hearing, of the original participants, only Music Choice... involved the participants Music Choice and SoundExchange.\\2\\ As set forth above, under 17 U.S.C. 801(b)(1...

  6. A comparative analysis of copyright enforcement provisions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Development, concept and scope of copyright protection in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Developing countries and copyright in the information age The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Developing countries are especially disadvantaged by diminished access to works. In this article it is argued that adherence to the principle of functional equivalence in implementing the anti-circumvention provisions of the WCT will ensure ...

  9. 77 FR 37605 - Registration of Claims to Copyright

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ...''; major forms of expression such as music, drama, and works of art achieved specific statutory recognition... arrangement of functional physical movements such as sports movements, exercises, and other ordinary motor...

  10. Shared Electronic Spaces in the Classroom: Copyright, Privacy, and Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talab, Rosemary S.; Butler, Rebecca P.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of "publishing" has changed again, just in the last few years, due to YouTube, Blogger, Second Life, Flickr, and other new social networking tools (John Marshall Law School, 2005). Whether they are making it possible for everyone to view a video on YouTube on how to install a hard drive on a Mac, add a collaborative student writing…

  11. Re-thinking copyright through the copy in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sezneva, O.

    2013-01-01

    How one copy of a film or a single is made illegal, while its identical twin is treated as legitimate? By drawing from the material collected in Russia on the illegal copying and distribution of video and musical contents, this paper moves beyond the definition of media piracy in legal terms, and

  12. Copyright and Innovation in the Developing World | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    How can individuals and companies reuse and repurpose digital content? ... The media industry has called for stricter intellectual property protections to ... As a result, many countries have enacted stricter intellectual property ... Google, which owns YouTube, might not exist if intellectual property laws were stricter in the US.

  13. Access to Knowledge in Africa: The Role of Copyright | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2010 ... Even those who consider themselves experts on IP will benefit immensely from this book and the broader ACA2K project's work. — Sisule Musungu, President of IQsensato, Geneva. The emergence of the Internet and the digital world has changed the way people access, produce and share information and ...

  14. 2014 Copyright © 2014, CRISA Publications SELF-CONTROL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was measured by the Brief Self-control Scale. Self-reported ... Key words:Alcohol consumption, Botswana, self-control, self-regulation, undergraduate students .... alcohol-related harm. One may ..... a belief that it is acceptable to drink dur-.

  15. 2017 Copyright © 2017, CRISA Publications THE ROLE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    students worldwide. Self-efficacy to abstain from alcohol use plays a significant role in ... harms including substance abuse, drink driving ... are outcome expectations - the belief that certain kinds of .... Alcohol Decisional Balance Scale (ADBS).

  16. 77 FR 51068 - Remedies for Small Copyright Claims: Additional Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... Adobe Portable Document File (PDF) format that contains searchable, accessible text (not an image..., 2012 from 9:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. The agendas and the process for submitting requests to participate in... discussion covered topics ranging from constitutional considerations to the definition of a ``small claim...

  17. Legal-Ware: Contract and Copyright in the Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    ProCD, Inc. v. Zeidenberg, which enforced a shrinkwrap license for computer software, has encouraged the expansion of the shrinkwrap form beyond computer programs, forward, onto the Internet, and backward, toward such traditional works as books and magazines. Authors and publishers are using that case to advance norms of information use that exclude, practically and conceptually, a robust public domain and a meaningful doctrine of fair use. Contesting such efforts by focusing on the contractu...

  18. 2017 Copyright © 2017, CRISA Publications PRIORITIZING PUBLIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the seizure of drugs and arrest and punishment of offenders, its impact on drug use ... social problems. ... tionale is that “addiction to narcotic drugs ..... drug use through media campaigns, lec- tures ... tors such as family structure, relationship.

  19. Book Review: Stars (Copyright 1985, Golden Press; New York)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigza, R. N., Jr.

    2009-06-01

    Stars is a part of the Golden Guides collection produced by Golden Press. It is a small 160 page paperback guide to the constellations, the sun, the moon, planets, and other celestial bodies. The book is convenient to carry along wherever you go, making it an easy to access reference material.

  20. 37 CFR 202.16 - Preregistration of copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... videogames); or (vi) Advertising or marketing photographs. (2) A work is being prepared for commercial... identifying the literary work in book form. (v) For computer programs (including videogames), the identifying...

  1. Enclosed mechanical seal face design for brittle materials copyright

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsi, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Metal carbides are widely used as seal face material due to their hardness and wear resistance. Silicon carbide (SiC) has excellent performance as a seal face material, but it is relatively brittle and may break due to accidental overloads outside the boundary of normal operating conditions. In mechanical seals for nuclear primary coolant pumps, the shattered SiC pieces can get into the reactor system and cause serious damage. The conventional method of containing an SiC seal face is to shrink-fit it in a holder, which may lead the seal designer to contend with unwanted seal face deflections. This paper presents a successful, tested design which does not rely on shrink-fits. 5 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Software Quality and Copyright: Issues in Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Virginia

    The two interconnected problems of educational quality and piracy are described and analyzed in this book, which begins with an investigation of the accusations regarding the alleged dismal quality of educational software. The reality behind accusations of rampant piracy and the effect of piracy on the quality of educational software is examined…

  3. Special Issue: Very large eddy simulation. Issue Edited by Dimitris Drikakis.Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Save Title to My ProfileSet E-Mail Alert Previous Issue | Next Issue > Full Issue Listing-->Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 763-864(30 July 2002)Research ArticleEmbedded turbulence model in numerical methods for hyperbolic conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drikakis, D.

    2002-07-01

    The paper describes the use of numerical methods for hyperbolic conservation laws as an embedded turbulence modelling approach. Different Godunov-type schemes are utilized in computations of Burgers' turbulence and a two-dimensional mixing layer. The schemes include a total variation diminishing, characteristic-based scheme which is developed in this paper using the flux limiter approach. The embedded turbulence modelling property of the above methods is demonstrated through coarsely resolved large eddy simulations with and without subgrid scale models. Copyright

  4. 著作財產權存續期間之經濟分析⎯⎯以數位權利管理科技的影響為中心 An Economic Analysis of Copyright Terms ― Focusing on the Architectural Changes by Digital Rights Management Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    王明禮 Ming-Li Wang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available 美國 1998 年通過之著作權存續期間延長法(Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, CTEA),其合憲性雖在Eldred v. Ashcroft 一案中得到法院肯定,其立法智慧卻飽受質疑。本文從Eldred 案中Akerlof 等經濟學家之論述出發,以經濟分析之方法探討著作權保護之社會成本,並以數位權利管理科技(digital rights management, DRM)之發展與其可能影響為論述之重點。 本文發現,對著作權獨占之絕對損失與著作授權交易成本兩大問題,理想的DRM 科技的確可以提供一定程度的緩和效果。視著作類型、利用型態及所考慮成本之性質,DRM 帶來的幫助大小有別,但整體而言,並非吾人得以忽略。因此隨著DRM 科技成熟,從效率的觀點反對著作權存續期間延長的基礎將日漸薄弱。然而,DRM 不旦發展前景仍未明朗,且即使是完美的DRM 也不能完全排除著作權保護所帶給社會的成本。如果進一步考慮保障著作權人絕對控制可能引起的反動,以及反規避條款或類似立法之執行成本,則立法者在著作權存續期間之斟酌上,實應更加審慎。台灣的立法者應將美國的CTEA 視為前車之鑑,而非效法之對象。 The Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 (CTEA, while having survived a surprisingly strong constitutional challenge in Eldred v. Ashcroft, remains controversial on efficiency ground. This article seeks to provide an economic analysis of the social costs of prolonged copyright terms, taking into account the potential of digital rights management (DRM technologies. The article suggests DRM technologies, when properly designed, may reduce the dead weight loss of copyright monopolies and the transaction costs of copyright licensing, seemingly strengthening the argument for prolonged or even perpetual copyright protection. Current DRM technologies are nevertheless far from ideal. With

  5. 「數位內容產業發展條例草案」有關著作權規範之檢討 A Review to Copyright-Related Provisions in the Bill of the Act for the Development of Digital Content Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    章忠信 Chung-Hsin Chang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available 研議中的「數位內容產業發展條例(草案)」目前由經濟部工業局所主導,先委託資策會科技法律中心研擬條例草案,再進行各界意見彙整與機關協商,預計近期完成行政院版本草案,再提立法院審議,其內容包括網際網路服務、內容軟體、無限寬頻、數位遊戲、電腦動畫、行動應用服務及數位出版典藏等,其中有諸多議題與著作權法制有關,包括著作權設質登記、著作權人不明或失聯或出版品數位化之法定授權制度、資料庫之保護,以及ISP 業者針對數位內容侵害著作權行為之責任等,本文就該等議題脫離著作權法,於數位內容產業發展基本法中另作規定一事,提出反對意見,另逐一 就相關議題之背景、草案條文之內容以及各國立法情形作分析說明,同時提出修正建議,期望引起各界關注,共同討論,以使各該條文更臻完善。 A bill concerning the act for the development of digital content industry, draft by Technology Law Center of Institute of Information Industry, is introduced by the Industry Bureau, MOE. The Industry Bureau is collecting the public suggestions and consulting with other agencies. A formal draft is expected to submit to Legislative Yuan by the Executive Yuan in the near time. Among other things, there are several issues concerning copyright in the bill, such as registration of copyright mortgage, the exploitation of orphan works, statutory license of articles in periodicals, protection of database, infringement liability of ISP. This Article strongly objects the approach to address those issues in the bill other than in Copyright law. In addition, it analyses all the provisions concerning copyright with their backgrounds, comparison of international legal regime. Finally, it submits some suggestions for further discussion and raising concerns by the public.

  6. Geleneksel ve Elektronik Eser Sahiplerinin Telif Hakları, Dijital Haklar Yönetimi: Uluslararası Düzenlemeler ve Fikir ve Sanat Eserleri Kanunu Çerçevesinde Bir Değerlendirme = Copyright of Traditional and Electronic Works’ Owners, Digital Rights Management: An Evaluation within the Framework of International Regulations and Law on Intellectual and Artistic Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Turan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerinin gelişmesi ile fikri haklar alanında da değişiklikler kaçınılmaz olmuştur. Teknolojik imkânların gelişimi ve dijitalleşme ile dijital eserlerin üretimiyle birlikte telif haklarında sorunlar ortaya çıkmaktadır. Çalışmada, genel olarak, telif haklarının dijital eserlere ve dijital haklar yönetimine yönelik incelenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Çalışmanın kapsamını dijital haklar yönetimi çerçevesinde 5846 sayılı Fikir ve Sanat Eserleri Kanunu oluşturmaktadır. Bu kapsamda ilgili Yargıtay kararlarının konuları bazında analizi de hedeflenmektedir. Ayrıca, küresel alanda dijital haklar yönetimi alanında önemli hukuksal düzenlemeler olan WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization Telif Hakları Sözleşmesi ve WIPO İcralar ve Fonogramlar Sözleşmesi çerçevesinde de değerlendirmeler içerik analizi yöntemi ile yapılmaktadır. Çalışma sonunda, bir yandan, Fikir ve Sanat Eserleri Kanunu’nda dijital haklar yönetimine ilişkin hükümler bulunduğu sonucuna varılmaktadır. Diğer yandan, bu kanunda dijital eserlerin telif hakları ve dijital haklar yönetimine dair eksiklikler bulunmakta ve bu eksiklikler mali haklar alanında yoğunlaşmaktadır. / With the development of information and communication technologies, changes are inevitable in the field of intellectual property rights. With the progress of the technological opportunities and digitization, issues in copyright emerge along with production of digital works. In the study, generally, it is aimed at examination of digital works and digital rights management within the context of copyright. The Law No. 5846, Law On Intellectual And Artistic Works within the framework of digital rights management constitutes the scope of the study. In this context, it is aimed also at the analysis of the relevant Supreme Court decisions on the basis of their subjects. In addition, it is evaluated within the scope of WIPO

  7. The economic value of fair use in copyright law: counterfactual impact analysis of fair use policy on private copying technology and copyright markets in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafele, Roya; Gibert, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The counterfactual impact analysis of fair use amendments in Singapore undertaken here demonstrates that flexible fair use policy positively influences growth rates in private copying technology industries. In 2010, five years after the policy intervention, Singapore’s fair use amendments are correlated with a 3.33% increase in value-added (as % of GDP) for private copying technology industries. Prior to the amendment of fair use policies, private copying technology industries experienced - 1...

  8. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 15(1), 2016 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABStrAct. Previous studies in Nigeria have associated alcohol and tobacco use among students with certain socioeconomic and educational achievement variables, albeit its determinants ..... Perhaps some other intervening variables that.

  9. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 14(1), 2015 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: HIV, substance abuse, medication adherence. Corresponding author: Dr. .... ence in order to maximize recall and mini- mize bias. .... intoxication impairs memory, planning, organizational .... clearer clinical picture of the magnitude.

  10. 75 FR 43825 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... switching service on that cellphone to another wireless communication network. The access controls in... means, such as the use of screen capture software, exist that permit the making of lower-quality film... handsets to execute software applications, where circumvention is accomplished for the sole purpose of...

  11. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 15(2), 2016 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Harm reduction, public health, drug policy, sub-Saharan Africa corresponding ... indifference, stigma and discrimination of. PWIDs, public ..... velopment of mental health services ... iours of secondary school students in. NELSON ...

  12. 2015 Copyright © 2015, CRISA Publications alCOHOl usE RElaTED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia. 2Institute of ... Alcohol-related violence resulting in injury is a global public health problem and. Africa is ..... Northwest England and Brazil which re- vealed a ...

  13. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 13(2), 2014 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    qualitative data obtained from 86 Pentecostal Christians in Uyo, Nigeria, which generates contrasting .... alcohol, the study challenges orthodoxy in alcohol ... Apostolic (1918), and Assemblies of God ... clude Winners Chapel, Church of God.

  14. 7 CFR 1221.123 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., information, publications, and product formulations. 1221.123 Section 1221.123 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum...

  15. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 14(2), 2015 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barriers to the management of substance use disorders included the following: perceived high costs ... unnecessarily long waiting time, attitudinal problems, cultural issues resulting in relapse, perceived ..... health services to Asian Americans.

  16. 2013 Copyright © 2013, CRISA Publications tABoo of Alcohol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... an overview of how the mass media process and disseminate information related to road traffic accidents, ... influence of alcohol is behind a significant number of road traffic accidents in Algeria. The results also ..... Archived by Web. Cite® at ...

  17. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 13(2), 2014 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    killed over 5 million people and by 2030, its death toll will .... For exam- ple, the use of some of these substances such as alcohol and cigarettes may not be unconnected with the ... risk, relapsed-provoking situations or cas- es. Outcome ...

  18. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 12(1), 2013 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 avr. 2013 ... rePreSentAtionS SociAleS De lA conSoMMAtion De trAMADol Au niger,. PERCEPTIONS ET ... 1Faculté des Sciences de la Santé de Niamey, Niamey, Niger. 2Service de ..... féine : à propos de 8 cas et revue de la littérature.

  19. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 12(2), 2013 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IN-SCHOOL YOUTH AND YOUNG ADULTS LIVING IN LIBERIA ... out-of-school students to develop school education and health services ... Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Child and Adolescent ... Due to stigma and pov- .... MethoD. Primary and secondary education in liberia. After the 1997 elections in ...

  20. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 13(1), 2014 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with perceived and actual discrimination led highly discriminated ... high levels of substance use compared to adolescents who experienced low levels ... young persons and their families includ- ... stigma can create a hostile and stressful ... of mental health problems and alcohol ... hand a social-identity approach to behav-.

  1. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 15(1), 2016 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ASSeSSing PerSonAlitY riSKS uSing the SurPS for Alcohol AnD other. Drug ProBleMS ... Many historical, social, and economic forces have ... are still used because of its enduring ef- fects on ..... based and cost-effective methods are needed.

  2. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 15(1), 2016 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in prison but practice high-risk behaviour such as injecting and ... dividual behavior. Nigerian .... consequences on their physical, psycho- logical ... Solvents and inhalants (Gas, Paint thinner, aerosol, plastic cement, butane, petrol etc). 43. 1.4 ...

  3. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 15(2), 2016 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tel: (+267) 355-4783, Mobile (+267) 71710420, Email address: Gobopamang. .... tried a range of different types of drugs ... Sex- tasy is a term used to refer to taking vi- agra and ecstasy together with ..... on Drug Abuse technical review meet-.

  4. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 14(2), 2015 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    morbidities with excessive alcohol consumption, yet individuals are often undeterred by their experiences ... the countries with very high levels of al- ...... because alcohol users' estimation of the benefits ... energy and time invested in them may be ... the sick quitter hypothesis that drinkers ..... Harm in Young Adults: Indepen-.

  5. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 13(2), 2014 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Centre for Research and Information on Substance Abuse (CRISA), Uyo, Nigeria. ABStrAct ... Alcohol is the cause of many physical and mental health conditions and is associated with social ..... ing, spousal stress, child trafficking. They.

  6. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 14(2), 2015 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based organisations working in harm re- duction (Nairobi ... programme was rolled out as a flexible needle and ... lives of PWID in relation to their drug use ... long-standing outreach work in the com- munity. ... Beatrice, in the first account narrated ... ed to be difficult and involved a balance ... erating hours of pharmacies.

  7. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 14(1), 2015 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare the ability of a new Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry with direct sample analysis (TOF-DSA ... Key words: Nyaope, drug of abuse, Mass Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography, Anti- retrovirals ..... Expert Review in Clinical Pharmacol-.

  8. Do copyright à co-pirataria comunicacional da violência

    OpenAIRE

    Joron, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    A violência sempre se constituiu, para as ciências humanas e sociais, um tema privilegiado de investigação, mesmo que de modo indireto, considerando-se sua obstinação para potencialmente desviar o laço social de seus ideais de perfeição. Esta problemá tica sempre sofreu com uma concepção binária das coisas, como se a violência fosse exterior a este mesmo elo social, como se este último não se servisse, e mesmo não produzisse, a violência, para cumprir sua intenção de troca, de convivência, de...

  9. Copyright for audiovisual work and analysis of websites offering audiovisual works

    OpenAIRE

    Chrastecká, Nicolle

    2014-01-01

    This Bachelor's thesis deals with the matter of audiovisual piracy. It discusses the question of audiovisual piracy being caused not by the wrong interpretation of law but by the lack of competitiveness among websites with legal audiovisual content. This thesis questions the quality of legal interpretation in the matter of audiovisual piracy and focuses on its sufficiency. It analyses the responsibility of website providers, providers of the illegal content, the responsibility of illegal cont...

  10. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 12(2), 2013 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: alcohol, khat, tobacco, cannabis, students, Ethiopia. Corresponding author: Worku Abebe, Ph.D., Department of Oral Biology/Pharmacology, College of Dental Medicine,. Georgia .... lung diseases, including lung cancer, as a.

  11. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 14(2), 2015 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use disorders and medical adherence. With this in mind, .... forget to take your medicine? .... Cannabis. 12(6.7%). Cocaine. 5(2.8%). Amphetamine Type Stimulant .... Cancer. 17 (9.5%). Psychosis. 16 (8.9%). There is nothing wrong. 14 (7.8%).

  12. 77 FR 65260 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... significant relationship between jailbreaking and piracy. On the other hand, the Register concluded that the... wireless network. Proponents advanced several theories as to why ``unlocking'' is a noninfringing use..., and widespread mobile customer ``lock- in.'' Although proponents acknowledged that unlocked mobile...

  13. 75 FR 33577 - National Telecommunications and Information Administration; Copyright Policy, Creativity, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ..., cybersecurity standards and best practices, intellectual property rights, business advocacy and export control...) 482-3027. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Recognizing the vital importance of both intellectual property...

  14. Auditory Workload Assessment. Volume II: Non-Copyrighted Literature Search Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rench, Michael

    2000-01-01

    In support of the US Army Research Laboratory, Human Research and Engineering Directorate, HSIAC, the Human Systems Information Analysis Center, conducted an extensive search of scientific literature...

  15. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 14(1), 2015 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drug use (World Health Organization,. 2014), making substance ... MET is considered at least as effective as cognitive-behavioural therapy and ... tested for cross-cultural relevance (World ..... interviewing: A meta-analysis of con- trolled clinical ...

  16. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 14(2), 2015 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effectiveness and treatment of alcohol abuse in Uganda. Key words: Alcohol abuse, addiction treatment, Uganda, alcohol dependence, sub-. Saharan Africa. INTRODUCTION ..... well as the involvement of the family in treatment planning and ...

  17. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 16(1), 2017 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The early age at initiation begs for more comprehensive drug prevention programmes especially in ... in terms of prevention, treatment and care of drug ... drug treatment unit in a Federal Neuropsy- .... sonal income or from family and friends,.

  18. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 12(1), 2013 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alcohol to enhance sexual performance, boost confidence and reduce stress, others use ... that a majority combine alcohol with other drugs and that anxiety, depression, injury to self and others and ...... having academic difficulties and being a.

  19. 7 CFR 1216.88 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS..., residual payments, or other income from the rental, sales, leasing, franchising, or other uses of such...

  20. 7 CFR 1219.57 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES... any rents, royalties, residual payments, or other income from the rental, sale, leasing, franchising...

  1. 7 CFR 1218.56 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS... any rents, royalties, residual payments, or other income from the rental, sales, leasing, franchising...

  2. The requirement for a „new public” in EU copyright law / Stavroula Karapapa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapapa, Stavroula

    2017-01-01

    Üldsusele edastamise kontseptsioonist ELi autoriõiguses, juurdepääsust autoriõigusega kaitstud töödele (hüperlingid) ning autoriõiguste rikkumisega seotud Euroopa Kohtu praktikast (nt lahend C-466/12)

  3. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 13(1), 2014 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: alcohol marketing, outdoor advertising, Africa, alcohol policy. Corresponding ... countries (World Health Organization,. 2011) ... pean data show, costs for health care can amount to ...... Besides the benefit of creating more space.

  4. 75 FR 27782 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Rights in Data and Copyrights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... disclose proprietary data and to insure that data developed with public funds is available to the public... ``Submit a Comment'' screen. Please include your name, company name (if any), and ``Information Collection... offeror would identify any proprietary data it would use during contract performance in order that the...

  5. PVSIM{copyright}: A simulation program for photovoltaic cells, modules, and arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.L.; Dudley, J.K.; Boyson, W.E.

    1996-06-01

    An electrical simulation model for photovoltaic cells, modules, and arrays has been developed that will be useful to a wide range of analysts in the photovoltaic industry. The Microsoft{reg_sign} Windows{trademark} based program can be used to analyze individual cells, to analyze the effects of cell mismatch or reverse bias(`hot spot`) heating in modules and to analyze the performance of large arrays of modules including bypass and blocking diodes. User defined statistical variance can be applied to the fundamental parameters used to simulate the cells and diodes. The model is most appropriate for cells that can be accurately modeled using a two-diode equivalent circuit. This paper describes the simulation program and illustrates its versatility with examples.

  6. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 16(1), 2017 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (β = .13; p<.05) and parents' educational level (β = .16; p<.05) independently predicted alcohol use; and .... demographical profile of the respondents ... High score indicates higher familial drinking habit. The researcher obtained alpha co- ... us with teachers who led the researcher ..... lo, Brazil: The Role of Neighborhood.

  7. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 13(1), 2014 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Psychology, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana ... demographic profiles of clients who sought treatment at a substance abuse .... Substance Abuse Counsellors Training, ..... Teaching. Psychology Around the World. Cam- bridge Scholars Publishing, Newcas- ... opmental trajectories of substance.

  8. 2013 Copyright © 2013, CRISA Publications PictoriAl WArningS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Cigarette smoking; tobacco; pictorial warning messages; late adolescents corresponding author: ... messages on the prevention of smoking ... centrate on the effect of social smoking .... The research's aim was explained to the.

  9. Internet Search Engines: Copyright’s Fair Use in Reproduction and Public Display Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-12

    asks, in other words, whether and to what extent the new work is transformative.” Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music , Inc., 510 U.S. 569, 579 (1994). 10...purposes. It cited the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Sony Corp. v. Universal Studios, Inc.22 and Kelly, supra, as examples where copying of an...image may have been created originally to serve an entertainment , aesthetic, or informative function, a search engine transforms the image into a pointer

  10. 78 FR 47421 - Scope of the Copyright Royalty Judges Authority to Adopt Confidentiality Requirements upon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Church Music Publishers Association, the Recording Industry Association of America, Inc., the Digital..., which are not at issue in this referral of a novel question of law. \\2\\ The National Music Publishers...

  11. On the prospects of raising the originality requirement in copyright law: perspectives from the humanities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavik, E.; van Gompel, S.

    2013-01-01

    In 1903, in Bleistein v Donaldson Lithographing, Justice Holmes famously concluded that judges are ill-suited to make merit judgments when determining the eligibility for protection of works. Subsequent courts and commentators have generally followed his caution. Yet, no one has thought through how

  12. Digital libraries : reconciling copyright law and cultural heritage policy / Allard Ringnalda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ringnalda, Allard

    2014-01-01

    Digitaalsetest raamatukogudest ja vastavast regulatsioonist, kultuurilise pärandi säilitamisest ning autoriõigusest. Raamatuarvustus: ISBN 978-1-84980-004-4 (RRis 6. k õiguse/rvo saalis olemas autoriõiguse all: 2-11-04625)

  13. 2016 Copyright © 2016, CRISA Publications Drug interActionS in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and other compounds and is usually inhaled after wrapping in the Cannabis leaf. ... longer plasma half-life in each of these drugs and thus synergistic effects. ... of this drug cocktail (Maseko, 2015). .... Minor constituents such as caffeine and acetaminophen (paracetamol) as well ..... This was also seen in a few Nyaope mix-.

  14. Examining the Beliefs and Instructional Practices of Technology Teachers Regarding Copyright Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Zachari. A.

    2012-01-01

    The influence that teacher beliefs have on classroom instructional practices in areas such as science and mathematics have been studied and documented by researchers. However, only a few researchers were found to have specifically investigated the influence of technology teachers' beliefs on instructional practices, relating to the teaching…

  15. 77 FR 66920 - Registration of Claims to Copyright: Group Registration of Serial Issues Filed Electronically

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... registered on a single application and for a single fee. The group registration privilege is contingent upon... was limited to basic registrations, i.e., claims in single works, while the capacity to process online... of related serials. Revisions to the electronic registration system will upgrade the capacity of the...

  16. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 15(2), 2016 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    commercial vehicle drivers, and there is a need to develop a system that ... system is inadequate to meet demand. .... Psychoactive substance use disorders. Drug type harmful use. Dependence. PY ... adhere to traffic regulations on control or.

  17. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 13(1), 2014 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data reveals that men use violence in various ways towards their ... Key Words: Alcohol; Masculinity; Violence against Women; Nigeria. Corresponding ..... Themes and patterns emerging from ..... of HIV and violence: directions for fu-.

  18. 78 FR 71498 - Copyright Office Fees: Cable and Satellite Statement of Account Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... procedures used by other governmental entities, including the Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board's... work procedures and forms and updated its internal information systems to facilitate its implementation..., including the detailed classifications of community groups, television stations, and channel lineups. The...

  19. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 14(2), 2015 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Psychology, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana. ABStrAct. Stressful life ..... ground and importance of the study were explained to the participants who .... pared to the global figure of 6.13 litres. (WHO, 2011). Similarly ...

  20. 78 FR 66337 - Request for Comments on Department of Commerce Green Paper, Copyright Policy, Creativity, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Change in Public Meeting Date and Change in Public Comment Periods. SUMMARY: On October 3, 2013, the Department of Commerce's Internet Policy Task Force... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office National Telecommunications and...

  1. 75 FR 59411 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Patents, Data, and Copyrights (DFARS Case 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ....'' The items ``design details, algorithms, processes, flow charts, formulas, and related material that... services has been expanded to cover rights in architectural designs, shop drawings, or similar information... in Shop Drawings. Of particular note is the inclusion of architectural works in the list of examples...

  2. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... United States Government as represented by the Board and shall, along with any rents, royalties, residual payments, or other income from the rental, sale, leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents...

  3. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... property of the United States Government as represented by the Council and shall, along with any rents, royalties, residual payments, or other income from the rental, sale, leasing, franchising, or other uses of...

  4. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 15(1), 2016 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alcohol dependence was measured with a four-item scale. We hypothesised that self- .... ferred to as perceived behavioural control;. Ajzen, 1985). ..... need for intensified psychological health services in ... in schools: Social and competence.

  5. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 12(2), 2013 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    corresponding author: Derrick Ssewanyana, M.Sc., Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Niels ... Of significant public health im- .... fears among the general public and policy ... integration of harm reduction in services .... sion of HIV to PWIDs' sexual partners and ... sensitivity to cultural, racial, ethnic and.

  6. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 14(2), 2015 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The negative effects of alcohol consumption are felt by other persons, not just the ... depressant, a food and a poison, its use symbolizes ... behaviour, crime, violence, domestic violence ... alcoholic beverages has a long history in.

  7. 37 CFR 202.20 - Deposit of copies and phonorecords for copyright registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... published in both hard copy, i.e., in a physically tangible format, and also in an electronic format, the current Library of Congress Best Edition Statement requirements pertaining to the hard copy format apply... registration in digital formats. A ‘complete’ electronically filed work is one which is embodied in a digital...

  8. 76 FR 10405 - Federal Copyright Protection of Sound Recordings Fixed Before February 15, 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... file in either the Adobe Portable Document File (PDF) format that contains searchable, accessible text (not an image); Microsoft Word; WordPerfect; Rich Text Format (RTF); or ASCII text file format (not a..., comments may be delivered in hard copy. If hand delivered by a private party, an original [[Page 10406...

  9. The Missing Link: The Lack of Citations and Copyright Notices in Multimedia Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Many of the projects and assignments we have our students complete for our classes include a multimedia presentation. Why are we not teaching our students how to cite their sources for these presentations? Writing style (APA, MLA, or Chicago) does not matter. Regardless of whether it is a paper or multimedia presentation students should always…

  10. Multidisciplinary approach to management of maternal asthma (MAMMA [copyright]): the PROTOCOL for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Angelina; Stewart, Kay; Abramson, Michael J; Walker, Susan P; George, Johnson

    2012-12-19

    Uncontrolled asthma during pregnancy is associated with the maternal hazards of disease exacerbation, and perinatal hazards including intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth. Interventions directed at achieving better asthma control during pregnancy should be considered a high priority in order to optimise both maternal and perinatal outcomes. Poor compliance with prescribed asthma medications during pregnancy and suboptimal prescribing patterns to pregnant women have both been shown to be contributing factors that jeopardise asthma control. The aim is to design and evaluate an intervention involving multidisciplinary care for women experiencing asthma in pregnancy. A pilot single-blinded parallel-group randomized controlled trial testing a Multidisciplinary Approach to Management of Maternal Asthma (MAMMA©) which involves education and regular monitoring. Pregnant women with asthma will be recruited from antenatal clinics in Victoria, Australia. Recruited participants, stratified by disease severity, will be allocated to the intervention or the usual care group in a 1:1 ratio. Both groups will be followed prospectively throughout pregnancy and outcomes will be compared between groups at three and six months after recruitment to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention. Outcome measures include Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) scores, oral corticosteroid use, asthma exacerbations and asthma related hospital admissions, and days off work, preventer to reliever ratio, along with pregnancy and neonatal adverse events at delivery. The use of FEV(1)/FEV(6) will be also investigated during this trial as a marker for asthma control. If successful, this model of care could be widely implemented in clinical practice and justify more funding for support services and resources for these women. This intervention will also promote awareness of the risks of poorly controlled asthma and the need for a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach to asthma management during pregnancy. This is also the first study to investigate the use of FEV1/FEV6 as a marker for asthma control during pregnancy. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12612000681853).

  11. AEShareNet: Reflections on an Innovative Venture to Move Copyright Licensing into the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilding, Jack; Fripp, Carol

    2003-01-01

    AEShareNet is a collaborative system to streamline the licensing of intellectual property so that Australian training materials are developed, shared and adapted efficiently. AEShareNet went live in February 2002: its history is reviewed here to illustrate the many strands in the provision of an online system in the context of the national…

  12. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 15(2), 2016 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of substance use among university students in South ... Alcohol consumption was associated with sex, age ... Key words: pattern, psychoactive, substance use, peer pressure, experimenting.

  13. EPA's Public Access Website Children’s Privacy and Copyright Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document establishes the policy for protecting the privacy of children on EPA’s Public Access Web site. It concerns the collection, both online and off, of information from ages 13 and under, and the display of Personally Identifying Information (PII)

  14. Copyright Protection for Computer Software: Is There a Need for More Protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Linlin

    Because the computer industry's expansion has been much faster than has the development of laws protecting computer software and since the practice of software piracy seems to be alive and well, the issue of whether existing laws can provide effective protection for software needs further discussion. Three bodies of law have been used to protect…

  15. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 15(1), 2016 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substance use is rising among young people in developing countries, especially in schools and ... verse health problems (Xie, Rehm, Single, ... use such as parental substance use, (Clark ... (Slater, 2003) poor social and emotional ... likely negative consequences of indulging ... early conduct and predisposes an indi-.

  16. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 13(2), 2014 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent events in Nigeria seem to suggest that young people are being ... and strategies aimed at discouraging youths from indulging in substances. ... social problems (Obot, 2012; Abasiubong ... tial impact on the mental health of the people. Several studies have reported .... of emotional and psychological problems.

  17. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 14(1), 2015 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morojele,1,2*; Connie T. kekwaletswe1; sebenzile Nkosi1; Naledi B. kitleli1, samuel O. Manda3. 1Alcohol ... using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Cronbach's alpha reliability analysis which .... had up to a Grade 12 level of education,.

  18. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 13(1), 2014 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 2SINTEF .... form to these norms (Turner & Reynolds, ... (Cullum, O`Grady, Armeli, & Tennen,. 2012). Larger groups drink heavier, but ..... behaviors: A test and extension of the.

  19. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 12(1), 2013 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5Witwatersrand Reproductive Health & HIV Institute (WRHI), Faculty of Health. Sciences ... were more likely to engage in risky sex practices ..... and stress management, whilst Doumas. & Hannah ...... success or failure of a study. In addition.

  20. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 15(1), 2016 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    male and 29 female inmates from Uyo prison participated in the study. Their mean age ... A post-hoc test was conducted using LSD to show multiple comparison effect. Furthermore, the t-test ...... Monitoring the brain's response to al- cohol with ...

  1. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 16(1), 2017 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relevance of the influence of familial drinking habits was emphasized in ... Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Federal University ... toward alcohol use and actual consump- ... life. Also, Chassin, et al. (2004) reported that familial alcoholism partly raised risk ..... Friendship Networks and Family Fac-.

  2. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 13(2), 2014 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and social norms related to alcohol use, as well as people's opinions on ... influential alcohol marketing strategies, ... highly gendered, with men consuming .... erature and media reports was also con- .... in classes and during leisure time be-.

  3. [Data protection, radiation protection and copyright: Problems of transferring results in assessment practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, H-T

    2015-06-01

    In Germany, the medical assessor is subject to the law on contracts for work and services ("Werksvertragsrecht"). When a medical expert assesses a subject on behalf of a third party, there is no contractual relationship between them. In the field of private insurance law and in social insurance law, the medical expert is faced with various procedural requirements. Failing to meet these legal requirements often makes the assessment difficult or even impossible. The transfer of radiographs to the medical assessor is dealt with in the German X-ray regulations ("Röntgenverordnung"). The assessor, who is without doubt an examining doctor, has the right to have the radiographs temporarily made available (§ 28 et al.). Passing on the radiographs is all the more appropriate if by doing so additional X-ray examinations can be avoided. The right of access to medical data in the social security law, apart from X-ray regulations, is regulated by German Civil Code (BGB) § 810 and German Basic Law section 1 paragraph 1 in connection with section 2 paragraph 1 ("§ 810 BGB; Art. 1 Abs. 1, Art. 2 Abs. 1 GG"). In the absence of third party interest worthy of protection, the right of access to assessment records has to be granted to the subject, who will then authorize the examining medical expert to exercise this right. In private insurance law, only the private health insurance has its regulation concerning obtaining information about treatment or the access to medical assessments. In other types of insurance the medical assessor's right of access to medical examination data and/or the basis for medical findings can only be derived from secondary obligations as part of the insurance contract or directly from general constitutional personal rights.

  4. Effectiveness of Department of Defense Policies on Copyrighted Media: Bazaar Occurrences in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    collaboration throughout my research. To Dr. Bill McCollum, I have never had the opportunity to learn from such an esteemed and enlightened educator in...support they have shown over the past year during the research process. To my children , Louie and Sadie, you offered me a break from the monotony of...INTRODUCTION Overview We spend hundreds of millions producing, marketing, and distributing movies , but we can’t compete with free. That’s an economic

  5. Should the very concept of copyright be rethought — at least in the realm of academic scholarship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Oppenheim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article recommends that the UK Higher Education Funding Councils adopt a policy requiring that they will in future only consider outputs that are available under a Creative Commons licence when assessing the quality of UK academic research. Such a policy would offer many benefits for universities, for researchers, and for society at large. Although incidentally such a policy would reduce costs for libraries, the primary reason for the recommendation is to benefit society at large. However, a key question remains: will the Funding Councils adopt a policy for the greater good of all society, but which will prove to be very controversial?

  6. The Limits of Fair Use in Military Scholarship: When, How, and From Whom to Request Permission to Use Copyrighted Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    69 J. AIR L. & COM. 743 (2004) (citing a popular song performed by the Beatles ). 152 E.g., Emily Kathryn Taylor, Note, Infringicus Maximus! An...16 JANUARY 2010 • THE ARMY LAWYER • DA PAM 27-50-440 The Limits of Fair Use in Military Scholarship: When, How, and From Whom to Request...throughout the military.1 Specialty journals, such as The Army Lawyer, and the Military, Naval, and Air Force Law Reviews (combined military publications

  7. Access to knowledge difficulties in developing countries : a balanced access to copyrighted works in the digital environment / Thipsurang Vathitphund

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vathitphund, Thipsurang

    2010-01-01

    Terve ajakiri on pühendatud materjalide kättesaamisele Internetist, juurdepääsule autoriõigusega kaitstud töödele, andmekaitsele, Googlèi teenuste kasutamisele akadeemilistes institutsioonides, videokonverentsile ning digitaalallkirjale

  8. COMBATING DIGITAL PIRACY IN NIGERIA. AN ANALYSIS OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROTECTIVE MEASURES AND RIGHTS MANAGEMENT INFORMATION UNDER THE COPYRIGHT BILL

    OpenAIRE

    Kuti, Aishat Obadunni

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of digital technologies and creation of global internet infrastructure for the vast array of companies and individuals offering products and services that leverage its connectivity has transformed our world over the past two decades. The Internet has grown from a resource platform for individuals to an essential omnichannel medium for more than 2 billion users worldwide and with each facet of growth comes unprecedented challenges. The impact of digital technology on Nigerian crea...

  9. 75 FR 13306 - Copyright Royalty Judges’ Authority to Subpoena a Nonparticipant to Appear and Give Testimony or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    .... 1305 (Office of Personnel Management & Merit Systems Protection Board may ``subpena witnesses and... or the vice chairman, the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of all documentary... the attendance and testimony of a witness, versus the mere authority to subpoena documentary...

  10. 37 CFR 201.20 - Methods of affixation and positions of the copyright notice on various types of works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., device, fixed, machine, motion picture, pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works, and their variant forms...-readable copies (such as magnetic tapes or disks, punched cards, or the like, from which the work cannot.... (i) Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works. The following constitute examples of acceptable methods...

  11. The Ethics of DeCSS Posting: Towards Assessing the Morality of the Internet Posting of DVD Copyright Circumvention Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenfelder, Kristin R.; Howard, Robert Glenn; Desai, Anuj C.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: We investigate the conditions under which posting software known as "DeCSS" on the Internet is ethical. DeCSS circumvents the access and copy control protection measures on commercial DVDs. Through our investigation, we point to limitations in current frameworks used to assess ethical computer based civil disobedience.…

  12. The ethics of DeCSS posting: towards assessing the morality of the Internet posting of DVD copyright circumvention software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Eschenfelder

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We investigate the conditions under which posting software known as 'DeCSS' on the Internet is ethical. DeCSS circumvents the access and copy control protection measures on commercial DVDs. Through our investigation, we point to limitations in current frameworks used to assess ethical computer based civil disobedience. Method. The paper draws on empirical findings of actual DeCSS posting to consider the limitations of current frameworks. Findings were generated from content analysis of Web sites that post DeCSS using search engine sampling with file name, language, and server location delimiters. Content analysis examined the number of Websites hosting DeCSS, the presence or absence of speech related to DeCSS and Free or Open Source software, and the arguments explaining DeCSS posting. Analysis. Drawing on theorizing from political philosophy and the existing frameworks, the paper compares characteristics of actual DeCSS posting to the existing frameworks. Results. The paper points out six areas that require further attention in ethical frameworks: determining motivation for posting, deciding whether some groups have more moral standing to post, assessing knowledge of the laws related to circumvention and posting, determining if protesters have taken related political actions, the legality of various formats of circumvention devices, and the physical geography of the participants.

  13. ELIPGRID-PC and INRADS copyright: Tools for reducing costs and optimizing data collection on sites contaminated with NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidi, P.V.

    1996-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Environmental Technology Section (ETS), located in Grand Junction, Colorado has more than ten years experience in radiological surveying and more than twenty years as part of the ongoing Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Project surveys conducted by ORNL Health Sciences Research Division. As part of our mission, ETS researchers develops and applies innovative technologies to share with private industry. The ELIPGRID-PC software and INRADS multidetector radiologic survey instrument are works in progress are discussed. ELIPGRID-PC is a tool that aids in survey design, and the INRADS system automates and increases the amount of data collected

  14. 37 CFR 201.33 - Procedures for filing Notices of Intent to Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., music, motion picture, sound recording, book, etc.); (B) Name of author(s); (C) Source country; (D... actors, screenwriter, animator; for photographs or books: subject matter; for books: editor, publisher.... Alternative title(s) (if any): 4. Type of work: (e.g. painting, sculpture, music, motion picture, sound...

  15. The persistence of the text: the concept of the work in copyright law - part 2 / Yin Harn Lee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lee, Yin Harn

    2018-01-01

    Autoriõigusega kaitstava teose mõistest ja tähendusest Suurbritannia õigusajaloos. Teose materiaalsest ja abstraktsest olemusest. Järg. Algus Intellectual Property Quarterly, 2018, nr. 1, lk. 22-44

  16. El derecho, la propiedad intelectual y el entorno digital The copyright, the intellectual property and the digital environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Silberleib

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Ante el crecimiento acelerado y la expansión que se han manifestado en el campo de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación, no se puede dejar de considerar que la problemática de la propiedad intelectual y la seguridad de las transmisiones representan una porción sustancial a analizar dentro de dicha temática. En el marco de los actuales roles que le toca desempeñar al bibliotecario como intermediario entre los autores o creadores, los editores y los usuarios finales de la información, este profesional deberá cumplir funciones semejantes a las de antes, pero afrontando el cambio de los medios con los que va a realizarlas. Si el bibliotecario acepta esta nueva obligación de facilitar el acceso a la información a través de soportes digitales, y en particular, de Internet, deberá conocer y respetar profundamente los principios jurídicos para establecer contratos de transferencia de la información. Este trabajo pretende realizar un esbozo de la amplia temática de la propiedad intelectual en el mundo digital para que el bibliotecario pueda, a través de él, incursionar en esta área del derecho y avanzar en su profundización.In light of the accelerated growth and expansion of the field of information technology and communication, it is impossible to ignore that the problematic notions of intellectual property and transmission safety are a substantial part of what has to be analyzed in this field. In the framework of the roles that librarians presently play as mediators between authors or creators, editors, and consumers of information, this professional will fulfill similar functions as before, having to confront, however, the change in the media with which s/he carries them out. If the librarian takes on this new task of facilitating access to information through digital media, especially the Internet, s/he will have to really know and deeply respect the juridical principles behind the establishing of contracts on transference of information. The present article seeks to sketch out the broad topic of intellectual property in the digitalized world so that the librarian may use it to venture into the juridical field and then deepen his understanding.

  17. 78 FR 78341 - Extension of Comment Period for Public Comments on Department of Commerce Green Paper, Copyright...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... policy issues critical to economic growth, job creation, and cultural development that were identified in...-meeting comments. DATES: To be ensured of consideration, post-meeting comments are due on or before... confidential business information or otherwise sensitive or protected information. The Task Force will accept...

  18. El derecho, la propiedad intelectual y el entorno digital = The Copyright, The intellectual Property and the Digital Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Silberleib

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Ante el crecimiento acelerado y la expansión que se han manifestado en el campo de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación, no se puede dejar de considerar que la problemática de la propiedad intelectual y la seguridad de las transmisiones representan una porción sustancial a analizar dentro de dicha temática. En el marco de los actuales roles que le toca desempeñar al bibliotecario como intermediario entre los autores o creadores, los editores y los usuarios finales de la información, este profesional deberá cumplir funciones semejantes a las de antes, pero afrontando el cambio de los medios con los que va a realizarlas. Si el bibliotecario acepta esta nueva obligación de facilitar el acceso a la información a través de soportes digitales, y en particular, de Internet, deberá conocer y respetar profundamente los principios jurídicos para establecer contratos de transferencia de la información. Este trabajo pretende realizar un esbozo de la amplia temática de la propiedad intelectual en el mundo digital para que el bibliotecario pueda, a través de él, incursionar en esta área del derecho y avanzar en su profundización = In light of the accelerated growth and expansion of the field of information technology and communication, it is impossible to ignore that the problematic notions of intellectual property and transmission safety are a substantial part of what has to be analyzed in this field. In the framework of the roles that librarians presently play as mediators between authors or creators, editors, and consumers of information, this professional will fulfill similar functions as before, having to confront, however, the change in the media with which s/he carries them out. If the librarian takes on this new task of facilitating access to information through digital media, especially the Internet, s/he will have to really know and deeply respect the juridical principles behind the establishing of contracts on transference of information. The present article seeks to sketch out the broad topic of intellectual property in the digitalized world so that the librarian may use it to venture into the juridical field and then deepen his understanding.

  19. The influence of grinding oil viscosity on grinding heat and burn damage in creep-feed grinding{copyright}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen-Change Liu [Shandong Univ. of Technology, Jinan (China); Abe, Satoshi; Noda, Masahiro [Yushiro Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    Grinding oils are widely used in precision grinding, such as tool grinding, thread grinding and gear grinding, during which processes grinding burn is the most prevalent damage affecting the integrity of ground surface. This paper discusses the influence of oil viscosity on grinding heat and burn damage in creep-feed-grinding. Experimental results indicated that, under lighter grinding conditions, the effects of oil viscosity was not observed, but under heavy grinding conditions grinding burn occurred when using low viscosity oil. When the viscosity of the oil was increased, grinding heat and burn damage tended to be reduced. As the viscosity was increased to a certain level, grinding burn reduction, by further increasing the viscosity, became less while other problems such as much higher oil pump noise and reduced oil flow occurred. It is clear that a viscosity limit exists for given grinding conditions. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. 78 FR 28770 - Scope of the Register of Copyright's Exclusive Authority Over Statements of Account Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ...'s statements of account shall set forth each step of its calculations with sufficient information to... available by persons making digital phonorecord deliveries.'' Register's Division of Authority Decision... type of information in a notice of use (but not in the statement of account) to be served on the...

  1. 37 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - “Best Edition” of Published Copyrighted Works for the Collections of the Library of Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rather than less-permanent paper stock or printing process. III. Motion Pictures Film medium is considered a better quality than any other medium. The formats under “film” and “video formats” are listed in..., publicly documented XML-based word-processing formats, e.g., ODF/OpenDocument Format, Office OpenXML), with...

  2. 数字指纹及其在版权保护中的应用%Technology and Application on Copyright Protection of Digital Fingerprinting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹军梅; 张震

    2006-01-01

    将数字指纹应用于版权保护领域的研究,日益成为国际上非常活跃的研究方向.本文首先在分析数字指纹的功能与特征的基础上,提出了数字指纹系统的数学模型,将其具体应用于版权保护,具有较好的效果,然后分析了数字指纹存在的攻击、编码方案以及指纹协议发展,最后探讨了数字指纹在版权保护中的应用及前景.

  3. El análisis económico del derecho de autor y del copyright, un estudio del equilibrio entre los intereses público y privado

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Pérez Gómez Tétrel

    2007-01-01

    La propiedad intelectual ha sido concebida para responder, tanto a la necesidad de protección del autor de una obra del intelecto, como al beneficio que la sociedad pueda sacar del acceso a dichas creaciones intelectuales, generando así un equilibrio entre los diferentes actores. Los sistemas digitales de comunicación han puesto en jaque dicho equilibrio. Conviene preguntarse ¿es capaz la protección otorgada por el derecho a la creación intelectual, de establecer un equilibrio en las relacion...

  4. Cyberscience and the Knowledge-Based Economy. Open Access and Trade Publishing: From Contradiction to Compatibility with Non-Exclusive Copyright Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Open source, open content and open access are set to fundamentally alter the conditions of knowledge production and distribution. Open source, open content and open access are also the most tangible result of the shift towards e-science and digital networking. Yet, widespread misperceptions exist about the impact of this shift on knowledge…

  5. Review & Analysis: Technological Impact on Future Air Force Personnel & Training: Distributed Collaborative Decision-Making, Volume II. Non-Copyrighted Literature Search

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palmer, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    ..., compared to that of a single individual. (2) The greatest detriment to collaborative distributed decision making is that we must rely on technology rather than face to face interactions, and subtleties of human communication may be lost. (3...

  6. Between copyright and privacy : The experience of ethnographic research ethics in the 20th century Lithuania / Irena Regina Merkienė ; tõlk. Miranda Navickienė

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Merkienė, Irena Regina

    2002-01-01

    Eetilistest probleemidest etnograafilise informatsiooni koguja ja informandi vahel, autoriõigusest ja moraalsetest tõekspidamistest. Ettekanne konverentsilt - Eesti Rahva Muuseum. Konverents 42 : (2001 : Tartu)

  7. The introduction of Copyright Law in England and its effect on the dispute between Newton, Halley and Flamsteed concerning the 'pirated' Historia Coelestis 1712

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, J. L.

    2013-03-01

    In 1712 Sir Isaac Newton and Dr Edmund Halley, acting on behalf of the Royal Society, printed some 400 copies of the star catalogue Historia Coelestis under the name of John Flamsteed, including his observations of the positions of nearly 3000 stars made at Greenwich from 1676. Flamsteed had not been allowed to check the proofs of this work before it was published, and he was enraged to see what he considered to be a travesty of his life's work. This became a great scientific scandal of the early eighteenth century, which echoes down to the present day.

  8. Is the renal excretion of orally applied diatrizoate (Gastrografin copyright) a reliable marker of gastrointestinal perforation or dehiscence of a gastrointestinal anastomosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Born, M.; Axmann, C.; Kader, R.; Falkenhausen, M. von; Manka, C.; Willinek, W.A.; Schild, H.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Renal excretion of orally or rectally applied Gastrografin is reported to be a reliable indicator of a perforation or a post-operative anastomotic dehiscence of the GI-tract. The study was conducted to determine whether increased attenuation of the urine measured by CT after oral or rectal application of Gastrografin can give reliable evidence of any leakage from the gastrointestinal tract. Materials and Methods: Urine samples of 33 patients, who underwent a Gastrografin-enhanced fluoroscopic examination of the esophagus or the GI-tract for different clinical reasons, were examined by CT. The samples had been taken immediately before and 60 to 90 minutes after application of 100 ml Gastrografin. The results were compared with those of 5 healthy volunteers, who took urine samples before, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after drinking 100 ml of Gastrografin. Results: Maximal attenuation of the volunteers' urine samples was achieved 60 to 90 minutes after Gastrografin application with a mean of 50 Hounsfield units (HU), SD=17 HU. The urine of three patients with radiologically proven fistula or dehiscence of a GI-tract anastomosis had no relevant increase in attenuation. Three other cases without any clinical or radiological evidence of an anastomotic leak had a substantial increase in the attenuation of the urine probes (87, 110, and 290 HU, respectively). Conclusion: The CT-measured urine samples as evidence of renal excretion of orally or rectally applied Gastrografin are not reliable for the detection of leaks from the GI-tract. (orig.)

  9. Copyright and Related Issues Relevant to Digital Preservation and Dissemination of Unpublished Pre-1972 Sound Recordings by Libraries and Archives. CLIR Publication No. 144

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besek, June M.

    2009-01-01

    This report addresses the question of what libraries and archives are legally empowered to do to preserve and make accessible for research their holdings of unpublished pre-1972 sound recordings. The report's author, June M. Besek, is executive director of the Kernochan Center for Law, Media and the Arts at Columbia Law School. Unpublished sound…

  10. Legal shape-shifting : On the protection of traditional cultural expressions and crossing the boundaries between copyright, cultural heritage and human rights law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    For several decades, the protection of traditional cultural expressions (TCEs) has caused debate. The core of protection claims touches upon control and a say over the material as to its use, preservation, maintenance and development. Central concerns that arise from the absence of protection

  11. See Also:Mechanics of Cohesive-frictional MaterialsCopyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Get Sample CopyFree Online Trial -->Recommend to Your LibrarianSave Title to My ProfileSet E-Mail Alert var homepagelinks = new Array(new Array("Journal Home","/cgi-bin/jhome/3312",""),new Array("Issues","/cgi-bin/jtoc/3312/",""),new Array("Early View","/cgi-bin/jeview/3312/",""),new Array("News","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/News.html","e"),new Array("","","s"),new Array("Product Information","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/ProductInformation.html",""),new Array("Editorial Board","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/EditorialBoard.html",""),new Array("For Authors","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/ForAuthors.html",""),new Array("Subscribe","http://jws-edcv.wiley.com/jcatalog/JournalsCatalogOrder/JournalOrder?PRINT_ISSN=0363-9061",""),new Array("Advertise","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/Advertise.html",""),new Array("Contact","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/Contact.html",""),new Array("","","x"));writeJournalLinks("", "3312");Volume 28, Issue5 (25 April 2004)Articles in the Current Issue:Research ArticleSoftening, localization and stabilization: capture of discontinuous solutions in J2 plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, M.; Chiumenti, M.; Agelet de Saracibar, C.

    2004-04-01

    This paper exploits the concept of stabilization techniques to improve the behaviour of mixed linear/linear simplicial elements (triangles and tetrahedra) in incompressible or nearly incompressible situations. Elasto-J2-plastic constitutive behaviour has been considered with linear and exponential softening. Two different stabilization methods are used to attain global stability of the corresponding discrete finite element formulation. Implementation and computational aspects are also discussed, showing that a robust application of the proposed formulation is feasible. Numerical examples show that the formulation derived is free of volumetric locking and spurious oscillations of the pressure. The results obtained do not suffer from spurious mesh-size or mesh-bias dependence, comparing very favourably with those obtained with the standard, non-stabilized, approaches. Copyright

  12. See Also:Mechanics of Cohesive-frictional MaterialsCopyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Get Sample CopyFree Online Trial -->Recommend to Your LibrarianSave Title to My ProfileSet E-Mail Alert var homepagelinks = new Array(new Array("Journal Home","/cgi-bin/jhome/3312",""),new Array("Issues","/cgi-bin/jtoc/3312/",""),new Array("Early View","/cgi-bin/jeview/3312/",""),new Array("News","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/News.html","e"),new Array("","","s"),new Array("Product Information","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/ProductInformation.html",""),new Array("Editorial Board","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/EditorialBoard.html",""),new Array("For Authors","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/ForAuthors.html",""),new Array("Subscribe","http://jws-edcv.wiley.com/jcatalog/JournalsCatalogOrder/JournalOrder?PRINT_ISSN=0363-9061",""),new Array("Advertise","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/Advertise.html",""),new Array("Contact","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/Contact.html",""),new Array("","","x"));writeJournalLinks("", "3312"); Previous Issue | Next Issue >Volume 29, Issue1 (January 2005)Articles in the Current Issue:Research ArticleHomogenization framework for three-dimensional elastoplastic finite element analysis of a grouted pipe-roofing reinforcement method for tunnelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, G. J.; Shin, H. S.; Sicilia, C.; Choi, Y. G.; Lim, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the grouted pipe-roofing reinforcement method that is used in the construction of tunnels through weak grounds. This system consists on installing, prior to the excavation of a length of tunnel, an array of pipes forming a kind of umbrella above the area to be excavated. In some cases, these pipes are later used to inject grout to strengthen the ground and connect the pipes.This system has proven to be very efficient in reducing tunnel convergence and water inflow when tunnelling through weak grounds. However, due to the geometrical and mechanical complexity of the problem, existing finite element frameworks are inappropriate to simulate tunnelling using this method.In this paper, a mathematical framework based on a homogenization technique to simulate grouted pipe-roofing reinforced ground and its implementation into a 3-D finite element programme that can consider stage construction situations are presented. The constitutive model developed allows considering the main design parameters of the problem and only requires geometrical and mechanical properties of the constituents. Additionally, the use of a homogenization approach implies that the generation of the finite element mesh can be easily produced and that re-meshing is not required as basic geometrical parameters such as the orientation of the pipes are changed.The model developed is used to simulate tunnelling with the grouted pipe-roofing reinforcement method. From the analyses, the effects of the main design parameters on the elastic and the elastoplastic analyses are considered. Copyright

  13. See Also:Mechanics of Cohesive-frictional MaterialsCopyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Get Sample CopyFree Online Trial -->Recommend to Your LibrarianSave Title to My ProfileSet E-Mail Alert var homepagelinks = new Array(new Array("Journal Home","/cgi-bin/jhome/3312",""),new Array("Issues","/cgi-bin/jtoc/3312/",""),new Array("Early View","/cgi-bin/jeview/3312/",""),new Array("News","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/News.html","e"),new Array("","","s"),new Array("Product Information","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/ProductInformation.html",""),new Array("Editorial Board","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/EditorialBoard.html",""),new Array("For Authors","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/ForAuthors.html",""),new Array("Subscribe","http://jws-edcv.wiley.com/jcatalog/JournalsCatalogOrder/JournalOrder?PRINT_ISSN=0363-9061",""),new Array("Advertise","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/Advertise.html",""),new Array("Contact","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/Contact.html",""),new Array("","","x"));writeJournalLinks("", "3312"); Previous Issue | Next Issue >Volume 28, Issue12 (October 2004)Articles in the Current Issue:Research ArticleModelling poroelastic hollow cylinder experiments with realistic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourine, S.; Valkó, P. P.; Kronenberg, A. K.

    2004-10-01

    A general poroelastic solution for axisymmetrical plane strain problems with time dependent boundary conditions is developed in Laplace domain. Time-domain results are obtained using numerical inversion of the Laplace transform. Previously published solutions can be considered as special cases of the proposed solution. In particular, we could reproduce numerical results for solid and hollow poroelastic cylinders with suddenly applied load/pressure (Rice and Cleary, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 1976; 14:227; Schmitt, Tait and Spann, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 1993; 30:1057; Cui and Abousleiman, ASCE J. Eng. Mech. 2001; 127:391).The new solution is used to model laboratory tests on thick-walled hollow cylinders of Berea sandstone subjected to intensive pressure drawdown. In the experiments, pressure at the inner boundary of the hollow cylinder is observed to decline exponentially with a decay constant of 3-5 1/s.It is found that solutions with idealized step-function type inner boundary conditions overestimate the induced tensile radial stresses considerably. Although basic poroelastic phenomena can be modelled properly at long time following a stepwise change in pressure, realistic time varying boundary conditions predict actual rock behaviour better at early time. Experimentally observed axial stresses can be matched but appear to require different values for α and than are measured at long time.The proposed solution can be used to calculate the stress and pore pressure distributions around boreholes under infinite/finite boundary conditions. Prospective applications include investigating the effect of gradually changing pore pressure, modelling open-hole cavity completions, and describing the phenomenon of wellbore collapse (bridging) during oil or gas blowouts. Copyright

  14. Breakout Session: Empowering Fair Use Decisions in Higher Education: Developing Copyright Instruction for 90 Minutes or Less. Presented by Ben Harnke, Education & Reference Librarian, the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus Health Sciences Library, John Jones, Instruction & Curriculum Librarian, the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus Health Sciences Library, and Meghan Damour, Reference Intern, the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus Health Sciences Library.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mayer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The presenters shared their experiences and strategies for effective fair use instruction for researchers and faculty members at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. The session featured multiple discussion prompts, in order to allow for audience participation. Specific themes and practical tips about fair use instruction included obstacles and challenges, developing the fair use class session, and planning and logistics. Links to supplementary presentation material and tools are provided.

  15. Geleneksel ve Elektronik Eser Sahiplerinin Telif Hakları, Dijital Haklar Yönetimi: Uluslararası Düzenlemeler ve Fikir ve Sanat Eserleri Kanunu Çerçevesinde Bir Değerlendirme = Copyright of Traditional and Electronic Works’ Owners, Digital Rights Management: An Evaluation within the Framework of International Regulations and Law on Intellectual and Artistic Works

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Turan

    2016-01-01

    Bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerinin gelişmesi ile fikri haklar alanında da değişiklikler kaçınılmaz olmuştur. Teknolojik imkânların gelişimi ve dijitalleşme ile dijital eserlerin üretimiyle birlikte telif haklarında sorunlar ortaya çıkmaktadır. Çalışmada, genel olarak, telif haklarının dijital eserlere ve dijital haklar yönetimine yönelik incelenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Çalışmanın kapsamını dijital haklar yönetimi çerçevesinde 5846 sayılı Fikir ve Sanat Eserleri Kanunu oluşturmaktadır. Bu kapsamd...

  16. Page Header Focus & Scope Author Guidelines Author Fees Online Submission Copyright Transfer Form Publication Ethics Screening For Plagiarism Editorial Board Reviewer Acknowledgement Reviewer's Guideline Order Journal Visitor Statistics CITATION ANALYSIS SCOPUS Google Scholar TEMPLATE MANUSCRIPT TEMPLATE TOOLS Mendeley Grammarly Screened by turnitin ETS NOTIFICATIONS View Subscribe USER Username Password Remember me Login JOURNAL CONTENT Search Search Scope Search Browse By Issue By Author By Title Other Journals ABOUT THE AUTHORS Said Jubran Universitas Gadjah Mada Indonesia Faculty of Economics and Business Sumiyana Sumiyana Universitas Gadjah Mada Faculty of Economics and Business ARTICLE TOOLS Print this article Indexing metadata How to cite item Email this article (Login required Email the author (Login required Save to Mendeley Save to Zotero ISSN ISSN ISSN 2338-5847 (online ISSN 2085-8272 (print ISSN 0215-2487 (previous KEYWORDS Bantuan Langsung Tunai (BLTp DiD model Indonesia Stigler’s contribution business sustainability, management-environmental aspects, business ethics, sustainable development child test score cigarettes corporate governance earthquake economic thought economics of information emotional exhaustion employee well-being ethical leadership noncompliance permanent income hypothesis tax administration tax reform transitory income wage-profit rate schedules work engagement HomeAboutLoginRegisterSearchCurrentArchivesAnnouncementsStatisticsIndexing & AbstractingContactAccreditation Home > Vol 30, No 2 (2015 >\tJubran THE TECHNOLOGY READINESS OR SOCIAL PRESENCE, WHICH ONE COULD EXPLAIN THE TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE BETTER? AN INVESTIGATION ON VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Jubran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Internet technology has accelerated the development of communities from face-to-face into computer-mediated communications. Individuals who joined the virtual communities contributed greatly to building their knowledge by sharing their experiences. This study investigates the individuals’ knowledge sharing intentions using two approaches for the research model. The first approach is adopted from Hung & Cheng’s (2013 model that incorporates technology readiness, compatibility and acceptance. The second approach is a new model built specifically for this study which combines the social presence and compatibility into the technology acceptance. Furthermore, this study compared both models to identify their ability to explain the individuals’ knowledge sharing intentions. This study’s results show that the first model is not better than the second. In the first model, the technology readiness, as represented only by the innovative, is the only one having a positive effect on the technology acceptance. Meanwhile, the three other constructs, i.e. optimism, discomfort, and insecurity are not. In the second model, the social presence and compatibility that are integrated into the Technology Acceptance Model could actually positively affect the technology acceptance. In the technology readiness model, the ease of the technology is not the indicator which assesses the usefulness of the technology. Meanwhile, in the social presence model, the ease of use affects the usefulness of the technology. Furthermore, both in the technology readiness and social presence models, the perceived usefulness and ease of use affect the knowledge sharing intentions. The study finds that the social presence is able to explain the knowledge sharing intentions better than the technology readiness does. It implies practically that virtual community providers should make individuals be more active in their virtual communities. Then, the providers could facilitate the improvement of the individuals’ cognitive capabilities and competencies with their high motivation for knowledge sharing.

  17. See Also:physica status solidi (a)physica status solidi (c)Copyright © 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, WeinheimGet Sample CopyFree Online Trial -->Recommend to Your LibrarianSave Title to My ProfileSet E-Mail Alert var homepagelinks = new Array(new Array("Journal Home","/cgi-bin/jhome/40001185",""),new Array("Issues","/cgi-bin/jtoc/40001185/",""),new Array("Early View","/cgi-bin/jeview/40001185/",""),new Array("News","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/news/index.html",""),new Array("Reviews","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/reviews.html",""),new Array("Read Cover Story","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/cover/2232/current.html","e"),new Array("","","s"),new Array("Product Information","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/2232_info.html",""),new Array("Editorial Board","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/edbd.html",""),new Array("For Authors","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/authors.html",""),new Array("For Referees","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/refserv.html",""),new Array("Subscribe","http://jws-edcv.wiley.com/jcatalog/JournalsCatalogOrder/JournalOrder?PRINT_ISSN=0370-1972",""),new Array("Contact","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/contact.html",""),new Array("","","x"));writeJournalLinks("", "40001185");Volume 241, Issue5 (April 2004)Articles in the Current Issue:Cover PictureHorizontal line nodes in superconducting Sr2RuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litak, G.; Annett, J. F.; Györffy, B. L.; Wysokiski, K. I.

    2004-04-01

    Superconductivity in Sr2RuO4 is one of the most interesting phenomena in current condensed matter physics, since it is revealed to be a triplet-pairing state. Our Editor's Choice [1] considers an important problem related to the type of order parameter in this material.The position of line nodes on the Fermi surface, as evident from recent measurements, has been determined for various scenarios shown in the cover picture. Using these models, the temperature dependence of heat capacity and penetration depth has been calculated for easy comparison with experiments.The first author, Grzegorz Litak, is assistant professor at Technical University of Lublin and visiting scientist at the Max Planck Institute in Dresden. He is working on the effect of disorder on correlated and exotic superconductors, nonlinear dynamics, and superconductivity in strontium ruthenate.

  18. See Also:physica status solidi (b)physica status solidi (c)Copyright © 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, WeinheimGet Sample CopyFree Online Trial -->Recommend to Your LibrarianSave Title to My ProfileSet E-Mail Alert var homepagelinks = new Array(new Array("Journal Home","/cgi-bin/jhome/40000761",""),new Array("Issues","/cgi-bin/jtoc/40000761/",""),new Array("Early View","/cgi-bin/jeview/40000761/",""),new Array("News","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/news/index.html",""),new Array("Reviews","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/reviews.html",""),new Array("Read Cover Story","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/cover/2231/current.html","e"),new Array("","","s"),new Array("Product Information","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/2231_info.html",""),new Array("Editorial Board","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/edbd.html",""),new Array("For Authors","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/authors.html",""),new Array("For Referees","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/refserv.html",""),new Array("Subscribe","http://jws-edcv.wiley.com/jcatalog/JournalsCatalogOrder/JournalOrder?PRINT_ISSN=0031-8965",""),new Array("Contact","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/contact.html",""),new Array("Online Submission","http://www.manuscriptxpress.org/osm/",""),new Array("","","x"));writeJournalLinks("", "40000761");issue nav --> Previous Issue | Next Issue >issue nav -->Volume 201, Issue13 (October 2004)Articles in the Current Issue:Rapid Research NoteScintillation properties of lead tungstate crystals doped with the monovalent ion lithium

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    Huang, Yanlin; Seo, Hyo Jin; Zhu, Wenliang

    2004-10-01

    Lithium-doped PbWO4 crystals have been grown by the Czochralski method. Optical absorbance, X-ray excited luminescence, light yield measurements and X-ray pulsed excited decays have been investigated. Li+ doping has a very good uniformity and could enhance the luminescence of PbWO4, give some contributions to the fast decay components.

  19. See Also:physica status solidi (b)physica status solidi (c)Copyright © 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, WeinheimGet Sample CopyFree Online Trial -->Recommend to Your LibrarianSave Title to My ProfileSet E-Mail Alert var homepagelinks = new Array(new Array("Journal Home","/cgi-bin/jhome/40000761",""),new Array("Issues","/cgi-bin/jtoc/40000761/",""),new Array("Early View","/cgi-bin/jeview/40000761/",""),new Array("News","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/news/index.html",""),new Array("Reviews","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/reviews.html",""),new Array("Read Cover Story","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/cover/2231/current.html","e"),new Array("","","s"),new Array("Product Information","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/2231_info.html",""),new Array("Editorial Board","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/edbd.html",""),new Array("For Authors","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/authors.html",""),new Array("For Referees","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/refserv.html",""),new Array("Subscribe","http://jws-edcv.wiley.com/jcatalog/JournalsCatalogOrder/JournalOrder?PRINT_ISSN=0031-8965",""),new Array("Contact","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/contact.html",""),new Array("Online Submission","http://www.manuscriptxpress.org/osm/",""),new Array("","","x"));writeJournalLinks("", "40000761");issue nav --> Previous Issue | Next Issue >issue nav -->Volume 201, Issue12 (September 2004)Articles in the Current Issue:Rapid Research NoteEffects of high dose proton irradiation on the electrical performance of ZnO Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rohit; Ip, K.; Allums, K. K.; Baik, K.; Abernathy, C. R.; Pearton, S. J.; Heo, Y. W.; Norton, D. P.; Ren, F.; Dwivedi, R.; Fogarty, T. N.; Wilkins, R.

    2004-09-01

    The preparation and characterization of terbium doped zinc aluminate photoluminescent films obtained by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition process are described. Variations on doping concentrations in the start spraying solution and substrate temperatures were studied. XRD measurements on these films showed that the crystalline structure depends on the substrate temperature. For an excitation wavelength of 242 nm, all the photoluminescence spectra show peaks located at 488 nm, 546 nm, 589 nm and 621 nm. The photoluminescence intensity reaches values practically constant for the samples deposited at substrate temperatures higher than 400 °C. In this case, concentration quenching of the photoluminescence appears at doping concentrations greater than 0.93 atomic percent into the films. The surface morphology characteristics of the films deposited on glass and silicon substrates, as a function of the deposition temperature, are presented.

  20. See Also:physica status solidi (a)physica status solidi (c)Copyright © 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, WeinheimGet Sample CopyFree Online Trial -->Recommend to Your LibrarianSave Title to My ProfileSet E-Mail Alert var homepagelinks = new Array(new Array("Journal Home","/cgi-bin/jhome/40001185",""),new Array("Issues","/cgi-bin/jtoc/40001185/",""),new Array("Early View","/cgi-bin/jeview/40001185/",""),new Array("News","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/news/index.html",""),new Array("Reviews","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/reviews.html",""),new Array("Read Cover Story","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/cover/2232/current.html","e"),new Array("","","s"),new Array("Product Information","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/2232_info.html",""),new Array("Editorial Board","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/edbd.html",""),new Array("For Authors","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/authors.html",""),new Array("For Referees","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/refserv.html",""),new Array("Subscribe","http://jws-edcv.wiley.com/jcatalog/JournalsCatalogOrder/JournalOrder?PRINT_ISSN=0370-1972",""),new Array("Contact","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/contact.html",""),new Array("Online Submission","http://www.manuscriptxpress.org/osm/",""),new Array("","","x"));writeJournalLinks("", "40001185");issue nav --> Previous Issue | Next Issue >issue nav -->Volume 241, Issue12 (October 2004)Articles in the Current Issue:Rapid Research NoteDielectric and optical studies of phase transitions in [(CH3)2NH2]5Cd2CuCl11 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyashevskyy, Yu.; Dacko, S.; Kosturek, B.; Czapla, Z.; Kapustyanik, V. B.

    2004-10-01

    Single crystals of [(CH3)2 NH2]5Cd2CuCl11 have been grown and their dielectric and optical properties have been studied. Electric permittivity, losses and linear optic birefringence measurements have shown that the obtained new crystal is isomorphous with the original one - [(CH3)2 NH2]5Cd3Cl11. Phase transitions were observed at 175 K (continuous) and 120 K (first order). It means that partial replacing of cadmium atoms by copper ones does not change the structure and the heavy Cd2CuCl11-2 anions do not influence significantly the interaction of dimethylammonium cations.