Sample records for copying foreign policies

  1. Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis

    Wivel, Anders


    'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis....

  2. Parliaments and Foreign Policy

    Wagner, W.M.; Haney, Patrick; Harnisch, Sebastian; Kaarbo, Juliet; Oppermann, Kai; Tago, Atsushi

    Parliaments differ enormously in their foreign policy competences. This is best documented in the area of “war powers,” understood as decision-making on the use of force. In other issue areas, such as treaty-making, defense budgets, sanctions, or arms exports, differences across countries are far

  3. Gaps in EU Foreign Policy

    Larsen, Henrik

    of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from relevant literature, Larsen not only demonstrates how this concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor (that are not met by most other international actors) but also shows how this curtails analysis...... of EU foreign policy. The author goes on to discuss how the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap' affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied; and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR. This volume offers new...... perspectives on European foreign policy research and advice and serves as an invaluable resource for students of EU foreign policy and, more broadly, European Studies....

  4. Global Health and Foreign Policy

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua


    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

  5. Global health and foreign policy.

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua


    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health.

  6. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    Feldbaum, Carl


    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  7. Public Opinion and Foreign Policy



    Feb 26, 2009 ... person of Charles Taylor, given his antecedents. Regardless ..... influence of the reactions of the public on the foreign policy actions of governments. ... tion reacted vehemently to this move, which was viewed as tantamount.

  8. Information Support of Foreign Policy

    Olga A. Melnikova


    Full Text Available Informatization and modern information technologies cover the most various areas of social, spiritual and material human life and have become the dominating globalization factor with major impact on world events. Modern international relations present new challenges and threats ofcross-border nature, which fall within the area of information security. This brings issues of informational influence on international policy to the fore. In this context the question of improvement and modernization of policy instruments for more effective use of modern means of implementation of foreign policy priorities, including information support of international activities, achieves fundamental importance. Given the complexity of modern international relations and tasks facing foreign affairs departments, diplomatic success in many cases depends onthe efficiency of information support. The article analyses current objectives and methods of information support of foreign policy in the context of modern Russian legislation. The author examines the approach of the Information and Press Department of the Russian Ministryof Foreign Affairs,a subdivision responsible for information support and international cooperation in the media sphere. The article specifies the key role of new information technologies for informing the audience expeditiously and to the full extent in regard to Russian approaches to the solution of international problems, foreign policy initiatives and actions of the Russian Federation, and for counteracting attempts to discredit Russian foreign policy.

  9. Energy policy and foreign policy in Italy

    Venanzi, F.


    Energy policy in Italy is principally a matter of foreign policy. As a result, extensive programmes for the exploration, development, transport and marketing of oil and natural gas have to be planned and carried out together with the producing countries. In this effort, the country shall need the support of its national energy companies. That is why ENI's controlling interest as well as its mission had better be on Italian hands [it

  10. Foreign Policy: Approaches, Levels Of Analysis, Dimensions

    Nina Šoljan


    This paper provides an overview of key issues related to foreign policy and foreign policy theories in the wider context of political science. Discussing the origins and development of foreign policy analysis (FPA), as well as scholarly work produced over time, it argues that today FPA encompasses a variety of theoretical approaches, models and tools. These share the understanding that foreign policy outputs cannot be fully explained if analysis is confined to the systemic level. Furthermore,...

  11. Nuclear energy and foreign policy

    Winkler, T.


    The intention of this book lies in demonstrating why the Swiss industry and the Bund had begun to show interest for nuclear energy and in how far the framework conditions of this enterprise had been changed by the plans and constraints of foreign policy. Thus the topic of the study is located in the overlapping sector of different aspects of Swiss policy: foreign safety, economic, energy, and research policy had played an important role when the Swiss nculear programme had been developed. It is understood that there had frequently been conflicts of interest between the national sectors of politics, on one hand, and, on the other, between Swiss targets and international policy. The following study is trying to explain how these conflicts of interest had originated and had been solved after all. Emphasis is laid on the years 1967-1977. During that period the Swiss Confederation had decided to sign and to ratify the non-proliferation treaty at the end of a long and complicated process. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Dimensions of foreign policy change in Turkey:

    Kesler, Ayşe; Kesler, Ayse


    This thesis assumes a substantial change in the Turkish foreign policy, specifically in the traditionally 'sensitive' policy areas such as the Armenian issue, Cyprus conflict, Turkish- Greek relations and those with the EU. Therefore, the study aims to analyze the dynamics of foreign policy restructuring. For this purpose, foreign policy actions of the ruling AKP government and its predecessor DSP-MHP-ANAP coalition are compared and contrasted for illustrating the causes and dynamics of polic...

  13. Peculiarities of Modern Foreign Policy of Iran

    V I Yourtaev


    Full Text Available The article is focuses on the analysis of the main peculiarities of modern foreign policy of iranian President M. Ahmadinejad, his constructive interaction concept in foreign policy. The formation of the nuclear gate for entering into world policy and basic problems of Iranian development as a new regional leader in the context of globalization and international relations transformation process are considered.

  14. Foreign Language Education Policy on the Horizon

    Hult, Francis M.


    Language policy has developed into a major area of research that continues to expand and develop. This article examines potential directions for cross-pollination between the fields of language policy and foreign language education. First, publication trends are examined. Database searches were conducted for the journals "Foreign Language…

  15. Bridging the Gap: Pracademics in Foreign Policy

    Murphy, Ann Marie; Fulda, Andreas


    In his seminal work "Bridging the Gap: Theory and Practice in Foreign Policy", Alexander George (1993) lamented the great divide between academia and the foreign policymaking community, arguing that greater interaction between scholars and policymakers would produce better policy. We share George's belief that scholars and practitioners each have…

  16. Energy supply security and foreign policy


    The title memo has been sent to the Dutch Lower House. This memo reflects the response of the cabinet to the advice on Energetic Foreign Policy of the Dutch Advisory Council on International Affairs (AIV) and the Dutch Energy Council (AER). Moreover, the development of foreign policy with respect to energy supply security is depicted. [mk] [nl

  17. Policy consistency and the achievement of Nigeria's foreign policy ...

    This study is an attempt to investigate the policy consistency of Nigeria‟s foreign policy and to understand the basis for this consistency; and also to see whether peacekeeping/peace-enforcement is key instrument in the achievement of Nigeria‟s foreign policy goals. The objective of the study was to examine whether the ...

  18. Nuclear energy and German foreign policy

    Kaiser, K.


    The author shows that the present foreign-policy situation with regard to the nuclear-energy complex is due to political and energy-policy origins. He is further of the opinion that the expansion of nuclear energy - in spite of internal political difficulties - will continue in the long term. Hence breeders and reconditioning will become realities. For German foreign policy this means that it must also carry responsibilities on a global scale in this respect. (orig.) [de

  19. Omnibalancing in Syria: Prospects for Foreign Policy

    Bergen, Christopher


    ...; who makes decisions irrespective of domestic political considerations in Syria. This thesis challenges that conceptualization by arguing that domestic concerns are the central element in the making of Syrian foreign policy...

  20. Strengthening Foreign Policy Through Public Diplomacy

    Young, Claud


    In the aftermath of the Cold War and the terrorist attacks of September 11 2001 the United States of America is engaged in a major effort to inform and influence understanding of its foreign policy around the world...

  1. Globalization and US Foreign Policy Toward Iran

    Amland, George


    .... Globalization is the force that in some instances is assisting US foreign policy. At the same time, other elements of globalization are eroding US desires with respect to Iranian programs in WMD...

  2. A. Davutoglu's Ideology of Turkish Foreign Policy

    Alim Vidadievich Suleymanov


    Full Text Available In article the ideology of turkish foreign policy is analyzed, elaborated and successfully put into practice by the former Minister for Foreign Affairs, and nowadays by prime minister Ahmet Davutoglu. Foreign policy strategy of Davutoglu represents set of the interconnected theoretical (the flexible approach; consistency and systematic approach; new diplomatic style and practical principles directed on increase of a role of the Turkish state on international scene - balance between democracy and safety; “zero of problems with neighbours”; preventive and priority peace diplomacy; multidimensional foreign policy; rhythmical diplomacy. Each of principles possesses certain properties and characteristics which have always been presented as a certain purpose which is necessary for reaching Turkey in the difficult international environment. Undoubtedly, A. Davutoglu's ideology has brought the huge contribution to activization and expansion of foreign policy of Turkey last decade. The merit of Davutoglu consists that it has cardinally changed the approach of the Turkish state to the foreign policy which was based earlier on such postulate - “the best friend of a Turk is a Turk”. However the destructive events which have passed and occurring today as in the Turkish state (terrorism strengthening, instability of political system, and also in region of the Middle East - civil war in Syria, deterioration of relations with Russia, Greece, Syria, Iran and Iraq have called into question a number of positions of the concept of Davutoglu in this connection in article some attention to the critic of its approach is paid also.

  3. Toward a Better Union: Improving the Effectiveness of Foreign Policies


    Montville, “Foreign Policy According to Freud ,” Foreign Policy no. 45 (Winter) (1981), 155. 325 Chigas, Track Two (Citizen) Diplomacy. 326 See Jeri...Joseph Montville. “Foreign Policy According to Freud .” Foreign Policy no. 45 (Winter) (1981): 145-157. Di, He. The Great Powers in East Asia - 1953-1960

  4. Indian foreign policy during the cold war

    Ross, Cesar


    This article examines India's foreign policy priorities during the years of the Cold War with a focus on international relations. As in the rest of the world, the India's foreign policy was marked by the dynamics of continuity and change in world policy, associated with the historical period of the Cold War (1947-90) and its impact on the neighbouring and regional context of India. As its hypothesis this article argues that this period was characterized by the challenges of consolidating the autonomy of independence, which means: achieving development; solving disputes arising from conflicts with neighbours; and, presenting India as a country committed to peace, which explains not only its position against war and the use of nuclear weapons, but also, with respect to one of the most original aspects of Indian foreign policy, its status as a non-aligned country

  5. Conflict within the Turkish foreign policy decision making mechanism:

    Oğuz, Mustafa; Oguz, Mustafa


    This thesis presents an analysis of Turkish foreign policy decision making in a theoretical model and argues that Turkish foreign policy is a product of negotiation and compromises among various foreign policy making actors. Theoretical foundation is built on decision units framework advanced by Margaret G. Herman. It applies this framework to two cases and four decision occasions to investigate who made foreign policy decisions and how this influenced foreign policy of Turkey. The first case...

  6. A fully feminist foreign policy? : A postcolonial feminist analysis of Sweden's Feminist Foreign Policy

    Nylund, Mia-Lie


    This thesis is a postcolonial feminist discourse analysis of Sweden’s Feminist Foreign Policy. Sweden’s Feminist Foreign Policy is unique to the world, but it is not the only case of incorporating a gender perspective as a central part of national or international politics. Feminism and gender perspectives are increasingly receiving attention and space in global politics. The Swedish case could therefore inform us about where politics are heading. Previous research on the Feminist Foreign Pol...

  7. Modern Lithuanian foreign policy: the adjustment of traditional policy

    Batorshina Irina


    Full Text Available The authors consider the core areas of Lithuanian foreign policy. Special attention is paid to the adjustment of the major foreign policy vector, which concentrated earlier on the cooperation with the United States of America and strategic partnership with the Republic of Poland. The article analyses the attempts of Lithuanian president Dalia Grybauskaitė to formulate the so-called «new foreign policy» based on the multivector approach to the intergovernmental cooperation. This research is timely because of an increasing influence of small states on foreign policy decision-making within the European Union. It emphasizes the need to analyse foreign policy priorities of the Baltic States and Central and Eastern European countries and to identify the dominant trends in the international policy in the region in order to forecast further development at European and global levels. This objective is achieved with the help of an integrated approach with elements of interdisciplinary research. Special attention is paid to the comparative-historical approach, which facilitates the analysis of the relations between the Republic of Lithuania and the neighbouring states and its principal partners. Alongside traditional methods of historical research, this work employs such methods as participant observation, content and event analysis, and simultaneous and comparative analysis. The research and practical significance of this work is explained by its emphasis on the need to apply an additional theoretical framework to studies into the foreign policy initiatives of the Republic of Lithuania in the international arena. While earlier they were determined by the value (democratic approach, which was a reflection of American realism, today an increasingly important factor is the personality of the president, who does not always positively influence the changing policy of the country. The results of the research contribute substantially to the understanding of

  8. Identity politics: Exploring Georgian foreign policy behavior

    Kornely Kakachia


    Full Text Available This paper analyses the extent to which Georgia's pro-Western foreign policy orientation stems from ideas and identity rather than from materialist and systemic factors alone. Finding such narrow approaches insufficient for explaining small state behavior, and drawing on liberal and constructivist approaches to international relations theory, the article argues that Georgia's foreign policy orientation has a strong basis in the widespread ideological perception amongst the local political elite that Georgia “belongs” in the West. Based on this theoretical framework, this paper provides a historical overview of Georgia's foreign policy, tracing the evolution of Georgia's identity from seeing itself as “Christian” in contrast to its Islamic neighbors, to identifying as European in contrast to a modern, Russian “other”. As Georgia attempts to construct a collective international identity, the devotion to the idea of Euro-Atlantic integration as a “sacred destiny” amongst the country's elite has significant foreign policy implications. This article overviews the current challenges and dilemmas of self-identification and investigates the roles that national identity and the prevailing “European” identity play in Georgia's quest for “desovietization”.

  9. 20 CFR 703.105 - Copies of forms of policies to be submitted with application.


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copies of forms of policies to be submitted... REGULATIONS Authorization of Insurance Carriers § 703.105 Copies of forms of policies to be submitted with... of the Office copies of the forms of policies which the applicant proposes to issue in writing...

  10. Energy agreements in Italian foreign policy making

    Puri Purini, A.


    The growing complexity of international relations, involving nations with vastly diverse political and socio-economic frameworks, levels of technology, geography, and environmental policies, are necessitating new Italian government policies which favour multilateral as opposed to conventional bilateral cooperation, especially in that which regards energy agreements. This paper makes this point in examining Italy's vulnerable energy supply and demand situation, the current directions being taken in this nation's foreign policies, and in assessing the key political and socio-economic factors now influencing this nation's world competitiveness in light of pending European unification and the opening up, on a wide scale, of Russian markets to Western nations and Japan

  11. Globalization and Public Policy Analysis: A Case Study of Foreign Policy of ASEAN Member States

    Nattapol Pourprasert


    This study has an objective to analyze foreign policy of member states in globalization current, aiming to answer that the foreign policy of member states have been changed or remained the same and there are any factors affecting changing of foreign policy of the member states. From the study results, it is found that the foreign policy of Thailand is a friendly foreign policy with all states. The policy of Indonesia is more opened because of a change in leader, allowing ...

  12. Toward a better union: improving the effectiveness of foreign policies

    Bradshaw, Daniel J.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A fundamental characteristic of state-state interaction in a globalized system is the explicitness with which states communicate their foreign policies to each other. In order to understand the role and the importance of foreign policy explicitness in the global foreign policy system, I first created a simple mesh model of the actors and institutions that form the U.S. foreign policy system. By optimizing this model with various system...

  13. Competing Foreign Policy Visions: Rhetorical Hybrids after the Cold War.

    Stuckey, Mary E.


    Examines ways in which two very different political actors, George Bush and Bill Clinton, attempted to construct a new foreign policy consensus by blending the rhetorical forms of the Cold War with other foreign policy metaphors. Argues that these hybrids have not proven persuasive as justifications for American actions in foreign policy. (SR)

  14. A study on the nuclear foreign policy

    Lee, Byungwook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Noh, B. C.


    This study addresses four arenas to effectively assist national nuclear foreign policies under international nuclear nonproliferation regimes and organizations. Firstly, this study analyzes the trends of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the international nuclear export control regime, and proposals for assurance of nuclear fuel supply. Secondly, this study analyzes the trends of international nuclear organizations, which include the IAEA as a central body of international nuclear diplomacy and technical cooperation and the OECD/NEA as a intergovernmental organization to consist of nuclear advanced countries. Thirdly, this study predicts the nuclear foreign policy of Obama Administration and reviews U. S.-India nuclear cooperation. Lastly, this study analyzes the nuclear issues of North Korea and current issues for regulation of nuclear materials.

  15. Political elites and foreign policy : democratization in Indonesia

    Wibisono, Aria Teguh Mahendra


    In the investigation, the domestic sources of foreign policy analytical framework were used to analyze the dynamics of elites in foreign policy making. After analyses of the results of mostly personal interviews and historical materials, it was determined that political elites do matter in foreign

  16. Effectiveness Of Foreign Direct Investment Policy In Nigeria (1986 ...

    The paper dwells on an investigation of the effectiveness of foreign direct investment policy in Nigeria. Employing the ordinary least square regression technique, the null hypothesis of no significant relationship between foreign direct investment policy measures and foreign direct investment was tested. The null hypothesis ...

  17. Health as foreign policy: harnessing globalization for health.

    Fidler, David P


    This paper explores the importance for health promotion of the rise of public health as a foreign policy issue. Although health promotion encompassed foreign policy as part of 'healthy public policy', mainstream foreign policy neglected public health and health promotion's role in it. Globalization forces health promotion, however, to address directly the relationship between public health and foreign policy. The need for 'health as foreign policy' is apparent from the prominence public health now has in all the basic governance functions served by foreign policy. The Secretary-General's United Nations (UN) reform proposals demonstrate the importance of foreign policy to health promotion as a core component of public health because the proposals embed public health in each element of the Secretary-General's vision for the UN in the 21st century. The emergence of health as foreign policy presents opportunities and risks for health promotion that can be managed by emphasizing that public health constitutes an integrated public good that benefits all governance tasks served by foreign policy. Any effort to harness globalization for public health will have to make health as foreign policy a centerpiece of its ambitions, and this task is now health promotion's burden and opportunity.

  18. Obama's Foreign Policy: Is there such a thing?

    Pata, Martin


    This thesis examines the foreign policy of the 44th President of the United States of America, Barack Obama. A significant theme of Barack Obama's candidacy for presidency was "change"; more specifically change in policy from previous administration. Therefore, the thesis looks at the changes brought about by President Obama once he was elected. First, we look at foreign policy of the United States under President George W. Bush, then we look at foreign policy-related assertions of Barack Oba...

  19. The Foreign Policies of European Union Member States

    Foreign Policies of EU Member States provides a clear and current overview of the motivations and outcomes of EU Member States regarding their foreign policy-making within and beyond the EU. It provides an in-depth analysis of intra-EU policy-making and sheds light, in an innovative and understan......Foreign Policies of EU Member States provides a clear and current overview of the motivations and outcomes of EU Member States regarding their foreign policy-making within and beyond the EU. It provides an in-depth analysis of intra-EU policy-making and sheds light, in an innovative...... prerogative exercised by all EU Member States is to construct their own foreign policies on everything from trade and defence with the rest of the world. This combination of clarity, thematic structure and empirical case studies make this an ideal textbook for all upper-level students of European foreign...

  20. Nuclear weapons and foreign policy. 2. ed.

    Kissinger, H.A.


    This book - originally published in 1957 - is intended by the author as a first step towards a change in the traditional concepts of war, diplomacy, and the nature of peace in the direction of a new theory which takes into account the risks and possibilities of the atomic age. Some concepts of thought are explained which may serve as a basis for foreign policy and strategy; some of the dangers of the traditional concept of safety are mentioned along with new possibilities - all in consideration of a world which was bipolar from a military and political point of view when this book was published. (HP/AK) [de


    Antunes de Miranda, Jose Alberto; Centro Universitario La Salle - Unilasalle


    The death of Hugo Chavez may cause changes in the conduct of foreign policy of Venezuela. The actors involved in the foundation of the political project that highlights a revolutionary and a contestation discourse with the structure of the international system, considered outdated and exclusionary, may change over time. A morte de Hugo Chavez poderá provocar mudanças  na condução da política externa da Venezuela. Os atores envolvidos sob as bases do  projeto político que destaca um discurs...

  2. Sources of change in foreign policy. A review of foreign policy models for developing countries

    Alba E. Gámez


    Full Text Available The study of what could be called the reorientation of State foreign policy is not a new phenomenon. Changes in alliances, economic partners and attitudes in the face of international issues have been reflected in myriad texts. Nevertheless, few theoretical frameworksdeal with this issue as an area of study in and of itself. Overcoming this situation would contribute to identifying and comparing the changes in attitude and discourse in the relations between countries, especially in the case of developing countries, and, by extension, thesources of these changes. This article reviews the different models for the analysis of foreign policy, using the conceptual framework of Hermann (1990 as its starting point. This framework suggests the existence of four graded levels of change which allow for studying forms of change which are subtle but important in foreign policy; it also offers a reasoned analysis for testing the relative importance of their sources. This conceptual framework can be situated in the traditional division of levels of analysis: the characteristics of the leader, bureaucratic proposer, internal adjustment, and external impact; and, while it does not provide a conclusive answer, it may be a useful tool in clarifying the ways of using empirical evidence and establishing the relative importance of the sources of change in foreign policy orientation.

  3. Globalisation, health and foreign policy: emerging linkages and interests

    Owen, John Wyn; Roberts, Olivia


    A discussion of the growing links between the issues of globalisation, health and foreign policy. This article examines the effect this has on health, development and foreign policy communities in the UK and internationally and considers what steps the policy community must take to address the challenges and opportunities of this new relationship. PMID:16053520

  4. Slovenia’s Foreign Policy Opportunities and Constraints: The Analysis of an Interplay of Foreign Policy Environments

    Fenko Ana Bojinović


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the interconnectedness of foreign policy environments to explain Slovenia’s opportunities and constraints for foreign policy action. During the period of pre-independence para-diplomacy, the building of an internal and external domestic environment successfully turned constraints (no international recognition into opportunities (applying for membership of European and global intergovernmental organizations. In the second period - post-recognition - considering the absence of a strategic foreign policy document, the Slovenian internal foreign policy environment became a major constraint to seize foreign environment opportunities. This affected Slovenia’s accomplishments, notably after NATO and EU memberships were achieved in 2004. Although the Slovenian internal environment matured during the following period to adopt, in 2015, a comprehensive foreign policy strategy the recent turn in world politics (especially the European financial and economic crisis and the migration crisis created for the first time a foreign environment for Slovenia that offered many fewer opportunities and far more constraints.

  5. Overview of nuclear export policies of major foreign supplier nations


    The United States faces increased competition from foreign nuclear suppliers, including West Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Canada, and possibly, in the near future, Japan. This general overview shows the differences and similarities in foreign nuclear supplier export requirements. It is based on summaries furnished by the Department of State covering the nuclear export policies and procedures of the major foreign supplier nations

  6. A Study on the Nuclear Foreign Policy

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Lee, K. S.


    In this study, the changes in international nuclear environments related to nuclear non-proliferation regimes and international nuclear cooperation activities are investigated in order to suggest recommendations for actions and measures in the national policy of Korea, focusing on the trends for strengthening international nuclear non-proliferation regimes, international discussions of multi-lateral fuel supply assurances, USA nuclear energy policy and nuclear cooperation between USA and India. International nuclear non-proliferation regime is expected to be continuously strengthened during the 21st century. Assurance of a fuel supply is a critical issue in the national nuclear power industry of Korea due to a complete dependency of its uranium enrichment services on foreign countries and the declaration of a non-possession of facilities for a uranium enrichment and nuclear reprocessing in Korea. Nuclear energy is indispensable for a national energy security and securing a competitive power of nuclear technologies, and the development and export of nuclear industry products are also very important. It is recommended to strengthen the international cooperation and diplomatic efforts of Korea for protecting the national interests in the international nuclear communities and enhancing for a national power supply as well as securing of confidence and transparency of the national nuclear policy and relevant activities

  7. A Study on the Nuclear Foreign Policy

    Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, K. S


    This study approaches the international trends related to nuclear non-proliferation in four aspects. First, this study analyzes the trend of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the international nuclear export control regime and proposals for assurance of nuclear fuel supply. Second, this study analyzes the trend of international nuclear organizations, which includes the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a central body of development of nuclear technology and international nuclear diplomacy, and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), a intergovernmental organization to consist of a group of nuclear advanced countries. Third, this study analyzes the trends of the U.S.'s nuclear foreign policies, particularly nuclear non-proliferation. Fourth, this study analyzes the nuclear issues of North Korea and Iran as they cause serious concerns to a international society.

  8. A Study on the Nuclear Foreign Policy

    Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, K. S.


    This study approaches the international trends related to nuclear non-proliferation in four aspects. First, this study analyzes the trend of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the international nuclear export control regime and proposals for assurance of nuclear fuel supply. Second, this study analyzes the trend of international nuclear organizations, which includes the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a central body of development of nuclear technology and international nuclear diplomacy, and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), a intergovernmental organization to consist of a group of nuclear advanced countries. Third, this study analyzes the trends of the U.S.'s nuclear foreign policies, particularly nuclear non-proliferation. Fourth, this study analyzes the nuclear issues of North Korea and Iran as they cause serious concerns to a international society

  9. Foreign Policy Involvement Matters: Towards an Analytical Framework Examining the Role of the Media in the Making of Foreign Policy

    Kerstin Schulz


    Full Text Available Foreign policy processes have long played a minor role in the study of political communication. There is a broad consensus that the media is the central mediating actor and primary conduit between political decision-makers and the public. However, the media’s influence on foreign policy remains contingent across various processes and phases of foreign policy making; it is dynamic and multi-directional. Considering that the public sphere is essential for the legitimacy of foreign policy making, there is a demand for further research on the media’s performance in the making of foreign policy. Based on secondary research, this paper proposes an analytical framework for the systematic analysis of media–foreign policy relations by integrating foreign-policy context conditions as a research variable. The framework is based on the assumption that the role of the media varies across diverse foreign policy contexts depending on the intensity of governmental involvement in foreign affairs. The intensity is distinguished according to three dimensions: no involvement, indirect involvement and direct involvement. Finally, a case study is suggested in order to demonstrate the framework’s explanatory power: the German media coverage of Russia.

  10. Global health in foreign policy--and foreign policy in health? Evidence from the BRICS.

    Watt, Nicola F; Gomez, Eduardo J; McKee, Martin


    Amidst the growing literature on global health, much has been written recently about the Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa (BRICS) countries and their involvement and potential impact in global health, particularly in relation to development assistance. Rather less has been said about countries' motivations for involvement in global health negotiations, and there is a notable absence of evidence when their motivations are speculated on. This article uses an existing framework linking engagement in global health to foreign policy to explore differing levels of engagement by BRICS countries in the global health arena, with a particular focus on access to medicines. It concludes that countries' differing and complex motivations reinforce the need for realistic, pragmatic approaches to global health debates and their analysis. It also underlines that these analyses should be informed by analysis from other areas of foreign policy. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  11. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    Schoen, Harald


    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  12. Challenges of Nigeria's foreign policy | Enuka | AFRREV IJAH: An ...

    Nigeria's foreign policy like those of every other elsewhere, is hoped to achieve for the benefit of Nigeria and Nigerians, the aspired goals and articulated interests of the Nigerian state. This expectation, by the judgment of many informed Nigerians, is yet to be fully realized. Nigeria's foreign policy inter alia, has failed to work ...

  13. Foreign Policy and Public-Private Partnership for Economic ...

    This paper examines foreign policy and public-private partnership for economic development in Nigeria. It proceeds from the assumption that foreign policy goes beyond spontaneous reaction to international issues and events, but an extrapolative and empirical attempt at achieving a state's short and long term goals ...

  14. Foreign language policy and the development of Mandarin Chinese ...

    This paper discusses the development offoreign language policy in higher educationin the United States (US) and indicates gaps in the study of foreign languages in highereducation in that country. A discussion of current policy, provision, programmes andfunding of foreign languages in higher education are presented, ...

  15. The root of Iranian foreign policy/Todd P. Macler.

    Macler, Todd P.


    Iranian foreign policy, like any state's foreign policy, is the product of various pressures originating in domestic, international, cultural, historical, institutional, and even individual factors. However, the greatest amount of understanding and potential for prediction can be obtained using the historical institutional method, focusing on Iran's history of foreign domination, the role of Twelve Shia Islam, and the particular institutions of the Islamic Republic. These three factors both d...


    Attila IAKOB


    Full Text Available The past years showed to the world and to the European Union that classical approaches are not enough to be a power breaker in the Caucasian region, where the overlap of history, myth, and cultures creates a unique geopolitical context marked by century old grudges and imaginary or real socio-economical issues. It is clear that concepts like “ring of friends” or Eastern Partnership need a rebranding and an upgrade due to contemporary context changes. Russian expansion, Turkish political shifts, Ukrainian crisis, Iranian ambitions, Kurd issues, energy policies and socio-economical convulsions are defining the new shape of the geographical areas on both side of the Caucasus Mountain. In this context the European leadership needs to rethink the foreign policy approach to the region and to create a new set of actions in this context. This difficult task is needed not only from the perspective of Europe’s energetic security but from the point of regional stability, because Europe and its global development depend on its involvement in the neighboring regions. From this perspective our paper would like to analyze and create a realistic image on the dynamic of the relations of EU with the countries in this region and the perspectives in the contemporary context where the overlapping geopolitical interests are making this region a key one for several future issues.


    Foreign language education, particularly in French, has taken root in Kenyan ... interest and potential in foreign language education at this young stage of life. ... Since independence, the Kenyan government has set up several education ...

  18. Foreign policy preaching and domestic practice

    Lester, R.K.


    To most Americans who reflect on the matter, the further spread of nuclear weapons around the world is a profoundly disturbing prospect. Of those concerned with the foreign policy of the United States, many view the task of preventing nuclear weapons proliferation as transcending the national interest - even seeing it as a moral imperative. Though individual policymakers may be driven to act by an abhorrence of nuclear weapons and the possibility that they will be used, the United States as a nation can stake no claim to moral leadership in the struggle to prevent their spread. It pursues the goal of nonproliferation in parallel with its pursuit of a more effective national nuclear armament. Its government deplores the spread of nuclear weapons overseas while simultaneously stressing the military and political value of specific weapon systems for its own purposes. Its authority and influence in mitigating the risks of proliferation thus derive entirely from its standing as a global economic and military superpower. Its instruments are the tools of power, untempered by moral suasion: denial of technology; offers of economic cooperation, with political conditions attached; guarantees of security, often backed by its own nuclear forces. Inevitably, therefore, US nonproliferation efforts are seen overseas to bear the stamp of Realpolitik, as being intended first and foremost to serve American national interests, whatever the individual motivations of those responsible for them

  19. Un-National Normative Justification for European Union Foreign Policy

    Manners, Ian


    The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between...... descriptive interests and normative ethics is unsustainable in European Union (EU) foreign policy. What are needed are normative justifications that can help inform political choices about foreign policy in the EU's democratic political order. In other words, what are the un-national normative justifications...

  20. Strategic imperative formation of foreign economic policy of Ukraine

    O. P. Borysenko


    Full Text Available Deep rethinking and thorough elaboration require a general plan for the development of the state management in the sphere of foreign economic processes - strategy formation and implementation of foreign economic policy of Ukraine. Formed in conditions of political and economic crisis, it is not aimed at providing qualitative change - innovation development, enhance national business investment, measuring asymmetry foreign trade balance, optimize the structure of imports, increasing competitiveness of Ukrainian goods and so on. Significant changes need in government regulation mechanisms of transformation processes, their system updates, meaningful transition to a model of a market transformations, which combined with effective self-governance. The purpose of the article is to explore the strategic principles of foreign economic policy formation, identifying directions Ukraine’s foreign economic strategy formation and ways to improve its effectiveness. Today in Ukraine needs logically consistent application of the basic model of strategy formation and implementation of foreign economic policy: strategy of protectionism, strategy of competitiveness and foreign economic trade integration strategy. The scale and fragmentation tasks are preventing their full implementation. For a targeted and effective state influence on the economy suggest to build a strategy of foreign economic policy on the principles of consistency, integrity, comprehensiveness, subordination, continuity, dynamism, system-creating relations.

  1. The role of e-PR in foreign policy

    Tereshchuk Vitaliy Ivanovych


    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of the Internet as a global communication tool in the PR-support of the implementation of foreign policy. Special attention is paid to such innovative directions of electronic foreign PR as the creation of "virtual embassies" (on the example of the United States.

  2. Faultlines, Synergies and Frontiers of India’s Foreign Policy

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    Paper and presentation for the International workshop “The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India: Exploring Culture and Ethnic Sensitivities”. Jadavpur University, Kolkata in Collaboration with Political Science Department, Aalborg University and Nordic Institute for Asian...

  3. Militarism and American Foreign Policy: A Matter of Balance

    Fila, Brian D


    How could any serious student at the National War College assert that militarism is on the rise in American foreign policy in today's political environment characterized by military overutilization...

  4. Policy Recommendations for Developing Foreign-invested Enterprise in China



    China has undergone the three major stages in its development of foreign-invested enterprise: exploratory development, accelerated development and innovative development. This harnessing of foreign investment has resulted in tremendous success for China, including making up for the funds shortage for economic construction, promoting corporate technological progress and management expertise, easing employment pressure, increasing fiscal revenue and boosting trade. At the same time, there have been problems, including questions of economic security, environment and energy issues, unequal competition and problems with the management of foreign-invested enterprises. To promote the development of foreign-invested enterprises in both a healthy and rapid fashion, China should look toward "maintaining policy continuity, promoting the forward-looking nature of policy, strengthening policy guidance and highlighting policy innovativeness."

  5. United States Foreign Aid Policy for the 21st Century

    Tisson, John


    .... The policy shift appears to be directly related to the Global War on Terrorism and acknowledges that foreign aid can play an important role in mitigating developmental deficits that can result in instability...

  6. COGEMA's employment and training policy for its foreign subsidiaries

    Hamani, A.


    COGEMA has actively pursued a policy of employing country nationals for its foreign subsidiaries in Niger, Gabon, Canada and Kazakhstan. The process of replacing foreign staff by nationals in Niger is first described, detailing the personnel management objectives and procedures, the main difficulties encountered, the current situation and the lessons to take from this experience. COGEMA's policies and ways applied in other countries to increase the proportions of nationals are then presented. (author)

  7. Health in All (Foreign) Policy: challenges in achieving coherence.

    Labonté, Ronald


    Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach is generally perceived as an intersectoral approach to national or sub-national public policy development, such that health outcomes are given full consideration by non-health sectors. Globalization, however, has created numerous 'inherently global health issues' with cross-border causes and consequences, requiring new forms of global governance for health. Although such governance often includes both state and non-state (private, civil society) actors in agenda setting and influence, different actors have differing degrees of power and authority and, ultimately, it is states that ratify intergovernmental covenants or normative declarations that directly or indirectly affect health. This requires public health and health promotion practitioners working within countries to give increased attention to the foreign policies of their national governments. These foreign policies include those governing national security, foreign aid, trade and investment as well as the traditional forms of diplomacy. A new term has been coined to describe how health is coming to be positioned in governments' foreign policies: global health diplomacy. To become adept at this nuanced diplomatic practice requires familiarity with the different policy frames by which health might be inserted into the foreign policy deliberations, and thence intergovernmental/global governance negotiations. This article discusses six such frames (security, trade, development, global public goods, human rights, ethical/moral reasoning) that have been analytically useful in assessing the potential for greater and more health-promoting foreign policy coherence: a 'Health in All (Foreign) Policies' approach. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  8. Current Trends in Foreign Trade Theory and Policy

    Zdzisław W. Puślecki


    Full Text Available In this research work, Author focus on the current analysis trends in foreign trade theory and policy. Accordance with the foreign trade policy theory further trade liberalisation and improved framework policies would increase trade and promote growth. It must be emphasized that openness to trade is associated with higher incomes and growth and there is the need for new approaches to trade cooperation in light of the forces that are currently re-shaping international business. What indicates the importance and innovativeness of the research is the presentation of the new models of the foreign trade policy and trade interests. First of all, it must underline that in the new theoretical terms in demand for trade policy very important is factor specificity. The low specificity of factors means that factor returns are equalized throughout a region’s economy. On the other hand, some factors are stuck in their present uses; therefore, factor returns are not equalized throughout a region’s economy but are industry specific. The main objective of the research task is to give a comprehensive analysis of current trends in foreign trade theory and policy and in particular models of foreign trade policy, trade interests indicated by export orientation and import sensitivity, foreign trade policy in different types of authoritarian regimes, protectionist pressures in different political system, the level of protectionist pressures, the tendencies to bilateralism in the foreign trade policy. It should be stressed that free trade in itself is not responsible for economic growth, but more significant are the determining macroeconomic stability and increasing investment.

  9. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy.

    Labonté, Ronald; Gagnon, Michelle L


    Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are present in discourse but do

  10. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy

    Labonté Ronald


    Full Text Available Abstract Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are

  11. EU Foreign Energy Policy. From Intergovernmentalism to Supranationalism

    Ahner, N. [European University Institute, Florence (Italy)


    The European Union's increasing reliance on imports from third countries is reason for unsettling concern. It is anticipated that by 2030, assuming a continuation of the recent trend, more than 70 per cent of the EU's energy consumption has to be imported. Notwithstanding such anticipation, European regulation addressing the external dimension of energy policy remained far and few between. In practise it is the individual countries being leading actors on the foreign energy relations stage exercising their own respective foreign policies. To cope with these threats to the EU foreign energy policy, the European Commission issued its long anticipated Communication on security of energy supply and international cooperation proposing concrete instruments on how energy foreign relations should be addressed in the future. But - does the Union have the power to bring about the crucial rebound?.

  12. EU Foreign Energy Policy. From Intergovernmentalism to Supranationalism

    Ahner, N.


    The European Union's increasing reliance on imports from third countries is reason for unsettling concern. It is anticipated that by 2030, assuming a continuation of the recent trend, more than 70 per cent of the EU's energy consumption has to be imported. Notwithstanding such anticipation, European regulation addressing the external dimension of energy policy remained far and few between. In practise it is the individual countries being leading actors on the foreign energy relations stage exercising their own respective foreign policies. To cope with these threats to the EU foreign energy policy, the European Commission issued its long anticipated Communication on security of energy supply and international cooperation proposing concrete instruments on how energy foreign relations should be addressed in the future. But - does the Union have the power to bring about the crucial rebound?.

  13. Understanding Iranian Foreign Policy - The Case of Iranian Nuclear Program

    Emir Hadzikadunic


    Full Text Available This paper examines the complexity of the Iranian foreign policy through the case of Iranian nuclear program. The paper aims to assess foreign policy orientations and compares actions of the last three Iranian presidents, Mohammad Khatami, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and current Hassan Rouhani in dealing with the international community (IC in pursuing its nuclear program. This assessment would not be complete without reference to the Iranian supreme leader Ali Khamenei who is actual head of the state and the most powerful political authority. This paper also relates Iranian foreign policy expectation to competing theories of international relations to identify the most dominant or the most consistent policy orientation. Its aim is to strengthen realist and power-based explanations that have dominated the discourse on Middle Eastern in general and Iranian foreign policy in particular. In this context, a number of questions will be addressed here. To what extend was Iranian negotiation with the IC over its nuclear program consistent throughout these three presidencies? What has changed, if anything, from Iranian foreign policy perspective and why? Can Iranian foreign policy behavior on this specific topic and in this specific time be explained through any international relations theory? As there are many other questions, so there are many theories to examine and explain true Iranian intentions, those below the surface of declared goals (Hadzikadunic, 2014. The methods employed in answering these questions are largely structured around a chronological account and comparative approach. It is also based on the analysis of foreign policy discourse and the assessment of key decision makers.

  14. Energy supplying of the Europe and foreign policy

    Noel, P.


    This paper aims to answer the question on the impact of the energy supply in Europe on the foreign and safety policy. The geo-political principles of the energy, the european petroleum and gaseous supply and the american policy facing the european energy supply are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  15. Russian Foreign Policy. Sources and Implications


    subject of sovereign democracy can be found at United Russia Political Party, home page, undated. 2 See Masha Lipman, “Putin’s Sovereign Democracy...Rise of U.S. Nuclear Primacy,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 85, No. 2, March–April 2006b. Lipman, Masha , “Putin’s Sovereign Democracy,” The Washington Post

  16. Russia’s foreign energy policy

    Shadrina, Elena


    Throughout the transition period, Russia was pursuing an energy policy composed of a set of responses to external developments. However, in the wake of the 2008 crisis, the government expedited the formulation of a new long-term energy strategy aiming to create a comprehensive energy policy to enhance Russia’s sustained development. Externally, Russia’s decisions in 2009 to postpone its accession to the WTO and refrain from ECT ratification sounded alarmingly. However, Russia’s policy cou...

  17. Contrastive Research on Domestic and Foreign Ecological Agriculture Policies

    Chen, Jianwei; Qi, Yan-bin; Zhao, Yufeng


    In the first place, the definitions of ecological agriculture defined by scholars both at home and abroad are introduced. In the second place, the domestic and foreign ecological agriculture policies are expounded. Through contrastive research on the domestic and foreign ecological agriculture polices, the problems in the development of ecological agriculture in China are found. By mirroring the western experiences in developing ecological agriculture, the countermeasures and relevant suggest...

  18. The Iranian Foreign Language Practitioners‟ Perspectives about Iran‟s Foreign Language Education Policy

    Naser Rashidi


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to identify the perceptions of the Iranian foreign language practitioners about Iran‟s foreign language education policy within a systemic functional linguistics approach. To this end, 8 Iranian male and female foreign language practitioners were interviewed and asked to talk about what they thought about Iran‟s foreign language policy. The findings obtained from analysing the process types and participants employed by the Iranian foreign language practitioners within a systemic functional linguistics approach point out that the FLEP document is heavily influenced by and draws on well entrenched ideological, historical, religious, economic, and political discourses. Further investigations within a systemic functional linguistics approach indicate that the Iranian teachers believed that while English is a tool for understanding cultural exchanges and transferring technological advances, achieving these goals through the teaching of English is sometimes problematic within an absolute Islamic framework. The findings obtained from a transitivity analysis for the Iranian foreign language practitioners by subjecting their responses to the questions on the interviews to a systemic functional linguistics approach are also indicative of the Iranian foreign language teachers‟ loyalty to the “the younger, the better” belief. Likewise, course content was a topic for controversy. Some of the practitioners believed that course content should be developed around a variety of topics. Whereas others asserted that the inclusion of different topics in the foreign language education policy document may increase the workload on the part of the teachers. Other issues such as culture, the Islamic ideology, and imperialism were identified as causes of different understandings among the Iranian foreign language practitioners as well.



    studies from Kings College London (KCL). He worked in several staff positions and he is currently a student at the Air War College at Maxwell Air...the north, and the Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman and Indian Ocean to the south. 1 Zagros and Alborz mountain ranges are located in the western and...perception. Persia fell under foreign occupation several times. The fall of the Persian Achaemenian dynasty to Alexander the Great in (330 B.C.) is

  20. Member State Foreign Policy towards EU Military Operations

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen


    Over the past decade the European Union has undertaken military operations in Macedonia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, twice in the Democratic Republic of Congo, jointly in the Central African Republic and Chad, both in and off the coast of Somalia and most recently in Mali. Ongoing discussions in Brussels...... suggest that another operation in CAR may be underway shortly. The EU’s military endeavours are particularly interesting to this enquiry, as they suggest a radical change in the cohort of member states’ foreign policy towards the Union, which until the turn of the Millennium had been considered by its MS......, amongst others, as a predominantly ‘civilian power’. The significance of such a change merits a chapter that delves deeper into MS foreign policy specifically related to EU military operations.The rationale for this research is to further unpack intra-EU foreign policy and its effect on the external...

  1. Chinese Foreign Policy in Transition: Trends and Implications

    Baohui Zhang


    Full Text Available Chinese foreign policy has been transformed in recent years. This article seeks to provide a systematic analysis of the most salient features of the new Chinese foreign policy. It identifies five such features. Based on these features, the article suggests that China is poised to become a true global power. This view differs significantly from Gerald Segal’s famous claim in 1999 that China was no more than a middle power. The article utilizes many current Chinese sources to help readers understand China’s new motives and goals in international and regional affairs.

  2. US foreign policy towards West Africa after September 11 attacks

    Akinwande, FO


    The United States foreign policy towards West Africa experienced a significant shift after the terrorist attacks of US strategic institutions in September 11, 2001. This was marked by the securitization of US foreign policy beyond the military-security context of security into other aspects of US security strategy after the Cold War. In that context, political, economic and environmental sectors became part of US security agenda, as reflected in the post-9/11 US\\ud War on Terror in global reg...

  3. Anti-Americanism and U.S. Foreign Policy


    interesting paradox – American culture is both loved and feared – and it is not uncommon to hear stories of popular international McDonald’s franchises also...Mark McDonald , “Egyptians Growing More Resentful of U.S. Foreign Policy,” Philadelphia Inquirer, 16 December 2002, sec. A, p. 1. 24 Michael J. Jordan...2002, sec. A, p. 1. McDonald , Mark. “Egyptians Growing More Resentful of U.S. Foreign Policy.” Philadelphia Inquirer, 16 December 2002, sec. A, p. 1

  4. Culture and foreign policy: An introduction to approaches and theory

    Liland, Frode


    Culture is increasingly acknowledged to matter in foreign policy, but is rarely studied or used as an explanatory factor in the field. Frode Liland claims that the reason for this is that culture is seen as a dangerous subject where the researchers easily get lost. To ease the trouble he gives an introduction to relevant literature on the field.

  5. The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk


    The main argument of this contribution is that the distinction between internal and external is at best blurred and in reality does not make much sense in the case of India’s foreign policy. It may start and end at the border and be determined by negotiations, diplomacy or brute force but there i...

  6. History: An Analysis of the Former Soviet Union Foreign Policy ...

    This paper attempts an appraisal of the FSU's foreign policy using Russia and Ukraine as case studies. The international context which Russia and Ukraine have confronted in view of the gravity of change, combined with the unique circumstances of their emergence through a process of the soviet state collapse, has ...

  7. Law and Foreign Policy: Problems in Intercultural Communications.

    Bozeman, Adda B.

    The values and norms of Western law are not universally accepted as basic values and norms in other cultures. Therefore, the contractual processes of Western law should not be considered the basic foundation for all foreign policy negotiations. In Western cultures, principles of law are differentiated from other values based on religion, ethics,…

  8. Morality and Foreign Policy. A Symposium on President Carter's Stance.

    Lefever, Ernest W., Ed.

    This monograph contains a critical examination of President Carter's view on ethics and foreign policy as expressed in his commencement speech at Notre Dame University on May 22, 1977. The book is organized into three parts. Part 1 contains Mr. Carter's speech entitled, "Power for Humane Purposes." Part 2 contains nine responses to the…

  9. Theories and myths of European foreign policy

    Manners, Ian James


    interactions of European international organizations, and the behaviour of European non-governmental actors working through the above agents as part of transnational and globalizing activism. The chapter adopts a pan-European approach in analysing EFP at the interfaces of these international, supranational...... the international, supranational and transnational policy processes of European states and institutions in relation to the rest of the world. In this respect, the study of EFP includes an analysis of the engagements of European states in international and multilateral diplomacy, the interregional and multipolar...... activity, whether international, supranational or transnational, in order to identify common patterns....

  10. Exchange rate policy, growth, and foreign trade in China

    Gligorić Mirjana


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a hot topic: the influence of an undervalued currency on macroeconomic variables - primarily on the economic growth and trade balance of a country, but also on employment, foreign exchange reserves, competition, and living standards. It also reviews and explains the consequences of yuan undervaluation, points out the need for its appreciation, and states the negative effects that stem from this measure. Special attention is given to the problematic bilateral relations between China and the USA and the reasons why Americans are worried about the exchange rate policy that China implements. Although yuan appreciation would decrease the American foreign trade deficit, it also raises the question of further financing of the American deficit. There are also other problems that the possible appreciation would cause for the American economy, due to the effect of J-curve, passthrough, larger costs of input imported from China, etc. Therefore, Chinese foreign exchange policy is an important subject, but it is not the solution to the problems of the global economy - which have deeper roots than that. However, there is no excuse for China implementing unfair exchange rate policies, or replacing such policies with controversial protectionist policies (as some authors have suggested.

  11. Challenges : adopting GIS for diplomacy and foreign policy

    Christian, Carol

    Foreign policy and diplomacy are, by definition, location specific. GIS-related tools can be useful to decision makers and problem solvers to merge diverse data that impinges on policy issues. While to a degree, such technologies have been adopted for natural disaster response, security, and environmental studies, widespread adoption of GIS into policy tasks has been slow. Decision makers and nonexperts are reluctant to assimilate new tools into old cultures because of a number of hurdles. Yet clearly, information sharing would be advantageous and allow visualization of information and situations in a more productive environment. This presentation will touch upon some of the challenges and stimulate discussion.

  12. A look at the European domestic and foreign energy policy

    Lesourne, J.


    After having defined the main characteristics of energy considered as a good (a private good, a product of first necessity, a redistributed product, a strategic good), the author presents the actors of the European energy policy: European authorities, member state governments, firms (operators and big consumers), and households. He presents the European domestic energy policy which comprises three main themes: the creation of a domestic market, the taking of government commitments for 2020 into account, and the emission trading scheme. He identifies and comments the three main objectives of the European foreign energy policy: supply security, struggle against climate change, and support to the less developed countries

  13. A study on the nuclear foreign policy

    Oh, Keun Bae; Choi, Y. M.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.


    The objective of this study is to analyze and foresee the international trends related to nuclear activities, especially nuclear non-proliferation activities among others, and to suggest desirable policy direction so as to mitigate hurdles that may hinder the expansion of utilization and development of nuclear energy in Korea. This study approaches the trends of international nuclear arena in five aspects as follows. First, this study analyzes the trends of the global multilateral nuclear non-proliferation regime in Chapter II, which includes the NPT, the IAEA safeguards system, the international export control regime, the CTBT, and the treaties on nuclear weapon-free zone. Second, this study analyzes the trends of various international nuclear organizations in Chapter III, which include IAEA, OECD/NEA, and CTBTO. Third, this study reviews and analyzes regional situations in the northeast Asia surrounding Korea in Chapter IV, inter alia, pending concerns over the North Korean nuclear activities and proposed Northeast Asian nuclear cooperatively bodies such as ASIATOM, etc. Fourth, in Chapter V, this study analyzes issues concerning bilateral nuclear relationship. Especially this study analyzes nuclear cooperating agreements in general, and suggests a model agreement for the government to use when negotiating nuclear cooperation agreements with other countries. Furthermore, this study analyzes the trends of bilateral cooperation with the U.S., Canada, and Australia focusing on the standing bilateral nuclear committees. Fifth, Chapter VI especially deals with the framework of the U. S.'s nuclear non-proliferation policy, focusing on the issues such as the disposition of weapons-usable excess plutonium and the nuclear cooperation with China. (author). 44 refs., 15 tabs., 2 figs

  14. A Non-Conventional IR Approach to India's Foreign Policy

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    that an alternative Critical IPE approach (CPE) contributes to a more nuanced understanding of India's foreign policy. In generic terms, shifting governments have a variety of options both in defining and refining what 'national interest' means, how security and threats are perceived, and which factors shape geo......-economic and geopolitical relations to other countries. The CPE approach does not essentialize the state as a pre-constituted entity or a ‘black box’ of “national interests” interacting within anarchical international relations. Rather, CPE seeks to understand ‘forms of states’ as ‘state/society complex’ and asks how...... structure. The aim then is to explore the boundaries of the state in its current conjunctures, its historical dynamic and the process of social change. In this way, the paper seeks an understanding of the underlying and prevailing tensions between geo-politics and geo-economics in foreign policy...

  15. Russia Foreign Policy In Latin America - Case Study Of Nicaragua


    case study of Nicaragua deeper than the previous thesis. It relates a study to the larger, ongoing dialogue in the literature, filling in gaps and...RUSSIA FOREIGN POLICY IN LATIN AMERICA — CASE STUDY OF NICARAGUA A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and...countries, in which case further publication or sale of copyrighted images is not permissible. ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No

  16. The Soviet Breakup and U.S. Foreign Policy.

    Lynch, Allen


    This issue of a quarterly publication on world affairs explores the historical significance of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the implication for U.S. foreign policy. With the breakup of the USSR in 1990-91, Russia for the first time this century does not have control over the non-Russian nations of its former empire in Central Asia,…

  17. Artificial intelligence and foreign policy decision-making

    Berkoff, Russ H.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With the advent of a global information society, the US will seek to tap the potential of advanced computing capability to enhance its ability to conduct foreign policy decision making. This thesis explores the potential for improving individual and organizational decision making capabilities by means of artificial intelligence (AI). The use of AI will allow us to take advantage of the plethora of information available to obtain an edg...

  18. Oil and the U.S. foreign policy

    Hegburg, A.S.


    Oil and natural gas play a major role in the formulation and implementation of U.S. foreign oil policy. It was emphasized that the U.S. oil policy will adjust in response to market developments, both political and commercial. It will also adjust to structural changes and constituency pressures. U.S. foreign oil policy has been drastically different in each of the last 3 decades. The 1970s were a period of oil crisis and shortage when OPEC producers were in control of domestic pricing and production. The defining moment was the Arab oil embargo of the United States and the Netherlands in response to the U.S. military resupply of Israel. After that moment, production and depletion policy shifted to sovereign rule. This embargo prompted many responses, one of which was the short-lived notion that the world would have to rely mostly on synthetics and alternatives to oil. The embargo prompted a multilateral consumer country cooperation, and a staged deregulation of U.S. oil prices. It also prompted a strong U.S. denunciation of Arab producers' use of the oil weapon for foreign policy reasons. The author described the many lessons learned from the 1970s and discussed the use of sanctions against Libya, Cuba and Iran and how these have become a tool to pursue U.S. national security interests or accommodate a domestic constituency. It was predicted that forthcoming changes in U.S. energy policy will reflect unilateral, bilateral and multilateral cooperation. It was noted that beyond the extensive trade and investment links between Canada and the United States, the additional Canadian component is the Alaskan gas line which is currently being considered. It was also noted that early administrative attention should be given to improving the intergovernmental relationship within the International Energy Agency


    Karin MEGHEȘAN


    Full Text Available The art of governance, the relationship between the governed and the governing, the impact of a social and political system on coherent foreign policy-building is significantly influenced by the distribution of power and the type of decisional unit existent within the state. New subjects of study, such as political psychology, have proved their utility both in theoretical and practical study of international relations. Being a frontier subject, political psychology tries to offer answers to a number of questions regarding different issues among which the way character features influence the decision maker’s behavior, the role of the operational code in foreign policy and the utility of psychological profiles in the international relationships and in intelligence. Leading from the types of power distribution and decisional units existent in the professional literature, the present paper narrows the narrative and focuses on examining the importance of the individual level of analysis in explaining foreign policy decisions, analyzing the decision of the Russian Federation to veto the intervention of the international community in the Syrian civil conflict.

  20. European vector of foreign policy of the Barack Obama administration

    M. Yu. Lymar


    Full Text Available The article researches the basic principles and conceptual approaches to shaping the foreign policy of the   Barack Obama. It is noted that: the foreign policy of the United States should strengthen U.S. global leadership; the special role in determining the directions of U.S. foreign policy is given to the principle of «smart power»; it is important to cooperate with international organizations; the dialogue with Europe should be based on the axis of NATO­EU. This study examines the main areas of cooperation with the European Union, including: overcoming the global crisis and reforming the international financial system; settling the situation in Afghanistan and Pakistan; ensuring energy security; finding the ways to prevent new climate changes; defusing the situation which is related to the deployment of U.S. strategic plans in Eastern Europe. It is analyzed the beginning of Obama administration activity on inetnational area, discussed its achievements and shortcomings. The article marks that the USA focuses its attention more on the «Asian vector» and it causes some concern of the European Community. Attention is drawn to the main priorities of «National Security Strategy 2010». The author concludes that despite the absence of significant changes in U.S.­European relations during the first term of Barack Obama as the president, the current era of transatlantic relations has witnessed a process of constant functional cooperation with varying success.

  1. Continuity and Change in India’s Foreign Policy

    Juan López Nadal


    Full Text Available Adaptation of foreign policy to the post-cold war era and the globalisation of the economy has not been easy for India, a country which occupies a key position in Asia and arguably the world due to its size, strategic position and economic potential. In Indiacontinuity and change coexist, manifesting dramatic contradictions, with the former gradually superseding the latter. The diplomacy of New Delhi has come under harsh criticism for its resistance to adapt to a changed and changing world - something rooted in its Britishcolonial heritage and its lack of enthusiasm for questioning traditional values and attitudes. An analysis of the fundamental basis underlining these traditional conceptions is necessary, as is an historical perspective on the evolution of India’s foreign policy which embraces vastly differing factors of influence such as the external environment and internal economic and political conditions. This study begins its historical perspective on the foreign policy of independent India in 1947, dividing the period up to the present decade into three phases: the period of Nehru (1947-65, including L.B.Shastri; that of Indira Ghandi and her successors (1965-1990; and the period following the end of the cold war, under an unstable and uncertain leadership.




    Full Text Available In recent decades, Russia's foreign policy was shaped by both a number of internal factors (government strategy, political elites, culture, economics and demography and external ones (international treaties, changes in the structure of the international power balance. In the post-soviet era Russian foreign policy was radically different from that of other major economic powers. One of the factors that influenced decisively Russia’s external strategies was the collapse of the USSR as a superpower (phenomenon described by the president Vladimir Putin as "the most powerful geo-political catastrophe of the XXst century". The shift from the former communist regime (a totalitarian one to an authoritarian oligarchy (the current regime was followed by the transition to a market economy, a phenomenon that coincided with Russia’s military and political diminished influence in the international arena. Our research aims to assess the main interest vectors that shaped Russian Foreign Policy considering the main events that constitute milestones: Russia’s emerging as a great energy power, the Crimean crisis and Western international economic sanctions that followed. Our paper will base the main assumption on a joint analysis both qualitative and quantitative, using main international economic indicators (GDP, FDI flows, trade flows, general government balance and general gross debt and the most relevant approaches in the literature in the field.

  3. Sovremennaja vneshnjaja politika Litvy: korrektirovki tradicionnogo kursa [Modern Lithuanian foreign policy: the adjustment of traditional policy

    Batorshina Irina


    Full Text Available The authors consider the core areas of Lithuanian foreign policy. Special attention is paid to the adjustment of the major foreign policy vector, which concentrated earlier on the cooperation with the United States of America and strategic partnership with the Republic of Poland. The article analyses the attempts of Lithuanian president Dalia Grybauskaitė to formulate the so-called «new foreign policy» based on the multivector approach to the intergovernmental cooperation. This research is timely because of an increasing influence of small states on foreign policy decision-making within the European Union. It emphasizes the need to analyse foreign policy priorities of the Baltic States and Central and Eastern European countries and to identify the dominant trends in the international policy in the region in order to forecast further development at European and global levels. This objective is achieved with the help of an integrated approach with elements of interdisciplinary research. Special attention is paid to the comparative-historical approach, which facilitates the analysis of the relations between the Republic of Lithuania and the neighbouring states and its principal partners. Alongside traditional methods of historical research, this work employs such methods as participant observation, content and event analysis, and simultaneous and comparative analysis. The research and practical significance of this work is explained by its emphasis on the need to apply an additional theoretical framework to studies into the foreign policy initiatives of the Republic of Lithuania in the international arena. While earlier they were determined by the value (democratic approach, which was a reflection of American realism, today an increasingly important factor is the personality of the president, who does not always positively influence the changing policy of the country. The results of the research contribute substant

  4. Business, Government and Foreign Policy: Brazilian Construction Firms Abroad

    Bernardo Frossard Silva Rego


    Full Text Available This article analyses the interaction between Brazilian companies and government in the context of foreign policy, observing the state's support for the internationalization of large Brazilian civil construction firms. The results show that over the years these companies had privileged access to the Federal Executive, including civil service agencies. One consequence of this system of channelling demands through the Executive was to demote the Legislative branch to a secondary role. This pattern of interaction changed following the restoration of Congress's decision-making capacity, prompting the sector to diversify its areas of influence, focusing in particular on the Congress. To expand internationally, construction firms interact with the government primarily through the Executive, specifically via the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Itamaraty, which provides technical and diplomatic support, and the Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico, which supplies funding. The main argument of this article is that foreign policy should be examined through the relations between state and non-state actors in a multitude of decision-making arenas, taking into consideration both domestic and international factors.

  5. 10 CFR 1050.201 - Policy against accepting foreign gifts or decorations.


    ... DECORATIONS Guidelines for Acceptance of Foreign Gifts or Decorations § 1050.201 Policy against accepting foreign gifts or decorations. (a) The Constitution of the United States, Article I, section 9, clause 8... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy against accepting foreign gifts or decorations...

  6. Caspian oil and Azerbaijan foreign policy: analyse of Azerbaijanese arguments

    Gurbanov, T.


    Since Azerbaijan's independence, He decided to use its natural resources for strengthening the bases of a new state and signed 21 massive oil contracts with 35 companies of 21 different countries. Our research aims to analyse the Azerbaijanis' arguments related to Caspian oil through its foreign policy, by economic, legal and geopolitical axes. Oil has a fundamental place in the country's economy, as it is Azerbaijan's Gross Product. The treaties of 1921 and 1940 do not regulate the question concerning the common use of the resources of the Caspian Sea. Therefore, it became urgent to define new status related to divide the sea by median line into national sectors according to the equidistance principles. As the oil is a 'political game' between foreign powers, Azerbaijan tries to take the benefice from this 'New great game' by transforming the country into a zone of cooperation. (author)

  7. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    Sharpless, J


    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  8. National policy measures. Right approach to foreign direct investment flows

    Cătălin-Emilian HUIDUMAC-PETRESCU


    Full Text Available 2011 was a difficult year for all the countries, developed and emerging ones. For overcoming the negative effects of the financial crisis, many economies have established as purpose to adopt new economic policies regarding the foreign direct investment flows (FDI, even to stimulate the flows or to reduce it (protectionism measures. So, there can be identified two categories of national policies: measures for the FDI flows stimulation and measures whose aim was the weighting of FDI developing, through restriction and regulation. In the first category we could include the liberalization measures and promotional and faciletation policies. In this study we evidenced that the fundament of the second category of policies is the belief that the FDI outward lead to job exports, to a raise of unemployment and a weakness of the industrial base.Many reports on FDI flows, here we talk about those made by UNCTAD, show that the regulation and restriction policies are seen as a possible protectionism, especially in the agricultural and extractive industries, where there have been required nationalization processes and divestments. Even more, the economies which adopted this kind of policies have been less interested in investing abroad, the outward of FDI being affected and globally the total outward decreased.


    Anand Menon


    Full Text Available In only a decade the European Union has moved from being a new kid on the block in terms of foreign and security policies to being a high profile and surprisingly effective international actor. Certainly, it has failed to match the ambitions of some of its most enthusiastic proponents. Certainly, too, European publics know next to nothing about what the Union does in the international realm. It is because of this that, despite their potential and their effectiveness to date, EU policies in this sphere were widely derided as failures following the moment when the attacks of 11 September 2001 shook the western world to its core. The Convention on the Future of Europe and subsequent intergovernmental conference look set to make significant institutional changes to the Union’s foreign and security policy systems. In undertaking these reforms, Convention members, and national governments are doubtless motivated by the laudable objective of enabling the Union to do more on the international stage. One can only hope that these motives notwithstanding, they do not simply propose reforms for their own sake and, in the process, undermine a system that, to the surprise of many, has continued to function respectably in an ever more complex and ever more dangerous world.

  10. Parliament and the making of Indian foreign policy: a study of nuclear policy

    Paranjpe, Shrikant


    This book is a study that attempts to look at the emerging role design that the Indian Parliament has come to acquire in the exercise of its functions of participating in the formulation of foreign policy. The choice of the case study of nuclear policy is deliberate in that it evokes responses in all the three important dimensions of the role of the parliament: policy-making, representational activity, and system maintenance activity. The executive and the legislature are closely associated in the process of policy-making in the Indian parliamentary set-up. The representational activities focuses on the role perception of a parliamentarian and his interest in the area of foreign policy. The system maintenance activity includes support for the regime and political system essentially ensuring continuation of policy. This book also brings out the policies as they developed and the role played by the Parliament in terms of participation in the formulation of the policies. The issue areas covered includes the scientific and technological aspects of atomic energy policy; the debate on the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty; peaceful nuclear explosions; and the question of the nuclear weapons option. The essential sources of the study have been parliamentary debates, published reports and other statements dealing with the topic and interviews with legislators and officials involved in the issue. Most of the recommendations and concluding observations have been based on the interviews conducted

  11. Liberal democracy and nuclear despotism: two ethical foreign policy dilemmas

    Thomas E. Doyle


    Full Text Available This article advances a critical analysis of John Rawls's justification of liberal democratic nuclear deterrence in the post-Cold War era as found in The Law of Peoples. Rawls's justification overlooked how nuclear-armed liberal democracies are ensnared in two intransigent ethical dilemmas: one in which the mandate to secure liberal constitutionalism requires both the preservation and violation of important constitutional provisions in domestic affairs, and the other in which this same mandate requires both the preservation and violation of the liberal commitment to international legal arrangements and to the rule of law generally. On this view, the choice to violate constitutional provisions and international legal arrangements is evidence of nuclear despotism. Moreover, this choice does not imply that the ethical foreign policy dilemmas were resolved. Instead, it implies that the dilemmas force liberal democratic governments into implementing ethically paradoxical policy outcomes.

  12. The Effect of Foreign Trade Policy Transparency on Integration of Ukraine in the World Economy

    Yakovchenko Victoria S.


    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the interdependence between dynamics of the international trade and economic relations development and the existing level of foreign trade policy transparency in accordance with the provisions of the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement. The effect of observance of transparency principle in foreign trade policy on forming the transaction costs in foreign trade is analyzed. A comparative analysis of the influence of import duties and transaction costs on the formation of Ukraine’s foreign trade barriers is carried out. Prospects of the national export-import activity development under increasing transparency of foreign trade policy of Ukraine and other world countries are determined.

  13. China's Quest for Energy; Impact upon Foreign and Security Policy

    Kiesow, Ingolf


    Contrary to Chinese intentions, the proportion of China's imports coming from potentially unstable countries is steadily increasing. As a response, China tries to diversify its sources of import and to own the oil when loaded in an export harbour. In spite of very high costs and political problems, China tries to import oil and gas from owned fields in Central Asia through pipelines. In the case of China, the competition is evident on the highest international level. Especially with Japan, this tends to make already previously sensitive relations deteriorate. China has territorial disputes with several neighbouring countries that are becoming more complicated by the fact that there is oil and gas on the bottom of the sea in the disputed area. Relations with Russia have been complicated. Since the 1990s they are on their way of being steadily improved, but they become strained, when Japan is given priority access to oil fields in Siberia. The sensitive relations with the U.S. tend to be impaired by China's ways of getting access to more secure supply of oil and gas. Chinese efforts to get a more attractive foreign policy profile is on the other hand alleviating but does not eliminate the potential of the energy issue to complicate. China's foreign and security policy relations. The European Union seems to be on its way to introduce energy questions as a field of common policy. This is a reason for Sweden to study the development. It is a matter of special interest that China has proposed an 'Energy Dialogue between Asia and Europe' about the resources and the Eurasian continent. The Chinese example illustrates the need for a Swedish energy security policy and plans for energy crisis preparedness

  14. Role of History in Vladimir Putin’s Foreign Policy

    Oleg N. Barabanov


    Full Text Available The subject of the article is dedicated to the evolution of the visible accent on the role of history and historico-civilizational heritage in formulation of Russia's foreign policy strategy in conceptual speeches of the President of Russia Vladimir Putin in 2013-2015. His thesis on Russia as a country-civilization, proclaimed in Summer-Autumn 2013, became the basis for serious practical steps for activization of the foreign policy of Russia starting from 2014. It became clear mainly during the Ukrainian crisis, but also other key international events of the last two years. Another significant element of such a strategy was the thesis on the sacrality of history for Russia, exceeding far beyond a traditional focus on using the historical memory in current politics, that one can see in other states' examples. The consequence of that thesis is the feeling of specific historical responsibility in front of Russia for state politicians, also formulated by President Putin. All this could be considered as a new dimension of the moral basis of politics. One more focus of the article is on the role of new public political panels for proclaiming such a historically motivated politics, like the Valdai Discussion Club, etc.


    Karim Pourhamzavi


    Full Text Available Our paper explores the Al-Jazeera network and its relationship to the state which set it up and continues to fund it.  We suggest that, while the network may provide perspectives for Western viewers that other large, but Western-owned networks do not, it is far from immune from the problems of state influence.  Behind a cultivated veneer of providing perspectives from 'the Arab street', the network reflects foreign policy perspectives of the Qatari state and the small elite which controls it.  This paper surveys Al-Jazeera Arabic news coverage (August 2014-August 2015 of conflict in Iraq and three AJA current affairs programmes coverage (January 2014-August 2015 of conflict in Iraq, Syria and Egypt.  The results indicate that, on foreign policy issues which the Qatari elite regards as particularly important, the network promotes the perspectives of the state.  The relationship between the Qatari state and Al-Jazeera also constrains the network's independence and objectivity.

  16. An Ethical Foreign Policy? Globalism as a Threat to the US National Interest

    Wassim Daghrir


    Full Text Available An ethical foreign policy can have no objectives other than those that are of service to its own people. An unethical foreign policy, however, may pursue objectives that enhance the nation as a power, seeking dominance for its own sake, for the honor, glory and wealth of the state or a minority within the state, or spreading its ideology out of missionary fervor. The mainstream wisdom in the United States is that the US foreign policy agendas are virtuous and ethical, since they are oriented mainly towards the protection and enhancement of the American ‘National Interest’. Nevertheless, the orthodox perception among many foreign observers is that the American foreign policy is by no means ethical, since it is oriented exclusively towards the promotion of the Americans’ interests at the expense of the rest of the world. My thesis is that the US foreign policy is unethical and anti-democratic mainly because it is causing a lot of harm to the American taxpayers’ interests. I esteem that the American people are the real permanent victims of their country’s globalist stance. This article is based on an argumentative criticism of the mainstream American perception of U.S. foreign policy as well as a criticism of the foreign observers’ perception of American foreign policy. In a nutshell, this article tries to highlight the unethical nature of the American foreign policy with a focus on the complex justifications for such an undemocratic globalist agenda.

  17. Book review of The EU’s Foreign Policy: What Kind of Power and Diplomatic Action?

    Hikaru Yoshizawa


    Full Text Available With an international team of foreign policy experts, the editors provide a clear and critical account of EU foreign policy with special reference to the Lisbon Treaty, the global financial crisis of 2007-8, as well as those structural constraints arising from the emerging multipolar world order. The book portrays the EU as a ‘civilian power by default’, while explaining the limited efficiency and effectiveness of post-Lisbon EU foreign policy.



    tenuous than ever with the new controversial Trump administration and the EU nascent foreign policy efforts already failed in handling the challenges...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY BULGARIA’S MULTI-VECTOR FOREIGN POLICY APPROACH TO SECURITY CHALLENGES IN EASTERN EUROPE by Dimitar Y...the abatement of US interest in Europe, will require wise foreign policy maneuvers to address the changes in the transformed security environment. As

  19. Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

    Haddal, Chad C


    Five years after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks by foreign nationals -- including several terrorists on student visas -- the security concerns over foreign student visas are being weighed...

  20. Interests and Values in Obama's foreign Policy: Leading from Behind?



    Full Text Available Abstract This study will exam the relative importance of values and interests in Obama's foreign policy, focusing on crucial cases: the military actions related to Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Non-Syria, Al-Qaeda and ISIL. We will argue that his "leading from behind" strategy is not very distant from the foreign and defense strategies of his post-Cold War predecessors, by which democracy is seen as an assurance to security. According to Obama's strategy, Americans will only provide support for the building of democracy in the target countries, while this task should be performed by the locals themselves. Americans will provide military training to the new governments as well so they can be responsible for their own security, including preventing regrouping of terrorists in their soil. If Obama opposes the imposing of democracy by the use of force, empirical data shows that his administration is "not prepared to accept" any option that threats US security or American liberal-democratic values, bringing in this way values and interests very close to each other.

  1. Health imperatives in foreign policy: the case of Malaysia.

    Barraclough, Simon; Phua, Kai-Lit


    Malaysia's global, regional and bilateral international health relations are surveyed against the historical backdrop of the country's foreign policy. Malaysia has always participated in multilateral agencies, most notably the World Health Organization, as such agencies are part of the longstanding fabric of "good international citizenship". The threats of infectious diseases to human health and economic activity have caused an intensification and an organizational formalization of Malaysian health diplomacy, both regionally and bilaterally. Such diplomacy has also established a basis for developing a wider set of cooperative relationships that go beyond responding to the threat of pandemics. As Malaysia approaches "developed" status, its health sector is becoming increasingly integrated into the global economy through joint research and development ventures and transnational investment. At the same time, it will have the technological, financial and human resources to play an expanded altruistic role in global and regional health.

  2. Burst Diplomacy The Diplomacies of Foreign Policy: Actors and Methods

    Guillaume Devin


    Full Text Available Approaches to diplomacy tend to be restrictive because of an exclusively interstate insight. Indeed, historically, the state monopoly over diplomacy has always been challenged by private actors. Today, it is defied both from the inside because of growing public fragmentation (every ministry tends to lead its own foreign policy; subnational authorities develop their diplomatic relations and from the outside (the business sector and civil society play a growing role on the international scene. This proliferation of actors has transformed diplomatic methods. Beyond the binary division between “old diplomacy” – bilateral, secret and resident – and “new diplomacy” – multilateral, public and itinerant – this article shows that diplomacy has to adapt to number and complexity. Therefore a more global conception need now be considered. Diplomacy today is a system of multiple actors using diverse methods in order to coordinate positions of common interest in a competitive and sometimes hostile environment.

  3. Mode of foreign entry, technology transfer, and foreign direct investment policy

    Mattoo, Aaditya; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Saggi, Kamal


    Foreign direct investment can take place through the direct entry of foreign firms or the acquisition of existing domestic firms. Mattoo, Olarreaga, and Saggi examine the preferences of a foreign firm and the host country government with respect to these two modes of foreign direct investment in the presence of costly technology transfer. The tradeoff between technology transfer and market...

  4. Branding technologies in the foreign policy of Ukraine: regulatory and organizational aspects

    Tereshchuk Maryna Ihorivna


    Full Text Available The article analyses regulatory and organizational components of the application of branding technology as a tool of foreign policy of Ukraine. Particular attention is paid to the activities of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine in this sphere, as well as to the problems impeding the full implementation of the branding policy.

  5. Predicting a State’s Foreign Policy: State Preferences between Domestic and International Constraints

    Alons, G.C.


    In order to understand a state’s foreign policy preferences, we need to take both its domestic and international considerations into account. This article aims to contribute to the analysis of foreign policy by exploring the conditions under which states will either give precedence to domestic or

  6. Television and U.S. Foreign Policy: The Case of the Iran Hostage Crisis.

    Larson, James F.


    Reviews three major roles identified for the press in the foreign policy process: observer, participant, and catalyst. Claims that these roles circumscribe the structural relationship of media to foreign policy and provide a framework for some general propositions against which the particulars of the Iran case may be interpreted. (JD)

  7. Insurgency and American Foreign Policy: the case of George McGovern

    Haar, Roberta


    As a distinct foreign-policy group, neoconservatives emerged in a period of social unrest and political cynicism—a time when insurgent presidential candidates can have profound effects on the outlook and conduct of foreign policy. The George McGovern insurgency is an important historical event that

  8. Environmental policy on the fixed-fee licensing of eco-technology under foreign penetration

    Kim, Seung-Leul; Lee, Sang-Ho


    This study investigates environmental policy on the fixed-fee licensing strategy of clean eco-technology by an innovator having foreign ownership. We show that near-zero emission taxes accompanied by non-exclusive licensing regulation can improve social welfare when the cost gap is small or foreign penetration is high. However, when foreign ownership is not high, exclusive licensing regulations with an appropriate emission tax policy may improve social welfare.

  9. How the global and national levels interrelate in climate policymaking: Foreign Policy Analysis and the case of Carbon Capture Storage in Norway's foreign policy

    Roettereng, Jo-Kristian Straete


    States struggle to develop adequate climate change mitigation policies, especially when national energy interests conflict with collective environmental concerns. It is therefore crucial to understand how viable solutions may find political support on these terms. As one such case, this paper examines Norway's explicit foreign policy to promote Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) as a mitigation measure. I suggest that a Foreign Policy Analysis framework with a norm-centered constructivist focus allows for new insights into how climate policies function as balancing strategies between external normative pressures and important domestic concerns. It reveals how Norway's CCS policy represents an extraordinary effort to bridge seemingly contradictory agendas. The Norwegian CCS case highlights how a state may engage in innovative foreign political engineering to promote solutions to its international climate commitments on terms that fit national energy needs. It shows that climate political success may depend on successfully linking the international and domestic levels by simultaneously appealing to established norms within each system. - Highlights: • A Foreign Policy Analysis framework is used to explain foreign policy in the energy-climate domain. • Norway's external strategy to promote CCS globally is traced and explained. • Both external and domestic factors influenced Norway's CCS policymaking. • Both ideational and material factors were important to legitimize this strategy.

  10. Myanmar’s Foreign Policy under the USDP Government: Continuities and Changes

    Maung Aung Myoe


    Full Text Available Myanmar’s foreign policy under the USDP government is historically consistent in terms of fundamental principles of being independent, active, and non-aligned, as promulgated in the Constitution. However, the USDP government has pronounced a new foreign policy objective of reintegrating Myanmar into the international community. This objective is not in conflict with the existing ones nor does it seek to replace them, but rather endeavours to supplement them to make Myanmar’s foreign relations more active, dynamic, and international. This is by no means a major change in foreign policy orientation. It is merely an adjustment within the context of the fundamental principles of Myanmar’s foreign policy to cultivate friendly and balanced relations with all major powers active in the Indo-Pacific region. The change is mostly in terms of how the foreign policy is implemented and diplomacy is conducted. Since it came to power in 2011, the USDP government has pursued a foreign policy strategy that delicately balances the strategic interests of major powers in the country, that primarily maintains friendly relations with countries both near and far, and that applies multilateralism with an emphasis on regional cooperation or regional institutions. The foreign policy adjustment under the USDP government is leadership-driven, and it appears that the president is a prime mover and the Tatmadaw is a lead institution.

  11. U.S. foreign policy traditions: multilateralism vs. unilateralism since 1776

    Restad, Hilde Eliassen


    As the world’s most powerful state the foreign policy choices of the United States have affected global security for a century and will continue to do so for quite some time. The study of U.S. foreign policy traditions is therefore an important aspect of the study of international relations. The conventional assumption of several scholars of U.S. foreign policy is that the United States abandoned its policy of isolation and aloofness and adopted one of responsibility for international securit...

  12. Trump's foreign policy: A victory for the deep state

    Trifković Srđa


    Full Text Available Donald Trump, an outsider who won the Presidency against all odds and predictions, came to the White House apparently determined to chart a new strategic course in foreign affairs. His opponent, Hillary Clinton, was committed to a hegemonistic vision and to specific policies based on the decades-old globalist-liberal orthodoxy. As this paper points out, Trump's 'America First' approach in essence rejected the doctrine of America as a proposition nation, criticized its global engagement, questioned NATO's utility and core mission, advocated rapprochement with Russia, and condemned the regime-change focus of earlier administrations. It further emphasizes that Trump explicitly sought to reaffirm the raison d'état as the guiding principle of foreign policymaking. His biggest problem all along was that the American 'deep state' - key components of the national security apparat, the military-industrial complex, and the bipartisan political duopoly in Washington - rejected any realist criteria in their definition of 'interests' and 'threats.' They were intent on the maintenance of American global primacy, and they proved effective in imposing agenda contrary to Trump's stated positions on all key global issues. At the same time, as this paper documents, Trump himself has been stepping ever farther away from his campaign pledges. It would be incorrect to say that the permanent state has successfully subverted and undermined the chief executive. It would be more accurate, we conclude, to recognize that a mutinous president has tried, and failed, to alter the long-charted global course of the permanent state.

  13. The economic value of fair use in copyright law: counterfactual impact analysis of fair use policy on private copying technology and copyright markets in Singapore

    Ghafele, Roya; Gibert, Benjamin


    The counterfactual impact analysis of fair use amendments in Singapore undertaken here demonstrates that flexible fair use policy positively influences growth rates in private copying technology industries. In 2010, five years after the policy intervention, Singapore’s fair use amendments are correlated with a 3.33% increase in value-added (as % of GDP) for private copying technology industries. Prior to the amendment of fair use policies, private copying technology industries experienced - 1...

  14. The Arctic - A New Region for China's Foreign Policy

    V S Yagiya


    Full Text Available Article is devoted to foreign policy of China in the Arctic. Main attention is paid to strategic view of the China concerning the Arctic, to bilateral and multilateral cooperation on the Arctic issues, also to opinion of Russian experts about discussing of Russian-China economic partnership. It was shown interests of the People's Republic of China in the Arctic: use Arctic transport system from the Pacific Rim to Europe; possibility of access to the Arctic resources; seeks of partners for the realized of Arctic projects and programs. It was pointed six directions of China cooperation in the Arctic: a scientific researches, b natural minerals, oil and gas issues, c tourism, d routes of the Arctic navigation, e use of high technologies in development of regional economy, e cooperation in the cultural and educational spheres. Authors are summarized that at the initial stage of the international cooperation in the Arctic polar scientific researches become as the tool of “he soft power”, and in the long term - the Northern Sea Route of the Russian Federation is included in the Strategy of China Economic belt and the Maritime Silk Route in the XXI century.

  15. 36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...


    ... for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or contain copyrighted material... Distribution of United States Information Agency Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States § 1256.100 What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright...

  16. An Ethical Foreign Policy? Globalism as a Threat to the US National Interest

    Wassim Daghrir


    An ethical foreign policy can have no objectives other than those that are of service to its own people. An unethical foreign policy, however, may pursue objectives that enhance the nation as a power, seeking dominance for its own sake, for the honor, glory and wealth of the state or a minority within the state, or spreading its ideology out of missionary fervor. The mainstream wisdom in the United States is that the US foreign policy agendas are virtuous and ethical, since they are oriented ...

  17. The Foreign Policy of Colombia, the OECD and the Peer R eview of the Public Policies

    Tassara, Carlo; Universidad de Roma Sapienza


    After a period characterized by many criticalities, the foreign policy and the  international standing of Colombia has changed significantly. In this framework, the  accession process of Colombia to the OECD represents a relevant challenge and it is  aimed at consolidating Colombian new status of emerging country. Among other  things, this organisation is defined by the use of the peer review to improve the  quality of the formulation, implementation and monitoring of its Member States  publi...

  18. “Eastern Turn” of Russian Foreign Policy: Causes, Risks, and the Reaction of the West

    Temchenko-Zavyalova Anastasia O.


    Full Text Available The author analyzes the evolution of foreign policy of new Russia, identifies trends and patterns of transition to various courses, prerequisites of the “eastern turn”, and characterizes the specificity of this direction in the contemporary realia. The author proposes a number of clarifying concepts within the analysis of the foreign policies of Russia. The foreign policy of Russia for the last decades underwent a number of the changes connected with its orientation to various groups of the countries. However, in connection with the events which took place in 2014, the Russian foreign policy carried out the “eastern turn” that entailed certain consequences and prospects by estimates of experts. The relevance of the research consists in the opportunity to estimate realities of a foreign policy of Russia, to analyse the reasons of its acceptance, possible risks and reaction of the western partners who changed in their turn a course concerning Russia. Scientific novelty of the present work consists in the systematization of the issue on the evolution of a foreign policy of Russia and the analysis of current trends taking into account the “eastern turn”. Besides, scientific definition of “eastern turn of the Russian foreign policy” and its consequence in the conditions of development of modern Russia is worked out. The author considers the main actions and the directions which formed the basis of the updated foreign policy of Russia from 2009 to 2013. The author made the conclusions concerning the analysis of modern Russia’s foreign policy and its turn to the east.

  19. Confession and Carrying into Execution of Foreign Arbitration Courts' Decisions: Reciprocity and Public Policy

    Sarina, Salima A.; Nukusheva, Aigul A.; Kalmagambetov, Kassym S.; Kumysbekova, Zhanara T.; Nesterova, Elena V.


    The article contains a comparative analysis of foreign arbitration courts' decisions, ensuring the reciprocity and public policy. The aim of the study is to explore such aspects as reciprocity and public policy of arbitration courts. The result is the view of the public policy, despite its apparent irrelevance in today's Kazakhstan, which is of…

  20. Energy policy and foreign policy in Italy; Politica energetica e politica estera in Italia

    Venanzi, F. (comp.)


    Energy policy in Italy is principally a matter of foreign policy. As a result, extensive programmes for the exploration, development, transport and marketing of oil and natural gas have to be planned and carried out together with the producing countries. In this effort, the country shall need the support of its national energy companies. That is why ENI's controlling interest as well as its mission had better be on Italian hands. [Italian] Per l'Italia la politica energetica deve essere principalmente politica estera. Occorre pertanto realizzare vasti programmi di esplorazione mineraria, coltivazione, trasporto e commercializzazione di petrolio e gas naturale con i Paesi produttori. Ci sara' quindi bisogno di contare sulle imprese energetiche nazionali: per questa ragione, si auspica che il controllo e la missione dell'ENI restino italiani.

  1. The foreign policy of the Gabonese Republic: new priorities and challenges

    F Ch Ndakissa Onkassa


    Full Text Available The article considers the features of formation and realization of foreign policy and the basic characteristics of the international image of modern Gabon are considered. It is shown, that the foreign policy is the important direction in the state activity of Gabon and is intended to offer the General public all over the world complete and reliable information on the situation in the country on key international issues, activities and initiatives of Gabon in the field of political space and the processes and projects of socio-economic development, its cultural and scientific achievements. Foreign policy activity is aimed at creating favorable conditions for the realization of the historic choice of the Gabonese people to strengthen the rule of law, market economy and democratic society, to focus on the social dimension. Нerewith this article analyzes the main provisions of the foreign policy of the Gabonese Republic, considered in conjunction with the country's development objectives defined in the strategic plan “A prosperous Gabon”. Particular attention is paid to the role of the President in making foreign policy decisions and ideas about the prospects for the development of Gabon's foreign policy. Key value of principles of maintenance of the sovereignty and the international inclusiveness, influence of the factor of the French language and policy of multilateral diplomacy is underlined at definition of objectives and priorities of foreign policy of Gabon during an epoch of new international realities. It is noted, that foreign policy activity of Gabon is aimed at creation a wide range of the international partnership in interests of national development in in the context of globalization.

  2. E-PR as an instrument of forming the foreign policy image of Ukraine

    Tereshchuk Vitaliy Ivanovych


    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of the Internet as a global communication tool in the PR-support of the implementation of Ukraine's foreign policy. The article pays particular attention to the features of the websites of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and diplomatic missions of Ukraine as an image-forming tool.

  3. Foreign Policy and The Cultural Factor : A Research and Education Agenda

    Dr. P. Ester; Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden


    In this introduction we have outlined the vital importance of the role of culture (i.e.: the cultural factor) in the field of international relations, foreign policy, and diplomacy and the professional need for cultural competence among its practitioners.

  4. Changing foreign policy: the Obama Administration’s decision to oust Mubarak

    Maria do Céu Pinto Arena


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper analyses the decision of the Obama administration to redirect its foreign policy towards Egypt in the wake of the Arab Spring. It attempts to highlight the issue of how governments deal with decision-making at times of crisis, and under which circumstances they take critical decisions that lead to major shifts in their foreign policy track record. It focuses on the process that led to a reassessment of US (United States foreign policy, shifting from decades of support to the autocratic regime of Hosni Mubarak, towards backing his ouster. Specifically, the paper attempts to assess to what extent the decision to withdraw US support from a longstanding state-leader and ally in the Middle East can be seen as a foreign policy change (FPC. A relevant research question this paper pursues is: how can the withdrawal of US support to a regime considered as an ally be considered, in itself, as a radical FPC?

  5. (Inefficiency of EU Common Foreign and Security Policy: Ukraine, Brexit, Trump and beyond

    Filipec Ondřej


    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to explore and analyze key determinants of EU Common Foreign and Security Policy efficiency. For this purpose a 3C analytical approach is used, exploring EU foreign and security policy consistency, capacities and the dimension of cooperation. Article analyzes both horizontal and vertical, consistency of EU Foreign and Security policy especially with connection to Ukraine crises and diverging interests of EU member states. EU capacities are explored with main focus on military spending and challenges related to limited spending. EU military decline is put in contrast with new emerging regional powers. In the area of cooperation article is dedicated mainly to ineffective partnership with Turkey, cold attitude of Trump administration towards Europe and the implications of Brexit for EU foreign and security policy.

  6. Beyond the Warsaw Pact: Russian Foreign Policy in East Central Europe


    the aspirations of the members of the state system. Because each state is seeking ඈVladimir Tsvetov and Tatyana Krasnova , "Kozyrev Interviewed on...34Primary Foreign Policy Objective to Rejoin Europe." 28 December 1990, 15-20. Sabbat-Swidlicka, Anna . "Friendship Declarations Signed with Ukraine and... Krasnova . "Kozyrev Interviewed on Foreign Policy Issues" (excerpts). Moscow Russian Television Network in Russian, 1855 GMT, 3 March 1992. Translated by

  7. A Review of the Turnaround in Iranian Foreign Policy during President Hassan Rohani's Administration

    Javad Haghgoo


    Full Text Available The transition of power in the Islamic Republic of Iran is not only a change of guards in the different political and executive institutions during each electoral cycle but it also radically redefines the fundamental aspects of self-identity and the very definition of national interests and priorities and even how they should be defined. Upon the assumption of power by President Hassan Rohani in Iran, foreign policy of the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran has been exposed to tremendous developments. Prevalence of conservatism over revolutionary mindset, nationalism over trans-nationalism, and structuralism over agent-oriented trends are considered as the three main pillars of these developments. In Rohani’s administration there is no longer any trace of the revolutionary behavior of Ahmadinejad’s era. This turnaround in the Islamic Republic of Iran’s foreign policy is not a new phenomenon. We have witnessed such a shift in Iranian foreign policy after the end of the 8-year war with Iraq, albeit with different dimensions. An assessment of this issue would greatly enhance our understanding of the country’s foreign policy. Accordingly, assessment of the real roots of these foreign policy shifts is the main objective of the present article. Evidently, the shift in foreign policy, more than anything else can be attributed to changes in the definition of the concept of national interests, and how each administration defines such national and transnational interests. Any shift or transformation in this concept, as the guiding principal of foreign policy, creates a context for the shift in the national priorities, orientations, and strategies in its interaction with its external environment. By highlighting the three concepts of “circulation of elites”, “perception towards national identity”, and “structural developments”, the present article endeavors to review the causes of differing understandings of the concept of

  8. The Uses of Sovereignty in Twenty First Century Russian Foreign Policy

    Deyermond, Ruth Margaret


    Contemporary Russian foreign policy demonstrates a dual approach to state sovereignty, using a Westphalian model of sovereignty outside the former Soviet region and a post-Soviet model inside it. This approach performs three functions in contemporary Russian foreign policy: securing Russian national interests at domestic, regional, and international levels; balancing against the United States; and acting as a marker of ‘non-Western’ power identity in an emergent multipolar order. The conflict...

  9. Jefferson and Jackson in the front seats: US foreign policies under Trump

    Rolf, Jan Niklas


    Donald Trump’s foreign policy agenda has been characterized as unpredictable, unprecedented and – after a telling neologism of the president himself – unpresidented. In this blog post I will argue that the constituent parts of Trump’s foreign policy are all but new. What is new is their combination. Moreover, while Trump’s Jeffersonianism-Jacksonianism stands in stark contrast to the Wilsonianism-Hamiltonianism that Hillary Clinton embraced during her election campaign, it is only a partial d...

  10. Political Parties, Foreign Policy and Ideology: Argentina and Chile in Comparative Perspective

    Janina Onuki


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to discuss the distribution of preferences of members of the Chilean and Argentinian Congresso n foreign policy issues through the analysis of roll call votes. This goal is guided by the debate in Latin American literature concerning the decision-making process in foreign policy. The predominant argument focuses on the Executive as the principal decision-maker, disregarding the Legislative as relevant in this field. Thus, legislators would tend to abdicate from their preferences in determining foreign policy. Confronting this argument, we have many studies emphasizing the importance of domestic actors in the foreign policy decision-making process. This article proposes to analyse two case studies in comparative perspective: the lower houses of the national parliaments of Argentina and Chile. The result is that the party ideology is a relevant explanatory favor of deputies’ votes. Although the argument is more evident for the Chilean case, it is possible to argue that there is a similar pattern to the structuring of deputies’ votes in the two countries, both on the domestic and on the international arena. The methodology used makes it possible to infer legislators’ preferences by means of roll call votes and of the construction of maps of deputies’ ideal points in foreign policy terms, as well as the correlation between Chilean and Argentinian parties’ ideological classifications. Votes on foreign policy questions during the 2002-2006/2007 legislatures are considered.

  11. Foreign Military Sales: Shaping Foreign Policy and Enhancing the Industrial Base

    Haynes, Jacob


    The Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program, a Defense Department operation that manages sales of defense equipment as well as services and training to allied governments, is becoming a source of increasing dissatisfaction for the U.S...

  12. Climate change and foreign policy : an exploration of options for greater integration

    Drexhage, J.; Murphy, D.; Brown, O.; Cosbey, A.; Dickey, P.; Parry, J.-E.; Van Ham, J.; Tarasofsky, R.; Darkin, B.


    Climate change is a global challenge and one of biggest challenges of this century. Addressing the challenges posed by climate change requires new thinking in foreign policy. This paper discussed the results of a research study that examined the role of foreign policy in fostering a more effective international response to the challenge of climate change. The scope involved an examination of instruments relevant to Danish foreign policy. The paper first identified the climate change challenge and discussed international diplomacy and relations. Energy security and investment was discussed in terms of the impact of energy security on climate change efforts and opportunities for integration. Other areas where critical issues and opportunities for integration were offered include international peace and security; trade and investment; and development cooperation. The paper made several recommendations in these areas in addition to diplomatic networking. The study concluded that foreign policy can further the climate change agenda in a number of areas in diplomacy and foreign relations within the European Union, transatlantic relations, Arctic issues and United Nations affairs. This includes better integration of climate change into the European Union's common foreign and security policy, the Lisbon Agenda, and incorporating climate change in the work of a wide range of bodies under the United Nations. refs., figs

  13. Final environmental statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Storage of foreign spent power reactor fuel


    In October 1977, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced a Spent Fuel Storage Policy for nuclear power reactors. Under this policy, as approved by the President, US utilities will be given the opportunity to deliver spent fuel to US Government custody in exchange for payment of a fee. The US Government will also be prepared to accept a limited amount of spent fuel from foreign sources when such action would contribute to meeting nonproliferation goals. Under the new policy, spent fuel transferred to the US Government will be delivered - at user expense - to a US Government-approved site. Foreign spent fuel would be stored in Interim Spent Fuel Storage (ISFS) facilities with domestic fuel. This volume of the environmental impact statement includes effects associated with implementing or not implementing the Spent Fuel Storage Policy for the foreign fuels. The analyses show that there are no substantial radiological health impacts whether the policy is implemented or not. In no case considered does the population dose commitment exceed 0.000006% of the world population dose commitment from natural radiation sources over the period analyzed. Full implementation of the US offer to accept a limited amount of foreign spent fuel for storage provides the greatest benefits for US nonproliferation policy. Acceptance of lesser quantities of foreign spent fuel in the US or less US support of foreign spent fuel storage abroad provides some nonproliferation benefits, but at a significantly lower level than full implementation of the offer. Not implementing the policy in regard to foreign spent fuel will be least productive in the context of US nonproliferation objectives. The remainder of the summary provides a brief description of the options that are evaluated, the facilities involved in these options, and the environmental impacts, including nonproliferation considerations, associated with each option

  14. The Bush Doctrine: The Foreign Policy of Republican Empire


    Michael W. Doyle, ‘‘Kant, Liberal Legacies, and Foreign Affairs,’’ Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol. 12, No. 3, Summer, 1983, pp. 205–235 and ‘‘Kant...Liberal Legacies, and Foreign Affairs, Part 2,’’ Philosophy and Public Affairs, Autumn, 1983, pp. 323–353, as well as Doyle, Ways of War and Peace ( libertarians and OWENS 41 George Bush, Graduation Speech at the US Air Force Academy, June 2, 2004, http://

  15. Review and Analysis of the Colombian Foreign Language Bilingualism Policies and Plans

    Gómez Sará, Mary Mily


    This article reviews the background of the foreign language bilingualism in Colombia, as well as the Colombian bilingualism plans and the policy launched between 2004 and 2016. Then, these plans and policy are analyzed taking into account the most common criticisms from the academic community. In this sense, aspects such as the lack of continuity,…

  16. Border dimension of Chilean foreign policies: Immobility and urgency of new dynamics

    Cristian Ovando Santana


    Full Text Available The following article draws the priorities of border public policy that define the Chilean foreign policy. Through a theoretical framework from the rational–reflective approach of International Relations, we argue that despite of the increasing openness, internationalization of the country, and the emergence of new actors and subnational initiatives; the views and options between the actors of this new area and the definitions of foreign policy not always match. We propose the need to establish mechanisms that settle the positions among regional social–political actors, intermediate agencies and the central level.

  17. Soft Power, Hard Aspirations: the Shifting Role of Power in Brazilian Foreign Policy

    Marcelo M. Valença


    Full Text Available Journalists and policy analysts have highlighted the emergence of Brazil as a regional power. However, little attention has been paid to its foreign policy strategies. Brazil's rise to prominence in world politics represents the historical culmination of a foreign policy featuring two main strategies – persuasion and consensus building – both of which emphasise the use of soft power. We analyse four current foreign policy initiatives: the campaign for a permanent seat on the UNSC; the development of a nuclear submarine; Brazil's leadership of the UN peacekeeping mission in Haiti; and government support for Brazilian multinationals. We suggest a growing tension between these initiatives and the two strategies identified above. These initiatives reflect the view current among some policymakers that if Brazil is to rise as a global power it must play by the rules of great power politics.

  18. Foreign Assistance Policies of India and China | IDRC - International ...

    ... understanding of their systems and strategies. This study addresses this gap by updating data on each country's foreign assistance and mapping the institutions involved, the beneficiaries, the sectors they are investing in, and their funding approaches. It also examines the underlying philosophy that guides each country's ...

  19. International Education as Soft Power? The Contributions and Challenges of Canadian Foreign Policy to the Internationalization of Higher Education

    Trilokekar, Roopa Desai


    This paper explores the role of the Canadian federal government in two foreign policy areas: overseas development assistance and international cultural relations by providing a brief history of the federal government's engagement in both policy areas and highlighting the contributions and challenges of Canadian foreign policy to the…

  20. Turkey in Search of Relevant Foreign Policy Strategy (2002-2016

    Urmanov Dayan R.


    Full Text Available The main idea of this article is to describe the process of Turkish foreign policy evolvement during the rule of Justice and Development party (JDP. From weak economy and unstable political situation in 2001, JDP quickly formulated a new strategy of foreign policy and stabilized economy. In the article the Turkish foreign policy in the 21st century is divided into several stages which respond to different international threats and circumstances. The first stage was a peacekeeping stage when Turkey tried to stabilize the situation near its borders and implement peace initiatives for the purpose to find new markets and allies. As a result, Turkey formulated a new strategy of foreign policy, called “Zero Problems Policy” which aimed to create a ring of friendly countries on the borders. On the second stage, Turkish foreign policy was more active – Turkey tried to balance among regional power centers and confront with one of the most powerful actors – Israel. Confrontation with Tel Aviv was a preface to the third stage, and today under the influence of “Arab Spring” and desire to change its role in international relations, Turkey refused “Zero Problems Policy” strategy and turned to a new aggressive and revanchist idea – neo- Ottomanism. Ankara tries to build a new regional set of rules where Turkey will play a leading role.

  1. Persia lost : how the foreign policy hawks of the George W. Bush administration blocked rapprochement with Iran

    Fagernes, Therese


    The presidency of George W. Bush was a period of controversy. The foreign policy that the administration implemented would be criticized both inside of the United States and across the world. The purpose of this thesis is to look at how the senior members of the Bush administration’s foreign policy team influenced the foreign policy process during President George Walker Bush’s first term. It will apply the interaction and bitter opposition between these individuals and the defining events th...

  2. East Asia’s Foreign Exchange Rate Policies


    At the other extreme, Japan, the Philippines, and South Korea have usually allowed their currencies to float freely in foreign exchange ( forex ...China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam allow their currency to adjust in value in forex markets so long as the...There were also reports that Korea sold more dollars for won in early April 2008.7 At the time, some forex analysts claimed that the new South Korean

  3. The Foreign Fighters Phenomenon in the EU – Profiles, Threats & Policies

    Bibi van Ginkel


    Full Text Available Despite the widespread media attention for foreign fighters in Europe, very little is known about the phenomenon itself, something also evidenced by the lack of a single foreign fighter definition across the EU. In a study commissioned by the Netherlands National Coordinator for Security and Counterterrorism (NCTV, ICCT addresses this gap by analysing not only the numbers and characteristics of foreign fighters across the EU, but also how the Union and Member States assess the threat of foreign fighters as well as their policy responses regarding security, preventive and legislative measures. The Report also outlines a series of policy options aimed both at the EU and its Member States. Findings include: Of a total estimated 3,922 – 4,294 foreign fighters from EU Member States, around 30% have returned to their home countries. A majority of around 2,838 foreign fighters come from just four countries: Belgium, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom, with Belgium having the highest per-capita FF contingent. There is no clear-cut profile of a European foreign fighter. Data indicates that a majority originate from metropolitan areas, with many coming from the same neighbourhoods, that an average of 17% are female, and that the percentage of converts among foreign fighters ranges from 6% to 23%. The radicalisation process of foreign fighters is reported to be short and often involves circles of friends radicalising as a group and deciding to leave jointly for Syria and Iraq. EU1 In analysing the policies of Member States in response to the foreign fighter phenomenon, the authors recommend that strategies be implemented which encompass a suitable, proportional, context-specific and effective mix of policy responses, taken from a toolbox of security, legislative, and preventive measures. Their analysis reveals that, while many Member States have already bolstered security and legislative policy measures, a larger focus needs to be put on preventive

  4. [The role of the state and society relationship in the foreign policy making process : arvustus] / Hiski Haukkala

    Haukkala, Hiski


    Arvustus: Maria Groeneveld. The role of the state and society relationship in the foreign policy making process. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2012. ( Dissertationes rerum politicarum Universitatis Tartuensis ; 7)

  5. The Effects of Foreign Government Policies on the Location of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad

    Kee Min


    Full Text Available Many argue about which policy and non-policy variables play an important role in influencing foreign direct investment decisions. This article contributes to this debate by considering the effects of foreign government policies on the location of U.S. direct investment abroad. The analysis used pooled cross-section and time series data for 44 countries over three time periods to examine the effects of different types of non-policy and policy variables, including market size, per capita income, country risks, tax rates, investment incentives, and investment regulations. This study found that a policy variable, investment regulation and two non-policy variables, market size and per capita income impact investment decision. A moderately strong effect is found in investment incentive policy, whereas country risks and tax rates turned out not to be strong factors in influencing U.S. investment locations. However, in the case of FDI in developing countries, country risk and tax rates appeared to be more important factors for the location of U.S. FDI than host countries' market size. Strong interaction effects between policy variable and market size are found, while less strong interaction is found between policy variable and per capita income. This study concludes that policy variables are also important factors along with non-policy factors and the determinants of FDI are not independently exerting an influence but jointly affecting U.S. investment locations.

  6. Policies and Procedures for Foreign Exchange Agencies. First Edition.

    Hartman, Donald D.

    The guide details the policy of the Jefferson County (Alabama) Board of Education policy concerning international exchange of students (travel both to and from United States) in elementary and secondary grades. The first section specifies the standards by which the county will evaluate all international exchange agencies concerning structure,…

  7. Current Policy Issues in Early Foreign Language Learning

    Janet Enever


    Full Text Available The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education policy in Europe, identifying the extent to which the histories of national language policies are being re-shaped by the rise of numerical data and comparison within a newly-formed European education space. A summary review of key measures of particular relevance to early language learning illustrates thescale of “soft” policy mechanisms now available as tools in an on-going process of shaping, adapting and refining policy in response to the continuously shifting language priorities that arise particularly during periods of economic instability. This paper draws on key themes from a transnational, longitudinal study of early language learning in Europe to discuss the extent to which implementation in schools has so far been moulded by a plethora of recommendations, reports and indicators formulated in response to the step change in policy development that has occurred since the publication of the Lisbon Strategy (2000.

  8. Bollywoodization of foreign policy: How film discourse portrays tension between states

    Azmat Rasul


    Full Text Available As the nexus between film industry and state apparatus has grown critical and complex in the wake of war on terror, academic circle have paid attention to identify the patterns of relationship between entertainment industry of a country and its foreign policy. To understand the role of the soft power in assisting governments to secure their interests at international level, this article examines the relationship between Bollywood and the Indian foreign policy through the lens of critical political economy of communication approach. Popular films portraying tension and cooperation between the South Asian neighbors were critically analyzed, and the results indicated that Bollywood closely followed the foreign policy initiative of the Indian government.

  9. Discourses of State identity and Post-Lisbon National Foreign Policy

    Larsen, Henrik


    The political system of the EU and its member states is frequently seen as postWestphalian within constructivist-inspired research. This is based on the view that political authority and legitimacy are to be found both at the EU level and the national level with no clear borders between them....... The question raised in this article is how the member states conceive of themselves as foreign policy actors in this situation where they are both politically embedded in EU foreign policy structures and, in most cases, formally able to act outside the EU structures in the field of foreign policy. The overall...... argument is that a pertinent answer to this question can be provided by looking at how (or whether) state identity is articulated in relation to the EU. The paper first presents theoretical considerations relating to discursive articulations of state identity in an EU context. The relevance...

  10. The Concept of Fear and the Matter of Emotions in Lithuania’s Foreign Policy

    Brunalas Benas


    Full Text Available This article reflects on the concept of fear in theories of international relations and foreign policy. The text discusses the concepts of the phenomenon of fear and rational behavior emphasizing that the concept of fear, contrary to the concept of anarchy, has no emotional charge in the theory of international relations. Having surveyed the factor of emotions in the theory of international relations and foreign policy, the author suggests that the emotional meaningful charge be returned to the concept of fear. The study stresses that fear (if treated as an emotion can also have a destructive function disrupting the international system and disturbing the international communication. The third part of the article is devoted to an analysis of the ideas of Lithuania‘s foreign policy. The study explores the idea of Lithuania as a regional leader. The writer claims that the idea was irrational because it was based on the factor of the emotion of fear.

  11. The October Revolution’s Foreign Policy Program: Origins and Results

    Sergey Alekseevich Lantsov


    Full Text Available In this article, the ideological origins of Soviet foreign policy practice after the victory of the October Revolution of 1917 are analysed. The Marxist and Liberal concepts of international politics had common roots. It predetermined the similarity of peaceful settlement's proposals made by the Russian Bolsheviks after the October Revolution; they corresponded to the proposals of the US President W. Wilson. The authors pay attention to the fact that the October revolution’s leaders initially viewed it as an integral part of the world revolution. So, the hope for success of the world revolution was a factor determining the Soviet Russia’s domestic and foreign policy. It is noticed that the Leninist conception of the world revolution supposed a close link between the labor movement and national liberation movements in colonial and semi-colonial countries. That link founded an important direction in Soviet foreign policy. In different periods of Soviet history, the attention to national liberation movements depended on the Soviet Union’s foreign policy situation. Despite all the contradictions in the foreign policy of the USSR, which was conditioned both by ideological and geopolitical factors, it always had willingness to support the principle of national self-determination, which in fact belonged to the legacy of the foreign policy platform of the October Revolution. As a result, the Soviet Union made a significant contribution to the elimination of the colonial system and thereby contributed to a change in the nature of world politics and international relations in the 20th century.

  12. Cosmopolitanism and foreign policy for health: ethics for and beyond the state.

    Lencucha, Raphael


    Foreign policy holds great potential to improve the health of a global citizenship. Our contemporary political order is, in part, characterized by sovereign states acting either in opposition or cooperation with other sovereign states. This order is also characterized by transnational efforts to address transnational issues such as those featured so prominently in the area of global health, such as the spread of infectious disease, health worker migration and the movement of health-harming products. These two features of the current order understandably create tension for truly global initiatives. National security has become the dominant ethical frame underlying the health-based foreign policy of many states, despite the transnational nature of many contemporary health challenges. This ethical approach engages global health as a means to achieving national security objectives. Implicit in this ethical frame is the version of humanity that dichotomizes between "us" and "them". What has been left out of this discourse, for the most part, is the role that foreign policy can play in extending the responsibility of states to protect and promote health of the other, for the sake of the other. The principal purpose of this paper is to review arguments for a cosmopolitan ethics of health-based foreign policy. I will argue that health-based foreign policy that is motivated by security interests is lacking both morally and practically to further global health goals. In other words, a cosmopolitan ethic is not only intrinsically superior as a moral ideal, but also has potential to contribute to utilitarian ends. This paper draws on the cosmopolitanism literature to build robust support for foreign policies that contribute to sustainable systems of global health governance.

  13. The Foreign Policy of Modern China: from the Utopia of Nonpolar World to Chinese Reset

    К И Аксёнова


    Full Text Available The author touches the strategic problem of building China's foreign policy, which in a multipolar world will soon make the country do its significative choice and find an opportunity of modernization. Successful exit strategy from the financial crisis has played a low-down trick with Beijing - the «donor of capital» image raised fears among the leading powers. So, the future of China's foreign policy will depend largely on its ability to transition to a more dynamic and flexible response to rapidly changing trends - the «reset».

  14. America's Credibility at Stake: Arab Perceptions of US Foreign Policy

    Meyer, Michael


    ... and Arab governments as biased against the Arabs and in favor of Israel From the Arab view, two lesser factors that contribute to Arab feelings that US policies are unjust include the long-term American...

  15. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Appendix B, foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel characteristics and transportation casks. Volume 2


    This is Appendix B of a draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. It discusses relevant characterization and other information of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel that could be managed under the proposed action. It also discusses regulations for the transport of radioactive materials and the design of spent fuel casks

  16. Impact of policies regulating foreign physician migration to Switzerland: a modelling case study in anaesthesia.

    Haller, Guy; Combescure, Christophe; Mamie, Chantal; Zoccatelli, Davide; Clergue, François


    Several countries have developed policies that restrict or limit duration of stay, clinical privileges or the number of residency permits allocated to migrating physicians. Switzerland is currently preparing a new law limiting overall foreign immigration. The impact of such restrictive policies is currently unknown. In a case study of anaesthesia care in Switzerland we modelled, trends in the size of physicians' workforce until 2024, following the implementation of a strict quota policy for foreign medical trainees. We developed a computer-based Markov model with Monte-Carlo simulations to project, in the context of a strict quota policy for foreign trainees, supply and demand for anaesthesia positions until 2024. We used data from a cross-sectional study performed in the French- and Italian-speaking cantons of Switzerland and the Health dataset from the OECD. With 8 to 12 (95% CI 4-20) anaesthetists retiring per year, the implementation of strict quotas of foreign graduates would result in a 38% decrease in the number of anaesthetists in intermediary (senior registrars) positions by 2024. This decrease would be particularly important in district hospitals where nearly half (49%) of the non-Swiss anaesthetists are practising. Swiss graduates are unlikely to balance the shortage. Despite efforts by Swiss universities to increase the number of medical graduates, their number has dropped from 10.5 to 9.7/100 000 inhabitants between 2000 and 2012, due to the growth of the population. This case study in Latin Switzerland shows that a restrictive policy limiting foreign immigration of trainees would result in a major deficit in the number of anaesthetists available to meet population needs. These aspects should be carefully considered when countries develop restrictions and limitations of foreign immigration.

  17. The EU’s Difficulty in Translating Interests into Effective Foreign Policy Action: A Look at the Ukraine Crisis

    Smith Nicholas Ross


    Full Text Available The EU’s foreign policy response(s to the unfolding Ukraine crisis has further illustrated its difficulty in making effective foreign policy decisions. Using a neoclassical realist analytical framework, this paper argues that although the EU did have tangible collective interests in pursuing its Ukraine foreign policy, it was unable to adequately filter these through its domestic setting. Three key constraints to the EU’s Ukrainian foreign policy> were identified: decision-makers ’ miscalculations; rigid normative demands; and a reliance on consensus politics. Ultimately, the Ukraine crisis illustrated that the EU, in current incarnation, cannot translate interests into effective foreign policies, even when making policy for their direct neighbourhood.


    Iryna Kinash


    Full Text Available The article analyses the cultural policies in research of domestic and foreign scientists. It was found that around the world it is a part of social policy and an important tool for development. The role of culture as a powerful means of consolidation of society, strengthening of national identity and patriotism is being determined. Implementation of cultural policy of Ukraine through the idea of national cultural revival and restoration of the unity of the state has been suggested. Keywords: cultural policy models, spirituality, society values, unity, national identity. JEL: Z 10

  19. American Foreign Policy Think Tanks and their Views on Baltic Security

    Boyd Jonathan A.


    Full Text Available Recent events have created a sense of urgency within the U.S. foreign policy establishment to update its strategy towards Russia. The Baltic states are seen to be particularly vulnerable and because of its NATO commitments and its history of underwriting security in the region, the U.S. is under pressure to develop an appropriate response. Policy and research institutes-or think tanks-are an important part of the U.S. foreign policy establishment, and given the influence they often have on American foreign policy, it is sensible for any student of Baltic security to evaluate the think tanks’ current perspectives on the viability and desirability of U.S. security commitments in the region. To that end, this article evaluates the outputs of twelve prominent U.S. foreign policy think tanks according to the views they expressed across four general groupings of issues: positions on U.S. grand strategy, perceptions of Moscow’s intentions and capabilities, assessments of NATO’s heath and its value to U.S. security, and the level of commitment to, and assessment of, the security vulnerabilities of the Baltic states. The findings dispel a common misperception that U.S. foreign policy think tanks are generally shifting towards a realist perspective on the Baltic states; they generally do not support U.S. retrenchment, most consider Russia as having revanchist motives, and as a whole support bolstering the defences of NATO’s easternmost flank. However, it would also be an exaggeration to conclude that the U.S. think tank community overall were staunch defenders of the Baltic states, as for many there is a prevailing inattentiveness to Baltic security issues.

  20. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Summary


    The United States Department of Energy and United States Department of State are jointly proposing to adopt a policy to manage spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors. Only spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States would be covered by the proposed policy. The purpose of the proposed policy is to promote U.S. nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives, specifically by seeking to reduce highly-enriched uranium from civilian commerce. This is a summary of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Environmental effects and policy considerations of three Management Alternative approaches for implementation of the proposed policy are assessed. The three Management Alternatives analyzed are: (1) acceptance and management of the spent nuclear fuel by the Department of Energy in the United States, (2) management of the spent nuclear fuel at one or more foreign facilities (under conditions that satisfy United States nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives), and (3) a combination of components of Management Alternatives 1 and 2 (Hybrid Alternative). A No Action Alternative is also analyzed. For each Management Alternative, there are a number of alternatives for its implementation. For Management Alternative 1, this document addresses the environmental effects of various implementation alternatives such as varied policy durations, management of various quantities of spent nuclear fuel, and differing financing arrangements. Environmental impacts at various potential ports of entry, along truck and rail transportation routes, at candidate management sites, and for alternate storage technologies are also examined. For Management Alternative 2, this document addresses two subalternatives: (1) assisting foreign nations with storage; and (2) assisting foreign nations with reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel

  1. Nigeria's Foreign policy: A problem analysis | Saliu | African Journal ...

    for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality. 521 African Journals. Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Featuring journals from 32 Countries: Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana ...

  2. Foreign investment: policies and effects on the petroleum industry in New Zealand

    Tindill, P.


    The theme of this Conference is ''The Post Maui Challenge - Investment and Development Opportunities''. In order to ensure the development and exploitation of petroleum discoveries in New Zealand, considerable capital will be required, particularly from overseas. This paper briefly reviews the Government's foreign investment policies and procedures, and highlights some trends. (Author)

  3. Regional integration and Brazilian Foreign Policy: Strategies in the South American space

    Cristina Soreanu Pecequilo


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present, based on theoretical studies of integration, the evolution of this process in Latin America and, most recently, in South America. Based on these studies, the goal is to analyze the role played by Brazil in the process, which defines as priorities of its foreign policy a regional and global framework for its international action that is based on both cooperation and power projection.The research has been conducted based on theories of integration, an historical background on Latin American integration and in Brazilian foreign policy, through its contemporary agenda. The answer was based on a comparative agenda and in a bibliographical critical analysis of the research material.The main findings of the paper point out that Latin American integration has specific features linked to the economic, political and stragetic realities of the continent that show the limitations of some theories applied to the European process, also that it depends on Brazilian foreign policy actions, that still sees the region as instrumental to its interests. So, Brazil sometimes fail to fulfill some requisites of integration that are essential to sustain its projects. Therefore, there is a cycle of enlargement and deepening of regional integration process in this political space that point out to the need of a more sustained compromise of Brazilian foreign policy towards these projects. If Brazil continues not to sustain these projects, they will lose momentum and significance once more, increasing power asymmetries in the region.

  4. From Retreat to Re-engagement: The New American Foreign Policy ...

    From Retreat to Re-engagement: The New American Foreign Policy for ... that the re-engagement with Sub-Saharan Africa, is based on US perception of threats ... in the subordination of the region to the world's only superpower and its allies.

  5. Utility of Military Strategy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy | Ebaye ...

    This research has taken a critical appraisal of state actors in the international system, and the utility of military power as an instrument of foreign policy. The paper asserts as Osgood did, that one of the main prerequisite of a credible state actor is to develop the military compatibilities and political will, to back its diplomacy by ...

  6. News framing and public support for a common foreign and security policy

    de Vreese, C.H.; Kandyla, A.


    Abstract A common EU foreign and security policy (CFSP) can be framed by elites and media as a risk or as an opportunity. This article examines the effects of framing in terms of ‘risk’ and ‘opportunity’ on public support. Moreover, we examine first whether the effect of framing CFSP as a ‘risk for

  7. The Impact of Foreign Policy on Educational Exchange: The Swedish State Scholarship Programme 1938-1990

    Åkerlund, Andreas


    Programmes of international educational exchange are not only carried out for educational purposes, but form an important part of modern-day public diplomacy. Through exchange programmes education and research are linked with foreign policy interests, which then in turn should affect the international contacts of universities and research…

  8. Danish Foreign Policy and the Balance between the EU and the US

    Larsen, Henrik


    In the international debate it is often argued that Denmark in its major foreign policy priorities has sided with the USA since the Cold War rather than with the EU or its European partners. The article examines whether this is correct, and if it is, why this is so, since 2001. The paper also asks...

  9. The EU Anti-dumping Policy towards China: Challenges for Chinese and Foreign Managers

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Rutkowski, Aleksander Jerzy


    advice to Chinese or foreign managers in companies in China with export to the EU. First, the CELEX database may give some important information on how to formulate a price policy for exports to the EU so anti-dumping measures can be avoided. Secondly, the owner structure of the company is important...

  10. Business as Means of Foreign Policy or Politics as Means of Production?

    Reckendrees, Alfred


    and to use them efficiently building up an industrial empire that comprehended the German, Polish, and Austrian iron and steel industry. The interplay of German foreign policy and private business activities in the inter-war years is analyzed as an agency problem in a specific “public-private partnership...

  11. Currency Policy Coordination оf Asean Countries: Foreign Trade Effects

    Yana Valeryevna Dyomina


    Full Text Available The study estimates foreign trade effects of currency policy measures in ASEAN countries. On the base of exchange rate dynamics the author concludes that during the period of 2000-2014 ASEAN countries in general used competitive devaluation policy of national currencies to CNY, JPY, KRW and EUR and revaluation to USD. To eliminate negative effects of competitive devaluation policy the paper proposes currency policy coordination of ASEAN countries that could be done by pegging of national currencies to a common basket. Employing the SAC (Stable Aggregate Currency method the author suggests 4 options for a common currency basket. The researcher estimates foreign trade effects of currency policy coordination in ASEAN countries for every option of a currency basket in three following cases: ASEAN as a whole, ASEAN-6 and ASEAN-4. The author concludes that the optimal form of currency policy coordination in ASEAN is pegging of exchange rates of national currencies to a common basket composed of 13 East Asian currencies. This currency basket option has maximum foreign trade effects for the Association as a whole and by sub-groups of ASEAN-6 and ASEAN-4 when it devaluates to the U.S. dollar

  12. Identifying Special Operations as a Distinct Foreign Policy Instrument

    Johnsen, Anton Asklund


    to clarify and explain what special operations strategic qualities exactly are. The author then elaborates on specific elements of special operations with a point of departure in the “cognitive maps of SOF” as formulated in the research question. The author recommends that in order to influence policy...... on special operations, it is essential to have insight into the instrument’s capabilities and limitations, as this provides the prerequisites for sound contextual strategic analysis....

  13. Chinese Foreign Policy in a Global Perspective: A Responsible Reformer "Striving For Achievement"

    Mikael Weissmann


    Full Text Available During the last four decades, China has moved from being an isolated country separated from the international community to having become one of the world’s major powers. It is vital to understand what is guiding Chinese foreign policy, why this is so, and not least what kind of power China is and will be in the future. This article analyses the vital elements and thinking that guides Chinese foreign policy, its priorities and decision making process. It is found that China's foreign policy is embedded in domestic issues. The foremost foreign policy objective is domestic political stability, which in turn is a necessity for the survival of one-party rule. Both are dependent on a combination of two key factors: continuing domestic economic growth and nationalism. The foreign policy is also closely linked to the Chinese self-perception, both its self-superiority/self-inferiority dualism and its multitude of confusing (overlapping identities about what China is and should be. A key turning year is 2008 when the "global" financial crisis severely affected the United States and Europe at a time of Chinese economic success, which gave China confidence to pursue a more active and aggressive/assertive stance on the international stage. It is concluded that China under Xi Jinping will not be a status que power accepting the world as it is, but nor are we to expect China to become a revisionist power aiming to remodel the global order. China is what can best be described as a responsible reformer "striving for achievements".

  14. Analysis of Israel's Foreign Policy Concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan (2003-2015

    Ali Latifi


    Full Text Available Analysis of the Israel's Foreign Policy is one of the important issues concerned by the researchers of the international and regional affairs. Israel's Foreign Policy in years 2003-2015 has witnessed a lot of events. In these years, transformation of the Iraq's internal structures including the fall of the Baath Regime in Iraq and appearance of the terroristic group of Dashi (ISIS in this country has provided new opportunities and challenges for the Israel's Foreign Policy. In this regard, establishment of a republic system in Iraq and the reinforcement of the Kurdish streams, specially during the current transformations and the increasing desires for the independence in Iraqi's Kurdistan, have paved the way for Israel to intensify its activities in the region. In this regard, the current study has approach the issue of Israel's Foreign Policy concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan during the years 2003-2015 with a descriptive analytic method. The achieved results show that the political reasons (alliance of the periphery and development of the strategic depth in closeness to Iran, economic (accessing the energy and mineral resources in Iraqi's Kurdistan, the importance of the Kurdistan's hydro-politic resources for Israel and the Israel's economical influence from the Nile to the Euphrates, military-security (presence in the strategic environment of Iran and the external threats in the Middle East, creation of an environmental crisis un the Kurdish region of the Middle East, weakening the Iraqi's central government and disintegration of this country, Israel's security-intelligence expansion, acquiring a strategic territory and getting out of isolation and the resolving the its legitimacy crisis, controlling the currents of thought in this region, all have been influential in thein Israel's Foreign Policy Concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan.


    Milton de Abreu Campanario


    Full Text Available The text is the part of public policy of a larger research project on Brazilian Outward ForeignDirect Investment - OFDI. The text analyses the viability to adopt policies to enhance FDI,particularly outward. Based on statistical data and on literature review, the policy agenda framesthe underling questions surrounding the theme. There is not yet a theoretical framework to dealwith emergent countries’ FDI and related policies. There exist strong evidences that capital flowsthrough FDI generate externalities in the following domains: macroeconomics, microeconomicsand foreign relations particularly in areas related to industrial organization and innovation. Thetheoretical proposition is that international capital flows are compatible to monetary stability,commercial openness, investment promotion and industrial innovation policies. A betterpositioning of national enterprises internationally may result in growing partnership within theforeign environment. Brazil has not a set of policies to deal with inward and outward BrazilianFDI flows. These policies do not necessarily jeopardize macroeconomic policy and the relatedmonetary and currency stabilization goals. It contends that FDI stimulus by means of publicpolicies may contribute not just to a better competitiveness and innovation of Brazilianenterprises, but also assure a balanced growing and economic structural change.

  16. Images of China in U.S. Foreign Policy Making


    leads to a deeply imbedded negative U.S image, and the Chinese America watchers are “ blinded ” by these very images.5 Various events and factors are...Chinese intervention, China had been described as a helpless nation deceived by the Soviets and ignorant of its actions. After months of war, Acheson...Jia Qingguo, “ Learning to Live with the Hegemon: Evolution of China’s Policy toward the U.S. Since the End of the Cold War,” Journal of Contemporary

  17. Network Governance and the Making of Brazil's Foreign Policy Towards China in the 21st Century

    Daniel Cardoso


    Full Text Available Abstract Driven by China's increasing global influence, China-Brazil relations have deepened significantly in the 21st century; for Brazil, this bilateral relationship has become one of the most important aspects of its foreign relations. This article aims at analysing how Brazil's foreign policy towards China was made and implemented during the eight years of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's presidency, and the first four years of Dilma Rousseff's presidency. While scholars agree that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not exclusively dominate this policy, little is known about which state and non-state actors were involved, how and why they interacted, and how their interactions influenced policy choices. The article starts by identifying the actors that played a significant role in formulating Brazil's China policy. Next, drawing on the concept of network governance, it explores the processes and mechanisms that governed the interactions among them. It concludes with an assessment of the democratic quality of this policy area.

  18. A study on the nuclear foreign policy analysis

    Oh, Keun Bae; Choi, Y. M.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Cho, I. H.; Ko, H. S.


    This study aims to analyses recent trends of international situation relating to nuclear non-proliferation and the adverse conditions in Korea's pursuing self-support of such technology, so that it may map out effective strategies for the promotion of nuclear energy. This study analyses developments of international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which plays a main role in preventing the international proliferation of nuclear weapons. This study includes NPT, IAEA safeguards system, international export control regimes, CTBT, and NWFZs as the subjects of analysis. Second theme is international organizations concerning nuclear activities. This study mainly analyses IAEA activities which pursues the promotion of peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation simultaneously as a pivotal body of international nuclear cooperation. Third focus of this study is Northeast Asian circumstances pertaining to nuclear non-proliferation. The study looks into the DPRK nuclear issues, and reviews the developments of the proposed regional body for nuclear cooperation and the discussion on the Northeast Asian NWFZ. Fourth, but the most influential to Korean nuclear activities, is the U. S. nuclear policy, since U. S. takes the overwhelming initiative in the field of international nuclear non-proliferation. Therefore, this study gives much weight in analyzing the structure, procedures, recent trend, and pending issues of U. S. nuclear policy. (author). 78 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  19. Sovereign wealth funds – public investment vehicles, foreign policy element. Comparative evolution in the international context

    Doina Drăniceanu


    Full Text Available Sovereign funds are an important actor occurring on international financial markets in the last decade, being, in fact, state controlled international investments. Generally, they are financed from foreign currency reserves of the emergent countries they are constituted in, being managed apart of the official reserves and used for external expansion; they are likely to be detrimental to certain strategic interests. As public financial vehicles, they own, endorse or manage public funds of some emergent countries, freely invested by them in a great number of assets, being seen as a foreign policy element.

  20. A Critical Examination of Foreign Aid Policy. Why it Fails to Eradicate Poverty?

    Vasile DEDU


    Full Text Available After many decades of perpetuated failures, the foreign aid policy requires a critical reexamination. Doubting the efficiency of the foreign aid under the current institutional frame does not have to be interpreted as abandoning the many and the poor (approximately two thirds of the world’s population, mainly in the underdeveloped countries. The goal itself is not the subject of our critique here, but the ways to address that goal, promoted up to now by developed countries and the UN.

  1. Common Foreign and Security Policy of the European Union

    Haydar Efe


    Full Text Available CFSP has been one of the most difficult areas in the cooperation cooperate in EU’s integration process. Because member states which have different national interests, historical traditions and different political relations with other parts of the world, have seen it as a sign of their sovereignty. But, in spite of many controversies, the demands for a CFSP are widely shared in the EU. The main argument of this study is to emphasize the fact that in the realization of the aims of EU for being effective in the solutions of international problems and for being the main actor on the global policy the only way is to form effective and coherent DDGP

  2. 'Cold reality in the land of fire': The interrelations of Azerbaijan's natural gas export and foreign policy

    Marosvari, Csaba

    Azerbaijan, a landlocked post-Soviet country since its independence has been trying to utilize its energy resources in its foreign policy. With production-sharing agreements with Western oil companies beginning with the 1994 signing of the "Contract of the Century" and the construction of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline Azerbaijan successfully opened up its energy sector for foreign investment and used pipelines to stabilize its economy and underpin its foreign policy. The discovery of the Shah Deniz gas field opened up new opportunities for Baku to buttress its foreign policy goals with the export of natural gas. In this Master's thesis I will evaluate and show the importance and significance of natural gas export in Azerbaijani foreign policy.

  3. Principle Trajectories of the Domestic and Foreign Policy Crises in Modern Turkish Republic

    Vladimir Alekseevich Avatkov


    Full Text Available The Republic of Turkey in the year of 2015 has gone through the period of critical transformation of its foreign and domestic policies. The main reason for this transformation is the inability of the Justice and Development Party to reach its goals to draft the new constitution and vest the president of the country with new powers. Nevertheless, the authors believe that there are also historic and demographic reasons for this transformation that have been developing for several decades. The basis of this transformation is the destructive foreign policy course pursued by the ruling elites aimed at fomenting crises inside and outside Turkey. The most tangible signs of that are the resumption of hostilities between the Turkish army and PKK and also regular shillings of the positions of Syrian Kurds by Turkish artillery. According to the authorities of Turkey such policy is likely to force the Turkish society and foreign partners to make concessions and give the Justice and Development Party the right to reform the country in its own way. However, such policy also increases the possibility that some internal and external actors will try to make everything possible to overthrow the ruling regime one way or another.

  4. The dirty oil card and Canadian foreign policy

    Chastko, P.


    This paper discussed Canada's oil sands industry in relation to its international reputation as the source of an unacceptable amount of pollution. Environmental lobbyists and awareness groups have targeted Canada's oil sands industry as an example of how the oil industry contributes to pollution during the production phase. Media attention has focused on the oil sands as a heavy grade of crude oil that requires significant upgrading and refining before it can be produced as a barrel of usable oil. Canadian exports of oil sands to the United States have been the target of consumer boycotts and proposed legislation. A lack of available alternative energy sources and infrastructure for the transportation sector, and the continued global demand for petroleum mean that oil sands will continue to be exported to the United States as well as to other export markets such as China and India. The United States is likely to remain the largest importer of Canadian crude oils. However, policy-makers must ensure that the discourse about oil sands does not devolve into an argument in which energy security is pitted against the need for increased environmental protection. 49 refs.

  5. Economic reform in Vietnam - the role of foreign direct investment and trade policy

    Tran, D.L.


    Vietnam was one of the five poorest countries in the world in the 1980's. Since then, Vietnam has adopted a market economic policy, and she has made substantial economic progress. In the last 10 years Meanwhile Vietnam's per capita income has increased by 3 times, the volume of export doubled very two years, and the inflation rate was reduced to 4.5 % in 1997 from 775 % in 1986. The GDP also has increased, the exchange rate with the US$ was stabilized and foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade has increased. There was about US$35 billion were invested by the foreign investors between 1987 to the middle of June 1998. However, the current crisis in the economies of Southeast Asian countries has put pressure on Vietnam to rethink seriously her future reform program with respect to stabilization and sustainable current economic policies. Since FDI is an imperative for the development of a country like Vietnam, it is necessary to use this capital very careful for her economy. Thus, the main objective of this dissertation is to study the role of FDI in the development of Vietnam. To examine this objective, various investigations were made, especially focusing on development dimensions such as reforming state enterprises, foreign trade policy, foreign investment and so on. Therefore, in the future, FDI and privatization policies should be strengthened to maintain and create an international market. Moreover, there are some major reforms required to transform the state sector into a private sector with appropriate policy measures, such as improving management of financial companies, developing the agricultural sector and minimizing bureaucracy and red tapism of the government. This dissertation provides a set of recommendations how to strengthen Vietnams economic and market situation in the 21st century. (author)

  6. Selling the Arc of Crisis: Promoting Foreign Policy Change during the Carter Presidency

    da Vinha Luis


    Full Text Available The Carter Administration came to Office seeking to continue a policy of détente. However, the Administration’s policy vis-à-vis the Soviets became more assertive throughout the Presidency, culminating in the Carter Doctrine. The current paper applies a conceptual framework for “issue selling” to argue that a more assertive foreign policy was being promoted by the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and his NSC staff since the early days of the Carter Presidency. By applying an assortment of issue selling strategies, Zbigniew Brzezinski and the NSC staff were able to exploit the communicative interactions amongst the political leadership to continuously promote a more forceful US policy towards the Soviets. By being able to interpret and define the problem representation facing the Administration, the APNSA was able initiate and continuously promote a wholesale policy transformation leading to the development of the Carter Doctrine.

  7. The Centers of Strategic Research of Foreign Policy of the Republic of Turkey: the General Characteristic and Stages of Functioning

    Алим Видадиевич Сулейманов


    Full Text Available Changes and complication of an existing international political situation provide new challenges for diplomacy of every state. During making of foreign policy decisions complete and deep understanding of a subject of policy is required. Because of this matter in many countries of the world there are special nongovernmental organizations that provide the qualitative analysis of internal and foreign politics situation. In the given article the centers of strategic research which are carrying out the analysis of foreign policy of Turkish Republic are characterized. Their structure, level and scale of expertise and also stages of functioning are analyzed.

  8. Russian Approach to Soft Power Promotion: Conceptual Approaches in Foreign Policy

    Yulia Nikitina


    Full Text Available Foreign policy is one of the instruments of promoting soft power of a state. According to Joseph Nye, civil society is the main source of a state's international attractiveness. The article analyses how Russian official foreign policy documents present interaction between the state and civil society in order to promote Russian soft power. At the present stage Russian civil society is perceived by state structures as an instrument and not a source of soft power. The article also analyses political values and models of developments as elements of soft power as they are presented in official documents. Russia has a coherent normative model of regional development for the post-Soviet space. For the global level Russia formulates rules of behavior that it would like to see at the international arena, but Russia does not formulate how Russian or regional post-Soviet models of development can contribute to world development.

  9. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE: A policy and economic comparative analysis for Canada

    Isabel Husid


    Full Text Available The present work aims to achieve an overall view of Foreign Direct Investment and International Trade in Canada, analyzing both the current situation and the actions and policies being implemented by several provinces to promote this subject. This study will be valuable to companies and governments to understand what has been done and to support strategic planning to invest and trade with Canada, especially for the Brazilian market.

  10. Managing Relative Decline: An Analysis of Foreign Policy Alternatives for the United States


    Eugenics Society nearly 80 years ago describing a psychological phenomenon that still permeates current macroeconomic and foreign policy discourse...share of 26.23 percent and the 2013 share of 22.83 percent represents only a 3.4 percent decline but in constant 2010 currency this amounts to more...becoming more and more diffuse. The macroeconomic and geopolitical conditions that exist today are ill-suited to an “in your face” deep engagement

  11. Mapping Russian Media Network: Media’s Role in Russian Foreign Policy and Decision-Making


    political spheres in target countries. Thus media are ultimately only one instrument, albeit quite an important one, in a much larger toolkit ...2017. 22 Presidential Administration and presidential spokesman, are former career diplomats. First Deputy Chief of Staff Sergey...who serves as President Putin’s foreign policy advisor) is also a career diplomat and a past ambassador to the United States.56 CNA’s analysis

  12. A Brief Survey of Democracy Promotion in U.S. Foreign Policy


    highlight that economic and security concerns both pre-dated active democracy promotion efforts. 2 For its first centennial , the United States was...the troubles of the world. The 1930s brought the Great Depression and the perception that democracy and capitalism might not be such good ideas after...peacetime foreign policy on democracy was somewhat constrained by the Great Depression and World War II. As World War II raged, FDR eloquently

  13. Irish foreign policy in the United Nations and European Union: influence and participation

    Doyle, John; Connolly, Eileen


    The United Nations has had a central place in Irish foreign policy from the state’s accession in 1955. Both political discourse and public opinion polls indicate widespread support for the organisation as a source of international legitimacy and as the appropriate forum to make major decisions regarding peace and security; international human rights; and development. The EU has an equally central role in Ireland’s economic and social development in the last three decades, and w...

  14. A Historical Analysis of Three Main Issues Affecting United States Foreign Policy in the Middle East


    4 Objectives . . . . . .. . . . 5 Reserach Questions .a. . . . . . . . . . 6 Literature Review .. a .a . .a aa 7 The United...Question . . . . 12 The Importance of Middle East Oil 14 The Soviet Threat t . . . 15 II. METHODOLOGY ..... b 18 III. THE BIRTH OF ISRAEL AND UNITED...thoroughly’analyzing the history behind these problems can one begin to understand United States foreign policy in the Middle East. 17 17i CHAPTER II METHODOLOGY This

  15. A Pivot to What? Asia-Pacific Foreign Policy under Trump

    Lanteigne, Marc


    Despite the difficulty in making predictions about an incoming American administration even before the inaugural process has been completed, the first two months since the US elections in November 2016 have already generated a great deal of debate and concern, about uncharted new directions in US foreign policy under president elect Donald Trump. Certainly the new president faces a host of international challenges,including Middle East security and chaotic relations with Russia, but arguably ...

  16. Environmental policy and the role of foreign assistance in Central- and Eastern Europe

    During the 1990's, a large number of international donors and financing institutions have been active in providing financial support for improving the environment in Central and Eastern Europe. One of these actors have been the Danish Government and its Environmental Support Fund for Central...... policy in their own country and to provide an assessment of the role that foreign assistance has played and could play. Covers the following countries: Czech Republic; Poland; Romania; Russia; Slovakia; Ukraine....

  17. Understanding the cost bases of Space Shuttle pricing policies for commercial and foreign customers

    Stone, Barbara A.


    The principles and underlying cost bases of the 1977 and 1982 Space Shuttle Reimbursement Policies are compared and contrasted. Out-of-pocket cost recovery has been chosen as the base of the price for the 1986-1988 time period. With this cost base, it is NASA's intent to recover the total cost of consumables and the launch and flight operations costs added by commercial and foreign customers over the 1986-1988 time period. Beyond 1988, NASA intends to return to its policy of full cost recovery.

  18. USA and the Turkic World: A Framework for Analysisof American Foreign Policy in the Turkic World

    AMANOV, Shatlyk


    This article reviews the U.S. perception of the Turkic–speaking space in light of the official discourse and policies, as well as the significance of the Turkic world’s fast–moving strategic and economic dynamics for the American interests. It is claimed here that the U.S. engagements with the region are largely shaped by Washington’s strategic and economic interests and that it pursues a conjunctural, pragmatic and region–oriented foreign policy towards the Turkic world in parallel with thos...


    Vijay Kumar


    Full Text Available Recently passed the Russian ‘Foreign Agent’ law against foreign funding of NGOs and civil society has attracted criticism from almost every quarter. From home to abroad all party concerned (i.e., civil society organizations, NGO groups, donor countries (especiallyAmericaand European countries as well as some Russian opposition political parties are of the view that this bill has been introduced to scuttle the independent civic activities and in this way unconstitutional. However on the basis of overall analysis of ‘Foreign Agent’ law in the context of American democratic promotion policy this paper is of the view that this law simply cannot be characterized as anti-democratic, which is against the very basis of freedom and rule of law, by the anti-democratic Russian government but it should be seen as extension of same challenge which American democratic promotion policy is facing around the whole world. It is because of its illegal and unconstitutional method of regime change policy, with the help of foreign funded NGOs, and civil society which has compelled various countries includingRussiato resort this type of law. It is important to note that the promise of peace, stability and prosperity by the democratic promotion protagonists after the fall ofSoviet Unionhas not been realised till today. Instead what post-Soviet states are witnessing today is emergence of chauvinist nationalist government in respective countries which witnessed colour revolution. Whole region is now plunging into economic turmoil, ethnic nationalism, rise of religious fundamentalism and identity politics. Recent overthrow of legitimate Viktor Yanukovych government inUkraineand subsequent decision by incumbent government to exclude Russian as administrative language can be sited as example. That is why former American Republican Congressman Ron Paul is of the view that “US‘Democracy Promotion’ Destroys Democracy Overseas’’. In this context this paper

  20. Metaphor Analysis and Discursive Cycle of Iran's Foreign Policy: “Justice” through the lenses of US-IRAN Presidents

    SADEGHI, Bahador; TABATABAI, Seyed Mohammad


    Abstract. The purpose of the present paper is twofold. It mainly aims at determining and defining different foreign policy discourses in Islamic republic of Iran as well as their developmental trend in the past three decades through explanation and elucidation of their particulars, components and nodal points. Actually, it seeks to explore what kind of discourses have been emerged in Iran's foreign policy during the lifetime of Islamic republic of Iran and what discursive developments have be...

  1. A constructivist approach to popular culture and foreign policy: the case of Turkey and Valley of Wolves: Ambush

    Yukaruc, Umut


    In this thesis, I argue that, as a popular text, Valley of the Wolves: Ambush functions as a site for consent production for foreign policies formed by the AKP elites within the last decade, through a process of reproduction of state identities, ideologies, and discourses at the level of narrative. This thesis positions its argument in two fields: Turkish Foreign Policy (TFP) studies and Popular Culture and World Politics (PCWP) within the larger International Relations (IR) co...

  2. A study on the effects of exchange rate and foreign policies on Iranians dates export

    Leila Khalighi


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was studying the impact of exchange rate on date export as one of the most important and greatest foreign currency income earned horticultural products in agriculture sector in Iran. Selected time period in this study was chosen between 1991 and 2011. For this purpose, ordinary least squares (OLS method has used to estimate the relationships between the value of date export and the variables taken from stationary tests. Library research method has used for the analysis. In this regard, required data have collected from various scientific and research resources. The results indicated that, exchange rate is a crucial factor for dates export and also for exporters. In addition, other factors specially government policies have been placed in export model. In this field, short-term outsourcing foreign policy has decreased the export value. Results also showed that, applying exchange rate unification policy without an appropriate exchange rate to encourage exporters has negative impact on dates export. Therefore, by applying exchange rate stabilization policy, according to inflation in the country, the potential exporters’ income has reduced and production costs have increased alternately.

  3. In the name of human rights: the problematics of EU ethical foreign policy in Africa and elsewhere

    Olivia Umurerwa Rutazibwa


    Full Text Available This doctoral research project explores avenues to research ethically defined foreign policy differently, i.e. in ways that more systematically account for its counterproductive elements. Building on the specific case of the European Union’s foreign policy in sub-Saharan Africa, embodied by the 2000 Cotonou Agreement and the 2007 Joint Africa-EU Strategy, through four papers and one books review, the study firstly develops the Ethical Intervener Europe analytical framework to account for the embedded problematics in the EU’s ethical foreign policy. Secondly, through an eclectic theoretical approach, the study seeks to theoretically pin-point some alternatives to think about ethical foreign policy and finally, looks to concretize it through its application on the case of relative autonomous peace- and state-building in Somaliland. This research report briefly introduces the different findings and addresses the need for further research in view of a decolonial approach to the study of ethical foreign policy in a context of structural inequality. Key words: ethical foreign policy, (humanitarian interventions, EU, sub-Saharan Africa, Somaliland, decoloniality, democratization, state-building

  4. Past Fame, Present Frames and Future Flagship? An Exploration of How Health is Positioned in Canadian Foreign Policy

    Labonté, Ronald; Runnels, Vivien; Gagnon, Michelle


    Canada has been regarded as a model global citizen with firm commitments to multilateralism. It has also played important roles in several international health treaties and conventions in recent years. There are now concerns that its interests in health as a foreign policy goal may be diminishing. This article reports on a thematic analysis of key Canadian foreign policy statements issued over the past decade, and interviews with key informants knowledgeable of, or experienced in the interstices of Canadian health and foreign policy. It finds that health is primarily and increasingly framed in relation to national security and economic interests. Little attention has been given to human rights obligations relevant to health as a foreign policy issue, and global health is not seen as a priority of the present government. Global health is nonetheless regarded as something with which Canadian foreign policy must engage, if only because of Canada’s membership in many United Nations and other multilateral fora. Development of a single global health strategy or framework is seen as important to improve intersectoral cooperation on health issues, and foreign policy coherence. There remains a cautious optimism that health could become the base from which Canada reasserts its internationalist status. PMID:24977037

  5. Past Fame, Present Frames and Future Flagship? An Exploration of How Health is Positioned in Canadian Foreign Policy.

    Labonté, Ronald; Runnels, Vivien; Gagnon, Michelle


    Canada has been regarded as a model global citizen with firm commitments to multilateralism. It has also played important roles in several international health treaties and conventions in recent years. There are now concerns that its interests in health as a foreign policy goal may be diminishing. This article reports on a thematic analysis of key Canadian foreign policy statements issued over the past decade, and interviews with key informants knowledgeable of, or experienced in the interstices of Canadian health and foreign policy. It finds that health is primarily and increasingly framed in relation to national security and economic interests. Little attention has been given to human rights obligations relevant to health as a foreign policy issue, and global health is not seen as a priority of the present government. Global health is nonetheless regarded as something with which Canadian foreign policy must engage, if only because of Canada's membership in many United Nations and other multilateral fora. Development of a single global health strategy or framework is seen as important to improve intersectoral cooperation on health issues, and foreign policy coherence. There remains a cautious optimism that health could become the base from which Canada reasserts its internationalist status.

  6. The Nabucco project's economic failure - Lessons for the European Union's foreign gas policy

    Finon, D.


    This article criticises the new strategy of the European Union's foreign gas policy. The new policy translates in the setting up of gas corridors to diversify importations in a context of increased political competition with Russia. The inherent limitations of the EU's plan to promote the Nabucco gas pipeline as merchant line without seeking exporter involvement in the project are analysed. Such limitations are analysed through various economic prospects. A micro-economic calculation shows the significance of the use rate of a gas pipeline for profitability. The competition theory shows the possibility for an existing dominating firm to compete with a newcomer's investment by building equipment likely to pre-empt access to the resources. The transaction cost saving shows how long term undertakings between producers and suppliers are necessary for the development of transit infrastructures and distant gas fields. The article ends with the need for economic relevance in the EU's gas policy actions. (author)

  7. The Power of Collective Identity Narration: Greenland’s Way to a More Autonomous Foreign Policy

    Jacobsen, Marc


    and, on the other hand, the notion of a common cultural core formed in the past. The three main elements of this core are the Greenlandic language, hunting traditions, and a particular relationship to nature. While the status of the three elements is often disputed in specific domestic policy debates......This paper demonstrates how different Greenlandic governments have exploited a narrative of a unique Greenlandic identity to shape and strengthen a foreign policy autonomous from Denmark. Central to this narrative is, on the one hand, the widespread anticipation of more independence in the future......, such as the commissions exploring future Greenlandic constitution and reconciliation with Denmark, on the international policy level there is a remarkable agreement about the narrative. Here the three elements are understood as a matter of societal security. They need to be protected from external threats in order...

  8. Foreign Direct Investment and Government Policy in Central and Eastern Europe

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Jensen, Camilla


    The 1990s have been a period of extraordinary politics in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). This chapter discusses how the transition from state to market has created bureaucratic barriers to entry, but also windows of opportunity for foreign direct investment (FDI). The high costs and high...... investment risks associated with FDI in CEE are a reflection the institutional development. Thus, inflows of FDI have been largest in those countries that made most progress in establishing a market-oriented institutional framework. After outlining trends of institutional change and their impact on FDI......, this chapter discusses how aspects of the institutional framework and FDI policy affect diverse types of investment projects. Acquisition and Greenfield investors are concerned with different aspects of government policy: privatization and regulatory policies for acquirers and investment incentives, regional...

  9. Brazilian new patterns of an industrial, technological and foreign trade policy.

    José Matias Pereira


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to deepen the discussion about the unavoidable way Brazil has to go through in order to construct a modern industrial and technological policy, based on knowledge and technological innovation, which will work as a stimulator of economic development. The different theories about this subject (SCHUMPETER, 1985; PAVITT, 1998; FREEMAN, 1995; KRUGMAN, 1995; COUTINHO & FERRAZ, 1994; MATIAS-PEREIRA & KRUGLIANSKAS, 2005, so as the principles set by the Brazilian Development Ministry (“Diretrizes de Política Industrial, Tecnológica e de Comércio Exterior”, give support in the search for defining a new model of industrial, technological policy and foreign trade for the country. The strategic role of industrial policy seems to be very evident, if it takes on its co-ordination work involving the productive agents, which are responsible for crucial decisions, such as those related to investments and/or innovation, in a context of great incertitude about the consequences of their decisions in the future. Finally, the conclusion arising from this discussion demonstrates that it is crucial for the country to define a modern industrial policy, which could be able to integrate the incentive to innovation as well as to exports, in order to serve as a tool to foster development. The paper also argues that the feasibility to this policy depends on Government’s ability in supplying agents with a favorable context towards adequate regulation, purchasing policy, availability on financing facilities and fiscal incentives.


    D. S. Krysenko


    Full Text Available The basic approaches to the analysis of the formation of US foreign policy during the 1980’s has been searched in the article; evolution of geostrategic configuration of the world during the final period of the Cold War has been analyzed. Conceptual, functional and political peculiarities of the development and implementation of US foreign policy strategy has been defined. A tactics that allowed by the R. Reagan administration would have on the victory over the Soviet Union in the course of systematic opposition has been revealed. Global, regional and national components of the R. Reagan’s «grand strategy» has been systematized and the reasons for its victory in the embodiment of political practice; the internal rate of White House motives for the development and implementation of the anti-communist strategy has been clarified. The analysis of R. Reagan’s policy toward the Soviet Union as the main component of the US global strategy aimed at ensuring conditions for the implementation of the «American Dream», rooted in the ideology of «manifest destiny» has been provided.

  11. American Polonia’s Resources Of Ifluence And Us Foreign Policy

    I. D. Loshkariov


    Full Text Available The article analyzes resources of political influence on the foreign policy of the country of residence that Polish diaspora in the United States possesses. This analysis is useful for two reasons. Firstly, it will expand the focus of research in the study of pressure groups and their influence on the American foreign policy. Secondly, the Polish diaspora in the United States is rarely the object of research in migrant and ethnic lobbying, despite its the significant share of the country’s population. Analysis of the given resources that the Polish diaspora (American Polonia has leads to the following. Firstly, the foreign policy agenda of the Polish diaspora in the United States faces no strong opponents. This fact means the diaspora has sufficiently developed structural resource. In addition, the Polish diaspora possesses an organizational resource: its institutions are in close cooperation and are coordinated by the Polish American Congress. Secondly, the Polish diaspora in the US is a significant group of the population, especially in the states of Wisconsin, Michigan, Connecticut, New York and Illinois. However, its electoral and financial capacities are not used to the fullest extent. Finally, there are certain difficulties with the discursive political resource of Polish diaspora. The social and political perception provides of Polonia in the USA two opposing narratives. The first one stresses that it is important for the Americans of Polish descent to share such values as democracy, defending his position, including by military means. The second narrative is a reproduction of widespread stereotypes about Poles, including in the popular culture. Thus, institutions of the American Polonia face several tasks. The most important tasks are the search for new ways of political mobilization of the diaspora and the formation of a balanced image of Polish Americans in the social and political perception in the United States.


    Aleksandr Nikolaevich Xaribin


    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of the Islamic state: emergence, current status, reasons for success, control methods and prospects. The last terrorist attacks: Russian aircraft over the Sinai and the terrorist attack in Paris. A comparative analysis and reasons for election purposes by terrorists to attack, the consequences for Egypt, Europe, the middle East and Russia. At the end of the article gives practical recommendations for Russian foreign policy and the forecast of development of events in this region, it is hypothesized that the further growth of the Islamic state and the inability to move it to the borders of Russia

  13. The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India - Exploring culture and ethnic sensitivities

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    but there is no conclusive evidence in the literature to decide what determines what. There are important dynamics and interplays across the thin line between the domestic and international sphere especially in terms of understanding the reciprocal challenges related to how the factors of culture and ethnicity relate...... with the legitimacy of the state. The aim of the paper serves four purposes. To unpack and give a critical overview of the debates concerned with the internal and external aspects of India’s foreign policy; situate the literature dealing more specifically with domestic issues related to culture and ethnicity...

  14. Brazilian Foreign Policy in Changing Times: the quest for autonomy form Sarney to Lula

    Danielly Silva Ramos Becard


    Full Text Available Resenha do Livro "Brazilian Foreign Policy in Changing Times: the quest for autonomy", de autoria de Tullo Vigevani e Gabriel Cepaluni. O tema central do livro é a busca brasileira por autonomia, desde a segunda metade dos anos 1980 até 2009. São apresentadas as grandes linhas da política externa brasileira dos pontos de vista teórico e empírico, a partir do estudo de literatura latino-americana sobre o tema.

  15. The foreign policy and security options of Romania in the vision of Klaus Johannis

    Radu-Ioan Opriș


    Full Text Available If a decade ago, Romania became a NATO member and it was enrolled in the accession process to the European Union, in 2014, the problem is radically different: Romania has a new status within NATO, it is part of the EU, it is in process of accession to the Schengen area and it has developed its strategic partnership with the United States of America. In this context, the aim of this paper is to bring into attention the vision of the new president of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, regarding the romanian foreign policy and security.

  16. Latin American vector in Russia’s Foreign Policy: Identities and interests in the Russian‑Venezuelan Partnership

    Sitenko Alexandra


    Full Text Available The crisis in Ukraine, that broke out in 2013 and escalated in 2014, has led to sanction policy and the emergence of significant political divergences between Russian Federation and the West. This has resulted in an intensification of Russia’s foreign and economic policy alliances with its neighboring countries as well as with the rest of the BRICS members. In his interview with Cuba’s Prensa Latina, Vladimir Putin further classified cooperation with Latin American states as one of the key and very promising lines of Russia’s foreign policy.

  17. Foreign policy of leading countries from the viewpoint of realism and imperial policy

    Be. B.


    Full Text Available according to the author Imperial and imperialist policy led to war. The first and Second world wars led to the disappearance of the classical empires – Austro-Hungarian, British, French, German, Ottoman, Japanese. The post-Second world war bipolar world because of the logic of confrontation between two world systems largely continued to develop in international relations the logic of empires, the logic of the strict antagonism. The collapse of world socialist system led to the emergence of a unilateral world and the dominant role of one superpower, which is by the logic of Imperial policy pursued a policy of forced democratization. But such a condition could not last long, for neither the resources nor the capacity of this hegemony was not enough to ensure the peaceful development of mankind. More and more countries demanded a policy of non-interference in the internal affairs of other States, peaceful coexistence and cooperation within the framework of the cooperative strategy. Most people call it the multi-polar world. The transition from a unilateral to a multipolar world will require greater effort and resolution of international and inter-state matters on the basis of principles of equal security, compromises, and mutually beneficial cooperation.


    В А Василенко


    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the participation of foreign countries in solving the problems related to the management of domestic and foreign policy in Tuva in the ear-ly twentieth century.The problem of determining the legal and political status of Tuva and its territorial jurisdiction is traditionally bound in domestic and foreign historiography with the words “Uriankhaiissue”. The latter, as a rule, is considered in the context of rivalry be-tween Russia, China and Mongolia - the countries of the “Central Asian triangle”. The author pays attention to the interests of other countries, including Japan and the coun-tries of Western Europe, in this region. There has been conducted a generalized analysis of the information relating to the presence of Western industrial capital inTuva, shows the nature of the relations between the European entrepreneurs from Russia, China and Tuva authorities. The article provides the detailed facts of the presence of various groups of foreign citizens in the province in the period of the protectorate. In the context of the analysis of the general geo-political situation in Central Asia, the author describes the actions of the Russian authorities against foreign troops, including the methods and forms of work in that direction. The author comes to the conclusion that, despite the use of exclusively peaceful measure-sagainst foreign troops in Tuva, the local authorities sought to prevent any actions aimed at undermining the Russian positions in the region. For this reason, depending on the geopolitical situation in Tuva, the regime of stay of foreigners, issuance of permits softened or hardened. The author concludes the study with the description of the events of the 1920s, the time when there was a change of concept relations with foreign states due tothe Bolsheviks’ coming to power.

  19. Foreign direct investment and policy framework: New Granger causality evidence from African countries

    Rafiu Adewale Aregbeshola


    Full Text Available The strategic importance of foreign direct investment in the contemporary economies has been tremendous.While various countries (developed and developing economies have benefitted from the direct and spillovereffects of FDI, which range from improved technology and knowledge diffusion through to individual andcorporate capability enhancement, FDI outflow remains largely channelled to the developed countries, andthe rapidly developing countries in Asia and South America. Evidence suggests that the developmentenhancingeffects of FDI are felt more highly in the developing economies, such as economies in Africa.However, FDI inflow to the developing economies has been very low. Using data generated from the AfricanDevelopment Indicators (ADI between 1980 and 2008 in econometric estimations, this paper finds thatgovernment policies (especially fiscal and monetary policies play significant roles in facilitating FDI inflow tothe African countries studied. The study thereby suggests an improved regulatory framework to make Africamore attractive to inflow of FDI.

  20. Soviet Foreign Policy in Guinea and Somalia, Implications for American Policy Toward Africa


    membership base, and gave both women and youth active roles in party affairs. This organizing effort to make the PDG representative of all Guineans accept a certain degree of indigenous private enterprise, it has instituted a policy which excludes the entreprenuers from holding party posts...mobilize the nation’s youth 37 and women . To accomplish the first task the PDG leadership made Diallo Saifoulaye (a Foulah) Vice President of the

  1. Competing Variables in Turkey’s Multi-Vector Foreign Policy

    Agnes Nicolescu


    Full Text Available A certain shift in the Turkish foreign policy has been noticeable over the last decade, especially after the AKP (Justice and Development Party came to power in 2002, which manifested in closer relations with its Arab neighbours and simultaneously a more aggressive stance towards Israel. These developments have led many researchers to say that Turkey’s activism in the Middle East represents its return towards the East, at the expense of its Europeanisation aspirations. The current research paper aims to study the validity of this claim by looking at different sets of interactions between Turkey and its neighbours, through a constructivist lens of competing yet complementary variables.The ascending multilateralism manifested in Turkey’s foreign policy discourse and initiatives has been interpreted by some (Reynolds 2012 as a consequence of the exhaustion of the Kemalist project, while others (vom Hau et al 2012 see it as the logical result of the complex internal and external interactions of modernisation and globalisation at the level of the Turkish society. The conceptual categories proposed for assessing Turkey’s conduct in relation to other states open up perspectives for exploring further cooperation interactions between Turkey and the EU, on the one hand, and with countries in their shared neighbourhood as well.

  2. Interpretive sociology of foreign policy: “agent” model of state behavior on the international arena

    Ivan Nikolaevich Timofeev


    Full Text Available The article revisits the utility of sociological theories for the students of international relations. The failure of IR scholars to predict Ukrainian crisis revealed the limits of realism, which still remains most influential IR theory. These limits make rethink the prospects of convergence of IR and sociological theories. Pros and cons of holistic constructivist theory are examined. The article results in making an “agent-focused” model composed of the concepts of Max Weber’s interpretive sociology, Graham Allison’s typology of models of decision making and Mark Haas’s model of ideological origins of great powers’ politics. In doing so, it also revisits the concept of identity as a mean to understand “social facts” and their influence on foreign policy. The emphasis on the “agent” though not the “structure” is approached as an alternative to holistic constructivism of Alexander Wendt and his epigones. The “agent” model is supposed to be more capable for studies of great powers’, which play an active role in setting up the “structure’s” parameters. Three different approaches to “agent” are considered - “agent” as a state, as a bureaucratic body or structure within the state and as decision-makers and their staff. The model is designed for further empirical research of the Russian foreign policy.


    Г А Ханнанова


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to an analysis of the main factors, determining German policy in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA. More active German military-technical engagement in the settlement of the crises in the region on the modern stage determines relevance of this article’s topic. Based on historical method, author considers the development of German foreign policy in the Arab world, examining the main aspects of the colonial policy of German empire on the threshold of the First and Second World Wars, as well as the prerequisites of the intensification of German-Arabic contacts in the period of Cold War. In accordance with the principals of system analysis Germany’s Middle East policy was investigated in complex, given geopolitical, economic and military aspects. Special emphasis is put on the problem of transformation of Middle East regional order as a factor of political instability. Notwithstanding the rea-sonableness of Germany’s standing for stable and predictable regional order, these goals were challenged owing to the fact that Germany benefits from the regional disorder in terms of increase of its influence. In reliance on the German goals in the Middle East and North Africa, mentioned in the Coalition Agreement of 2013, the author points out the priority of crisis management. At the same time the ethno-confessional conflict potential of the region meets the interests of German military-industrial complex. Increase of Germany’s export of weapons to the Arab states as well as neglecting the restrictions on export go to prove that Germany backs the armaments race in the Middle East. In this regard, German policy is characterized by “double standards” and inconsistency. These specifics can be explained by the ongoing process of Middle East policy shift and searching for new priorities on a long-term horizon. In the conclusion, the author analyzes the specifics and prospects of German policy in MENA region.

  4. Germany's energy policies from 1960 to 1980 against the background of foreign trade relations and foreign politics

    Czakainski, M.


    There is hardly another area of politicis where the wishes and interests of different social groups clash so hard with facts and realities as the area of energy politics. The following article looks at Germany's energy politics between 1960 and 1980, it tries to highlight the vanifications of foreign trade relations and explain their impact on energy politics and on the resulting tensions on the area of foreign politics. (orig.) [de

  5. Transregionalism in US Foreign Policy: Comparative Analysis of TPP and TTIP Geopolitics

    Denis A. Kuznetsov


    Full Text Available The decision of US President Donald Trump to withdraw from the Trans-Pacifi c Partnership and the sluggish negotiations on Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership have fueled the debate on the future trajectories of American foreign policy in its two traditionally strategic geographic avenues – Asia Pacifi c and North Atlantic. The article analyzes the geo-political and geo-economic interests, which were pursued by the Obama administration and underlie TPP and TTIP initiatives, and suggests the outcomes of President Trump’s decision as well as the possible alternatives.Given the strategic US interests, its global positioning and the current trends of world politics, Donald Trump’s policy can be regarded as a reconsideration of the above-mentioned projects on the basis of bilateral negotiations and widening network of bilateral economic and trade agreements, rather than the policy of isolationism. In other words, it might be a policy of returning to a hub-and-spoke system of trade zones developed in the second half of the XX century. However, still emerging and competing transregional projects reduce the effectiveness of bilateralism for domestic development of states involved and reduce the international infl uence of outsiders, and that can jeopardize the US leadership.

  6. United States foreign oil policy since World War 1 : for profits and security. 2 ed.

    Randall, S.J.


    This book provided a historical context for United States global oil politics, with a focus on the goals, accomplishments and challenges of United States foreign oil policy, as well as on the relationship between the state and private sectors. This second edition has integrated developments in global politics since the end of the Cold War. It was suggested that many factors have provided the context for oil policy formation: a succession of crises in Iran since the 1950s; 2 wars in Iraq; U.S. intervention in Afghanistan; the threat of international terrorism since September 11, 2001; ongoing conflicts between Israel and the Arab nations in the Middle East; political instability in Saudi Arabia and in Venezuela and the trend towards trade and investment liberalization in Latin America in the 1990s. In addition, the emergence of oil sands reserves in Canada and other sources of non-conventional oil were discussed. Nationalism and oil policies in the Depression and World War 2 were examined. The structure of decision-making in oil policies was examined. Domestic and offshore resources were reviewed, and an outline of international agreements and relationships was presented. Issues concerning OPEC countries and the Iranian Revolution were examined. It was concluded that the United States has become more and not less vulnerable, despite its military strength. The author suggested that the main policy challenge to the United States may well be the tension between its commitment to Israel and its determination to avoid alienating the Arab oil-producing states. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Foreign Shocks, Monetary Policy, and Macroeconomic Fluctuations in a Small Open Economy: A SVAR Study of Malaysia

    Zulkefly Abdul Karim


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of foreign shocks upon domestic macroeconomic fluctuations and monetary policy, and examines the effectiveness of domestic monetary policy as a stabilization policy in Malaysia. Monetary policy variables (interest rate and money supply have been measured through a non-recursive structural VAR (SVAR identification scheme, which allows the monetary authority to set the interest rate and money supply after observing the current value of foreign variables, domestic output and inflation. The results show the important role of foreign shocks in influencing Malaysian monetary policy and macroeconomic variables. There is a real effect of monetary policy, that is, a positive shock in money supply increases domestic output. In contrast, a positive interest rates shock has a negative effect on domestic output growth and inflation. The effects of money supply and interest rate shocks on the exchange rate and stock prices are also consistent with standard economic theory. In addition, domestic monetary policy is able to mitigate the negative effect of external shocks upon domestic economy.

  8. The dialog between health and foreign policy in Brazilian cooperation in human milk banks.

    Pittas, Tiago Mocellin; Dri, Clarissa Franzoi


    Mother's milk is the primary source of nourishment in early infancy. When this source is unavailable, secondary sources may be used, such as human milk banks. The first milk bank in Brazil was created in 1943, and they have been used ever since. A national model was developed through a number of phases, culminating in the Brazilian Network of Human Milk Banks. This gave rise to a number of international cooperation projects, with the Brazilian model particularly relevant for developing nations. The main objective of this analysis is to understand what drives Brazil to promote milk banks internationally. To do this we tried to understand the relationship between health and foreign policy, expressed here as soft power, as here the two areas dialog with one another. The results include gains in both areas and the affirmation of health as a central goal of the national interest cluster of the case.

  9. Political conservatism, rigidity, and dogmatism in American foreign policy officials: the 1966 Mennis data.

    Kemmelmeier, Markus


    Researchers have established a relationship between political orientation and cognitive styles (A. Chirumbolo, 2002; J. T. Jost, J. Glaser, A. W. Kruglanski, & F. Sulloway, 2003a, 2003b; M. Kemmelmeier, 1997). In this article, the author examined whether this finding is true in the political elite, whether the relationship is linear or curvilinear, and whether interest in politics moderates the relationship between political orientation and cognitive styles. He used a 1966 sample of American foreign policy officials (N = 95) to examine the relationship between self-described conservatism and party identification and individual differences in rigidity and dogmatism. Rigidity was related to self-described conservatism, but this relationship was only significant among participants high in political interest, whereas dogmatism was unconditionally related to party identification. All relationships were linear and did not contain a curvilinear component.

  10. Sub-national entities’ participation in Brazil’s foreign policy and in regional integration processes

    Deisy Ventura


    Full Text Available This article focuses on how sub-national entities’ gradual participation in Brazilian foreign policy has come about, with reference to a decentralised scenario of the decision-making process in Itamaraty, where the ministries and presidential organs have a voice on many strategic themes, mainly concerning development. The article examines the insertion of sub-national entities into the decision-making process in the Southern Common Market (Mercosur, and concludes that in spite of the incipient participation, relevant contributions to the process of regional integration have arisen. Regarding the hypothesis that the participation of the federative entities in the decision-making process generates local and regional development, we argue that this is an alternative to increasing state efficiency. In conclusion, and despite the incipient institutionalisation that does not guarantee their vote in the decision-making process, at least their voice is heard.

  11. Four moments from US foreign policy doctrine: Between theory and the practice?

    Juan Tovar Ruiz


    Full Text Available Doctrines and strategies in international politics represent one of the most interesting elements for the discipline of international relations as a point of connection between theory and practice. An analysis of four of the great doctrines of US foreign policy (two of them realist, i.e those of Truman and Nixon, and two idealist, those of Clinton and Bush Jr and their historical development lead us to the conclusion that these doctrines are capable of changing reality and creating lasting instruments for applying to very different contexts, reaching even the present day (for example, containment, the domino theory and “Vietnamization”. We must bear in mind, however, the need for these doctrines to meet the criteria ofpragmatism and flexibility, prudence and self restriction, and for them to accept the institutional and moral limits of the societies on which they are established.

  12. Smart power and foreign policy of the People's Republic of China: the case of Central America

    Manuel Villegas Mendoza


    Full Text Available This paper presents the most relevant aspects of the academic debate on smart power, in order to apply this concept to analyze the foreign policy of the Republic of China on Latin America and the Caribbean, but especially to Central America; where the dispute between China and Taiwan for international recognition is evident. It is argued that the smart power of China to Central America is expressed in the attractiveness of having privileged access to the Chinese market and its funding programs and official development assistance. While this country has a large presence in Latin America and the Caribbean, in Central America such influence is counteracted in the light of the close relationship that all Central American countries except Costa Rica, maintain with Taiwan. Based on the development of China as a world power, it is expected that this condition changed, so that this country would increase its influence in Central America.

  13. Not radical enough: why Jimmy Carter failed to change American foreign policy

    Itai Nartzizenfield Sneh


    Full Text Available El Presidente Jimmy Carter no consiguió traducir sus palabras e ideales referentes a derechos humanos a hechos y prácticas en la política exterior de E.E.U.U. Carter, ya en el primer período de su administración en 1976-77, tenía una perspectiva demasiado conservadora y tradicional con respecto a las relaciones internacionales. Sus ideas eran correctas, sin embargo seguió enfocando su política en la guerra fría más que en una puesta en práctica constante de un nuevo paradigma para los derechos humanos, especialmente con respecto a los aliados americanos en los territorios subdesarrollados. Carter no reformó suficientemente la práctica de la política exterior de los E.E.U.U. Él no creyó bastantes en la lucha por los derechos humanos así que fue imposible una modifica significativa de las prioridades tradicionales. Carter confió en las políticas, las conductas, las personalidades y estructuras administrativas vigentes. La intención de Carter de cambiar la política americana así como los principios y la comisión, fue minada seriamente por el Consejo de Seguridad Nacional (especialmente Zbigniew Brzezinksi mucho antes de los bien conocidos cambios de SALT II, de los tratados del Canal de Panamá, y del Oriente Medio.__________ABSTRACT:President Jimmy Carter failed to translate his words and ideals concerning human rights into deeds and practices in US foreign policy. Carter, already in the formative period of his administration in 1976-7, was too conservative and traditional in his outlook on international relations. While his heart was at the right place, the Cold War was still his focus rather than a consistent implementation of a new human rights paradigm, especially with respect to American allies in the Developing World. Carter did not sufficiently reform the practice of US foreign policy. He did not believe enough in advocating human rights so a meaningful recast of traditional priorities was difficult. Carter relied on

  14. Present international patterns of foreign direct investment: underlying causes and some policy implications for Brazil

    François Chesnais


    Full Text Available An important feature of the 1980s has been the substantial fall in the flow of foreign direct investment (FDI to the developing countries and also, with the limited exception of the Asian NIE (Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore and China, to the newly industrialized countries, in particular those in Latin America. FDI has been concentrated more than ever among the advanced industrialized countries of OECD. The same period has witnessed a number of extremely important changes, both in the nature and location of basic or key technologies, the role of technology in industrial competitiveness; the most appropriate industrial management paradigm following the difficulties of the "Fordist" one; the nature of predominant international supply or market structures; and the relationships between productive and financial capital. Today a number of governments in developing countries and in NIC, among them the new government of Brazil, are again engaged in an attempt to attract FDI and to make foreign capital one of the major pillars of industrial revival and future growth. This paper argues that this policy objective is both fairly illusory and largely mistaken. It is fairly illusory in that it seriously underestimates the nature and strength of the structural factors which have been at work since the mid-1970s and seriously modified the strategies and investment priorities of the TNC which under took the brunt of the investment in developing countries and NICs in the earlier "golden age" of the 1960s and 1970s . The objective of luring foreign capital again to Brazil in ways and on a level similar to the 1960s is also largely mistaken in that it fails to recognize that the change in technological paradigms has modified the parameters of international technology transfers (cf. Ernst and O'Connor, 1989 and made indigenous and endogenous industrial growth dependent to a much higher degree than in the previous period (19601975 on factors which foreign capital

  15. Draft Environmental Impact Statement on a proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Volume 1


    The United States Department of Energy and United States Department of State are jointly proposing to adopt a policy to manage spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors. Only spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States would be covered by the proposed policy. The purpose of the proposed policy is to promote U.S. nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives, specifically by seeking to reduce highly-enriched uranium from civilian commerce. Environmental effects and policy considerations of three Management Alternative approaches for implementation of the proposed policy are assessed. The three Management Alternatives analyzed are: (1) acceptance and management of the spent nuclear fuel by the Department of Energy in the United States, (2) management of the spent nuclear fuel at one or more foreign facilities (under conditions that satisfy United States nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives), and (3) a combination of components of Management Alternatives 1 and 2 (Hybrid Alternative). A No Action Alternative is also analyzed. For each Management Alternative, there are a number of alternatives for its implementation. For Management Alternative 1, this document addresses the environmental effects of various implementation alternatives such as varied policy durations, management of various quantities of spent nuclear fuel, and differing financing arrangements. Environmental impacts at various potential ports of entry, along truck and rail transportation routes, at candidate management sites, and for alternate storage technologies are also examined. For Management Alternative 2, this document addresses two subalternatives: (1) assisting foreign nations with storage; and (2) assisting foreign nations with reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel. Management Alternative 3 analyzes a hybrid alternative. This document is Vol. 1 of 2 plus summary volume

  16. A Review Of The United States Government’s Status Quo North Korean Foreign Policy Approach And Reasons For Change


    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY A REVIEW OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT’S STATUS QUO NORTH KOREAN FOREIGN POLICY APPROACH AND REASONS FOR...administration DPRK policy review . Initially the Obama administration also sought negotiations through Six-party offering official US aid. In his... movies and sports, as well as being educated in Switzerland. Mr. Kim invited Dennis Rodman to visit his country, who has made several trips.44 Former

  17. "India’s Foreign Policy: Retrospect and Prospect” by Sumit Ganguly (ed.

    Oliver Stuenkel


    Full Text Available In this stimulating collection of scholarly essays, edited by Sumit Ganguly, the fifteen authors provide a balanced and insightful overview over India’s foreign policy. In Chapter 1, Ganguly argues that systemic (e.g., the Cold War, national (e.g., the experience of colonialism and personal factors (e.g., Nehru have contributed to the country’s foreign relations. It is this concept of three levels that structures the chapters in the book, helping the reader to navigate through often unwieldy and often unfamiliar issues. In Chapter 2, Basrur analyzes India-Pakistan relations, arguing that domestic politics pose the major obstacles to finding a lasting resolution. However, he strikes an optimistic tone arguing that through increased cooperation and communication, the Line of Control (LoC could be “transcended”, and that we can expect cumulative improvement rather than a dramatic and unexpected peace deal. In Chapter 3 on India-Sri Lanka relations, Devotta shows that New Delhi’s concerns about security have outweighed Tamil Nadu’s particular preferences when dealing with the war-torn island to the South of India. The chapter is full of important details -e.g. mentioning China’s growing presence in Sri Lanka – but t is unclear to the reader why this chapter is considerably longer and more detailed than the previous one, particularly since Pakistan plays a much more important role than Sri Lanka. In Chapter 4, Thakar sheds light on India-Bangladesh ties, arguing that despite no obvious obstacles relations are difficult mainly because of structural asymmetries and the suspicions that result from this unequal relationship. Recurring domestic instability on both sides further complicated matters. In Chapter 5, Garver elegantly summarizes the history of India-China relations in the context of shifting alliances during the Cold War, describing, among other aspects, the important role the Soviet Union played as one of India’s most

  18. The Two Faces of Internationalism: Public Attitudes toward American Foreign Policy in the 1970s--and Beyond?

    Wittkopf, Eugene R.; Maggiotto, Michael A.


    An analysis of two foreign policy surveys taken in the 1970s showed that Americans viewed the role of the United States in world affairs as either cooperative or militant internationalism. There was no consensus. Political philosophy, education, and region of the country consistently affected the respondents' attitudes. (Author/RM)

  19. Implementation plan of the environmental impact statement on a proposed policy for acceptance of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    Matos, J.E.


    This paper provides a summary of selected portions of the United States Department of Energy's ''Implementation Plan for the Environmental Impact Statement on a Proposed Policy for Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel'', DOE/EIS-0218, October 1994

  20. The Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, Marc Verwilghen, with CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar.

    Michel Blanc


    Marc Verwilghen, Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, came to CERN on 8 April 2005, where he visited the CMS assembly hall and underground cavern, as well as the hall where the LHC superconducting magnets are being tested.

  1. Research Self-Efficacy Sources and Research Motivation in a Foreign Language University Faculty in Mexico: Implications for Educational Policy

    Reyes-Cruz, María del Rosario; Perales-Escudero, Moisés Damián


    The research self-efficacy and motivation of foreign language (FL) faculty in periphery countries is under-researched, yet there is a need to understand the impact of public policies that drive such faculty to conduct research. This paper reports a qualitative case study investigating research self-efficacy and research motivation in a group of…

  2. Interpreting change : international challenges and variations in foreign policy beliefs as explanations for shifts in China’s policy towards the European Union

    Gaenssmantel, Frank

    This article examines why and how China upgraded its engagement with the European Union (EU) in the years between 2001 and 2004, with reference to pre-existing foreign policy traditions and practices in reform-era China. It argues that most of the observed changes can be explained with reference to

  3. Stability and Change in Americans’ Foreign Language Policy Attitudes: 2000-2008

    John P. Robinson


    Full Text Available The last decade has seen unprecedented policy emphasis on the Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTLs – whether broadly, as indicated by the regular publication of lists of languages critical to the national interest, such as that of the US Department of Education (2010, or in the particular languages included in the multiple new Federal programs that comprise the National Security Language Initiative (NSLI, such as the National Language Service Corps, STARTALK, the Language Flagship, the English for Heritage Language Speakers program, or the NSLI for Youth, to cite several examples. The LCTLs predominate in these lists, reflecting a national level policy emphasis on the LCTLs. This emphasis derives from perceived and actual needs for specific LCTLs required for the common weal – for national security, economic well being, and social justice (Brecht et al., 2007; Brecht & Rivers, 2000. This emphasis, consisting in its entirety of programs promulgated, funded, and directed by the Federal government, stands in contrast to the ongoing perception in our professional fields that Foreign Languages (FLs, and the LCTLs among them, are under increasing and unprecedented stress in the educational system, and that furthermore, that the teaching of LCTLs lacks public support, or is even actively opposed in the broader US society (Wiley, 2007.

  4. Foreign direct investment and liberalization policies in Pakistan: An empirical analysis

    Rana Ejaz Ali Khan


    Full Text Available To enhance the inflow of foreign direct investment (FDI and ultimately to increase the economic growth, the countries have implemented a variety of financial and trade liberalization policies in the last three decades. Pakistan also initiated such type of policies. This study makes an analysis of the impact of liberalization (financial and trade in Pakistan, on the inflow of FDI using the time series data of 1971–2009. The DF-GLS test is used to determine the level of integration, and autoregressive distributed lag model to examine the long-run relationship. The results indicate that liberalization indicators, like financial liberalization index and trade openness along with real interest rate, negatively affect the inflow of FDI in Pakistan. Tax revenue of product also negatively affects the FDI. On the other hand, the gross fixed capital formation, infrastructure, and inflation positively influence the FDI in Pakistan. The market size (proxied by real gross domestic product has shown insignificant effect on FDI.

  5. Original Copies

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr


    of similarity by looking at artefactual similarity as the results of prototyping and as a production of simulacra. In this light, the concept of copying turns out to be more than simply a matter of trying to imitate an exotic or prestigious original, and it fundamentally raises the question how different a copy...

  6. PDVSA'S possible sale of CITGO and the subsequent ramifications on US foreign and energy policy

    Otazo, Andrew


    PDVSA seems poised to sell CITGO in the very near future. The United States and Venezuela have already begun to implement shifts in national behavior and policy, suggesting that they are expecting this transition within the next couple of years. Although nothing is guaranteed until after the Venezuelan presidential election of 2012, if President Chavez retains his grip on power past that point, expect CITGO to be sold by the year 2014, if not shortly thereafter. If the US Congress decides to impose CISADA sanctions on Venezuela or declare it a state sponsor of terrorism, CITGO could be sold significantly sooner. However, such legislative action seems unlikely. A move to sell CITGO would have far-reaching ramifications for both countries' energy and foreign policies. This restructuring of energy geopolitics could potentially lead to more conflicts in the international arena. With significantly less economic leverage on each other, the United States and Venezuela would be free to harden their rhetoric and policies. - Highlights: ► CITGO is no longer a profitable company. ► Worse still, it is in a considerable amount of debt. ► CITGO will be sold after the Venezuelan presidential of 2012 and the Panama Canal renovations of 2014. ► CITGO's sale will significantly change the geopolitical orientation of the United States and Venezuela. ► With the completion of the Keystone XL pipeline, the United States will be ready for the end of Venezuelan oil. ► The US Congress probably not impose CISADA sanctions on Venezuela, or declare it a state sponsor of terrorism.

  7. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 197 - Procedures for Copying of Documents for the Foreign Relations of the United States Series


    ... Research Branch staff will make that determination at the time the request is processed. When the historian... historian will review the boxes and mark the documents that are to be copied using Post-It Notes or WNRC.... The Declassification and Historical Research Branch will notify the historian when the documents are...

  8. The Rules of Origin of Goods as an Instrument of the State Foreign Trade Policy

    Storozhchuk Volodymyr M.


    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing the types of rules of origin of goods, existing in the international practice, and approaches to assess their impact on the foreign trade flows. The article considers two types of rules for determining the country of origin of goods used in the international practice: non-preferential and preferential. The main characteristics of the non-preferential rules of origin and peculiarities of their application in Ukraine are defined and systematized. The article defines the priority functions of the customs tariff, subject to the use of non-preferential rules of origin of goods, to which are classified: protective, fiscal, and regulatory. The criteria used in the non-preferential rules of origin of goods have been considered. It has been substantiated that the priority functions of the customs tariff subject to the use of preferential rules of origin of goods are the integration and progressive functions. The criteria used in the preferential rules of origin of goods have been considered. Based on the results of the analysis of the rules of origin of goods, it has been substantiated that their use can be considered as a restrictive or an incentive tool of the State foreign trade policy. It has been shown that of special importance, in the context of Ukraine’s integration into the global value chains, is the goods’ acquisition of the status of preferential origin in accordance with the criterion of diagonal cumulation within the framework of the Regional Pan-Euro-Med Convention, which requires Ukraine to conclude a number of bilateral agreements with the identical preferential rules of origin of goods.

  9. The role of cross-listing, foreign ownership and state ownership in dividend policy in an emerging market

    Kevin C.K. Lam


    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate if dividend policy is influenced by ownership type. Within the dividend literature, dividends have a signaling role regarding agency costs, such that dividends may diminish insider conflicts (reduce free cash flow or may be used to extract cash from firms (tunneling effect – which could be predominant in emerging markets. We expect firms with foreign ownership and those that are listed in overseas markets to have different dividend policies and practices than those that are not, and firms with more state ownership and less individual ownership to be more likely to pay cash dividends and less likely to pay stock dividends. Using firms from an emerging economy (China, we examine whether these effects exist in corporate dividend policy and practice. We find that both foreign ownership and cross-listing have significant negative effects on cash dividends, consistent with the signaling effect and the notion of reduced tunneling activities for firms with the ability to raise capital from outside of China. Consistent with the tunneling effect, we find that firms with higher state ownership tend to pay higher cash dividends and lower stock dividends, while the opposite is true for public (individual ownership. Further analysis shows that foreign ownership mediates the effect of state ownership on dividend policy. Our results have significant implications for researchers, investors, policy makers and regulators in emerging markets.

  10. 76 FR 65472 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees


    ... for investment by foreign individuals, corporations, and governments in U.S.-organized entities that... before direct or indirect foreign ownership of their U.S. parent companies exceeds 25 percent. 5. In the... permitting greater investment in U.S. common carrier and aeronautical radio licensees by foreign individuals...

  11. 78 FR 41314 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees


    ... (subject to the 20 percent aggregate limit on direct foreign investment), the rules will also permit the... to the Commission's foreign ownership filing requirements and review process, facilitate investment... licensees. 2. Section 310(b)(4) of the Act establishes a 25 percent benchmark for investment by foreign...

  12. The Foreign Policy of Saudi Arabia in the Near East at the Beginning of the 21st Century

    Igor V. Kryuchkov


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the formation of a new foreign policy strategy of Saudi Arabia in conditions of the changing situation in the Middle East after the “Arab spring” and the “nuclear deal” with Iran. It is shown in the article that the instability of domestic policy and economic problems connected with oil price drop have influence on the foreign policy of Saudi Arabia. Struggle with Iran for domination in the region becomes the basis of its policy in the Middle East. The author notes that the complication of relations with the USA also greatly influences the foreign policy of Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom condemned the nuclear program agreement of Iran. Riyadh didn’t manage to neutralize the growth of influence of Iran in Iraq, Lebanon, Syria and Yemen. Riyadh places a bet on B. Asad opponents support in the Syrian conflict aiming to strengthen its positions in the country and to dislodge Iran and Russia from it. Confrontation with Iran forced Saudi Arabia to interfere with the civil war in Yemen and to carry out a successful operation in Bahrein. The article shows the aspiration of Saudi Arabia to withhold Egypt, Jordan and a number of other countries of the region in the sphere of its foreign policy through financial aid to these countries. It is proved that the reasons of the conflict of Saudi Arabia with Iran were of economic, geopolitical and religious nature, and that Saudi Arabia aspired to strengthen its positions in the Middle East and East Africa. A great breakthrough was acquisition of two islands in the Red Sea from Egypt by Riyadh.

  13. The Bush/Cheney Energy Strategy: Implications for U.S. Foreign and Military Policy

    Klare, Michael T. [Hampshire College, Amherst, MA (United States). Peace and World Security Studies


    The 'National Energy Policy' (NEP) released by the Bush Administration on May 17, 2001 was supposedly intended to meet growing U.S. energy requirements in the first two decades of the 21st Century while also diminishing U.S. dependence on imported oil. This was to be accomplished, the White House suggested, by increasing production at existing oil fields in the United States and by commencing drilling on the Artic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in Alaska. So great was the furor over drilling on ANWR that most people never bothered to examine the NEP closely. This is unfortunate, as a close reading of the NEP report reveals a very different picture than that suggested by White House pronouncements: far from promoting energy 'independence', the NEP assumes that the United States will become MORE, not less dependent on imported petroleum in the years ahead and therefore calls on the Federal Government to take whatever steps are necessary to promote enhanced U.S. access to foreign oil. In particular, the NEP calls on the U.S. Government to seek additional petroleum from the Persian Gulf area, Russia, the Caspian Sea basin, Mexico, Venezuela, Angola, and Nigeria. As is implied by the report, the United States must acquire more oil from these countries in order to permit increased oil consumption in the United States at a time of declining domestic production. Even leaving aside the question of whether these countries will be able to boost their production sufficiently to satisfy steadily rising demand in the United States, this strategy poses enormous challenges for the United States because most of these areas are highly unstable and house anti-American governments and forces. It is likely, then, that U.S. efforts to acquire more oil from these countries will entail the increased presence of U.S. military forces in the area and periodic U.S. military intervention. Indeed, the requirement for increased military action in support of U.S. foreign

  14. Copy Counts

    Beaumont, Lee R.


    The level of difficulty of straight copy, which is used to measure typewriting speed, is influenced by syllable intensity (the average number of syllables per word), stroke intensity (average number of strokes per word), and high-frequency words. (CH)

  15. Bush doctrine in the Middle East; The US foreign policy towards the Middle East during the George W. Bush presidency

    Lukáš Hoder


    Full Text Available The article is focused at the most important elements of the US foreign policy towards the Middle East during the administration of George W. Bush (2001 – 2009. The text has two parts. The first part shows three important influences on creation and formulation of the US foreign policy towards the region. At the first place it was an effort to preserve unipolar character of the international system, hegemonic possition of the USA and its dominance in all regions. The second source was specific decision-making process set up by president Bush and the third source of the Bush strategy was a partial transformation of the US longtime policy towards the Middle East. The second part of the article discuss results of the Bush doctrine in the region. The text is focused at five most important consequences of the US foreign policy, which are the fight against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the pursuit of the democratization throughout the region, the Israel-Palestinian conflict, regional “cold war” between Iran and Saudi Arabia and finally the struggle to stabilize the post-conflict Iraq.

  16. Brazil in Regional and Global Governance: Foreign Policy, Leadership and UNASUR

    Gregory Chin


    Full Text Available This article examines the role of Brazil as a source of international governance innovation during the Lula da Silva and early Rousseff presidencies (2003–12. The analysis details some of Brazil’s main contributions to regional and global governance, and how these contributions are rooted in ideational and normative innovation and its imaginative, nonconformist, status quo–altering foreign policy of the period. Although Brazil was not, and is not, a “new actor” per se in global governance, it did take unprecedented and dramatic strides between 2003 and 2012 to redefine the multilateral agenda and reshape institutional arrangements for international cooperation and conflict management in South America. At the global level, Brazil launched new platforms for international cooperation, including with the other BRICS countries of Russia, India, China and South Africa. The regional trends are examined in the case of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR, and the innovations that Brazil spearheaded and supported in international security and health cooperation. However, Brazil’s contributions gain greater salience as part of the broader processes of global change where international power is becoming increasingly diffused and decentralized.

  17. Progressive Incrementalism: U.S Foreign Economic Policy Over the Next Four Years

    John M. Curtis


    Full Text Available As we look ahead following last year’s U.S. presidential and congressional elections, Canadians — and Canadian business in particular — will want to have a better sense of the economic prospects, as well as the context, of U.S. foreign economic policy over the coming half-decade or so. For, notwithstanding all the talk, debates, op-ed articles, thinktank-pieces and even books in recent years suggesting or asserting the decline of American economic power, Canada’s ever-present integration and interdependence with our southern neighbour is both a reality and now, again, an important, medium-term asset. Over the coming four years and likely beyond, and once it has completed sorting out its “fiscal cliff” matter, the U.S. is positioned to be the source of increasing economic growth. The American economy has strengths: its high productivity and innovation compared to most other countries, massive piles of private sector cash leading to all sorts of investment potential, a devalued currency, and a relatively young workforce compared to the European Union, Japan, and even Canada. Therefore, although the U.S. economy continues to face large challenges related to fiscal imbalances, there are reasons to expect increasing economic growth over the medium term.

  18. Sustainable development as an organizing principle for US foreign policy: Opportunities and enduring constraints

    Munro, J.F.


    The disintegration of the Soviet Union has dramatically changed the international topography. Bipolar international relations have given way to a multipolar world wherein the United States is the only true superpower as gauged by both economic and military might. The decline of the Soviet Union has removed an important stabilizing force in international politics and a critical organizing principle for American Foreign Policy -- namely, the containment of international communism. The Soviet Union`s dismantlement has created opportunities for both cooperation and conflict. It means that increasingly cooperative relations between Russia and the United States have reduced the threat of nuclear war while intensifying regional political instability among present and former allies and former client states. Without the Soviet threat more resources are available to restore the nation`s transportation, communications, and industrial infrastructure, clean up the environment, and to develop technologies that promise to increase US economic competitiveness while minimizing environmental impacts. Internationally, there should be additional resources to promote international economic growth, to preserve natural environments, and to build democratic institutions in developing nations.

  19. The Role of Soft Power in China’s Foreign Policy in the 21th Century

    Beston Husen Arif


    Full Text Available The concept of soft power has recently become more integrated in China’s diplomatic strategy and foreign policy. China’s utilization of hard power only is insufficient if it wishes to be an active player on the international stage. It also needs to employ soft power to stimulate its influences and leadership in world politics. This study focuses on the argument that soft power can play a significant role in shaping China’s charm image among other countries. It also discusses that China’s aspiration to be a more powerful state in the region depends on its ability to put more efforts into its soft power tactics. To this end, China has employed various tools of soft power’s sources including Chinese culture, language, arts, aids, trades and investments to promote its influences abroad. China’s interest in using soft power comes from its demanding national interests. These national interests include trying to secure a peaceful environment for its economic growth, to accommodate for its increasing energy needs, and also to minimise the influence of other powers, particularly the United States.

  20. Analysis of Russian Federation Foreign Policy in the Field of International Information Security

    Elena S. Zinovieva


    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICT play an essential role in the improvement of the quality of life, economic and socio-political of individual countries and humanity in general. However, ICT development is fraught with new challenges and threats to international and national security. Interstate rivalry in the information sphere generates conflicts, an extreme form of which is an information war. Since 1998, the Russian initiative supports the international cooperation on information security at the global and regional level as well as within the framework of the bilateral relations. The article analyzes the characteristics of the global information society, which has a decisive influence on the international security in the information age, as well as international cooperation in this field. The analysis of Russian foreign policy initiatives in the field of international information security is also presented. Today more than 130 countries develop cyber capabilities, both defensive and offensive, that pose serious threats to the international stability. It's difficult to trace the source of information attacks and its consequences can be devastating and cause retaliation, including the use of conventional weapons. In this situation Russian approach, advocating for the development of the rules of conduct of States and demilitarization of information space in order to ensure its safety, seems urgent and relevant with the international situation.

  1. Institutionalization of Foreign Policy Think Tanks in Italy and in the UK: An Explanatory Framework

    Longhini Anna


    Full Text Available This article explores the phenomenon of foreign policy think tanks in Europe in a comparative perspective and offers a framework of analysis for this topic. Assuming that think tanks were largely imported from the US after World Wars I and II, the article argues that European think tanks have been influenced by the different national political contexts in which they have undergone a process of institutionalization. First, the article hypothesizes that such contexts have contributed to determining different incentives for cooperation between think tanks and national policymakers. Such cooperation is based on the willingness of policymakers to turn to think tanks for expertise, advice or validation of policy decisions. Secondly, different political contexts are expected to influence the strategies of action that think tanks have developed towards policymakers and their audience. In this respect, the article identifies three strategies: the generalist, the advocate and the lobbyist. Empirically, the article is based on a survey of eleven organizations conducted in two countries, Italy and the United Kingdom, in 2013-14. Given that very few data are available on this type of organization, their activities, funding, policy audience and goals are investigated. These indicators are used to investigate the main commonalities and differences between the two cases and to compare them with the hypotheses. The results first show that there is comparatively more funding available for think tanks in the UK system than in the Italian one. Secondly, there is apparently more willingness from policymakers to turn to think tanks for expertise in the former case, considering that the UK think tanks hold a higher number of closed-door events and parliamentary hearings. On the contrary, where policymakers tend, instead, to more scarcely rely on external expertise - as it seems more evident in the Italian case - the core audience of think tanks tends to shift to other

  2. Policy Measures to Alleviate Foreign Currency Liquidity Shortages under Aggregate Risk with Moral Hazard

    Hiroshi Fujiki


    During the recent global financial crisis, some central banks introduced two innovative cross-border operations to deal with the problems of foreign currency liquidity shortages: domestic liquidity operations using cross-border collaterals and operations for supplying foreign currency based on standing swap lines among central banks. We show theoretically that central banks improve the efficiency of equilibrium under foreign currency liquidity shortages by those two innovative temporary polic...

  3. Timor-Leste’s Foreign Policy: Securing State Identity in the Post-Independence Period

    Selver B. Sahin


    Full Text Available This paper examines some of the major ideational aspects of Timor-Leste’s foreign policy orientation in the post-independence period. Drawing upon the constructivist accounts of state behaviour, the paper situates Timorese leaders’ foreign policy decisions in the broader context of their search to position the fledging nation in the global political order. It argues that Timor-Leste’s insecure state identity has shaped its leaders’ foreign policy preferences in the post-independence period. This identity can be examined by separating it into two parts: the construction of spatial boundaries and the creation of a temporal “other”. The former is evidenced by the leadership’s rhetorical emphasis on the country’s Portuguese heritage and their prioritisation of ASEAN membership, both of which are closely related to the consolidation of the young nation’s political and cultural identity. The creation of a temporal other, as illustrated by the rise of political discourse emphasising sovereignty, reflects a wider transitional process that is embedded in the country’s transformation from colony to independent state under international supervision as well as the state’s transformation from “fragile” or “failing” to “stable”. A detailed analysis of the basic aspects of Timor-Leste’s insecurities as a constitutive element of its foreign policy becomes instrumental to understanding the country’s nation-state-building experience since its separation from Indonesia in 1999, as it enters a new phase of socio-political structuring following the withdrawal of the international security presence in 2012.

  4. The Link between National Foreign Policy and the Performance of a Country in the European Union: The Polish Case

    Joanna Kaminska


    Full Text Available This article examines the link between the adaptation of national executives and diplomats to the EU and the capacity of a state to influence EU foreign policy outcomes. It argues that, in the case of Poland, the politicization of the domestic administrative structures before 2004 constrained the ability of the state to impact on the EU’s external agenda after the enlargement. It also claims that a rapid adaptation to the EU occurred only after the Polish accession to the EU, as the will to influence the EU’s policy towards Eastern Europe was a main driver for changes in the national diplomacy.

  5. The EU vs. Russia in the foreign policy discourse of Armenia: the fragility of normative power or the power of Russian coercion?

    Aram TERZYAN


    Full Text Available Constructivist-driven conventional wisdom posits that ideas and beliefs are pivotal to shaping foreign policy trajectories. Thus, the explanatory power ascribed to material forces falls back on ideas and cultural practices (Wendt, 1999. Whereas the case of Armenia, characterized by the co-existence of European foreign policy identity with Russia-led foreign policy preferences suggests that identity and beliefs may well be outweighed by material forces. This paper seeks to explain the evolution of how the European Union (EU and Russia have been conceptualised within the foreign policy discourse of Armenia. The study relies on the critical discourse analysis of relevant speeches and statements of Armenia’s foreign policy-makers and, particularly, on those of the President. It scrutinizes the core notions and discursive structures, employed in the Armenian foreign policy discourse for justifying the choice of the Russia-led path. It suggests that Armenia’s deviation from the identity driven path towards the EU has been broadly justified in terms of the country’s economic and, particularly, security needs, which prompted to treat Russia as an indispensable ally. Yet, a closer scrutiny of external constraints indicates that Russian coercive policy left little room for Armenia to achieve a Russian-European balance.

  6. News media representations of a common EU foreign and security policy: a cross-national content analysis of CFSP coverage in national quality newspapers

    Kandyla, A.-A.; de Vreese, C.


    This study is a cross-national comparative content analysis of the broadsheet press coverage of EU Common Foreign and Security issues (n=1453) focusing on the presence of indicators of a European Public Sphere. Specifically, we investigated the visibility of Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)

  7. Autonomy and Foreign Policy in Latin America: an Open Debate, an Uncertain Future.

    Juan Gabriel Tokatlian


    Full Text Available After the disappearance of the East-West confrontation, the persistence of the traditional inequality in the North-South divide justifies a revision of the current state of the debate with respect to autonomy in the foreign policy of a peripheral country such as Colombia. In analysing the different viewpoints of the realist and interdependentist theoretical schools and of the international political economy, a basic coincidence can be found in consideringautonomy as something possible, desirable, beneficial and practical for the State. A synthetic analysis of the recent treatment of the theme of autonomy by the most prestigious theorists in latinamerican matters, from O’Donnell, Link and Jaguaribe through to Cepeda or Escudé, via Puig or Drekonja or the present author, Tokatlian together with Pardo, brings to light the persistence of many holes and questions among which one could highlight: - the unit of basic analysis when evaluating the question of autonomy still seems to be the State, without paying attention to the phenomenon of a gradual erosion of the modern system of State-nation and the correlative increase of non-State forces - this state slant permits the notion that absolute sovereignty and political isolation are still viable- the autonomic “dream”, which has a partial explanation in thesecular structural symmetry which has motivated the attempt to overcome it, and the historical experience, which demonstrates that the autonomy of the opposing parties serves the interests and long term needs of the most powerful actors, point out that the relativeautonomy still makes sense while a change is taking place towards a postmodern system Force and wealth aside, as fundamental materials for the exercise of the potential of autonomy on behalf of the peripheral countries, it is in the field of ideas where a crucialsource of power in Latin America remains to be explored.




    Full Text Available Following a study visit in Baku, the author exposes in this paper some of the research results, being also embedded the opinions of Azerbaijanis experts that were interviewed. The aim is to perform an analysis on the evolution of Azerbaijani state interpreted both from the European and Azerbaijani perspective. On the one hand, it is approached the development of the Republic of Azerbaijan after the collapse of Soviet Union and the way the Nagorno-Karabakh unsolved conflict has influenced Azerbaijan’s foreign policy. On the other hand, it is researched the manner in which the European Union – Azerbaijan relations have evolved since 1991, but especially once the Eastern Partnership has been created. Considering the fundamental purpose of the European Neighborhood Union, to ensure security, stability and prosperity in the EU’s vicinity, it is analyzed the impact of two multilateral platforms within the Eastern Partnership (Democracy, good governance and stability, and Energy security was achieved on the Republic of Azerbaijan. At the same time, it is investigated whether the European Union should accept an authoritarian leadership, as a legitimate actor and partner on the international stage just because the EU has a strategic interest to diversify its energy sources and, eventually, reduce the dependence on Russian Federation, or it should change its approach and adopt a firmer stance. Last but not least, are revealed the geopolitical frictions in the South Caucasus region and the reasons for which Azerbaijan tries to maintain its status as a sovereign and independent country, avoiding to ally with any geopolitical bloc, but opting for economic, energy and military cooperation with both sides.


    Elena Nikolaevna Emelyanova


    Full Text Available Purpose. The article examines the foreign policy activities of the Bolshevik leadership on the eve of the opening of the Paris Peace Conference. The strategy and tactics of the RCP (B in the autumn-winter of 1918–1919 are analyzed, as well as the attempt to establish relations with the great powers hostile to the RSFSR, the striving of Soviet Russia to take its place in the new Versailles system. The ways to achieve this goal are exploring. The methodological basis of the article are the principles of objectivity, historicism, a critical approach to the sources used and a comprehensive analysis of the problem posed. Results: it is argued that the international situation, the growth of the revolutionary movement in Europe in 1918–1919, the unification of all left-wing forces around the Soviet state forced the leaders of Britain and the US to send their representative for talks with the Bolsheviks. On the other hand, the Bolshevik leadership sought to reach agreement with the world powers on recognizing the Soviet government, even by temporarily abandoning international goals, the implementation of these tasks was delegated to the Communist International created in March 1919. The preservation of the Soviet state was put by the Bolsheviks above the idea of a “world revolution”. Scope of application of the results. The results of the work can be used for further research in the field of history and political science, as well as in the teaching of these disciplines in the university.

  10. President McKinley and American Imperialism: A Study on United States Foreign and Domestic Policy in the Philippines 1898-1900


    .... This report looks at McKinley s expansionist foreign policy and asserts it was tied directly to attaining economic markets and prosperity for the United States and not, as is commonly believed...

  11. From Promoting Political Polyarchy to Defeating Participatory Democracy: U.S. Foreign Policy towards the Far Left in Latin America

    Timothy M Gill


    Full Text Available During the 1980s, the United States initiated an explicit policy of democracy promotion throughout the world. William Robinson (1996 more accurately described this initiative as “promoting polyarchy,” whereby the United States supported moderate elite actors that promoted neoliberal economic policies to displace both right-wing and communist despots, such as General Augusto Pinochet in Chile and Soviet rulers in Eastern Europe. While much of Latin America remained characterized by polyarchies throughout the late 20th Century, Latin American citizens began to reject these political arrangements and to elect anti-neoliberal candidates that promoted participatory democracy by the turn of the 21st Century, particularly in Bolivia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. How has the United States changed its democracy promotion strategies to respond to these new dynamics? The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the U.S. government, through agencies such as the National Endowment for Democracy (NED and USAID, has altered the main thrust of its foreign policy in Latin America, from promoting polyarchy and displacing despotic leaders, to supporting opposition actors to unseat democratically-elected far leftist leaders that promote participatory democracy. This paper deploys a case study method involving recent U.S. foreign policy in Bolivia, Nicaragua, and Venezuela, and it utilizes both U.S. diplomatic cables and interviews with U.S. state elites to illustrate this shift.

  12. How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation evaluates Japan's foreign aid policy to determine the extent to which new revisions of aid policy have improved the environmental sustainability of the policy. This dissertation reviews the mainstream idea of sustainable development (also known as the sustainable development paradigm in this dissertation) to reveal the nature of the idea of sustainable development that Japan's foreign aid policy depends on. A literature review of two development discourses---modernization theory and ecological modernization theory---and three types of critiques against the sustainable development paradigm---focused on adverse impacts of modern science, globalization, and environmental overuse---reveals core logics of and problems with the sustainable development paradigm. Japan's foreign aid policy impacts on energy sector development in recipient countries is examined by means of a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. Specifically, it examines the effect of Japan's ODA program over fifteen years that proposed to facilitate sustainable development in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to investigation of ODA disbursements in the energy sector and detailed case studies of several individual energy projects are performed. The dissertation discovers that the sustainable development paradigm guiding Japan's ODA has little capacity to accomplish its goals to bring about social and ecological improvement in developing countries. This dissertation finds three fundamental weaknesses in Japanese ODA policy on energy sector development as well as the sustainable development

  13. Asylum migration and the construction of the European Common Foreign and Security Policy: evidence from the Greek case

    Silvia Lucía Forero Castañeda


    Full Text Available This article examines how the recent evolution of asylum migration has affected the construction of the European Common Foreign and Security Policy (EU-CFSP, taking the Greek case during the 2001-2012 period as a starting point. With this in mind, the normative progress of the EU-CFSP facing the reception of asylum seekers in Greece is analyzed, under the scope of what Barry Buzan and Ole Waever would call Securitization Process. Both legal and political frameworks on asylum migration in Greece and in the European Union are approached, in the context of the evolution of the EU-CFSP in three main areas: Neighborhood Policy, Development and Cooperation Policy, and Human Rights Protection. The conclusión points toward the partial influence of asylum migration in the configuration of the UE-CFSP during the studied period.


    Ari Warokka


    Full Text Available Theory and previous evidences provide conflicting predictions concerning the growth effects of foreign direct investment (FDI. The mainstream ideas support FDI as an engine of employment, technological progress, productivity improvements, and ultimately economic growth. Because of these significant benefits, attracting FDI has become one of the integral parts of economic development strategies in many countries. There are two schools of thought that hypothesize the FDI determinants: economic factors and political factors. For the latter school of thought, the central questions are directed to determine whether political regime affect country’s trade policy or not. In the advanced industrial countries where labour tends to be scarce, are left political regimes more protectionist than right ones, which represent capital owners? Prior evidence had demonstrated an association between the type of political regimes and trade policies (FDI policies.

  15. A Rule of Reason for Inward FDI: Integrating Canadian Foreign Investment Review and Competition Policy

    Grant Bishop


    Full Text Available The Investment Canada Act (ICA needs an overhaul. This reform must include a paradigm shift in thinking to a much less restrictive view about the benefits of foreign direct investment in Canada. Currently, the ICA operates under the presumption that foreign firms behave detrimentally to the Canadian economy: foreign acquirers are required to show “net benefit” to Canada and may need to make onerous commitments for maintaining output or employment. This attitude, a holdover from the ICA’s predecessor, the Foreign Investment Review Agency, has created an atmosphere which fosters protectionism and relies on economically incoherent factors to assess the merit of proposed transactions. It is time to shed that archaic attitude and adopt a more reasoned perspective. Rather than requiring each proposed transaction to provide proof for the specific benefit to Canada, the ICA should assume that foreign acquisitions benefit Canada unless there is proof to the contrary. A more welcoming, balanced and rational perspective would be that foreign acquisitions actually improve the productivity of Canadian companies and contribute to the wellbeing of Canada’s economy. The ICA is flawed in other ways, too. Some reviews of proposed transactions have become unnecessarily fraught with politics. Think of the recent politically enmeshed fretting over the bid that the state-owned Chinese Offshore National Company made for Nexen Energy, or Malaysia’s state-owned Petronas’ bid for Progress Energy Resources Corp. Indeed, there has been a very real fear of traditionally Canadian-owned institutions losing their Canadian essence to foreign ownership. Then, too, there is the federal government’s built-in ability to impose onerous conditions, or undertakings, on foreign acquirers. All this is clearly a deterrent to potentially beneficial foreign investment in Canada. Canada needs a new regime without nationalism, protectionism and politics. Ideally, this new

  16. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Appendix A, environmental justice analysis. Volume 2


    This is Appendix A to a draft Environmental Impact Statement on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. This appendix addresses environmental justice for the acceptance of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States. Analyses of environmental justice concerns are provided in three areas: (1) potential ports of entry, (2) potential transportation routes from candidate ports of entry to interim management sites, and (3) areas surrounding potential interim management sites. These analyses lead to the conclusion that the alternatives analyzed in this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) would result in no disproportionate adverse effects on minority populations or low-income communities surrounding the candidate ports, transport routes, or interim management sites

  17. Legitimising Emerging Power Diplomacy: an Analysis of Government and Media Discourses on Brazilian Foreign Policy under Lula

    Rafael Mesquita


    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyses whether Brazilian foreign policy under Lula successfully legitimised the country's international identity as a rising power in the eyes of the domestic and international media. Based on a constructivist framework, we have applied French Discourse Analysis to a corpus of 36 official addresses by the President of the Republic and the Minister of Foreign Relations and 137 news articles from four news outlets, two Brazilian and two international, concerning two diplomatic episodes deemed representative of Brazil's quest for greater pre-eminence: the leadership of MINUSTAH (2004 and the Nuclear Deal signed with Iran and Turkey (2010. Results show that official discourse characterises Brazil's identity as a rising power chiefly by South-South diplomacy, while media discourse was more heterogeneous, being the discursive formation of each news outlet determinant in explaining their interpretation of Brazil's international identity.

  18. The construction of ‘geopolitical spaces’ in Russian foreign policy discourse before and after the Ukraine crisis

    David Svarin


    Full Text Available Focusing on discourses by the ruling elite, this article examines the construction of ‘geopolitical spaces’ in Russian foreign policy. Based on a critical geopolitical analysis, suggesting that territory, space and geographies are being actively (reformulated by those in power, this article analyzes how policy-makers define and articulate the importance of a particular geographical region for their foreign policy. It analyzes how the three ‘geopolitical spaces’ – Eurasia, the Euro-Atlantic and the Asia-Pacific – are defined by Russia's political leaders and how each space fulfils a particular function for the pursuit of Russian interests abroad. In a second part, this article takes into account the events in and around Ukraine starting in late 2013 and analyzes how Russia's discourse toward the traditional ‘geopolitical spaces’ changed as a result. It is argued, that while Russia previously strived for membership in each of the three ‘geopolitical spaces’, the Ukraine crisis and its impact on Moscow's relation with the West led to a reorientation of Russia's geopolitical vision toward the East and most importantly toward Eurasia. The establishment of the Eurasian Economic Union was instrumental for the promotion of a new vision of wider Eurasian integration.

  19. Peculiarities of foreign policy of Ukraine: European Integration or Accession with Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Bostan Sergii Ivanovich


    Full Text Available Geopolitical location of Ukraine on the map of Europe gave the country a number of benefits, as well as serious problems with which it is trying to understand and use as their advantage. The country, its government has a hard choice: to define their own place in Europe and the world. In general, European integration or accession to the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, choice of Eurasian movement or the Western European traditions. The way out of the difficult domestic political situation in the country, raise of economy depend on the foreign policy of the country and the choice of integration model for its further development.

  20. The Interparliamentary Conference on the CFSP/CSDP: A new forum for the Oireachtas in Irish and EU foreign policy?

    Butler, Graham


    and legislatures in the policy domains of foreign affairs, security and defence, compounded by the loss of institutional influence experienced by national parliaments as a result of the European integration process, interparliamentarianism within the EU has seen significant growth over the past number of years...... questions whether such interparliamentary activity in its current state is worth the effort at all. Nonetheless, the paper concludes that given the extremely weak position the Oireachtas finds itself in when it comes to oversight and scrutiny by parliamentary committees, Irish members of the IPC on the CFSP...

  1. Energy supplying of the Europe and foreign policy; Approvisionnement energetique de l'Europe et politique etrangere commune. Une problematique

    Noel, P


    This paper aims to answer the question on the impact of the energy supply in Europe on the foreign and safety policy. The geo-political principles of the energy, the european petroleum and gaseous supply and the american policy facing the european energy supply are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  2. An Analysis of U.S. Foreign Direct Investment Policy and Economic Development. A.I.D. Discussion Paper No. 36.

    Bergsten, C. Fred; De Castro, Bruce

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze U.S. policies toward financial investment in developing nations. The paper is presented in two sections. In section I, the controversial effects of direct foreign investment on development are discussed. Case studies of investment policies toward India, the Philippines, Ghana, Guatemala, and Argentina are…

  3. Brazil’s fight against narcotraffic in the border with Colombia. An approach to the restrains of non-traditional threats over foreign policy

    Emilse Calderón


    Full Text Available In the post-Cold War international scenario, the non-traditional nature of security threats conditions the states’ foreign policies. An example of the above is the policy employed by Brazil regarding the border shared with Colombia regarding the development that narcotraffic has been having since the end of the 20th century. Therefore, this article proposes a brief analysis around the influence exercised by the non-traditional nature of the drug traffic threat over the design of Brazilian foreign policy between 1999 and 2010.

  4. Concept of Multilingualism as Strategy of Language Policy and Foreign-Language Education in Europe

    I A Korotova


    Full Text Available In this article the language policy of the European Union (EU in the field of lobbying the concept of multilingual Europe is considered. In this research the didactic aspects of the policy of multilingualism are accented, and also the results of the approbation of policy of multilingualism in the educational theory and practice of the EU are analyzed.

  5. 78 FR 75563 - Commission Policies and Procedures Under the Communications Act, Foreign Investment in Broadcast...


    ... competitive opportunities (ECO) approach for broadcast foreign ownership similar to that applied in common... Technology, a firm that consults with financial institutions and broadcast owners. Adelante Comments at 1-2... threats and national security issues have arisen as technology has advanced,\\33\\ we do not believe that...

  6. The Real Rebalancing: American Diplomacy and the Tragedy of President Obama’s Foreign Policy


    engagement” to its list of warfight- ing functions, along with mission command, move- ment and maneuver, intelligence , fires, sustainment, and protection...technologies, and foreign intelligence collection. Even earlier, see National Security Strategy, Washington, DC: The White House, August 1991, p. 8... Malnutrition , illiteracy and poverty put dangerous pressures on democratic institutions as hungry, uneducated or poorly 33 housed citizens are ripe for

  7. U.S. Foreign Policy and the UN System. Special Bibliography Series.


    34Operation Provide Comfort: A Case Study in Humanitarian Relief and Foreign Assistance" Air Force Law Review 37 (1994): 225-38. 21 Mendez , Ruben 1... Carole Forced Out: The Agony of the Refuzee in Our Time. New York Random, 1989 (IIV 640 .K57 1989) 3( Langley, Winston E., ed. Human Rights: Sixtv Maior

  8. Policy Direction and Development Trends for Sino-Foreign Partnership Schools

    Li, Zhang


    This paper details the background and substance of the "Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Chinese-Foreign Cooperation in Running Schools." It specifies both the contributions and limitations of the regulations for the sound development of such schools. At a time when international cooperation in running schools is…


    Nurnaningsih Amriani


    Full Text Available Does not violate “public policy (public order/openbaare orde” is the one of the main reasons for the recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral award in Indonesia. It follow the rules of Article V of the New York Convention 1958 in which Indonesia ratified through Presidential Decree No. 34 of 1981. This article aims to provide a form of judge interpretation of the meaning of public order before and after the enactment of Law No. 30 of 1999 on Arbitration and Alternative Dispute Resolution, so there is no legal certainty. Therefore the meaning of "public policy" does not limit the scope described in the decree and the Arbitration Act, therefore the interpretation obtained by the decision of the Supreme Court who refused and received recognition of foreign arbitral award in Indonesia. Through the interpretation of this article, the parties involved in the arbitration agreement can predict whether their arbitration award may be given the recognition and implementation in Indonesia.

  10. The framing of unconventional natural gas resources in the foreign energy policy discourse of the Russian Federation

    Ocelík, Petr; Osička, Jan


    The advent of unconventional resources of natural gas has altered the order on global as well as continental gas markets. With rising liquidity, the position of established dominant suppliers is eroding. We focus on the initial response of Russia, the leading supplier of natural gas to Europe, to the new situation, building the research on unit-level constructivism and discourse analysis. We use frame analysis to reveal what image of unconventional resources was constructed in Russian foreign energy policy discourse (FEPD) in the period between 2009 and 2011, when the “unconventional revolution” did not yet have any sharp contours. We conclude that in Russian FEPD the unconventionals are considered as a distinctive and inferior source of energy compared to conventional natural gas. Emphasis is put on their economic irrationality and environmental hazards. The bottom line of the discourse is the idea that there is a choice between conventional and unconventional sources, with this choice being framed as one between good and bad, or right and wrong. - Highlights: • We examine the image of “unconventional gas” in Russian foreign energy policy discourse. • Two main frames (reliable supplier and triumphant natural gas) were identified. • Two main argumentation schemes (economic and environmental) were identified. • The “unconventional gas” is defined as a mistaken and inferior source of energy

  11. The Impact of the Crisis on Illegal Employment of Foreigners and the Related Policy - Case study: Czech Republic

    Vera–Karin BRAZOVA


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to provide a critical perspective of the public policy measures to tackle the illegal employment of foreigners in the Czech Republic taken by the Czech government in the wake of the global financial crisis. In the introductory part of the article, the problem of illegal employment of migrants in the Czech Republic is delimitated and put into a theoretical context. Based on the study of official documents as well as on expert interviews, the analysis of the changes in the public policy dealing with the problem of illegal employment is conducted. While the crisis triggered a more open public debate and brought the problem on the agenda of some core public policy actors and while new measures were taken to address the issue, some of the main underlying problems remain unaddressed. In the final part, a possible future development in the area of illegal employment of migrants is outlined, drawing on the global labor migration trends as well as on the current public policy practice in the Czech Republic.

  12. Golden Standard" in International Relations Training and The Effectiveness of Foreign Policy

    Andrey A. Baykov


    Full Text Available This article examines the main aspects of the IR experts' professional education and training, aimed at improving the efficiency of the foreign office staff. A new approach has been taken to the problem of updating and rationalization of the current academic programs (especially, MA training programs in order to boost the competitiveness of national educational system at the global education market. The main focus is shifted from marketing to quality and "content" characteristics of the professional training in IR studies' area within the organization of higher education. The author draws on the empirical data, collected by means of analysis, processing and generalization of expert assessments and evaluations of Russian and foreign participants of international faculty and university forums in International Studies in 2015. As a result, the article proposes an ideal model of the master's program, developed by the author, based on "benchmark"International Relations/World Politics programs, which are highly valuated by the respondents. Moreover, it examines the most relevant issues, concerning the framework of students' teaching process (including preparation of master's theses, further employment of graduates and, finally, the development/modernisation of teaching staff. In conclusion, the article highlights recommendations on probable reforms of higher education in IR studies' area. The author does not criticize the national education system destructively. On the contrary, the inevitable question is how to converge the best qualities of domestic and foreign institutions of higher education system in a harmonious way. The article is designed and might be of interest for higher education and training experts, as well as for a wide range of readers interested in the education and training of the foreign office staff.

  13. Post-Cold War American Foreign Policy: What, When, and Why


    asserted, international order would instead become international ―chaos.‖ 14 Colin Gray similarly defined America‘s role as the reluctant global...The Unipolar Moment,‖ Foreign Affairs 70, no. 1, (January 1991), 32. 15 Colin S. Gray , The Sherriff (Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press...Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, April 15, 2002, 1; Eileen Clausen, quoted in Mary H. Cooper, ―Global Warming Treaty,‖ CQ Researcher 11


    G. Y. Niyazova


    Full Text Available The article considers the United Kingdom language policy on the territory of Azerbaijan after the Soviet Union collapse, which is a bright example of the world political map redrawing. Taking into account the fact that the language is an important tool of the extending one’s influence over the country, we can say with certainty that the success of the specific state laying a claim to play the leading role in on the global political arena strongly depends on its ability to promote its language abroad, to enhance its status and to create such conditions where in the foreign country its language conquers the status close to the status of the native language. In this regard, the United Kingdom activity can serve as an example of a successful foreign language state policy.The authors analyze the activity of such organizations as the British Council, the BBC and BP on spreading the English language. The aforesaid British organizations are the master plate of the efficient language state policy tools, as long as they not only actively develop the global picture of the world, but also promote the interests of the United Kingdom on the territory of the former Soviet Union.Azerbaijan encourages the United Kingdom intention to spread the English language on its territory and does its best in assisting in the implementation of the proposed initiatives, realizing that the spread of the English language being the language of a global communication in Azerbaijan would contribute to the raising of Azerbaijan status on the world arena.

  15. The Cultural and Religious Dimension of The Foreign Policy Of Russia At The Turn Of 17th and 18th Centuries

    Alexey V. Skizhenok


    Full Text Available The author of this article aims to examine the role and place of the Russian Orthodox Church in Russia's transition from the regional state of the Middle Ages to an absolutist state of Modern history. Transformations in states' domestic and foreign policies that took place in Modern history cannot be reduced to a simple set of changes in various spheres of life of states, nations and peoples. By studying the transition from one type of statehood to another one we are dealing with a fundamental transformation of the entire state organism, the state as a cultural phenomenon, with a change in the very notion of what a state is and what its goals, objectives and functions are. The process of transformations in statehood affected all countries of the world including our Motherland. In Russia these changes had their own cultural and historical specificity which was largely formed by religiosity of our people and was rooted in the Orthodox faith. Therefore, the author considered it necessary to raise the question of how the cultural, historical and religious identity of the Russian people could influence the course of reforms in the sphere of the Russian state system in Modern history. The author focuses on the foreign policy of the Russian state built on cultural and religious values in I7th-I8th centuries. This foreign policy is seen as an alternative paradigm of the modern Russia's foreign policy. The author believes that the modern Russian state does not shape its foreign policy on the basis of core values of the Russian world view arising from the religious consciousness of our people. This fact deprives Russia’s foreign policy of unity with cultural and historical tradition of our state and in many respects weakens it. The article provides a possible answer to the question why a tendency to the framing of a foreign policy on the basis of values and religious outlook inherent in the Russian people did not prevail in the foreign policy of the

  16. Foreign Policy of The United States Against the Global Powers and Regional Actors: Case Study “Russian Federation” and “The Islamic Republic of Iran”

    Мехди Хедайати Шахидани


    Full Text Available The article examines US foreign policy strategy toward the global powers and regional actors in the post-bipolar period. The aim of the article is to demonstrate the theoretical and scientific significance of the concept of balance in the structure of international relations in the post-bipolar period, by defining behaviors of US against Russia and Iran. The results of the research show that US foreign policy toward Russia and Iran in the short term based on a soft balance, and in the long term - on the depletion of power.

  17. Setting the scene in Nuuk: Introducing the cast of characters in Greenlandic foreign policy narratives

    Jacobsen, Marc; Gad, Ulrik Pram


    Greenland has for decades worked towards enhanced independent agency in international politics. The renewed global interest in the Arctic has given new impetus to a strategy of diversifying its dependency relations as a way to postcoloniality. As the Government of Greenland puts it in its foreign...... - and infrequently clashes - with narratives of modernization in different ways when Greenland relates to Inuit kinsmen, Nordic siblings, the UN, the USA, the EU and Asian powers; the presentation of each character put in historical perspective. Theoretically, the analysis draws on a tradition of analysing...

  18. Iran's Nuclear Strategy Options and U.S. Foreign Policy Implications

    Davis, Jimmy D


    .... strategic interests. Iran's movement toward a nuclear weapon option creates complex issues for American national security policy makers and highlights the international community's inability to police rogue states effectively...

  19. Financial policy of prevention and liquidation of consequences of global economic instability: foreign experience

    Petrushevska Viktoriia V.


    Full Text Available The article considers main measures of the financial policy realised in the countries of the world, in particular, Europe, USA, China and Japan, directed at prevention and liquidation of consequences of crisis phenomena of the world economy. It considers programmes of support of economy and financial sector of different countries adopted during the period of the world financial crisis of 2007 – 2009. It marks out that an important element of successful realisation of anti-crisis measures is a correct co-ordination of the budget and tax policy and money and loan policy. It positively marks out experience of application of active arbitrary stimulating policy under crisis conditions. In view of increase of efficiency of macro-economic management an important task of the future would be improvement of anti-crisis mechanisms with consideration of their influence upon short-term dynamics and long-term growth. The conducted analysis allows making a conclusion that mistakes of the financial policy are one of the main reasons of overheating the world economy, while analysis and use of experience of the leading countries of the world would allow increase of quality of the financial policy, directed at reduction of crisis vulnerability.

  20. Myanmar in Contemporary Chinese Foreign Policy – Strengthening Common Ground, Managing Differences

    Robert Sutter


    Full Text Available This assessment first briefly examines recent features of China’s approach to foreign affairs, and then examines in greater detail features in China’s approach to relations with its neighbours, especially in Southeast Asia. It does so in order to discern prevailing patterns in Chinese foreign relations and to determine in the review of salient recent China–Myanmar developments in the concluding section how China’s approach to Myanmar compares with Chinese relations with other regional countries and more broadly. The assessment shows that the strengths and weaknesses of China’s recent relations with Myanmar are more or less consistent with the strengths and weaknesses of China’s broader approach to Southeast Asia and international affairs more generally. On the one hand, China’s approach to Myanmar, like its approach to most of the states around its periphery, has witnessed significant advances and growing interdependence in the post-Cold War period. On the other hand, mutual suspicions stemming from negative historical experiences and salient differences require attentive management by Chinese officials and appear unlikely to fade soon.

  1. On the Rule of Law in the Context of Russian Foreign Policy

    Elena Lukyanova


    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to analyze the Russian school of law features and history of development over the last century, characterized by the priority of the positivist theory of law over the natural law approach. In particular, the author examines the differences in interpretation of such concepts as ‘rule of law,’ ‘rule by law’ and ‘Law-Bound State’ by Russian and foreign lawyers and concludes that these concepts are mixed and misunderstood. Based on the differences of interpretation, the author concludes that there is a significant difference in mentality not only between Russian and foreign lawyers, but also between lawyers in Russia: law enforcers on the one hand and human rights activists, advocates and some independent scientists on the other and, consequently, there are specific criteria for the specialist selection in competent state bodies. As an example of the differences of interpretation, the author analyzes in detail the decision of the Russian Federation Constitutional Court of March 19, 2014, on the constitutionality of the Treaty between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Crimea on the admission of the Republic of Crimea into the Russian Federation and the establishment of new subjects within the latter.

  2. State Civilisation: The Statist Core of Vladimir Putin’s Civilisational Discourse and Its Implications for Russian Foreign Policy

    Linde Fabian


    Full Text Available The essay examines Vladimir Putin’s civilisational discourse, which arose in earnest with the publication of his presidential campaign articles in 2012. It argues that what makes Putin’s rendering of Russia’s civilisational identity distinctive is its strongly emphasized Statism, understood as a belief in the primacy of the state. This suggests that while his endorsement of a distinct civilisational identity represents an important conceptual turn as regards how national identity is articulated, there are also significant lines of continuity with previous presidential periods, given that state primacy has been at the heart of Putin’s political agenda since the very beginning of his presidential career. This detail also reveals a great deal about the political rationale behind Putin’s commitment to a Russian civilisational identity. It provides the government with a theoretical justification of an illiberal political course. There are important implications for foreign policy-making as well. In relation to the West, there is an attempt to limit its normative reach by depicting liberal values as less than universal. In regional affairs, Russia is attempting to legitimate its involvement in the near abroad on civilisational grounds. The loose definition of ‘co-patriots’ as foreign nationals experiencing some affinity with Russia gives it plenty of leeway in this regard. Lastly, Russia has petitioned for Ukraine’s neutrality based on the argument that the country is straddling a civilisational fault line.

  3. U.S. Foreign Policy in Clinton and Trump’s presidential campaign. Discourses on ISIS in the media

    Isabel Rodríguez Toribio


    Full Text Available During the last Race for the White House in the United States of America, ISIS terrorism has become the main concern among public opinion (Gallup, 2015. This issue has also been the most significant topic addressed in the campaign speeches on foreign policy. This article analyses Trump and Clinton’s discourses on ISIS within the media framework, as well as how this terrorist group and its acts are social constructed in the speeches. A qualitative methodology has been used. News published in the U.S. digital media, between November 2015 and February 2016, have been analysed through the critical discourse analysis theory. The main results of this research show how Trump has practiced a strategy based on provocation, discrimination and populism while Clinton has followed a much more argumentative and emotional path.

  4. Woodrow Wilson's hidden stroke of 1919: the impact of patient-physician confidentiality on United States foreign policy.

    Menger, Richard P; Storey, Christopher M; Guthikonda, Bharat; Missios, Symeon; Nanda, Anil; Cooper, John M


    World War I catapulted the United States from traditional isolationism to international involvement in a major European conflict. Woodrow Wilson envisaged a permanent American imprint on democracy in world affairs through participation in the League of Nations. Amid these defining events, Wilson suffered a major ischemic stroke on October 2, 1919, which left him incapacitated. What was probably his fourth and most devastating stroke was diagnosed and treated by his friend and personal physician, Admiral Cary Grayson. Grayson, who had tremendous personal and professional loyalty to Wilson, kept the severity of the stroke hidden from Congress, the American people, and even the president himself. During a cabinet briefing, Grayson formally refused to sign a document of disability and was reluctant to address the subject of presidential succession. Wilson was essentially incapacitated and hemiplegic, yet he remained an active president and all messages were relayed directly through his wife, Edith. Patient-physician confidentiality superseded national security amid the backdrop of friendship and political power on the eve of a pivotal juncture in the history of American foreign policy. It was in part because of the absence of Woodrow Wilson's vocal and unwavering support that the United States did not join the League of Nations and distanced itself from the international stage. The League of Nations would later prove powerless without American support and was unable to thwart the rise and advance of Adolf Hitler. Only after World War II did the United States assume its global leadership role and realize Wilson's visionary, yet contentious, groundwork for a Pax Americana. The authors describe Woodrow Wilson's stroke, the historical implications of his health decline, and its impact on United States foreign policy.

  5. The concept of «soft power» in the context of strategy of foreign policy of Ukraine

    D. S. Korotkov


    Full Text Available This article explores the basic principles and conceptual approaches to the concept of «power». Modern globalizational processes in the world (political, economic influence the emergence of new concepts of power. The basic theoretical concepts of international relations ­ «hard power» and «soft power» and the possibility of using them in  ukrainian foreign policy are under consideration. The causes of emergence of the «soft power» concept is studied in the article. Among the mentioned causes we examine the end of «Cold War» and formation of multipolar international system. It brings us to the changes of the nature of the power itself and makes the strategy of «soft power» more potential. The attention is drawn to the relevance of the essence of the «soft power» concept and possibility of its usage in  ukrainian foreign policy, in its political scientific discussions. The annexation of the Crimea in 2014 and the military conflict with Russia influenced the future implementation of this concept. The potential of the «soft power» concept in Ukraine is already exhausted. The «Orange Revolution» in 2004 and «Revolution of Dignity» in 2014 are the symbolic events of modern Ukraine and the main tools of the «soft power». These events formed a positive image of Ukraine in Europe. It is necessary to restrict (financially and informationally the usage of this concept and give priority to the «hard power». Concept of «soft power» is only effective in the countries with significant military and economic potential. The events in Ukraine show that in order to ensure its national security for the ‘second­tier’ states the development of its own military force should be on a priority basis.

  6. Political Dialogue As The Basis Of Foreign Policy: A Case Study Of Modern Russian-German Relations

    Natalia V. Zaytseva


    Full Text Available His article deals with political dialogue as the basis of the progressive development of interstate cooperation and one of the few ways to diminish interstate tensions without use of military force. With the growing list of new threats and challenges it is very important to work out an effective mechanism of interstate cooperation and to use it in foreign policy. Political dialogue helps to form the basis for cooperation between states to ensure the security, political and socio-economic stability of countries. Moreover, the political dialogue in its various forms is no longer a seldom-used private practice. It is the "all-encompassing reality" now the study of which is necessary for understanding of the social, economic, and humanitarian phenomena in the international relations. The author analyzes principles, functions, rules of constructive interstate dialogue, reflects the conditions of the development of a true political dialogue and reveals the situation of its "stylization" The provisions presented in this article are presented from the viewpoint of practical use in the development of a constructive foreign policy. At the same time the author points to their philosophical basis, identifies regularities and characteristics from the standpoint of philosophical knowledge. As a practical demonstration of carrying on the political dialogue the article presents a brief description of Russian-German political relations at the present stage. Bilateral relations between these two countries, based on the rich history, consilience of main positions in resolving of international problems, largely reflect the basic terms and principles of a competent political dialogue.

  7. Extending the foreign spent fuel acceptance program: Policy and implementation issues

    Lyman, Edwin S.


    The May 2006 expiration date of the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (FRR SNF) Acceptance Program is fast approaching. In April 2004, Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham instructed the Energy Department to 'initiate actions necessary to extend .... the fuel acceptance deadline'. However, extending the deadline may not be a simple task. The limits on the original program resulted from a delicate negotiation among many stakeholders. Any proposal to increase the duration and scope of the program will have to be considered in the context of DOE's failure since 1996 to develop viable treatment, packaging and long-term disposal options for FRR SNF. It is also unclear whether accepting additional low-enriched uranium FRR SNF can be justified on security grounds. This paper will propose criteria for acceptance of spent fuel under an extension that are intended to minimize controversy and ensure consistency with a threat-based prioritization of homeland security expenditures. (author)

  8. The Impact of Institutions on Foreign Policy Think Tanks in France and Denmark

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon; Schmitt, Olivier


    Even though France is an active player on the world stage, its foreign and security think tank milieu is smaller than that of similar powers, most notably the United Kingdom. Comparing French think tanks with those in Denmark illustrates how French institutional structures constrain think tank...... activities. France’s political tradition of centralisation, its non-academic civil service education, and separation of academia and administration create an environment in which think tanks are underfunded and walk a fine line between an over-controlling administration and a suspicious academia. Some French...... think tanks perform well in spite of these structures, which indicates that they could flourish and compete at the highest international level if given better structural conditions....

  9. In Lands of Foreign Currency Credit, Bank Lending Channels Run Through? The Effects of Monetary Policy at Home and Abroad on the Currency Denomination of the Supply of Credit

    Steven Ongena; Ibolya Schindele; Dzsamila Vonnak


    We analyze the differential impact of domestic and foreign monetary policy on the local supply of bank credit in domestic and foreign currencies. We analyze a novel, supervisory dataset from Hungary that records all bank lending to firms including its currency denomination. Accounting for time-varying firm-specific heterogeneity in loan demand, we find that a lower domestic interest rate expands the supply of credit in the domestic but not in the foreign currency. A lower foreign interest rat...

  10. English for University Administrative Work: English Officialization Policy and Foreign Language Learning Motivation

    Kim, Jeongyeon; Choi, Jinsook


    This study examines how the English officialization policy of higher education in an EFL context interplays with administrative workers' motivational orientations towards English learning. The data consisted of questionnaire responses of 117 administrative members with undergraduate degrees and qualitative interviews with 9 who answered the…

  11. What Should Be the Future Direction of the Foreign Policy of the United States?: National Debate Topic for High Schools, 1979-1980, Pursuant to Public Law 88-246.

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    This book provides information on the 1979-80 national high school debate topic (United States foreign policy). The volume begins with a group of articles selected to provide an overview of foreign policy considerations and a general context for discussions of the three propositions within the designated topic. The book also contains sections with…

  12. Communication of 12 June 2000 received from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Slovenia regarding Slovenia's nuclear export policies and practices


    The document reproduces the text of the Note Verbale dated 12 June 2000 received by the Secretariat of the IAEA from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Slovenia providing information on the nuclear export policies and practices of the Government of the Republic of Slovenia

  13. Gauge field copies

    Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.; Tiomno, J.


    The construction of field strength copies without any gauge constraint is discussed. Several examples are given, one of which is not only a field strength copy but also (at the same time) a 'current copy'. (author) [pt

  14. ‘Defensive Liberal Wars’: The Global War on Terror and the Return of Illiberalism in American Foreign Policy

    Rashmi Singh


    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the illiberal practices and discourse of the Global War on Terror (GWoT and demonstrates how the United States of America used the liberal argument as a qualitative metric of its success and failure in the GWoT. I argue that ‘the othering’ of Salafi Jihadists as well the full military involvement in Afghanistan and Iraq were both philosophically rooted in the liberal thinking of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill, which have traditionally guided US foreign policy. More significantly, these liberal philosophies of history and international relations hold within them the seeds of illiberalism by depicting non-liberal, undemocratic societies/organisations as ‘barbaric’ – and as such prime candidates for intervention and regime change. Predicated upon this logic, the discourse of the GWoT framed Al Qaeda as a key existential threat to not only the United States but also the ‘civilised world’ in general and one which required a ‘liberal defensive war’ in response. It was the successful securitisation of Al Qaeda that essentially enabled the United States to adopt deeply illiberal policies to counter this so-called existential threat by using any means at its disposal.

  15. Think tanks and influence on US foreign policy: The people and the ideas


    and ideological orientation. As Andrew Rich asserted in his 2004 findings, “amid the growing number of think tanks, no change has been more remarkable... think tanks, while the list of authors and commentators has expanded significantly in the last ten years or so, Andrew Rich , himself a Professor of...public policy,” identifying the requirement for think tanks to remain nonpartisan as a stipulation of tax-exempt status.8 Andrew Rich , a Professor of

  16. Shaping the Health and Foreign Policy Framework; Lessons Learned for Global Health Diplomacy in Iran

    Sougand Tourani


    Conclusion: In order to have effective application, health policy principles should be coordinated with other forms of diplomacy and also be placed at the top of all key stakeholders’ affairs including the Ministry of Health and other organizations effective on the health. Thus, to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and to escape from the problems based on the objectives of Vision 2025; this approach will solve many problems.

  17. Commitment in American Foreign Policy, a Theoretical Examination for the Post-Vietnam Era


    matters as diverse as public diplomacy and U4S security commitments, and since 1977 has been a policy analyst for tne Unicorn Group, Ltd., an international... growing Soviet military power. The administration’s strengthening of NATO and its recent support of Thailand and North Yemen prove that some officials...9 Needless to say, such developments point to a significant and growing American military commitment to Saudi Arabia. Physical commitment on the

  18. Leadership From the Centre: A New Foreign and Security Policy for Germany


    collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources...the form of new partnerships, for a commitment that in a globalised world no longer has any geographical limits: No nation—whatever its size— to...German security and defense policy debates. D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY This thesis will source mainly scholarly works and news articles with

  19. The Paradox of German Foreign and Security Policy: With Respect to National Energy Security


    analysis from an historical perspective and first published post- materialist theory. It builds on Maslow ‟s hierarchy of needs and seeks to explain how...and maintaining the data needed , and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any...policy. Being strategically prepared when market forces fail to balance contradictory interests becomes a necessity for many countries. Based on Germany

  20. The Specific Features of the Contemporary Russian Foreign Energy Policy Shift in Modern Times

    Egor S. Leonov


    Full Text Available In recent years there has been brewing up a necessity in Russia to change direction of its external energy policy radically as a result of unconstructive and hugely politically charged approach of the EU - main and traditional partner of Russia - to settlement of fundamental issues in bilateral cooperation. First of all this refers to failed efforts to create regional energy security system, based on respective institutions and legal framework, by reason of unwillingness of the EU to respect the Russian standpoint as an exporter of energy resources. As a result, there is a legal vacuum today in energy cooperation between Russia and the EU, which they failed to fill. The current political crisis in Europe, which is caused by accession of the Republic of Crimea to the Russian Federation and events in Ukraine, has aggravated long-standing problems of energy partnership EU-Russia. At the same time active EU policy on diversification of energy sources and supply routes discredits peculiar role of Russia as EU key energy supplier. These factors have triggered a significant revision of Russian interests in favor of eastern direction. A new promising contract with China on 21 May 2014 and memorandum with Turkey on 1 December 2014 are the milestones of the present Russian eastern policy. Both contracts can disrupt power balance on the global energy market. The article deals with background and causes for the present Russian eastern activity.

  1. When Procedural Legitimacy Equals Nothing: Civil Society and Foreign Trade Policy in Brazil and Mexico

    Vinícius Rodrigues Vieira


    Full Text Available Abstract Non-state actors contribute with inputs to the elaboration of the national interest in trade negotiations, thus enhancing its legitimacy. Nevertheless, does the participation of those actors necessarily equal influence on the part of all segments of civil society on policymaking? To answer the question, I argue that procedural legitimacy should be evaluated not only in relation to the inputs society provides to the State, but should also consider whether officials actually analyse societal contributions in decision-making. I demonstrate the empirical application of the model based upon Brazil's experience in multilateral trade negotiations during the 2000s, using Mexico as a shadow case. I conclude that foreign trade policymaking can only be democratised if, in procedural legitimacy, the State attributes equal weight to contributions from all types of societal actors, including civil society organisations and organised social movements, which tend to have less material resources and power than interest groups such as business associations and labour unions.

  2. Regulatory policy and the location of bio-pharmaceutical foreign direct investment in Europe.

    Koenig, Pamina; Macgarvie, Megan


    This paper examines the relationship between cross-country differences in drug price regulation and the location of biopharmaceutical Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Europe. Simple theory predicts that price regulation in one country might affect total investment, but not the location of that investment, if sales are global. Nevertheless, some manufacturers threaten that the introduction of price regulation in a country will motivate them to move their investments to other countries. Are such threats cheap talk, or is there evidence that firms avoid price-controlling countries when making FDI location choices? We use data on 527 investments initiated in 27 European countries between 2002 and 2009 and find that investors are less likely to choose countries with price controls, after controlling for other determinants of investment. We also observe a relative decline in investment in countries that increased the stringency of regulatory regimes during our sample period. The effect is restricted to non-manufacturing investments and is most robust for those related to administrative functions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Hybrid Mechanism of Multilateral Economic Cooperationas a New Form of Foreign Policy of China

    Mariia Gorbunova


    Full Text Available The authors analyze current trends in multilateral international cooperation determined by the global stagnation and the changing role of developing countries that reflects their growing political and economic potential compared to developed countries. China is one of the leading actors in the process of modernization of the multilateral cooperation. The authors examine the scale and potential influence of two China-led multilateral cooperation and development initiatives in Eurasia: the Silk Road Economic Belt and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB. These initiatives imply a new kind of initiator different from the traditional participant in international multilateral initiatives. China’s growing global role has reached a qualitatively new stage related to the fact that the country has moved into first place among world economies and has accumulated significant financial resources, although per capita income remains relatively low. Furthermore, China’s internationalization model has required it to be more actively involved in the global governance system as a responsible super power. The awareness to address important issues of economic growth, sustainable development and the provision of global public goods forces China to go beyond the standard profit-seeking trade and investment models of internationalization.The explication of its enormous economic potential at the regional (African, Asian and Latin American and global levels directly or indirectly contradicts the interests of the leading developed and developing countries concerning foreign markets, mineral resources access and political influence in Eurasia. The authors offer an objective assessment of the potential impact of the Silk Road Economic Belt and AIIB on the associated national economies. The Silk Road Economic Belt is an integral part of the “One Belt and One Road” project and involves the construction of transport and logistics infrastructure from East to

  4. The Petition of Peter the Great for The Orthodox Christians of Venice as Part of Russia's Foreign Policy

    Iastrebov Aleksei


    Full Text Available The petition of Peter the Great for return of a taken church from the Orthodox christians of Venice is interesting in the context of the religious motives behind his domestic and foreign policy, his interaction with Catholicism, and his support of Orthodoxy in Europe and the Ottoman Empire. The charter itself is a unique document testifying to the concerns of the Russian czar for coreligionists in a Catholic country. At the same time, it is clear that in an epoch when religion was tightly intertwined with politics, such an appeal was not only part of religious but also secular politics. The goals of the Russian government in the Balkans coincide with the aspirations of the Orthodox peoples languishing under the yoke of the Turks: they had seen in Russia the liberator of the hated invaders. The natural allies of Moscow-Petersburg themselves for a long time to convince kings to stand up for the persecuted faith, and calls were heard from bishops of the Eastern Church and the authorities are dependent on the Turkish vassal principalities. Finally, the moment came. Despite the fact that Peter did not want war with the Sultan, he had to prepare for it, and for that sought to mobilize all the allies, including the Balkan Christians. The letter addressed to the Venetian Doge, actually addressed to them. Following the message the Russian government opens in Venice diplomatic agency, whose task are monitoring the political situation in Italy and the Balkans, as well as the recruitment of volunteers under the fl ag of St. Andrew. Thus, the charter-petition of Peter for the Orthodox of Venice has completely fulfi lled its task — it has become part of a policy to win sympathy of the peoples of the Balkans, and has contributed to the understanding that the Venetian government would not object to the actions of the Russian envoys in the country.

  5. Scaling up Copy Detection

    Li, Xian; Dong, Xin Luna; Lyons, Kenneth B.; Meng, Weiyi; Srivastava, Divesh


    Recent research shows that copying is prevalent for Deep-Web data and considering copying can significantly improve truth finding from conflicting values. However, existing copy detection techniques do not scale for large sizes and numbers of data sources, so truth finding can be slowed down by one to two orders of magnitude compared with the corresponding techniques that do not consider copying. In this paper, we study {\\em how to improve scalability of copy detection on structured data}. Ou...

  6. Biophysical structure of the Ecuadorian economy, foreign trade, and policy implications

    Vallejo, Maria Cristina [Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Pradera E7-174 y Avenida Diego de Almagro, Quito (Ecuador)


    At the core of this paper lays the notion that a systematic analysis of material flow accounts enables us to discuss the sustainability of an economic model. Ecuador is going through a socio-ecological transition from an agrarian towards an industrial regime, based on the use of nonrenewable sources of materials and energy. Direct material flow indicators are used in this article to analyze the ecological dimension of the economy of Ecuador during 1970-2007. This approach enables the concept of societal metabolism to become operative. The paper compares societal metabolic profiles showing that per capita use of materials is still at about one-fifth of the average in the high income countries of the world. Physical flows of trade indicate that there is an ecologically unequal exchange. Whereas a positive trade balance is desirable from an economic policy, its counterpart in physical units has been a persistent net outflow of material resources, the extraction of which causes environmental impacts and social conflicts. (author)

  7. Biophysical structure of the Ecuadorian economy, foreign trade, and policy implications

    Vallejo, Maria Cristina


    At the core of this paper lays the notion that a systematic analysis of material flow accounts enables us to discuss the sustainability of an economic model. Ecuador is going through a socio-ecological transition from an agrarian towards an industrial regime, based on the use of nonrenewable sources of materials and energy. Direct material flow indicators are used in this article to analyze the ecological dimension of the economy of Ecuador during 1970-2007. This approach enables the concept of societal metabolism to become operative. The paper compares societal metabolic profiles showing that per capita use of materials is still at about one-fifth of the average in the high income countries of the world. Physical flows of trade indicate that there is an ecologically unequal exchange. Whereas a positive trade balance is desirable from an economic policy, its counterpart in physical units has been a persistent net outflow of material resources, the extraction of which causes environmental impacts and social conflicts. (author)


    Andrei SCRINIC


    Full Text Available The Eastern Partnership (2009 as a component part of the European Neighbourhood Policy is a tool that aims at the economic integration and political cooperation of the countries that are included in this project by signing association and free trade agreements with the European Union (EU. The recent events in Ukraine have revealed the possibility of these countries to become EU member states depending on the progress made, which is confirmed by many European experts. However, there are big differences among the Eastern Partnership countries on their way to EU integration on the background of the strong pressure from Russia, aimed to suppress any pro-European manifestations of such countries. Despite the sharpening of geopolitical challenges, the EU continues to use the traditional ways of enlargement and deepening of cooperation processes with the Eastern Neighbourhood. This paper aims at reviewing the theoretical approaches through which the EU, as a normative power, exerts major influence on the Eastern Partnership (EaP countries by extending the neofunctional practices, intergovernmental cooperation and the constructivist model. However, in view of reaching the soft power objectives, we aim at transforming and strengthening the EU positions in the context of amplified economic and political-ideological problems at regional level.

  9. Diversionary Foreign Policy in Authoritarian States: The Use of Multiple Diversionary Strategies by Saddam Hussein during the Gulf War

    Kilic B. Kanat


    Full Text Available The diversionary theory of war has been considered one of the most contested theories that link domestic and external conflicts. Thus far scholarship in this field has focused on one-time single diversionary attacks, which led to the temporary deflection of attention from domestic problems to external ones. This study intends to bring revisions to the assumptions in the center of diversionary theory and demonstrate these through a well-known but underutilized case. This article intends to show that leaders have not one single option but rather a repertoire of different foreign policy actions in their possession to divert the attention of domestic public. In addition to the use of force, leaders can also use the threat to use force and other less violent means to create a rally round the flag effect. Secondly, this study will show that, unlike the presumptions of the previous studies, leaders can use multiple different diversionary strategies within a short period of time if the initial diversionary action does not create intended outcomes and if they are still willing to use externalization to boost his approval rating and divert public attention from present problems. These two contributions to the theory will be demonstrated in the case of Saddam Hussein’s attacks to Kuwait and Israel during the first Gulf War.

  10. Threshold power. Nuclear energy and foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1980

    Geier, Stephan


    The proliferation of nuclear weapons is one of the most serious problems for international security today. Since the end of the Cold War states like India, Pakistan and North Korea performed tests of nuclear explosive devices and the number of nuclear weapons states seems to be growing even more. Iran is pursuing actively a nuclear programme with unclear prospects and despite the catastrophe at Fukushima other states remain interested in the use of nuclear energy. In principle it is not possible to distinguish clearly between civil and military use of nuclear technology. The international regime to prevent the misuse of nuclear power and the dissemination of nuclear weapons is based on the Nonproliferation Treaty of 1970 and several other treaties and informal agreements. While the legal aspects of the nonproliferation regime are well studied, much less attention has been paid to the evolution of this regime, which was set up during the Cold War. Especially the role of the nonnuclear weapons states in this process remains unclear. This work explores the influence of the Federal Republic of Germany, one of the most influential nuclear threshold powers, on the formulation of the international nonproliferation regime as well as the role of nuclear energy in German foreign policy in general.

  11. Understanding how and why health is integrated into foreign policy - a case study of health is global, a UK Government Strategy 2008–2013


    Background Over the past decade, global health issues have become more prominent in foreign policies at the national level. The process to develop state level global health strategies is arguably a form of global health diplomacy (GHD). Despite an increase in the volume of secondary research and analysis in this area, little primary research, particularly that which draws directly on the perspectives of those involved in these processes, has been conducted. This study seeks to fill this knowledge gap through an empirical case study of Health is Global: A UK Government Strategy 2008–2013. It aims to build understanding about how and why health is integrated into foreign policy and derive lessons of potential relevance to other nations interested in developing whole-of-government global health strategies. Methods The major element of the study consisted of an in-depth investigation and analysis of the UK global health strategy. Document analysis and twenty interviews were conducted. Data was organized and described using an adapted version of Walt and Gilson’s policy analysis triangle. A general inductive approach was used to identify themes in the data, which were then analysed and interpreted using Fidler’s health and foreign policy conceptualizations and Kingdon’s multiples streams model of the policymaking process. Results The primary reason that the UK decided to focus more on global health is self-interest - to protect national and international security and economic interests. Investing in global health was also seen as a way to enhance the UK’s international reputation. A focus on global health to primarily benefit other nations and improve global health per se was a prevalent through weaker theme. A well organized, credible policy community played a critical role in the process and a policy entrepreneur with expertise in both international relations and health helped catalyze attention and action on global health when the time was right. Support

  12. ASEAN’S Strategic Approach Towards Security Relations with the U.S. and China: Hedging through a Common Foreign and Security Policy


    Foreign and Security Policy EAS East Asia Summit EU European Union NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization SCS South China Sea U.S. United States...operational vacuum. While ASEAN has rejected “hard” security institutions like the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to resolve inter-state... Bali Concord II) calls for the establishment of an ASEAN Community by the 74Sheldon W. Simon, “The ASEAN Regional Forum: Beyond the Talk Shop?,” NBR

  13. Vneshnjaja politika Pol'shi i Kaliningradskaja oblast' v 1989—2012 godah [The foreign policy of Poland and the Kaliningrad region in 1989—2012

    Chełminiak Marcin


    Full Text Available This article sets out to analyse the role of the Kaliningrad region in the Polish foreign policy after 1989. The analysis focuses on the political and regional determinants, which had the greatest impact on the Poland-Kaliningrad region relations. The methodology used in the article is not unusual for political science and is based on analysing original (documents and secondary (scholarly publications, press articles sources. The authors also use the system and decision analysis methods. The analysis covers the period after 1989, when the geopolitical changes brought about by the collapse of the Yalta-Potsdam order resulted in Poland redefine the priorities of its foreign policy. One of the most important challenges for the Polish diplomacy after 1989 was the development of economic and political relations with the Russian Federation. Cross-border cooperation between Poland and the Kaliningrad Region is conducted, inter alia, through euroregional structures functioning in the border areas. The analysis of this issue is vital for further cooperation in the Polish-Russian borderland, especially after the conclusion of the local border traffic agreement in 2012. The authors come to a conclusion that the implementation of the local border traffic agreement can improve cross-border relations but it will not significantly change the role of the Kaliningrad region in the Polish foreign policy.

  14. Political and Legal Bases of Foreign Policy Activity of the European Union in the Region of Central Asia

    Turdimurat M. Tursunmuratov


    Full Text Available The author analyses the European Union’s foreign policy in Central Asia. He indicates the basic tendencies of development of the EU cooperation with the countries of Central Asian region. Further, the author analyzes the implementation of joint projects within the framework adopted by the Partnership Agreements. Based on a critical analysis, the researcher highlights a number of constraints to effective development of relations between the EU and Central Asian states. He carries out a structural analysis of conceptual documents of the European Union for the development of bilateral and multilateral relations with Central Asian countries in the region. Scientific novelty of this work lies in the systematization of stages in the evolution of relations between the European Union and the countries of Central Asia. The author divides the formation of cooperation into four main stages. The first stage of the relations between the EU and the countries of Central Asia includes conceptual framework of the legal regulatory structure of bilateral and multilateral cooperation. The second stage is characterized by the realization of a number of joint projects in the field of transport communications, democratic transformations, regional security and stability. The third stage of the relations is determined by acquiring of special geographical significance of the region of Central Asia resulting from the engagement of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan in 2001. The fourth stage has begun in 2015 with the adoption of the EU Strategy for a New Partnership with Central Asia for 2017-2021. These studies serve as a basis for developing some important proposals and recommendations for the improvement of the effectiveness of cooperation between the parties.

  15. Quantum copying: A review

    Mark Hillery


    Full Text Available Quantum information is stored in two-level quantum systems known as qubits. The no-cloning theorem states that the state of an unknown qubit cannot be copied. This is in contrast to classical information which can be copied. If one drops the requirement that the copies be perfect it is possible to design quantum copiers. This paper presents a short review of the theory of quantum copying.

  16. Increased pfmdr1 gene copy number and the decline in pfcrt and pfmdr1 resistance alleles in Ghanaian Plasmodium falciparum isolates after the change of anti-malarial drug treatment policy.

    Duah, Nancy O; Matrevi, Sena A; de Souza, Dziedzom K; Binnah, Daniel D; Tamakloe, Mary M; Opoku, Vera S; Onwona, Christiana O; Narh, Charles A; Quashie, Neils B; Abuaku, Benjamin; Duplessis, Christopher; Kronmann, Karl C; Koram, Kwadwo A


    With the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in 2005, monitoring of anti-malarial drug efficacy, which includes the use of molecular tools to detect known genetic markers of parasite resistance, is important for first-hand information on the changes in parasite susceptibility to drugs in Ghana. This study investigated the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance gene (pfmdr1) copy number, mutations and the chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt) mutations in Ghanaian isolates collected in seven years to detect the trends in prevalence of mutations. Archived filter paper blood blots collected from children aged below five years with uncomplicated malaria in 2003-2010 at sentinel sites were used. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), 756 samples were assessed for pfmdr1 gene copy number. PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were used to detect alleles of pfmdr1 86 in 1,102 samples, pfmdr1 184, 1034, 1042 and 1246 in 832 samples and pfcrt 76 in 1,063 samples. Merozoite surface protein 2 (msp2) genotyping was done to select monoclonal infections for copy number analysis. The percentage of isolates with increased pfmdr1 copy number were 4, 27, 9, and 18% for 2003-04, 2005-06, 2007-08 and 2010, respectively. Significant increasing trends for prevalence of pfmdr1 N86 (×(2) = 96.31, p resistance has been reported. The decreasing trend in the prevalence of chloroquine resistance markers after change of treatment policy presents the possibility for future introduction of chloroquine as prophylaxis for malaria risk groups such as children and pregnant women in Ghana.

  17. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Appendix C, marine transport and associated environmental impacts. Volume 2


    This is Appendix C to a Draft Environmental Statement on a Proposed Nuclear Weapon Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. Shipment of any material via ocean transport entails risks to both the ship's crew and the environment. The risks result directly from transportation-related accidents and, in the case of radioactive or other hazardous materials, also include exposure to the effects of the material itself. This appendix provides a description of the approach used to assess the risks associated with the transport of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel from a foreign port to a U.S. port(s) of entry. This appendix also includes a discussion of the shipping configuration of the foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel, the possible types of vessels that could be used to make the shipments, the risk assessment methodology (addressing both incident-free and accident risks), and the results of the analyses. Analysis of activities in the port(s) is described in Appendix D. The incident-free and accident risk assessment results are presented in terms of the per shipment risk and total risks associated with the basic implementation of Management Alternative 1and other implementation alternatives. In addition, annual risks from incident-free transport are developed

  18. Review of the book: Natufe Igho, 2015. “Russian foreign policy: in search of lost influence”, Moscow, Krasand, 297 p.

    B Mikael Nigusie Kassae


    Full Text Available The author of the monograph, Professor of Political Science of the Institute of African Studies O. Igo Natufe, is a specialist in Soviet and Russian foreign policy. He was educated at the Peoples' Friendship University, as well as at Carleton and McGill Universities (Canada, where he received a doctorate. In addition to the scientific work, he taught political science and international relations at universities in Canada, Ghana and Nigeria. His book is based on documentary evidence, on the vast literature of both Russian and foreign authors about Russian diplomacy since the 1980s. The author convincingly proved the chronological framework of the study. Lower chronological milestone - 1985 - can truly be called an important milestone in the history of modern Russia. That was the year the event took place, which have made major adjustments to the internal and external strategy of Moscow, including its foreign policy. The presented research work demonstrates the highly quality of the researcher, analyzing the qualitative theoretical level serious scientific problems. In his monograph, the author refers to the analysis of geopolitical and geo-economic processes taking place in the CIS which has arisen after the collapse in December 1991 of a major actor in world politics, as the USSR.


    M. M. Lobanov


    Full Text Available The article deals with the features of contemporary political development of Serbia, including the main areas of cooperation with the European Union (EU. Since the early 2000s the strategic priority of the country's foreign policy is participation in the European integration process, which is accompanied by support of consistent and pragmatic relations with the other key partners, primarily with Russia. The principle of multi-vector foreign policy has been developed since the fi rst half of the 2010s, but its use is treated with the lack of uniqueness by different social strata and political movements. Mechanisms of acceleration or slowing down the integration process are used by offi cial Brussels depending on the current aims and political conjuncture (for example, to weaken Russian infl uence in the country and in the region. However, despite the success achieved on the path to the EU accession and the favorable dynamics of negotiation process, the level of support of pro-European policy has been decreasing in Serbian society since the end of the 2000s. The main challenges of the near future, in addition to the growth of euroscepticism, include problems of institutional harmonization with the EU and the compliance with the Copenhagen criteria, the enforcement of the Brussels agreement with Pristina, as well as maintaining of balanced foreign policy.

  20. Nikola Pašić and the foreign policy of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, 1919-1926

    Bakić Dragan


    Full Text Available This paper looks at Nikola Pašić’s views of and contribution to the foreign policy of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (SCS/Yugoslavia after1929 during the latest phase of his political career, a subject that has been neglected by historians. His activities in this field are divided into two periods - during the Paris Peace Conference where he was the head of the SCS Kingdom’s delegation and after 1921 when he became Prime Minister, who also served as his own Foreign Minister. During the peace conference, Pašić held strong views on all the major problems that faced his delegation, particularly the troubled delimitation with Italy in the Adriatic. In early 1920, he alone favoured the acceptance of the so-called Lloyd George-Clemenceau ultimatum, believing that the time was working against the SCS Kingdom. The Rapallo Treaty with Italy late that year proved him right. Upon taking the reins of government, Pašić was energetic in opposing the two restoration attempts of Karl Habsburg in Hungary and persistent in trying to obtain northern parts of the still unsettled Albania. In time, his hold on foreign policy was weakening, as King Alexander asserted his influence, especially through the agency of Momčilo Ninčić, Foreign Minister after January 1922. Pašić was tougher that King and Ninčić in the negotiations with Mussolini for the final settlement of the status of the Adriatic town of Fiume and the parallel conclusion of the 27 January 1924 friendship treaty (the Pact of Rome. Since domestic politics absorbed much of his time and energy, the old Prime Minister was later even less visible in foreign policy. He was forced to resign in April 1926 on account of his son’s corruption scandal shortly before the final break-down of relations with Italy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177011: History of political ideas and institutions in the Balkans in the 19th and 20th centuries

  1. The Art of Copying

    Christensen, Hans Dam


    This article discusses copies within the field of art museums by way of mapping strategies for copy practices. This mapping leans heavily towards parts of the writings of Jacques Derrida (1930–2004). Against the backdrop of this theoretical premise, the article distinguishes five main strategies....... An informational copy is just as unique as an original object of art, and at the same time, it defines the original and is itself defined by this opposition. Lastly, the strategy for the imagined relation between original and copy follows. This strategy is dependent upon several of the previous approaches, and...

  2. The Argentine foreign policy towards the southeast of Asia between the presidential periods of Carlos Nemen and Nestor Kirchner from a constructive look

    María Florencia Rubiolo


    Full Text Available The importance gained by Southeast Asian countries as emerging economies since the nineties has converted their markets in significant targets for Argentinean exports. Our aim in this paper is to identify the characteristics of the relation between Argentina and its main trade partners in Southeast Asia since 1989. In order to achieve this goal we will analyze the commercial and also the political dimensions. Our interest is to define if the trade relation was accompanied by an attempt of political rapprochement, and if the trade increase can be understood as a part of an Argentinean foreign policy towards diversification.

  3. The New Chinese Security Concept and the “Peaceful Rise of China”, as two basic pillars of the contemporary Chinese Foreign Policy

    Mădălina Virginia ANTONESCU


    Full Text Available Chinese foreign policy, at the beginning of XXIst century, develops a multitude of complex political concepts, such as harmonious world, the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence, New Relations between Great Powers, Peaceful Rise of China and others. The paper explores only some dimensions of two political concepts, such as the New Chinese Security concept and the Peaceful Rise of China, by revealing the contemporary meanings if these concepts and also, by emphasizing their roots within the philosophical ancient visions of the Chinese political tradition.

  4. Introduction – Political Governance and Strategic Relations: Domestic-Foreign Policy Nexus and China’s Rise in the Global System

    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh


    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed several momentous developments in the political economy of the People’s Republic of China (PRC both on the domestic front and in her foreign relations. Deriving correct interpretation of such fast-paced developments and changes has preoccupied much of the circles of China-watchers these days, with political scientists, economists, sociologists and international relations experts focusing their respective attentions on either the domestic transformation occurring within the PRC or on her foreign relations. While the volatile series of incidents involving a year of crackdowns on domestic civil societal movements, civil rights lawyers, labour activists and Hong Kong’s book publishers and distributors were unfolding dramatically, the year also witnessed the continued rise of China’s economic might culminating in the realisation of her initiative for the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB that started operation on 25th December 2015 and the continued progress of her “One Belt, One Road” (OBOR proposal after the creation of the State-owned Silk Road Fund on 29th December 2014. Such developments on China’s domestic and global fronts have to be properly placed in the overall context of China’s domestic-foreign policy nexus that has uniquely evolved during her recent decades of continuous, astounding economic tour de force amidst the stagnation of the modernisation and democratisation of her political structure and sociopolitical power configuration, and the rise of her influence in the global system.

  5. Introduction – Political Governance and Strategic Relations: Domestic-Foreign Policy Nexus and China’s Rise in the Global System

    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh


    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed several momentous developments in the political economy of the People’s Republic of China (PRC both on the domestic front and in her foreign relations. Deriving correct interpretation of such fast-paced developments and changes has preoccupied much of the circles of China-watchers these days, with political scientists, economists, sociologists and international relations experts focusing their respective attention on either the domestic transformation occurring within the PRC or on her foreign relations. While the volatile series of incidents involving a year of crackdowns on domestic civil societal movements, civil rights lawyers, labour activists and Hong Kong’s book publishers and distributors were unfolding dramatically, the year also witnessed the continued rise of China’s economic might culminating in the realisation of her initiative for the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB that started operation on 25th December 201 5 and the continued progress of her “One Belt, One Road” (OBOR proposal after the creation of the State-owned Silk Road Fund on 29th December 201 4. Such developments on China’s domestic and global fronts has to be properly placed in the overall context of China’s domestic-foreign policy nexus that has uniquely evolved during from her recent decades of continuous, astounding economic tour de force amidst the stagnation of the modernisation and democratisation of her political structure and sociopolitical power configuration, and the rise of her influence in the global system.

  6. 77 FR 70400 - Reform of Rules and Policies on Foreign Carrier Entry Into the U.S. Telecommunications Market


    ... contractual relation (e.g., a joint venture or market alliance) affecting the provision or marketing of... (PRA) proposed information collection requirements must be submitted by the public, Office of..., the Commission concluded that the public interest would be served by regulating the entry of foreign...

  7. Leadership Revised: How Did the Ukraine Crisis and the Annexation of Crimea Affirm Germany’s Leading Role in EU Foreign Policy?

    Koeth Wolfgang


    Full Text Available The recent string of existential crises in Europe - the Euro crisis, Russia’s aggression in Ukraine and the refugee crisis of 2015 - have resulted in new dynamics within the European Union. In Brussels, Germany has emerged as the hardly contested nexus of decision making. It was in particular through the Ukraine crisis and the annexation of Crimea by Russia in 2014 that Germany found itself assuming a leadership role also in the EU’s foreign policy, a role it has shunned in the past. However, for Berlin this new role is far from obvious - it is only gradually that Germany grew comfortable with its enhanced role, which is due more to external circumstances than by its own design. Conscious of its own image abroad and, due to the still prevalent feeling of historical guilt, the fear of being perceived as a dominating power has so far prevented Germany from occupying the forefront of the stage, preferring to pulling strings from behind and presenting itself as the EU’s “Chief Facilitation Officer”. This article analyses how Germany, in particular through the Ukraine crisis starting in 2014, affirmed itself - albeit reluctantly - as a nexus of decision making in the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP and became the de facto leading nation for defining the EU’s response towards Russia. The article points out the internal and external consequences of this new role and, in particular, its impact on the Baltic States.

  8. O congresso e a política de comércio exterior The congress and the foreign commerce policy

    Maria Regina Soares de Lima


    Full Text Available Como assegurar a qualidade da política nacional de comércio exterior pelo incremento concomitante (1 da eficiente delegação pelo Legislativo ao Executivo de poderes para estabelecê-la e implementá-la, e (2 do pleno funcionamento dos freios e contrapesos que permitem o controle do Executivo em sistemas presidencialistas? O desenho institucional brasileiro é insuficiente em ambas essas dimensões no que concerne à política de comércio exterior, argumentam os autores. Faz-se necessário um desenho alternativo, que dê conta das exigências constitucionais democráticas sem perda de eficiência nas decisões restritas ao Executivo.How to assure the quality of a foreign commerce policy through the concomitant increment (I of the efficient delegation from the Legislative to the Executive of powers for establishing and implementing it and (2 of the full operation of the checks and balances which allow for the control of the Executive in Presidential systems? The Brazilian institutional design is lacking on both these dimensions in what concerns the foreign commerce policy, argue the authors. An alternate design is needed, one that takes into account the constitutional democratic demands without loss of efficiency in the decisions belonging to the Executive.

  9. 'Foreigners', 'ethnic minorities', and 'non-Western allochtoons': an analysis of the development of 'ethnicity' in health policy in the Netherlands from 1970 to 2015.

    Helberg-Proctor, Alana; Meershoek, Agnes; Krumeich, Anja; Horstman, Klasien


    The Netherlands, because of the sustained and systematic attention it paid to migrant and minority health issues during the last quarter of the twentieth century, has been depicted as being progressive in its approach to healthcare for migrants and minorities. Recently, however, these progressive policies have changed, reflecting a trend towards problematising issues of integration in order to focus on the responsibilities that migrants and ethnic minorities bear in terms of their health. This article explores these shifts and specifically the development of particular categories of ethnicity, and examines the wider consequences that have arisen as a result. The analysis presented here entailed a qualitative content analysis of health policies for migrants and ethnic minorities from 1970 to 2015, and examined various documents and materials produced by the institutions and organisations responsible for implementing these healthcare policies during the period from 1970 to 2015. Four distinct periods of political discourse related to health policy for migrants and ethnic minorities were identified. These periods of political discourse were found to shape the manner in which ethnicity and various categories and representation of foreigners, later ethnic minorities, and at present non-Western allochtoons are constructed in health policy and the implantation practices that follow. At present, in the Netherlands the term allochtoon is used to describe people who are considered of foreign heritage, and its antonym autochtoon is used for those who are considered native to the Netherlands. We discuss the scientific reproduction and even geneticisation of these politically produced categories of autochtoon, Western allochtoon, and non-Western allochtoon-a phenomenon that occurs when politically produced categories are prescribed or taken up by other health sectors. The categories of autochtoon, Western allochtoon, and non-Western allochtoon in the health sciences and the

  10. The Importance of Local Level Actors: A Comparison of Integration Policies for Foreign Migrant Residents in Two Cities in Japan

    Oishi, Tyler Keahi Satoshi


    How do Toyota and Yokkaichi, two cities in Japan, respond to the difficulties faced by their Nikkeijin foreign residents and why do these cities respond differently despite sharing numerous characteristics? Are there key factors that influence different migrant incorporation strategies? How do these factors influence the ways that Brazilian-Nikkeijin might be viewed in each city? This thesis explores the ways that local organizations in Toyota and Yokkaichi assist their Brazilian Nikkeijin ...

  11. Foreign Body

    ... Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Foreign Body Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... I call the doctor? What is a foreign body? A foreign body is when an object is ...

  12. "Dear Teacher, Johnny Copied."

    Jackson, Louise A.; And Others


    Presents the problem of intentional or unintentional plagiarism on the part of young students, several possible causes for it, and offers ways teachers can help students avoid copying and understand the value of owning one's writing. (JC)

  13. The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment

    Jackson, James K


    .... While the United States actively promotes internationally the policy of relaxing rules concerning foreign investment, including the national treatment of foreign firms, some Members of Congress...

  14. Marcel de Haas, Russia’s Foreign Security Policy in the 21st Century – Putin, Medvedev and Beyond.

    Isabelle Facon


    Full Text Available Specialists of Russian military and defense policy are familiar with Marcel De Haas’s prolific and in-depth publications on sometimes fairly technical issues. This book, with its broader outlook aimed at providing an overall understanding of Russian security policy in the 2000s, is the product of Dr. De Haas’s years as a Senior Research Fellow at the Clingendael Institute (The Hague. In many ways, it constitutes a follow-on to the author’s previous book– Russian Security Policy and Air Power...


    Alexandru Bogdan CALANCE


    Full Text Available Starting with the Lisbon Treaty, which establishes the new European diplomatic landscape structure, this paper analyses the difference between the objectives expressed in the treaties governing the European Union's foreign policy, and the diplomatic European and international reality. The main objective of this paper is to reveal the extent in which the European Union runs a coherent and unified foreign policy, especially highlighting the problems faced by these institutions in the current international environment, after five years since the creation of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, as well as the European External Action Service The results of this paper show that, although from a legal standpoint it was attempted to clearly outline how the Union's external policies should work, on a practical level, this area still faces difficulties in performing at its full capacity.

  16. 77 FR 4807 - Revised Fee Policy for Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel From High-Income...


    ....S. in countries with high-income economies, as identified in the World Bank Development Report. The..., Research, Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA) from high-income economy countries. The first phase will take... acceptance of FRR SNF and that the policy could be changed as necessary to reflect changes in cost or new...

  17. Challenges for regional innovation policies in Central and Eastern Europe: spatial concentration and foreign control of US patenting

    Lengyel, B.; Sebestyén, T.; Leydesdorff, L.


    On the basis of patent information available online at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) we point at two major and interconnected challenges that policy-makers face in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) when combating the lagging innovation performance. First, we address the spatial

  18. The Significance of Xi Jinping’s “Chinese Dream” for Chinese Foreign Policy: From “Tao Guang Yang Hui” to “Fen Fa You Wei”

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.


    In order to gain a better understanding of the newer and more assertive features of Chinese foreign policy in recent years, this article examines Xi Jinping’s “Chinese dream” for clues of how the Chinese leadership sees China’s international role evolve. In their speeches and statements on the “C...

  19. Geir Hønneland, Russia and the Arctic: Environment, Identity and Foreign Policy & Leif Christian Jensen, International Relations in the Arctic: Norway and the Struggle for Power in the New North (London/New York: IB Tauris, 2016

    Romain Chuffart


    Full Text Available A review of the books: Geir Hønneland, Russia and the Arctic: Environment, Identity and Foreign Policy (London/New York: IB Tauris, 2016; and Leif Christian Jensen, International Relations in the Arctic: Norway and the Struggle for Power in the New North (London/New York: IB Tauris, 2016

  20. Deregulation and Macroeconomic Drivers Of Foreign Direct ...

    Deregulation and Macroeconomic Drivers Of Foreign Direct Investment In Nigerian Agriculture (1970 -2009): An Econometric Analysis. ... The study showed that foreign exchange and the economic deregulation policy of Nigerian government ...

  1. Foreign Remittances, Foreign Direct Investment, Foreign Imports and Economic Growth in Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis

    Muhammad Tahir


    Full Text Available This empirical research paper focuses on establishing a relationship between external determinants and economic growth of Pakistan economy. Empirical analyses are carried out with time series econometric techniques using data over the period of 1977-2013. The main finding is that external determinants such as foreign remittances, foreign direct investment, and foreign imports matter from a growth perspective. Foreign remittances and foreign direct investment have a significant positive role in the growth process of Pakistan economy. Furthermore, it is found that foreign imports have adversely influenced the economic growth of Pakistan. The study recommends that policy makers shall take appropriate steps to increase the inflow of both foreign remittances and foreign direct investment in order to achieve the long run economic growth.

  2. Coercion: A Credible and Capable United States Military Instrument of Power Key to Future US Foreign Policy Success


    on the nation or impair coercer allied support. Ultimately, as in a chess game , each move will correspond with a countermove until the game is...policy based on zero-sum game assumptions. Since any gain for the Soviet Union meant an equivalent loss for the US, US interests, whether real or...Vital Speeches of the Day 49, no. 4 (December 1, 1982): 99. 36 Federal News Service, “ Salon Luncheon with Former Secretary of State George

  3. Greek National Security Concerns and the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy: Consensus or Divergence?


    to my tutor.” Alexander the Great, referring to his tutor, Aristotle (356–323 BC) xvi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. actual policy since the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. Despite his political rhetoric and posturing while in opposition, Papandreou’s tenure...responsibility for global security.”139 Limited in breadth within the Petersberg tasks framework, the ESS focuses its rhetoric on the internal, rather

  4. Hard Copy Market Overview

    Testan, Peter R.


    A number of Color Hard Copy (CHC) market drivers are currently indicating strong growth in the use of CHC technologies for the business graphics marketplace. These market drivers relate to product, software, color monitors and color copiers. The use of color in business graphics allows more information to be relayed than is normally the case in a monochrome format. The communicative powers of full-color computer generated output in the business graphics application area will continue to induce end users to desire and require color in their future applications. A number of color hard copy technologies will be utilized in the presentation graphics arena. Thermal transfer, ink jet, photographic and electrophotographic technologies are all expected to be utilized in the business graphics presentation application area in the future. Since the end of 1984, the availability of color application software packages has grown significantly. Sales revenue generated by business graphics software is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of just over 40 percent to 1990. Increased availability of packages to allow the integration of text and graphics is expected. Currently, the latest versions of page description languages such as Postscript, Interpress and DDL all support color output. The use of color monitors will also drive the demand for color hard copy in the business graphics market place. The availability of higher resolution screens is allowing color monitors to be easily used for both text and graphics applications in the office environment. During 1987, the sales of color monitors are expected to surpass the sales of monochrome monitors. Another major color hard copy market driver will be the color copier. In order to take advantage of the communications power of computer generated color output, multiple copies are required for distribution. Product introductions of a new generation of color copiers is now underway with additional introductions expected

  5. Regime Adaptability and Political Reconfigurations following the “Arab Spring”. New Challenges for EU Foreign Policies towards the Mediterranean

    Seeberg, Peter


    The article discusses the post-Arab Spring scenario in the MENA region and the EU policies in relation to the changing realities. I contend that the authoritarian states have demonstrated abilities to adapt to the new challenges. Through political reconfigurations the Arab states are able...... with the situation. The article concludes that an EU consensus in connection with the recent significant developments in the Arab Mediterranean states is only partly a reality and that to some degree this can be explained by the constant changes in the situation of several MENA states, all of which effectively seem...

  6. Sharing organs with foreign nationals.

    Bruni, Rebecca; Wright, Linda


    Organs for transplantation are an absolute scarcity throughout the world, and many countries do not offer transplantation. Developed countries with transplant programs receive requests to list foreign nationals for transplantation. Any national standard deserves justification by a thorough exploration of the issues. In this article, the issues regarding organ transplantation for foreign nationals in Canada are explored. Currently Canada has no policy on listing foreign nationals for transplantation. Three topics are reviewed: (1) arguments for and against the transplantation of organs from deceased donors to foreign nationals, (2) relevant legislation and position statements, and (3) relevant practices in other countries. Finally, practical policy options are suggested. This article's analysis of the issues will provide guidance for health care professionals and policy makers in Canada and developed countries exploring listing foreign nationals for transplantation.

  7. 22 CFR 126.6 - Foreign-owned military aircraft and naval vessels, and the Foreign Military Sales program.


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign-owned military aircraft and naval vessels, and the Foreign Military Sales program. 126.6 Section 126.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS GENERAL POLICIES AND PROVISIONS § 126.6 Foreign-owned military...

  8. Copies, Concepts and Time

    Anne Eriksen


    Full Text Available Copies are defined by their relation to an original. The understanding and evaluation of this relationship has been changing over time. A main argument of this article is that originals and copies are phenomena with no "natural" or essential meaning outside of their specific historical settings. The idea to be explored is how changing historicity regimes have transformed notions of originals and copies over time and how these differences also are reflected in the intrinsically temporal relation between the two concepts. The discussion will be framed by two theory sets. The first is Alexander Nagel and Christopher Woods investigation of two kinds of temporality that vied for dominance in works of art in the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The second is Walter Benjamins discussion of artwork in the "age of mechanical reproduction", i.e. the twentieth century. The second half of the article seeks to add to the historical complexity described by both theory sets by introducing a concept of tradition and discussing the early modern ideals of exemplarity, emulation and copiousness.




  10. Foreign direct investment in China

    Bredero, Q.S.


    Foreign Direct Investment in China is one of the most comprehensive studies of FDI in China and provides a remarkable background of information on the evolution of China’s FDI policies over the last 30 years.

  11. Gender sensitive language policies and deconstruction of gender stereotypes in textbooks of Spanish as a foreign language

    Ana Kuzmanović Jovanović


    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of gender representations in Spanish/L2 textbooks on perpetuation or deconstruction of gender stereotypes in the classroom. Although the results of numerous studies of gender representation in such books performed in the past two decades suggest that teaching materials have been an important instrument in perpetuating gender stereotypes, recent researches have revealed certain changes in this area. The present analysis supports these findings. The research corpus consists of eleven textbooks of Spanish/L2 (level A1 and A2 by different Spanish publishers, all of them published in the last four years. The gender roles in which women and men appear are critically analyzed. The results of the analysis suggest that there has been a conscious effort by both authors and editors in order to change the stereotypical gender representation in these didactic materials. We offer an explanation for these changes suggesting that they can be accounted for by the action of a different model of gender sensitive language policies, the bottom-up model, where the crucial factors of change are not the activities of the official institutions but rather are to be found in different communities of practice, i.e., all people involved in creating, publishing and distributing teaching materials, as well as linguists who investigate the relationship between language and gender.

  12. Aspettative. Corsi dei cambi a termine e riflessi sulla politica monetaria. (Expectations, foreign exchange forwards and reflections on monetary policy

    A. FERRO


    Full Text Available L'articolo fornisce un'analisi preliminare sui rapporti che si possono stabilire tra i tassi di cambio a termine e i tassi di cambio secondo le aspettative di diverse ipotesi . Gli autori evidenziano le implicazioni di politica monetaria che i vari tipi di aspettative comportano. Per verificare in particolare il ruolo delle aspettative nella determinazione dei tassi di cambio, si procederà attraverso un paio di semplici test empirici che si riferiscono al prezzo a termine del marco tedesco contro la sterlina sul mercato di Francoforte nei primi quattro mesi del 1976.The paper provides preliminary analysis on the relationships that can be established between the rates of the forward exchange rate and the spot exchange rates at the various expectations hypothesis. The authors go on to highlight the implications of monetary policy that the various kinds of expectations entail. To test specifically the role of expectations in the determination of exchange rates at the end we will proceed through a couple of simple empirical tests that refer to the spot and forward prices of the Deutsche Mark against the pound on the Frankfurt market in the first four months of 1976. JEL: E52, E42, F31

  13. Aspettative. Corsi dei cambi a termine e riflessi sulla politica monetaria. (Expectations, foreign exchange forwards and reflections on monetary policy

    A. FERRO


    Full Text Available L'articolo fornisce un'analisi preliminare sui rapporti che si possono stabilire tra i tassi di cambio a termine e i tassi di cambio secondo le aspettative di diverse ipotesi . Gli autori evidenziano le implicazioni di politica monetaria che i vari tipi di aspettative comportano. Per verificare in particolare il ruolo delle aspettative nella determinazione dei tassi di cambio, si procederà attraverso un paio di semplici test empirici che si riferiscono al prezzo a termine del marco tedesco contro la sterlina sul mercato di Francoforte nei primi quattro mesi del 1976. The paper provides preliminary analysis on the relationships that can be established between the rates of the forward exchange rate and the spot exchange rates at the various expectations hypothesis. The authors go on to highlight the implications of monetary policy that the various kinds of expectations entail. To test specifically the role of expectations in the determination of exchange rates at the end we will proceed through a couple of simple empirical tests that refer to the spot and forward prices of the Deutsche Mark against the pound on the Frankfurt market in the first four months of 1976. JEL: E52, E42, F31

  14. Robust Adaptable Video Copy Detection

    Assent, Ira; Kremer, Hardy


    in contrast). Our query processing combines filtering and indexing structures for efficient multistep computation of video copies under this model. We show that our model successfully identifies altered video copies and does so more reliably than existing models.......Video copy detection should be capable of identifying video copies subject to alterations e.g. in video contrast or frame rates. We propose a video copy detection scheme that allows for adaptable detection of videos that are altered temporally (e.g. frame rate change) and/or visually (e.g. change...

  15. Russia In The Foreign Policy Priorities Of The Council Of Cooperation Of The Arabian Gulf States After Events Of The «Arab Spring»

    E. C. Melkumyan


    Full Text Available The proposed article focuses on the change in the approach of the regional organization of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC to Russia’s role in the Middle East region and the efforts of its members to establish fruitful cooperation with it. A new approach followed the events of the “Arab Spring”, among which the outcome was a complication of the regional situation and the emergence of a series of crises that forced the members of the GCC to expand the number of allies among the world’s leading powers. Russia’s active participation in resolving crisis situations in the Middle East, primarily in Syria, influenced the change in the GCC policy towards Russia, which realized its increased interest in establishing strong ties with the countries of this region. The article compares the relations that existed between Russia and the GCC states in the Soviet period and the initial period of the Russian Federation’s existence, and those relations that began to develop after 2011 amid growing instability in the Middle East region. A new stage in bilateral relations was caused by the coincidence of their interests in the fight against the increased terrorist threat. The parties were also interested in conducting political consultations to resolve regional crisis situations. The coincidence of points of view between Russia and the GCC on the Middle East settlement has always been a reliable basis for building mutual understanding between the parties. At the same time, the contradictions that arose between them on the issue of ways out of the Syrian crisis led to a cooling in their relations. The authors conclude that the place of Russia in the foreign policy priorities of the GCC is going to grow. The mutual interest of the parties in political interaction is reinforced by the need to coordinate policy in the energy market, the largest suppliers of which are both Russia and the GCC states. In addition, both sides are striving to expand economic

  16. National oil companies and state actors : an assessment of the role of Petronas and ONGC in the foreign policy decision-making process of Malaysia and India using the example of overseas investments in Sudan and South Sudan

    Steinecke, Tim


    The thesis addresses the role of national oil companies and their overseas engagement in the foreign policy decision-making process of states. Over the past 40 years, national oil companies have gained importance in the international oil industry and currently control around 90 per cent of the global oil reserves. A number of political and economic factors – depleting domestic reserves, economic growth – have resulted in an increasing expansion of Asian national oil companies to Africa. Throu...

  17. recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards in civil


    (CPC), rules on the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments ..... copy of the judgment to be executed; and a certificate signed by the President or ...... Convention has been praised as: “the single most important pillar on which the.

  18. Foreign aid

    Tarp, Finn


    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  19. Foreign aid

    Tarp, Finn


    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  20. American Foreign Policy: Regional Perspectives


    United States does not have a problem with Is- lam other than it does not understand how religion , nationalism, politics, and resistance fit into each...Cooperativa para el Poder Naval en el Siglo XXI, the first volume to be published by the Naval War College Press in a language other than English. 297 PARTICIPANT BIOGRAPHIES

  1. Solidarity in European Foreign Policy

    Larsen, Henrik

    Der er ikke meget forskning om, hvorvidt EU handler støttende over for medlemsstater i nationale udenrigspolitiske kriser. Papiret præsenterer en tredelt analyseramme til forståelse af karakteren af EU´s response i nationale udenrigspolitiske kriser, som baserer sig på diskursiv institutionalisme...

  2. Perspectives on Russian Foreign Policy


    geopolitics with the clash of civilizations scheme and the Orthodox Christian dogmas, is the anonymous Proekt Rossiya (Project Russia) enterprise, which...Popechitel’stvo, (tutelage). But the Bolsheviks took it up soon after they seized power. In 1918 , Bolshevik Commissar of Enlightenment, Ana- toly...Russia no longer borders either on Romania or Poland). • America is also extending missile defenses to Central and Eastern Europe even though no

  3. Irans Foreign and Defense Policies


    buses, restaurants , and other civilian targets inside Israel. However, in 2012, their differing positions on the ongoing Syria conflict caused a rift...Uzbekistan (IMU).104 That group, which is active in Afghanistan, in mid-2015, declared its loyalty to the Islamic State organization.105 Almost all...natural gas customer . Perhaps in an attempt to diversify gas export routes, President Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov signaled in 2007 that Turkmenistan

  4. Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options

    Werner Thut


    Full Text Available EDITOR’S NOTEThis paper, written in December 2012, is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of the International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practitioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, an initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from different stakeholders. This paper by Werner Thut is followed by reactions and analysis from a non-profit policy institute (Alexandra Gillies, Revenue Watch Institute, New York, ‘Crafting a Strategic Response to the Commodity-Development Conundrum’, a Southern scholar (Prof. Humberto Campodonico, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima ‘Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance’ | ‘Más allá de la transparencia y una buena gobernanza’ and a representative of the trading sector (Stéphane Graber, Secretary General of Geneva Trading & Shipping Association – ‘Reassessing the Merchants’ Role in a Globalized Economy’.PAPER’S ABSTRACTSwitzerland is one of the world’s largest commodity trading hub. The author, senior policy adviser at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC, reviews experiences and policy options related to commodity trading from a development policy perspective. While this sector has become of strategic importance to Switzerland’s economy, it also entails a number of risks. On the other hand, Swiss development cooperation efforts focus on several resource-rich countries, whose mineral and agricultural commodities are traded via Switzerland. How can Switzerland assist these countries to reap the benefits of their natural resource wealth? This paper looks at development policy aspects of commodity trading in relation to Swiss foreign and domestic policy. It examines ongoing policy debates in Switzerland and discusses development policy options.

  5. Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English

    Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram


    This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

  6. Foreign Trade

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal of ... foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal of ...

  8. 15 CFR 768.3 - Foreign availability assessment.


    ... availability assessment. A foreign availability assessment is an evidentiary analysis that BIS conducts to... if there is no foreign policy reason to deny the license, unless the President exercises a National... foreign policy controls may be considered independent of this part. (b) Types of assessments. There are...

  9. As estratégias de cooperação Sul-Sul nos marcos da política externa brasileira de 1993 a 2007 South-South cooperation strategies in Brazilian Foreign Policy from 1993 to 2007

    Miriam Gomes Saraiva


    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é analisar as duas vertentes da cooperação sul-sul adotadas pela política externa brasileira entre 1993 e 2007. Por um lado, o artigo examina a política externa brasileira em face da América do Sul: o Mercosul e a cooperação sul-americana em termos mais gerais que, dentro do arco das atuações externas do país, é o tipo de cooperação sul-sul identificada como prioritária. Por outro lado, dedicará também algumas reflexões para a cooperação do Brasil com outros países considerados emergentes e system-affecting, em outros continentes, como é o caso da África do Sul, Índia, China e, em diferente medida, da Rússia.The aim of this article is to analyze the two approaches to South-South cooperation evident in Brazilian foreign policy between 1993 and 2007. On one hand the article examines Brazilian foreign policy towards South America. Specifically, cooperation with Mercosur members and South-American cooperation broadly conceptualized. The region is a foreign policy priority among its south-south cooperation activities. On the other hand, this paper reflects on Brazilian cooperation with other emerging and "system-affecting" countries that belong to other continents, such as South Africa, India and China, and to a certain extent, Russia.

  10. Intervención por invitación Claves de la política exterior colombiana y de sus debilidades principales / Intervention by Invitation Keys to Colombian Foreign Policy and its Main Shortcomings

    Arlene B. Tickner


    Full Text Available This article develops the thesis that the internationalization of the Colombian armed conflict has been carried out using a strategy denominated “intervention by invitation”, by which the governments of Andrés Pastrana and Álvaro Uribe intensified Colombia’s association with the United States and requested greater involvement by that country in domestic affairs related to counternarcotics and counterinsurgency. The author discusses a series of conceptual frameworks that allow her to situate this strategy, following which she examines the evolution of Colombian foreign policy during the two periods identified.

  11. Foreign uranium supply. Final report

    McLeod, N.B.; Steyn, J.J.


    This report presents an assessment of the extent to which foreign uranium may be available to United States utilities in the short term (through 1980), the intermediate term (1981--1985), and the long term (1986--95). All free world foreign uranium producers and prospects are included, with particular emphasis on Australia, Canada, southern Africa, France, and French-speaking Africa. The assessment includes reserves, resources, exploration and prospects; firm and potential production capacity and prospects; national policies and relevant political and economic conditions; foreign uranium demand; etc. Conclusions are: Foreign supply capability is greater than foreign demand in the near term. The current availability of uncommitted future Australian production presents an unusual opportunity for establishing commercial relations with very substantial producers. Foreign uranium contracts represent an increase in diversity of supply and access to resources but have less assurance of supply than do domestic contracts. However, uncertainties can frequently be accommodated within an overall procurement program, thereby retaining the diversity and price advantages of foreign procurement. The practice of market pricing of contracts reduces the incentives for foreign contracting

  12. Foreign correspondence

    Hamilton, John Maxwell


    Despite the importance of foreign news, its history, transformation and indeed its future have not been much studied. The scholarly community often calls attention to journalism's shortcomings covering the world, yet the topic has not been systematically examined across countries or over time. The need to redress this neglect and the desire to assess the impact of new media technologies on the future of journalism - including foreign correspondence - provide the motivation for this stimulating, exciting and thought-provoking book. While the old economic models supporting news have crumbled in

  13. Multi-Ethnicity in the Malaysian Workplace: The Net Balance of 35 Years of Affirmative Policies as Observed by a Foreign Visitor

    Montesino, Max U.


    This paper looks at the net societal balance of post-independence affirmative action policies in Malaysia. Social imbalances prompted the country to implement affirmative policies to uplift the majority natives (Malays, Indigenous people of Sabah and Sarawak, etc.). These policies were reluctantly accepted by the immigrant communities (Chinese,…

  14. Racializing Experiences of Foreign-Born and Ethnically Diverse Black Male Engineering Graduate Students: Implications for Student Affairs Practice, Policy, and Research

    Burt, Brian A.; Knight, Alexander; Robeson, Justin


    Despite a growing body of work on the experiences of Black collegians, the higher education knowledge base lacks scholarship focused on Black men in graduate programs who are foreign-born and/or identify ethnically as other than African American. In this article, we provide a domain-specific investigation (i.e., based on students' field of study),…

  15. 37 CFR 203.5 - Inspection and copying.


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection and copying. 203.5 Section 203.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT: POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Availability of Information § 203.5...

  16. 15 CFR 744.11 - License requirements that apply to entities acting contrary to the national security or foreign...


    ... entities acting contrary to the national security or foreign policy interests of the United States. 744.11... national security or foreign policy interests of the United States. BIS may impose foreign policy export... of being or becoming involved in activities that are contrary to the national security or foreign...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Full Text Available ... percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without ... fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the airway: Most foreign bodies in the airway are usually expelled ...

  18. The Hegemony of the Copy

    Graulund, Rune


    This essay questions when the creative process leading tothe original can be said to be complete. When does the series of a pupil’sbotched attempts at perfection leading to “the” singular and unique object,text, tool, or artwork we recognise as the original expression of themaster craftsman stop......? Where is the cut-off point between the differentversions (copies) of earlier inferior iterations in the gestation process thatlead to the original, and final, superior original? This essay chiefly examinesthe manner in which text has been copied and stored in one particulartype of object, namely...... that of the book, in order to provide some fairlywell-known arguments regarding pre-mechanical as well as mechanical reproduction.In particular, it examines the differences between manuscriptculture and print culture as we see them expressed in the production (andreproduction) of master copies and subsequent...

  19. 31 CFR 535.566 - Unblocking of foreign currency deposits held by U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firms.


    ... Licensing Policy § 535.566 Unblocking of foreign currency deposits held by U.S.-owned or controlled foreign... persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States are unblocked, provided however that conversions... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unblocking of foreign currency...

  20. La política exterior republicana en los informes diplomáticos checoslovacos (1931-1936 = The Republican Foreign Policy in the Czechoslovakian Diplomatic Reports (1931-1936.

    Luis Montilla Amador


    Full Text Available Este artículo es una aproximación al estudio de las relaciones bilaterales entre la II República española y Checoslovaquia. La joven nación centroeuropea saludó con entusiasmo la llegada del nuevo régimen español, sensación que se vio confirmada por las primeras actuaciones exteriores republicanas, muy próximas al espíritu con el que Praga afrontaba su política internacional. Esta cercanía de intereses se vio materializada en Ginebra con la formación del Grupo de los Ocho. Los tres responsables de la diplomacia checoslovaca en Madrid durante este periodo (Vlastimil Kybal, Zdeněk Formánek y Robert Flieder reflejaron en los informes remitidos a Praga los temas más importantes de la política exterior republicana. This research is an approach to the study of the bilateral relations between the Second Spanish Republic and Czechoslovakia.The young Central European nation greeted enthusiastically the arrival of the new Spanish regime. This good feeling was confirmed by the new Spanish way of dealing with the foreign affairs, very close to the spirit in which Prague was facing its international policy. As a result of this common interests was created in Geneva the Group of Eight, which included both countries.The three responsible persons for the Czecoslovakian diplomacy in Madrid during this period (Vlastimil Kybal, Zdeněk Formánek and Robert Flieder reflected in the reports submitted to Prague the most important issues of the Republican foreign policy.

  1. Does Female Leadership Matter? An Analysis of Swedish Foreign Ministers and their Parliamentary Speeches, 1955–2016

    Bäck, Hanna; Björkdahl, Annika


    The current Swedish Foreign Minister, Margot Wallström, has in her foreign policy statement claimed that a feminist foreign policy will be an integral part of activities throughout the Swedish Foreign Service. Even though an explicit ‘feminist foreign policy’ is a rather recent and ‘Swedish’ phenomenon, foreign policies in line with such a general ‘feminist’ agenda may have been implemented throughout history, by various foreign policy leaders. The question is, does the gender of leaders matt...




    Full Text Available FDI is an important element of the economic development of any country and its functioning on market principles. They have a great importance for strengthening the economy of countries in transition and their integration into the world’s economy. The modernization of national economies occurs with FDI help, by implementing advanced technologies, know-how sites, the most powerful equipment and the new quality standards by switching to a higher type of growth. The purpose of this research is to identify of the policies to attract and promote FDI, adopted by host countries for foreign investors and are highlighted beneficial aspects of foreign investments flows on recipient economies. The research results show that policies aimed at ensuring access to foreign markets, those that are considering providing commercial facilities and last, but not least, policies focused on tax incentives are very important for foreign investors.

  3. African liberation and unity in Nkrumah's Ghana : a study of the role of "Pan-African Institutions" in the making of Ghana's foreign policy, 1957 - 1966

    Grilli, Matteo


    This dissertation contributes to the study of Nkrumah’s Pan-African policy by examining the role played by three Ghanaian institutions specifically created to support African liberation and unity: the Bureau of African Affairs, the African Affairs Centre, and the Kwame Nkrumah Ideological Institute

  4. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Removal of a foreign body will reduce ... good tool for guiding foreign body removal procedures. Risks While foreign body removal procedures are safe and ...

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Full Text Available ... 80 percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract ... blockages that may require surgical removal of magnets. Children account for about 80 percent of foreign body ...

  6. 17 October 2013 - C. Ashton High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Vice-President of the European Commission visiting the ATLAS cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department Head F. Bordry and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

    Maximilien Brice


    17 October 2013 - C. Ashton High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Vice-President of the European Commission visiting the ATLAS cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department Head F. Bordry and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

  7. Option pricing and foreign investment under political risk

    Cherian, J.A.; Perotti, E.C.


    The paper analyzes foreign investment and asset prices in a context of uncertainty over future government policy. The model endogenizes the process of learning by foreign investors facing a potentially opportunistic government, which chooses strategically the timing of a policy reversal in order to

  8. Option pricing and foreign investment under political risk

    Cherian, J.A.; Perotti, E.C.


    he paper analyses foreign investment and asset prices in a context of uncertainty over future government policy. The model endogenizes the process of learning by foreign investors facing a potentially opportunistic government, which chooses strategically the timing of a policy reversal in order to

  9. Option pricing and foreign investment under political risk

    Cherian, J. A.; Perotti, E.C.


    The paper analyses foreign investment and asset prices in a context of uncertainty over future government policy. The model endogenizes the process of learning by foreign investors facing a potentially opportunistic government, which chooses strategically the timing of a policy reversal in order to

  10. Foreign Relations.

    De La Hoz, Alejandro; Díaz, Eduardo; Feinstein, Max Moses


    In a large Colombian teaching hospital, a fifty-five-year-old woman complaining of stomach pain is examined by a foreign-exchange medical student from the United States. Speaking in Spanish, the student elicits a medical history that suggests a possible recurrence of gallstones, but nothing further. Upon discussing the patient's case in private with the attending physician, the student is shocked to learn that the patient is suffering from terminal, metastatic gastric cancer but is unaware of her diagnosis. The attending physician explains that the patient's husband instructed the health care providers not to tell the patient what her diagnosis is. The medical student feels uncomfortable withholding the diagnosis from the patient. The thought of disclosure feels equally uncomfortable, however, as it would mean contradicting the instructions of the attending physician at the host hospital as well as violating what the student suspects, but is not sure, may be acceptable medical practice in Colombia. How should the medical student proceed? © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  11. Promoção e proteção da democracia na política externa brasileira Promotion and protection of democracy in brazilian foreign policy

    Carlos Santiso


    Full Text Available A partir da restauração da democracia em 1985, a política externa brasileira vem demonstrando tanto continuidade como mudança. Ao mesmo tempo que o Brasil tem reforçado significativamente seu compromisso normativo com a promoção da democracia, com base na defesa do interesse nacional fundada em princípios, seu engajamento na defesa da democracia fora de casa tem sido cerceado por sua dedicação tradicional ao princípio da soberania nacional. A política externa brasileira, contudo, evoluiu significativamente desde o retorno da regra civil. A diplomacia presidencial de Fernando Henrique Cardoso representou um reforço decisivo para o fortalecimento do compromisso normativo com a democracia, tanto através da introdução de cláusulas de democracia nas instituições regionais como em suas próprias relações bilaterais. No entanto, há uma tensão inerente à dualidade de objetivos da política externa brasileira que gera ambigüidade na sua condução. Existem barganhas multifacetadas entre os princípios de interferência democrática e soberania nacional, assim como entre as finalidades de estabilidade e democracia. Este estudo explora essa tensão através da avaliação dos esforços do Brasil no que se refere à promoção da democracia além de suas fronteiras, e sua resposta às ameaças à democracia e aos casos de eleições viciadas que aconteceram na última década. Examina dez ocorrências em que a democracia esteve sob risco. Alega que é improvável que a defesa do interesse nacional fundada em princípios, sobre os quais a promoção da democracia se apóia, sobreviva à presidência de Cardoso. O Brasil precisa resolver com sucesso a tensão entre o princípio da soberania nacional e seu compromisso com a promoção e proteção da democracia fora de casa, tanto para aclarar seus objetivos de política externa, como para fortalecer os mecanismos regionais de ação coletiva.Brazilian foreign policy has displayed both

  12. Foreign Policy, Agrarian Unrest, and Missionary Praxis: the Italian Capuchins and the Relations Between Brazil and the Vatican at the Beginning of the Second Empire

    Guillermo Palacios


    This article deals with the role played by the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda Fide’s Apostolic Missions in the political relations between the Empire of Brazil and the Holy See. Based mainly on Vatican sources, the text follows the negotiations between the Brazilian State, the Roman Curia, the Brazilian bishops, and the Italian Friar Capuchin Missions, in search of a common ground to solve institutional policy problems as well as the definition of power spheres between the State and the Ca...

  13. North American Foreign Fighters

    Michael Noonan


    Full Text Available While the phenomenon of so-called “foreign fighters” is in no way new the past thirty-plus years has shown a marked increase in the numbers of individuals traveling abroad to fight in civil conflicts in the Muslim world. The crisis in Syria (2011-present has created a massive influx of such individuals going to fight. Of particular concern in western capitals has been the numbers of individuals from those countries that have gone to fight in that conflict which has since crossed the border into neighboring Iraq with the establishment of the socalled “Islamic State” and threatens to broaden the conflict into a larger regional sectarian conflagration. While the numbers of such participants from Western Europe have been greater than those who have gone from the United States and Canada there are legitimate concerns in both Washington, DC, and Ottawa about American and Canadian citizens who have gone—or attempted to go—to fight there and in other locales such as the Maghreb and Somalia. The analysis here will provide some background on the foreign fighter phenomenon, discuss the foreign fighter flow model, explore the issue from both Canadian and US perspectives to include providing details of some original research categorizing the characteristics of a small sample of US and Canadian fighters and those who attempted to go and fight, discuss how both governments have attempted to deal with the issue, and offer some policy prescription for dealing with this issue that is of importance to both international security writ large and domestic security in the US and Canada.

  14. Local copying of orthogonal entangled quantum states

    Anselmi, Fabio; Chefles, Anthony; Plenio, Martin B


    In classical information theory one can, in principle, produce a perfect copy of any input state. In quantum information theory, the no cloning theorem prohibits exact copying of non-orthogonal states. Moreover, if we wish to copy multiparticle entangled states and can perform only local operations and classical communication (LOCC), then further restrictions apply. We investigate the problem of copying orthogonal, entangled quantum states with an entangled blank state under the restriction to LOCC. Throughout, the subsystems have finite dimension D. We show that if all of the states to be copied are non-maximally entangled, then novel LOCC copying procedures based on entanglement catalysis are possible. We then study in detail the LOCC copying problem where both the blank state and at least one of the states to be copied are maximally entangled. For this to be possible, we find that all the states to be copied must be maximally entangled. We obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for LOCC copying under these conditions. For two orthogonal, maximally entangled states, we provide the general solution to this condition. We use it to show that for D = 2, 3, any pair of orthogonal, maximally entangled states can be locally copied using a maximally entangled blank state. However, we also show that for any D which is not prime, one can construct pairs of such states for which this is impossible

  15. Poder inteligente: a questão do HIV/AIDS na política externa Brasileira Smart power: the issue of HIV/AIDS in Brazilian foreign policy

    Alex Giacomelli da Silva


    Full Text Available O autor discute a faceta internacional da política brasileira sobre HIV/AIDS e sua relação com outras áreas da política externa, como propriedade intelectual e direitos humanos. Para isso, utiliza-se dos conceitos de Joseph Nye Jr. de soft power e hard power. Este reflete a capacidade de um ator fazer com que outros sigam sua posição, mesmo contra a vontade. Aquele consiste na capacidade de um ator atrair outros livremente para sua posição. O ensaio analisa a importância, nas relações internacionais, dos meios de comunicação, das ONGs, da opinião pública e das instituições interestatais, que não somente possuem soft power próprio, mas também desempenham papel relevante no fortalecimento do soft power dos países. O autor avalia a influência desse tipo de poder nas relações entre o Brasil e os Estados Unidos, bem como em foros multilaterais como as Nações Unidas e a Organização Mundial do Comércio. O artigo analisa, igualmente, o papel do hard power nas relações internacionais e avalia por que os países não podem dispensá-lo. Embora o soft power venha de fato tornando-se cada vez mais importante nos últimos anos, a combinação dos dois tipos de poder continua sendo a política mais correta a ser seguida. A política externa brasileira de HIV/AIDS constitui exemplo ilustrativo.The paper discusses the international facet of the Brazilian policy on HIV/AIDS and its connection to other areas of foreign relations, such as intellectual property rights and human rights. In so doing, it takes into account Joseph Nye Jr. concepts of soft and hard power. The latter reflects the capacity of making others follow one's position, albeit against their will. The former consists in the capacity of freely attracting others to one's position. The author analyses the importance of the media, the nongovernmental organizations, the public opinion, and the international institutions in foreign affairs. Not only do they possess soft

  16. Foreign Policy, Agrarian Unrest, and Missionary Praxis: the Italian Capuchins and the Relations Between Brazil and the Vatican at the Beginning of the Second Empire

    Guillermo Palacios


    Full Text Available This article deals with the role played by the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda Fide’s Apostolic Missions in the political relations between the Empire of Brazil and the Holy See. Based mainly on Vatican sources, the text follows the negotiations between the Brazilian State, the Roman Curia, the Brazilian bishops, and the Italian Friar Capuchin Missions, in search of a common ground to solve institutional policy problems as well as the definition of power spheres between the State and the Catholic Church for the missionary practice to take place. Agreements were reach in the context of a threatening series of insurrections and revolts performed by communities of free men and women in the Northeastern countryside.

  17. “Pivot” Toward Asia: The Strategic Direction of Russia’s Foreign Policy Concept in a Changing Balance of Powers

    Elena Yu. Litsareva


    Full Text Available The article examines some reasons of the “Russia’s pivot” toward Asia at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries. The Asian policy of the Russia was starting to change at the second half of the 1990s. Russia conducted its policy at the East Asia in a view of the changed balance of national interests, regardless of the ideological considerations and attached a special importance to the economic cooperation. Developing the external political concept and determining the priority areas for development, Russia has had to reckon with the objective processes, occurring in the world. Russia, as the "Eurasian" power, building relations with the Asia-Pacific countries, was to have a vital task - to raise the political and economic cooperation with the Asia-Pacific region to the level, achieved by Russia in Europe. Gradually, the East Asia has become the priority strategic direction of the Russia positioning in the world. For a long time it was thought that using its geostrategic position, Russia could be an important factor in the global political and economic system, linking Europe and Asia-Pacific markets. Russia Federation supported the East Asia countries in ensuring regional security and stability. Analysis of the Asia-Pacific regional political situation shows that there are significant changes here and these changes are largely connected with the significant changes in the global balance of powers. In the course of the Ukrainian events (spring 2014 and entering the West economic sanctions against Russia in connection with the accession of the Crimea, Russian “pivot” toward Asia, in particular the East Asia, looks entirely justified and reasonable.

  18. Patterns, correlates, and reduction of homework copying

    David J. Palazzo


    Full Text Available Submissions to an online homework tutor were analyzed to determine whether they were copied. The fraction of copied submissions increased rapidly over the semester, as each weekly deadline approached and for problems later in each assignment. The majority of students, who copied less than 10% of their problems, worked steadily over the three days prior to the deadline, whereas repetitive copiers (those who copied >30% of their submitted problems exerted little effort early. Importantly, copying homework problems that require an analytic answer correlates with a 2(σ decline over the semester in relative score for similar problems on exams but does not significantly correlate with the amount of conceptual learning as measured by pretesting and post-testing. An anonymous survey containing questions used in many previous studies of self-reported academic dishonesty showed ∼1/3 less copying than actually was detected. The observed patterns of copying, free response questions on the survey, and interview data suggest that time pressure on students who do not start their homework in a timely fashion is the proximate cause of copying. Several measures of initial ability in math or physics correlated with copying weakly or not at all. Changes in course format and instructional practices that previous self-reported academic dishonesty surveys and/or the observed copying patterns suggested would reduce copying have been accompanied by more than a factor of 4 reduction of copying from ∼11% of all electronic problems to less than 3%. As expected (since repetitive copiers have approximately three times the chance of failing, this was accompanied by a reduction in the overall course failure rate. Survey results indicate that students copy almost twice as much written homework as online homework and show that students nationally admit to more academic dishonesty than MIT students.

  19. Foreign assistance


    This paper reports that providing energy assistance to developing countries remains a relatively low priority of the Agency for International Development. AID is helping some developing countries meet their energy needs, but this assistance varies substantially because of the agency's decentralized structure. Most AID energy funding has gone to a handful of countries-primarily Egypt and Pakistan. With limited funding in most other countries, AID concentrates on providing technical expertise and promoting energy policy reforms that will encourage both energy efficiency and leverage investment by the private sector and other donors. Although a 1989 congressional directive to pursue a global warming initiative has had a marginal impact on the agency's energy programming, many AID energy programs, including those directed at energy conservation, help address global warming concerns

  20. Anthony Eden a Foreign Office v letech 1935-1938

    Švehlová, Petra


    The bachelor thesis Anthony Eden and the Foreign Office, 1935-1938 deals with foreign policy of Anthony Eden during the time, when he was the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs of the United Kingdom before the Second World War. The thesis analyses influence of Anthony Eden on Italian-Abyssinian war, Rhineland crisis, Spanish civil war and studies, up to what extent, Anthony Eden took part in the appeasement policy. The thesis focuses on the changes in functioning of Foreign Office during ...

  1. Foreign Ministers discuss expansion of EU foreign policy / Ella Karapetyan

    Karapetyan, Ella


    Eesti, Soome, Hispaania, Itaalia, Prantsuse, Rootsi ja Türgi välisministrid kohtusid Saariselkäs Euroopa Liidu välispoliitika juhi Catherine Ashtoniga. 12.-14. märtsil toimunud kohtumisel räägiti välispoliitikast, Euroopa Liidust ja selle koostööst teiste riikidega

  2. Chinese Perceptions of Russian Foreign Policy During the Putin Administration: U.S.-Russia Relations and “Strategic Triangle” Considerations Chinas Sichtweise der russischen Außenplitik während der Regierungszeit von Putin: Die Beziehung zwischen den USA und Russland sowie Überlegungen eines "strategischen Dreiecks"

    Joseph Yu-shek Cheng


    Full Text Available This article examines the Chinese perception of Russian foreign policy during the Putin administration by analysing Beijing’s assessment of Russia’s foreign policy objectives and its policy towards the U.S., as reflected in the official media and the authoritative publications of China’s major security and foreign policy think tanks. Promoting multipolarity and checks and balances against U.S. unilateralism has been a very significant consideration on the part of the Chinese leadership. Using the concept of the “strategic triangle”, the article demonstrates how changes in U.S.-Russian relations have probably become the most important variable in this push for multipolarity. In the past decade and a half, Sino-Russian relations have improved when Russia has become disappointed with the support it received from the U.S. There have also been periods of time when Russia has anticipated closer relations with the U.S. and thus neglected China’s vital interests. The Chinese leadership, however, has exercised restraint at such times. There has been greater optimism in Beijing concerning Sino-Russian relations in recent years because of the expanding economic ties, Russia’s increasing oil wealth and Putin’s authoritarian orientation. In diesem Artikel wird die chinesische Sichtweise der russischen Außenpolitik während der Regierungszeit Putins untersucht.

  3. The Writing on the Wall: National and Global Implications of the Ruling Chinese Communist Party’s Domestic and Foreign Policies

    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh


    Full Text Available The December 201 5 crackdown on labour activists was the culmination of a year of the Chinese Communist Party regime’s war on China’s civil society kicked off by of the arrests of the “Feminist Five” in March followed by the infamous crackdown on civil rights lawyers that began on 5th July and lasted till August. At around the same time, from mid-October to end of December 2015, five owners and staff members of Hong Kong’s Mighty Current publishing company and Causeway Bay bookshop which respectively publishes and selling politically dissident books banned by China disappeared under mysterious circumstances (including one while vacationing in Pattaya, Thailand, and another while inspecting warehouse in Hong Kong and reemerged in mainland China under the custody of the Chinese authorities. While these volatile incidents were unfolding domestically, the year also witnessed the continued rise of China’s economic might in the global system. With specific focus on the latest events unfolding from year 2015 to the present, this paper attempts to interpret such developments especially in terms of government policies with respect to the State’s relations with the civil society since the leadership transition from Hu-Wen to Xi-Li administration, the implications of the global reach of China’s economic might and soft power in this regard, as well as the current nature of the governing regime of the Chinese Communist Party.

  4. The Writing on the Wall: National and Global Implications of the Ruling Chinese Communist Party’s Domestic and Foreign Policies

    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh


    Full Text Available The December 2015 crackdown on labour activists was the culmination of a year of the Chinese Communist Party regime’s war on China’s civil society kicked off with the arrests of the “Feminist Five” in March, followed by the infamous crackdown on civil rights lawyers that began on 5th July and lasted till August. At around the same time, from mid-October to end of December 2015, five owners and staff members of Hong Kong’s Mighty Current publishing company and Causeway Bay bookshop which respectively publishes and sells politically dissident books banned by China disappeared under mysterious circumstances (including one while vacationing in Pattaya, Thailand, and another while inspecting warehouse in Hong Kong and reemerged in mainland China under the custody of the Chinese authorities. While these volatile incidents were unfolding domestically, the year also witnessed the continued rise of China’s economic might in the global system. With specific focus on the latest events unfolding from year 2015 to the present, this paper attempts to interpret such developments especially in terms of government policies with respect to the State’s relations with the civil society since the leadership transition from Hu-Wen to Xi-Li administration, the implications of the global reach of China’s economic might and soft power in this regard, as well as the current nature of the governing regime of the Chinese Communist Party.

  5. 77 FR 41371 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and...


    ... policy questions related to foreign airline operators' revenues and expenses in the United States. There... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Economic Analysis Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...

  6. Exceptionnalisme et impérialisme dans le discours de politique étrangère américain des années Clinton Exceptionalism and Imperialism in US Foreign Policy Discourse: The Clinton Years

    Frédéric Heurtebize


    Full Text Available The United States has to a great extent asserted itself as a nation through the victories of its military and, even more so perhaps, through binary oppositions: democratic republic vs. British monarchy, progress vs. barbarity, capitalism vs. Communism, freedom vs. tyranny or, more recently, terror, to name but a few. This article examines the discourse and arguments elaborated throughout the Clinton presidency by politicians and academics to shape and legitimize U.S. foreign policy in peace time. What ideological justifications could underpin the maintenance or strengthening of the U.S. presence worldwide once the Soviet threat had vanished and yet before the dramatic eruption of terrorism in New York and Washington? How to redefine the country’s mission and its national interest? Did America’s exceptionalist rhetoric survive between the end of the Cold War and 9/11? It may be easy to focus the energy and attention of a nation on a clearly identified enemy; but what can be done or said when there is no clearly recognizable target? In other words, are exceptionalism and imperialism intrinsic features of American identity or are they just products of adversity?

  7. China’s foreign policy towards Central and Eastern Europe: The “16+1” format in the South–South cooperation perspective. Cases of the Czech Republic and Hungary

    Bartosz Kowalski


    Full Text Available This article discusses the “16+1” format initiated in 2012 as a platform for economic, trade, and cultural cooperation between Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and China. As Chinese authorities claim, the “16+1” initiative is complementary to the “New Silk Road” strategy, being a pragmatic formula without political goals, whose main rationale is to bring mutual benefits to all of its participants (win–win. However, despite the Chinese narratives concerning cooperation with the CEE countries as an economic bridgehead of the “One Road, One Belt” (OBOR initiative, some signs of the political dimension of the project can be noticed. Since at least the 1950s, active participation and promotion of the South–South cooperation has become an important component of China’s foreign relations. Although for Chinese policy makers Sino–South relations have been traditionally defined within the frame of, mostly postcolonial, developing countries of Southeast Asia, Central Asia, Africa, and Latin America, this article tries to examine the “South–South” pattern of China’s diplomacy towards Central and Eastern European states with a focus on the Czech Republic and Hungary.

  8. The Dynamics of Foreign Exchange Rate Risk Management in Different Enterprises

    Khaldoun M. Al-Qaisi


    Foreign currency exchange management is very crucial in firms with foreign deals. The objective of this research was to study the management practices in Jordanian firms of foreign exchange management and its risk on these firms. A questionnaire was used to collect data using a stratified random sample. The results show that the firms interested with foreign currency exchange management as it forms more that 50% of its deals. Most of firms indicated that they have a policy for foreign exchang...

  9. Nuclear deception: soviet information policy

    Hoffmann, E.P.


    The effect of the accident at the Chernobyl Unit 4 Reactor on information policies in the USSR is examined. The lack of an agreed-upon information policy and intraparty disagreement over domestic and foreign policy help to explain the delay in disclosure of the accident and conflicting statements concerning long-term health effects. A modest change in policy since Chernobyl has been noted: the willingness of Soviet spokespersons to discuss and debate issues with foreign correspondents, to publish sharply critical letters from citizens and a few foreign officials, and to provide many details about the nature and consequences of the accident

  10. Estimating the Probability of Traditional Copying, Conditional on Answer-Copying Statistics.

    Allen, Jeff; Ghattas, Andrew


    Statistics for detecting copying on multiple-choice tests produce p values measuring the probability of a value at least as large as that observed, under the null hypothesis of no copying. The posterior probability of copying is arguably more relevant than the p value, but cannot be derived from Bayes' theorem unless the population probability of copying and probability distribution of the answer-copying statistic under copying are known. In this article, the authors develop an estimator for the posterior probability of copying that is based on estimable quantities and can be used with any answer-copying statistic. The performance of the estimator is evaluated via simulation, and the authors demonstrate how to apply the formula using actual data. Potential uses, generalizability to other types of cheating, and limitations of the approach are discussed.

  11. A crise da Liga das Nações de 1926: realismo neoclássico, multilateralismo e a natureza da política externa brasileira The League of Nations crisis of 1926: neoclassical realism, multilateralism, and the nature of Brazilian foreign policy

    Braz Baracuhy


    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a natureza da política externa brasileira na crise da Liga das Nações (1926, a partir de modelo teórico do realismo neoclássico. As dinâmicas por posições de poder nos tabuleiros geopolítico e multilateral do sistema internacional e as percepções e estratégias diplomáticas da elite de política externa brasileira são consideradas no estudo teórico.The article analyzes the nature of Brazilian foreign policy in the crisis of the League of Nations (1926 from a neoclassical-realist theoretical perspective. Within this theoretical framework, the dynamics of power positioning in the geopolitical and multilateral chessboards of the international system and the perceptions and diplomatic strategies of the Brazilian foreign-policy elite are taken into account.

  12. 48 CFR 750.7102 - General policy.


    ... MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS Extraordinary Contractual Actions To Protect Foreign Policy Interests of the United States 750.7102 General policy. Extra-contractual claims arising from foreign... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General policy. 750.7102...


    US Agency for International Development — provides a view of U.S. Government foreign assistance funds across agencies and enables users to explore, analyze, and review aid investments...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Full Text Available ... the body. When your physician suspects that a blunt foreign body is stuck in the esophagus, you ... tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects pass through the digestive tract by ...

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Full Text Available ... foreign objects that have been ingested through the mouth or airway or introduced into the soft tissues. ... through the digestive tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects pass through the ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Full Text Available ... can leak into the bowel and cause mercury poisoning. Magnetic toys can obstruct the bowel when they ... soft tissue foreign body, contact your physician immediately. Treatment will depend on the type of foreign body ...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Full Text Available ... tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  18. Foreign Aid Explorer)

    US Agency for International Development — The Foreign Aid Explorer shows the multi-dimensional picture of U.S. foreign assistance through a highly visual and interactive website. The website makes it easy...

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Full Text Available ... able to view the surgical instrument as it advances to the location of the foreign object in ... helps dilate, or widen, the esophagus. This helps advance the foreign body into the stomach, from where ...

  20. Presiones y decisiones en política exterior: dos momentos de México ante el conflicto árabe-israelí | Pressures and decision-making in foreign policy: two moments of Mexican policies towards the Arab Israeli conflict



    Full Text Available Caracterizar a la política de México hacia el conflicto árabe- israelí como ambigua, ambivalente, indefinida o distante es un error. En dos momentos especialmente álgidos del conflicto, es evidente que la acción independiente y concertada de grupos de presión y actores transnacionales con claras simpatías por uno u otro de los bandos en pugna presionaron al gobierno mexicano e intentaron influir en su política al respecto. En este artículo se discute y se pone en perspectiva histórica, tomando como estudio de caso el de México y su política hacia el Medio Oriente, la influencia de los actores no estatales internos y externos en la formulación de la política exterior. To portray Mexican policy towards the Arab Israeli conflict as ambiguous, ambivalent, undefined or distant is definitely a mistake. In two moments particularly significant of the conflict, it is rather self-evident that the independent or concerted action of pressure groups and transnational actors with clear sympathies for one or the other of the two competing groups, exerted pressure over the Mexican Government and tried to influence its policies on the matter. In this article, we discuss in a historical perspective, taking Mexico and its policies towards the Middle East as a case study, the influence of domestic and international non-state actors in the foreign policy formulation and decision-making process.

  1. Hacking DNA copy number for circuit engineering.

    Wu, Feilun; You, Lingchong


    DNA copy number represents an essential parameter in the dynamics of synthetic gene circuits but typically is not explicitly considered. A new study demonstrates how dynamic control of DNA copy number can serve as an effective strategy to program robust oscillations in gene expression circuits.

  2. Copy-Editing: The Cambridge Handbook.

    Butcher, Judith

    This handbook is designed as a reference manual for copy editors who prepare typescript for printing. It deals with the following topics: the copy editor's function; the work to be done at each stage in the production process; some difficult points of spelling, capitalization, and other features collectively known as "house style"; the parts of a…


    Dr. A.O.A. Ogunleye

    A large variety of foreign bodies may be encountered in the external auditory meatus 1 . The objects may be organic or inorganic. Organic foreign bodies include paper, cotton wool, rubber, seeds, etc while inorganic objects include beads, ball bearings, stones, and crayons 1- 4. Foreign bodies are inserted into the ear.

  4. Efficiency of Foreign Exchange Markets and Measures of Turbulence

    Jacob A. Frenkel; Michael L. Mussa


    Since the move to generalized floating in1973, exchange rates between major currencies have displayed large fluctuations. This turbulence of foreign exchange rates is an important concern of government policy and its explanation is a challenge for theories of foreign exchange market behavior. In Section I of this paper, we document the extent of turbulence in foreign exchange markets by examining (i) the magnitude of short-run variations in exchange rates relative to other measures of economi...

  5. Foreign Models of Financial Equalization, Prospects for Implementation in Ukraine

    Piontko Nataliia B.


    The article is aimed to identify the models of financial equalization applied in foreign countries, and to substantiate the possibilities for use of foreign experience in terms of financial equalization or individual elements of such models on the territory of Ukraine, for taking into consideration the foreign tools of financial equalization in the context of the State regional policy reforms is a priority and urgent task of the present day. During the generalization and sys...

  6. Backward linkages from foreign investors to domestic firms

    Apostolov, Mico


    The analysis of how to design policies to promote backward linkages would not be complete without introducing sound discovery into the debate. Foreign investors would naturally prefer to avoid creating rivals to their market position, aiming at horizontal positioning. But workers and managers often leave foreign plants to start up their own; local firms learn from watching the operations of foreigners. In the vertical direction, in cont...

  7. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  8. Understanding the contemporary United States and European Union foreign policy in the Middle East Entendiendo la política exterior de Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea en el Medio Oriente

    Necati Anaz


    Full Text Available United States, as the dominant geopolitical power in the Middle East, has been struggling to stabilize the region to achieve its geopolitical objectives and interests. Especially since the Second World War, the US has rioritized, enacted and represented Middle East policies as vital to securing its "national interests" till terrorist attacks on the twin towers in New York City. As it is understood, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, markeda dramatic changenot onlyin US policy, but in USrhetoricandinternational discourses as well. Following the terror attacks, US Middle East policy shifted from being the matter of "national security," which primarily puts more emphases on "responsive securitization", to the "preventive securitization of national interests," particularly under the neo-conservative Bush Administrations. Consequently, US launched two direct military engagements in Afghanistan (2001 and Iraq (2003, and involved in unilateral regime change in those states ostensibly, to secure its national interests and provide world peace in the long run. It is important to highlight here that US cleared the full support (rhetorically, at least of the United Nations to disarm the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. This study, therefore, attempts to revisit and conceptualize the contemporary US and EU Middle East foreign policy -though they are not identical- before and after the September 11 terror attack. The argument here is that the Middle East policy objectives of the US and the EU primarily agglomerate around two main headings: security of oil and protecting the state of Israel in an Arab-dominated region. Closely related, but not equivalent, both the US and EU have a stake in establishing good relations with the Arab states and promoting democracy and liberal market economies in the Middle East. This study also reviews the President Barack Obama’s Middle Eastern foreign policy initiatives and attempts to suggest several key points

  9. [Selective internationalization: foreign workers and Japanese society].

    Ito, R


    Japan's December 1989 revision of the law on immigration and recognition of refugees was intended to provide greater felxibility for employment of foreigners with specialized skills or professional qualifications while excluding migrant workers. This policy, referred to as selective internationalization by the author, represents an effort by the government to early 1980s and to changes in the Japanese economy which after decades of rapid growth is entering a new phase of diversification. The ideal of national homogeneity has prevented formulation of any coherent policy of integrating Japan's foreign born population, mostly descendents of laborers from Japan's former colonies. In 1988, Japan's 677,000 Korean residents constituted 72% of the foreign population registered in Japan. As of 1988, some 40,000 foreigners were registered as residents and permitted to work in any of several well-defined areas. The number, while small, is growing. Illegal migrants are defined essentially as foreigners exercising economic activities not authorized by their visas. The number of such workers is notoriously difficult to estimate, but the number of expulsions for labor violations increased by 4700 in 1989 to 22,600, suggesting that the problem is growing. The Ministry of Justice estimated the number of foreigners in irregular situations at 70,000 in 1988, and it has probably reached 120,000 at present. The number of foreign workers, authorized or not, is estimated at 150-160,000 or .3% of the active population. The 1989 revision of the immigration law does not constitute a foreign labor policy, but it does clearly signal the end of complete protectionism vis a vis the labor market which characterized Japan's period of rapid growth. Internationalization of the labor market reflects 2 concerns, provision of highly qualified employees to enable large enterprises to adapt more readily to changing international conditions, and continued control over the foreign labor supply of small

  10. 12 CFR 614.4700 - Financing foreign trade receivables.


    ... OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4700 Financing foreign trade receivables. (a) Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks, under policies adopted by their boards of directors, are authorized to finance foreign trade receivables on...

  11. 77 FR 67329 - Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act


    ... Disclosure Act (AFIDA) Program Manager, Natural Resources Analysis Group, Economic and Policy Analysis Staff... Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA... Foreign Investment Disclosure Act (AFIDA) of 1978. DATES: We will consider comments that we receive by...

  12. Antidumping duties, undertakings and foreign direct investment in the EU

    Belderbos, R.A.; Vandenbussche, H.; Veugelers, R.


    We study the effects of EU antidumping policy when foreign firms can ‘jump’ antidumping duties through foreign direct investment (FDI) in the EU. We show that duty jumping or duty pre-empting FDI occurs if the EU administration has broader objectives than protecting EU industry's profitability and

  13. The causal relationship between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI ...

    The causal relationship between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and the ... of selected west African countries: Panel ARDL/Granger Causality Analysis. ... among this developing countries and an important revelation for policy implication.

  14. Does Foreign Aid Increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

      The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show...... that the theoretical relationship between foreign aid and FDI is indeterminate. Aid may raise the marginal productivity of capital by financing complementary inputs, such as public infrastructure projects and human capital investment. However, aid may also crowd out productive private investments if it comes...... in the shape of physical capital transfers. We therefore turn to an empirical analysis of the relationship between FDI and disaggregated aid flows. Our results strongly support the hypotheses that aid invested in complementary inputs draws in foreign capital while aid invested in physical capital crowds out...

  15. The Effects of New Jersey's K-8 Foreign Language Authorization on K-5 Foreign Language Teaching: Two Teachers' Perspectives

    Raymond, Robert B. L.


    Recent research in language education policy (LEP) refocuses attention from the role of governments to local stakeholders that shape LEP. However, little attention has been given to teacher agency in LEP implementation for early foreign language (FL) education in the United States. This pilot study considers the role of foreign language elementary…

  16. A Dynamic Growth Model for Flows of Foreign Direct Investment

    Yi-Hui Chiang; Yiming Li; Chih-Young Hung


    In this work, we for the first time study the dynamic flows of the foreign direct investment (FDI) with a dynamic growth theory. We define the FDI flow as a process which transmits throughout a given social system by way of diverse communication channels. In model formulation, seven assumptions are thus proposed and the foreign capital policy of the host country is considered as an external influence; in addition, the investment policy of the investing country is modeled as an internal influe...

  17. Italians and Foreign Immigration

    Corrado Bonifazi


    Full Text Available Opinion surveys on attitudes towards immigration are becoming more and more important, owing to the increasing role of political debate on migration issues in Western European countries. CNR has conducted four surveys on this topic, collecting data on the evolution of Italians attitudes towards migration issues. In fact, the ? rst survey was conducted in the second half of the eighties, when foreign immigration was in its early stages. The last survey took place in 2002, when immigration was already well established in Italy. The article focuses on three main issues: the global impact of immigration on Italian society, the immigrants role in the labour market, and immigration policy. In general, the results of the last survey con? rm a trend that appeared already in 1997, of more balanced and realistic opinion that were less of a response to circumstances perceived as special emergencies. Highly educated people, teachers and students continue to be the most open and receptive groups, whereas the less favourably inclined and more worried continue to be old people, those with less education, the unemployed, housewives, and retirees.

  18. Contemporary United States Foreign Policy Towards Indonesia

    McAslan, Hugh


    United States national interests in Indonesia have traditionally being based on strategic security requirements given Indonesia's geographic location between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and strong...

  19. Spain’s foreign diplomatic economic policy

    Alexandru GRIBINCEA


    Full Text Available The Spanish economy was hit hard by the late 2007 collapse of a speculative housing boom as well as by the global financial crisis. The economy formally went into recession in 2009 as Spain’s pre-crisis budget surplus of 3 per cent of GDP became a deficit of 11.1 per cent. Spain posted -0.1 per cent growth in 2010 and 0.7 per cent growth in 2011. The economy once again entered recession in 2012, with only modest prospects for recovery forecast for 2013 and 2014. Unemployment has soared to over 25 per cent, and is not expected to decrease significantly in the next few years. Youth unemployment has reached over 50 per cent. Responding to the crisis, the Government embarked in 2010 on a substantial program of reforms and austerity measures aimed at correcting imbalances in the economy and encouraging recovery, improving public finances. These efforts have intensified. Eurozone finance ministers (the ‚Eurogroup’ have set the government a budget deficit target of 6.5 per cent of GDP for 2013 and 5.8 per cent in 2014, falling to the desired target of under 3 per cent by 2016. The Eurogroup has also provided a euro 100bn line of credit to recapitalise Spain’s banking sector. Successive austerity measures, which have become the subject of popular protests, aim to cut the deficit through spending reductions to public administration.

  20. Soft Power in Indian Foreign Policy


    Sep 3, 2011 ... ... its vibrant (if at times chaotic) democracy, its free media, ... poverty, social challenge and internal v iolence, is .... available in other Asian tourist desti nations, and the .... being motivated above all by the search for markets ...

  1. Intervention in Vietnam: President Eisenhower's Foreign Policy

    Slaton, James


    For a period of thirty years, from 1945 to 1975, the United States employed countless numbers of financial, material, and human resources toward Vietnam in an effort to shape and control that country's political destiny...

  2. Contemporary United States Foreign Policy Towards Indonesia


    and designing of a permanent solution to promote a constructive relationship between Indonesia and East Timor. This work provides a thorough analysis... sweatshop ’? Seattle Times, 28 August. Available from Internet. Accessed on 23

  3. The Underpinnings of American Foreign Policy


    domestic opportunity. Hamilton saw international commerce as a win-win strategy as opposed to a zero-sum game of war.20 Hamiltonian defense of...former dove,” Salon Magazine (January 2, 2002), (accessed Jan 10, 2010). 33 25 Ibid...2009). 48 Joan Walsh, "Yes, It’s Obama’s War Now," Salon Magazine, (December 1, 2009),

  4. Does Estonia need foreign policy? / Alexander Astrov

    Astrov, Alexander


    Autori arvates vajab Eesti kindlaksmääratud poliitikasuundade asemel rohkem välispoliitikat laiemas mõttes, vajalik oleks loobuda viimase aastakümne eesmärgikesksest ratsionaalsusest enam kontekstitundliku tegutsemis- ja mõtlemisviisi kasuks

  5. The edges of pragmatism: Menem's foreign policy

    Miranda, Roberto Alfredo


    En este trabajo se tratan de analizar, teóricamente, algunos aspectos claves del debate sobre la política exterior de Menem. Uno de estos aspectos es la continuidad o no de esta política exterior con respecto a la del gobierno de Alfonsín. Otro: las diferencias entre el realismo y el pragmatismo en la conducción de las relaciones exteriores de la actual administración. Precisamente, el examen de las connotaciones de una política exterior pragmática es lo que se pretende subrayar en el present...

  6. Brazilian Foreign Policy Towards Internet Governance

    Maurício Santoro

    Full Text Available Abstract Snowden´s whistleblowing on the NSA program had a powerful impact in Brazil, prompting Dilma Rousseff´s administration to promote, at the United Nations, resolutions on Internet privacy, freedom of expression, as well as to host important multistakeholder conferences and, domestically, to approve the innovative legislation known as Marco Civil. These answers were only possible due to a network of officials and activists. However, Brazil´s global leadership in Internet governance is fragile, with many internal contradictions.

  7. Iran’s Foreign and Defense Policies


    Palestinian peace process through Hamas attacks on buses, restaurants , and other civilian targets inside Israel. However, in 2012, their differing positions...mid-2015, declared its loyalty to the Islamic State organization. 105 Almost all of the Central Asian states share a common language and culture with...natural gas customer . Perhaps in an attempt to diversify gas export routes, President Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov signaled in 2007 that Turkmenistan

  8. A Study on the Nuclear Foreign Policy

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.


    It is of the utmost importance in the peaceful use and development of nuclear energy to respond in a timely manner to the changes of international nuclear communities. This study were carried focused on the trends of international movements related to nuclear non-proliferation regime and major trends in the international bi- or multi-lateral technical cooperation activities. This study investigates the major changes of international technical cooperation focusing on nuclear functional organizations, IAEA and OECD/NEA which become competent and important in the international technical cooperation. 9.11 terror and international illegal trafficking of A. Q. Khan network caused the strengthening of international nonproliferation regimes and international efforts and measures against threat of nuclear terror and this movement will kept in the international communities afterwards with GTRI, G8 action plan, UN resolution of WMD and ratification and application of additional protocol of IAEA safeguards agreement into member countries. Upgrade of nuclear diplomatic and technical networks and activities are required to secure the national rights and dignity in the international communities in effective and systematic manners through the enlarged participation and contribution of the national experts to working groups activities of IAEA and OECD/NEA together

  9. The geopolitics of Bolivarian foreign policy

    Ana Maria Schenegoski


    Full Text Available The article performs a geopolitical analysis of the Bolivarian antissistêmico movement, highlighting especially the formation of Alba while regional alliances system from Venezuela power projection. Thus, the theoretical framework of World-Systems Analysis of Immanuel Wallerstein, is recontextualizado in addition to the categories of Center, outskirts and semiperiferia, and in such a way as to encompass the national power projects peripheral actors or semiperiféricos such as Venezuela.

  10. Foreign Investors Able to Establish Foreign- exclusively Exhibition Corporations


    Foreign Investors Able to Establish Foreign-exclusively Exhibition Corporations In Feb, Ministry of Commerce issued its 1st decree on temporary regulation for foreign-investing corporations; the regulation allows foreign investors to set up foreign-investing convention & exhibition corporations exclusively or through cooperation with other Chinese corporations, enterprises or organizations. With legal protection on their regulatory management and legal rights, these foreign-investing corporations are in the charge of Department of Foreign Investment Administration, Ministry of Commerce.

  11. Preservation Copying Endangered Historic Negative Collections

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad


    This article discusses preservation copying of unstable B&W nitrate and acetate still photographic negatives. It focuses on evaluating two different strategies for preserving the copies from a point of view of quality and cost-effectiveness. The evaluated strategies are preservation of the master...... by describing essential characteristics of negatives, which must be passed on to the copies, and the required metadata and technical imaging specifications. Next the paper discusses strategies for preservation and makes an analysis with the LIFE2 Costing Model. The paper concludes that the most beneficial...... and cost-effective preservation solution for large format negatives is to keep the preservation copies as digital files. However, it also acknowledges that it is important to revisit such strategies regularly to monitor changes in user expectations, technologies and costs....

  12. 15 CFR 2008.4 - Basic policy.


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic policy. 2008.4 Section 2008.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE...

  13. Transportation and storage of foreign spent power reactor fuel


    This report describes the generic actions to be taken by the Department of Energy, in cooperation with other US government agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations, in support of the implementation of Administration policies with respect to the following international spent fuel management activities: bilateral cooperation related to expansion of foreign national storage capacities; multilateral and international cooperation related to development of multinational and international spent fuel storage regimes; fee-based transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage; and emergency transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage

  14. COPI is required for enterovirus 71 replication.

    Jianmin Wang

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71, a member of the Picornaviridae family, is found in Asian countries where it causes a wide range of human diseases. No effective therapy is available for the treatment of these infections. Picornaviruses undergo RNA replication in association with membranes of infected cells. COPI and COPII have been shown to be involved in the formation of picornavirus-induced vesicles. Replication of several picornaviruses, including poliovirus and Echovirus 11 (EV11, is dependent on COPI or COPII. Here, we report that COPI, but not COPII, is required for EV71 replication. Replication of EV71 was inhibited by brefeldin A and golgicide A, inhibitors of COPI activity. Furthermore, we found EV71 2C protein interacted with COPI subunits by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assay, indicating that COPI coatomer might be directed to the viral replication complex through viral 2C protein. Additionally, because the pathway is conserved among different species of enteroviruses, it may represent a novel target for antiviral therapies.

  15. 76 FR 39885 - Risk-Based Targeting of Foreign Flagged Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs)


    ... Foreign Flagged Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... 11-06, Risk-Based Targeting of Foreign Flagged Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs). This policy... applicable regulations, every foreign-flagged mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) must undergo a Coast Guard...

  16. Foreign Investment in the U.S.: Costs and Benefits. Headline Series 249.

    Zupnick, Elliot

    The document discusses the implications and positive and negative aspects of foreign direct investment in the United States. The objective is to determine whether a restrictive U.S. policy as it relates to foreign direct investment in the United States is desirable. It is presented in five chapters. Chapter I defines foreign direct investment…

  17. Cost of Policy Inaction

    Bakkes, J.A.; Brauer, I.; Ten Brink, P.; Gorlach, B.; Kuik, O.J.; Medhurst, J.


    The objective of this study is to lay out reasonable expectations of COPI as an assessment instrument. This includes aspects such as potential messages; important technical issues; limitations; issues of focus, direction and process; key information gaps; added value. The scope of this study is environment policy at the EU level, touching on policy areas that are not labelled 'environment' but are nevertheless relevant to the issue of cost of policy non-action regarding the environment. The study reflects on methods to assess COPI in money terms but also considers non-monetary endpoints, such as the number of premature deaths. The study aims to illuminate which stages of the policy making process the concept of COPI can best support. Our interpretation of what DG ENV seeks, in relation to COPI, is: economic thinking, but not too narrow, as an element of a communication strategy. This led us to consider inter alia the possibilities to apply the COPI concept to environmental-related policy as a whole - next to, or contrasted with, other EU priorities. Realism has been an important consideration: this study tries to provide ideas to DG ENV for pragmatic use of the COPI concept. That requires a balance between, or a proper combination and sequencing of, the quick-and-simple and the thorough-but-costly. The study reflects on both and eventually recommends a combination of mostly smaller studies in four distinct categories. In view of this we included in this scoping study elements of COPI methodology that can be of practical use in designing and committing follow-up work. This includes a two-page methodological summary, a section on important design choices, a framework for a COPI program, populated with some examples of good topics for COPI studies that seem double. Although the production of this scoping study has been a small project, it was nevertheless undertaken by five organizations in order to connect with as much practical experience as possible. GHK experience




    Full Text Available The article presents some of the fundamental aspects of country risk’dependence compared to foreign debt level. Starting from external debt burden we analyze the usage of foreign loans, foreign debt bearing capacity as well as the availability of data regarding the external debt. Country risk represents the exposure to losses which may occur in a business with a foreign partner, caused by specific events that are, at least partially, controlled by the partner country’ government. Macroeconomic analysis of economic and financial component of country risk involves how this risk is influenced by government policy, by the economic role of government, bypricing strategies, investment priorities, financial structures, macroeconomic policy, by the ability to obtain foreign funds, the level of external debt as well as the liquidity and cash flows in that country.

  19. Moldova: Background and U.S. Policy

    Woehrel, Steven


    .... policy makers, including trafficking in persons and weapons. This short report provides information and analysis on Moldova, including its political and economic situation, foreign policy, and on U.S...

  20. Moldova: Background and U.S. Policy

    Woehrel, Steven


    .... policy makers, including trafficking in persons and weapons. This short report provides information and analysis on Moldova, including its political and economic situation, foreign policy, and on U.S...