WorldWideScience

Sample records for coppices

  1. Energy coppice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    One form of renewable energy production involves the growing of energy coppice on agricultural land. It is important as it can be grown on those areas of agricultural land which are surplus to agricultural production. Hence it can be seen as an alternative farm crop, and as such, a possible solution to the problem of agricultural surpluses as well as providing a source of energy. Studies have indicated that up to one million hectares of land surplus to agricultural production may be suitable for growing energy coppice. However, its development as an agricultural crop will only happen if it can be produced at costs competitive with alternative fuels and there is a reliable and long term market offering good returns. (author)

  2. Stakeholder analysis for coppice forestry in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IvayloVelichkov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the state of coppice forestry in Bulgaria during last 18 years. Stakeholders and their interests and preferences in coppice forests are explored and assessed. Forests restitution process in Bulgaria started in 1997 and has not been finished yet. Nevertheless, significant further changes of the current ownershipdistribution are not expected. By the end of 2007, the state was the biggest coppice forest owner/stakeholder in Bulgaria with 71.3% of all coppice forests being state property. The other two important stakeholders are the municipalities (14.0% and private owners (12.0%. Currently, forest owners' number in Bulgaria exceeds 1million, the average holding area being smaller than 1 ha. Only 150 individual plots are larger than 50 ha. The majority of private owners aim at taking maximum and immediate profit from their recently restituted forest properties. In most cases that reflects in clearcuts. Coppice forests management has been one of the problematicissues of Bulgarian forestry for decades. Despite of forest authorities significant efforts, the area of coppice forests in Bulgaria (1.78 million ha in 2007 remained unchanged for a period of 50 years. The official forest policy is still aimed at conversionof coppice forests into seed ones through different silvicultural methods. That policy is applied to almost all coppice forests regardless of their ownership.

  3. Coppicing potential of Eucalyptus nitens : results from a field survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine factors which could have a positive influence on the coppicing potential of Eucalyptus nitens , a field survey was carried out at Draycott, near Estcourt in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. Five measures of the ability to coppice (stump survival, height of coppice, number of dominant shoots, coppicing ...

  4. Energy dissipation of rockfalls by coppice structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciabocco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to develop elements to improve understanding of the behaviour of a coppice in relation to the phenomenon of falling boulders. The first section proposes an amendment to the equation for calculating the index which describes the probability of impact between a rock and plants in managed coppice forests. A study was carried out, using models to calculate the kinetic energy of a falling boulder along a slope considering the kinetic energy dissipated during the impact with the structure of forest plants managed by coppice. The output of the simulation models were then compared with the real dynamics of falling boulders in field tests using digital video.

    It emerged from an analysis of the results of this comparison that a modification to the 1989 Gsteiger equation was required, in order to calculate the "Average Distance between Contacts" (ADC. To this purpose, the concept of "Structure of Interception", proposed in this paper, was developed, valid as a first approach for describing the differences in the spatial distribution of stems between coppice and forest. This study also aims to provide suggestions for forestry management, in order to maintain or increase the protective capacity of a coppice managed with conventional techniques for the area studied, modifying the dendrometric characteristics.

  5. Public perceptions of short rotation coppice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, R.

    1993-01-01

    The ''Wood as a Fuel'' programme - which funded the research covered in this report - is one of the renewable energy development programmes managed by ETSU (the Energy Technology Support Unit) for the Department of Trade and Industry. This national programme is developing the production and use of fuel wood from two main sources - forestry residues and short rotation coppice. Wood fuel from short rotation coppice offers the greater potential - energy equivalent to 10 mtce (million tonnes of coal equivalent) could be produced annually from 1 million hectares of land. This programme is now well established, with ten trial coppice sites in operation, plus some 40 others. A number of successfully willow and poplar clones have been selected for different soil conditions, and machinery for planting and harvesting has been developed. Local consortia of farmers and users are being established to provide long-term markets for the wood fuel produced. (author)

  6. Chemical utilization of coppice: III - furfural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidrich, V.; Cecconi, C.A.; Fusi, P.

    1980-01-01

    The numerous applications of furfural in industry are briefly summarized and the mean contents of furfural and of methyl furfural in some Italian coppice species and species of the Mediterranean maquis capable of exploitation for this purpose are reported. (Refs. 14).

  7. Detecting Coppice Legacies from Tree Growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müllerová, Jana; Pejcha, Vít; Altman, Jan; Plener, Tomáš; Dörner, Petr; Doležal, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-14 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267; GA ČR GAP504/12/1952; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12262S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : coppicing * history * tree-ring analysis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  8. Mechanised harvesting of short-rotation coppices

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbeveren, Stefan P.P.; Spinelli, Raffaele; Eisenbies, Mark; Schweier, Janine; Mola-Yudego, Blas; Magagnotti, Natascia; Acuna, Mauricio; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Short-rotation coppice (SRC) is an important source of woody biomass for bioenergy. Despite the research carried out on several aspects of SRC production, many uncertainties create barriers to farmers establishing SRC plantations. One of the key economic sources of uncertainty is harvesting methods and costs; more specifically, the performance of contemporary machine methods is reviewed. We collected data from 25 literature references, describing 166 field trials. Three harvesting s...

  9. Standards in chestnut coppice system: cultural heritage or coltural requirement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manetti MC

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Standards in chestnut coppice system: cultural heritage or coltural requirement? This paper aims at evaluating the role of standards in chestnut coppices from a biological and functional perspective. In addition to a detailed analysis of Italian regulations on the issue, the technical definition of the term is analysed: (i as for the functional role of standards; (ii to assess whether the required functions are technically necessary and are being actually performed. In this contex, the results of an experimental trial are reported. The goal of the trial were to assess the shoots’ parameters, the stand productivity, the dynamics of canopy cover in coppices with or without standards. In 2001, at harvesting operations in a coppice aged 30 with standards managed by the local community, two experimental plots 2500 m2 each were established. The two theses being compared were: simple coppice and coppixce with standards (100 standards per hectare. The released standards were qualified immediately after final harvesting. Sprouting ability, growth pattern and stool vitality were surveyed in March 2004 (at age 2, in May 2008 (at age 6 and in April 2010 (at age 8. First results highlighted the evidence of statistically significant differences between the two thesis. The high number of standards effected negatively both vitality and growth pattern of the stools. Simple coppice recorded a lower shoot mortality, a higher diametrical growth and canopy cover degree as well; the heigth growth was, on the opposite, significantly lower. These results, although referred to a limited lifespan (1/3 of the rotation time and to one site only, underline productive, ecological and environmental benefits and as a consequence suggest the widening of the experimental network and the development of new, more relevant and consistent rules, making acceptable the simple coppice as a possible silvicultural choice to be applied to chestnut coppices.

  10. Planning wood extraction in a forest coppice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Civitarese V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of cartographic models of analysis have been elaborated through the softwares ArcView GIS (ESRI 2002 and Surfer 8 (Golden software 2002 to find optimal work systems for the wood extraction in an oak coppice, located on the Monti della Tolfa, near Rome, Italy. The main factors analyzed were the morphology of the territory and the roads characteristics. The methodological procedure followed was applied on the different classes of slope, the direction of water outflow, the presence of ditches and channels, the principal and secondary roads, the wood cover and the clearings. The possibility to employ tractors with cages, polyethylene chutes, mules and cable cranes has been examined, also identifying the fittest areas to their use. This first analytical phase was followed by a second phase dedicated to the evaluation of the technical feasibility. The proposed method contributes to a rational planning of the work site. The advantage could be the planning of extraction operations on the map, but it will be necessary to verify the method in field studies. Although this method has been developed on limited extensions of territories, it could be applicable to situations of greater complexity, representing the base for the creation of a tool that may be employed in ampler territorial contexts, such as Comunità Montane and hydrographic basins.

  11. Radiocaesium uptake and cycling in willow short rotation coppice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gommers, A.

    2002-01-01

    The document is an abstract of a PhD thesis. The study investigates the uptake and cycling of radiocaesium in willow short rotation coppice. Different factors influencing the soil-to-wood transfer of radiocaesium were investigated, among others the type of minerals, supply of potassium and soil composition

  12. Some environmental impacts of short rotation willow coppice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, F.M.; Hodson, R.W.; Randrson, P.F.; Lynn, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    Short rotation willow coppice is a relatively new crop in upland Britain, and particularly in Environmentally Sensitive Areas the conservation and environmental effect of biomass crops needs to be evaluated. Investigations of sewage-sludge-treated plots in mid-Wales show that, because weed control was inadequate, recovery of the flora to its semi-natural precultivated state was rapid within and between experimental plots. Soil invertebrates responded to temporal stimuli before all else. Foliar-feeding invertebrates were greater in plots which had added fertilizer. Following cultivation voles were generally lost from the ploughed areas but field mice remained. Birds were studied in more extensive areas of short rotation coppice in central England and the assemblage of species was found to be similar to those found in conventional coppice but with a foreshortened successional sequence. The conservation value of short rotation willow coppice lies mainly in the abundant foliar invertebrates that provide a rich source of food for small passerine birds, particularly summer migrants. It also provides good cover for game birds - and their predators. (author)

  13. Coppice forests, or the changeable aspect of things, a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Fabbio

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Coppiced forests were the main source of firewood, brushwood, and charcoal for rural and urban settlements’ basic needs such as cooking food and domestic heating for thousands of years and up to the mid-20th century in many European countries and, specifically, in Mediterranean countries. The global diffusion of fossil fuels reduced this leadership and the coppice system turned, to some extent, to a reminder of the past. Nowadays, the ongoing global changes and the related green-economy issues call for resilient systems and effective bio-energy producers. These issues have caused a second turning point and the coppice has returned fifty years later to play a role. A review of the silvicultural system has been carried out with a special focus on the changes which have occurred in between, taking Italy as a consistent case-study. The analysis is mainly framed upon the long-term research trials established by the CREA-Forestry Research Centre in the late sixties, to find out adaptive management strategies and overcome the system’s crisis. The findings and further knowledge achieved so far on the dynamics and functioning of coppice forests in the outgrown phase, both as natural evolutive patterns and silviculture-driven processes, are highlighted in this paper. They provide useful tools to handle the management shift regarding forthcoming issues, i.e. the current role attributable to the coppice system within the changing environment and the renewable energy demand. The basic features of each management area and their complementarities within the current framework are outlined.

  14. Nutrient enhanced short rotation coppice for biomass in central Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, R.W.; Slater, F.M.; Lynn, S.F.; Randerson, P.F. [Univ. of Wales (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    Two projects involving short rotation willow coppice are taking place on the eastern side of the Cambrian Mountains in central Wales. One project examines, as an alternative land use, the potential of short rotation willow coppice variously enhanced by combinations of lime, phosphorous and potassium fertilizers and also digested sewage sludge on an acidic upland site at an altitude of 260m. The first year results of this project are described in detail, showing the necessity for limestone additions and also demonstrating that of the four willow varieties established, Salix dasyclados is the only possible, profitable fuel crop. The other project involving willow in a filter bed system is outlined along with an additional project investigating the effect of sewage sludge additions on the Rubus fruticosus production in a birch dominated mixed deciduous woodland.

  15. Storage and handling of willow from short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P. D.; Spinelli, R.

    1997-07-01

    During the project two main storage and drying trials were organised. The first trial in 1996 consisted of 14 piles of 6 different size material (whole shoots, via 200 mm chunk, 100 mm chunk, 50 mm chip, 28 mm chips, 25 mm chips) and six different methods of covering: Open air storage, storage under plastic cover, storage under top-cover, airtight storage, unventilated storage under roof, and intermittent ventilation (cooling) under roof. The drying trial in 1997 which consisted of four piles was established in Horsens in the same building as the ventilated trials the year before. Only Austoft 50 mm chips were used for this trial. The four piles were established in February and removed in May. Based on all the results of the trials the following conclusions can be drawn: Storage of willow from short rotation coppice is very difficult. Fine chips, such as producted by the two main harvesting machines Claas and Austoft are not suitable for storage over prolonged periods of time (more than 2 months); fine chips loose a large amount of dry matter and a lot of their lower heating value; fine chips also have a heavy infestation of micro-organisms which might cause working environment problems; short rotation coppice is best delivered straight into the heating plants during harvest; if short rotation coppice has to be stored, then this should be done as whole shoots or large chunk; if short rotation coppice has to be stored as chips for a longer period of time (more than two months), then these chips should be sealed airtight as silage. (EG) EFP-94; EFP-95; EFP-96. 10 refs.

  16. Coppice Woods and Pollard Trees in the Visual Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacina Jan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The sprouting capacity of some broadleaves has been used for their regeneration since ancient times. Often concurrently with taking advantage of sprouting stools, the trees used to be shaped also by pruning their stems, namely on pasturelands and in grazing forests. The activity of woodcutters and shepherds was obviously rather common in warmer climates with broadleaved stands because coppice and pollard trees appear relatively often in the visual arts from ancient works through the period if the Italian and German Renaissance up to the romantic and realistic landscape painting of the 19th century overlapping into the 20th century. For centuries, most frequently illustrated in European and Czech paintings have been pollard willows (Salix spp.. Other coppice and pollard tree species identified in paintings are oaks (Quercus spp., hornbeam (Carpinus betulus, European beech (Fagus sylvatica, European chestnut (Castanea sativa, and rarely other species, too. Artists apparently often used bizarrely shaped woods to increase the dramatic atmosphere of their landscape sceneries as well as figural compositions, and the coppice and pollard trees had certainly also a symbolic meaning in some of their works.

  17. Development of a coppice planting machine to commercial standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turton, J.S.

    2000-07-01

    This report gives details of the development work carried out on the Turton Engineering Coppice Planting machine in order to commercially market it. The background to the machine which plants single rows of cuttings from rods is traced,, and previous development work, design work, production of sub-assemblies and the assembly of modules, inspection and assembly, static trials, and commercial planting are examined. Further machine developments, proving trials, and recommendations for further work are discussed. Appendices address relationships applicable to vertical planting, the Turton short rotation cultivation machine rod format, estimated prices and charges, and a list of main suppliers. (UK)

  18. Tree-rings mirror management legacy: dramatic response of standard oaks to past coppicing in Central Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Altman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coppicing was one of the most important forest management systems in Europe documented in prehistory as well as in the Middle Ages. However, coppicing was gradually abandoned by the mid-20(th century, which has altered the ecosystem structure, diversity and function of coppice woods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our aim was to disentangle factors shaping the historical growth dynamics of oak standards (i.e. mature trees growing through several coppice cycles in a former coppice-with-standards in Central Europe. Specifically, we tried to detect historical coppicing events from tree-rings of oak standards, to link coppicing events with the recruitment of mature oaks, and to determine the effects of neighbouring trees on the stem increment of oak standards. Large peaks in radial growth found for the periods 1895-1899 and 1935-1939 matched with historical records of coppice harvests. After coppicing, the number of newly recruited oak standards markedly grew in comparison with the preceding or following periods. The last significant recruitment of oak standards was after the 1930s following the last regular coppicing event. The diameter increment of oak standards from 1953 to 2003 was negatively correlated with competition indices, suggesting that neighbouring trees (mainly resprouting coppiced Tilia platyphyllos partly suppressed the growth of oak standards. Our results showed that improved light conditions following historical coppicing events caused significant increase in pulses of radial growth and most probably maintained oak recruitment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our historical perspective carries important implications for oak management in Central Europe and elsewhere. Relatively intense cutting creating open canopy woodlands, either as in the coppicing system or in the form of selective cutting, is needed to achieve significant radial growth in mature oaks. It is also critical for the successful regeneration and long

  19. The Characteristics of Fibres within Coppiced and Non-Coppiced Rosewood (Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. and their Aptness for Wood - and Paper - Based Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick ANTHONIO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rosewood (Pterocarpus erinaceus is highly priced for furniture, flooring and cabinetry for its rich hue and durability. Its coppiced wood augments the timber for regular supply and sustainable utilization. Fibre morphology from macerated slivers within its coppiced and non-coppiced stems and their utilization potential were assessed. Derived ratios for the fibres were also calculated. The axial positions (butt, middle, crown affected the fibre dimensions. Fibre length was greater for coppiced trees [i.e., 1663±11, 1488±5, 1511±10µm (for sapwood and 1498±10, 1486±9, 1394±4µm (for heartwood] than the non-coppiced [i.e., 1240±7, 1013±5, 1137±5µm (sapwood and 1094±8, 1002±2, 1041±9µm (heartwood]. In all, those for sapwoods were greater than heartwoods’. Significant differences (P˂0.05 existed between fibre lengths from the coppiced (1394±4-1663±11µm and non-coppiced trees (1002±2-1240±7µm. Fibre diameters for coppiced sapwood and heartwood were 23±1, 20±1, 22±0.8µm and 21.5±0.3, 20.7±0.5, 21.3±2µm and noncoppiced recorded 21±0.6, 20.7±0.3, 20.6±0.1µm and 21±0, 21±0.4, 21±0.8µm respectively. Their respective double wall thicknesses were 8.4±0.2, 7.2±0.2, 9.4±1µm and 8.2±0.2, 9±0.3, 9.1±0.4µm for coppiced wood, and 9.1±1, 7.8±0.1, 8.1±0.3µm and 8.5±0.3, 8±0.4, 8±1 for non-coppiced. Thus, radial stem position also influenced fibre morphology. The fibre indices [i.e., Runkel Ratio, Slenderness Ratio and Flexibility Coefficient for coppiced wood (0.6±0.06-0.85±0.06, 68±4-77±6, 56±4-64±2 respectively and non-coppiced (0.64±0.12-0.8±0, 49±1-58±4, 57±3-62±2 respectively] indicate the timber’s aptness for pulp and paper. Besides, the Wood Industry could exploit the fibre characteristics of coppiced wood also for engineering of fibre-based products and structural applications.

  20. Growth of teak regenerated by coppice and stump planting in Mae Moh Plantation, Lampang province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatta Auykim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The current annual increment (CAIdbh and the mean annual increment (MAIdbh both for the diameter at breast height (1.3 m were investigated to compare the differences between coppice and stump-planted teak in Mae Moh Plantation. Forty-eight sample cores were collected from a 9 yr-old teak plantation using an increment borer; annual increments were analyzed using dendrochronological techniques. The results indicated that there was no significant (p > 0.05 difference in the average diameter at breast height (DBH between the coppice and stump-planted teak, whereas the total height of stump planting was significantly greater than that of coppice teak. The CAIdbh of coppice teak was in the range 0.316–2.371 cm and continuously decreased throughout the 9 yr period. The CAIdbh of stump planting was in the range 0.162–1.982 cm and continuously increased from the beginning of growth for 5 yr followed by a decline thereafter for 4 yr. The CAIdbh of coppice showed rapid growth in the years 1–4 and was greater than for the stump-planted teak even in years 5–8 after planting; however, the growth of the stump-planted teak in the ninth year was higher than for the coppice. The MAIdbh values of coppice and stump-planted teak were not significantly (p > 0.05 different. The results showed that CAIdbh at age 5 yr can be used as a silvicultural guide to increase the yield of teak coppice.

  1. Short rotation coppice for energy production: hydrological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.L.

    2003-07-01

    This report provides hydrological guidelines for growers, land and water resource managers, environmental groups and other parties interested in utilising short rotation coppice (SRC) for energy production. The aim of the report is to help interested parties decide if a location is suitable for SRC planting by considering whether potential hydrological impacts will have an adverse effect on crop productivity and yield. The guidelines consider: the water use of SRC compared with other crops; the factors governing water use; the water requirements for a productive crop; and the likely impacts on the availability and quantity of water. The report points out that there are still gaps in our knowledge of the processes controlling the water use and growth of SRC and notes that, in some situations, there will be considerable uncertainty in predictions.

  2. Effect of coppicing height on the regeneration and productivity of certain firewood shrubs in alkaline soils of north Indian plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, P.N.; Tewari, S.K.; Singh, Dheer; Katiyar, R.S. [National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India)

    1995-12-31

    Four shrubs, viz. Hibiscus tiliaceus, Leucaena leucocephala, Vitex negundo and Sesbania sesban, were evaluated for their performance as firewood crops in coppiced stands of varying cutting heights (15, 30 and 45 cm) in repeated annual harvests (4) on alkaline soils of the North Indian plains. The dry wood yield of Leucaena and Sesbania ranged between 22.9-42.6 and 9.9-18.0 tonnes ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}, respectively. Leucaena showed progressive increases in yield from coppiced stumps up to the 4th harvest while Sesbania showed a reduction after the third harvest mainly due to the high degeneration (60%) of coppiced stumps. Degeneration was low (< 10%) in Leucaena and Vitex. The coppicing heights generally did not show any significant effect on the growth and productivity. The number of coppice shoots per stump increased with stump height and production of coppice shoots was maximum in Vitex and minimum in Leucaena. The average diameter of coppice shoots tended to decrease with increasing coppicing height of the stumps. (author)

  3. Quality Testing of Short Rotation Coppice Willow Cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Heinsoo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The production and feasibility of Short Rotation Coppice depend on cutting early performance. The shoot and root biomass production of Salix cuttings in hydroponic conditions was studied. The amount of sprouted biomass after four weeks of growth depended on cutting the diameter, but the original position of the cutting along the rod or number of visible buds was not in correlation with biomass produced. Application of mineral fertilizer or soil originating from the willow plantation did not increase the total production. On the contrary, the addition of soil tended to decrease biomass production and we assumed this was a result of a shortage of light. Under the influence of fertilization, plants allocated greater biomass to roots. Comparison of different clones revealed that those with S. dasyclados genes tended to allocate less biomass to roots and the poorest-performing clone in our experiment, also had the lowest wood production in the plantation. The number of visible buds on the cutting was also clone-specific.

  4. Establishment and monitoring of large scale trials of short rotation coppice for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, C.; Stevens, E.A.; Watters, M.P.

    1998-09-01

    The overall objective of the trials was to obtain information on costs, logistics, productivity and biology of short rotation coppice crops in order to evaluate their potential for producing wood for fuel. More specifically, the objectives of the final and most recent phase of the research work were: the continuing management and monitoring of the coppice trial sites established during phases 1 and 2 of the project; to provide technical and economic data on the management and maintenance of the continuing coppice trail sites; to identify appropriate methods for stool removal and land reclamation and provide technical and economic data on those operations; and to undertake yield assessment at the remaining sites using appropriate methods of yield estimation. (author)

  5. The influence of micropropagation on growth and coppicing ability of Eucalyptus polybractea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodger, Jason Q D; Woodrow, Ian E

    2010-02-01

    A micropropagation protocol was recently developed for Eucalyptus polybractea R.T. Baker, a commercially important eucalypt grown in short-rotation coppice cultivation and harvested for its foliar 1,8-cineole oil. Micropropagation of elite E. polybractea trees has resulted in selection gains for foliar oil traits, but decreased above-ground biomass accumulation has been observed in clones compared to related half-sibling families. This study aims to use a greenhouse study to investigate if micropropagation induces somaclonal variation that can account for the reduction in above-ground biomass in E. polybractea clones. Secondly, the study aims to compare the coppicing ability of micropropagated clones with related half-sibling seedlings using de-topped plantation-grown saplings. The results of the greenhouse study suggest that micropropagation of E. polybractea induces somaclonal variation that manifests in more mature leaf morphologies such as increased foliar oil concentrations and lower specific leaf area (SLA), attributable to an isobilateral arrangement of increased palisade mesophyll layers. Lower SLA, rather than differences in root allocation, is likely to be a key contributor to the lower relative growth rates observed in early sapling growth of micropropagated clones. In the field study, all micropropagated and seedling-derived E. polybractea saplings coppiced vigorously in the 12 months after de-topping. The coppice growth was so vigorous in the 12 months after de-topping that total above-ground biomass equalled that of the 27-month-old saplings, irrespective of propagation source. The morphological distinction between leaves of micropropagated and seed-derived plants was no longer evident in the coppice regrowth. The results presented here suggest that the micropropagated leaf morphology and the resultant growth reduction is transient and micropropagated plants coppice just as vigorously as seed-derived plants. Therefore, micropropagation is unlikely to

  6. An evaluation of herbicides for post-emergence use in short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D.J.

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the project was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a range of herbicides and mixtures of herbicides, with both contact and residual activity, for the post-emergence control of weeds in newly planted willow short rotation coppice (SRC). This report provides growers and advisers of short rotation coppice with important (but still limited) information on how to achieve improved weed control of problem weeds increasingly prevalent in SRC fields. This may provide guidance towards often-essential emergency treatments when the crop establishment is under considerable pressure and the potential safety, or otherwise, of certain weed-specific herbicides. (author)

  7. Sensitivity of short rotation poplar coppice biomass productivity to the throughfall reduction Estimating future drought impacts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orság, Matěj; Fischer, Milan; Tripathi, Abishek; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 109 (2018), s. 182-189 ISSN 0961-9534 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : water -use * energy * stand * systems * dominance * density * l. * Dominance * Drought * Mortality * Productivity * Short-rotation coppice * Throughfall manipulation Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection Impact factor: 3.219, year: 2016

  8. Responses in young Quercus petraea: coppices and standards under favourable and drought conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojanović, Marko; Čater, M.; Pokorný, Radek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 76, jan (2016), s. 127-136 ISSN 1641-1307 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : coppice * standards * comparison * photosynthetic response * quantum yield * light conditions * drought response Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2016

  9. Coppicing systems as a way of understanding patterns in forest vegetation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hédl, Radim; Ewald, J.; Bernhardt-Römermann, M.; Kirkby, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-3 ISSN 1211-9520 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : traditional coppices * vegetation dynamics * ecological restoration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  10. Short-rotation coppicing in France. Current state of research and prospects for future development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonduelle, P. (Association Foret Cellulose, Trelaze (France)); Bouvarel, L. (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Olivet (France). Unite Experimentale Biomasse, Forestiere et Foret Paysanne); Petit, H. (Association pour la Rationalisation et la Mecanisation de l' Exploitation Forestiere, Fontainebleau (France)); Pierson, J. (Cellulose des Ardennes, Montemedy (France)); Savanne, D. (Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, 75 - Paris (France)); Sourie, J.C. (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Grignon (France). Station d' Economie et de Sociologie Rurales)

    1992-01-01

    This article analyzes the current context and the prospects for crop development as well as offering a number of examples of short rotation coppicing projects. The industrial outlets created through state aid remain the primary driving force behind plantations at this time. (author)

  11. Intensive game keeping, coppicing and butterflies: The story of Milovicky Wood, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, Jiří; Čížek, Oldřich; Dovala, J.; Konvička, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 237, 1-3 (2006), s. 353-365 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/04/0417 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterfly conservation * Central Europe * coppice management Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.839, year: 2006

  12. Comparison of growth response to thinning in oak forests managed as coppice with standards and high forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, S.; Hasenauer, H.; Pietsch, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    The BIOME-BGC model integrates the main physical, biological and physiological processes based on current understanding of ecophysiology to assess forest ecosystem dynamics. This study evaluates the application of the model to assess the thinning effects on coppiced oak forests in Austria. We analyze the growth response, i.e. growth efficiency (GE), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), water use efficiency (WUE) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) of oak forests to thinning. The results of coppice with standards and high forests simulations are analysed for differences in simulated growth response after thinning. The forest field data of the year 2006 and the respective model runs are used to evaluate model application. Strong positive relationship (r2 = 0.90) with unbiased results and statistically insignificant differences between predicted and observed volume allows the use of the model as a diagnostic tool to assess management effects. Results indicate that the coppice with standards exhibits a significantly higher yield by 2.97% (i.e. 10 cubic meters per hectare in one rotation), a higher harvest (49.9%) but a lower growing stock (19.69%) than the high forests. The higher growing stock and the lower extraction in the high forests confirm that the high forest sequestrates significantly more carbon than the coppice with standards. Results show that thinning leads to an increase in the GE, the NUE and the WUE, and to a decrease in the RUE. Although the coppice with standards forest ecosystem exhibits higher values in all studied growth parameters, only the difference in the NUE was statistically significant. This verifies that the difference in the yield between the coppice with standards and the high forests is mainly governed by the NUE difference in stands after thinning. The coppice with standards system produces an equal amount of net primary production while consuming significantly less nitrogen (16%) compared to the high forest system. In the coppice with

  13. The silviculture, nutrition and economics of short rotation willow coppice in the uplands of mid-Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R J; Randerson, P F; Slater, F M

    2000-07-01

    The potential of short rotation coppice as a biomass crop on land over 250m (the uplands) of mid Wales was studied. The results found in this study indicate that growing short rotation coppice willow in the uplands is a viable proposition with regard to establishment success and yields. In the event of a secure wood chip market in Wales, returns to the grower would be comparable to those from sheep production. (author)

  14. An identification of potential new herbicides for short rotation coppice (Task 4). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project to identify potential new herbicides and their suitability for weed control in commercial short rotation coppice (SRC) crops, and to establish the safety of the crops. The arrangements for the use of 'off-label' pesticides, which are permitted for use on other crops, on SRC are discussed along with the importance of the use of laboratory pot trials and field trials. Several herbicides are proposed for larger scale field trials.

  15. Short rotation coppice as a business field of an energy utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, T. (RWE Innogy Cogen GmbH, Dortmund (Germany))

    2010-07-01

    Companies that start planting short rotation coppice (SRC), enter a new territory. In fact, this subject is often discussed, but there is - at least in Germany - still comparatively little practical knowledge on that. Since ca. 1 year, RWE Innogy Cogen is doing pioneer work here and starts establishing SRC in Germany and Europe. Therefore, first results and experiences, as well as consequences for practice shall be presented and discussed in this article. (orig.)

  16. Growing short rotation coppice on agricultural land in Germany: A Real Options Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musshoff, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    In many cases decision-makers apparently do not adapt as fast as expected to changing economic conditions. This is also the case for the conversion of farm land to short rotation coppice. From an economic point of view, short rotation coppice has become more interesting in the last few years. Nevertheless, farm land still is rarely used to grow this quite unknown crop. Several explanatory approaches (e.g., traditionalistic behavior and risk aversion) are currently discussed in order to explain this behavior. A relatively new explanatory approach is the Real Options Approach. The Real Options Approach uses a comprehensive dynamic-stochastic model that combines the uncertainty of investment returns, the sunk costs, and the temporal flexibility of the investment implementation. The quintessence of the Real Options Approach is that—compared to the Classical Investment Theory—the investment triggers will be shifted upwards if investments involve intertemporal opportunity costs. This paper develops a real options model which allows the determination of triggers on the basis of realistic assumptions. We examined when farmers, who only dispose of sandy soils with little water-storing capacity, should convert set-aside land to short rotation coppice. The results show that farmers should not convert until the present value of the investment returns exceeds the investment costs considerably. Thus, they confirm the empirically observed reluctance in conversion. Furthermore, it turned out that the magnitude of the difference between the Classical Investment Theory and the Real Options Approach depends heavily on the type of stochastic process that underlies the investment returns. -- Highlights: ► Frequently observed reluctance of farmers to convert to short rotation coppice. ► Risk neutral farmers should convert if the investment multiple exceeds 1.57. ► The Real Options Approach is an explanatory approach for this observation. ► Results depend very much on the

  17. Economic analysis of replacement regeneration and coppice regeneration in eucalyptus stands under risk conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Carolina de Lima Guedes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Projects are by their very nature subject to conditions of uncertainty that obstruct the decision-making process. Uncertainties involving forestry projects are even greater, as they are combined with time of return on capital invested, being medium to long term. For successful forest planning, it is necessary to quantify uncertainties by converting them into risks. The decision on whether to adopt replacement regeneration or coppice regeneration in a forest stand is influenced by several factors, which include land availability for new forest crops, changes in project end use, oscillations in demand and technological advancement. This study analyzed the economic feasibility of replacement regeneration and coppice regeneration of eucalyptus stands, under deterministic and under risk conditions. Information was gathered about costs and revenues for charcoal production in order to structure the cash flow used in the economic analysis, adopting the Net Present Value method (VPL. Risk assessment was based on simulations running the Monte Carlo method. Results led to the following conclusions: replacement regeneration is economically viable, even if the future stand has the same productivity as the original stand; coppice regeneration is an economically viable option even if productivity is a mere 70% of the original stand (high-tree planted stand, the best risk-return ratio option is restocking the stand (replacement regeneration by one that is 20% more productive; the probabilistic analysis running the Monte Carlo method revealed that invariably there is economic viability for the various replacement and coppice regeneration options being studied, minimizing uncertainties and consequently increasing confidence in decision-making.

  18. Habitat requirements of endangered species in a former coppice of high conservation value

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roleček, Jan; Vild, Ondřej; Sladký, J.; Řepka, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2017), s. 59-69 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : abandoned coppice * environmental requirements * red-list species Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  19. Patterns of functional diversity of two trophic groups after canopy thinning in an abandoned coppice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šipoš, Jan; Hédl, Radim; Hula, V.; Chudomelová, Markéta; Košulič, O.; Niedobová, J.; Riedl, Vladan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2017), s. 45-58 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : coppice restoration * functional diversity * trophic groups Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  20. Dynamics of herbaceous vegetation during four years of experimental coppice introduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hédl, Radim; Šipoš, Jan; Chudomelová, Markéta; Utinek, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2017), s. 83-99 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodiversity * ecological restoration * coppice-with-standards Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  1. Distribution of organic matter and plant nutrients in a sal (shorea robusta) coppice plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, O.N.; Sharma, D.C.; Srivastava, P.B.L.

    The biomass and nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) of leaves, twigs, branches, stems and bark were determined for sample trees in a stand in the New Forest, Dehra Dun, coppiced 21 years previously. It was estimated that the removal of stems, branches and bark by harvesting at this age would remove 82-91% of the total nutrients (kg/ha) in the stand.

  2. Life-cycle assessment of eucalyptus short-rotation coppices for bioenergy production in Southern France

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle , Benoit; Nguyen The , Nicolas; Maupu , Pauline; Vial , Estelle

    2011-01-01

    Short rotation coppices (SRCs) are considered prime candidates for biomass production, yielding good-quality feedstock that is easy to harvest. Besides technical, social and economical aspects, environmental issues are important to take into account when developing SRCs. Here, we evaluated the environmental impacts of delivering 1 GJ of heat from eucalyptus SRC using life cycle assessment (LCA), based on management scenarios involving different rotations lengths, fertilizer input rates, stem ...

  3. Forecasting tree growth in coppiced and high forests in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojanović, Marko; Sánchez-Salguero, R.; Levanič, T.; Szatniewska, Justyna; Pokorný, Radek; Linares, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 405, DEC (2017), s. 56-68 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : coppice * high forest * senssile oak * dendroecology * basal area increment * climate change * emission scenarios Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 3.064, year: 2016

  4. Post-cultural stand dynamics in an abandoned chestnut coppice at its ecological border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the be­ginning of the last century, chestnut has played an important role as staple food and primary wood source. In many cases it was cultivated at the border of its ecological limits where it was planted by man in place of the original and more site-adapted tree species. However, with the abandonment of the rural activities, ma­nagement of chestnut forests was progressively left starting from more marginal areas, usually occupied by coppice stands. After the interruption of the traditional coppice management system (usual rotation periods of 10-25 years, natural intra- and interspecific competition dynamics have become the driving force of the stand evolution. This may lead to dramatic changes in both structure and species composition of the stands. The aim of this study is to analyse the post-cultural evolution of an abandoned chestnut coppice in the Pesio Valley (Piedmont, Italy in order to highlight the competition among different "basic silvi­cultural components" of the forest using a dendroecological approach. The "basic silvicultural components" are intended as the elements defined as groups of trees of the stand that have similar features such as silvi­culturally relevant attributes: species (chestnut, beech, fir, origin (seed, sprout and cultural age and function (standard/reserve, maiden, shoot, regeneration, dead tree. The mean growth curves of the compo­nents show the different fitness of each category. From a general point of view, the beech and fir components show a better competitive potential in comparison with chestnut. Among chestnut components, maidens from seeds reveal a better growth trend compared to coppice shoots and standards.

  5. Experimental restoration of coppice-with-standards: Response of understorey vegetation from the conservation perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vild, Ondřej; Roleček, Jan; Hédl, Radim; Kopecký, Martin; Utinek, Dušan

    2013-12-15

    A substantial part of European lowland woodlands was managed as coppices or wood pastures for millennia. However, traditional management forms were almost completely abandoned in Central Europe by the middle of the 20th century. Combined with the effects of nitrogen deposition and herbivore pressure, shifts in management resulted in biodiversity loss affecting particularly light-demanding oligotrophic plant species. Experimental thinning was applied in a former oak coppice-with-standards in an attempt to restore vanishing understorey plant communities. Two levels of thinning intensity and zero management as control were used on 90 plots. Ten years after the treatment, significant changes in species composition and diversity were observed in heavily thinned plots, while moderate thinning had mostly insignificant effects. Light-demanding oligotrophic species significantly increased, indicating positive consequences of restoration. However, heavy thinning also brought about the expansion of native ruderal species. Alien species remained unchanged. We conclude that the restoration of coppice-with-standards can be an efficient tool to support vanishing light-demanding woodland species. Combined with biodiversity benefits, the increasing demand for biofuel may contribute to the renaissance of traditional management forms in forestry.

  6. Conversion trials in mixed coppices of Gargano (Puglia, Italy: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Six plots have been drawn in an mixed aged coppice stand, 40 years after last coppicing; they represent a typical expression of Doronico-Carpinetum phytosociological association and they are characteristic of many woods of Gargano’s territory, composed by Quercus cerris L. (turkey oak, Quercus pubescens Willd. (downy oak, Acer opalus Mill. (italian maple, Carpinus betulus L. (european hornbeam, Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. (hop hornbeam. Compared treatments are: natural evolution of the coppice without thinning versus two thinning regimes with different intensity, both aimed to convert the stands into high forests. 1200 and 1600 stems per hectare were released in the conversion plots. Plots, control and treated in 2001, have been measured before and immediately after thinning and remeasured five years later. At the present time, stands are characterized by a basically monolayered structure, in which turkey oak is prevalent in term of basal area. Moreover in thinned areas, losses on the released shoots number are unimportant both in absolute and in percent terms; in control plot, instead, competition by plants of upper storey on the dominated ones means high values of mortality.

  7. Effects of water and nutrient addition on the coppice growth response of cut Terminalia sericea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hloniphani Moyo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of a woody plant to coppice and remain vigorous largely depends on the severity of disturbances, resource availability and the mobilisation of stored reserves. There is limited information about the role played by resource limitation on the recovery of cut trees. This study investigated the effects of water and nutrient supplementation on coppice growth responses of resprouting cut trees in a semi-arid savannah in South Africa. Cut trees were exposed to different levels of water and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus supplementation over a period of 2 years in a factorial experimental design. We hypothesised that adding water and nutrients would result in an increased coppice growth response and replenishment of stored structural reserves. Adding water and nutrients significantly increased shoot diameter, shoot length and resprouting ratio for the initial 12 months after cutting but not stored structural reserves. Such a response pattern suggests that the initial growth of resprouting shoots may be strongly resource-limited, while resources are concentrated on supporting fewer resprouting shoots compared to a higher number. Conservation implications: If practicing rotational tree harvesting, trees resprouting in resource-poor locations need a longer resting period to recover stored reserves and to also recover lost height after cutting.

  8. Carbon Stocks of Fine Woody Debris in Coppice Oak Forests at Different Development Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Makineci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dead woody debris is a significant component of the carbon cycle in forest ecosystems. This study was conducted in coppice-originated oak forests to determine carbon stocks of dead woody debris in addition to carbon stocks of different ecosystem compartments from the same area and forests which were formerly elucidated. Weight and carbon stocks of woody debris were determined with recent samplings and compared among development stages (diameter at breast height (DBH, D1.3m, namely small-diameter forests (SDF = 0–8 cm, medium diameter forests (MDF = 8–20 cm, and large-diameter forests (LDF = 20–36 cm. Total woody debris was collected in samplings; as bilateral diameters of all woody debris parts were less than 10 cm, all woody parts were in the “fine woody debris (FWD” class. The carbon concentrations of FWD were about 48% for all stages. Mass (0.78–4.92 Mg·ha−1 and carbon stocks (0.38–2.39 Mg·ha−1 of FWD were significantly (p > 0.05 different among development stages. FWD carbon stocks were observed to have significant correlation with D1.3m, age, basal area, and carbon stocks of aboveground biomass (Spearman rank correlation coefficients; 0.757, 0.735, 0.709, and 0.694, respectively. The most important effects on carbon budgets of fine woody debris were determined to be coppice management and intensive utilization. Also, national forestry management, treatments of traditional former coppice, and conversion to high forest were emphasized as having substantial effects.

  9. Forest operations in coppice: Environmental assessment of two different logging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, Andrea; Marchi, Enrico; González-García, Sara

    2016-08-15

    Wood is a renewable resource and it actively contributes to enhance energy production under a sustainable perspective. However, harvesting, transport and use of wood imply several consequences and impacts on environment. There are different ways for managing forests dedicated to wood production and a sustainable approach is fundamental to preserve the resource. In this context, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a useful tool for estimating the environmental impacts related to renewable resources. Traditional coppice is a common approach for forest management in several areas, including southern Europe and, specifically, Italy, Spain and the Balkans. Due to different terrain conditions, different types of forest operations are considered for wood extraction from coppices, where the main product is firewood used in domestic heating. The aim of this work was to compare the main common systems for firewood production in two different terrain conditions ('flat/low steep' and 'steep/very steep' terrains), in a representative environment for Mediterranean area, located in central Italy, by means of LCA. Seven different impact categories were evaluated in a cradle-to-gate perspective taking into account all the operations carried out from the trees felling to the firewood storage at factory. Results showed that the extraction phase was the most important in terms of environmental burdens in firewood production and the use of heavy and high-power machines negatively influenced the emissions compared with manual operations. Finally, considering the general low-inputs involved in wood production in coppice, the transport of workers by car to the work site resulted on consistent contributions into environmental burdens. An additional analysis about the modifications of CH4 and N2O exchanges between soil and atmosphere, due to soil compaction in the extraction phase, was made and based on bibliographic information. Results showed a sensible difference between disturbed and

  10. Impact of Canopy Openness on Spider Communities: Implications for Conservation Management of Formerly Coppiced Oak Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Košulič

    Full Text Available Traditional woodland management created a mosaic of differently aged patches providing favorable conditions for a variety of arthropods. After abandonment of historical ownership patterns and traditional management and the deliberate transformation to high forest after World War II, large forest areas became darker and more homogeneous. This had significant negative consequences for biodiversity. An important question is whether even small-scale habitat structures maintained by different levels of canopy openness in abandoned coppiced forest may constitute conditions suitable for forest as well as open habitat specialists. We investigated the effect of canopy openness in former traditionally coppiced woodlands on the species richness, functional diversity, activity density, conservation value, and degree of rareness of epigeic spiders. In each of the eight studied locations, 60-m-long transect was established consisting of five pitfall traps placed at regular 15 m intervals along the gradient. Spiders were collected from May to July 2012. We recorded 90 spider species, including high proportions of xeric specialists (40% and red-listed threatened species (26%. The peaks of conservation indicators, as well as spider community abundance, were shifted toward more open canopies. On the other hand, functional diversity peaked at more closed canopies followed by a rapid decrease with increasing canopy openness. Species richness was highest in the middle of the canopy openness gradient, suggesting an ecotone effect. Ordinations revealed that species of conservation concern tended to be associated with sparse and partly opened canopy. The results show that the various components of biodiversity peaked at different levels of canopy openness. Therefore, the restoration and suitable forest management of such conditions will retain important diversification of habitats in formerly coppiced oak forest stands. We indicate that permanent presence of small

  11. Energy budget and greenhouse gas balance evaluation of sustainable coppice systems for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettens, Suzanna; Muys, Bart; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Moons, Ellen; Garcia, Juan; Coppin, Pol

    2003-01-01

    The use of bio-energy crops for electricity production is considered an effective means to mitigate the greenhouse effect, mainly due to its ability to substitute fossil fuels. A whole range of crops qualify for bio-energy production and a rational choice is not readily made. This paper evaluates the energy and greenhouse gas balance of a mixed indigenous hardwood coppice as an extensive, low-input bio-energy crop. The impact on fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emission is calculated and discussed by comparing its life cycle (cultivation, processing and conversion into energy) with two conventional bio-energy crops (short rotation systems of willow and Miscanthus). For each life cycle process, the flows of fossil energy and greenhouse gas that are created for the production of one functional unit are calculated. The results show that low-input bio-energy crops use comparatively less fossil fuel and avoid more greenhouse gas emission per unit of produced energy than conventional bio-energy crops during the first 100 yr. Where the mixed coppice system avoids up till 0.13 t CO 2 eq./GJ, Miscanthus does not exceed 0.07 t CO 2 eq./GJ. After 100 yr their performances become comparable, amounting to 0.05 t CO 2 eq./ha/GJ. However, if the land surface itself is chosen as a functional unit, conventional crops perform better with respect to mitigating the greenhouse effect. Miscanthus avoids a maximum of 12.9 t CO 2 eq./ha/yr, while mixed coppice attains 9.5 t CO 2 eq./ha/yr at the most

  12. A further evaluation of herbicides for post-emergence use in short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D.J.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project evaluating the safety and efficiency of eleven herbicides for controlling weeds in newly plated willow short rotation coppices, and provides growers with information on post-emergence herbicide options, control of problem weeds, and emergency treatments. Weed germination, crop safety, and the encouraging results obtained using Reflex T and Impuls are discussed. It is suggested that a Technical Register of herbicide applications with contributions by growers and advisers should be considered by the British Biogen trade industry body.

  13. Short rotation coppice as a fuel: framework for a contractual infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study exploring the contractual interface between growers and suppliers of short rotation coppice fuels and power generators in England and Wales, France and Sweden. Reviews of the main contractual considerations in relation to growers and generators in the UK, and Swedish and UK studies are presented. Proposals for the contractual treatment in the UK of the issues raised by the studies are considered, and recommendations for the treatment of contractual and economic requirements prevailing in France and Sweden are given. Appendices contains model agreements. (UK)

  14. Enhancing the conservation value of short rotation biomass coppice. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sage, R.B.; Robertson, P.A.; Poulson, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    The game and conservation value of existing short rotation coppice plantations in Britain and Ireland has been assessed. Four main wild life groups were surveyed during appropriate periods in 1993. These were songbirds, butterflies, pheasants and ground flora. For each group the process of field data collection, analysis and interpretation is described, the results are summarized and briefly discussed. A final overall discussion of the results in terms of their general findings and how typical they may be for future, large-scale production plots is presented. Proposals are made regarding management techniques that could be used with future plantings to benefit the various wildlife groups. (50 figures, 19 tables, 30 references). (UK)

  15. Generalized allometric regression to estimate biomass of Populus in short-rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Brahim, Mohammed; Gavaland, Andre; Cabanettes, Alain [INRA Centre de Toulouse, Castanet-Tolosane Cedex (France). Unite Agroforesterie et Foret Paysanne

    2000-07-01

    Data from four different stands were combined to establish a single generalized allometric equation to estimate above-ground biomass of individual Populus trees grown on short-rotation coppice. The generalized model was performed using diameter at breast height, the mean diameter and the mean height of each site as dependent variables and then compared with the stand-specific regressions using F-test. Results showed that this single regression estimates tree biomass well at each stand and does not introduce bias with increasing diameter.

  16. Biomass yield and fuel characteristics of short-rotation coppice (willow, poplar, empress tree)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, J.; Vetter, R. [Institute for Land Management Compatible to Environmental Requirements, Muellheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In two pedo-climatic different regions in the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg three shortrotation coppices willow, poplar and empress tree were tested with regard to their biomass productivity on arable land and to their properties for energetic use. Between 8 and 13 tons of dry matter per hectare and year could be produced under extensive cultivation conditions, over 15 tons with irrigation. Due to their composition, it can be assumed that their use as solid fuel in a biomass combustor is just as unproblematic as with forest timber. (orig.)

  17. ARBRE monitoring - ecology of short rotation coppice plantations. Interim report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, T.J.; Sage, R.; Moore, N.; Robertson, P.; Aegerter, J.; Bishop, J.

    2001-07-01

    Short Rotation willow coppice (SRC) is a potential habitat for wildlife in the British countryside according to research reported in the late 1990s, but so far the trials have been on small plantations without reference to the land use it would supersede. This interim report, on a 4-year study which began in January 2000, discusses the commercial availability of SRC plantations and assesses what might be achievable by changing land usage. Work so far, conducted on indicator species (songbirds, ground flora, butterflies, insects), suggests that there are likely to be marked environmental benefits to be gained through SRC.

  18. Improving the water use efficiency of short rotation coppice (SRC) willows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, W.; Bonneau, L.; Groves, S.; Armstrong, A.; Lindegard, K.

    2003-07-01

    On the premise that biofuels will make a significant contribution to the UK's renewable energy sources by the year 2010, willow short rotation coppicing is being studied. The high water requirement of willow is seen as a potential problem in the drier regions of the UK and increasing the water use efficiency and/or draught resistance would extend the areas where willow coppicing would be profitable. The first part of the project was to investigate the water use of a number of near-market varieties of willow and evaluate techniques for early drought tolerance screening in a breeding program and for this, field studies were conducted. This report gives some very early results from the preliminary study. Since DTI funding ceased before the one-season study of the three-year program was complete, the results should be regarded as tentative only. The next phase of the program will be funded by DEFRA and will include efforts to identify how a range of high-yielding willows respond to water stress.

  19. Treatment of landfill leachate by irrigation of willow coppice - Plant response and treatment efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, Paer; Dahlin, Torleif; Dimitriou, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    Landfill leachates usually need to be treated before discharged, and using soil-plant systems for this has gained substantial interest in Sweden and in the UK. A three-year field study was conducted in central Sweden to quantify plant response, treatment efficiency and impact on groundwater quality of landfill leachate irrigation of short-rotation willow coppice (Salix). Two willow varieties were tested and four irrigation regimes in sixteen 400-m 2 plots. The willow plants did not react negatively, despite very high annual loads of nitrogen (≤2160 kg N/ha), chloride (≤8600 kg Cl/ha) and other elements. Mean annual growth was 1.5, 9.8 and 12.6 tonnes DM/ha during years 1-3. For one of two willow varieties tested, relative leaf length accurately predicted growth rate. Irrigation resulted in elevated groundwater concentrations of all elements applied. Treatment efficiency varied considerably for different elements, but was adequate when moderate loads were applied. - Short-rotation willow coppice was successfully used for treating a strong landfill leachate in central Sweden over three years.

  20. Impact of wild ungulates on coppices from the Bisenzio Valley (province of Prato, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi L

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other Apennine areas, a considerable increase of wild ungulate density has been observed in the past decades in the Bisenzio valley (province of Prato, leading to a strong impact on coppice regeneration. In some felling areas, the prolonged browsing on young suckers turned the stumps into low and dense bushes, thus threatening the survival of the forest stand and triggering a loss of environmental stability. The aim of this work was to study the impact of deer on sprout regeneration after cutting in mixed coppices felled in the period 2007-2010 and characterized by the dominance of chestnut, hornbeam, Turkey oak, and beech. Some 36 plots were established in four municipal districts of the Prato province (Cantagallo, Vernio, Montemurlo, Vaiano. Damage and browsing intensity on each stump were evaluated using an index that allowed the comparison among different areas and fores stand types. Regardless of the species, over 90% of the sprouts revealed a very strong damage, whereas only 6% did not exhibit any damage. A significant difference in the sprout height was detected between browsed and non-browsed areas. Despite a high incidence of damage in all the studied areas, chestnut showed a greater resilience against browsing. In summary, overgrazing by wild game may determine severe contraints to the evolutionary dynamics of forest stands, frustrating the effects of silvicultural practices. The possible benefits of the implementation of a large-scale integrated wildlife plan, including hunting and forest-evironmental management are discussed.

  1. Sensitivity of short rotation poplar coppice biomass productivity to the throughfall reduction – Estimating future drought impacts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orság, Matěj; Fischer, Milan; Tripathi, Abishek; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 109 (2018), s. 182-189 ISSN 0961-9534 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MZe(CZ) QJ1610072 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Dominance * Drought * Mortality * Productivity * Short-rotation coppice * Throughfall manipulation Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy Impact factor: 3.219, year: 2016

  2. Results from software based empirical models of and standing biomass for poplar and willow grown as short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, M.E.; Morgan, G.W.; Brewer, A.C. (Forest Research Biometrics, Surveys and Statistics Division, Forest Research, Wrecclesham (United Kingdom))

    2007-07-01

    Statistical analysis was used to create a model for estimating the quantity of biomass produced by crops of poplar and willow grown as short rotation coppice. This model was converted into a software system as described here. The software is currently available for scientific demonstration. (orig.)

  3. Natural flood retention in mountain areas by forests and forest like short rotation coppices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt-Imjela, Christian; Schulte, Achim; Hartwich, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Natural water retention is an important element of flood risk management in flood generating headwater areas in the low mountain ranges of Central Europe. In this context forests are of particular interest because of the high infiltration capacities of the soils and to increase water retention reforestation of agricultural land would be worthwhile. However competing claims for land use in intensely cultivated regions in Central Europe impede reforestation plans so the potential for a significant increase of natural water retention in forests is strongly limited. Nevertheless the development of innovative forms of land use and crop types opens new perspectives for a combination of agricultural land use with the water retention potential of forests. Recently the increasing demand for renewable energy resources leads to the cultivation of fast growing poplar and willow hybrids on agricultural land in short rotation coppices (SRC). Harvested in cycles of three to six years the wood from the plantations can be used as wood chips for heat and electricity production in specialized power plants. With short rotation plantations a crop type is established on arable land which is similar to forests so that an improvement of water retention can be expected. To what extend SRC may contribute to flood attenuation in headwater areas is investigated for the Chemnitzbach watershed (48 km2) in the Eastern Ore Mountains (Free State of Saxony, Germany), a low mountain range which is an important source of flood runoff in the Elbe basin. The study is based on a rainfall-runoff model of flood events using the conceptual modelling system NASIM. First results reveal a significant reduction of the flood peaks after the implementation of short rotation coppices. However the effect strongly depends on two factors. The first factor is the availability of areas for the plantations. For a substantial impact on the watershed scale large areas are required and with decreasing percentages of SRC

  4. Mechanical pre-planting weed control in short rotation coppice using deep forestry ploughing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report describes a trial by Border biofuels to investigate the deep forestry plough as a mechanical pre-planting weed control method to reduce weed infestations in willow coppice and thus contribute to improved establishment and eventual yield. The results suggest that there was a considerable increase in biomass productivity from the deep ploughed area compared to the conventionally cultivated area at all three SRC sites tested. This technique also suggests that the deep forestry ploughing provides the benefit of much reduced levels of seed germination of many annual weed species and a reduction in levels of perennial weed infestation. It is not possible at this stage to predict the longer term benefits in terms of harvestable biomass productivity but it may be considered that the improved establishment and lack of weed competition would consistently produce higher yields of biomass than plantations which suffer from persistent and invasive weed competition. (author)

  5. Growth and yield of mixed polyclonal stands of Populus in short-rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbrahim, Mohammed; Gavaland, Andre [INRA centre de Toulouse (France). Unite Agroforesterie et foret Paysanne; Gauvin, Jean [INRA centre d' Orleans (France). Unite d' Amelioration des arbres forestiers

    2000-07-01

    Eight clones of poplar were used to compare the growth and productivity of monoclonal and polyclonal mixed plantations in short-rotation coppice. At the end of the eight growing season, the diameter at breast height (DBH) and height of trees were measured and dry weight and yield were estimated. Polyclonal mixtures did not affect mortality. Few differences in growth were observed between clones in monoclonal plots. Polyclonal mixture slightly affected the growth and tree size of the clones compared with monoclonal plots. No increase in stand heterogeneity in relation to clone deployment was observed. A neighbourhood index was calculated for each tree and was significantly affected by polyclonal mixture. However, the relationship between the neighbourhood index and the DBH indicated that this effect did not cause a great change in DBH. Consequently, dry weight and yield productivity were not affected by clone deployment.

  6. Background CH4 and N2O fluxes in low-input short rotation coppice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Zenone, Terenzio; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2016-04-01

    Extensively managed short rotation coppice systems are characterized by low fluxes of CH4 and N2O. However due to the large global warming potential of these trace gases (GWP100: CH4: 34, N2O: 298), such background fluxes can still significantly contribute to offsetting the CO2 uptake of short rotation coppice systems. Recent technological advances in fast-response CH4 and N2O analysers have improved our capability to capture these background fluxes, but their quantification still remains a challenge. As an example, we present here CH4 and N2O fluxes from a short-rotation bioenergy plantation in Belgium. Poplars have been planted in a double-row system on a loamy sand in 2010 and coppiced in the beginning of 2012 and 2014 (two-year rotation system). In 2013 (June - November) and 2014 (April - August), the plantation's CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured in parallel with an eddy covariance tower (EC) and an automated chamber system (AC). The EC had a detection limit of 13.68 and 0.76 μmol m-2 h-1 for CH4 and N2O, respectively. The median detection limit of the AC was 0.38 and 0.08 μmol m-2 h-1 for CH4 and N2O, respectively. The EC picked up a few high CH4 emission events with daily averages >100 μmol m-2 h-1, but a large proportion of the measured fluxes were within the EC's detection limit. The same was true for the EC-derived N2O fluxes where the daily average flux was often close to the detection limit. Sporadically, some negative (uptake) fluxes of N2O were observed. On the basis of the EC data, no clear link was found between CH4 and N2O fluxes and environmental variables. The problem with fluxes within the EC detection limit is that a significant amount of the values can show the opposite sign, thus "mirroring" the true flux. Subsequently, environmental controls of background trace gas fluxes might be disguised in the analysis. As a next step, it will be tested if potential environmental drivers of background CH4 and N2O fluxes at the plantation can be

  7. Non-energy markets for small roundwood, forest residues and short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, G.

    1995-06-01

    Competition for roundwood is intense at the present time with prices ranging from approximately Pound 20 to Pound 51 per green tonne delivered at mill. The sawmilling industry produces nearly 2 million green tonnes of residues annually from converting British roundwood and about 85% of this is used by the panelboard and paperboard mills. The remaining 15%, comprising mostly bark, and some of the unpeeled chips are used as material for mulching, landscaping and horticultural use, play areas, paths and horse gallops, soil composting and soil conditioning. Wood shavings and sawdust is produced by joinery and milling firms from imported sawn timber and amounts to about 300,000 tonnes/annum. Approximately 70% of this is used for higher priced markets, bedding for horses, chicken and turkeys, cattle and other uses. The remaining 30% is used in the wood processing industry. An increasing volume of solid wood waste which previously went for landfill sites is now being recycled and this trend is expected to continue. Only a very small proportion of the forest residues (tree tops and branches) produced each year is utilised and most of this material is used as mulch for horticultural and landscape uses. Markets for material from traditional short rotation coppice are limited relative to potential production but work is underway to develop new markets. There are no established markets for recently planted non-traditional coppice of willow and poplar with potential for energy production. Trials organised by ETSU and the DTI have indicated the suitability of the material for chipboard production provided the bark percentage is not too high. (author)

  8. Non-energy markets for small roundwood, forest residues and short rotation coppice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, G.

    1995-01-01

    Competition for roundwood is intense at the present time with prices ranging from approximately Pound 20 to Pound 51 per green tonne delivered at mill. The sawmilling industry produces nearly 2 million green tonnes of residues annually from converting British roundwood and about 85% of this is used by the panelboard and paperboard mills. The remaining 15%, comprising mostly bark, and some of the unpeeled chips are used as material for mulching, landscaping and horticultural use, play areas, paths and horse gallops, soil composting and soil conditioning. Wood shavings and sawdust is produced by joinery and milling firms from imported sawn timber and amounts to about 300,000 tonnes/annum. Approximately 70% of this is used for higher priced markets, bedding for horses, chicken and turkeys, cattle and other uses. The remaining 30% is used in the wood processing industry. An increasing volume of solid wood waste which previously went for landfill sites is now being recycled and this trend is expected to continue. Only a very small proportion of the forest residues (tree tops and branches) produced each year is utilised and most of this material is used as mulch for horticultural and landscape uses. Markets for material from traditional short rotation coppice are limited relative to potential production but work is underway to develop new markets. There are no established markets for recently planted non-traditional coppice of willow and poplar with potential for energy production. Trials organised by ETSU and the DTI have indicated the suitability of the material for chipboard production provided the bark percentage is not too high. (author)

  9. Examination as to the classification of representative tree species at Satoyama coppice forest using multiwavelength range data observed from aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setojima, M.; Imai, Y.; Funahashi, M.; Kawai, M.; Katsuki, T.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examined the possibility of classifying representative tree species at Satoyama coppice forest based on spectral reflectance of the tree species. We used the airborne hyperspectral data observed in exhibition leaf stage at the test forest (about 3.4ha) in Tama Forest Science Garden (Hachioji, Tokyo) , where the forest type similar to that of Satoyama is preserved. The classification accuracy was verified by comparing the results of interpretation of color aerial photographs taken in spring and autumn in chronological order and the field survey. As a result, the 534-556 nm (band 6 and band 7) in the visible range and 739-762 nm (band 15 and band 16), 785nm (band 17) in the near infrared range are effective bands for classification of the species of such trees as Castanopsis sieboldii, Quercus glauca, Zelkova serrata, Quercus serrata, Cryptomeria japonica, and Chamaecyparis obutusa, which are representative trees in Satoyama coppice forest in Tama district

  10. Tree-Rings Mirror Management Legacy: Dramatic Response of Standard Oaks to Past Coppicing in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Altman, Jan; Hédl, Radim; Szabó, Péter; Mazůrek, Petr; Riedl, Vladan; Müllerová, Jana; Kopecký, Martin; Doležal, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2013), e55770 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/1952; GA AV ČR IAA600050812; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : tree-rings * coppicing * competition Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  11. Firewood yield and profitability of a traditional Daniellia oliveri short-rotation coppice on fallow lands in Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avohou, T. Hermane; Houehounha, Remy; Glele-Kakai, Romain; Assogbadjo, Achille Ephrem; Sinsin, Brice

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has a great diversity of local coppicing species which are exploited in traditional short coppice systems for firewood. Biomass yield and profitability of these systems as well as their responses to silvicultural improvement are little known. This study evaluated the firewood yield and the profitability of a traditional Daniellia oliveri short-rotation coppice on fallow lands in central Benin. Two weed management options were considered: (1) the weedy option, usually practiced by locals, which experienced grass competition and bushfires, and (2) the weed-free option, which consisted in periodic removal of grasses and other species. Destructive measurements and allometric equations were used to estimate biomass yield in 12 plots over 42 months. A cost-benefit analysis model based on the net present value and the benefit-cost ratio was used to compare the profitability of the two management options. Biomass accumulation rate averaged 1.08 ± 0.20 tonnes of dry matter ha -1 year -1 (t DM ha -1 year -1 ) in weedy conditions. Weed removal improved 3.5 times this rate in weed-free plots (3.83 ± 0.47 t DM ha -1 year -1 ). After 42 months, total biomass reached 3.67 ± 0.65 t DM ha -1 in weedy plots and 11.63 ± 0.76 t DM ha -1 in weed-free plots. Most of the biomass (≥88%) was marketable in local markets. Coppice exploitation was profitable after 24 months for both management options. Weed removal improved the profits three times. A sensitivity analysis showed that both options were still profitable with up to 25% increase of labour and transport costs, 25% decrease of biomass price and 12% increase of the discount rate. (author)

  12. Potential of poplar short rotation coppice cultivation for bioenergy in Southern Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Sandrina; Costa, Mário; Graça Carvalho, Maria da; Rodrigues, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaluation of the potential of poplar coppice cultivation for bioenergy. • Biomass costs from 76.9 to 120.5 Euro/ton and net energy from 34.7 to 75.4 PJ. • Biomass co-firing in power plants reduces CO_2 emissions between 8.2% and 16.5%. • A scenario of CO_2 allowances trading can turn the project financially viable. - Abstract: This manuscript examines the potential of poplar short rotation coppice cultivation for bioenergy in the Alentejo region, Southern Portugal. The biomass is intended to fulfil, at least, 10% (energy basis) of the fuel needs of two Portuguese coal-fired power plants (Sines and Pego), using co-firing technology. The study considers the overall production chain from cradle to power plant gate, cultivated in scrubland areas with duration of 12 years, harvested every three years and with 6667 plants per ha, covering a land area of about 52,250 ha. Three different biomass annual yields are assumed. The results show that the biomass selling prices range from 76.9 to 120.5 Euro ton"−"1, to match the production costs. The net energy of the overall project ranges from 34.7 to 75.4 PJ and the project cost from 619 to 823.9 MEuro. The main environmental impact of the project is the reduction of the CO_2 emissions due to the biomass co-firing, instead of burning coal alone. The power plants can reduce CO_2 emissions over the project lifetime between 8.2% and 16.5% of the current values. The financial analysis demonstrates that the project is not financially feasible without external grants, but a policy scenario of carbon allowances trading may be instrumental on turning it financially feasible, depending on allowances and coal market prices. Finally, with a reduction of 50% in the main costs, the project becomes financially feasible under a CO_2 emissions trading scenario for a biomass yield of 20 dry ton ha"−"1 per year.

  13. Annual variations in the solar energy conversion efficiency in a willow coppice stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha-Sannervik, A.; Kowalik, P.

    2003-01-01

    Productivity of an experimental willow coppice forest located at Uppsala, Sweden, was monitored between 1985 and 1994. The 2.7 ha stand was planted in 1984 with a density of 20 000 cuttings per ha and was harvested three times. During the monitored period, the annual stem wood production and the cumulated values of total solar radiation during the growing season, were measured. The conversion of incoming solar radiation into stem biomass was evaluated and the results show that the solar energy conversion efficiency (ECE), for the first and fourth year of the cutting cycle, is, on average, 64% of the ECE for the second and third year of the cutting cycle. It is discussed that the low ECE of 1-year-old shoots is related to a delay in leaf canopy development at the beginning of the growing season and lack of weed control after harvest. For the 4-years-old shoots, the low ECE, is believed to be related to the increased shoot and stool mortality caused by the self-thinning process ongoing in the willow stand. It is recommended that the harvesting interval should be based on the specific development of the stand and more attention should be paid to weed control, especially in the first growing season after harvest

  14. A further evaluation of herbicides for post-emergence use in short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D.J.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes a study of the safety and efficacy of a range of herbicides and mixtures of herbicides (with both contact and residual activity) for the post-emergence control of weeds in newly planted willow short rotation coppice (SRC). Severe competition from weeds that have not been controlled adequately by pre-emergence herbicide application is one of the commonest causes of SRC crop failure. In the study, the effects of 11 herbicide treatments currently recommendation for weed control with cereals, legumes or potatoes were compared with an untreated control. There was minimal crop death from any treatment, though most of the treatments caused varying degrees of phytotoxicity. Two commercial products, Reflex T and Impuls, gave the best overall crop safety and weed control results. The report provides growers of SRC and their advisors with some information on how to achieve improved weed control in SRC fields, and recommends that British Biogen (the trade industry body) should consider the compilation of a technical register of herbicide applications based on information supplied by growers and advisers, including field treatment details.

  15. Response surface methodology to simplify calculation of wood energy potency from tropical short rotation coppice species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqiqi, M. T.; Yuliansyah; Suwinarti, W.; Amirta, R.

    2018-04-01

    Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) system is an option to provide renewable and sustainable feedstock in generating electricity for rural area. Here in this study, we focussed on application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to simplify calculation protocols to point out wood chip production and energy potency from some tropical SRC species identified as Bauhinia purpurea, Bridelia tomentosa, Calliandra calothyrsus, Fagraea racemosa, Gliricidia sepium, Melastoma malabathricum, Piper aduncum, Vernonia amygdalina, Vernonia arborea and Vitex pinnata. The result showed that the highest calorific value was obtained from V. pinnata wood (19.97 MJ kg-1) due to its high lignin content (29.84 %, w/w). Our findings also indicated that the use of RSM for estimating energy-electricity of SRC wood had significant term regarding to the quadratic model (R2 = 0.953), whereas the solid-chip ratio prediction was accurate (R2 = 1.000). In the near future, the simple formula will be promising to calculate energy production easily from woody biomass, especially from SRC species.

  16. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of short-rotation-coppice based generation of electricity in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.; Meyer-Aurich, A.; Kern, J.; Balasus, A.; Prochnow, A. [Leibniz Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The generation of energy from wood biomass may help secure local energy supplies and reduce the greenhouse effect by substituting fossil resources with bio-based ones. In the case of short rotation coppice (SRC), bio-based resources can be generated by extensive agricultural production systems. They produce less carbon dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2eq}) emissions than fossil resources. This paper reported on a study in which a model system was developed for a regional supply chain producing second generation bioenergy generated from SRC in eastern Germany. The study focuses on the generation of electricity and was compared to a business-as-usual reference system, based on the latest CO{sub 2} mitigation factors for renewable energies in the German power-generation mix. A life cycle assessment based on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories was also conducted in which other factors were also considered, such as options for nutrient cycling. The key determinants for GHG mitigation with SRC were also discussed with regards to indirect land-use effects resulting from increased demand for land.

  17. Development of short-rotation willow coppice systems for environmental purposes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirck, Jaconette; Verwijst, Theo; Isebrands, J.G.; Ledin, Stig

    2005-01-01

    During the last three decades, driving forces behind the development of short-rotation willow coppice (SRWC) in Sweden have been changing from a primary focus on biomass production towards emphasis on environmental applications. In most cases, current commercial SRWC practice is geared towards a combination of biomass production for energy purposes and environmental goals. The latter goals range from decreasing the impact of specific contaminants in the environment to organic waste handling in a recycling system in urban and/or agricultural areas. Where biomass production and pollutant management overlap, the science of phytoremediation has its practical application. Through phytoremediation, waste products that previously have been a burden for society can be used as valuable resources to increase short-rotation willow biomass production. In this paper we will present the terminology and definitions of different types of phytoremediation. We also give an overview of five different cases of phytoremediation activities with a potential for large-scale implementation. Some of the types of activities are already commercially used in Sweden; others seem promising but still need further development. (Author)

  18. The role of short rotation coppice technology in fuelwood supply in Rungwe district, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Karwani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The roles of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC Technology in fuelwood supply and offsetting CO2 emissions in the Tanzania and most African countries remain poorly understood. This study was carried in Rungwe District, Mbeya region in Tanzania, to determine trends, extent and drivers of adoption of SRC; identify various sources of household energy and assess the contribution of SRC to the total household fuelwood needs, and trees and shrub species used as sources of fuelwood. Data were collected using reconnaissance, field and social surveys and was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results revealed that, 97.5% of local community adopted the SRC technology since 1960s. Eucalyptus spp. are mostly planted in woodlots and field boundaries while Persea americana and Leucaena leucocephala are intercropped in farmlands. The survey indicated that out of 176 tons of fuelwood used annually, 73% comes from SRC technology, 25% from non-SRC technology, and only 2% is purchased to supplement household fuelwood shortage. Local communities depend heavily on biomass energy from woodlots and farmlands where tree species like Eucalyptus spp. plays a key role in meeting the energy demand. This study demonstrates that SRC technologies like woodlots, boundary planting, and intercropping in farmland hold high promise to meet the household energy demand. If promoted and backed with strong policies and supportive land tenure, these technologies may reduce the harvesting pressure on native forests for energy demand and contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  19. Predictive models of biomass for poplar and willow. Short rotation coppice in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, A.C.; Morgan, G.W.; Poole, E.J.; Baldwin, M.E.; Tubby, I. (Biometrics, Surveys and Statistics Division, Forest Research, Farnham (United Kingdom))

    2007-07-01

    A series of forty-nine experimental trials on short rotation coppice (SRC) were conducted throughout the United Kingdom using a selection of varieties of poplar and willow with the aim of evaluating their performance for wood fuel production under a representative range of UK conditions. Observations on the crops and on a range of site and climatic conditions during the growth of the crops were taken over two three-year cutting cycles. These observations were used to develop a suite of empirical models for poplar and willow SRC growth and yield from which systems were constructed to provide a- priori predictions of biomass yield for any site in the UK with known characteristics (predictive yield models), and estimates of biomass yield from a standing crop (standing biomass models). The structure of the series of field trials and the consequent approach and methodology used in the construction of the suite of empirical models are described, and their use in predicting biomass yields of poplar and willow SRC is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Work analysis of the machine Claas Jaguar 880 employed in short rotation coppice harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verani S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Working times observed during different harvesting phases in a poplar short rotation coppice (second rotation were calculated. The main objective of the work was to evaluate the yard productivity and the economic gain in order to furnish good indications to the field operators about the harvesting planning. A comparisons between productivity and economic features was carried out on observed (experimental yard and optimized data (optimized yard, the latter characterized by the absence of the inproductive times due to suboptimal yard organization. The harvested gross time as a function of distance covered by machine was assessed using linear regressions methods. The observed average biomass in plantation was 47.32 t ha-1. The harvesting gross average productivity observed in experimental yard was 34.20 t h-1 and the optimized was 54.16 t h-1. The working ability was 0.76 and 1.18 ha h-1 for experimental and optimized yard, respectively. The final product (chips costs estimated was 9.81 euro t-1 and 444.46 euro ha-1 in the experimental yard. The optimized yard was 22-24% more efficient. This paper demonstrates the feasibilty to estimate harvesting times and costs per hectare using linear regressions with good approximation when the standing biomass in plantation is known.

  1. Monitoring the progress of NFFO-3 projects: short rotation willow coppice - agronomy and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twemlow, R.K.M.

    1997-01-01

    The involvement of Sidney C. Banks p.l.c., and the subsidiary company Banks Agriculture, in fuel supply for biofuelled power stations started some 4 years ago. When identifying possible opportunities and crops it was apparent that, with the third tranche of Non-Fossil Fuel Obligations (NFFO3) coming up, there were companies looking at developing biofuelled power stations, using Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and for this they needed to link with potential fuel suppliers. Sidney C. Banks p.l.c. linked with South Western Power (SWP) (a subsidiary of South Western Electricity p.l.c. (SWEB)) to act as their sole fuel supplier on projected biofuel wood power stations. Subsequently two wood fuelled power stations were awarded to SWP and Sidney C. Banks p.l.c. in the 3rd Tranche from NFFO, in December 1994. The objectives of this project were to: establish a network of SRC growers to produce fuel for a NFFO project; monitor the success of the enterprise; implement a programme of constant improvement to optimise the fuel supply strategy; and provide valuable information as to the performance of the SRC crop in large scale commercial production. (author)

  2. Harvesting of short rotation coppice. Harvesting trials with a cut and storage system in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweier, J.; Becker, G.

    2012-11-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) harvesting techniques are available in Germany, but broad experience and knowledge about machine performance and the related effective costs of harvesting operations are still missing. This information is crucial, as harvesting costs strongly influence the economic performance of the overall supply chain. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to collect and analyze productivity data of different harvesting systems for SRC. The combined cut and chip system on the one hand and the cut and storage system on the other hand were studied by literature review. Several studies analyze the combined cut and chip systems and the reported machine productivities showed great variations. The average was 30 green tons per scheduled machine hour (gt smh{sup -1}). Few studies are analysing the cut and storage system. They report that machines still are under development and that further research is needed. Therefore, time studies of harvesting operations using the cut and storage system were carried out. Five trials were performed with the harvesting machine 'Stemster MK III' developed by Nordic Biomass. The share of productive working time was 85% and the average productivity was 21 gt smh{sup -1}. These results were compared with values from the literature. Resulting harvesting costs were calculated per oven dry ton (Euro odt{sup -1}). The advantages and disadvantages of both harvesting systems are highlighted. (orig.)

  3. Effect of the silvicultural treatment on canopy properties, litter and seed production in beech coppices under conversion to high forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cutini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. is widely distributed in Italy where it covers 1035103 ha, mainly concentrated in the mountainous areas at altitudes above 900 m. The major part is represented by high forest often issued from the conversion of coppice woods, which in the past was the silvicultural system most widely applied mainly to provide fire wood. The social changes occurred in the second half of the last century –fire wood market crisis and the increasing importance of environmental issues- enhanced the conversion into high forest of large areas previously managed as coppice by means of different silvicultural treatments and practices. Nevertheless, the environmental benefits of this choice were not adequately investigated. Results of annual measurements (1992-2009 made in a beech coppice stand aged 65 are here reported. The study area is located on the Alpe di Catenaia, a pre-Apennine outcrop close to Arezzo (Central Italy. Variables strictly related to stand productivity and dynamics such as annual litter and seed production, leaf area index (LAI and transmittance (PAR were measured in the research area of Buca Zamponi to estimate the effects of two theses, natural evolution (TEST and conversion into high forest (DIR. Three thinnings were undertaken in the latter thesis in 1972, 1987 and 2002. Additional theses of natural evolution (CONTR and advance seed cutting (TS were added in 2002 in a nearby study area (Eremo della Casella. Results showed the high productivity of coppice stands, under conversion to high forest, with mean values of annual total litter, leaf litter and leaf area index of 5 Mg ha-1, 3 Mg ha-1 and 6 m2m-2, respectively. These findings confirm both the prompt response of beech to intensive thinning cycles and the reliability of undertaking coppice conversion into high forest. Furthermore, the positive trend observed in the ecological parameters and the high consistency of leaf fraction, highlight the still juvenile

  4. Effect of biomass pretreatment on the product distribution and composition resulting from the hydrothermal liquefaction of short rotation coppice willow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigoras, Ionela; Stroe, Rodica-Elisabeta; Sintamarean, Iulia-Maria

    2017-01-01

    A major challenge for the implementation of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) as a continuous process is the formulation of lignocellulosic feedstock, which is prone to phase separation into water and biomass parts when pressurized. One approach to remedy such phase separation is to reduce the dry...... from the HTL of willow and proposes short rotation coppice as an alternative biomass feedstock for biofuels production. Alkaline–thermal pretreatment, besides making high dry matter pumpable feedstock slurries, also led to an increase in the production of the bio-crude product with an oxygen content...

  5. Below-ground biomass production and allometric relationships of eucalyptus coppice plantation in the central highlands of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razakamanarivo, Ramarson H.; Razakavololona, Ando; Razafindrakoto, Marie-Antoinette; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Albrecht, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Short rotations of Eucalyptus plantations under coppice regime are extensively managed for wood production in Madagascar. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass production and partitioning and their potential in terms of carbon sequestration. If above-ground biomass (AGB) can be estimated based on established allometric relations, below-ground (BGB) estimates are much less common. The aim of this work was to develop allometric equations to estimate biomass of these plantations, mainly for the root components. Data from 9 Eucalyptus robusta stands (47–87 years of plantation age, 3–5 years of coppice-shoot age) were collected and analyzed. Biomass of 3 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weight of AGB components (leaves, branches and stems) were estimated as a function of basal area of all shoots per stump and dry weight for BGB components (mainly stump, coarse root (CR) and medium root (MR)) were estimated as a function of stump circumference. Biomass was then computed using allometric equations from stand inventory data. Stand biomass ranged from 102 to 130 Mg ha −1 with more than 77% contained in the BGB components. The highest dry weight was allocated in the stump and in the CR (51% and 42% respectively) for BGB parts and in the stem (69%) for AGB part. Allometric relationships developed herein could be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations which present similar stand density and growing conditions; anyhow, more is needed to be investigated in understanding biomass production and partitioning over time for this kind of forest ecosystem. -- Highlights: ► We studied the potential of old eucalyptus coppices in Madagascar to mitigate global warming. ► Biomass measurement, mainly for below-ground BGB (stump, coarse-medium-and fine roots) was provided. ► BGB allometry relationships for short rotation forestry under coppice were established. ► BGB were found to be important with their 102-130MgC ha -1 (<77% of the C in

  6. Conversion from cropland to short rotation coppice willow and poplar: Accumulation of soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Petros; Stupak, Inge; Vesterdal, Lars; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Increased demand for bioenergy has intensified the production of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow and poplar in temperate zones. We used a combined chronosequence and paired plot approach to study the potential of SRC willow and poplar stands to increase the soil carbon stock compared to stocks of the previous arable land-use. The study focused on well-drained soils. We sampled soil from 30 SRC stands in Denmark and southern Sweden including soils from their adjacent arable fields. The 18 willow and 12 poplar stands formed a chronosequence ranging between 4 and 29 years after conversion. The soil was sampled both with soil cores taken by fixed depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-25, and 25-40 cm and by genetic horizons from soil pits to 1m depth. The aim of the study was to estimate the difference and the ratio between soil carbon contents of the SRC and annual crop land and analyze the results as a chronosequence to examine the effect of age after conversion on the difference. Covariates such as soil type, fertilization type and harvest frequency were also taken into account. Preliminary results suggest an overall increase in carbon stocks over time with average accumulation rates ranging from 0.25 to 0.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in willow and poplar stands. Poplar stands had higher rates of C gain, probably due to less frequent harvesting. The differences in carbon between the SRC and the paired cropland were initially negative but changed to positive over time, implying loss of carbon after conversion and a later gain in soil carbon with stand age. Pairwise differences ranged from -25 Mg C ha-1 to 37 Mg C ha-1 for the top 40 cm. The carbon stock ratio of the SRC stand to the arable land was estimated to minimize the effect of site-related factors. The results of this analysis suggested that the ratio increased significantly with age after conversion for the top 10 cm of the soil, both for poplar and willow. A slight increase with age was also noticed at the deeper depths, but

  7. Influence of Robinia pseudoacacia short rotation coppice on soil physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Morvan; Isabelle, Bertrand; Gwenaelle, Gibaud

    2015-04-01

    Human activities can lead to the degradation of soil physical properties. For instance, machinery traffic across the land can induce the development of compacted areas at the wheel tracks. It leads to a decrease in porosity which results in a decrease of the hydraulic conductivity, and therefore, prevents water infiltration and promotes surface runoff. Land use, soil management and soil cover also have a significant influence on soil physical properties (Kodesova et al., 2011). In the arable land, surface runoff and soil erosion are enhanced by the absence of soil cover for part of the year and by the decrease of aggregate stability due to a decline of soil organic matter. In that context, few studies focused on the effects of a Robinia pseudoacacia short rotation coppice (SRC) on soil physical properties. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effect of the conversion of a grassland in a SRC on soil physical properties. These properties have also been compared to those of arable land and natural forest. For that, in several plots of the experimental farm of Grignon (30 km west of Paris, France), different measurements were performed: i) soil water retention on a pressure plate apparatus for 7 water potential between 0 and 1500 kPa, ii) bulk density using the method for gravelly and rocky soil recommended by the USDA, iii) aggregate stability using the method described in Le Bissonnais (1996), and iv) soil hydraulic conductivity using a Guelph permeameter. All these measurements were performed on the same soil type and on different land uses: arable land (AL), grassland (GL), natural forest (NF) and short rotation coppice (SRC) of Robinia pseudoacacia planted 5 years ago. Soil water retention measurements are still under progress and will be presented in congress. Bulk density measurements of the AL, GL and SRC are not significantly different. They ranged from 1.32 to 1.42. Only the NF measurements are significantly lower than the other (0.97). Aggregate

  8. How drought severity constrains GPP and its partitioning among carbon pools in a Quercus ilex coppice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambal, S.; Lempereur, M.; Limousin, J. M.; Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Ourcival, J. M.; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, J.

    2014-06-01

    The partitioning of photosynthates toward biomass compartments has a crucial role in the carbon sink function of forests. Few studies have examined how carbon is allocated toward plant compartments in drought prone forests. We analyzed the fate of GPP in relation to yearly water deficit in an old evergreen Mediterranean Quercus ilex coppice severely affected by water limitations. Gross and net carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were measured with an eddy-covariance flux tower running continuously since 2001. Discrete measurements of litterfall, stem growth and fAPAR allowed us to derive annual productions of leaves, wood, flowers and acorns and an isometric relationship between stem and belowground biomass has been used to estimate perennial belowground growth. By combining eddy-covariance fluxes with annual productions we managed to close a C budget and derive values of autotrophic and heterotrophic respirations, NPP and carbon use efficiency (CUE, the ratio between NPP and GPP). Average values of yearly NEP, GPP and Reco were 282, 1259 and 977 g C m-2. The corresponding ANPP components were 142.5, 26.4 and 69.6 g C m-2 for leaves, reproductive effort (flowers and fruits) and stems. Gross and net carbon exchange between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were affected by annual water deficit. Partitioning to the different plant compartments was also impacted by drought, with a hierarchy of responses going from the most affected, the stem growth, to the least affected, the leaf production. The average CUE was 0.40, which is well in the range for Mediterranean-type forest ecosystems. CUE tended to decrease more slightly in response to drought than GPP and NPP, probably due to drought-acclimation of autotrophic respiration. Overall, our results provide a baseline for modeling the inter-annual variations of carbon fluxes and allocation in this widespread Mediterranean ecosystem and highlight the value of maintaining continuous experimental

  9. Decline in holm oak coppices (Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp.): biometric and physiological interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrada, R.; Gómez-Sanz, V.; Aroca, M.J.; Otero, J.; Bravo-Fernández, J.A.; Roig, S.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study: To analyse the decline in aged holm oak coppice forests as regards above-ground and below-ground fractions and physiological features. Area of study: Centre of the Iberian Peninsula (Guadalajara province). Material and methods: 26 pairs of holm oak stools with different vigour but with similar site and structural characteristics within each pair were selected. Morphological (basal area, number of stools, maximum height) and physiological traits (leaf water potential, stomatal conductance) of the standing stools were assessed. Their aerial and underground parts were extracted and different size fractions of both their above and below-ground biomass were quantified. Linear mixed models were built to test the effect of ’Stool vigour’ on the mean behaviour of the measured variables. Additionally, for the aerial part, linear regressions between the weights of the different size fractions and the basal area at breast height were performed using ‘Stool vigour’ as a fixed factor. Main results: For the same site, root depth, and number and diameter of shoots than good vigour stools, poor vigour stools displayed: lower predawn water potential, greater leaf mass per unit of area; lower total leaf area; lower above-ground biomass (in total as well as per fractions); lower fine roots biomass; lower proportion of leaf biomass and a greater proportion of biomass of both all roots and those with diameter 2-7 cm. Research highlights: The above-ground physiological and morphological characteristics of declined stools are interpreted as poorer adaptation to site conditions. Root system architecture was found to be relevant to explain this behaviour.

  10. Biomass energy in organic farming - the potential role of short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Uffe; Dalgaard, Tommy [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS), Dept. of Agroecology, Research Centre Foulum, Tjele (Denmark); Kristensen, Erik Steen [Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming (DARCOF), Research Centre Foulum, Tjele (Denmark)

    2005-02-01

    One of the aims of organic farming is to 'reduce the use of non-renewable resources (e.g. fossil fuels) to a minimum'. So far, however, only very little progress has been made to introduce renewable energy in organic farming. This paper presents energy balances of Danish organic farming compared with energy balances of conventional farming. In general, the conversion to organic farming leads to a lower energy use (approximately 10% per unit of product). But the production of energy in organic farming is very low compared with the extensive utilisation of straw from conventional farming in Denmark (energy content of straw used for energy production was equivalent to 18% of total energy input in Danish agriculture in 1996). Biomass is a key energy carrier with a good potential for on-farm development. Apart from utilising farm manure and crop residues for biogas production, the production of nutrient efficient short rotation coppice (SRC) is an option in organic farming. Alder (Alnus spp.) is an interesting crop due to its symbiosis with the actinomycete Frankia, which has the ability to fix up to 185 kg/ha nitrogen (N{sub 2}) from the air. Yields obtained at different European sites are presented and the R and D needed to implement energy cropping in organic farming is discussed. Possible win-win solutions for SRC production in organic farming that may facilitate its implementation are; the protection of ground water quality in intensively farmed areas, utilisation of wastewater for irrigation, or combination with outdoor animal husbandry such as pigs or poultry. (Author)

  11. Water use of a multigenotype poplar short-rotation coppice from tree to stand scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemen, Jasper; Fichot, Régis; Horemans, Joanna A; Broeckx, Laura S; Verlinden, Melanie S; Zenone, Terenzio; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2017-02-01

    Short-rotation coppice (SRC) has great potential for supplying biomass-based heat and energy, but little is known about SRC's ecological footprint, particularly its impact on the water cycle. To this end, we quantified the water use of a commercial scale poplar ( Populus ) SRC plantation in East Flanders (Belgium) at tree and stand level, focusing primarily on the transpiration component. First, we used the AquaCrop model and eddy covariance flux data to analyse the different components of the stand-level water balance for one entire growing season. Transpiration represented 59% of evapotranspiration (ET) at stand scale over the whole year. Measured ET and modelled ET were lower as compared to the ET of reference grassland, suggesting that the SRC only used a limited amount of water. Secondly, we compared leaf area scaled and sapwood area scaled sap flow ( F s ) measurements on individual plants vs. stand scale eddy covariance flux data during a 39-day intensive field campaign in late summer 2011. Daily stem diameter variation (∆ D ) was monitored simultaneously with F s to understand water use strategies for three poplar genotypes. Canopy transpiration based on sapwood area or leaf area scaling was 43.5 and 50.3 mm, respectively, and accounted for 74%, respectively, 86%, of total ecosystem ET measured during the intensive field campaign. Besides differences in growth, the significant intergenotypic differences in daily ∆ D (due to stem shrinkage and swelling) suggested different water use strategies among the three genotypes which were confirmed by the sap flow measurements. Future studies on the prediction of SRC water use, or efforts to enhance the biomass yield of SRC genotypes, should consider intergenotypic differences in transpiration water losses at tree level as well as the SRC water balance at stand level.

  12. Decline in holm oak coppices (Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp.): biometric and physiological interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrada, R.; Gómez-Sanz, V.; Aroca, M.J.; Otero, J.; Bravo-Fernández, J.A.; Roig, S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study: To analyse the decline in aged holm oak coppice forests as regards above-ground and below-ground fractions and physiological features. Area of study: Centre of the Iberian Peninsula (Guadalajara province). Material and methods: 26 pairs of holm oak stools with different vigour but with similar site and structural characteristics within each pair were selected. Morphological (basal area, number of stools, maximum height) and physiological traits (leaf water potential, stomatal conductance) of the standing stools were assessed. Their aerial and underground parts were extracted and different size fractions of both their above and below-ground biomass were quantified. Linear mixed models were built to test the effect of ’Stool vigour’ on the mean behaviour of the measured variables. Additionally, for the aerial part, linear regressions between the weights of the different size fractions and the basal area at breast height were performed using ‘Stool vigour’ as a fixed factor. Main results: For the same site, root depth, and number and diameter of shoots than good vigour stools, poor vigour stools displayed: lower predawn water potential, greater leaf mass per unit of area; lower total leaf area; lower above-ground biomass (in total as well as per fractions); lower fine roots biomass; lower proportion of leaf biomass and a greater proportion of biomass of both all roots and those with diameter 2-7 cm. Research highlights: The above-ground physiological and morphological characteristics of declined stools are interpreted as poorer adaptation to site conditions. Root system architecture was found to be relevant to explain this behaviour.

  13. The development of a wood fuel gasification plant utilising short rotation coppice and forestry residues: project ARBRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, K.F.; Lundbergt, H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper will discuss the development of ARBRE Energy, a joint venture company that includes Yorkshire Environmental of the United Kingdom and Tenniska Processer AB of Sweden. The project will establish 2000 hectares of short rotation coppices, some of which will be organically fertilized with digested sewage sludges, to provide 80% of the fuel requirements of a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) electricity generation plant. The remaining 20% of the fuel requirements will come from forestry waste, although in the first 5 years all the fuel will come from the forestry sources until the coppices are mature. The project will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, England, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 MW of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK's Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from the European Commission's THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. The project's technical and environmental effects and benefits will be examined in detail, together with the award of its planning permit and agreement on its operating license. (author)

  14. Silvicultural options in ageing holm oak (Quercus ilex L. coppices in Gargano: results after 14 growing seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scopigno D

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of a long-term research program concerning management of ageing holm oak coppices, results available after 14 growing seasons are reported in present paper. Experimental treatments include: A 50 standards per hectare, all of the same age; B 250 standards per hectare, all of the same age; C 140 standards per hectare, with two different ages; D conversion to high forest; E natural evolution (control. A total of 15 permanent plots were established (5 treatments x 3 replicates per treatment and the experimental design used is that of randomised blocks. Based on observations concerning seedlings and shoots development and standards growth and competitive effects, the following preliminary results may be highlighted: i recovering the traditional coppicing system with few standards per hectare represents a valid option from both ecological and shoots growth point of view; the stools, with few standards per hectare, showed a larger number of sprouts, provided with a higher average height and larger diameters; ii uneven-aged standards represent a good alternative form the points of view of both landscape impact immediately after felling operations and stand resistance to climatic damages; iii a good alternative is to apply conversion treatments to high forest, whenever their site quality allows these operations.

  15. Clonal variation in heavy metal accumulation and biomass production in a poplar coppice culture. II. Vertical distribution and phytoextraction potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureysens, I.; Temmerman, L. de; Hastir, T.; Gysel, M. van; Ceulemans, R.

    2005-01-01

    Short rotation coppice cultures (SRC) are intensively managed, high-density plantations of multi-shoot trees. In April 1996, an SRC field trial with 17 different poplar clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. In December 1996 and January 2001, all shoots were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. For six clones, wood and bark were sampled at the bottom, middle and top of a shoot in August and November 2002. No significant height effect of metal concentration was found, but for wood, metal concentrations generally increased toward the top of the shoot in August, and decreased toward the top of the shoot in November. Phytoextraction potential of a clone was primarily determined by metal concentration and by biomass production. Shoot size and number of shoots per stool were less important, as a high biomass production could be achieved by producing a few large shoots or many smaller shoots. Clone Fritzi Pauley accumulated 1.4 kg ha -1 of Al over two years; Wolterson and Balsam Spire showed a relatively high accumulation of Cd and Zn, i.e. averaging, respectively 47 and 57 g ha -1 for Cd and 2.4 and 2.0 kg ha -1 for Zn over two years. - Poplar shows potential for phytoextraction of Al, Cd and Zn on slightly contaminated soils

  16. Clonal variation in heavy metal accumulation and biomass production in a poplar coppice culture. II. Vertical distribution and phytoextraction potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laureysens, I. [University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Biology, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)]. E-mail: ilse.laureysens@ua.ac.be; Temmerman, L. de [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (VAR), Leuvensesteenweg 17, B-3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Hastir, T. [University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Biology, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Gysel, M. van [University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Chemistry, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Ceulemans, R. [University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Biology, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2005-02-01

    Short rotation coppice cultures (SRC) are intensively managed, high-density plantations of multi-shoot trees. In April 1996, an SRC field trial with 17 different poplar clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. In December 1996 and January 2001, all shoots were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. For six clones, wood and bark were sampled at the bottom, middle and top of a shoot in August and November 2002. No significant height effect of metal concentration was found, but for wood, metal concentrations generally increased toward the top of the shoot in August, and decreased toward the top of the shoot in November. Phytoextraction potential of a clone was primarily determined by metal concentration and by biomass production. Shoot size and number of shoots per stool were less important, as a high biomass production could be achieved by producing a few large shoots or many smaller shoots. Clone Fritzi Pauley accumulated 1.4 kg ha{sup -1} of Al over two years; Wolterson and Balsam Spire showed a relatively high accumulation of Cd and Zn, i.e. averaging, respectively 47 and 57 g ha{sup -1} for Cd and 2.4 and 2.0 kg ha{sup -1} for Zn over two years. - Poplar shows potential for phytoextraction of Al, Cd and Zn on slightly contaminated soils.

  17. Biomass productivity and water use relation in short rotation poplar coppice (Populus nigra x p. maximowiczii) in the conditions of Czech Moravian Highlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, Milan; Trnka, Miroslav; Kučera, J.; Fajman, M.; Žalud, Zdeněk

    LIX, č. 6 (2011), s. 141-152 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : short rotation coppice * biomass increment * water consumption * water use effi ciency Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. Annual and Intra-Annual Water Balance Components of a Short Rotation Poplar Coppice Based on Sap Flow and Micrometeorological and Hydrological Approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, Milan; Orság, Matěj; Trnka, Miroslav; Pohanková, Eva; Hlavinka, Petr; Tripathi, Abishek; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 991, JUN 04-07 (2013), s. 401-408 ISSN 0567-7572 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : short rotation poplar coppice * water balance * sap flow * Bowen ratio and energy balance method * modeling Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. Effect of coppicing, thinning and throughfall reduction on soil water content and soil CO2 efflux in a sessile oak forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dařenová, Eva; Crabbe, Richard A.; Knott, R.; Uherková, B.; Kadavý, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2018), č. článku 9927. ISSN 0037-5330 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : coppice * precipitation * Quercus petraea * soil respiration * soil moisture Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Hydrology Impact factor: 1.495, year: 2016

  20. Modelling short-rotation coppice and tree planting for urban carbon management - a citywide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Nicola; Edmondson, Jill L; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R; O'Sullivan, Odhran S

    2015-10-01

    The capacity of urban areas to deliver provisioning ecosystem services is commonly overlooked and underutilized. Urban populations have globally increased fivefold since 1950, and they disproportionately consume ecosystem services and contribute to carbon emissions, highlighting the need to increase urban sustainability and reduce environmental impacts of urban dwellers. Here, we investigated the potential for increasing carbon sequestration, and biomass fuel production, by planting trees and short-rotation coppice (SRC), respectively, in a mid-sized UK city as a contribution to meeting national commitments to reduce CO 2 emissions.Iterative GIS models were developed using high-resolution spatial data. The models were applied to patches of public and privately owned urban greenspace suitable for planting trees and SRC, across the 73 km 2 area of the city of Leicester. We modelled tree planting with a species mix based on the existing tree populations, and SRC with willow and poplar to calculate biomass production in new trees, and carbon sequestration into harvested biomass over 25 years.An area of 11 km 2 comprising 15% of the city met criteria for tree planting and had the potential over 25 years to sequester 4200 tonnes of carbon above-ground. Of this area, 5·8 km 2 also met criteria for SRC planting and over the same period this could yield 71 800 tonnes of carbon in harvested biomass.The harvested biomass could supply energy to over 1566 domestic homes or 30 municipal buildings, resulting in avoided carbon emissions of 29 236 tonnes of carbon over 25 years when compared to heating by natural gas. Together with the net carbon sequestration into trees, a total reduction of 33 419 tonnes of carbon in the atmosphere could be achieved in 25 years by combined SRC and tree planting across the city. Synthesis and applications . We demonstrate that urban greenspaces in a typical UK city are underutilized for provisioning ecosystem services by trees and

  1. Prospects for arable farm uptake of Short Rotation Coppice willow and miscanthus in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glithero, Neryssa J; Wilson, Paul; Ramsden, Stephen J

    2013-07-01

    Biomass will play a role in the UK meeting EU targets on renewable energy use. Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and miscanthus are potential biomass feedstocks; however, supply will rely on farmer willingness to grow these crops. Despite attractive crop establishment grants for dedicated energy crops (DECs) in the UK, uptake remains low. Drawing on results from an on-farm survey with 244 English arable farmers, 81.6% (87.7%) of farmers would not consider growing miscanthus (SRC), while respectively, 17.2% (11.9%) would consider growing and 1.2% (0.4%) were currently growing these crops. Farmer age, location, land ownership, farm type, farm size and farmer education level were not significant factors in determining acceptance of DECs. The main reasons cited for not growing DECs were impacts on land quality, lack of appropriate machinery, commitment of land for a long period of time, time to financial return and profitability. Reasons cited for willingness to grow DECs included land quality, ease of crop management, commitment of land for a long period of time, and profitability. Farmers cited a range of 'moral' (e.g. should not be using land for energy crops when there is a shortage of food), land quality, knowledge, profit and current farming practice comments as reasons for not growing DECs, while those willing to grow DECs cited interest in renewable energy, willingness to consider new crops, and low labour needs as rationale for their interest. Farm business objectives indicated that maximising profit and quality of life were most frequently cited as very important objectives. Previous research in the UK indicates that farmers in arable areas are unlikely to convert large areas of land to DECs, even where these farmers have an interest and willingness to grow them. Assuming that those farmers interested in growing DECs converted 9.29% (average percentage of arable land set-aside between 1996 and 2005) of their utilised agricultural area to these crops, 50,700

  2. Dry Matter Losses and Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Outside Storage of Short Rotation Coppice Willow Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Carly; Yates, Nicola E; Powers, Stephen J; Misselbrook, Tom; Shield, Ian

    This study examined the dry matter losses and the greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations within two short rotation coppice (SRC) willow wood chip storage heaps. One heap was built on a grassland area (East Midlands) and the other (Rothamsted) on a concrete hard standing. A series of 1- and 3-m probes were embedded in the heaps in order to retrieve gas samples for analysis, and pre-weighed net bags were positioned in the core of the heap to detect dry matter losses. The bagged samples showed dry matter losses of 18 and 19 % in the East Midlands and Rothamsted heaps after 210 and 97 days storage, respectively. The Rothamsted heap showed a whole-heap dry matter loss of 21 %. During this time, the wood chips dried from 54 to 39 % moisture content in the East Midlands heap and 50 to 43 % at Rothamsted. The results from analysing the whole Rothamsted heap indicated an overall loss of 1.5 GJ per tonne stored, although measurements from bagged samples in the core suggested that the chips dried sufficiently to have a minimal energy loss from storage. The process of mixing the heap, however, led to incorporation of wet outer layers and hence the average moisture content was higher in an average sample of chip. After establishment of the heaps, the temperature rose rapidly and this correlated with a peak in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration within the heap. A peak in methane (CH 4 ) concentration was also detected in both heaps, though more noticeably in the East Midlands heap after around 55 days. In both instances, the peak CH 4 concentration occurred as CO 2 concentrations dropped, suggesting that after an active period of aerobic decomposition in the first 2 months of storage, the conditions in the heap became anaerobic. The results from this study suggest that outside wood chip storage is not an efficient method of storing biomass, though this may be location-specific as there are some studies showing lower dry matter losses. It is necessary to explore other

  3. The impact of cattle and goats grazing on vegetation in oak stands of varying coppicing age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Thomas G.; Platis, Panayiotis D.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of cattle and goats grazing on oak shoot growth and herbaceous vegetation in three oak forest stands with different coppicing age (1, 4 and 7 yrs after the clear cutting) were investigated. In April 1997, an experimental area was chosen with three forest stands, which were clear cut in 1996 (CL1996), 1993 (CL1993), and 1990 (CL1990). All stands were grazed by cattle and goats after they were clear cut. In each forest stand, five 10 m × 10 m paired plots were located, which represented grazed and protected patches. Herbage biomass within protected and grazed plots was measured four times each year (spring: May-June, summer: July-August, autumn: September-October, and winter: November-December). Behavioural observations on grazing animals were conducted in the same periods. In both protected and open plots the height and basal diameter of all oak shoots on 5 preselected stumps were measured at the end of five growing periods from 1997 to 2001. All forest stands carried a similar amount of available herbage (averaged over forest stands and growing season, 2614 kg/ha). Grazing animals removed on average 1057 kg/ha throughout the growing period. Cattle mainly consumed herbage (97% of bites) while goats consumed a mixture of oak browse (41% bites), herbaceous species (34% bites), and other woody species browse (25% bites). The height, diameter and volume of oak shoots were affected by grazing. The three forest stands had similar shoot heights in the protected plots in 2001 after 5 years of grazing protection. The volume of oak shoots of the grazed plots were 146.7 cm3 for CL1996, 232.9 cm3 for CL1993, and 239.1 cm3 for CL1990 in 2001 (i.e. 5, 8, and 11 years grazing after the clear cuttings, respectively). The protected plots carried greater volumes of oak shoots, CL1996: 496.0 cm3 (few months grazing before protection), CL1993: 690.0 cm3 (4 years grazing before protection), and CL1990: 344.0 cm3 (7 years grazing before protection). In conclusion, almost

  4. Climate impact and energy efficiency from electricity generation through anaerobic digestion or direct combustion of short rotation coppice willow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, Niclas; Nordberg, Åke; Sundberg, Cecilia; Ahlgren, Serina; Hansson, Per-Anders

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Using LCA, CHP from willow use in biogas was compared with direct combustion. • Direct combustion was ninefold more energy-efficient. • Biogas had a much greater cooling effect on global mean surface temperature. • The effects of soil carbon changes on temperature over time differed. • Biogas had long-term temperature effects, direct combustion short-term effects. - Abstract: Short rotation coppice willow is an energy crop used in Sweden to produce electricity and heat in combined heat and power plants. Recent laboratory-scale experiments have shown that SRC willow can also be used for biogas production in anaerobic digestion processes. Here, life cycle assessment is used to compare the climate impact and energy efficiency of electricity and heat generated by these measures. All energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions, including soil organic carbon fluxes were included in the life cycle assessment. The climate impact was determined using time-dependent life cycle assessment methodology. Both systems showed a positive net energy balance, but the direct combustion system delivered ninefold more energy than the biogas system. Both systems had a cooling effect on the global mean surface temperature change. The cooling impact per hectare from the biogas system was ninefold higher due to the carbon returned to soil with the digestate. Compensating the lower energy production of the biogas system with external energy sources had a large impact on the result, effectively determining whether the biogas scenario had a net warming or cooling contribution to the global mean temperature change per kWh of electricity. In all cases, the contribution to global warming was lowered by the inclusion of willow in the energy system. The use of time-dependent climate impact methodology shows that extended use of short rotation coppice willow can contribute to counteract global warming

  5. ARBRE monitoring - ecology of short rotation coppice. Four year study involving wildlife monitoring of commercial SCR plantations planted on arable land and arable control plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M.D.; Bishop, J.D.; McKay, H.V.; Sage, R.B.

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) funded project monitoring wildlife within and around a number of commercially managed Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) plantations aimed at using the information gathered to assess the ecological impact of SRC plantations on the wildlife in the area. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of the monitoring programme examining the distribution of flora and fauna within the plantations, and the monitoring of birds, plants, insects and butterflies. The greater diversity of wildlife and plants in the SRC plots, the higher densities of birds, and the increasing number of butterfly species are discussed along with the increased mean number of invertebrate orders with subsequent growth of willow coppices, and the habitats at the edges of the plots and at headlands designed for access to machinery within the plots.

  6. Ability of LANDSAT-8 Oli Derived Texture Metrics in Estimating Aboveground Carbon Stocks of Coppice Oak Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, A.; Sohrabi, H.

    2016-06-01

    The role of forests as a reservoir for carbon has prompted the need for timely and reliable estimation of aboveground carbon stocks. Since measurement of aboveground carbon stocks of forests is a destructive, costly and time-consuming activity, aerial and satellite remote sensing techniques have gained many attentions in this field. Despite the fact that using aerial data for predicting aboveground carbon stocks has been proved as a highly accurate method, there are challenges related to high acquisition costs, small area coverage, and limited availability of these data. These challenges are more critical for non-commercial forests located in low-income countries. Landsat program provides repetitive acquisition of high-resolution multispectral data, which are freely available. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of multispectral Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) derived texture metrics in quantifying aboveground carbon stocks of coppice Oak forests in Zagros Mountains, Iran. We used four different window sizes (3×3, 5×5, 7×7, and 9×9), and four different offsets ([0,1], [1,1], [1,0], and [1,-1]) to derive nine texture metrics (angular second moment, contrast, correlation, dissimilar, entropy, homogeneity, inverse difference, mean, and variance) from four bands (blue, green, red, and infrared). Totally, 124 sample plots in two different forests were measured and carbon was calculated using species-specific allometric models. Stepwise regression analysis was applied to estimate biomass from derived metrics. Results showed that, in general, larger size of window for deriving texture metrics resulted models with better fitting parameters. In addition, the correlation of the spectral bands for deriving texture metrics in regression models was ranked as b4>b3>b2>b5. The best offset was [1,-1]. Amongst the different metrics, mean and entropy were entered in most of the regression models. Overall, different models based on derived texture metrics

  7. Management with willow short rotation coppice increase the functional gene diversity and functional activity of a heavy metal polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, K; van Nostrand, J D; Vangronsveld, J; Witters, N; Janssen, J O; Kumpiene, J; Siebielec, G; Galazka, R; Giagnoni, L; Arenella, M; Zhou, J-Z; Renella, G

    2015-11-01

    We studied the microbial functional diversity, biochemical activity, heavy metals (HM) availability and soil toxicity of Cd, Pb and Zn contaminated soils, kept under grassland or short rotation coppice (SRC) to attenuate the risks associated with HM contamination and restore the soil ecological functions. Soil microbial functional diversity was analyzed by the GeoChip, a functional gene microarray containing probes for genes involved in nutrient cycling, metal resistance and stress response. Soil under SRC showed a higher abundance of microbial genes involved in C, N, P and S cycles and resistance to various HM, higher microbial biomass, respiration and enzyme activity rates, and lower HM availability than the grassland soil. The linkages between functional genes of soil microbial communities and soil chemical properties, HM availability and biochemical activity were also investigated. Soil toxicity and N, P and Pb availability were important factors in shaping the microbial functional diversity, as determined by CCA. We concluded that in HM contaminated soils the microbial functional diversity was positively influenced by SRC management through the reduction of HM availability and soil toxicity increase of nutrient cycling. The presented results can be important in predicting the long term environmental sustainability of plant-based soil remediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Short rotation coppice with Robinia pseudoacacia L. : a land use option for carbon sequestration on reclaimed mine sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinkenstein, A.; Bohm, C.; Freese, D. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; Huttl, R.R. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A study in northeast Germany has shown that the establishment of short rotation coppices (SRC) of Robinia pseudoacacia L. may be a viable option for improving farmers income on marginal soils. The plantations produce woody biomass at a fast rate for energy use. Carbon is accumulated in the harvestable biomass, as well as in the stump and the roots. These plant compartments form a long-term carbon storage pool because they can survive a harvest, stay vital at the site and continue to grow as the plant ages. As organic litter decomposes, additional carbon is sequestered under SRC as soil organic carbon. The carbon sequestration in SRC of R. pseudoacacia on mining sites within the Lower Lusatian region in northeast Germany was studied and the results were complemented with findings of current field studies conducted on reclaimed mine sites. The average above ground dry matter productivity of R. pseudoacacia was found to be 3 to 10 Mg per hectare per year, depending on the plantation age and rotation period. It has been estimated that the carbon storage within the soil accounts to a carbon sequestration of up to 6 Mg per hectare per year for a soil depth of 60 cm.

  9. Sewage sludge and wastewater fertilisation of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) for increased bioenergy production - Biological and economic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitriou, I.; Rosenqvist, H.

    2011-01-01

    Application of municipal residues, e.g. wastewater or sewage sludge, to Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) is among the most attractive methods for attaining environmental and energy goals set for Europe. At current woodchip prices in Sweden, the gross margin for SRC cultivation is positive only if biomass production is >9 t DM/ha yr. The gross profit margin increases (by 39 and 199 EUR/GJ, respectively) if sewage sludge and wastewater are applied to SRC. Application of residues to SRC has proved to be an acceptable alternative treatment method, and the farmer's profit can be markedly increased if compensation is paid for waste treatment. If all available sludge and wastewater were applied to SRC plantations, they could be grown on large agricultural areas in Europe, and c. 6000 PJ of renewable energy could be produced annually. However, a more economical landuse strategy, e.g. the use of more P-rich residues, appears more rational, and is biologically justifiable. (author)

  10. Bridging the gap between feedstock growers and users: the study of a coppice poplar-based biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Chang; Gustafson, Rick; Bura, Renata

    2018-01-01

    In the biofuel industry, land productivity is important to feedstock growers and conversion process product yield is important to the biorefinery. The crop productivity, however, may not positively correlate with bioconversion yield. Therefore, it is important to evaluate sugar yield and biomass productivity. In this study, 2-year-old poplar trees harvested in the first coppice cycle, including one low-productivity hybrid and one high-productivity hybrid, were collected from two poplar tree farms. Through steam pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, the bioconversion yields of low- and high-productivity poplar hybrids were compared for both sites. The low-productivity hybrids had 9-19% higher sugar yields than the high-productivity hybrids, although they have the similar chemical composition. Economic calculations show the impact on the plantation and biorefinery of using the two feedstocks. Growing a high-productivity hybrid means the land owner would use 11-26% less land (which could be used for other crops) or collect $2.53-$3.46 MM/year extra revenue from the surplus feedstock. On the other side, the biorefinery would receive 5-10% additional revenue using the low-productivity hybrid. We propose a business model based on the integration of the plantation and the biorefinery. In this model, different feedstocks are assessed using a metric of product tonnage per unit land per year. Use of this new economic metric bridges the gap between feedstock growers and users to maximize the overall production efficiency.

  11. Sewage sludge and wastewater fertilisation of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) for increased bioenergy production - Biological and economic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, I. [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7043, SE 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Rosenqvist, H. [Department of Agriculture-Farming Systems, Technology and Product Quality, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 17, SE-261 21 Billeberga (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    Application of municipal residues, e.g. wastewater or sewage sludge, to Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) is among the most attractive methods for attaining environmental and energy goals set for Europe. At current woodchip prices in Sweden, the gross margin for SRC cultivation is positive only if biomass production is >9 t DM/ha yr. The gross profit margin increases (by 39 and 199 EUR/GJ, respectively) if sewage sludge and wastewater are applied to SRC. Application of residues to SRC has proved to be an acceptable alternative treatment method, and the farmer's profit can be markedly increased if compensation is paid for waste treatment. If all available sludge and wastewater were applied to SRC plantations, they could be grown on large agricultural areas in Europe, and c. 6000 PJ of renewable energy could be produced annually. However, a more economical landuse strategy, e.g. the use of more P-rich residues, appears more rational, and is biologically justifiable. (author)

  12. Energy plants increasingly important. Scientific results and practical experiences on the production of biogas plants and short rotation coppices. Symposium; Energiepflanzen im Aufwind. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse und praktische Erfahrungen zur Produktion von Biogaspflanzen und Feldholz. Fachtagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiermann, M.; Scholz, V.; Foltan, H. (comps.)

    2007-05-15

    The conference proceedings contain 15 contributions on energy plants: energy plant production in Germany - developments and research activities; potentials and constraints of cultivating energy crops; environmental aspects of production and utilization of energy plants; costs of energy crop supply; crops for the biogas production in the territory of Brandenburg; mixed cropping systems on sandy soils - alternative cropping strategies; impact of ensiling process on biogas production - recent research results; solid state anaerobic digestion of renewable biomass sources - state of research and development; energy crops as feedstock in a biogas plant; proffer and demand of wood fuel in the State of Brandenburg; regulatory framework of growing short rotation coppice; mechanization of SRC production; 20 years of short rotation coppice; willow production and marketing in Denmark; short rotation coppice production in Italy.

  13. Stand-volume estimation from multi-source data for coppiced and high forest Eucalyptus spp. silvicultural systems in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Timothy; Sibanda, Mbulisi; Shoko, Cletah; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2017-10-01

    Forest stand volume is one of the crucial stand parameters, which influences the ability of these forests to provide ecosystem goods and services. This study thus aimed at examining the potential of integrating multispectral SPOT 5 image, with ancillary data (forest age and rainfall metrics) in estimating stand volume between coppiced and planted Eucalyptus spp. in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. To achieve this objective, Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) algorithm was used. The PLSR algorithm was implemented by applying three tier analysis stages: stage I: using ancillary data as an independent dataset, stage II: SPOT 5 spectral bands as an independent dataset and stage III: combined SPOT 5 spectral bands and ancillary data. The results of the study showed that the use of an independent ancillary dataset better explained the volume of Eucalyptus spp. growing from coppices (adjusted R2 (R2Adj) = 0.54, RMSEP = 44.08 m3/ha), when compared with those that were planted (R2Adj = 0.43, RMSEP = 53.29 m3/ha). Similar results were also observed when SPOT 5 spectral bands were applied as an independent dataset, whereas improved volume estimates were produced when using combined dataset. For instance, planted Eucalyptus spp. were better predicted adjusted R2 (R2Adj) = 0.77, adjusted R2Adj = 0.59, RMSEP = 36.02 m3/ha) when compared with those that grow from coppices (R2 = 0.76, R2Adj = 0.46, RMSEP = 40.63 m3/ha). Overall, the findings of this study demonstrated the relevance of multi-source data in ecosystems modelling.

  14. How drought severity constrains gross primary production(GPP) and its partitioning among carbon pools in a Quercus ilex coppice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambal, S.; Lempereur, M.; Limousin, J. M.; Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Ourcival, J. M.; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, J.

    2014-12-01

    The partitioning of photosynthates toward biomass compartments plays a crucial role in the carbon (C) sink function of forests. Few studies have examined how carbon is allocated toward plant compartments in drought-prone forests. We analyzed the fate of gross primary production (GPP) in relation to yearly water deficit in an old evergreen Mediterranean Quercus ilex coppice severely affected by water limitations. Carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were measured with an eddy covariance flux tower running continuously since 2001. Discrete measurements of litterfall, stem growth and fAPAR allowed us to derive annual productions of leaves, wood, flowers and acorns, and an isometric relationship between stem and belowground biomass has been used to estimate perennial belowground growth. By combining eddy covariance fluxes with annual net primary productions (NPP), we managed to close a C budget and derive values of autotrophic, heterotrophic respirations and carbon-use efficiency (CUE; the ratio between NPP and GPP). Average values of yearly net ecosystem production (NEP), GPP and Reco were 282, 1259 and 977 g C m-2. The corresponding aboveground net primary production (ANPP) components were 142.5, 26.4 and 69.6 g C m-2 for leaves, reproductive effort (flowers and fruits) and stems, respectively. NEP, GPP and Reco were affected by annual water deficit. Partitioning to the different plant compartments was also impacted by drought, with a hierarchy of responses going from the most affected - the stem growth - to the least affected - the leaf production. The average CUE was 0.40, which is well in the range for Mediterranean-type forest ecosystems. CUE tended to decrease less drastically in response to drought than GPP and NPP did, probably due to drought acclimation of autotrophic respiration. Overall, our results provide a baseline for modeling the inter-annual variations of carbon fluxes and allocation in this widespread Mediterranean ecosystem, and

  15. Assessing Regional-Scale Impacts of Short Rotation Coppices on Ecosystem Services by Modeling Land-Use Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Jule; Frank, Karin; Priess, Joerg A; Meyer, Markus A

    2016-01-01

    Meeting the world's growing energy demand through bioenergy production involves extensive land-use change which could have severe environmental and social impacts. Second generation bioenergy feedstocks offer a possible solution to this problem. They have the potential to reduce land-use conflicts between food and bioenergy production as they can be grown on low quality land not suitable for food production. However, a comprehensive impact assessment that considers multiple ecosystem services (ESS) and biodiversity is needed to identify the environmentally best feedstock option, as trade-offs are inherent. In this study, we simulate the spatial distribution of short rotation coppices (SRCs) in the landscape of the Mulde watershed in Central Germany by modeling profit-maximizing farmers under different economic and policy-driven scenarios using a spatially explicit economic simulation model. This allows to derive general insights and a mechanistic understanding of regional-scale impacts on multiple ESS in the absence of large-scale implementation. The modeled distribution of SRCs, required to meet the regional demand of combined heat and power (CHP) plants for solid biomass, had little or no effect on the provided ESS. In the policy-driven scenario, placing SRCs on low or high quality soils to provide ecological focus areas, as required within the Common Agricultural Policy in the EU, had little effect on ESS. Only a substantial increase in the SRC production area, beyond the regional demand of CHP plants, had a relevant effect, namely a negative impact on food production as well as a positive impact on biodiversity and regulating ESS. Beneficial impacts occurred for single ESS. However, the number of sites with balanced ESS supply hardly increased due to larger shares of SRCs in the landscape. Regression analyses showed that the occurrence of sites with balanced ESS supply was more strongly driven by biophysical factors than by the SRC share in the landscape. This

  16. Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zewdie, Mulugeta; Olsson, Mats; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (W c ; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (W a ) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha -1 at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha -1 at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed

  17. Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zewdie, Mulugeta; Olsson, Mats; Verwijst, Theo [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology, P.O. Box 7043, 75007 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (W{sub c}; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (W{sub a}) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha{sup -1} at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha{sup -1} at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed. (author)

  18. Limitations for phytoextraction management on metal-polluted soils with poplar short rotation coppice-evidence from a 6-year field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, E; Annicaerta, B; De Moor, S; Van Nevel, L; De Fraeye, M; Meiresonne, L; Vangronsveld, J; Tack, F M G; Ok, Y S; Meers, Erik

    2018-01-02

    Poplar clones were studied for their phytoextraction capacity in the second growth cycle (6-year growth) on a site in the Belgian Campine region, which is contaminated with Cd and Zn via historic atmospheric deposition of nearby zinc smelter activities. The field trial revealed regrowth problems for some clones that could not be predicted in the first growth cycle. Four allometric relations were assessed for their capacity to predict biomass yield in the second growth cycle. A power function based on the shoot diameter best estimates the biomass production of poplar with R 2 values between 0.94 and 0.98. The woody biomass yield ranged from 2.1 to 4.8 ton woody Dry Mass (DM) ha -1 y -1 . The primary goal was to reduce soil concentrations of metals caused by phytoextraction. Nevertheless, increased metal concentrations were determined in the topsoil. This increase can partially be explained by the input of metals from deeper soil layers in the top soil through litterfall. The phytoextraction option with poplar short rotation coppice in this setup did not lead to the intended soil remediation in a reasonable time span. Therefore, harvest of the leaf biomass is put forward as a crucial part of the strategy for soil remediation through Cd/Zn phytoextraction.

  19. Allometric Models to Predict Aboveground Woody Biomass of Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. in Short Rotation Coppice in Previous Mining and Agricultural Areas in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Carl

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Black locust is a drought-resistant tree species with high biomass productivity during juvenility; it is able to thrive on wastelands, such as former brown coal fields and dry agricultural areas. However, research conducted on this species in such areas is limited. This paper aims to provide a basis for predicting tree woody biomass for black locust based on tree, competition, and site variables at 14 sites in northeast Germany that were previously utilized for mining or agriculture. The study areas, which are located in an area covering 320 km × 280 km, are characterized by a variety of climatic and soil conditions. Influential variables, including tree parameters, competition, and climatic parameters were considered. Allometric biomass models were employed. The findings show that the most important parameters are tree and competition variables. Different former land utilizations, such as mining or agriculture, as well as growth by cores or stumps, significantly influenced aboveground woody biomass production. The new biomass models developed as part of this study can be applied to calculate woody biomass production and carbon sequestration of Robinia pseudoacacia L. in short rotation coppices in previous mining and agricultural areas.

  20. Willow Short Rotation Coppice Trial in a Former Mining Area in Northern Spain: Effects of Clone, Fertilization and Planting Density on Yield after Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Castaño-Díaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A willow short rotation coppice (SRC trial was conducted on former mining land in northern Spain over a period of five years, with the purpose of evaluating the effects on yield of two planting densities (9876 and 14,815 cuttings ha−1, three treatments (control, two levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer (NPK plus weed control and three willow clones (Björn, Inger, Olof. The area was subsoiled, ploughed, harrowed and fertilized with NPK before trial establishment. A randomized block design was applied, with three replications of each treatment in a total of 54 plots, each of an area of 400 m2. The effects of the interactions between the various factors on yield and other growth parameters were also studied. The clone factor significantly affected the number of shoots per stool (greatest for the Inger clone and the Olof clone, which showed the lowest mortality rate and produced the largest trees and largest quantity of biomass. The combined application of fertilizer and herbicide also significantly increased the values of all response variables considered, except the mortality rate. The planting density did not significantly affect the response variables. Clone × treatment interactions were significant for the shoots per stool, height, diameter and biomass variables, and the Olof clone displayed the highest height and diameter growth and yield. The results obtained in the first rotation indicate that the Olof clone adapted well to the trial conditions and therefore would be appropriate for producing biomass in abandoned mine land in Asturias. These findings will help in the development of strategies for the establishment and management of SRC on marginal land.

  1. Potential benefits of commercial willow Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) for farm-scale plant and invertebrate communities in the agri-environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Rebecca L.; Hanley, Mick E.; Goulson, Dave; Clarke, Donna J.; Doncaster, C. Patrick; Taylor, Gail [University of Southampton, Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences Building, Southampton, S017 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The cultivation of bioenergy crops (BECs) represents a significant land-use change in agri-environments, but their deployment has raised important issues globally regarding possible impacts on biodiversity. Few studies however, have systematically examined the effect of commercial scale bioenergy plantations on biodiversity in agri-ecosystems. In this study we investigate how the abundance and diversity of two key components of farmland biodiversity (ground flora and winged invertebrates) varied between mature willow Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and two alternative land-use options (arable crops and set-aside land). Although the abundance of winged invertebrates was similar across all land-uses, taxonomic composition varied markedly. Hymenoptera and large Hemiptera (>5 mm) were more abundant in willow SRC than in arable or set-aside. Similarly although plant species richness was greater in set-aside, our data show that willow SRC supports a different plant community to the other land-uses, being dominated by competitive perennial species such as Elytrigia repens and Urtica dioica. Our results suggest that under current management practices a mixed farming system incorporating willow SRC can benefit native farm-scale biodiversity. In particular the reduced disturbance in willow SRC allows the persistence of perennial plant species, potentially providing a stable refuge and food sources for invertebrates. In addition, increased Hymenoptera abundance in willow SRC could potentially have concomitant effects on ecosystem processes, as many members of this Order are important pollinators of crop plants or otherwise fulfil an important beneficial role as predators or parasites of crop pests. (author)

  2. Short-rotation coppices. State of the realizability, organisation and a model for the evaluation of the production and supply of rapidly growing wood from short-rotation coppices als a biofuel for biomass-fuelled heating power stations in Bavaria; Kurzumtriebsplantagen. Stand der Umsetzbarkeit, Organisation und ein Modell zur oekonomischen Bewertung von Produktion und Bereitstellung schnell wachsenden Holzes aus Kurzumtriebsplantagen als biogener Festbrennstoff fuer Biomasse(heiz)kraftwerke in Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschlau, Helmut F

    2011-04-07

    The study examines most aspects of Short-rotation Coppice Crops (SRC), mainly from willows (Salix sp.) and poplars (Populus sp.), for energetic use in big biomass powerstations in Bavaria (southern Germany). In addition to the compilation of framework conditions concerning environmental and agrarian politics as well as legal issues, every link in the process chain of SRC will be considered - from planting to harvesting, treatment of the wood chips and Just-in-time delivery to the powerplant - followed by an evaluation of SRC in ecological terms. The basic aim of this study is to evaluate every single link with regard to organisational und economic issues, analysis of relevant markets and to develop a comprehensive calculation model for the amount of annuities of the whole process chain.

  3. Harvest and logistics for better profitability from small cultivations of Short Rotation Willow Coppice; Skoerdeteknik och logistik foer baettre loensamhet fraan smaa odlingar av Salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baky, Andras; Forsberg, Maya; Rosenqvist, Haakan; Jonsson, Nils; Sundberg, Martin

    2010-06-15

    In Sweden, the political desire to increase the amount of short rotation willow coppice (Salix) plantations has been expressed. However, for various reasons interest from farmers has been low. The hypothesis of this study is that the total area of Salix cultivation can be increased by also cultivating fields smaller than those generally considered economic today. In order to lower production costs, machine systems adapted for harvest of smaller fields are required. The possibility of using farmers' existing tractors and more convenient machines, as well as achieving lower machine costs for smaller fields, may increase farmers' interest. The long-term objective is to achieve large-scale deliveries of willow with small-scale solutions at farm level, as an option and complement to today's more large-scale systems for harvesting willow. Costs, energy use and climatic impact (CO{sub 2} emissions) for two harvest and logistical chains suitable for small fields have been calculated from field to energy plant, and methods for minimizing these costs have been analyzed. Comparison is made with the direct chipping system, the most commonly used in Sweden today. The systems studied comprised: 1. Direct bundling harvest system with a tractor-towed harvester, collection of bundles in the field with a trailer-mounted crane, and storage in a pile before delivery. Chipping is performed at the energy plant. 2. Direct billeting with a tractor-towed harvester accompanied simultaneously by a tractor and trailer for collection, and storage in a pile before delivery. 3. Direct chipping with a self-propelled modified forage harvester accompanied simultaneously by a tractor and container for collection, and direct delivery to plant. Both the billet and bundle systems show higher costs than the direct chipping system, irrespective of field size. The analysis of different scenarios and conditions shows possibilities of lowering the costs through certain measures. Furthermore

  4. Comparison of anatomical properties of non-coppiced and coppiced wood in six Eucalyptus genotypes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zbonak, A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available beneath the bark are known as “coppice”. These grow using the same root system that had been developed for planted trees. Fibre and vessel characteristics in wood are important features since they strongly affect the quality and performance of the final...

  5. Comparison of assimilation parameters of coppiced and non-coppiced sessile oaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holišová, Petra; Pietras, Justyna; Dařenová, Eva; Novosadová, Kateřina; Pokorný, Radek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, AUG (2016), s. 553-559 ISSN 1971-7458 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Drought * Photosynthesis * Seedlings * Sprouts Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.623, year: 2016

  6. Initial spacing of poplars and willows grown as arable coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, A.; Johns, C.

    1997-11-01

    Two clones of poplar and two clones of willow were grown at two sites, on a three year cutting cycle, at six different square spacings, between 0.8 metres and 1.5 metres. The two willow clones 'Bowles hybrid' and 'Dasyclados' were planted at both sites. The poplar clones Populus interamericana 'Beaupre' and Populus trichocarpa 'Columbia River'' were planted at Wishanger in Hampshire. The poplar clones Populus interamericana 'Boelare' and Populus trichocarpa 'Trichobel' were planted at Downham Market in Norfolk. The highest yield of 17.55 oven dry tonnes per hectare (odt/ha/annum) was obtained from 'Bowles hybrid', at the closest spacing, grown on a water meadow adjacent to the River Wey at Wishanger. The highest yield for all clones at both sites was achieved at the closest spacing (in this first rotation). There was a significant linear effect. One of the most interesting observations was that when comparing the gradient of the linear relationship, within species, the gradient was steeper for the higher yielding clone. This was particularly so for the willows. This would suggest that higher yielding clones are more tolerant of crowding, or, that upright Salix viminalis make better use of close space than the more spreading Salix dasyclados. The new Salix x Salix schwerinnii hybrids should therefore also be responsive to closer spacing. The same effect was observed for the poplars at Wishanger only, but the difference was not as dramatic. There was a suggestion from the highest yielding poplar plots that optimum yield may still be obtained at the currently recommended spacing of 1.0 metre x 1.0 metre. (author)

  7. Interaction in Short rotation coppice willow, Salix viminalis genotype mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begley, D. [Department of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); McCracken, A.R. [Applied Plant Science and Biometrics Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, 18A Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)]|[Northern Ireland Horticulture and Plant Breeding Station, Applied Plant Science and Biometrics Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Loughgall, Co., Armagh BT61 8JB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Dawson, W.M. [Northern Ireland Horticulture and Plant Breeding Station, Applied Plant Science and Biometrics Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Loughgall, Co., Armagh BT61 8JB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Watson, S. [Applied Plant Science and Biometrics Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, 18A Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Seven straight Salix viminalis genotypes with different levels of rust (Melampsora epitea) susceptibility were grown as mono-plots as well as being incorporated into a range of mixtures. Two 3-year harvests (2003 and 2006) were taken. Disease progress was followed on each of the individual genotypes throughout each growing season 2001-2006. In 2003 there were small but significant yield increases from the mixtures compared to the yield of individual components grown as mono-plots. These differences were not evident at the second harvest in 2006. No consistent effect of mixtures on reducing rust on the most susceptible genotype, Salix viminalis '77082' were observed. In some years, e.g. 2003, at certain times during the growing season, significant reductions were observed on Salix viminalis '77082' in certain 3-way mixtures compared to mono-plots. These, however, were not repeated consistently in subsequent years. It was concluded that the current commercial practice in many parts of Europe of planting mixtures as a disease control strategy will only be effective if there is sufficient genetic diversity between the Salix genotypes incorporated into the mixture. (author)

  8. The practical use of short rotation coppice in land restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulson, M.; Bardos, P.; Harmsen, J.; Wilczek, J.; Barton, M.; Edwards, D.

    2003-01-01

    A potential for synergy exists between organic waste recycling, biomass production and long-term risk management for contaminated land, particularly where the immediate economic case for reuse of the land is marginal. The possibility of income generation from waste management activities and biomass

  9. Environmental influence of willow coppice systems on farm land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledin, S.

    1997-01-01

    As for all cultivated crops, there are numerous environmental influences when growing willows. These influences are connected with additions to the soil, management measures and changes caused by the developing crop. As a perennial crop with good root penetration into the soil, high water use and efficient nutrient uptake over a long growing season, short rotation forests with willows have an influence on the environment that differs from the influence of annual farm crops. Also the landscape is affected differently by the dense willow stand with a height of seven meters before harvest. There is usually less use of herbicides in the perennial woody crop. Due to larger amounts of litter from the willow plantation and no tillage, there is with time an increase of the humus content in the soil. In relation to this, the soil fauna, using organic material for food, prosper in the short rotation forest. Considerably more cadmium is taken up by the willows than by conventional annual crops. This could be used to clean the soil of cadmium, but more knowledge is needed for the optimisation of this procedure. Willows are usually efficient in taking up nutrients, including nitrogen, but when used as vegetation filters it is important to assess the actual ability of a stand to take up N. This ability varies considerably with the development stage of the plantation and also with site conditions. (au) 30 refs

  10. Coppicing evaluation of short rotation coppice in the southeast of the U.S. to determine appropriate harvesting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael Santiago; Tom Gallagher; Matthew Smidt; Dana Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Renewable fuels are being tested as an alternative for fossil fuels. For the Southeast U.S., the use of woody biomass has proven to be an excellent source of renewable energy in terms of cost benefit and availability. Short rotation woody crops (SRWC) are timber plantations with exclusive characteristics that can meet the intensive demand for wood due to their fast...

  11. An evaluation of the optimum timing for planting short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D.J.; Jefferies, R.; Parfitt, R.

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to determine the optimum timing for planting, evaluate problems due to late planting in the spring, and to study the planting of willows at different times during the autumn. Details are given of the site installation, previous research on the effect of planting date and storage, and assessment of the establishment and biomass productivity and the viability of cuttings in long-term storage. Charts illustrating biomass productivity are presented, and long-term storage of willow cuttings for autumn planting is discussed.

  12. Different harvest intensity and soil CO2 efflux in sessile oak coppice forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dařenová, Eva; Majtaz, C.; Pavelka, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, feb (2016), s. 546-552 ISSN 1971-7458 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Low Forest * Soil Moisture * Soil Respiration * Temperature Dependence Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.623, year: 2016

  13. An evaluation of harvesting machinery for short rotation coppice willow in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Spinelli, R.

    1997-12-31

    During the harvesting seasons 1994-1995 and 1995-1996 several harvesting trials were carried out within the EU project on harvesting and storage of Short Rotation Crops and within a national project. During this period the following machines were investigated: Diemelstadt poplar harvester, cut and chip; Claas forage harvester with SRF header, cut and chip; Austoft sugarcane harvester, adapted to SRF, cut and chip; Bender II, cut and chip; Hvidsted Energy Allrounder, whole shoot harvester; Dansalix whole shoot harvester. In the 1994-1995 season the intention was to harvest 300 tonnes of whole shoots, chunks and chips for a storage trial. The main conclusions of the 1994-1995 harvesting season must be that harvesting willow with the existing machines in wet winters without frozen ground is very difficult. The machines will have to be developed further and special interest should be given to developing shuttle vehicles with the same flotation as the tracked harvester. Several of the problems encountered with the machines in Denmark were confirmed by the experience in the other trials. Road transportation of chips from SRF plantations is just as expensive as transporting energy chips from the forest at about Dkr 50 per tonne over 48 km. Transporting whole shoots is very expensive due to the low bulk density. Transportation of whole shoots over 48 km costs on the average Dkr 133 per tonne fresh. A very short pilot study into chipping of whole shoots from a three metre high pile indicated that this comminution with a normal forest chipper has a low productivity (8.9 tonnes fresh per work place hour) and is very expensive at Dkr 157 per tonne. This productivity can be improved by equipping the chipper with a special feeding table and better feed rollers for the SRF crop. (EG)

  14. Non-random extinctions dominate plant community changes in abandoned coppices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Martin; Hédl, Radim; Szabó, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2013), s. 79-87 ISSN 0021-8901 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812 Grant - others: ERC - European Union(XE) FP7/2007-2013 ERC no. 278065 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : long-term changes * taxonomic homogenization * temporal nestedness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.754, year: 2013

  15. Coppice abandonment and its implications for species diversity in forest vegetation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müllerová, Jana; Hédl, Radim; Szabó, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 343, May 1 (2015), s. 88-100 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : conversation * forest management * history Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.826, year: 2015

  16. Water requirements of short rotation poplar coppice: Experimental and modelling analyses across Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, Milan; Zenone, T.; Trnka, Miroslav; Orság, Matěj; Montagnani, L.; Ward, E. J.; Tripathi, Abishek; Hlavinka, Petr; Seufert, G.; Žalud, Zdeněk; King, J.; Ceulemans, R.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 250, MAR (2018), s. 343-360 ISSN 0168-1923 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : energy-balance closure * dual crop coefficient * radiation use efficiency * simulate yield response * below-ground carbon * vs. 2nd rotation * flux data * biomass production * forest model * stand-scale * Bioenergy * Bowen ratio and energy balance * Crop coefficient * Eddy covariance * Evapotranspiration * Water balance Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy OBOR OECD: Agriculture Impact factor: 3.887, year: 2016

  17. Integrating conservation objectives into forest management: coppice management and forest habitats in Natura 2000 sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mairota, P.; Buckley, P.; Suchomel, C.; Heinsoo, K.; Verheyen, K.; Hédl, Radim; Terzuolo, P. G.; Sindaco, R.; Carpanelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, AUG 2016 (2016), s. 560-568 ISSN 1971-7458 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodiversity * habitats directive * forest habitat types Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.623, year: 2016

  18. Determination of the Annual Shading Potential of Salix Purpurea Coppice using Hemispherical Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, G.; Weihs, P.; Stockreiter, L.; Hoffmann, E.

    2012-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to achieve a good ecological potential and good surface water chemical status for all surface waters. Widely constant shading with riparian vegetation is the potential natural plant cover condition and plays a key role by the implementation of the WFD. The shading effect of vegetation is considered to be particularly relevant for small and medium sized rivers with slow flow velocity. Soil Bioengineering measures effect technical (e.g. soil protection), ecological and socio-economical issues on river systems. Positive ecological effects are based on the development of the used plants and result among others in shading of the water body. Natural bank vegetation provides very important niches for terrestrial and aquatic stages and reduces the incident solar radiation up to 95%. Consequently large riparian wooded areas form a microclimate that leads to a decrease of water temperature or prevent an increase. They even reduce evaporation and increase the relative air humidity which contributes to reducing water temperature and enlarges the oxygen uptake capacity. Accordingly the daily variations of temperature and those of oxygen content are definitely lower in vegetated areas. This issue is especially important considering climate change scenarios with increasing water temperatures. From an ecological point of view it is essential to quantify the processes. There are different ways to characterize densities of vegetation. Most of them - such as the method by Braun-Blanquet and Londo - rely on estimations of the dominance of species. Applying this kind of procedures on riparian vegetation result in uncertainties due to the strong variations in height and densities. Hemispherical photographs are a standardized method in forest ecology under more or less uniform forest stand conditions. However it is now hardly used for riparian vegetation stands. Questions that will be addressed are the determination of annual stand densities in terms of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and the corresponding incident solar radiation energy reaching a shaded water surface (Global Site Factor). Responding to these questions a two year old natural stand of Salix purpurea was monitored. The growth of riparian vegetation and the correlation to solar transmission during different phenological phases are measured periodically with radiation sensors. LAI is investigated using hemispherical photographs. Analysis is done with the software Hemiview and Gap Light Analyser (GLA). Results show discrepancies between analysis with the software programs and measurements. Altogether, the variability and the trends of both are similar: the same daily and annual changes can be seen.

  19. Modelling supply and demand of bioenergy from short rotation coppice and Miscanthus in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauen, A W; Dunnett, A J; Richter, G M; Dailey, A G; Aylott, M; Casella, E; Taylor, G

    2010-11-01

    Biomass from lignocellulosic energy crops can contribute to primary energy supply in the short term in heat and electricity applications and in the longer term in transport fuel applications. This paper estimates the optimal feedstock allocation of herbaceous and woody lignocellulosic energy crops for England and Wales based on empirical productivity models. Yield maps for Miscanthus, willow and poplar, constrained by climatic, soil and land use factors, are used to estimate the potential resource. An energy crop supply-cost curve is estimated based on the resource distribution and associated production costs. The spatial resource model is then used to inform the supply of biomass to geographically distributed demand centres, with co-firing plants used as an illustration. Finally, the potential contribution of energy crops to UK primary energy and renewable energy targets is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Economic assessment of flash co-pyrolysis of short rotation coppice and biopolymer waste streams

    OpenAIRE

    KUPPENS, Tom; CORNELISSEN, Tom; CARLEER, Robert; YPERMAN, Jan; SCHREURS, Sonja; JANS, Maarten; THEWYS, Theo

    2010-01-01

    The disposal problem associated with phytoextraction of farmland polluted with heavy metals by means of willow requires a biomass conversion technique which meets both ecological and economical needs. Combustion and gasification of willow require special and costly flue gas treatment to avoid re-emission of the metals in the atmosphere, whereas flash pyrolysis mainly results in the production of (almost) metal free bio-oil with a relatively high water content. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass an...

  1. Economic assessment of flash co-pyrolysis of short rotation coppice and biopolymer waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, T; Cornelissen, T; Carleer, R; Yperman, J; Schreurs, S; Jans, M; Thewys, T

    2010-12-01

    The disposal problem associated with phytoextraction of farmland polluted with heavy metals by means of willow requires a biomass conversion technique which meets both ecological and economical needs. Combustion and gasification of willow require special and costly flue gas treatment to avoid re-emission of the metals in the atmosphere, whereas flash pyrolysis mainly results in the production of (almost) metal free bio-oil with a relatively high water content. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass and waste of biopolymers synergistically improves the characteristics of the pyrolysis process: e.g. reduction of the water content of the bio-oil, more bio-oil and less char production and an increase of the HHV of the oil. This research paper investigates the economic consequences of the synergistic effects of flash co-pyrolysis of 1:1 w/w ratio blends of willow and different biopolymer waste streams via cost-benefit analysis and Monte Carlo simulations taking into account uncertainties. In all cases economic opportunities of flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with biopolymer waste are improved compared to flash pyrolysis of pure willow. Of all the biopolymers under investigation, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most promising, followed by Eastar, Biopearls, potato starch, polylactic acid (PLA), corn starch and Solanyl in order of decreasing profits. Taking into account uncertainties, flash co-pyrolysis is expected to be cheaper than composting biopolymer waste streams, except for corn starch. If uncertainty increases, composting also becomes more interesting than flash co-pyrolysis for waste of Solanyl. If the investment expenditure is 15% higher in practice than estimated, the preference for flash co-pyrolysis compared to composting biopolymer waste becomes less clear. Only when the system of green current certificates is dismissed, composting clearly is a much cheaper processing technique for disposing of biopolymer waste. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Seasonal variations in furfural yield of some species of coppice and Mediterranean maquis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidrich, V.; Cecconi, C.A.; Martini, R.; Pazzagli, G.; Fusi, P.

    1982-01-01

    Studies were made with the object of complete utilization of forest residues. They showed that Quercus cerris, Myrtus species and Phyllirea species from the Maremma region of Tuscany, and Q. pubescens and Rhamnus alaternus from the Montecatini region of the province were suitable for economic exploitation. For all these species, the normal cutting time coincided with the optimum yield of furfural. 11 references.

  3. Experimental restoration of coppice-with-standards: Response of understorey vegetation from the conservation perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vild, Ondřej; Roleček, Jan; Hédl, Radim; Kopecký, Martin; Utinek, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 310, Dec 2013 (2013), s. 234-241 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0267 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : restoration experiment * endangered species * traditional woodland management Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.667, year: 2013

  4. Growth-Climate Response of Young Turkey Oak (Quercus cerris L. Coppice Forest Stands along Longitudinal Gradient in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merita Stafasani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. is the most widespread species in Albania and less investigated from dendroclimatological point of view. Previous studies have reported that Q. cerris is sensitive to the environment when growing at different latitudes and ecological conditions. Based on this fact we have explored the response of different Q. cerris populations located along the longitudinal gradient. Materials and Methods: The stem discs were sampled from six sites (Kukes, Diber, Rreshen, Ulez, Elbasan, Belsh along longitudinal gradient ranging from north-east to central Albania. All oak forests stands grow under the influence of specific local Mediterranean climate. Tree-ring widths were measured to the nearest 0.001 mm using a linear table, LINTAB and the TSAP-Win program. Following the standard dendrochronological procedures residual tree-ring width chronologies were built for each site. Statistical parameters commonly used in dendrochronology were calculated for each site chronology. Relations between the tree-ring chronologies were explored using Hierarchical Factor Classification (HFC and Principal Component Analysis (PCA, while the radial growth-climate relationship was analyzed through correlation analysis using a 19-month window from April in the year prior to tree-ring formation (year t - 1 until October in the year of growth (year t. Results and Conclusions: The length of the site chronologies ranged from 16 to 36 years, with the Elbasan site chronology being the longest and the Belsh site chronology the shortest one. Trees at lower elevation were younger than trees at higher elevation. Statistical parameters (mean sensitivity (MS and auto correlation (AC of site chronologies were different among them and lower values of AC1 showed a weaker dependence of radial growth from climatic conditions of the previous growing year. Principal component analysis showed that Belsh, Rreshen and Elbasan site chronologies were clustered in the first principal component accounted 36.6% of the total variance. The HFC indicated grouping of the site chronologies in two clusters, where Belsh, Rreshen and Elbasan site chronologies were grouped in the first cluster while Kukes, Diber and Ulez in the second one, confirming the results previously provided from PCA. The dendroclimatological analyses showed that the positive moisture balance in current April and previous September was the dominant climatic factor favoring the radial growth of Q. cerris in Albania.

  5. Dry matter losses and quality changes during short rotation coppice willow storage in chip or rod form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Carly; Yates, Nicola E; Powers, Stephen J; Misselbrook, Tom; Shield, Ian

    2018-05-01

    This study compares dry matter losses and quality changes during the storage of SRC willow as chips and as rods. A wood chip stack consisting of approximately 74 tonnes of fresh biomass, or 31 tonnes dry matter (DM) was built after harvesting in the spring. Three weeks later, four smaller stacks of rods with an average weight of 0.8 tonnes, or 0.4 tonnes DM were built. During the course of the experiment temperature recorders placed in the stacks found that the wood chip pile reached 60 °C within 10 days of construction, but the piles of rods remained mostly at ambient temperatures. Dry matter losses were calculated by using pre-weighed independent samples within the stacks and by weighing the whole stack before and after storage. After 6 months the wood chip stack showed a DM loss of between 19.8 and 22.6%, and mean losses of 23.1% were measured from the 17 independent samples. In comparison, the rod stacks showed an average stack DM loss of between 0 and 9%, and between 1.4% and 10.6% loss from the independent samples. Analysis of the stored material suggests that storing willow in small piles of rods produces a higher quality fuel in terms of lower moisture and ash content; however, it has a higher fine content compared to storage in chip form. Therefore, according to the two storage methods tested here, there may be a compromise between maximising the net dry matter yield from SRC willow and the final fine content of the fuel.

  6. Biophysical drivers of the carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy exchanges of a short-rotation poplar coppice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zenone, T.; Fischer, Milan; Arriga, N.; Broeckx, Laura S.; Verlinden, M. S.; Vanbeveren, S.; Zona, D.; Ceulemans, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 209, sep (2015), s. 22-35 ISSN 0168-1923 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12037; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0256 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : bioenergy crop * carbon uptake * evapotranspiration * surface conductance * leaf area index * omega factor * decoupling Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.461, year: 2015

  7. Long-term yield effects of establishment method and weed control in willow for short rotation coppice (SRC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ugilt; Jørgensen, Uffe; Kjeldsen, Jens Bonderup

    2014-01-01

    matter (DM) yield was measured over 6 harvest rotations corresponding to 16 years. In 1st rotation, yield differed significantly between establishment methods with highest yield for 1.8 m rods (10.4 Mg ha−1 year−1), intermediate yield for cuttings and 0.2 m billets (8.6 and 8.5 Mg ha−1 year−1...... establishment methods; 1) vertical planting of standard 0.2 m cuttings; 2) horizontal planting of 0.1 m billets; 3) horizontal planting of 0.2 m billets; 4) horizontal planting of 1.8 m rods. All establishment methods were combined with mechanical and chemical weed control during the establishment year. Dry......, respectively) and lowest for 0.1 m billets (5.6 Mg ha−1 year−1). No differences were found in 2nd rotation. Over 1st and 2nd rotation, mechanical weed control resulted in significantly lower yield than chemical control when combined with 0.1 m billets. Cuttings and 1.8 m rods were compared over 1st, 2nd, 3rd...

  8. Transpiration and water potential of young Quercus petraea (M.) Liebl. coppice sprouts and seedlings during favourable and drought conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojanović, Marko; Szatniewska, Justyna; Kyselová, Ina; Pokorný, R.; Čater, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 7 (2017), s. 313-323 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : sessile oak * management system * comparison * sap flow * leaf water potential * water availability Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/web/jfs.htm?type=article&id=36_2017-JFS

  9. Willow clones with high biomass yield in short rotation coppice in the southern region of Tohoku district (Japan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, Yu; Seto, Shoko; Nishio, Mari; Minato, Kazuya; Ishizawa, Kimiharu; Satoh, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to select willow (Salix spp.) clones with a high potential for use as biomass energy crops in the southern region of Tohoku district in Japan. Cuttings of 8 willow clones were planted on an abandoned farmland near Sendai (av. annual temp., 10.9 o C) in March 2006, grown throughout the year and cut back in late December 2006 to resprout from the remaining stools in March 2007. The biomass yield in December 2007, after the first growing season, was highest in Salix pet-susu clone KKD, followed by Salix pseudolinearis clone FXM and Salix sachalinensis clone SEN. The biomass yield on December 2008, after the second growing season, was again highest in clone KKD followed by clone FXM, S. pet-susu clone HB471 and S. sachalinensis clone SEN; the average annual yield of dry mass after the second growing season being 3.09, 2.58, 2.17 and 1.85 kgDM plant -1 for the clones in this order. Plant growth form differed among the clones. Clones FXM and SEN had several shoots of almost uniform base diameter, whereas clones KKD and HB471 showed plagiotropic growth with one thick and several thin shoots. The calorific values of dried stem segments were similar among clones, ranging from 18.7 to 19.1 kJ g -1 . The dried stem segments contained 78.9-81.2 wt.% hollocellulose, 27.2-32.3 wt.% lignin and 2.1-4.0 wt.% extractives with ethanol-benzene, depending on clones. Based on these results, we could select four clones (KKD, FXM, HB471 and SEN) suitable for biomass production by SRWC in this area.

  10. Replacement of steel cable with synthetic rope in mountain logging operations in Castanea sativa Mill. coppice stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Canga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The objective of this study was to evaluate skidding from stump area to roadside with a tracked skidder (Caterpillar 3DG XL using two different types of cable (steel or synthetic.Area of study: NW of Spain.Material and methods: A time study was performed to calculate productivity for the two types of cable and two regression models were fitted to predict the productive and cycle time of the tracked skidder.Research highlights: An increase of 12.53% in productivity (m3/SMH and improvements in working conditions using synthetic rope were found.Keywords: Chestnut; synthetic rope; time study; tracked skidder.

  11. Willow coppice systems in short rotation forestry: effects of plant spacing, rotation length and clonal composition on biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willebrand, E.; Ledin, S.; Verwijst, T. (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research)

    1993-01-01

    Above ground biomass production was determined for ten Salix clones grown in pure and mixed stands at a square spacing of 1 m and seven rotation periods (1 to 6 and 8 years), and of one clone grown at four square spacings (0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 1 m), with rotation cycles of 1 to 5 years. Most clones reached a maximum mean annual increment (8 to 14 tons dry matter ha[sup -1] yr[sup -1]) under a rotation period of 4 to 5 years. Densely spaced stands exhibited a higher production than wider spacings during the first harvests under the shortest rotation periods. Neither in later harvests of short cycles (1 to 3 years) nor in any harvests of longer cycles (> 3 years) did spacing affect biomass production. Some clones suffered from leaf rust and grazing by roe deer. Clone mixtures showed a higher biomass production in the later stages due to the compensatory effect of the successful clones which, when growing in mixtures, could fill out the gaps left by individuals that suffered from impacts other than competition. We conclude that extremely short rotations (1 to 2 years) are unsuitable for Swedish conditions, and that 4- to 6-year rotations perform best. In such longer rotations, biomass production of stands with 2 x 10[sup 4] plants per hectare equals the production of denser stands. (Author)

  12. Fertilization of Willow Coppice Over Three Consecutive 2-Year Rotations—Effects on Biomass Production, Soil Nutrients and Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Petros; Sevel, Lisbeth; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    production was determined at harvest, soil solution samples were collected monthly, water fluxes were modelled using CoupModel and nutrient budgets were calculated. The unfertilized control had a mean biomass production of 8.3, 8.3 and 9.5 odt ha−1 year−1, respectively, in the three rotations. This indicated...

  13. Biomass traits and candidate genes for bioenergy revealed through association genetics in coppiced European Populus nigra (L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allwright, Mike Robert; Payne, Adrienne; Emiliani, Giovanni; Milner, Suzanne; Viger, Maud; Rouse, Franchesca; Keurentjes, Joost J.B.; Bérard, Aurélie; Wildhagen, Henning; Faivre-Rampant, Patricia; Polle, Andrea; Morgante, Michele; Taylor, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Background: Second generation (2G) bioenergy from lignocellulosic feedstocks has the potential to develop as a sustainable source of renewable energy; however, significant hurdles still remain for large-scale commercialisation. Populus is considered as a promising 2G feedstock and understanding

  14. Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph N.T. Darbah; Wendy S. Jones; Andrew J. Burton; John Nagy; Mark E. Kubiske

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O3) concentration (110-490 nmol mol-1) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O3 pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine...

  15. economic assessment of two selected non-timber forest products in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aladex

    forest product commonly used for domestic and industrial energy generation. ... continue to depend on wood because bringing oil, gas and electricity within their .... coppicing and coppice trees are normally harvested in rotational patches ...

  16. The Response of Basal Area Increment in Old Sprout-origin Sessile Oak (Quercus petraea (Matt. Liebl. Trees During Their Conversion to a Coppice-with-standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Adamec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the response of adult sprout-origin sessile oaks (Quercus petraea (Matt. Liebl. to a strong release. Our research plot was established at the Training Forest Enterprise of Mendel University in Brno (Czech Republic at the turn of 2008/2009. The plot is situated on a plateau with mesotrofic soil in a beech-oak forest vegetation zone at an altitude of 410 m above sea level. Tree responses were monitored using precise girth measurements. During the first year after the release, the basal area increment showed a positive correlation with only the tree diameter. During the second and third year, the basal area increment was also correlated with the release intensity. During the third year, the basal area increment was explained by the tree diameter, the crown shape, and the release intensity as well as individual types of epicormic shoot occurrence. The occurrence of epicormic shoots in the lower part of the trunks and umbel-shaped crowns increased the basal area increment. In the first, second and third year after thinning, the model explained 11.79%, 11.25% and 28.99%, respectively, of the basal area increment variability. Adult trees of sprout origin responded to a strong release very early (within two years after felling.

  17. Short rotation willow coppice for renewable energy and improved environment. Proceedings of a joint Swedish - Estonian seminar on energy forestry and vegetation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perttu, K.; Koppel, A.

    1996-01-01

    The overall aim of the present seminar was to present and discuss results from the joint Swedish - Estonian energy forestry research activities during the period of 1993-1995 and to publish the papers in a technical report. The results is a publication, presenting interesting methods and results, and is meant partly to serve as the final report of the joint efforts during the period mentioned, partly to be used for future planning of new projects and for application of funding for a continued cooperation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all of the 17 papers in the report

  18. Evaluation of Indirect Measurement Method of Seasonal Patterns of Leaf Area Index in a High-Density Short Rotation Coppice Culture of Poplar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tripathi, Abishek; Fischer, Milan; Orság, Matěj; Marek, Michal V.; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2016), s. 549-556 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13030; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : SunScan Plant Canopy Analyzer * litterfall * specific leaf area * poplar clone J-105 Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy

  19. Shoot allometry and biomass productivity in poplar and willow varieties grown as short rotation coppice. Summary of results 1995-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, R.; Henshall, P.; Tubby, I.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a 4 year study assessing shoot diameters and lengths using non-destructive measurements in order to establish allometric relationships between biomass and non-destructive measurements and also to provide estimates of increments for the development of a model of short rotation cultivation growth and yield. Details are given of the basic methodology and measurement conventions; the data preparation, quality assurance classification and storage; and shoot diameter and length assessments and allometry analyses.

  20. Potential and limitations of local tree ring records in estimating a priori the growth performance of short-rotation coppice plantations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Miroslav; Fischer, Milan; Bartošová, Lenka; Orság, Matěj; Kyncl, T.; Ceulemans, R.; King, J.R.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 92, sep (2016), s. 12-19 ISSN 0961-9534 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13030 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : dendroecology * plantation site selection * populus nigra * poplar hybrid * weather-growth relationship Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.219, year: 2016

  1. A comparison between excavator-based harvester productivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the labour challenges in South Africa, mechanised forestry equipment has increasingly been required to operate in complex forest conditions – such as coppiced Eucalyptus compartments – where they have not operated before. For this reason, harvesters are either used in certain coppiced compartments with ...

  2. First rotation Eucalyptus macarthurii cut stump control in KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many cold tolerant eucalypts, E. macarthurii in particular, coppice vigorously following harvesting, and in contrast to E. grandis are proving difficult to kill by existing cut stump control methods. Based on past research, selected cut stump treatments were tested on single stem E. macarthurii trees, that had not been coppiced, ...

  3. Wood for fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, D

    1986-01-01

    Growing wood for energy could contribute three million tonnes of coal equivalent per year by the end of the century. Research programmes in the UK involved with energy forestry are reported. Three systems of wood energy, modified conventional forestry, single stem timber cropping and short rotation coppicing are being investigated. The short rotation coppicing requires inputs similar to those of agricultural crops and the machinery geared towards agricultural operations is compatible with it. Single stem forestry has a medium rotation period of 20 years. The production of coppice wood fuels is discussed in further detail for different parts of the UK with recommendations for species selection and adaption of existing farming practices. A coppice willow harvester has been developed for harvesting during November - February. Weed control and fertilizer application are also briefly mentioned.

  4. Farmers' current attitudes to energy forestry in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranter, R.B.; Carruthers, S.P.; Jones, P.J.; Miller, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the project were twofold: first, to assess the current level of interest in energy coppice among farmers in GB and, hence, its present potential as a farm enterprise; and, second, to gauge the effects of any changes in the agricultural situation and in the 'state-of-the-art' of energy coppice that have occurred since a similar study was carried out some five years ago. (Author)

  5. Utilization of forest biomass for energy production and industrial purposes. Final report. Utilizzazione della biomassa dei boschi cedui per energia e per usi industriali. Rapporto finale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaramuzzi, G

    1985-01-01

    The project is part of a larger one promoted by the Italian Agency for Cellulose and Paper (E.N.C.C.) for an enhanced utilization of coppice forests in Italy. It concerns a Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) stand in Calabria. Stand characteristics and results of harvesting trials, first after-felling observations and technological investigations are reported. Results of an estimate of coppice forests biomass availability and of possibilities of expanding its use for energy are also given. Machinery damage to stumps was greatly reduced (1.7% of high-damaged stumps) by sprouts concentration by skyline. Sprouts weight appeared as a major factor affecting harvesting yield, Harvesting costs varied with different stand and terrain characteristics from 28,000 to 39,500 It. liras/t. Because of the high transport costs, the use of current coppice forests biomass is restricted within a short distance from the harvesting area. Industrial trials for fiberboard and paper pulp production from coppice whole-tree chipped biomass proved the possibility of its use in mixture with current raw material up to 75% for fiberboard production and up to 35-50% for corrugated paper pulp production. Relative expansion possibilities of coppice forest biomass consumption for energy were estimated, mainly localized in the central-northern Appennine and the Alpine areas. Given the permanence of a high convenience for its home consumption, wide development programs for coppice biomass industrial use for energy appear to be inconvenient. On the other hand, its use by local communities (schools, hospital, etc.) might be incentived in particular areas with high coppice production potential far from wood industries.

  6. Changes in the forest vegetation of Switzerland in consequence of nutrient accumulation from the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, N.; Amiet, R.; Hufschmid, N.

    1987-01-01

    Comparisons between earlier and present-day releves in ten near-to-natural grown-out coppices with standards in northern Switzerland and nine former coppice forests and coppices with standards in the Geneva basin reveal drastic species losses in the herb and shrub layers and changes in the species composition of all layers. Application of indicator values of vascular plants according to Ellenberg (1979) shows, for almost all stands, an increase in nitrogen figures accompanied by a decrease in light figures. These results indicate considerable nutrient accumulation. In the absence of other fertiliser sources in the forest, it must be concluded that the supply originates from the atmosphere. In addition to nutrient accumulation, the floristic analysis reveals indications of excessive addition of acids in individual stands or parts of forest ecosystems. However, in the majority of the stands, particularly in the Geneva basin, there is an increase in lime indicators evidenced in an increase of the reaction figure.

  7. Yield models for Eucalyptus globulus fuelwood plantations in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pukkala, T.; Pohjonen, V. (Joensuu Univ. (FI). Faculty of Forestry)

    1990-01-01

    Based on 53 tree analyses and 105 sample plots of Eucalyptus globulus, models for volume and biomass at single tree and stand levels were developed. The possible growing sites were divided into four site classes. In seedling stands, the site class I corresponds to yield class 44 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}, in coppice stands to yield class 46 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}. The site class IV corresponds in seedling stand to yield class 9 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}, in coppice stands to yield class 13 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}. The maximum mean annual increment was reached in seedling stands at the age of 18-19 years, in coppice stands at the age of 14 years. (author).

  8. A common-garden study of resource-island effects on a native and an exotic, annual grass after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Amber N.; Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Plant-soil variation related to perennial-plant resource islands (coppices) interspersed with relatively bare interspaces is a major source of heterogeneity in desert rangelands. Our objective was to determine how native and exotic grasses vary on coppice mounds and interspaces (microsites) in unburned and burned sites and underlying factors that contribute to the variation in sagebrush-steppe rangelands of the Idaho National Lab, where interspaces typically have abiotic crusts. We asked how the exotic cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and native bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Löve) were distributed among the microsites and measured their abundances in three replicate wildfires and nearby unburned areas. We conducted a common-garden study in which soil cores from each burned microsite type were planted with seed of either species to determine microsite effects on establishment and growth of native and exotic grasses. We assessed soil physical properties in the common-garden study to determine the intrinsic properties of each microsite surface and the retention of microsite soil differences following transfer of soils to the garden, to plant growth, and to wetting/drying cycles. In the field study, only bluebunch wheatgrass density was greater on coppice mounds than interspaces, in both unburned and burned areas. In the common-garden experiment, there were microsite differences in soil physical properties, particularly in crust hardness and its relationship to moisture, but soil properties were unaffected by plant growth. Also in the experiment, both species had equal densities yet greater dry mass production on coppice-mound soils compared to interspace soils, suggesting microsite differences in growth but not establishment (likely related to crust weakening resulting from watering). Coppice-interspace patterning and specifically native-herb recovery on coppices is likely important for postfire resistance of this rangeland to cheatgrass.

  9. Quantifying above- and below-ground growth responses of the western Australian oil mallee, Eucalyptus kochii subsp. plenissima, to contrasting decapitation regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, Dan T; Pate, John S

    2002-08-01

    Resprouting in the oil mallee, Eucalyptus kochii Maiden & Blakely subsp. plenissima Gardner (Brooker), involves generation of new shoots from preformed meristematic foci on the lignotuber. Numbers of such foci escalated from 200 per lignotuber in trees aged 1 year to 3,000 on 4- to 5-year-old trees. Removal of shoot biomass by decapitation 5 cm above ground in summer (February) or spring (October) resulted in initiation of 140-170 new shoots, but approx. 400 shoots were induced to form if crops of new shoots were successively removed until sprouting ceased and rootstocks senesced. Initially, the new shoot biomass of regenerating coppices increased slowly and the root biomass failed to increase appreciably until 1.7-2.5 years after cutting. Newly cut trees showed loss of fine root biomass, and structural roots failed to secondarily thicken to the extent shown by uncut trees. After 2 years, the biomass of shoots of coppiced plants was only one-third that of uncut control trees and shoot:root dry mass ratios of coppiced plants were still low (1.5-2.0) compared with those of the controls (average ratio of 3.1). Spring cutting promoted quicker and greater biomass recovery than summer cutting. Starch in below-ground biomass fell quickly following decapitation and remained low for a 12-18 month period. Utilization of starch reserves in naturally regenerating coppices was estimated to provide only a small proportion of the dry matter accumulated in new shoots. Results are discussed in relation to their impact on coppicing ability of the species under natural conditions or when successively coppiced for shoot biomass production.

  10. Quantifying Above‐ and Below‐ground Growth Responses of the Western Australian Oil Mallee, Eucalyptus kochii subsp. plenissima, to Contrasting Decapitation Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    WILDY, DAN T.; PATE, JOHN S.

    2002-01-01

    Resprouting in the oil mallee, Eucalyptus kochii Maiden & Blakely subsp. plenissima Gardner (Brooker), involves generation of new shoots from preformed meristematic foci on the lignotuber. Numbers of such foci escalated from 200 per lignotuber in trees aged 1 year to 3000 on 4‐ to 5‐year‐old trees. Removal of shoot biomass by decapitation 5 cm above ground in summer (February) or spring (October) resulted in initiation of 140–170 new shoots, but approx. 400 shoots were induced to form if crops of new shoots were successively removed until sprouting ceased and rootstocks senesced. Initially, the new shoot biomass of regenerating coppices increased slowly and the root biomass failed to increase appreciably until 1·7–2·5 years after cutting. Newly cut trees showed loss of fine root biomass, and structural roots failed to secondarily thicken to the extent shown by uncut trees. After 2 years, the biomass of shoots of coppiced plants was only one‐third that of uncut control trees and shoot : root dry mass ratios of coppiced plants were still low (1·5–2·0) compared with those of the controls (average ratio of 3·1). Spring cutting promoted quicker and greater biomass recovery than summer cutting. Starch in below‐ground biomass fell quickly following decapitation and remained low for a 12–18 month period. Utilization of starch reserves in naturally regenerating coppices was estimated to provide only a small proportion of the dry matter accumulated in new shoots. Results are discussed in relation to their impact on coppicing ability of the species under natural conditions or when successively coppiced for shoot biomass production. PMID:12197516

  11. Comparative analysis of some bioecological characteristics of Hungarian oak and Turkey oak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukin Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an in-depth study of some bioecological characteristics of the Hungarian and Turkey oak, autochthonous oak species and edificators of climatogenic communities of central Serbia. Today, these forest complexes are mostly of coppice origin and as such, they require implementation of reclamation operations. In order to determine biological dominance, select the optimal reclamation operations and finally improve the state of these forests, we studied the environmental conditions, stand state, development and position of individual trees in a mixed coppice stand of Hungarian and Turkey oak in a suburban zone of the city of Belgrade.

  12. A GENERAL ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE, SOIL STRUCTURE, FOREST AREAS, GROWING STOCK AND SOME FORESTRY APPLICATIONS OF ARTVIN REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Yüksek, Turan; Ölmez, Zafer

    2011-01-01

    Artvin is located in the North Eastern Blacksea region of Turkey. Forests of Artvin are spread out from cool climate zone to cold climate zone. Artvin has approximately 390471 ha of forests, which is consist of 276883 ha (70.91%) natural forest and 113588 (29.09 %) coppice forests. Forest area covering 54.77% of total land of Artvin. Most of species of forests (natural and coppice forests) areconiferous trees, such as Picea ssp., Pinus ssp., Juniperus ssp. and broaded leaves such as Quercus s...

  13. Global environment protection from the universe. Uchuu yori no chikyu kankyo hogo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, N. (National Space Development Agency of Japan NASDA, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-15

    Two articles of 'Care of coppice in Wood Totoro' and 'Global environment protection from the universe' are included in this report. The former explains the necessity of coppice conservation through an example of Sayama Hill in Tokyo. Until the time 30 years ago, coppices are deeply related to people as the places which supply fuel and fertilizer to villagers, but they have been left or cut down by energy source conversion and development of home lots. Now we must learn the traditional methods of caring coppices again and find a new sense of values regarding the nature. The latter introduces satellite-used remote sensing which allows to continuously scan all the areas of the earth within a short period for global environment protection. This sensor uses a wide range of wavelengths from light to radiowave. In the U.S., it is operated in the name of LANDSAT since 1972, and Japan is also operating various kinds of satellites for environment research concerning, e.g., CO2 concentration and resource exploration. 10 figs.

  14. DESERTIFICATION AND ANIMAL BIODIVERSITY IN THE DESERT GRASSLANDS OF NORTH AMERICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of breeding birds and small mammals were conducted at a series of sites that form a gradient of severity of desertification. Desert grassland sites represented the least changed landscape units and mesquite coppice dunes represented the most severe degradtion, an irrevers...

  15. The Hibernation of the oak Mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerling, L.C.P.

    1966-01-01

    The oak mildew invaded Western Europa in the years 1908 and 1909. Since then this parasite, Microsphaera alphitoides Griff. & Maubl. (syn. M. quercina (Schw.) Burr.) has occurred regularly in the Netherlands on oak seedlings and oak coppice, mainly Quercus pedunculata Ehr. (syn. Q. robur L. ). After

  16. Evapotranspiration of a high-density poplar stand in comparison with a reference grass cover in the Czech–Moravian Highlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, M.; Trnka, M.; Kučera, J.; Deckmyn, G.; Orság, M.; Sedlák, Pavel; Žalud, Z.; Ceulemans, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 181, NOV 2013 (2013), s. 43-60 ISSN 0168-1923 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Evapotranspiration * Short-rotation poplar coppice * Grassland * Bowen ratio/energy balance method Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.894, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168192313001846

  17. Thinning effect on plant growth of pruned eucalypt clone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Correa Ramos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A pruned stand of eucalypt clone underwent five thinning treatments with the removal of different proportion of the planted trees, at different ages: a 0% - unthinned, b 35% at 55 months, c 35% at 81 months, d 70% at 81 months, removing sprouts in the thinned plant stumps and, e 70% at 81 months, without coppice sprouts removal. By the age of 141 months, the Weibull distribution showed higher number of trees in the smallest diameter classes for the unthinned treatment. The 70% thinning, with thinned coppice sprouts removal, presented higher number of individuals in the largest diameter classes. Height and yield were the smallest with the removal of 70% of the trees at 81 months, maintaining coppice sprouts. The afterthinning periodic annual increment was greater by thinning 35% of the trees at 55 months resulting in greater number of trees in the largest diameter classes as compared to the other treatments. Yield was higher for the unthinned treatment. The results of this study indicated that thinning 70% of the trees at the age of 81 months, with coppice sprout removal, could be recommended to obtain trees of larger diameter for multiproduct.

  18. Intensive woodland management in the Middle Ages: spatial modelling based on archival data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, Péter; Müllerová, Jana; Suchánková, Silvie; Kotačka, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, April 2015 (2015), s. 1-10 ISSN 0305-7488 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : coppice * Moravia * Middle Ages Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.701, year: 2015

  19. Field note: comparative efficacy of a woody evapotranspiration landfill cover following the removal of aboveground biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, William; Munk, Jens; Byrd, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Woody vegetation cultivated for moisture management on evapotranspiration (ET) landfill covers could potentially serve a secondary function as a biomass crop. However, research is required to evaluate the extent to which trees could be harvested from ET covers without significantly impacting their moisture management function. This study investigated the drainage through a six-year-old, primarily poplar/cottonwood ET test cover for a period of one year following the harvest of all woody biomass exceeding a height of 30 cm above ground surface. Results were compared to previously reported drainage observed during the years leading up to the coppice event. In the first year following coppice, the ET cover was found to be 93% effective at redirecting moisture during the spring/summer season, and 95% effective during the subsequent fall/winter season. This was slightly lower than the 95% and 100% efficacy observed in the spring/summer and fall/winter seasons, respectively, during the final measured year prior to coppice. However, the post-coppice efficacy was higher than the efficacy observed during the first three years following establishment of the cover. While additional longer-term studies are recommended, this project demonstrated that woody ET covers could potentially produce harvestable biomass while still effectively managing aerial moisture.

  20. The end of common uses and traditional management in Central European woods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, Péter

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2010), s. 182-184 ISSN 1354-0262 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : woodland history * common uses * coppicing Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  1. A system dynamic model to estimate hydrological processes and water use in a eucalypt plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Daping Xu; Ted Leininger; Ningnan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Eucalypts have been identified as one of the best feedstocks for bioenergy production due to theirfast-growth rate and coppicing ability. However, their water use efficiency along with the adverse envi-ronmental impacts is still a controversial issue. In this study, a system dynamic model was developed toestimate the hydrological processes and water use in a eucalyptus...

  2. The rise and fall of traditional forest management in southern Moravia: A history of the past 700 years

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müllerová, Jana; Szabó, Péter; Hédl, Radim

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 331, Nov 1 (2014), s. 104-115 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : archival sources * coppicing * GIS Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.660, year: 2014

  3. Od intenzivního pařezení k lesu ochrannému - analýza historického vývoje lesů na Karlštejnském panství

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dörner, Petr; Müllerová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, č. 32 (2014), s. 425-437 ISSN 0231-5807 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : coppicing * history * nature protection Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  4. Economic feasibility of CHP facilities fueled by biomass from unused agriculture land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, Antun; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, Boris

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the energy potential of biomass from growing short rotation coppice on unused agricultural land in the Republic of Croatia is used to investigate the feasibility of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) facilities fueled by such biomass. Large areas of agricultural land that remain unused...

  5. Klimatická účinnost porostů rychle rostoucích dřevin v krajině

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šír, Miloslav; Weger, J.; Vondrka, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 92, - (2009), s. 45-49 ISSN 0374-5651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1174 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06132 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : short rotation coppices * grass field * climate stabilization Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  6. Fire as a method of controlling macchia (Fynos) vegetation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Earlier research on eradicating macchia (fynbos) vegetation on the Amatole Mountains showed that both the lowland and highland macchia communities were re-established from coppice growth and seedlings. Follow-up burning treatments were, therefore, applied following eradication. In the lowland macchia, burning two ...

  7. An assessment of the commercial cost of farm scale wood fuel procurement and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The capital cost of small scale biomass fired systems is currently significantly higher than equivalent rated fossil fuel fired systems. If the cost of producing willow or poplar coppice derived fuel can be shown to offer significant savings over the cost of conventional fossil fuel alternatives, the resultant total cost of energy production could in fact be less. The production of ''home grown'' fuel should always, in theory, be cheaper than bought in supplies due to the removal of cost components such as profit and risk and the possible use of labour during traditionally quiet periods on the farm. However, it has not been shown to date that small scale coppice plantations can successfully produce cost effective wood fuel to displace fuel that would otherwise be 'bought in'. It is likely that fuel from coppice will be harvested on a semi-manual basis using brush cutters and farm loaders etc. This report identifies appropriate systems and provides estimates of the key costs to a grower. Particular emphasis is given to operations surrounding cut-back, harvesting and comminution. The report provides an outline of the statutory requirements of employers engaged in coppice management. Key costs have been presented in their most useful form for a potential grower to compile enterprise gross margins. (Author)

  8. Energy forest cultivation and the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Simon

    1994-01-01

    The place of energy forestry in the landscape is discussed, principally with reference to Britain and Europe. The importance of design as a means of ensuring an attractive appearance, while meeting functional and economic requirements, is stressed. Simple design principles which help energy forests, mainly short rotation arable coppice, to fit into the landscape are suggested. (author)

  9. Habitat use of the endangered butterfly Euphydryas maturna and forestry in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Freese, A.; Beneš, Jiří; Bolz, R.; Čížek, Oldřich; Dolek, M.; Geyer, A.; Gros, P.; Konvička, Martin; Liegl, A.; Stettmer, C.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2006), s. 388-397 ISSN 1367-9430 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/04/0417 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterfly conservation * coppicing * forest pasture Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.926, year: 2006

  10. Combustion quality of poplar and willow clones grown as SRC at four sites in Brandenburg, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Na; Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2017-01-01

    The fuel quality was assessed for nine poplar clones (AF2, Androscoggin, Max1, Max3, Max4, Monviso, Muhle-Larsen, NE42, Weser6) and one willow clone (Inger) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) on four sites in the Brandenburg area in Germany. Fuel quality was analysed in 3-year old shoots in te...

  11. Effects of forest regeneration practices on the flux of soil CO2 after clear-cutting in subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixiang; Zhu, Xudan; Bai, Shangbin; Zhu, Tingting; Qiu, Wanting; You, Yujie; Wu, Minjuan; Berninger, Frank; Sun, Zhibin; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2018-04-15

    Reforestation after clear-cutting is used to facilitate rapid establishment of new stands. However, reforestation may cause additional soil disturbance by affecting soil temperature and moisture, thus potentially influencing soil respiration. Our aim was to compare the effects of different reforestation methods on soil CO 2 flux after clear-cutting in a Chinese fir plantation in subtropical China: uncut (UC), clear-cut followed by coppicing regeneration without soil preparation (CC), clear-cut followed by coppicing regeneration and reforestation with soil preparation, tending in pits and replanting (CCR P ), and clear-cut followed by coppicing regeneration and reforestation with overall soil preparation, tending and replanting (CCR O ). Clear-cutting significantly increased the mean soil temperature and decreased the mean soil moisture. Compared to UC, CO 2 fluxes were 19.19, 37.49 and 55.93 mg m -2 h -1 higher in CC, CCR P and CCR O , respectively (P soil temperature, litter mass and the mixing of organic matter with mineral soil. The results suggest that, when compared to coppicing regeneration, reforestation practices result in additional CO 2 released, and that regarding the CO 2 emissions, soil preparation and tending in pits is a better choice than overall soil preparation and tending. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased leaf area dominates carbon flux response to elevated CO2 in stands of Populus deltoides (Bartr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Murthy; Greg Barron-Gafford; Philip M. Dougherty; Victor c. Engels; Katie Grieve; Linda Handley; Christie Klimas; Mark J. Postosnaks; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Jianwei Zhang

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effects of atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and soil moisture stress (SMS) on leaf- and stand-level CO2 exchange in model 3-year-old coppiced cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) plantations using the large-scale, controlled environments of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory. A short-term experiment was imposed...

  13. Sprout growth of some hardwoods following clearcutting in the Dapgok District of the Seoul National University Forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.K.; Kim, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    Stewartia koreana and Styrax japonica produced the best growth of coppice shoots and suckers, while Carpinus laxiflora produced none. Lindera erythrocarpa, Euonymus sachalinensis. Cornus controversa, Prunus sargentii and Fraxinus rhynchophylla showed good short growth after felling and good seedling emergence. Growth of shoots and suckers was better on fertile than on poor sites.

  14. Genetic and environmental factors affecting rooting in Eucalyptus Grandis X Eucalyptus Longistrata hybrid cuttings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was undertaken to study the rooting ability of E. grandis x E. longirostrata hybrid cuttings. The plant material was sourced from five families in seedling derived hedges at two nurseries, as well as five families coppiced from...

  15. Growth-related problems of aging and senescence in fast growing trees grown on short rotations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, T J

    1981-06-01

    The paper is aimed at identifying some possible problem areas in the future management of coppice stands on short rotations. The paper considers the possible role of plant hormones, water, cultural and enviromental factors in regulating shoot production, growth and senescence in hardwoods grown on short rotations for biomass production. 77 references.

  16. A Lycaenid Butterfly ( Anthene amarah Guerin) selects unseasonal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Felling experiments on the indigenous thorn tree Acacia tortilis in the northern Transvaal revealed that Anthene amarah butterflies oviposit on unseasonal new coppice shoots. Felling resembles damage caused by large browsing mammals in that it modifies the normal phenological rhythms of trees, and in this way ...

  17. The UK biomass industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billins, P.

    1998-01-01

    A brief review is given of the development of the biomass industry in the UK. Topics covered include poultry litter generation of electricity, gasification plants fuelled by short-rotation coppice, on-farm anaerobic digestion and specialized combustion systems, e.g. straw, wood and other agricultural wastes. (UK)

  18. High Levels of Genetic Diversity in Salix viminalis of the Czech Republic as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trybush, S. O.; Jahodová, Šárka; Čížková, L.; Karp, A.; Hanley, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2012), s. 969-977 ISSN 1939-1234 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : bioenergy * short rotation coppice * genetic diversity * population structure Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.250, year: 2012

  19. Physiological aspects of short-rotation culture of the poplar. Fertilization of soils by sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, G

    1988-01-01

    This study, on the poplar (Populus Trichocarpa x Populus deltoides, c.v. Raspalje) concerned two different problems. The first is a physiological study on the tree treated in short rotation; the second deals with a fertilization by sewage sludge and the consequences on the environment. We have carried out in the laboratory two complementary experiments, the one, on the culture of the poplar in hydroponic medium with a pollutant element (Hg), and the other in the potentialities of soil retention. In the first part, we have showed that: - the best period for coppicing is between Mid August and May, as soon as the stumps were four or five years-old, - the coppicing has a stimulating effect on the growth of the coppice shoots, - the mean number of dominant coppice shoots, after several coppicing, is two, - the productivity is about 20 to 30 tonnes of dry matter per hectare and per year. The second part of this study has showed that: - using 3.2 tonnes of dehydrated sewage sludge per hectare and per year to fertilize, has the same effects on productivity of poplars as a classical fertilization (every 5 years) by chemical manure (N, P, K), - there were no differences in the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg), in the different parts of the poplars, between the different plots fertilized with sewage sludge, chemical manure and controlled. Moreover, the experiments performed, in the laboratory showed that: - pollutant elements (Cd, Cu) were fixed in the top of the column soil, - using a hydroponic solution containing a mercuric chloride, labelled ({sup 203}Hg), the poplars absorb very little of the pollutant element. Only 10% of the mercury in the solution was to be found in the plant and 99% of this in the root-system, more precisely, at the level epidermic barrier.

  20. Woody crops conference 2013; Agrarholz-Kongress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Within the Guelzow expert discussions at 19th and 20th February 2013 in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Research funding of the BMELV in the field of the production of woody crops (Andreas Schuette); (2) ELKE - Development of extensive concepts of land use for the production of renewable raw materials as possible compensatory measures and substitute measures (Frank Wegener); (3) Knowledge transfer to the realm of practice, experiences of the DLG (Frank Setzer); (4) Results of the tests with fast growing tree species after 18 years of cultivation in Guelzow (Andreas Gurgel); (5) Latest findings on the production of woody crops in Brandenburg (D. Murach); (6) Phytosanitary situation in short-rotation coppices in Germany - Current state of knowledge and prognoses for the future (Christiane Helbig); (7) Evaluation of alternative delivery procedures in short-rotation coppices (Janine Schweier); (8) With a short-rotation coppice shredder through Germany (Wolfram Kudlich); (9) Changes of land-use of traditional crops rotation systems to short-rotation coppices consisting of poplar trees and willow trees, which sites are suitable? - Selected results from the ProLoc association (Martin Hofmann); (10) Cultivation of populus tremula for short-rotation coppices at agricultural areas (Mirko Liesebach); (11) Investigations of the resistance behaviour of newly developed black poplar clones and balsam poplar clones against the poplar leave rust Melampsora larici-populina (Christina Fey-Wagner); (12) A agri-forestry system for ligneous energy production in the organic farming - First results from cultivation experiments in Bavaria (Klaus Wiesinger); (13) Implementation of agri-forestry systems with energy wood in the rural area - the project AgroForstEnergie (Armin Vetter); (14) Impact of agroforestry land utilization on microclimate, soil fertility and quality of water (Christian Boehm).

  1. Vegetation and flora of short-rotation willow stands from a conservation viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, L.

    1986-01-01

    The energy forests were studied using random 0.5 x 0.5 m quadrats in which cover for field- and bottom-layer species was recorded in a percentage scale. The data were analysed using various multivariate methods. The vegetation and flora of twelve coppices in southern Sweden were investigated. Also the succession during the establishment phase on a meadow on the west coast and on a peat bog in the east-central part of the country was studied. Moreover, the impact on fen vegetation downstream of an energy forest on a peat bog was investigated. The flora and vegetation of energy forests is dominated by common ruderal species like Cirsium arvense, Galeopsis tetrahit and Urtica dioica. Uncommon species from woodland and fen habitats are only occasionally found. The field layer of energy forests shows a clear seasonality with maximal cover in July. The species number and the composition of vegetation vary greatly between the coppices and is largely determined by the management system. Intense cultivation including fertilization and the use of herbicides depletes the flora. Long rotation times decrease both species diversity and the field-layer cover. Uncommon species are mostly found in old coppices, which also often have a rich spring flora. A change in flora and vegetation occurs when an energy forest is established. The change is great and the time needed for stabilization of the energy forest flora is long when the original flora is dissimilar to the coppice flora. Willow coppices can increase habitat diversity in regions dominated by coniferous forests or in large-scale agricultural areas. Structural heterogeneity of a stand promotes diversity of the flora. Such heterogeneity can be created if a stand is composed of a variety of willow clones, if it is harvested at intervals, contains gaps, open ditches and is surrounded by edge zones of various types.

  2. Carbon and energy balances for a range of biofuels options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, M.A.; Matthews, R.; Mortimer, N.D.

    2003-03-01

    This is the final report of a project to produce a set of baseline energy and carbon balances for a range of electricity, heat and transport fuel production systems based on biomass feedstocks. A list of 18 important biofuel technologies in the UK was selected for study of their energy and carbon balances in a consistent approach. Existing studies on these biofuel options were reviewed and their main features identified in terms of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and total), transparency and relevance. Flow charts were produced to represent the key stages of the production of biomass and its conversion to biofuels. Outputs from the study included primary energy input per delivered energy output, carbon dioxide outputs per delivered energy output, methane output per delivered energy output, nitrous oxide output per delivered energy output and total greenhouse gas requirements. The net calorific value of the biofuel is given where relevant. Biofuels studied included: biodiesel from oilseed rape and recycled vegetable oil; combined heat and power (CHP) by combustion of wood chip from forestry residues; CHP by gasification of wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from the combustion of miscanthus, straw, wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from gasification of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity by pyrolysis of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; ethanol from lignocellulosics, sugar beet and wheat; heat (small scale) from combustion of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; and rapeseed oil from oilseed rape.

  3. Regenerative Resilience of Tree Species in a Degraded Forest within Mt Kenya Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omenda, T.O; Kariuki, J.G; Kamondo, B.M; Kiamba, J.K

    2007-01-01

    There is widespread human induced degradation of natural forest in Kenya. The major challenge to this situation is to devise cost effective rehabilitation approaches to reverse this trend. A study was conducted in Nyanza province of Kenya describing the structure and diversity of a disturbed natural forest and understanding the role so various propagules, namely seed, soil seed bank and coppices in post-disturbance recovery. The pre-disturbance forest type was a podo-Cassipourea-Teclea tropical montane forest. Four 350 m long line-plot transects were randomly located within the forest. Tree and stump data were obtained from 20*20 m plots located at 50 m intervals, while sapling, seeding and soil seed bank data were obtained from 5*5 m, 1*1 m and 0.2*0.2*0.5 subplots respectively, nested within the large plot. An 'Index of Species Resilence' that defines their continued was developed based on the tree species ability to coppice and their representation in seedling, sapling and tree stages. The forest condition was highly heterogeneous as determined through spatial distribution of basal area, height and diameter of breast height (dbh) of trees and cut stumps, the latter an indicator of disturbance. The Resilience Index indicated that, out of the 40 tree species found in the forest, only 30% had stable presence while 50% had an unstable presence characterized by in key succession stages-implying low auto-recovery potential. Results indicated that, coppicing had a more critical role in regeneration than previously thought, with 78% of all cut-tree species coppicing while only 27.5% of all the trees species regenerated from seed. The role of soil seed bank in auto-recovery was insignificant in this site. The apparent high coppicing potential presents a new opportunity for managing natural forests

  4. Economic feasibility of CHP facilities fueled by biomass from unused agriculture land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, Antun; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, Boris

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the energy potential of biomass from growing short rotation coppice on unused agricultural land in the Republic of Croatia is used to investigate the feasibility of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) facilities fueled by such biomass. Large areas of agricultural land that remain unused...... work and is now used to investigate the conditions in which such energy facilities could be feasible. The overall potential of biomass from short rotation coppice cultivated on unused agricultural land in the scenarios with 30% of the area is up to 10PJ/year. The added value of fruit trees pruning...... biomass represents an incentive for the development of fruit production on such agricultural land. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for several parameters: cost of biomass, investment costs in CHP systems and combined change in biomass and technology cost....

  5. A New Stem Taper Function for Short-rotation poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbrahim, Mohammed [INRA Centre de Bordeaux, Cestas (France). Unite de Recherches Forestieres; Gavaland, Andre [INRA Centre de Toulouse, Castanet-Tolosane (France). Unite Agroforesterie et Foret Paysanne

    2003-07-01

    A new stem taper function was established for individual trees of two poplar hybrid clones grown on a short-rotation coppice. The model could be easily fitted and required three parameters to be estimated. It can be used to estimate both diameter at a given height and height for a given top diameter. Two of the three parameters controlled the conical and the neiloid parts of the stem. Significant differences in these parameters were observed between the two clones even if no differences were observed for diameter at breast height or total height of the stem. The model could not be integrated to calculate volumes (total volume, merchantable volume), which were estimated by numerical integration. However, use of this new model allows the optimal length of billets to be determined and thus maximizes the merchantable biomass of poplar in short-rotation coppice by minimizing the biomass of residues.

  6. Assessment of the visual impact of SRC plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study examining the visual impact of short rotation cultivation (SCR) plantations and the assessing the use and effectiveness of the Good Practice Guidelines: Short Rotation Coppice for Energy Production. SCR in the landscape, policy context and landscape assessment, the effect of SCR on the landscape, and the Good Practice Guidelines are discussed. Details of 13 case study sites are given in appendices. (UK)

  7. Micropropagation of Eucalyptus grandis and nitens using tissue culture techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furze, M.J.; Creswell, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments with nodal explants of E. grandis and E. nitens seedlings and E. grandis coppice shoots showed that a large number of plants can be produced from a single explant using micropropagation. The percentage of micropropagated shoots that formed roots was about 90% for E. grandis and 80% for E. nitens. For both species, about 90% of the rooted shoots survived after hardening off. 9 references.

  8. Wood biomass: The potential of willow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.

    1991-10-01

    Experiments were established in central New York State in spring, 1987, to evaluate the potential of Salix for wood biomass production using ultrashort-rotation intensive-culture techniques. Five selected willow clones and one hybrid poplar clone planted at 1 x 1 foot spacing were tested for biomass production with annual coppicing. This report presents results of this research as of December 31, 1990. (VC)

  9. Extreme rainfall affects assembly of the root-associated fungal community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Christopher James; van der Gast, Christopher J.; McNamara, Niall P.

    2018-01-01

    -associated fungus community of a short rotation coppice willow plantation, and compared community dynamics before and after a once in 100 yr rainfall event that occurred in the UK in 2012. Monitoring of the root-associated fungi was performed over a 3-yr period by metabarcoding the fungal internal transcribed...... yet overlooked determinants of root-associated fungal community assembly. Given the integral role of ectomycorrhizal fungi in biogeochemical cycles, these events may have considerable impacts upon the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems....

  10. Economic study of the optimum time for felling eucalypts in the conditions of the Zona da Mata (forest zone) of Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Alvarenga, S C

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of the optimum length of the first and second rotation for coppice stands of Eucalyptus spp. grown for pulpwood on slopes unfit for agricultural purposes in this zone. The analysis is based on the theory of capital, and several possible rates of interest are considered. The general conclusion is that planting eucalypts is not profitable in the zone unless highly productive fast-growing species are used.

  11. Optimal management and productivity of Eucalyptus grandis on former phosphate mined and citrus lands in central and southern Florida: influence of genetics and spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle W. Fabbro; Donald L. Rockwood

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus short rotation woody crops (SRWC) with superior genotypes are promising in central and south Florida due to their fast growth, freeze resilience, coppicing ability, and site tolerance. Four Eucalyptus grandis cultivars, E.nergy™ G1, G2, G3, and/or G5, were established in 2009 at varying planting densities on a...

  12. Life cycle assessment: an application to poplar for energy cultivated in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bacenetti, J.; Gonzalez Garcia, S.; Mena, A.; Fiala, M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of the bioenergy sector has led to an increasing interest in energy crops. Short rotation coppices (SRC) are forestry management systems in which fast-growing tree species are produced under intensive cultivation practices to obtain high wood chips yields. In Italy, most SRC plantations consist of poplar biomass-clones. SRC plantations can be carried out with different management systems with diverse cutting times; consequently, the cultivation system can be crucial for attain...

  13. The population ecology of two tropical trees, Brachychiton diversifolius (Malvaceae) and Bombax ceiba (Bombaceae), harvested by Indigenous woodcarvers in Arnhem Land, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Jennifer; Griffiths, Anthony

    2012-10-01

    We describe the population ecology of two tropical deciduous trees, Bombax ceiba leiocarpum A. Robyns and Brachychiton diversifolius R. Br., which are in high demand for Indigenous sculpture production in Arnhem Land, Australia. We monitored tagged populations of both species at two locations for 2 years to examine their reproduction, growth, and survival rates and their response to harvest. Both species have similar life histories: they reproduce during the dry season (June-November) producing a high seed load, seed predation was high, seeds did not survive in the soil past the following wet season to form a seed bank, and germination rates were low and variable for both species. Average annual circumference growth rates were 1.07 cm year(-1) for B. ceiba and 0.98 cm year(-1) for B. diversifolius, with most of the growth occurring during the early wet season. Most (65-88 %) of the harvested B. ceiba and B. diversifolius stems coppiced. Coppice and stem size class were the main factors influencing tree growth rates with coppice stems growing up to six times faster than similar sized non-coppice stems. The survival of B. ceiba and B. diversifolius stems was size class dependent and affected by local site factors (e.g. fire and other disturbances) so that the smaller size classes had a low probability of survival. Given the resprouting potential of both species, their wild harvest is likely to have only minimal local impact on wild populations. However, further population modelling is required to determine whether the small and disjunct B. ceiba populations can sustain harvesting at current levels.

  14. Border Biofuels Limited - maintaining a sense of balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A brief description is given of a renewable energy initiative to grow wood fuel in the Scottish and English border region. The aim is to develop a new rural industry based on wood fuel feeding a power plant in a central location in the Borders area. The financial arrangements to grow short rotation coppice are outlined as are the environmental impacts and energy balance. (UK)

  15. Detectability of landscape effects on recolonization increases with regional population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liman, Anna-Sara; Dalin, Peter; Björkman, Christer

    2015-07-01

    Variation in population size over time can influence our ability to identify landscape-moderated differences in community assembly. To date, however, most studies at the landscape scale only cover snapshots in time, thereby overlooking the temporal dynamics of populations and communities. In this paper, we present data that illustrate how temporal variation in population density at a regional scale can influence landscape-moderated variation in recolonization and population buildup in disturbed habitat patches. Four common insect species, two omnivores and two herbivores, were monitored over 8 years in 10 willow short-rotation coppice bio-energy stands with a four-year disturbance regime (coppice cycle). The population densities in these regularly disturbed stands were compared to densities in 17 undisturbed natural Salix cinerea (grey willow) stands in the same region. A time series approach was used, utilizing the natural variation between years to statistically model recolonization as a function of landscape composition under two different levels of regional density. Landscape composition, i.e. relative amount of forest vs. open agricultural habitats, largely determined the density of re-colonizing populations following willow coppicing in three of the four species. However, the impact of landscape composition was not detectable in years with low regional density. Our results illustrate that landscape-moderated recolonization can change over time and that considering the temporal dynamics of populations may be crucial when designing and evaluating studies at landscape level.

  16. A contribution to the study of stand degradation process on the territory of Fruška Gora National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobinac Martin T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the process of stand degradation of individual forest ecosystems in the region of the zonal community Tilio-Carpino-Qurcetum robori-cerris Jov. 79 located in the western part of Fruška Gora National Park. Degradation occurred is consequence to regeneration felling and it progressed towards the extinction of oaks, first of all the valuable pedunculate oak and Vergilius's oak, and then also Turkey oak. The analyzed mature stands were degraded coppice and mainly predominated by the Turkey oak in the tree stratum. In juvenile stands, often initially well regenerated with Turkey oak, the dominant species in the tree stratum are lime, hornbeam, flowering ash, field maple and other secondary species, predominantly of coppice origin. Restitution of the degraded stands is possible by applying an adequate regeneration system. Taking into account the primarily protective function of the analyzed forest ecosystems and the fact that these are degraded and coppice stands, the system of regeneration should be based on combined restoration.

  17. Woody biomass phytoremediation of contaminated brownfield land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Christopher J. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: n.m.dickinson@livjm.ac.uk; Putwain, Philip D. [Ecological Restoration Consultants (ERC), Ness Botanic Gardens, University of Liverpool, Ness, Cheshire CH64 (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    Economic and environmental regeneration of post-industrial landscapes frequently involves some element of re-afforestation or tree planting. We report field trials that evaluate whether woody biomass production is compatible with managing residual trace element contamination in brownfield soils. Large-scale mapping of contamination showed a heterogenous dispersion of metals and arsenic, and highly localised within-site hotspots. Yields of Salix, Populus and Alnus were economically viable, showing that short-rotation coppice has a potentially valuable role in community forestry. Mass balance modelling demonstrated that phytoextraction potentially could reduce contamination hotspots of more mobile elements (Cd and Zn) within a 25-30-year life cycle of the crops. Cd and Zn in stems and foliage of Salix were 4-13 times higher than EDTA-extractable soil concentrations. Lability of other trace elements (As, Pb, Cu, Ni) was not increased 3 years after planting the coppice; woody biomass may provide an effective reduction of exposure (phytostabilisation) to these less mobile contaminants. - Field trials show short-rotation coppice provides effective risk management and remediation solutions to hotspots of residual metal and As contamination of brownfield land.

  18. Woody biomass phytoremediation of contaminated brownfield land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, Christopher J.; Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Putwain, Philip D.

    2006-01-01

    Economic and environmental regeneration of post-industrial landscapes frequently involves some element of re-afforestation or tree planting. We report field trials that evaluate whether woody biomass production is compatible with managing residual trace element contamination in brownfield soils. Large-scale mapping of contamination showed a heterogenous dispersion of metals and arsenic, and highly localised within-site hotspots. Yields of Salix, Populus and Alnus were economically viable, showing that short-rotation coppice has a potentially valuable role in community forestry. Mass balance modelling demonstrated that phytoextraction potentially could reduce contamination hotspots of more mobile elements (Cd and Zn) within a 25-30-year life cycle of the crops. Cd and Zn in stems and foliage of Salix were 4-13 times higher than EDTA-extractable soil concentrations. Lability of other trace elements (As, Pb, Cu, Ni) was not increased 3 years after planting the coppice; woody biomass may provide an effective reduction of exposure (phytostabilisation) to these less mobile contaminants. - Field trials show short-rotation coppice provides effective risk management and remediation solutions to hotspots of residual metal and As contamination of brownfield land

  19. Rangelands management in Spanish Natura 2000 sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando Gallego, A.; Tejera Gimeno, R.; Velázquez Saornil, J.; Núñez Martí, V.; Grande Vega, M.

    2009-04-01

    Spanish open oak woodlands have had multiple land uses such as firewood extraction and grazing through centuries. Consequently, 20% of the Spanish forest is coppice forest. This particular agrosilvopastoral system is well widespread in the southern and western part of the Iberian Peninsula. As a result of the implementation of Natura 2000 in Spain, many of these habitats have been included in this network listed as "Dehesas" with evergreen Quercus spp. (Sclerophyllous grazed forests -dehesas-). The main goal of Natura 2000 is assuring "favourable conservation status" of natural habitats and species within these areas (Habitats Directive 92/43/ECC). This is the case of the study area, "Dehesa Boyal" (Ávila), which management plan has been carried out in a public forest land. The current situation is a degraded coppice forest, Quercus pyrenaica and Q.ilex, with a shrub encroachment due to previous firewood extraction. Besides, problems such as soil compaction and lack of sexual have been observed presumably related with livestock (180 horses, 1100 goats, 900 sheeps and 190 cows distributed in different seasons). Livestock feed on the acorns and hedge young sprouts making them sprouting again. The shrub encroachment is far from "conservation status" required in Natura 2000. Furthermore, the livestock cannot be removed because it is an important part of this agrosilvopastoral system not only for the landscape but also for its economic importance to local owners. Management plans should consider all of these circumstances and propose an integrated approach. To achieve this goal, the area was accurately classified in age classes by "stands" (oak shrubland, low pole stages, coppice tall shrub and sapling) in each habitat, using Geographic Information Systems (G.I.S), remote sensing techniques and detailed field work. Then, the "conservation status" of each stand is classified in A (Favourable), B (Inconvenient) and C (Unfavourable conservation status) considering some

  20. SRWC bioenergy productivity and economic feasibility on marginal lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezehei, Solomon B; Shifflett, Shawn D; Hazel, Dennis W; Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie

    2015-09-01

    Evolving bioenergy markets necessitate consideration of marginal lands for woody biomass production worldwide particularly the southeastern U.S., a prominent wood pellet exporter to Europe. Growing short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) on marginal lands minimizes concerns about using croplands for bioenergy production and reinforces sustainability of wood supply to existing and growing global biomass markets. We estimated mean annual aboveground green biomass increments (MAIs) and assessed economic feasibility of various operationally established (0.5 ha-109 ha) SRWC stands on lands used to mitigate environmental liabilities of municipal wastewater, livestock wastewater and sludge, and subsurface contamination by petroleum and pesticides. MAIs (Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) had no consistent relationship with stand density or age. Non-irrigated Populus, Plantanus occidentalis L. and Pinus taeda L. stands produced 2.4-12.4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1). Older, irrigated Taxodium distchum L., Fraxinus pennsylvanica L., and coppiced P. occidentalis stands had higher MAIs (10.6-21.3 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) than irrigated Liquidambar styraciflua L. and non-coppiced, irrigated P. occidentalis (8-18 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)). Natural hardwood MAIs at 20-60 years were less than hardwood and P. taeda productivities at 5-20 years. Unlike weed control, irrigation and coppicing improved managed hardwood productivity. Rotation length affected economic outcomes although the returns were poor due to high establishment and maintenance costs, low productivities and low current stumpage values, which are expected to quickly change with development of robust global markets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Five years of research in energy plantation in southern Quebec (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrecque, M.; Teodorescu, T.I. [Jardin Botanique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Since 1989, short rotation and intensive culture (SRIC) techniques have been experimented to grow various fast growing species of trees and shrubs for energy plantation or environmental purposes. The objectives were to evaluate the biomass productivity with respect to (1) different weed control methods during the establishment phase; (2) drainage conditions and soil quality of the plantation site; and (3) frequency of coppicing. Native or introduced species of willows and various species of shrubs, such as honeysuckle and cornel, were grown in an experimental design in the nursery of the Montreal Botanical Garden on former agricultural land. Productivity, in tons of dry material per hectare, was evaluated and compared by harvesting shoot and branch samples at the end of each growing season. Weed control is essential to the establishment of trees in SRIC. When weed repression was applied during the two first growing seasons, biomass productivity was 4 to 5 times greater than the biomass produced on the control plot of the well drained site. With good weed control, willows can yield more than 20 tons of dry material on well drained site and near 15 tons on a poorly drained site, only two years after plantation. The growth potential of shrub species is also interesting. Some of them were able to produce up to 10 tons of dry biomass per hectare per year, which is appreciable considering that such species can be used on marginal lands and for the fixation of river banks. Frequency of coppicing also influences productivity. For willows, we determined that three-year rotation cycle allowed the highest biomass productivity. Shrubs should be coppiced each year to obtain the best results. Fast growing species and SRIC techniques are not only a good way of producing wood and alcohol for energy but they also represent a way of rapidly colonizing degraded or marginal sites and of fixing river banks.

  2. Yield prediction of young black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. plantations for woody biomass production using allometric relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Böhm

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is an increasingly popular tree species for the production of woody biomass for bioenergy generation with short rotation coppices. Due to its potential to produce large amounts of biomass yields even under unfavourable growth conditions, this tree species is especially suitable for marginal sites, such as can be found in the post mining area of NE-Germany. Current research aims to reliably predict the yield potential of black locust short rotation coppices, but suffers from a lack of sufficient exact allometric functions until recently. This is especially true for the early growth years, which are of special importance for short rotation coppices. The objective of this study was to develop allometric equations based on tree height and shoot basal diameter (SBD for estimating yields of young black locust plantations. Therefore, dendrometric data were collected in a two, three, four and fourteen years old black locust short rotation forest located in the reclamation area of an opencast-lignite mining area in the Lower Lusatian region (Germany and used for equation developing. Until measurement, none of the plantations had been harvested. Closed correlations between SBD and tree height were observed, as well as between these parameters and single tree mass. The scattering of single tree masses could be explained slightly better by the SBD than by the tree height. In the year before a harvest an even better prediction probability of woody biomass was obtainable when both parameters were simultaneously interrelated with the single tree mass. The results illustrate that the woody above ground biomass of young black locust plantations can be estimated sufficiently precisely based on the easy determinable parameters tree height and particularly SBD.

  3. Hypoxylon species on beech and other broadleaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi in the genus Hypoxylon cause wood decay and most of them are saprophytes on dead wood or parasites of weakness. The following species in this genus were identified in this study performed at several localities in Serbia and Montenegro: H. deustum, H. fragiforme, H. nummularium, H. multiforme, H. rubiginosum and H. fuscum. Among them the most significant species is H. deustum, the fungus causing root and butt rot of standing beech trees. It was recorded from all coppice and high forests of beech. This paper presents the morphological characteristics of the recorded fungi their range, plant hosts and significance.

  4. The most significant fungi: Agents of wood decay in oak forests of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most widely distributed oak species in Serbia are Q. petrea (sessile oak, Q. cerris (Turkey oak and Q. frainetto (Hungarian oak and Quercus robur (common oak, and lignicolous fungi are the major agents of wood decay in natural and coppice oak forests. In this research, 33 species of fungi were identified. Eleven species were described, among which the most significant are: Armillaria mellea, Fomes fomentarius, Hypoxylon deustum Laetiporus sulphureus, Lenzites quercina and Phellinus robustus. This paper presents the morphological characteristics of the most significant identified fungi, their distribution, host plants and significance.

  5. Woody biomass production in a spray irrigation wastewater treatment facility in North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, D.; Lea, R.; Milosh, R.

    1993-01-01

    Application of municipal wastewater to deciduous tree plantations offers a viable opportunity to dispose of nutrients and pollutants, while protecting water quality. Production of woody biomass for energy or pulp mill furnish, using wastewater if feasible and markets exist in may parts of the world for this biomass. Plantations of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), have been established in Edenton, North Carolina for application of municipal wastewater. Research describing the dry weight biomass following the fifth year of seedling growth is presented along with future estimates for seedling and coppice yields. Ongoing and future work for estimating nutrient assimilation and wastewater renovation are described and discussed

  6. Biomass and nutrient distribution in an age series of eucalyptus hybrid plantation in Tamil Nadu. I. Distribution of organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, J D.S.; Sharma, S C

    1985-12-01

    The distribution of organic matter in an age series of Eucalyptus hybrid plantation in Tamil Nadu has been discussed. It was observed that (i) the rotation age for E. hybrid can be fixed at 7 years where the Mean Annual Production (MAP) is at the maximum, (ii) Pollachi seems to be comparatively better site for E. hybrid planting, presumably due to higher leaf efficiency (III) to increase the productivity in a coppiced crop thinning is essential as the lower stand density give a better chance for high leaf production and consequently higher biomass. 7 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  7. Evapotranspiration of a high-density poplar stand in comparison with a reference grass cover in the Czech–Moravian Highlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, Milan; Trnka, Miroslav; Kučera, J.; Deckmyn, G.; Orság, Matěj; Sedlák, Pavel; Žalud, Z.; Ceulemans, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 181, NOV 2013 (2013), s. 43-60 ISSN 0168-1923 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0056; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Evapotranspiration * Short-rotation poplar coppice * Grassland * Bowen ratio/energy balance method Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.894, year: 2013

  8. Forest biodiversity conservation in the context of increasing woody biomass harvests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouget, Christophe; Gosselin, Frederic; Gosselin, Marion

    2011-01-01

    After describing peculiarities and stakes in forest biodiversity, we discuss the response of biodiversity to potential habitat changes induced by increasing forest biomass harvesting: decrease in old trees and stands, and in forest areas unmanaged for decades, increase in overall felled areas, in forest road density and in habitat fragmentation, deleterious changes in soil conditions and forest ambience, development of short and very short rotation coppices. Positive or negative effects on several components of forest biodiversity (mainly soil fauna and flora, and dead wood associated species) are explored. Needs are highlighted: biodiversity monitoring, adaptive management and context-based recommendations. (authors)

  9. Environmental performance of gasified willow from different lands including land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez de Bikuna Salinas, Koldo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Pilegaard, Kim

    2017-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) of a low-input, short rotation coppice (SRC) willow grown on different Danish lands was performed. Woodchips are gasified, producer gas is used for co-generation of heat and power (CHP) and the ash-char output is applied as soil amendment in the field. A hybrid model...... for abandoned farmland, as a relative C stock loss compared to natural regeneration. ILUC results show that area related GHG emissions are dominant (93% of iLUCfood and 80% of iLUCfeed), transformation being more important (82% of iLUCfood) than occupation (11%) impacts. LCA results show that CHP from willow...

  10. Transport and supply logistics of biomass fuels: Vol. 1. Supply chain options for biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J; Browne, M; Palmer, H; Hunter, A; Boyd, J

    1996-10-01

    The study which forms part of a wider project funded by the Department of Trade and Industry, looks at the feasibility of generating electricity from biomass-fuelled power stations. Emphasis is placed on supply availabilty and transport consideration for biomass fuels such as wood wastes from forestry, short rotation coppice products, straw, miscanthus (an energy crop) and farm animal slurries. The study details the elements of the supply chain for each fuel from harvesting to delivery at the power station. The delivered cost of each fuel, the environmental impact of the biomass fuel supply and other relevant non-technical issues are addressed. (UK)

  11. Potential of two submontane broadleaved species (Acer opalus, Quercus pubescens) to reveal spatiotemporal patterns of rockfall activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favillier, Adrien; Lopez-Saez, Jérôme; Corona, Christophe; Trappmann, Daniel; Toe, David; Stoffel, Markus; Rovéra, Georges; Berger, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    Long-term records of rockfalls have proven to be scarce and typically incomplete, especially in increasingly urbanized areas where inventories are largely absent and the risk associated with rockfall events rises proportionally with urbanization. On forested slopes, tree-ring analyses may help to fill this gap, as they have been demonstrated to provide annually-resolved data on past rockfall activity over long periods. Yet, the reconstruction of rockfall chronologies has been hampered in the past by the paucity of studies that include broadleaved tree species, which are, in fact, quite common in various rockfall-prone environments. In this study, we test the sensitivity of two common, yet unstudied, broadleaved species - Quercus pubescens Willd. (Qp) and Acer opalus Mill. (Ao) - to record rockfall impacts. The approach is based on a systematic mapping of trees and the counting of visible scars on the stem surface of both species. Data are presented from a site in the Vercors massif (French Alps) where rocks are frequently detached from Valanginian limestone and marl cliffs. We compare recurrence interval maps obtained from both species and from two different sets of tree structures (i.e., single trees vs. coppice stands) based on Cohen's k coefficient and the mean absolute error. A total of 1230 scars were observed on the stem surface of 847 A. opalus and Q. pubescens trees. Both methods yield comparable results on the spatial distribution of relative rockfall activity with similar downslope decreasing recurrence intervals. Yet recurrence intervals vary significantly according to tree species and tree structure. The recurrence interval observed on the stem surface of Q. pubescens exceeds that of A. opalus by > 20 years in the lower part of the studied plot. Similarly, the recurrence interval map derived from A. opalus coppice stands, dominant at the stand scale, does not exhibit a clear spatial pattern. Differences between species may be explained by the bark

  12. Energy from biomass. Ethics and practice; Energie aus Biomasse. Ethik und Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Silke [ed.

    2013-06-01

    The implementation of the energy policy turnaround inevitably results in modifications of the land use and landscape. Besides the discussion about the environmental consequences, a debate about ethical issues increasingly arose. Under this aspect, the booklet under consideration contains the following contributions: (1) Renewable energy sources - the role of bioenergy (Bernard Widmann); (2) Energy from biomass - An ethic analysis (Stephan Schleissing); (3) Culture for our landscapes - combination of biomass and water protection (Frank Wagener); (4) Cultivation of energy crops - short rotation coppices (Frank Burger); (5) Bioenergy region Straubing-Bogen: Excellent in the matter of renewable energy sources (Josefine Eichwald); (6) Rural development - motor for the energy policy turnaround (Roland Spiller).

  13. Supply of wood fuel from small-scale woodlands for small-scale heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study aimed at stimulating a market for wood fuels. A desk study of harvesting in existing small woodland was conducted, and thirteen case studies covering early broadleaved thinnings, mixed broadleaved coppice, and crownwood, scrub and residues were examined to obtain information on woodland types, wood fuel supply, and combustion equipment. Details are given of the measurement of moisture content of woodchips and stacked roundwood, wood volume and green density, harvesting options, crop and site variables, and production and costs of wood fuels. Usage of wood fuels, and the drying of small roundwood was considered. (UK)

  14. Diverse habitat use during two life stages of the critically endangered Bahama Oriole (Icterus northropi: community structure, foraging, and social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R. Price

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to prevent extinction in declining populations often depends on effective management of habitats that are disturbed through wildfire, logging, agriculture, or development. In these disturbed landscapes, the juxtaposition of multiple habitat types can be especially important to fledglings and young birds, which may leave breeding grounds in human-altered habitat for different habitats nearby that provide increased foraging opportunities, reduced competition, and higher protection from predators. In this study, we evaluated the importance of three habitat types to two life stages of the critically endangered Bahama Oriole (Icterus northropi, a synanthropic songbird endemic to Andros, The Bahamas. First, we determined the avian species composition and relative abundance of I. northropi among three major vegetation types on Andros: Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea forest, coppice (broadleaf dry forest, and anthropogenic areas, dominated by nonnative vegetation (farmland and developed land. We then compared the foraging strategies and social interactions of two age classes of adult Bahama Orioles in relation to differential habitat use. Bird surveys late in the Bahama Oriole’s breeding season indicated the number of avian species and Bahama Oriole density were highest in coppice. Some bird species occurring in the coppice and pine forest were never observed in agricultural or residential areas, and may be at risk if human disturbance of pine forest and coppice increases, as is occurring at a rapid pace on Andros. During the breeding season, second-year (SY adult Bahama Orioles foraged in all vegetation types, whereas after-second-year (ASY adults were observed foraging only in anthropogenic areas, where the species nested largely in introduced coconut palms (Cocos nucifera. Additionally, SY adults foraging in anthropogenic areas were often observed with an ASY adult, suggesting divergent habitat use for younger, unpaired birds. Other

  15. Sampling procedure in a willow plantation for estimation of moisture content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Kofoed; Lærke, Poul Erik; Liu, Na

    2015-01-01

    Heating value and fuel quality of wood is closely connected to moisture content. In this work the variation of moisture content (MC) of short rotation coppice (SRC) willow shoots is described for five clones during one harvesting season. Subsequently an appropriate sampling procedure minimising...... labour costs and sampling uncertainty is proposed, where the MC of a single stem section with the length of 10–50 cm corresponds to the mean shoot moisture content (MSMC) with a bias of maximum 11 g kg−1. This bias can be reduced by selecting the stem section according to the particular clone...

  16. Economic feasibility of CHP facilities fueled by biomass from unused agriculture land: Case of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, Antun; Dominković, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, Boris; Duić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential of unused agricultural land for biomass and fruit production is assessed. • Technical and energy potential of biomass from SRC and fruit pruning is calculated. • Economic feasibility of CHP plants utilizing biomass from SRC is presented for Croatia. • Sensitivity analysis and recommendations for shift toward feasibility are provided. - Abstract: In this paper, the energy potential of biomass from growing short rotation coppice on unused agricultural land in the Republic of Croatia is used to investigate the feasibility of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) facilities fueled by such biomass. Large areas of agricultural land that remain unused for food crops, represent significant potential for growing biomass that could be used for energy. This biomass could be used to supply power plants of up to 15 MW_e in accordance with heat demands of the chosen locations. The methodology for regional energy potential assessment was elaborated in previous work and is now used to investigate the conditions in which such energy facilities could be feasible. The overall potential of biomass from short rotation coppice cultivated on unused agricultural land in the scenarios with 30% of the area is up to 10 PJ/year. The added value of fruit trees pruning biomass represents an incentive for the development of fruit production on such agricultural land. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for several parameters: cost of biomass, investment costs in CHP systems and combined change in biomass and technology cost.

  17. Technoeconomic assessment of biomass to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.P.; Watters, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    A spreadsheet-based decision support system has been developed that allows easy evaluation of integrated biomass to electricity and biomass to ethanol systems. The Bioenergy Assessment Model (BEAM) has been developed to allow the techno-economic assessment of biomass to electricity and biomass to ethanol schemes, including investigation of the interfacing issues. Technical and economic parameters can be assessed for a variety of feedstocks, conversion technologies and generating cycles. Production modules are currently available for biomass supply from short rotation coppice and conventional forestry relevant to conditions and practices in NW Europe. The biomass conversion modules include pre-treatment (reception, storage, handling, comminution, screening and drying); atmospheric gasification (generic gasifier, wet gas scrubbing, dual fuel engine); pressure gasification (generic gasifier, hot gas filtration, gas turbine combined cycle); fast pyrolysis for liquid bio-fuel-oil (pyrolyser, oil storage, pilot-injected diesel engine); combustion (fluid bed combuster steam turbine), conventional acid hydrolysis fermentation and the NREL SSF process to ethanol. In addition there is a further module which can be used to examine the collection, mass burn and generation of electricity from MSW. BEAM has been used, and the results presented in this paper, to determine the costs of generating bio-electricity from short rotation coppice and conventional forestry over a range of power outputs and for each conversion technology. Alternative feedstock supply strategies have been examined and relations drawn between delivered feedstock cost and cost of electricity. (author)

  18. Status and trend of tree growth and mortality rate at the CONECOFOR plots, 1997-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Fabbio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The circumference of trees in the CONECOFOR permanent monitoring plots (PMPs were measured by three surveys carried out in 1997, 2000 and 2005. Plots were arranged into forest types according to tree species, management system and stand structure: beech (Fagus sylvatica L. and spruce (Picea abies K. high forests, aged coppice forests and transitory crops (deciduous, evergreen oaks and beech. Diameter distribution, basal area, basal area increment, tree mortality rate and in-growth were calculated per layer (dominant, intermediate, dominated within each PMP, to point out relative contributions and changes. A range in relative annual growth was detected both within and between types over the monitored period, but an obvious reduction of annual increment was found in two/thirds of plots over 2000-04 as compared to 1997-99. Current mortality, mostly allocated into the dominated and intermediate layers, can be explained as “regular” due to overstocking and high inter-tree competition in almost all of the observed case-studies. Opposite patterns were found to occur as for stand growth vs. mortality rate between coppice forests and the other types owing to the different dynamics of tree competition in progress. Drought 2003 is the likely large-scale factor determining the reduced annual growth course over the second period.

  19. Eucalyptus and Populus short rotation woody crops for phosphate mined lands in Florida USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockwood, D L; Carter, D R; Langholtz, M H [The School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Box 110410, Gainesville, FL 32611 0410 (United States); Stricker, J A [Polk County Extension Service, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Our short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) research in central and southern Florida is (1) developing superior Eucalyptus grandis (EG), E. amplifolia (EA), and cottonwood (Populus deltoides, PD) genotypes, (2) determining appropriate management practices for and associated productivities of these genotypes, and (3) assessing their economics and markets. Reclaimed clay settling areas (CSA) and overburden sites in phosphate mined areas in central Florida are a potential land base of over 80,000ha for SRWC production. On CSAs, PD grows well in the absence of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) but is not as productive as the non-invasive EG and EA. SRWC establishment on CSAs requires strict implementation of the following cultural practices: thorough site preparation through herbiciding/disking and bedding, superior trees, watering/packing seedlings, fertilization with ammonium nitrate at planting and annually thereafter as feasible, high planting density possibly including double row planting, and winter harvesting so that coppice regeneration suppresses weeds. PD cultural requirements, that may require post-planting weed control to suppress herbaceous competition, exceed those of the eucalypts. EG SRWCs on CSAs are at risk of blowdown 3-4 years after planting or coppicing; younger PD, EG, and EA SRWCs appear much less susceptible to wind damage. Genetic improvement must continue if EG, EA, and PD are to increase in commercial feasibility. SRWC cost competitiveness will depend on establishment success, yield improvements, harvesting costs, and identifying/using incentives. Strong collaboration among public and private partners is necessary for commercializing SRWCs in Florida. (author)

  20. Soil ecological impacts of the short rotation industry with poplar trees and pastures in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania; Bodenoekologische Auswirkungen der Kurzumtriebswirtschaft mit Pappeln und Weiden in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahle, Petra; Moeller, Josefine; Seelig, Andreas; Baum, Christel [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Professur Bodenphysik und Ressourcenschutz

    2013-10-01

    The impact of short rotation coppice (SRC), a former soil rotation coppice (FRC) and a continuously annually tilled arable soil (TS) on different soil properties was investigated. Parameters were chemical soil properties, like the concentration of soil organic matter (SOC) and total nitrogen (Nt), physical soil properties, like the bulk density, porosity and aggregate stability and biological soil properties, like abundance and biomass of earth worms. The return to annual crops involved an intense tillage and aeration of the soil. The study indicated, that the lack of tillage under SRC and the quantity of leaf and root litter can lead to an increased carbon accumulation in the upper soil. Tillage of former SRC leads to a fast redistribution of SOC in the topsoil combined with a loss of porosity, aggregate stability and abundance of earth worms. Subsequent investigations should contribute to select tillage strategies for FRC, which contribute to conserve the accumulated SOC and decrease the impact on the porosity and aggregate stability. (orig.)

  1. EPICORMIC SHOOTS INDUCTION AND ROOTING CUTTINGS OF Calophyllum brasiliense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagma Kratz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Calophyllum brasiliense is present in a wide natural distribution range in Brazil and its monopodial growth, with a rectilinear stem and a moderately dense timber has attracted the attention from the logging industry in recent decades. In the meantime, the lack of efficient rescue and vegetative propagation methods of adult plants has been a narrowing condition for the selection of superior genotypes in breeding programs of the species. Therefore, we evaluate epicormic shoots induction methods and the rooting cuttings of 14 year-old Calophyllum brasiliense trees. From this scope, three methods of epicormic shoots induction were evaluated: coppicing, girdling and partial girdling. We evaluate the number of produced sprouts and the percentage of sprouted trees at 06, 12 and 15 months’ after the experiment installation. Results have indicated the feasibility of Calophyllum brasiliense vegetative rescue by cuttings method using epicormic shoots induced by coppicing and girdling. In contrast, partial girdling was not effective in epicormic shoots emission. Concerning adventitious roots, the sprouting technique had no influence in the rooting of cuttings, showing variation among the different stock plants.

  2. ANALISI ENERGETICA DI CANTIERI DI MECCANIZZAZIONE LEGGERA PER L’UTILIZZAZIONE DI UN CEDUO DI EUCALIPTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzio Baldini

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The work was turned near Crotone (KR, in a 20 year-old plantation of Eucalyptus occidentalis Endl. positioned in hill zones, with average slope next to 27%. The utilisation system was the Full Tree System (FTS. The felling on the six yards has been done by chainsaw and the first coppice bunching was manual. fts 1, 2 - The extraction has been done by one drum forest winch applied to the three point hitch of a wheeled farm tractor forest version. fts 3, 4 - The extraction has been done by two drums forest winch, applied to the three point hitch of a wheeled farm tractor forest version. fts 5,6 - The extraction has been done by light tower yarder powered by one drum forest winch applied to the three point hitch of a wheeled farm tractor forest version. fts 1, 3 and 5 - At the landing the coppice have been processed by chainsaw in 2 meters length trunks. The slash accumulated and the trunks staked manually. fts 2, 4 and 6 - At the landing the coppice have been chipped by drum chipper with manual feed. The machine was a tractor powered chipper. At the landing the wood has been differentiated in two types. The type from the yards “fts 1,3,5” were 2 meters length trunks and the other type from the yards “fts 2,4,6” were chips for energy production. For the 2 meters length trunks the transport has been done by truck with 16 t of load capacity, and hydraulic crane. This material at the staple will be chipping by drum chipper with autonomous engine and mechanical feed. The chips transport will be done by truck with 17 t of load capacity. From the working times analysis and the wood quantitative obtained we studied the energy balance in the yards. We used the GER (Goss Energy Requirement method. From the results obtained, the best work methodology seems to be that of full trees chipping directly at the landing and the chips transport at the staple. For the bunching and the extraction the best productivity result is given from the tractor with one

  3. Willow bioenergy plantation research in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Kopp, R.F. [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY (United States); Nowak, C.A. [USDA Forest Service, Warren, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were established in Central New York in the spring of 1987 to evaluate the potential of Salix for biomass production in bioenergy plantations. Emphasis of the research was on developing and refining establishment, tending and maintenance techniques, with complimentary study of breeding, coppice physiology, pests, nutrient use and bioconversion to energy products. Current yields utilizing salix clones developed in cooperation with the University of Toronto in short-rotation intensive culture bioenergy plantations in the Northeast approximate 8 oven dry tons per acre per year with annual harvesting. Successful clones have been identified and culture techniques refined. The results are now being integrated to establish a 100 acre Salix large-scale bioenergy farm to demonstrate current successful biomass production technology and to provide plantations of sufficient size to test harvesters; adequately assess economics of the systems; and provide large quantities of uniform biomass for pilot-scale conversion facilities.

  4. Carbon, energy and forest biomass: new opportunities and needs for forest management in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest biomass provides a relevant fraction of world energy needs, not only in developing Countries. In Italy, several factors are presently contributing to a new interest for this resource, ranging from regulatory quotas for renewables to the increasing price of fossil fuel to the emergence of a European carbon stock exchange. This focus on renewable resources constitutes an important opportunity for the forest sector and for society by and large, but because of the potential dimensions of the emerging market it also requires new planning instruments, in order to avoid a sudden and widespread resumption of coppice management and a reduction of standing carbon stock in forest ecosystems, which would run contrary to the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol. An example of the future demand for biomasses in Central Italy is presented, based on the possible use of fuelwood in new coal-fired power plants by the 'co-firing' technology.

  5. Appalachian hardwood stump sprouts are potential sawlog crop trees. Research note NE-299. [Oak, maple, linden, cherry trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanson, N.I.

    1976-01-01

    Dbh and height of 8- and 12-year-old coppice shoots and the number of live shoots were recorded for 736 stumps at least 12 inches in diameter of Liriodendron tulipifera, Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer rubrum, and Tilia americana in north-central West Virgina. Of the 8-year-old shoots, T. americana had the greatest number of live stems/stump (16.8) and the greatest number of potential crop trees (dominant or co-dominant shoots attached to the stump not more than 6 inches above the ground), averaging 2.5 stems/stump. The average numbers of potential crop trees/stump were similar at 8 and 12 year. At 12 years, at least 88% of stumps of each species had at least one stem of groundline origin with no forks below 25 feet were 84% for L. tulipifera, 59% for Q rubra, 73% for A. rubrum, and 65% for P. Serotina.

  6. Buffers for biomass production in temperate European agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    , environmental pressures from intensive agriculture and policy developments. Use of conservation buffers by farmers outside of designated schemes is limited to date, but the increasing demand for bioenergy and the combination of agricultural production with conservation calls for a much wider implementation....... This paper reviews the biophysical knowledge on buffer functioning and associated ecosystem services. It describes how a three-zone buffer design, with arable fields buffered in combination by grassland, short rotation forestry (SRF) or coppice (SRC) and undisturbed vegetation along water courses, can...... be incorporated into farming landscapes as productive conservation elements and reflects on the potential for successful implementation. Land use plays a much greater role in determining catchment hydrology than soil type: shelterbelts or buffer strips have markedly higher infiltration capacity than arable...

  7. Impact of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on foliar elemental composition in a short rotation poplar plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinari, Sara; Calfapietra, Carlo; De Angelis, Paolo; Mugnozza, Giuseppe Scarascia; Grego, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    The experiment was carried out on a short rotation coppice culture of poplars (POP-EUROFACE, Central Italy), growing in a free air carbon dioxide enriched atmosphere (FACE). The specific objective of this work was to study whether elevated CO 2 and fertilization (two CO 2 treatments, elevated CO 2 and control, two N fertilization treatments, fertilized and unfertilized), as well as the interaction between treatments caused an unbalanced nutritional status of leaves in three poplar species (P. x euramericana, P. nigra and P. alba). Finally, we discuss the ecological implications of a possible change in foliar nutrients concentration. CO 2 enrichment reduced foliar nitrogen and increased the concentration of magnesium; whereas nitrogen fertilization had opposite effects on leaf nitrogen and magnesium concentrations. Moreover, the interaction between elevated CO 2 and N fertilization amplified some element unbalances such as the K/N-ratio. - CO 2 enrichment reduced foliar nitrogen and increased the magnesium concentration in poplar

  8. A comparison of the suitability of different willow varieties to treat on-site wastewater effluent in an Irish climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curneen, S J; Gill, L W

    2014-01-15

    Short rotation coppiced willow trees can be used to treat on-site wastewater effluent with the advantage that, if planted in a sealed basin and sized correctly, they produce no effluent discharge. This paper has investigated the evapotranspiration rate of four different willow varieties while also monitoring the effects of three different effluent types on each variety. The willow varieties used are all cultivars of Salix viminalis. The effluents applied were primary (septic tank) effluent, secondary treated effluent and rain water (control). The results obtained showed that the addition of effluent had a positive effect on the evapotranspiration. The willows were also found to uptake a high proportion of the nitrogen and phosphorus from the primary and secondary treated effluents added during the first year. The effect of the different effluents on the evapotranspiration rate has been used to design ten full scale on-site treatment systems which are now being monitored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation Introduction Albizia julibrissin Durazz in Kherson City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiko Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article raised questions diversification of ornamental plants for landscaping of Kherson city. We consider the effectiveness of widespread use in gardening Kherson city highly ornamental exotic species albutsiya lankaran. The rapid growth of plants, indiscriminateness to soil fertility, the ability to abundant seed and coppice restoration, resistance to the conditions of urban areas makes albutsiya promising for widespread use in gardening. In the course of the studies found that albutsiya lankaran rated as mild winter-hardy and moderately drought-resistant species, in desert climate conditions regularly damaged but recovered. Maximum decorative displays at the correct location: maximum light and moderate soil moisture. The plant shows high resistance to diseases and pests.

  10. Identification and characterisation of factors affecting losses in the large-scale, non-ventilated bulk storage of wood chips and development of best storage practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garstang, J.; Weekes, A.; Poulter, R.; Bartlett, D.

    2002-07-01

    The report describes the findings of a study to determine the factors affecting the commercial storage of wood chips for biomass power generation in the UK. The UK's first such plant in North Yorkshire uses a mixture of forestry residues and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow, where problems with the stored fuel highlighted the need to determine best storage practices. Two wood chip piles were built (one with willow chip and the other with wood chips from board leaf forestry residues) and monitored (moisture, temperature, chemical composition, spore numbers and species, heat and air flows, bulk density, etc). Local weather data was also obtained. Recommendations for future storage practices are made.

  11. Moisture content determination in solid biofuels by dielectric and NIR reflection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Peter Daugbjerg; Morsing, Merete [Department of Forest and Landscape, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Hartmann, Hans; Boehm, Thorsten [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (TFZ), Schulgasse 18, D-94315 Straubing (Germany); Temmerman, Michael; Rabier, Fabienne [Departement Genie Rural, Chee de Namur 146, B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium)

    2006-11-15

    One near infrared (NIR) reflectance and five dielectric moisture meters were tested for their capability of measuring moisture content (MC) in solid biofuels. Ninety-eight samples were tested at up to eight moisture levels covering the MC range from fresh fuel to approximately 10% MC (w.b.). The fuel types ranged from typical solid biofuels such as coniferous and deciduous wood chips over short rotation coppice (SRC) to sunflower seed and olive stones. The most promising calibrations were obtained with the NIR reflection method and two dielectric devices where the sample is placed in a container integrated in the device. The calibration equations developed show that there is a profound influence from both laboratory and fuel type. It is suggested that individual calibrations that are based on the specific fuel types used at the individual heating plant could be applied. (author)

  12. The ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae of “Bosco Palli”, a relict Turkey oak wood in Basso Monferrato (Piedmont, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allegro G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Carabid fauna of “Bosco Palli”, a relict Turkey oak wood in the hilly area of Basso Monferrato, is described. This wood covers an area of about 50 hectares divided in two separate core areas and is almost entirely surrounded by agricultural crops. A total of 25 Carabid species were recorded, of which only 11 are present in the central core areas and 23 in the peripheral ecotone areas. There are only very few species with strict forest attitude, but a prosperous population of Carabus italicus was recorded, located in a peripheral portion of the forest on moist and swampy soil. The poorness of this fauna and the scarcity of specialized forest species may be a consequence of the limited area of the wood, its fragmentation, the total isolation in an agricultural context and the repeated coppicing carried out up to about half of the past century.

  13. TEMPORALLY VARIABLE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTANCE EFFECTS CONTRIBUTE TO THE ASSEMBLY OF ROOT-ASSOCIATED FUNGAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James Barnes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Root-associated fungi are key contributors to ecosystem functioning, however the factors which determine community assembly are still relatively poorly understood. This study simultaneously quantified the roles of geographical distance, environmental heterogeneity and time in determining root-associated fungal community composition at the local scale within a short rotation coppice (SRC willow plantation. Culture independent molecular analyses of the root-associated fungal community suggested a strong but temporally variable effect of geographical distance between fungal communities on composition at the local geographical level. Whilst these distance effects were most prevalent on October communities, soil pH had an effect on structuring of the communities throughout the sampling period. Given the temporal variation in the effects of geographical distance and the environment for shaping root-associated fungal communities, there is clearly need for a temporal component to sampling strategies in future investigations of fungal biogeography.

  14. Historical, ecological, and governance aspects of intensive forest biomass harvesting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stupak, Inge; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    forests would be a more useful reference for ecological processes and biodiversity. However, pristine forests are almost non-existent in Europe, and non-intervention, self-regulating forests provide an alternative. Governance and positions of non-governmental organizations in Denmark focus more on general...... forest management impacts and conservation of light-demanding biodiversity associated with historic coppicing and grazing than on intensive harvesting. The energy sector drives the development of new governance to verify forest biomass sustainability, but the national knowledge base for such verification...... is limited. As part of a larger solution, we suggest establishing a network of non-intervention, self-regulating forests that can serve as a reference for long-term research and monitoring of intensive harvesting impacts. This would support the application of adaptive management strategies, and continuous...

  15. Environmental aspects of using waste waters and sludges in energy forest cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    From a waste management point of view, energy crops offer the advantage of being non-food crops. Poplar and willow coppice have longer growing seasons and deeper, longer lasting root systems than annual crops, which enables them to have better utilization of mineralised nutrients from waste products. When using waste waters they have the further advantage of a high evapotranspiration. The removal of nutrients from the growth system by harvests is limited, however, and the applied amounts should be regulated accordingly, to avoid leaching of nutrients. Heavy metal contents of waste products for land use are controlled by national regulations. Applications several times higher than is now allowed has had little documented effect on the environment due to the binding of metals to soil particles. The nitrogen content of wood fuels converts mainly to atmospheric nitrogen, but with high temperatures where the combustion is most efficient, there is also some conversion to nitrogen oxides. (author)

  16. Economic Potential of Biomass from Unused Agriculture Land for Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, A.; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the energy potential of biomass from growing short rotation coppice (SRC) on unused agricultural land in the Republic of Croatia was examined. At present, SRC is not completely recognized in Croatian legislative and considerations in energy strategy and action plans. The paper aspires...... to contribute to better understanding of the role SRC can take in national and local energy planning. The methodology is provided for regional analysis of biomass energy potential on unused agricultural land and for assessing the cost of the biomass at the power plant (PP) location considering transport...... plants and appropriate size of seasonal heat storage is discussed for each case study. Case studies have shown the potential for use of previously unused agricultural land to help achieve national targets for renewable energy sources as well as reducing carbon dioxide emissions, help diversify...

  17. Willow yield is highly dependent on clone and site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    Use of high-yielding genotypes is one of the means to achieve high yield and profitability in willow (Salix spp.) short rotation coppice. This study investigated the performance of eight willow clones (Inger, Klara, Linnea, Resolution, Stina, Terra Nova, Tora, Tordis) on five Danish sites......, differing considerably in soil type, climatic conditions and management. Compared to the best clone, the yield was up to 36 % lower for other clones across sites and up to 51 % lower within sites. Tordis was superior to other clones with dry matter yields between 5.2 and 10.2 Mg ha−1 year−1 during the first...... 3-year harvest rotation, and it consistently ranked as the highest yielding clone on four of the five sites and not significantly lower than the highest yielding clone on the fifth site. The ranking of the other clones was more dependent on site with significant interaction between clone and site...

  18. Does a minimal intervention approach threaten the biodiversity of protected areas? A multi-taxa short-term response to intervention in temperate oak-dominated forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebek, Pavel; Bače, R.; Bartoš, Michael; Beneš, Jiří; Chlumská, Zuzana; Doležal, Jiří; Dvorský, Miroslav; Kovář, J.; Machač, O.; Mikátová, B.; Perlík, Michal; Plátek, Michal; Poláková, Simona; Škorpík, R.; Stejskal, R.; Svoboda, M.; Trnka, F.; Vlašín, M.; Zapletal, Michal; Čížek, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 358, Dec 15 (2015), s. 80-89 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/1952; GA ČR GAP505/10/2167 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 046/2014/P; European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0040 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : coppice * open woodlands * biodiversity conservation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (BU-J) Impact factor: 2.826, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112715004764

  19. English Nature's ''natural areas'': a different look at the countryside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Nature conservation is often equated with the protection of nature reserves and other special sites. However in England such sites are now often surrounded by agricultural land of limited wildlife value. There is no guarantee that the plants and animal communities that we have inherited can be maintained in island-like patches. Therefore we must try to make the countryside in-between richer as well. The current changing agricultural and forestry scenes mean that there is a good possibility that this can be achieved. Short rotation coppice (SRC) is one of the new land-uses whose impact we need to consider. Studies to date indicate that it is a richer habitat than arable land or heavily improved grassland at the level of the individual field. Our concern in the countryside as a whole however is how blocks of SRC relate to other habitats and features; are there better alternative uses (from a wildlife point of view) in a particular landscape? The description of the current state and long-term objectives for particular Natural Areas should help us to make such decisions in a consistent way. Use of wood for fuel from traditional coppice is also likely to benefit nature conservation by bringing neglected woods back into rotation. Where large schemes are proposed however there are a number of issues related primarily to the timing of the work and methods of harvesting that may need adjustment to prevent damage to sensitive sites. Involvement of English Nature staff at an early stage should make it easier to resolve any potential problems. (Author)

  20. Assessing management effects on Oak forests in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sishir; Pietsch, Stephan A.; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    Historic land use as well as silvicultural management practices have changed the structures and species composition of central European forests. Such changes have effects on the growth of forests and contribute to global warming. As insufficient information on historic forest management is available it is hard to explain the effect of management on forests growth and its possible consequences to the environment. In this situation, the BIOME-BGC model, which integrates the main physical, biological and physiological processes based on current understanding of ecophysiology is an option for assessing the management effects through tracking the cycling of energy, water, carbon and nutrients within a given ecosystems. Such models are increasingly employed to simulate current and future forest dynamics. This study first compares observed standing tree volume, carbon and nitrogen content in soil in the high forests and coppice with standards stands of Oak forests in Austria. Biome BGC is then used to assess the effects of management on forest growth and to explain the differences with measured parameters. Close positive correlations and unbiased results and statistically insignificant differences between predicted and observed volumes indicates the application of the model as a diagnostic tool to assess management effects in oak forests. The observed data in 2006 and 2009 was further compared with the results of respective model runs. Further analysis on simulated data shows that thinning leads to an increase in growth efficiency (GE), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and water use efficiency (WUE), and to a decrease in the radiation use efficiency (RUE) in both forests. Among all studied growth parameters, only the difference in the NUE was statistically significant. This indicates that the difference in the yield of forests is mainly governed by the NUE difference in stands due to thinning. The coppice with standards system produces an equal amount of net primary

  1. Reconstructing European forest management from 1600 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, M. J.; Luyssaert, S.; Meyfroidt, P.; Kaplan, J. O.; Buergi, M.; Chen, Y.; Erb, K.; Gimmi, U.; McInerney, D.; Naudts, K.; Otto, J.; Pasztor, F.; Ryder, J.; Schelhaas, M.-J.; Valade, A.

    2015-04-01

    European forest use for fuel, timber and food dates back to pre-Roman times. Century-scale ecological processes and their legacy effects require accounting for forest management when studying today's forest carbon sink. Forest management reconstructions that are used to drive land surface models are one way to quantify the impact of both historical and today's large scale application of forest management on today's forest-related carbon sink and surface climate. In this study we reconstruct European forest management from 1600 to 2010 making use of diverse approaches, data sources and assumptions. Between 1600 and 1828, a demand-supply approach was used in which wood supply was reconstructed based on estimates of historical annual wood increment and land cover reconstructions. For the same period demand estimates accounted for the fuelwood needed in households, wood used in food processing, charcoal used in metal smelting and salt production, timber for construction and population estimates. Comparing estimated demand and supply resulted in a spatially explicit reconstruction of the share of forests under coppice, high stand management and forest left unmanaged. For the reconstruction between 1829 and 2010 a supply-driven back-casting method was used. The method used age reconstructions from the years 1950 to 2010 as its starting point. Our reconstruction reproduces the most important changes in forest management between 1600 and 2010: (1) an increase of 593 000 km2 in conifers at the expense of deciduous forest (decreasing by 538 000 km2), (2) a 612 000 km2 decrease in unmanaged forest, (3) a 152 000 km2 decrease in coppice management, (4) a 818 000 km2 increase in high stand management, and (5) the rise and fall of litter raking which at its peak in 1853 removed 50 Tg dry litter per year.

  2. Ecobalances of technical options for the supply and utilization of bioenergy; Oekobilanzen technischer Optionen zur Bioenergiebereitstellung und -nutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkelberg, Elisa; Aretz, Astrid

    2013-05-15

    In Germany bioenergy production and consumption are promoted and encouraged by means of the Renewable Energy Law, which has as its objectives transforming the energy system and preventing climate change. In recent years several forms of bioenergy have been criticized as leading to ecological and socioeconomic risks. This study presents life cycle assessments (LCA) for existing bioenergy processes. The LCAs were conducted as a part of the Project ''Renewable Energy Regions: Socio-Ecology of Self-Sufficiency''; the objective was to assess the ecological impact of the selected bioenergy processes in order to calculate the overall ecological impact of existing bioenergy plants. The results prove that the usage of agricultural biomass such as corn and wheat for biogas production leads to negative ecological impacts such as eutrophication and acidification. If greenhouse gas emissions from land-use change are included, the net effect in comparison to the usage of fossil energies will only be small or even negative; however, when residues such as manure or materials from landscape management are used as substrates for biogas production they lead to several positive ecological impacts. Residual forest wood or wood from short-rotation coppices used in co-generation show the highest greenhouse gas reduction potential among the investigated processes. It must, however, be assumed that the potential of residual forest wood in Germany is already largely being tapped. Regions that have made bioenergy a priority thus should limit the usage of agricultural biomass for energy production to specific crops such as short-rotation coppices and floral and herbaceous perennials. Additionally, future challenges will require strategies to improve cascade utilization and gathering and efficient usage of residues.

  3. Contribution to growth and increment analysis on the Italian CONECOFOR Level II Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio AMORINI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the "Estimation of growth and yield" included in the National Programme on Intensive Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems CONECOFOR Aims of the paper are: i to outline the composition and design of Level II PMPs network, also examining the structural characteristics of forest stands; ii to describe the contents of mensurational surveys carried out in winter 1996/97 and 1999/00; iii to analyse the growth rates in progress at each PMP using selected descriptors. Stand origin (11 high forests and 13 stored coppices and transitory crops and the number of forest types tested are focused as the main discriminants of the PMPs network. This composition, together with irregular forestry practice, results in a number of consequences (prevailing age classes, tree densities and related stand structures, growth patterns which cause a high in-and-between variability of all growth parameters. For the purposes of this analysis, the network of the plots was divided into three main sets: broadleaved high forest (i.e. beech stands, 6 PMPs; coniferous forest (i.e. Norway spruce stands, 5 PMPs; coppice forest (i.e. deciduous and evergreen oaks, beech and hardbeam stands, 13 PMPs. The measurement of basic growth variables (dbh and tree height was used to describe the tree populations in each PMP; the calculation of basal area, mean and top dbh, mean and top height, provided the reference dataset at each inventory. The assessment of social class according to Kraft gave information on vertical stand structure and made it possible to analyse growth according to tree layers. Data comparison provided increments in the interval 1997-2000. The occurrence of natural mortality and ingrowth was also assessed to take into account their combined effect on tree population dynamics. No trend was found, due to limited data availability, but it was possible to have a detailed overview of the stand situation and growth rates in PMPs.

  4. ESTAQUIA DE ÁRVORES ADULTAS DE Paulownia fortunei var. mikado A PARTIR DE BROTAÇÕES EPICÓRMICAS DE DECEPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos André Stuepp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paulownia fortunei is a Chinese native species characterized by rapid growth and low wood density, associated with a natural resistance against xylophagous agents. Based on its low germination combined with the advantages of vegetative propagation, this work aimed to evaluate the effect of the rooting and root vigor of cuttings from epicormic shoots of mature trees coppiced near the base, collected in different seasons and under different concentrations of indolebutyric acid (IBA, as well as to check for possible anatomical and histochemical barriers to adventitious root emission. In fall/2011, spring/2011 and summer/2012 semi- hardwood cuttings were prepared with 10-12 cm and two leaves reduced to an area of about 78.5 cm² (10 cm diameter. Cutting bases were dipped in IBA at concentrations of 0, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg L -1 . Cuttings were planted in 110 cm³ plastic tubes, filled with fine vermiculite and rice hulls (1:1 v/v, in a greenhouse. After 60 days, the percentage of rooting, number and length of roots/cutting, percentage of cuttings with callus and mortality were evaluated. Cuttings collected from stumps coppiced in summer presented the best results for rooting (47.5%, for mean length of the three longest roots/cuttings (5.65 cm and percentage of cuttings with callus (51.25%. The use of IBA is necessary for root induction in cuttings of epicormic shoots from stumps of Paulownia fortunei var. mikado being recommended the concentration of 2000 mg L -1 . There were no anatomical and histochemical barriers to the emission of new roots.

  5. SRC-willow (Salix viminalis) as a resource for flower-visiting insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddersen, J. [National Environmental Research Institute, Ronde (Denmark). Dept. of Landscape Ecology

    2001-07-01

    The potential habitat value of commercial short rotation coppice (SRC)-willow plantations for flower-visiting insects was investigated. During 1998-2000, at a single typical intensive Danish farmland site, 11 Salix viminalis plantations were sampled by late April to quantify willow catkin abundance and flower sex. Mean plantation size was 1.1 ha and included one or more of clones: orm, rapp, ulv, jorr, christina and jorrun. Plot-year means of catkin abundance and of proportion of willows flowering were related to the coppicing cycle, i.e. the number of growth years since last harvest of plot ('year' 0-4). In 1998, the ground layer vegetation was sampled. Monitoring flower-visiting insects by means of line-transect counts failed due to the local scarcity of bees. At the plantation scale, flowering was discontinuous across the harvest cycle as it was totally absent in the year immediately following harvest. In successive years (1-4), individual willows flowered frequently and, occasionally, at high abundances, and catkin abundance increased with time. Within 3-4 year of harvest cycle, all plots flowered in most years with most plots exhibiting at least some flowering in any 1 year. Thus, willow catkin abundance was generally high in the total area due to: high frequency of flowering in plots, occasional high flowering abundance, plots not being harvested simultaneously and large total number of willows within plots and landscape. Similarly, flower sex ratio, and thus flower value, varied greatly between plots while variation was damped across plots. Alternative simultaneous flower resources in ground layer vegetation were few except for Dandelion. SRC willow may constitute an important resource for bees, even under the stress of the harvest cycle, and recommendations are given for improving this biodiversity aspect. (author)

  6. Woodland as working space: where is the restorative green idyll?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingley, Amanda

    2013-08-01

    Much has been written on the beneficial, restorative qualities of 'natural' (non-built) rural or urban 'green' space, including woodland, in promoting mental and physical health when accessed for leisure, sport and education. In contrast, with the exception of rural health studies, there is relatively little debate about the health benefits of 'green space' as work place, especially in woodland and forests. In the developed world, this apparent gap in the literature may be partly due to an assumption of the forest work place as inherently healthy, and also the invisibility of a tiny percentage of the workforce now employed in forestry. However, in the UK and parts of Europe over recent years there has been a small, though significant, increase in opportunities to train and work in woodlands using traditional, sustainable management such as coppicing, and an exploration of health issues of woodland work is timely. This paper reports on findings from a secondary narrative analysis of oral history interviews selected from two phases of the Woodland Recollections Project and newsletters written by local people historically and currently engaged in coppicing and woodland work in North West England. Perceptions of healthy working in green space are examined by applying key concepts of Attention Restoration Theory (ART). Findings suggest that woodland work environments involve many counter-restorative factors that can render the 'green idyll' detrimental to health and wellbeing. To benefit from restorative elements requires drawing on a high level of specialist skills that empower individuals to manage and maintain healthy working practices in these diverse and challenging environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. VARIATION IN CROSION/DEPOSITION RATES OVER THE LAST FIFTTY YEARS ON ALLUVIAL FAN SURFACES OF L. PLEISTOCENE-MID HOLOCENE AGE, ESTIMATIONS USING 137CS SOIL PROFILE DATA, AMARGOSA VALLEY, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Harrington; R. Kelly; K.T. Ebert

    2005-01-01

    Variations in erosion and deposition for the last fifty years (based on estimates from 137Cs profiles) on surfaces (Late Pleistocene to Late Holocene in age) making up the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan south of Yucca Mountain, is a function of surface age and of desert pavement development or absence. For purposes of comparing erosion and deposition, the surfaces can be examined as three groups: (1) Late Pleistocene surfaces possess areas of desert pavement development with thin Av or sandy A horizons, formed by the trapping capabilities of the pavements. These zones of deposition are complemented by coppice dune formation on similar parts of the surface. Areas on the surface where no pavement development has occurred are erosional in nature with 0.0 +/- 0.0 cm to 1.5 +/- 0.5 cm of erosion occurring primarily by winds blowing across the surface. Overall these surfaces may show either a small net depositional gain or small erosional loss. (2) Early Holocene surfaces have no well-developed desert pavements, but may have residual gravel deposits in small areas on the surfaces. These surfaces show the most consistent erosional surface areas on which it ranges from 1.0 +/-.01 cm to 2.0+/- .01 cm. Fewer depositional forms are found on this age of surface so there is probably a net loss of 1.5 cm across these surfaces. (3) The Late Holocene surfaces show the greatest variability in erosion and deposition. Overbank deposition during floods cover many edges of these surfaces and coppice dune formation also creates depositional features. Erosion rates are highly variable and range from 0.0 +/- 0.0 to a maximum of 2.0+/-.01. Erosion occurs because of the lack of protection of the surface. However, the common areas of deposition probably result in the surface having a small net depositional gain across these surfaces. Thus, the interchannel surfaces of the Fortymile Wash fan show a variety of erosional styles as well as areas of deposition. The fan, therefore, is a dynamic

  8. OPTIMAL TIME FOR SUBSTITUTION OF Eucalyptus spp POPULATIONS – THE CASE OF CONSTANT TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Nogueira de Souza1;

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The few studies on renewal of Eucalyptus spp populations done in Brazil consider constant technology. This is done this way for facilitating the modeling of how variables affect this activity, such as income, costs, rates of discount and yield. The reason for not considering the gains earned through technological progress is the lack of a specific dynamic model. This study was carried out aiming to get to know the forest rotation with values from the sixties (beginning of tax exemption programme and current values (nineties aiming to obtain wood for cellulose and charcoal production; to determine the moment of substitution of a population which presents the same yield and the same cost structure through time as well as to determine how many cuttings should be done until the final cycle; to determine how many cuttings should be done until substitution (substitution chain; to verify the sensitivity of the substitution time to variations in the discount rates, wood prices, yield, land costs, harvesting costs and coppice yield. The results were tested in a case study, employing the Gompertz Function to determine the population yield. The Current Net Value Method was used as a crieterion of economic decision. It has been concluded that: The forest rotation to produce charcoal in the sixties was at 13 years of age; the current rotation is at 7 years of age; the final cycle allows up to 13 cuttings, but considering the possibility of land leasing, the best alternative is to conduce the sproutings up to the third cutting; an increase in factors such as discount rates, wood prices and yield caused reduction of the cutting age; increase in land costs did not affect the cutting ages; increase in the logging cost increased the cutting ages; the substitution of population now a days happens after 3 cuttings, while in the sixties it happened after 2 cuttings due to the lesser loss; an increase in factors such as discount rates, wood prices, logging costs and

  9. Increasing wood mobilization through Sustainable Forest Management in protected areas of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Maesano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT JA X-NONE The European Community has long recognized the need to further promote renewable energy. Under the overall objective to support and enhance sustainable management, the promotion of the use of forest biomass could help to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuel, increasing carbon stock in wood products and improve energy self-sufficiency enhancing security of supply and providing job opportunities in rural areas. To what extent Italian forests can satisfy an increased wood demand, without compromising the others Ecosystem Services (ESs remains an open question. Our aim was to assess the potential supply of woody biomass from the network of protected areas in Italy considering the felling constraints. We estimated the theoretical annual potential increment from forest inventory data performing a correlation with the Corine Land Cover 2006 at the IV level with a 1:100,000 resolution elaborated in a GIS (Geographic Information System environment. The average annual potential increment at national level available for felling was 4.4 m3ha-1. Within the network of protected areas (EUAP and Natura 2000, the average annual increment, available to felling, was 0.98 m3ha-1, respectively, 0.81 m3ha-1 from coppice and 1.14 m3ha-1 from non-coppice forests. Based on data obtained from this study, the availability of wood materials could be increased of almost 20 % at national level by pursuing an active management within the network of protected areas. In Italy, the actual level of resource utilization is rather low; increasing felling together with the implementation of an active management within protected areas could allow satisfying, theoretically, the Italian wood consumption. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0

  10. The use of a gas producing unit for electricity production; Fonctionnement d'un gazogene en Brabant wallon pour la production d'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgois, F; Martin, J [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2003-06-01

    Considering the need to develop various renewable energy sources facing the challenge of the global change, and to promote agricultural alternatives facing the critical situation of the classical food productions, the Walloon Region and Electrabel decided in 1995 to implement a 4-year pilot project to generate decentralized peak electricity from cultivated ligneous biomass. Short rotation coppice is presently cultivated, harvested and prepared by a farmer to feed the pilot plant, now installed and operated in situ after set up and performances analysis in lab facilities. The chosen technology combines a down-draft fixed bed gasifier with an turbo diesel-gas internal combustion engine. The gas has a typical LHV of 5200 kJ /m{sup 3} and a tar and dust particles content kept under 1 mg/m{sup 3} after hot cyclone de-dusting, wet scrubbing and final packed bed filtration. The plant is completely remote controlled and starts/stops on demand, without any human intervention. After 10 to 12 minutes from starting signal in cold conditions, 150 kW is delivered on the grid. The steady state consumption is about 9 kg fuel-oil/h and 90 kg/h oven-dry wood, corresponding to 25 % overall efficiency. (authors)

  11. CLIMATE-TREE GROWTH RELATIONSHIPS OF Mimosa tenuiflora IN SEASONALLY DRY TROPICAL FOREST, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Póvoa Mattos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa tenuiflora is a native pioneer tree from the Caatinga used commercially as firewood due to its high calorific value. It is deciduous, its trunk does not reach large diameters and it has good regrowth capacity. This study intended to determine the annual increment in diameter of M. tenuiflora and its correlation with rainfall, as basis for fuel wood management. Disks from the stem base of M. tenuiflora trees were collected in 2008 in Sertânia and Serra Talhada, Pernambuco State, from regrowth of trees coppiced in 2003 and in Limoeiro do Norte, Ceará State, from a plantation established in 2002. The trees have well-defined annual growth rings, highly correlated with annual precipitation and are well-suited for dendrochronological investigations. Forest managers must consider the influence of previous drier years in the wood production when predicting fuel wood harvesting. The high growth correlation with the previous year’s rainfall in regions where the rains start after photoperiodic stimulation indicate the necessity of understanding the growth dynamics of the species under dry forest conditions through additional ecophysiology studies.

  12. The Swedish energy forestry research programme at the Department of Short Rotation Forestry, SUAS, Uppsala. Summary report prepared for the evaluation of the short-rotation forestry research 1993-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledin, S.; Christersson, L. [eds.

    1996-12-31

    The overall aim of the Department of Short Rotation Forestry is to carry out research for development of basic, theoretical and practical knowledge in the related disciplines of biology, ecology and cultivation techniques in order to reach a high and sustainable production of woody biomass for energy purposes using environmentally acceptable methods. This report gives summaries of nine research programs within the Department, and the reports were prepared for the evaluation of the research during the period 1993-1996. The projects are: 1. Competition in short rotation forests (Theo Verwijst); 2. Carbon allocation as a function of nutrient and water availability (Lars Rytter, Tom Ericsson); 3. States and fluxes of water and carbon dioxide in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (Anders Lindroth); 4. Root dynamics of fast growing deciduous trees (Rose-Marie Rytter); 5. Accumulation and mobilization of root reserves in coppice growth (Lisa Sennerby-Forsse, Lars Bollmark, Yuehua von Fircks); 6. Effects of nutrient supply on frost resistance in fast growing Salix clones (Heinrich von Fircks); 7. Optimizing water and nutrients in poplar and willow plantations for maximum growth (Sune Elowson); 8. Soil biology in relation to energy forestry (Ulf Granhall); and 9. Plant protection in short rotation forestry against fungi and bacteria (Mauritz Ramstedt)

  13. Mechanization in firewood harvesting in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to survey current mechanization level of coppice harvesting in Southern Italy. The cooperation of the General Direction of the National Forest Service (NFS has been a basic tool of survey. A questionnaire compiled on purpose was sent to each Forest Station (hereinafter referred to as CS in the following regions: Basilicata, Campania and Calabria. A high percentage (80% of the CSs did fulfill the questionnaire. The answers highlight that: i the main assortment currently produced is firewood; ii the level of harvesting mechanization is rather low, equipment being quite obsolete: indeed, the most widely used machineries are farm tractors partly adapted to forest harvesting and equipped with cages or back winch; iii the use of animals for hauling (mules and oxen, the latter in Calabria is still quite frequent, while forest tractors, polyethylene chutes and cable cranes are almost absent; iv the use of individual protection (DPI and machinery protection devices (DPM is on average quite low.

  14. [Ecological regulation services of Hainan Island ecosystem and their valuation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zhao, Tongqian; Zhao, Jingzhu; Xiao, Han; Wang, Xiaoke

    2004-08-01

    Ecosystem services imply the natural environmental conditions on which human life relies for existence, and their effectiveness formed and sustained by ecosystem and its ecological processes. In newly research reports, they were divided into four groups, i. e., provisioning services, regulation services, cultural services, and supporting services. To assess and valuate ecosystem services is the foundation of regional environmental reserve and development. Taking Hainan Island as an example and based on the structure and processes of natural ecosystem, this paper discussed the proper methods for regulation services assessment. The ecosystems were classified into 13 types including valley rain forest, mountainous rain forest, tropical monsoon forest, mountainous coppice forest, mountainous evergreen forest, tropical coniferous forest, shrubs, plantation, timber forest, windbreak forest, mangrove, savanna, and cropland, and then, the regulation services and their economic values of Hainan Island ecosystem were assessed and evaluated by terms of water-holding, soil conservancy, nutrient cycle, C fixation, and windbreak function. The economic value of the regulation services of Hainan Island ecosystem was estimated as 2035.88 x 10(8)-2153.39 x 10(8) RMB yuan, 8 times higher to its provisioning services (wood and agricultural products) which were estimated as only 254.06 x 10(8) RMB yuan. The result implied that ecosystem regulation services played an even more important role in the sustainable development of society and economy in Hainan Island.

  15. Primary productivity and the prospects for biofuels in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, G. J.; Callaghan, T. V.

    1983-09-01

    Estimates of land use and plant productivity are combined to predict total annual primary production in the UK as 252 million tonnes dry matter (10.5 t ha-1yr-1). Annual above ground production is predicted to be 165 Mt (6.9 t ha-1yr-1). Within these totals, intensive agriculture contributes 60%, productive woodland 8%, natural vegetation 26% and urban vegetation 5%. However, only 25% of total plant production is cropped by man and animals, and most of this is subsequently discarded as wastes and residues. 2112 PJ of organic material is available for fuel without reducing food or fibre production, but since much of this could not be economically collected, 859 PJ is calculated as a more realistic biofuel contribution by the year 2000. After deducting 50% conversion losses, this could save P1 billion (1979 prices) in oil imports. Short rotation energy plantations, forest residues, coppice woodlands, animal and crop wastes, industrial and domestic wastes, catch crops, natural vegetation and urban vegetation all have immediate or short term potential as biofuel sources. Sensitive planning is required to reduce environmental impact, but in some cases more diverse wildlife habitats may be created.

  16. Biomass production in willows. What did we know before the energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perttu, K L [ed.

    1984-12-01

    The biological foundations of biomass with willows originate in the experiences from basket willow husbandry. This was an established discipline in Europe in the 18th century. Problems concerning site preparation, selection of clones, planting as cuttings, spacing, weed control, rotation time, harvesting and coppicing vigour with respect to the longevity of the stand, were practically solved at the research level and already in practice. The yield potential of basket willow and willows for hoop production as well as yield figures from field experiments were quite high also according to present-day biomass willow experiments. An explanation of this could be the much higher stand densities than has been customary in current willow experiments. Although many practical questions got their answers in basket willow husbandry, open questions still remain. The basket willow era gave only little experience on willow production in peatlands; actually peatsoils were almost avoided. Knowledge of nutrient require ments and fertilization was also rather elementary. These aspects must therefore be established for biomass production. Control of weeds in the establishment phase of the willow husbandry was solved by manual work. Since this is a labour intensive method which is no longer possible, a more modern weed control needs to be developed for current husbandry. As a whole it is a task for related research to attach proper optimization of cultural techniques to suitable willow clones in order to attain and maintain as high a production level as was the case in the old basket willow husbandry. With 25 refs.

  17. Assessment of how forest production currently not used would be obtained for energy purposes, and fron this an evaluation of management methods most appropriate to production of wood for energy purposes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, G H

    1981-01-01

    For existing plantings and management, the availability of residues and energy in the forest and from the wood processing industry in the United Kingdom has been shown to be 885kt/y for 1977 and 2520kt/y for 2000. Biomass available in 2000 from thinning of existing forests is likely to range from 600kt/y up to much higher levels if the markets for small roundwood remain weak. Energy plantations of two types have been examined in detail, coppice for the better conditions, single stem growth for the more difficult sites. Suitable species have been evaluated, and areas of land which are at present only partially utilized for food production have been identified. Depending on the conditions, yields are likely to vary from 5 to 20 t/ha/y giving a potential yield of forest biomass of 16M dry t/y from 1.5M ha. Costs of biomass per uit energy, on-site, from residues, processing, thinnings and plantations are less than the current price of coal.

  18. Ecological assessment of integrated bioenergy systems using the Sustainable Process Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotscheck, C.; Konig, F.; Obernberger, I.

    2000-01-01

    Biomass utilisation for energy production presently faces an uphill battle against fossil fuels. The use of biomass must offer additional benefits to compensate for higher prices: on the basis of a life cycle assessment (using BEAM to evaluate a variety of integrated bioenergy systems in connection with the Sustainable Process Index as a highly aggregated environmental pressure index) it is shown that integrated bioenergy systems are superior to fossil fuel systems in terms of environmental compatibility. The implementation of sustainability measures provides additional valuable information that might help in constructing and optimising integrated bioenergy systems. For a set of reference processes, among them fast pyrolysis, atmospheric gasification, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), combustion and steam cycle (CS) and conventional hydrolysis, a detailed impact assessment is shown. Sensitivity analyses of the most important ecological parameters are calculated, giving an overview of the impacts of various stages in the total life cycle and showing 'what really matters'. Much of the ecological impact of integrated bioenergy systems is induced by feedstock production. It is mainly the use of fossil fuels in cultivation, harvesting and transportation as well as the use of fertilisers in short-rotation coppice production that impose considerable ecological pressure. Concerning electricity generation the most problematic pressures are due to gaseous emissions, most notably the release of NO x . Moreover, a rather complicated process (high amount of grey energy) and the use of fossil pilot fuel (co-combustion) leads to a rather weak ecological performance in contrast to other 100% biomass-based systems. (author)

  19. Effects of environmental parameters on the chestnut gall wasp and its complex of indigenous parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, Carmelo Peter; Bernardo, Umberto

    2018-04-01

    The chestnut gall wasp (CGW), Dryocosmus kuriphilus, an invasive pest native to China, has caused severe yield and economic losses to chestnut production in Europe since its arrival in 2002. In Southern Italy, the complex of indigenous parasitoids colonizing CGW was monitored between 2013 and 2015, with the aim of estimating the composition of the indigenous parasitoid complex, its ability to control CGW populations, and the interactions of both factors with several measured environmental parameters. We compared results among three differently managed field types. Results showed an increase in the rate of parasitism both when the host population density was lower and in unmanaged chestnut stands with more natural conditions. The percentage of parasitism in galls was related to morphological traits of the galls and to higher seasonal temperatures, which reduced the parasitism intensity because CGW develops earlier under such conditions. The host-parasitoid mortality inside galls varied among sites and was associated mostly with rot fungi during wet spring and summer months. Parasitoid species richness was similar among the study sites, but the proportion of parasitoid species differed between orchards and unmanaged coppice stands. The timing of attack by parasitoids followed a species-specific successional sequence throughout the larva-to-adult life cycle of the CGW. These interactions should be considered in future research on trophic relationships and when modeling invasive scenarios for new pest species.

  20. Ecological, biological balances and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perttu, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    The scientific work within the activity ''ecological/biological balances and conservation'' is summarised in this report. The aims of the activity during its existence between 1992 and 1994 have been to: (i) arrange a workshop and publish the presentations on the environmental aspects of energy forest cultivations, (ii) perform joint scientific work together with the activity group on ''biological disposal of wastewaters and sludges'', that is closely related to environmental problems, and (iii) produce ecological guidelines concerning energy forestry, suitable for advisers and farmers dealing with bioenergy problems. The most important results from the workshop were the environmental benefits from energy forestry when compared with intensive agriculture and forestry. Energy forestry has positive influence on the carbon balances, nutrient recycling, and soil sustainability. The effects are also positive on the natural flora and fauna, which in most cases are enriched when compared with agricultural crops. From the joint efforts of the two activities the main result was a study tour, conference and workshop, concentrating on biological purification systems. The most promising system seems to be the vegetation filters of short rotation coppice. The report on ecological guidelines contains a number of ideas and recommendations for establishment, management, and harvesting of energy forests in an environmentally acceptable way. It also gives advice on how to locate the stands to minimise the risk of nutrient leakage from arable land. (Author)

  1. Pedological and geological relationships with soil lichen and moss distribution in the eastern Mojave Desert, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Miller, David M.; Bedford, David R.; Phillips, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are ubiquitous in drylands globally. Lichens and mosses are essential biocrust components and provide a variety of ecosystem services, making their conservation and management of interest. Accordingly, understanding what factors are correlated with their distribution is important to land managers. We hypothesized that cover would be related to geologic and pedologic factors. We sampled 32 sites throughout the eastern Mojave Desert, stratifying by parent material and the age of the geomorphic surfaces. The cover of lichens and mosses on ‘available ground’ (L + Mav; available ground excludes ground covered by rocks or plant stems) was higher on limestone and quartzite-derived soils than granite-derived soils. Cover was also higher on moderately younger-aged geomorphic surfaces (Qya2, Qya3, Qya4) and cutbanks than on very young (Qya1), older-aged surfaces (Qia1, Qia2), or soils associated with coppice mounds or animal burrowing under Larrea tridentata. When all sites and parent materials were combined, soil texture was the most important factor predicting the occurrence of L + Mav, with cover positively associated with higher silt, very fine sand, and fine sand fractions and negatively associated with the very coarse sand fraction. When parent materials were examined separately, nutrients such as available potassium, iron, and calcium became the most important predictors of L + Mav cover.

  2. Partitioning of K, Cl, S and P during combustion of poplar and brassica energy crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Díaz-Ramírez, Maryori; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Glarborg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    K-, Cl-, S- and P-release from a herbaceous (brassica) and a short rotation coppice (poplar) cultivated in the Mediterranean region, have been investigated under combustion conditions [500-1100 °C]. Contrary to brassica, Cl- and S-release from poplar were substantial for all temperatures tested....... Low-temperature [500-700 °C] Cl-release from the high-Cl brassica appeared to be primarily limited by the fuel chemical composition and secondarily by interactions of the ash-forming elements with the fuel organic matrix. Below 700 °C, Cl-release was nearly 50%, whereas complete dechlorination...... resulted around 800 °C. S-release from brassica was up to 40% at low temperature. Above 1000 °C, additional S-release was observed presumably by sulfate dissociation. K-release was linked to Cl-release around 700 °C and, gradually increased afterwards. At 1100 °C, nearly 60% of K in poplar was retained...

  3. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. Forest management and carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean region: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Bravo-Oviedo, A.; López-Senespleda, E.; Bravo, F.; Río, M. Del

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study: To review and acknowledge the value of carbon sequestration by forest management in the Mediterranean area. Material and methods: We review the main effects of forest management by comparing the effects of silviculture systems (even-aged vs. uneven-aged stands, coppice systems, agroforestry systems), silvicultural options (thinning, rotation period, species composition), afforestation, harvesting, fire impact or effects of shrub layer on carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean area. Main results: We illustrate as forest management can clearly improve forest carbon sequestration amounts. We conclude that forest management is an effective way to maintain and enhance high carbon sequestration rates in order to cope with climate change and provision of ecosystem services. We also think that although much effort has been put into this topic research, there are still certain gaps that must be dealt with to increase our scientific knowledge and in turn transfer this knowledge to forest practitioners in order to achieve sustainable management aimed at mitigating climate change. Research highlights: It is important to underline the importance of forests in the carbon cycle as this role can be enhanced by forest managers through sustainable forest management. The effects of different management options or disturbances can be critical as regards mitigating climate change. Understanding the effects of forest management is even more important in the Mediterranean area, given that the current high climatic variability together with historical human exploitation and disturbance events make this area more vulnerable to the effects of climate change

  5. Forest management and carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean region: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ruiz-Peinado

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To review and acknowledge the value of carbon sequestration by forest management in the Mediterranean area. Material and methods: We review the main effects of forest management by comparing the effects of silvicultural systems (even-aged vs. uneven-aged stands, coppice systems, agroforestry systems, silvicultural options (thinning, rotation period, species composition, afforestation, harvesting, fire impact or effects of shrub layer on carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean area. Main results: We illustrate as forest management can clearly improve forest carbon sequestration amounts. We conclude that forest management is an effective way to maintain and enhance high carbon sequestration rates in order to cope with climate change and provision of ecosystem services. We also think that although much effort has been put into this topic research, there are still certain gaps that must be dealt with to increase our scientific knowledge and in turn transfer this knowledge to forest practitioners in order to achieve sustainable management aimed at mitigating climate change. Research highlights: It is important to underline the importance of forests in the carbon cycle as this role can be enhanced by forest managers through sustainable forest management. The effects of different management options or disturbances can be critical as regards mitigating climate change. Understanding the effects of forest management is even more important in the Mediterranean area, given that the current high climatic variability together with historical human exploitation and disturbance events make this area more vulnerable to the effects of climate change

  6. Phytoremediation of landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.L.; Williamson, K.L.; Owen, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Leachate emissions from landfill sites are of concern, primarily due to their toxic impact when released unchecked into the environment, and the potential for landfill sites to generate leachate for many hundreds of years following closure. Consequently, economically and environmentally sustainable disposal options are a priority in waste management. One potential option is the use of soil-plant based remediation schemes. In many cases, using either trees (including short rotation coppice) or grassland, phytoremediation of leachate has been successful. However, there are a significant number of examples where phytoremediation has failed. Typically, this failure can be ascribed to excessive leachate application and poor management due to a fundamental lack of understanding of the plant-soil system. On balance, with careful management, phytoremediation can be viewed as a sustainable, cost effective and environmentally sound option which is capable of treating 250 m 3 ha -1 yr -1 . However, these schemes have a requirement for large land areas and must be capable of responding to changes in leachate quality and quantity, problems of scheme establishment and maintenance, continual environmental monitoring and seasonal patterns of plant growth. Although the fundamental underpinning science is well understood, further work is required to create long-term predictive remediation models, full environmental impact assessments, a complete life-cycle analysis and economic analyses for a wide range of landfill scenarios

  7. Five willow varieties cultivated across diverse field environments reveal stem density variation associated with high tension wood abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eBerthod

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable and inexpensive production of biomass is necessary to make biofuel production feasible, but represents a challenge. Five short rotation coppice (SRC willow cultivars, selected for high biomass yield, were cultivated on sites at four diverse regions of Quebec to determine their bioenergy potential in contrasting environments. Wood composition and anatomical traits were characterized. Tree height and stem diameter were measured to evaluate growth performance of the cultivars according to the diverse pedoclimatic conditions. Each cultivar showed very specific responses to its environment. While no significant variation in lignin content was observed between sites, there was variation between cultivars. Surprisingly, the pattern of substantial genotype variability in stem density was maintained across all sites. However, wood anatomy did differ between sites in a cultivar (producing high and low density wood, suggesting a probable response to an abiotic stress. Furthermore, twice as many cellulose-rich G-fibers, comprising over 50 % of secondary xylem, were also found in the high density wood, a finding with potential to bring higher value to the lignocellulosic bioethanol industry

  8. Functional patterns of microbial communities of rhizospheric soils across the development stages of a young mangrove in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luglia, Mathieu; Criquet, Stéven; Sarrazin, Max; Ziarelli, Fabio; Guiral, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    The functional patterns of microbial communities (microbial respiration, enzyme activities, functional diversity) and the relevant physico-chemical characteristics of rhizospheric soils were studied during the process of mudflat colonization by mangrove. The study site is a fringe mangrove stand located in Montabo Bay at Cayenne (French Guiana). It is characterized by different vegetation development stages dominated by an assemblage of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa. Rhizospheric and surface soils were collected from three stations based on successional stages of mangrove colonization: pioneer (P), coppice (C), and young forest (F). The microbial functional patterns showed significant progressive shifts along the mangrove vegetation profile. The P stages, those most influenced by tide currents, were macroscopically characterized by hydro-sedimentary instability and micro-phytobenthic colonization of mudflat. This stage, characterized by low total organic carbon (TOC) content and quality, showed the lowest extracellular enzymatic activities and the highest functional metabolic diversities. TOC quality analyses by (13)C CPMAS NMR provided evidence of progressive TOC enrichment and an increasing imprint of aboveground vegetation on C quality as succession occurs. These differences in the origin, amount, and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) of older stages exerted both a quantitative and qualitative control over microbial functional responses. This indicated the enhancement of aboveground-belowground functional linkages, leading to the expression of high decomposition activities and a functional loss and specialization of rhizospheric microbial communities.

  9. Water Quality Changes in a Short-Rotation Woody Crop Riparian Buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, D.; Clausen, J.; Kuzovkina, J.

    2016-12-01

    Converting riparian buffers in agricultural areas from annual row crops to short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) grown for biofuel can provide both water quality benefits and a financial incentive for buffer adoption among agricultural producers. A randomized complete block design was used to determine water quality changes resulting from converting plots previously cultivated in corn to SRWC willow (Salix. spp) adjacent to a stream in Storrs, CT. Both overland flow and ground water samples were analyzed for total nitrogen (TN), nitrate + nitrite (NO2+NO3-N), and total phosphorus (TP). Overland flow was also analyzed for suspended solids concentration (SSC). Lower (p = 0.05) concentrations of TN (56%) and TP (61%) were observed in post-coppice surface runoff from willow plots than from corn plots. Shallow ground water concentrations at the edge of willow plots were lower in TN (56%) and NO3+NO2-N (64%), but 35% higher in TP, than at the edge of corn plots. SSC was also lower (72%) in overland flow associated with willow compared to corn. The treatment had no effect on discharge or mass export. These results suggest conversion from corn to a SRWC in a riparian area can provide water quality benefits similar to those observed in restored and established buffers.

  10. Phytoremediation of Metal Contaminated Soil Using Willow: Exploiting Plant-Associated Bacteria to Improve Biomass Production and Metal Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Jolien; Weyens, Nele; Croes, Sarah; Beckers, Bram; Meiresonne, Linda; Van Peteghem, Pierre; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) of willow and poplar is proposed for economic valorization and concurrently as remediation strategy for metal contaminated land in northeast-Belgium. However, metal phytoextraction appears insufficient to effectuate rapid reduction of soil metal contents. To increase both biomass production and metal accumulation of SRC, two strategies are proposed: (i) in situ selection of the best performing clones and (ii) bioaugmentation of these clones with beneficial plant-associated bacteria. Based on field data, two experimental willow clones, a Salix viminalis and a Salix alba x alba clone, were selected. Compared to the best performing commercial clones, considerable increases in stem metal extraction were achieved (up to 74% for Cd and 91% for Zn). From the selected clones, plant-associated bacteria were isolated and identified. All strains were subsequently screened for their plant growth-promoting and metal uptake enhancing traits. Five strains were selected for a greenhouse inoculation experiment with the selected clones planted in Cd-Zn-Pb contaminated soil. Extraction potential tended to increase after inoculation of S. viminalis plants with a Rahnella sp. strain due to a significantly increased twig biomass. However, although bacterial strains showing beneficial traits in vitro were used for inoculation, increments in extraction potential were not always observed.

  11. Plants and ventifacts delineate late Holocene wind vectors in the Coachella Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, P.G.; Webb, R.H.; Fisher, M.; Muth, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Strong westerly winds that emanate from San Gorgonio Pass, the lowest point between Palm Springs and Los Angeles, California, dominate aeolian transport in the Coachella Valley of the western Sonoran Desert. These winds deposit sand in coppice dunes that are critical habitat for several species, including the state and federally listed threatened species Uma inornata, a lizard. Although wind directions are generally defined in this valley, the wind field has complex interactions with local topography and becomes more variable with distance from the pass. Local, dominant wind directions are preserved by growth patterns of Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), a shrub characteristic of the hot North American deserts, and ventifacts. Exceptionally long-lived, Larrea has the potential to preserve wind direction over centuries to millennia, shaped by the abrasive pruning of windward branches and the persistent training of leeward branches. Wind direction preserved in Larrea individuals and clones was mapped at 192 locations. Compared with wind data from three weather stations, Larrea vectors effectively reflect annual prevailing winds. Ventifacts measured at 24 locations record winds 10° more westerly than Larrea and appear to reflect the direction of the most erosive winds. Based on detailed mapping of local wind directions as preserved in Larrea, only the northern half of the Mission-Morongo Creek floodplain is likely to supply sand to protected U. inornata habitat in the Willow Hole ecological reserve.

  12. Phytoremediation of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D L; Williamson, K L; Owen, A G

    2006-01-01

    Leachate emissions from landfill sites are of concern, primarily due to their toxic impact when released unchecked into the environment, and the potential for landfill sites to generate leachate for many hundreds of years following closure. Consequently, economically and environmentally sustainable disposal options are a priority in waste management. One potential option is the use of soil-plant based remediation schemes. In many cases, using either trees (including short rotation coppice) or grassland, phytoremediation of leachate has been successful. However, there are a significant number of examples where phytoremediation has failed. Typically, this failure can be ascribed to excessive leachate application and poor management due to a fundamental lack of understanding of the plant-soil system. On balance, with careful management, phytoremediation can be viewed as a sustainable, cost effective and environmentally sound option which is capable of treating 250m(3)ha(-1)yr(-1). However, these schemes have a requirement for large land areas and must be capable of responding to changes in leachate quality and quantity, problems of scheme establishment and maintenance, continual environmental monitoring and seasonal patterns of plant growth. Although the fundamental underpinning science is well understood, further work is required to create long-term predictive remediation models, full environmental impact assessments, a complete life-cycle analysis and economic analyses for a wide range of landfill scenarios.

  13. Estimation of the yield of poplars in plantations of fast-growing species within current results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fajman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Current results are presented of allometric yield estimates of the poplar short rotation coppice. According to a literature review it is obvious that yield estimates, based on measurable quantities of a growing stand, depend not only on the selected tree specie or its clone, but also on the site location. The Jap-105 poplar clone (P. nigra x P. maximowiczii allometric relations were analyzed by regression methods aimed at the creation of the yield estimation methodology at a testing site in Domanínek. Altogether, the twelve polynomial dependences of particular measured quantities approved the high empirical data conformity with the tested regression model (correlation index from 0.9033 to 0.9967. Within the forward stepwise regression, factors were selected, which explain best examined estimates of the total biomass DM; i.e. d.b.h. and stem height. Furthermore, the KESTEMONT’s (1971 mo­del was verified with a satisfying conformity as well. Approving presented yield estimation methods, the presented models will be checked in a large-scale field trial.

  14. Analysis of the changes in forest ecosystem functions, structure and composition in the Black Sea region of Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sedat Kele(s); (I)dris Durusoy; Günay Çakir

    2017-01-01

    We used geographical information system to analyze changes in forest ecosystem functions, structure and composition in a typical department of forest man-agement area consisting of four forest management plan-ning units in Turkey. To assess these effects over a 25 year period we compiled data from three forest management plans that were made in 1986, 2001 and 2011. Temporal changes in forest ecosystem functions were estimated based on the three pillars of forest sustainability: eco-nomics, ecology and socio-culture. We assessed a few indicators such as land-use and forest cover, forest types, tree species, development stage, stand age classes, crown closure, growing stock and its increment, and timber bio-mass. The results of the case study suggested a shift in forest values away from economic values toward ecologi-cal and socio-cultural values over last two planning peri-ods. Forest ecosystem structure improved, due mainly to increasing forest area, decreasing non-forest areas (espe-cially in settlement and agricultural areas), forestation on forest openings, rehabilitation of degraded forests, con-version of even-aged forests to uneven-aged forests and conversion of coppice forests to high forests with greater growing stock increments. There were also favorable changes in forest management planning approaches.

  15. Forest management and carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean region: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Bravo-Oviedo, A.; López-Senespleda, E.; Bravo, F.; Río, M. Del

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study: To review and acknowledge the value of carbon sequestration by forest management in the Mediterranean area. Material and methods: We review the main effects of forest management by comparing the effects of silviculture systems (even-aged vs. uneven-aged stands, coppice systems, agroforestry systems), silvicultural options (thinning, rotation period, species composition), afforestation, harvesting, fire impact or effects of shrub layer on carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean area. Main results: We illustrate as forest management can clearly improve forest carbon sequestration amounts. We conclude that forest management is an effective way to maintain and enhance high carbon sequestration rates in order to cope with climate change and provision of ecosystem services. We also think that although much effort has been put into this topic research, there are still certain gaps that must be dealt with to increase our scientific knowledge and in turn transfer this knowledge to forest practitioners in order to achieve sustainable management aimed at mitigating climate change. Research highlights: It is important to underline the importance of forests in the carbon cycle as this role can be enhanced by forest managers through sustainable forest management. The effects of different management options or disturbances can be critical as regards mitigating climate change. Understanding the effects of forest management is even more important in the Mediterranean area, given that the current high climatic variability together with historical human exploitation and disturbance events make this area more vulnerable to the effects of climate change.

  16. Human impacts affect tree community features of 20 forest fragments of a vanishing neotropical hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José Aldo Alves; de Oliveira-Filho, Ary Teixeira; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; Miranda, Pedro L S; de Lemos Filho, José Pires

    2015-02-01

    The loss in forest area due to human occupancy is not the only threat to the remaining biodiversity: forest fragments are susceptible to additional human impact. Our aim was to investigate the effect of human impact on tree community features (species composition and abundance, and structural descriptors) and check if there was a decrease in the number of slender trees, an increase in the amount of large trees, and also a reduction in the number of tree species that occur in 20 fragments of Atlantic montane semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil. We produced digital maps of each forest fragment using Landsat 7 satellite images and processed the maps to obtain morphometric variables. We used investigative questionnaires and field observations to survey the history of human impact. We then converted the information into scores given to the extent, severity, and duration of each impact, including proportional border area, fire, trails, coppicing, logging, and cattle, and converted these scores into categorical levels. We used linear models to assess the effect of impacts on tree species abundance distribution and stand structural descriptors. Part of the variation in floristic patterns was significantly correlated to the impacts of fire, logging, and proportional border area. Structural descriptors were influenced by cattle and outer roads. Our results provided, for the first time, strong evidence that tree species occurrence and abundance, and forest structure of Atlantic seasonal forest fragments respond differently to various modes of disturbance by humans.

  17. The Significance of Forests and Algae in CO2 Balance: A Hungarian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Bai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the sequestration and emissions of forests and algae related to CO2 while providing a comparison to other biomass sources (arable crops, short rotation coppices. The goal of the paper is to analyze the impact of the current CO2 balance of forests and the future prospects for algae. Our calculations are based on data, not only from the literature but, in the case of algae, from our own previous experimental work. It was concluded that the CO2 sequestration and natural gas saving of forests is typically 3.78 times higher than the emissions resulting from the production technology and from the burning process. The economic and environmental protection-related efficiency operate in opposite directions. The CO2 sequestration ability of algae can primarily be utilized when connected to power plants. The optimal solution could be algae production integrated with biogas power plants, since plant sizes are smaller and algae may play a role, not only in the elimination of CO2 emissions and the utilization of heat but also in wastewater purification.

  18. Distribution of P, K, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in wood and bark age classes of willows and poplars used for phytoextraction on soils contaminated by risk elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárubová, Pavla; Hejcman, Michal; Vondráčková, Stanislava; Mrnka, Libor; Száková, Jiřina; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Fast-growing clones of Salix and Populus have been studied for remediation of soils contaminated by risk elements (RE) using short-rotation coppice plantations. Our aim was to assess biomass yield and distributions of elements in wood and bark of highly productive willow (S1--[Salix schwerinii × Salix viminalis] × S. viminalis, S2--Salix × smithiana clone S-218) and poplar (P1--Populus maximowiczii × Populus nigra, P2--P. nigra) clones with respect to aging. The field experiment was established in April 2008 on moderately Cd-, Pb- and Zn- contaminated soil. Shoots were harvested after four seasons (February 2012) and separated into annual classes of wood and bark. All tested clones grew on contaminated soils, with highest biomass production and lowest mortality exhibited by P1 and S2. Concentrations of elements, with exception of Ca and Pb, decreased with age and were higher in bark than in wood. The Salix clones were characterised by higher removal of Cd, Mn and Zn compared to the Populus clones. Despite generally higher RE content in young shoots, partly due to lower wood/bark ratios and higher RE concentrations in bark, the overall removal of RE was higher in older wood classes due to higher biomass yield. Thus, longer rotations seem to be more effective when phytoextraction strategy is considered. Of the four selected clones, S1 exhibited the best removal of Cd and Zn and is a good candidate for phytoextraction.

  19. Mitigating secondary aerosol generation potentials from biofuel use in the energy sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Colls, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates secondary aerosol generation potential of biofuel use in the energy sector from the photochemical interactions of precursor gases on a life cycle basis. The paper is divided into two parts-first, employing life cycle analysis (LCA) to evaluate the extent of the problem for a typical biofuel based electricity production system using five baseline scenarios; second, proposing adequate mitigation options to minimise the secondary aerosol generation potential on a life cycle basis. The baseline scenarios cover representative technologies for 2010 utilising energy crop (miscanthus), short rotation coppiced chips and residual/waste wood in different proportions. The proposed mitigation options include three approaches-biomass gasification prior to combustion, delaying the harvest of biomass, and increasing the geographical distance between the biomass plant and the harvest site (by importing the biofuels). Preliminary results indicate that the baseline scenarios (assuming all the biomass is sourced locally) bear significant secondary aerosol formation potential on a life cycle basis from photochemical neutralisation of acidic emissions (hydrogen chloride and sulphur dioxide) with ammonia. Our results suggest that gasification of miscanthus biomass would provide the best option by minimising the acidic emissions from the combustion plant whereas the other two options of delaying the harvest or importing biofuels from elsewhere would only lead to marginal reduction in the life cycle aerosol loadings of the systems.

  20. Modelling farmer uptake of perennial energy crops in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrington, Chris; Moran, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    The UK Biomass Strategy suggests that to reach the technical potential of perennial energy crops such as short rotation coppice (SRC) willow and miscanthus by 2020 requires 350,000 hectares of land. This represents a more than 20-fold increase on the current 15,546 hectares. Previous research has identified several barriers to adoption, including concerns over security of income from contracts. In addition, farmers perceive returns from these crops to be lower than for conventional crops. This paper uses a farm-level linear programming model to investigate theoretical uptake of energy crops at different gross margins under the assumption of a profit-maximising decision maker, and in the absence of known barriers to adoption. The findings suggest that while SRC willow, at current prices, remains less competitive, returns to miscanthus should have encouraged adoption on a wider scale than at present. This highlights the importance of the barriers to adoption. Recently announced contracts for miscanthus appear to offer a significant premium to farmers in order to encourage them to grow the crops. This raises the question of whether a more cost-effective approach would be for government to provide guarantees addressing farmers concerns including security of income from the contracts. Such an approach should encourage adoption at lower gross margins. (author)

  1. Cross-Sectoral Resource Management: How Forest Management Alternatives Affect the Provision of Biomass and Other Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Frank

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Integrated forest management is faced with the challenge that the contribution of forests to economic and ecological planning targets must be assessed in a socio-ecological system context. This paper introduces a way to model spatio-temporal dynamics of biomass production at a regional scale in order to derive land use strategies that enhance biomass provision and avoid trade-offs for other ecosystem services. The software platform GISCAME was employed to bridge the gap between local land management decisions and regional planning by linking growth and yield models with an integrative mesoscale modeling and assessment approach. The model region is located in Saxony, Germany. Five scenarios were simulated, which aimed at testing different alternatives for adapted land use in the context of climate change and increasing biomass demand. The results showed, for example, that forest conversion towards climate-change-adapted forest types had positive effects on ecological integrity and landscape aesthetics. In contrast, negative impacts on landscape aesthetics must be expected if agricultural sites were converted into short rotation coppices. Uncertainties with stem from assumptions regarding growth and yield models were discussed. Future developmental steps which consider, for example, accessibility of the resources were identified.

  2. Canopy Density Mapping on Ultracam-D Aerial Imagery in Zagros Woodlands, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanifard, Y.; Khodaee, Z.

    2013-09-01

    Canopy density maps express different characteristics of forest stands, especially in woodlands. Obtaining such maps by field measurements is so expensive and time-consuming. It seems necessary to find suitable techniques to produce these maps to be used in sustainable management of woodland ecosystems. In this research, a robust procedure was suggested to obtain these maps by very high spatial resolution aerial imagery. It was aimed to produce canopy density maps by UltraCam-D aerial imagery, newly taken in Zagros woodlands by Iran National Geographic Organization (NGO), in this study. A 30 ha plot of Persian oak (Quercus persica) coppice trees was selected in Zagros woodlands, Iran. The very high spatial resolution aerial imagery of the plot purchased from NGO, was classified by kNN technique and the tree crowns were extracted precisely. The canopy density was determined in each cell of different meshes with different sizes overlaid on the study area map. The accuracy of the final maps was investigated by the ground truth obtained by complete field measurements. The results showed that the proposed method of obtaining canopy density maps was efficient enough in the study area. The final canopy density map obtained by a mesh with 30 Ar (3000 m2) cell size had 80% overall accuracy and 0.61 KHAT coefficient of agreement which shows a great agreement with the observed samples. This method can also be tested in other case studies to reveal its capability in canopy density map production in woodlands.

  3. Short rotation woody biomass production as option for the restoration of post-mining areas in lower Lusatia, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, C.; Quinkenstein, A.; Freese, D. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; Huttl, R.R. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Reclaimed mine sites in the Lusatian lignite-mining district in Germany are characterized by low annual precipitation and marginal soils. As such, crop yield is typically low and conventional land use systems fail in terms of reliable and efficient crop production. The production of woody biomass for bioenergy may be a promising alternative to improve soil fertility and also to enhance the economic value of these post-mining areas. Previous studies have shown that black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) may be a suitable tree species for this purpose. This paper evaluated the ecological and economic benefits of producing woody biomass in short rotation coppices (SRC) and alley cropping systems (ACS) with black locust. The results showed that compared to conventional agriculture, such land use is not very profitable due to high establishment and harvesting costs and the comparatively low prices for wood energy. However, because of the improved microclimate, the crop yield in ACS is higher than in conventional agriculture. The cultivation of black locust resulted in a higher humus accumulation and in a lower harvest-related nutrient export than the cultivation of alfalfa as a typical recultivation crop in this region. It was concluded SRC with black locust is more beneficial than conventional agriculture in terms of improving soil fertility in the degraded post-mining areas of Lower Lusatia.

  4. BIODIVERSITY AND THE PROTECTED AREAS SYSTEM IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Metaj

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Albania possesses a wide range of ecological systems including coastal zones, estuaries and lagoons, lakes and wetlands, grasslands, middle-low altitude coppice forests, high altitude forests, alpine vegetation and glacial areas. The country possesses about 3,250 species of vascular plants, 165 families and more than 900 genera. Medicinal plants (botanicals and non-timber forest products have a long history of importance in the culture and traditional knowledge of Albania. Proper legislation and especially legal and regulatory framework enforcement for the regulation of this developing industry remains lacking. A Strategy of Biodiversity plan developed in 2000 calls for an increase in the Protected Areas system which currently covers some 6 % of Albania's area to a total area of 435,600 ha, approximately 15 % of the country's territory. Changes in the legal and policy framework as well as institutional structures is required to move forward and provide an environment for biodiversity conservation and a sustainable protected areas system. The various threats to biodiversity and constraints to improvement are outlined as well as recommendations for sustainable use, assessment and regulation.

  5. Allometric equations commonly used for estimating shoot biomass in short-rotation wood energy species: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Ríos-Saucedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos dendroenergéticos de corta rotación en monte bajo (Short Rotation Coppice -SRC comúnmente están formados por individuos unifustales en el primer ciclo de corta, pero a partir del segundo ciclo, de cada cepa surgen numerosos vástagos o brotes, los cuales presentan desafíos interesantes al momento de estimar su biomasa. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar especies, longitud de rotación y tipos de modelos alométricos usados para estimar biomasa en SRC, en revistas científicas de las bases de datos Scopus y Web of Science. Entre los modelos para estimar la biomasa (y de uso más frecuente destaca el exponencial, que tiene como variable predictora el diámetro normal ( D ( y = b 0 D b 1 , diámetro basal de tallo ( Db ( y = b 0 Db b 1 y la combinación de diámetro normal al cuadrado por la altura total ( D 2 H ( y = b 0 + b 1 D 2 H . Los géneros con mayor número de modelos diferentes fueron Populus, Salix y Eucalyptus . Los dos primeros son los más estudiados. La longitud de rotación empleada en los cultivos estudiados varió de uno a 15 años.

  6. Biomass Assessment: A Question of Method and Expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thivolle-Cazat, A.; Le Net, E.; Labalette, F.; Marsac, S.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the new stakes on lignocellulosic biomass are often demand-oriented (heat, electricity, biofuels, etc.) mainly through public policies, the new equilibrium will depend also on the supply-side. This supply has to be understood as socio-economic and environmental targets combining many topics: multi- resources (agriculture, forest, 'dedicated coppices', by-products and wastes), available/potential quantities and costs, localisation, replacement/substitution effects (activities, lands), and supply- side stakeholders' behaviours. Many initiatives have been launched to grasp those dimensions through projects (National Research Agency, French Environment and Energy Management Agency, etc.). Many figures exist on the biomass assessment aspect but they are not clear enough and not comparable due to differences in definitions, scopes, data, parameters, geographical levels, reporting units, time-scale, etc. Regarding the characterisation of biomass supply chains, evaluations are often incomplete and lack methodological references. This article aims to focus on methodological key points and barriers to overcome, in order to get a better evaluation and understanding of biomass mobilisation expected by potential users and public authorities. (authors)

  7. DINAMIKA SPASIAL PEMANFAATAN LAHAN OLEH MASYARAKAT DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAI (DAS KREO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Liesnoor Setyowati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Landuse dynamics of Kreo watershed from the result of interpretation of satellite image landsat (the year 1994 and image SPOT-5 (the year 2006 in the form of degradation of open farm wide of 67,07%, coppice 9,61%, forest 6,69%, and rice feld 4,64%; improvement of plantation wide 24,42%, setlement 21,68%, and mixture garden with a width of 1,05%. Forest wide and plantation of DAS Kreo only with a width of 17,19% had not pursuant to ideal wide of minimum forest of 30% at one particular in watershed (PP number 33  the year 1970. Wide area of setlement  in Kreo watershed with a width of 12,21%  is including category has exceeded ideal boundary of setlement area at one particular in watershed, maximum boundary (threshold in the form of area of waterproof equal to 6%-10% in  watershed.Keywords: Landuse spatial dynamic, landuse trend.

  8. Spatial distribution of arsenic and heavy metals in willow roots from a contaminated floodplain soil measured by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Dana; Kruse, Jens; Baum, Christel; Borca, Camelia; Laue, Michael; Hause, Gerd; Meissner, Ralph; Leinweber, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Under changing redox conditions some plants create plaques at their root surface, which may affect the mobility and uptake of As and heavy metals but it is unknown to what extent this also holds true for willows in contaminated floodplain soils. Therefore, willow roots were sampled from a phytoremediation trial in the contaminated floodplain of the river Elbe (Germany), cryofixed, freeze-dried, and cross sections were mapped for the distribution of As, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, S and Zn by synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The elements Ca, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were concentrated in the aerenchymatic tissue, and not associated with Fe and Mn. Mixed Fe-Mn plaques covered the surface of the willow roots and As was accumulated in these plaques. The observed association pattern between As and Fe was explained by the different sorption/desorption properties of As(III) and As(V). The Cu and Zn intensities were not associated with the intensity of Fe in the plaque, which seems to be a willow-specific difference compared to other wetland plants. These results suggested that willows are especially suited to stabilize low-phytoextractable elements like Cu and As in their roots and rhizosphere. Thus, short rotation coppicing of willows may be a practical approach to mitigate the adverse effects of floodplain soil contamination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Eucalyptus and Water Use in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine M. Albaugh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus genus yields high rates of productivity and can be grown across a wide range of site types and climates for products such as pulp, fuelwood, or construction lumber. In addition, many eucalypts have the ability to coppice, making this genus an ideal candidate for use as a biofuel feedstock. However, the water use of Eucalyptus is a controversial issue, and the impacts of these fast-growing trees on water resources are well documented. Regardless, the demand for wood products and water continues to rise, providing a challenge to increase the productivity of forest plantations within water constraints. This is of particular relevance for water-limited countries such as South Africa which relies on exotic plantations to meet its timber needs. Research results from water use studies in South Africa are well documented and legislation restrictions limit further afforestation. This paper outlines techniques used to quantify the water use of eucalypt plantations and provides recommendations on where to focus future research efforts. Greater insights into the water use efficiency of clonal material are needed, as certain eucalypt clones show fast growth and low water use. To better understand water use efficiency, estimates should be combined with monitoring of stand canopy structure and measurements of physiological processes.

  10. A Novel DEM Approach to Simulate Block Propagation on Forested Slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toe, David; Bourrier, Franck; Dorren, Luuk; Berger, Frédéric

    2018-03-01

    In order to model rockfall on forested slopes, we developed a trajectory rockfall model based on the discrete element method (DEM). This model is able to take the complex mechanical processes at work during an impact into account (large deformations, complex contact conditions) and can explicitly simulate block/soil, block/tree contacts as well as contacts between neighbouring trees. In this paper, we describe the DEM model developed and we use it to assess the protective effect of different types of forest. In addition, we compared it with a more classical rockfall simulation model. The results highlight that forests can significantly reduce rockfall hazard and that the spatial structure of coppice forests has to be taken into account in rockfall simulations in order to avoid overestimating the protective role of these forest structures against rockfall hazard. In addition, the protective role of the forests is mainly influenced by the basal area. Finally, the advantages and limitations of the DEM model were compared with classical rockfall modelling approaches.

  11. Comparing predicted yield and yield stability of willow and Miscanthus across Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren; Jaiswal, Deepak; Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    2016-01-01

    was 12.1 Mg DM ha−1 yr−1 for willow and 10.2 Mg DM ha−1 yr−1 for Miscanthus. Coefficent of variation as a measure for yield stability was poorest on the sandy soils of northern and western Jutland and the year-to-year variation in yield was greatest on these soils. Willow was predicted to outyield...... Miscanthus on poor, sandy soils whereas Miscanthus was higher yielding on clay-rich soils. The major driver of yield in both crops was variation in soil moisture, with radiation and precipitation exerting less influence. This is the first time these two major feedstocks for northern Europe have been compared....... The semi-mechanistic crop model BioCro was used to simulate the production of both short rotation coppice (SRC) willow and Miscanthus across Denmark. Predictions were made from high spatial resolution soil data and weather records across this area for 1990-2010. The potential average, rain-fed mean yield...

  12. Energy wood production in short rotation. Opportunities and problems in their implementation. An analysis involving expert interviews; Energieholzproduktion im Kurzumtrieb. Chancen und Probleme bei ihrer Umsetzung. Eine Analyse unter Einbeziehung von Experteninterviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirkner, Ronny

    2010-12-01

    The thesis has to the content the latest stand and the possibilities of further development of wood energy production by short rotation coppice (SRC). After analyzing the development of this relatively new option of the management of fast growing tree species and their possibilities, the associated legal bases are being analyzed. In addition to related agricultural land, other options will be considered to establish land (forest, fallow land). Weaknesses in delimitation and promotion, especially at country level are discussed. There follows a detailed consideration of the economical and ecological contemplation of wood agricultural cultivation, as well as the basics of the management including the raw material supply. The analyzed results serve as a basis for running interviews with experts of the subject fast growing tree species. The results of the interviews show that SRC mainly as an opportunity for long-term wood energy supply and establishment of regional circuits is seen with emphasis on the agricultural sector, but in this context there are lots of deficits on side of the management technology, basic conditions and other establishment barriers that we are confront with. After overcoming the remaining start-up difficulties however the chances are good to expand the energy wood production in short rotation forestry in an economically viable, ecologically profitable and socially acceptable way and therewith contribute to the diversification of agricultural production and relief of multifunctional forest management. (orig.)

  13. The influence of groundwater depth on coastal dune development at sand flats close to inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filipe Galiforni; Wijnberg, Kathelijne M.; de Groot, Alma V.; Hulscher, Suzanne J. M. H.

    2018-05-01

    A cellular automata model is used to analyze the effects of groundwater levels and sediment supply on aeolian dune development occurring on sand flats close to inlets. The model considers, in a schematized and probabilistic way, aeolian transport processes, groundwater influence, vegetation development, and combined effects of waves and tides that can both erode and accrete the sand flat. Next to three idealized cases, a sand flat adjoining the barrier island of Texel, the Netherlands, was chosen as a case study. Elevation data from 18 annual LIDAR surveys was used to characterize sand flat and dune development. Additionally, a field survey was carried out to map the spatial variation in capillary fringe depth across the sand flat. Results show that for high groundwater situations, sediment supply became limited inducing formation of Coppice-like dunes, even though aeolian losses were regularly replenished by marine import during sand flat flooding. Long dune rows developed for high sediment supply scenarios which occurred for deep groundwater levels. Furthermore, a threshold depth appears to exist at which the groundwater level starts to affect dune development on the inlet sand flat. The threshold can vary spatially depending on external conditions such as topography. On sand flats close to inlets, groundwater is capable of introducing spatial variability in dune growth, which is consistent with dune development patterns found on the Texel sand flat.

  14. Wild Boar Impact to the Natural Regeneration of Oak and Acorn Importance in its Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Zeman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the impact of wild boar on the natural regeneration of oak and importance of acorns in the wild boar diet were surveyed. The data were collected near Moravian Krumlov (Czech Republic in three types of oak stands differing in the canopy density: fully-stocked stand (1, open-canopy stand (2 and the forest stand in a conversion to the coppice forest (3. Within each stand 150 m long lines were set out. Seed traps to collect acorn harvest and control plots were installed on these lines. The plots were inspected at weekly intervals. After the end of acorn fall the average amount of fallen acorns was evaluated. The quantity of metabolizable energy in acorns was assessed and daily survival dose of energy for average weight of wild boar was counted. In spring 2014 the number of seedlings was counted at the same plots. Production of acorns per hectare and basic energy needs for one individual wild boar per day were evaluated for each chosen stand type. The found seedling density amounted to 29,600, 32,000 and 14,000 ind./ha in the first, second and third stand under study, respectively. Wild boar is a major consumer of acorns. In the studied area the production of acorns sufficiently supplied the local wild boar population during winter. Necessary amount of acorns remained for the natural regeneration.

  15. Extra-zonal beech forests in Tuscany: structure, diversity and synecologic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viciani D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the structural, synecological and floristic diversity features of beech-dominated forest communities in four major areas of the Antiapenninic Tyrrhenian system in Tuscany: Metalliferous hills, mountains to the south of Mt. Amiata, volcanic area of the upper Lente valley and Mt. Cetona. These are relict woodlands of Holo-Pleistocene origin with a special ecological and conservation value due to their extrazonal location in lowland submediterranean areas. Results show substantial among-area differences in structure, synecology and plant species composition, but in general a potential for coppices to reach the tall forest stage, as demonstrated by the old-growth stands of Pietraporciana and Sassoforte. Compared with montane Apenninic beechwoods, the relatively rich flora of the studied communities include thermophilous species with a southern Apennine-Balkan distribution, making their syntaxonomical position unclear. Closer affinities are found with the calcicolous Beech Forests of the association and with the silicicolous ones of the . Based on the Natura 2000 system, all the examined communities belong to the priority Habitat “Apennine beech forests with and ” (code: 9210*. Due their relict nature, these biotopes appear vulnerable to climate changes and to a production-oriented forest management. Criteria of naturalistic silviculture should instead promote the dynamic development of these communities towards tall forests and their natural regeneration.

  16. Increasing the biomass production level of dedicated or semi-dedicated woody crops. Mains lessons learned from the SYLVABIOM project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, Jean-Charles; Bodineau, Guillaume; Gauvin, Jean; Berthelot, Alain; Maine, Patrice; Brignolas, Franck; Maury, Stephane; Le Jan, Isabelle; Delaunay, Alain; Charnet, Francois; Merzeau, Dominique; Marron, Nicolas; Dalle, Erwin; Toillon, Julien

    2015-01-01

    For three species (poplar, black locust and willow) cultivated as short or very short rotation coppices (SRC/ VSRC), the project relied on monitoring growth and efficiency with which trees use water and nitrogen in a network of four experimental sites, located in contrasting stations. The relevance of DNA methylation levels as an early marker of the level of productivity was also evaluated. For short-rotation plantations (SRP), the project was based on the collection of growth and biomass data in experimental networks, to build compartmented biomass yield tables (trunk, bark, branches and leaves) for forest species for which the literature is scarce. Significant differences appear, both in SRC and VSRC, between the three species, and between intraspecific genotypes for biomass production, its phenology, architecture, leaf structure, and resource use efficiency. The pedo-climatic conditions and the planting density modulated the complex relationships between these traits. Measurement of apex or leaf DNA methylation rate may be a good predictor for the growth potential in poplar. Mean annual biomass production ranging from 7 to 13 dry tons/ha can be expected at age 20 years with fast-growing conifers grown in SRP on site types other than those used for SRC and VSRC. Moreover, very significant genetic gains on biomass production in SRP are also offered by selection of efficient genotypes. (authors)

  17. Charcoal production and environmental degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosier, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of continued tree harvesting for charcoal production to supply the urban areas in Tanzania. Woodlands appear to recover relatively well following harvesting for charcoal production. Selective harvesting, where the high quality, low cost fuel production species and specimens are culled first from a piece of land, serves to maintain the viability of the woodlands resource while providing charcoal. This recovery period can be prolonged through any number of human induced activities, such as heavy grazing, multiple burns and extended cultivation periods. At the same time, post-harvest management techniques, such as coppice management, sprout protection and fertilization, can also improve the ability of woodlands to recover following harvesting. The environmental history of a given area determines why certain areas continue to be strong suppliers of woodfuel while others are not. For example, Shinyanga started from a low productivity base and has been degraded by successive waves of tree harvesting compounded by heavy grazing pressure. It is this multiple complex of pressures over a long period of time on land which is intrinsically of low productivity, and not the harvesting of woodlands for fuels, which has led to the environmental degradation in these areas. (author)

  18. Economics of mixed plantation of Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica for fuel in Agra ravines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, R.; Puri, D.N.; Singh, J.P.; Sharma, K.

    1984-09-01

    Economic analysis of the mixed plantation of Acacia nilotica (60%), Prosopis juliflora (20%) and miscellaneous species (20%) in severe ravine lands along the bank of river Yamuna at Agra, was carried out. The benefit-cost ratios of the first 15 years rotation at 10% and 15% discount rates were worked out to be 1.81 and 1.09, respectively with internal rate of return (IRR) of 16.2%. Twenty percent of the area covered with Prosopis juliflora in the first rotation coppiced profusely and was retained. The remaining area was resown with Prosopis juliflora. The benefit-cost ratios of the second rotation of seven years (Prosopis juliflora - 78% and miscellaneous species - 22%) worked out to be 1.61 and 1.40 at 10% and 15% discount rates having IRR of 27%. Both the rotations gave a favourable benefit-cost ratio which establishes the economic feasibility of raising mixed plantation of Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica in ravine lands whose opportunity cost is very low.

  19. Economic assessment and comparison of acacia energy crop with annual traditional crops in Southern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasol, Carles M.; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier; Brun, Filippo; Mosso, Angela

    2010-01-01

    In several policy documents bioenergy is recognized as an important renewable energy source in Italy. The increase in energy prices represents an opportunity for lignocellulosic energy crops such as acacia and poplar. However, for Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) to be adopted by farmers, these crops must be perceived to be at least as profitable as crops that normally compete with these plantations for land use. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the economic feasibility of acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) as an energy crop in a low input production regime in Italy and, in particular, to consider its competitiveness with wheat. Our results show that neither SRC and SRF techniques using assumed production costs (EUR3820 and EUR5285 ha -1 yr -1 ) nor biomass productions are able to obtain a positive profit (-EUR184 and -EUR172 ha -1 yr -1 ) that can convince farmers to invest in biomass plantations on their land. The results demonstrate that wheat is a more economically secure option than SRC or SRF. The viability of local biomass production in Italy and Southern Europe depends on the active support of the governments; without them, biomass is not economically competitive for the farmers when compared to crops such as wheat. (author)

  20. Air-quality and Climatic Consequences of Bioenergy Crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William Christian

    Bioenergy is expected to play an increasingly significant role in the global energy budget. In addition to the use of liquid energy forms such as ethanol and biodiesel, electricity generation using processed energy crops as a partial or full coal alternative is expected to increase, requiring large-scale conversions of land for the cultivation of bioenergy feedstocks such as cane, grasses, or short rotation coppice. With land-use change identified as a major contributor to changes in the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), many of which are known contributors to the pollutants ozone (O 3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), careful review of crop emission profiles and local atmospheric chemistry will be necessary to mitigate any unintended air-quality consequences. In this work, the atmospheric consequences of bioenergy crop replacement are examined using both the high-resolution regional chemical transport model WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) and the global climate model CESM (Community Earth System Model). Regional sensitivities to several representative crop types are analyzed, and the impacts of each crop on air quality and climate are compared. Overall, the high emitting crops (eucalyptus and giant reed) were found to produce climate and human health costs totaling up to 40% of the value of CO 2 emissions prevented, while the related costs of the lowest-emitting crop (switchgrass) were negligible.

  1. Soil organic carbon changes in the cultivation of energy crops: Implications for GHG balances and soil quality for use in LCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, Miguel; Mila i Canals, Llorenc; Clift, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impact of different land-use systems for energy, up to the farm or forest 'gate', has been quantified with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Four representative crops are considered: OilSeed Rape (OSR), Miscanthus, Short-Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow and forest residues. The focus of the LCA is on changes in Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) but energy use, emissions of GreenHouse Gases (GHGs), acidification and eutrophication are also considered. In addition to providing an indicator of soil quality, changes in SOC are shown to have a dominant effect on total GHG emissions. Miscanthus is the best land-use option for GHG emissions and soil quality as it sequesters C at a higher rate than the other crops, but this has to be weighed against other environmental impacts where Miscanthus performs worse, such as acidification and eutrophication. OSR shows the worst performance across all categories. Because forest residues are treated as a by-product, their environmental impacts are small in all categories. The analysis highlights the need for detailed site-specific modelling of SOC changes, and for consequential LCAs of the whole fuel cycle including transport and use.

  2. Saprophytic Activity and Sporulation of Cryphonectria parasitica on Dead Chestnut Wood in Forests with Naturally Established Hypovirulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, S; Conedera, M; Heiniger, U; Rigling, D

    2006-12-01

    ABSTRACT Sustainable biological control of the chestnut blight fungus Crypho-nectria parasitica with hypovirulence depends on the production and dissemination of hypovirus-infected propagules of the pathogen. We investigated the ability of C. parasitica to sporulate and produce hypo-virus-infected spores on recently dead chestnut wood in coppice stands in southern Switzerland where hypovirulence has been naturally established. The number and type (active, inactive, or none) of cankers was assessed on experimentally cut and stacked stems, firewood stacks, and natural dead wood. Hypovirus-free and hypovirus-infected strains readily survived for more than 1 year in the chestnut blight cankers of the stacked stems. Sporulation of C. parasitica was observed on the surface of preexisting inactive and active cankers, as well as on newly colonized bark areas and was significantly more abundant than on comparable cankers on living stems. On all types of dead wood, we observed more stromata with perithecia than with pycnidia; however, a large proportion of the stromata was not differentiated. All perithecia examined yielded only hypovirus-free ascospores. The incidence of pycnidia that produced hypovirus-infected conidia ranged from 5% on natural dead wood to 41% on the experimental stacks. The mean virus transmission rate into conidia was 69%. Our study demonstrates a considerable saprophytic activity of C. parasitica on recently dead chestnut wood and supports the hypothesis of a role of this saprophytic phase in the epidemiology of hypovirulence.

  3. Biofuel or excavation? - Life cycle assessment (LCA) of soil remediation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne [Swedish Geotechnical Institute, 58193 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    The environmental consequences of soil remediation through biofuel or through dig-and-dump were compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). Willow (Salix viminalis) was actually grown in-situ on a discontinued oil depot, as a phytoremediation treatment. These data were used for the biofuel remediation, while excavation-and-refill data were estimated from experience. The biofuel remediation had great environmental advantages compared to the ex situ excavation remediation. With the ReCiPe impact assessment method, which included biodiversity, the net environmental effect was even positive, in spite of the fact that the wood harvest was not utilised for biofuel production, but left on the contaminated site. Impact from the Salix viminalis cultivation was mainly through land use for the short rotation coppice, and through journeys of control personnel. The latter may be reduced when familiarity with biofuel as a soil treatment method increases. The excavation-and-refill remediation was dominated by the landfill and the transport of contaminated soil and backfill. (author)

  4. Time-dependent phosphate dynamics in reclaimed lignite-mine soils under Robinia pseudoacacia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Dirk; Slazak, Anna

    2017-04-01

    As a consequence of the opencast lignite mining activities in Lusatia/Germany, the cultivation of Short Rotation Coppice plantations (SRC) has been considered as a viable option for reclamation purposes. In this region an area of about 1000 km2 has been degraded. Owing to the unfavourable biotic and abiotic properties of the overburden mining substrate, the biogeochemical processes associated with the soil ecosystem development are in the initial phase. The substrate contains very low amount of nutrients, mainly very low total Phosphate (P) content nearly equal to zero. The lack of P is one of the main issues in reclamation of this marginal site. Therefore, the cultivation of perennial SRC with Robinia pseudoacacia L. is considered as a supporting measurement for effective soil reclamation. In this context, it is important to understand the dynamics of P in this "initial substrate" to describe the P availability and P sorption/desorption.. Iron/aluminium oxides and organic matter are the soil constituents most strongly affecting the reactions and rate of P sorption and desorption, also in post-mining soils. Therefore the interaction of these oxides and organic matter with P is essential with regard to developing effective nutrient management strategies for marginal sites. The study focused on P sorption and desorption with regard to different development stages of R. pseudoacacia L. established in a short rotation coppices on the post mining soils. to describe the P availability (Pav) in relation to total P mobility. The hypothesis is that SRC would cause significant changes in soil P dynamics over time in post lignite mining soils. The trees has been planted in between 1995 and 2007, which means that R. pseudoacacia L. was in a range of 2 to 20 years old at different sampling times. Soil was sampled in 2008 and 2015 at three depths of: 0-3cm, 3-10 cm and 10-30 cm. To characterize the P dynamics different P forms and P sorption/desorption kinetics were analysed

  5. Associative properties of 137Cs in biofuel ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravila, A.; Holm, E.

    1999-01-01

    The present study aims to reveal how radiocesium is associated to the ash particles derived from biofuel combustion. A sequential extraction procedure was carried out for the characterisation of radiocesium speciation in ash generated by different fuels and burner types. The ash types considered were fly ash and bottom ash collected from Swedish district heating plants using bark wood or peat as fuel. A fraction of the radiocesium in biofuel ash can easily become solubilised and mobilised by water and also, a significant fraction of the radionuclides can be bound to the ash particles in cation-exchangeable forms. Therefore, at using the ash derived from biofuels to recycle mineral nutrients for forestry or short rotation coppicing, radiocesium solubilised and leached from the ash by rains has a potential to rather quickly enter the rooting zone of forest vegetation or energy crops. On the other hand, radiocesium strongly bound to the ash will migrate slowly into the soil column with the successive accumulation of litter and in the process act to maintain the external dose rate at an elevated level for a long time. The results of the sequential extraction procedure and activity determination of the different extracted fractions implies that the bioavailable fraction of radiocesium in ash from bark, wood or peat is in the range between 20-85% of the total ash contents. Peat ash collected from a powder burner strongly retained a large fraction (70-90%) of its radiocesium content while the peat ash from a continuos fluidized bed type burner retained nearly 100% of the radiocesium in the bottom ash and only about 15% in the fly ash

  6. Sex Distribution of Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera in the Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johany Peñailillo

    Full Text Available Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera (L. L'Hér. ex Vent is a dioecious tree native to East Asia and mainland Southeast-Asia, introduced prehistorically to Polynesia as a source of bark fiber by Austronesian-speaking voyagers. In Oceania, trees are coppiced and harvested for production of bark-cloth, so flowering is generally unknown. A survey of botanical records of paper mulberry revealed a distributional disjunction: the tree is apparently absent in Borneo and the Philippines. A subsequent study of chloroplast haplotypes linked paper mulberry of Remote Oceania directly to a population in southern Taiwan, distinct from known populations in mainland Southeast-Asia.We describe the optimization and use of a DNA marker designed to identify sex in paper mulberry. We used this marker to determine the sex distribution in selected localities across Asia, Near and Remote Oceania. We also characterized all samples using the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence (ITS in order to relate results to a previous survey of ITS diversity.In Near and Remote Oceania, contemporary paper mulberry plants are all female with the exception of Hawaii, where plants of both sexes are found. In its natural range in Asia, male and female plants are found, as expected. Male plants in Hawaii display an East Asian ITS genotype, consistent with modern introduction, while females in Remote Oceania share a distinctive variant.Most paper mulberry plants now present in the Pacific appear to be descended from female clones introduced prehistorically. In Hawaii, the presence of male and female plants is thought to reflect a dual origin, one a prehistoric female introduction and the other a modern male introduction by Japanese/Chinese immigrants. If only female clones were dispersed from a source-region in Taiwan, this may explain the absence of botanical records and breeding populations in the Philippines and Borneo, and Remote Oceania.

  7. Fast growing aspens in the development of a plant micropropagation system based on plant-produced ethylene action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žiauka, Jonas; Kuusienė, Sigutė; Šilininkas, Mindaugas

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of the genus Populus (poplars), such as Populus tremula L. (European aspen) and its fast-growing hybrids, are recognized as being among the most suitable tree species for short rotation coppicing in Northern Europe. Several technologies have been developed for fast propagation of selected aspen genotypes, including laboratory (in vitro) micropropagation, which is usually based on the action of exogenous plant hormones. Seeking to minimize the use of the latter, the present study was designed to test if the conditions suitable for increased accumulation of plant-produced gas, including the gaseous plant hormone ethylene, inside a culture vessel could contribute to commercially desirable changes in aspen development. Shoot cultures of several European and hybrid (Populus tremuloides Michx. × P. tremula) aspen genotypes were studied using two different types of culture vessels: tightly sealed Petri dishes (15 × 54 mm) designed to provide restricted gas exchange (RGE) conditions, and capped (but not sealed) test tubes (150 × 18 mm) providing control conditions. Under RGE conditions, not only the positive impact of the ethylene precursors 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC) and ethephon on shoot proliferation was demonstrated but also a several-fold increase, compared to the control conditions, in the mean shoot number per explant was recorded even on the hormone-free nutrient medium. Moreover, the shoots developed under RGE conditions were distinguished by superior rooting ability in the subsequent culture. These results suggest that a plant micropropagation system based on the action of plant-produced ethylene rather than of exogenous hormones is possible. -- Highlights: ► Aspen in vitro cultures were grown in different vessels. ► Small-volume vessels were used for restriction of gas exchange. ► Aspen explants produced most shoots in small-volume vessels. ► Shoot proliferation was increased due to explant response to ethylene.

  8. DIAGNÓSTICO DAS FLORESTAS PLANTADAS NA BACIA HIDROGRÁFICA DO RIO PARDO - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio de Farias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to make a diagnosis of the forests planted in the basin of ‘Pardo’ river (Rio Pardo, in RS state, by contemplating the characterization of properties, of forestations, and of the availability and consumption of wood in the region. The area of reach of the study is in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state, which main economy is the tobacco crop, enclosing 13 cities that compose the performance area of the Management Committee of Rio Pardo Hydrographic Basin. The data collect were conducted during year 2008. In order to determine the size of the sample, it was made a sampling with its probability proportional to the size, where the criterion of the sample unity distribution took in consideration the numbers of trees per city and, inside the cities, the number of trees per class of property size. The sampling method utilized on the forest inventory was by Prodan, in addition to interviews taken with the producers The region is characterized by small agricultural producers, and 61.4% of the firewood used in the cure of tobacco leaves is acquired from others, moreover, the majority of the forestation possess reduced spacing (2.26 m²/plant and low survival indices, in order of the 34.4% after 7 years of the plantation. The wooden current supply is of 2,781.069 m³, what guarantees a supplying for only 3.5 years. The collected data allow to evidence that the resources necessary to invest in the self-sufficiency of firewood for the crop tobacco, are of R$ 12,250,000,00, that could be placed annually, during seven years, equivalent the rotation in simple coppice, resulting in an area of 80 ha/year/city.

  9. Physico-chemical characteristics of eight different biomass fuels and comparison of combustion and emission results in a small scale multi-fuel boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, E.G.A.; Easson, D.L.; Lyons, G.A.; McRoberts, W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Physical parameters of the eight biomass fuels examined were all different. • Significant differences were found in Proximate, Ultimate and TGA results. • Energy outputs were not proportionate to dry matter energy content. • Highest flue ash production from fuels with highest fines content. • Flue gas emissions varied significantly, NOx levels correlated with fuel N content. - Abstract: This study describes the results from the investigation of 7 different biomass fuel types produced on a farm, and a commercial grade wood pellet, for their physical, chemical, thermo-gravimetric and combustion properties. Three types of short rotation coppice (SRC) willow, two species of conifers, forest residues (brash), commercially produced wood-pellets and a chop harvested energy grass crop Miscanthus giganteus spp., (elephant grass) were investigated. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in most of the raw fuel parameters examined using particle distribution, Thermogravimetric, Ultimate and Proximate analysis. Combustion tests in a 120 kW multi-fuel boiler revealed differences, some significant, in the maximum output, energy conversion efficiency, gaseous emission profiles and ash residues produced from the fuels. It was concluded that some of the combustion results could be directly correlated with the inherent properties of the different fuels. Ash production and gaseous emissions were the aspects of performance that were clearly and significantly different though effects on energy outputs were more varied and less consistent. The standard wood pellet fuel returned the best overall performance and miscanthus produced the largest amount of total ash and clinker after combustion in the boiler

  10. Atmospheric Radionuclides from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident-Two years observations in Tsukuba, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yasuhito; Kajino, Mizuo; Zaizen, Yuji; Adachi, Koji; Mikami, Masao; Kita, Kazuyuki; Hatano, Yuko

    2013-04-01

    The accident of Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Corporation arisen by the hit of great earthquake and tsunami in March 11, 2011, emitted abundant fresh radioactive material to the atmospheric environment. The amount has been estimated to be at least a few-tenth of those from the Chernobyl accident (by NISA, etc.). By this large-scale contamination, atmospheric environments over Japan, especially the eastern part, were seriously impacted with such a massive amount of the anthropogenic radionuclides (e.g. typical hotspots). So the persisting aftermath is one of the concerns. Although the heavy primary emission seems to be terminated until April of 2011, 2ndary emissions from contaminated ground surface, coppices, fields, roads, any burnings of the contaminated materials generated the resuspension of radionuclides into the atmosphere. With 2-years observation for the Fukushima radioactivity at the Meteorological Research Institute, Japan (MRI) such persisting resuspension is considered in this presentation. The resuspension seems still in difficulty to give forecast by computer modeling; the observations are indispensable bodies of the research even in the future. The MRI has carried out observations of the atmospheric radionuclides, which are long-lived with potentials of environmental and health impacts, for more than 50 years. Aiming at to clarify temporal change in concentration of anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere and its control factors, the observations have continued over the long period. The long-lasting impacts of the Fukushima accident are addressed with our long-term time series of the atmospheric radioactivity as a reference.

  11. Ozone concentrations and damage for realistic future European climate and air quality scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Carlijn; Forsell, Nicklas; Kiesewetter, Gregor; Schaap, Martijn; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Ground level ozone poses a significant threat to human health from air pollution in the European Union. While anthropogenic emissions of precursor substances (NOx, NMVOC, CH4) are regulated by EU air quality legislation and will decrease further in the future, the emissions of biogenic NMVOC (mainly isoprene) may increase significantly in the coming decades if short-rotation coppice plantations are expanded strongly to meet the increased biofuel demand resulting from the EU decarbonisation targets. This study investigates the competing effects of anticipated trends in land use change, anthropogenic ozone precursor emissions and climate change on European ground level ozone concentrations and related health and environmental impacts until 2050. The work is based on a consistent set of energy consumption scenarios that underlie current EU climate and air quality policy proposals: a current legislation case, and an ambitious decarbonisation case. The Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) integrated assessment model was used to calculate air pollutant emissions for these scenarios, while land use change because of bioenergy demand was calculated by the Global Biosphere Model (GLOBIOM). These datasets were fed into the chemistry transport model LOTOS-EUROS to calculate the impact on ground level ozone concentrations. Health damage because of high ground level ozone concentrations is projected to decline significantly towards 2030 and 2050 under current climate conditions for both energy scenarios. Damage to plants is also expected to decrease but to a smaller extent. The projected change in anthropogenic ozone precursor emissions is found to have a larger impact on ozone damage than land use change. The increasing effect of a warming climate (+2-5 °C across Europe in summer) on ozone concentrations and associated health damage, however, might be higher than the reduction achieved by cutting back European ozone precursor emissions. Global

  12. Total costs and benefits of biomass in selected regions of the European Union - BioCosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A de; Costa, F B [Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Inst. de Sistemas e Robotica; Bauen, A [London Univ. (United Kingdom). Div. of Life Sciences; and others

    1998-11-01

    In the BioCosts project, representative biomass-to-electricity and biomass-to-transport-service fuel cycles located at different sites within the European Union have been evaluated concerning their environmental and economic performance. Each case study was compared to a fossil-fuel fired reference case. The case studies examined comprise: utilisation of forestry residues in the Naessjoe circulating fluidized bed combustion plant, Sweden, versus the use of Polish coal in the same plant; utilisation of forestry residues and short-rotation coppice for industrial combined heat and power production in Mangualde, Portugal, versus the use of fuel oil in an engine generating heat and power; production of biogas from manure slurry for municipal combined heat and power generation at Hashoej, Denmark, versus the use of Danish natural gas in the same engine; gasification of woody biomass for combined heat and power generation in Vaernamo, Sweden, and Eggborough, UK, versus the use of coal in the Naessjoe plant mentioned above and a UK power plant; production of cold-pressed rape-seed oil and its use in a cogeneration plant at Weissenburg, Germany, versus the use of diesel fuel in a similar engine; production of rape-seed oil methyl ester and its use for goods transport in Germany, versus the use of diesel fuel in the same fleet of trucks; production of ethyl tertiary butyl ether from sugar beets and sweet sorghum for transport applications in France, versus the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether from fossil sources for the same purpose 130 refs, 25 figs, 42 tabs. Research funded in part by the European Commission in the JOULE III programme

  13. Estudo de algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis Study of some mechanical properties of wood in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A procura por madeiras oriundas de reflorestamentos destinadas à serraria é uma realidade já há muitos anos, principalmente aquelas das espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Visando buscar novas informações importantes para esse mercado, este trabalho objetivou determinar algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis de duas idades e provenientes de talhadia simples e de reforma. Os resultados indicaram que a madeira desse híbrido apresenta boas características tecnológicas, destacando-se a segunda tora (a partir de 3 m com as melhores propriedades de flexão estática (Módulo de Elasticidade - MOE e Módulo de Ruptura - MOR e Compressão Axial das fibras. As árvores de maior idade (166 meses e que sofreram dois desbastes apresentaram as melhores propriedades de flexão estática e compressão axial.The search for wood originated from reforestations destined to sawmill has been observed for many years, mainly for the Eucalyptus species. Searching for information to assist this market, the aim of this study was to determine some mechanical properties of the wood from a Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrid, at two different ages and coming from coppice and reform. The results show that the wood of this clonal hybrid presents good technological characteristics and is the second best log (starting from 3,0 m, as to static bending properties (Module of Elasticity - MOE and Module of Rupture - MOR. The oldest trees (166 months - E2 which suffered two thinning presented the best results for the property of static bending and axial crushing (CA.

  14. High yielding biomass genotypes of willow (Salix spp.) show differences in below ground biomass allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunniff, Jennifer; Purdy, Sarah J.; Barraclough, Tim J.P.; Castle, March; Maddison, Anne L.; Jones, Laurence E.; Shield, Ian F.; Gregory, Andrew S.; Karp, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) are viewed as a sustainable source of biomass with a positive greenhouse gas (GHG) balance due to their potential to fix and accumulate carbon (C) below ground. However, exploiting this potential has been limited by the paucity of data available on below ground biomass allocation and the extent to which it varies between genotypes. Furthermore, it is likely that allocation can be altered considerably by environment. To investigate the role of genotype and environment on allocation, four willow genotypes were grown at two replicated field sites in southeast England and west Wales, UK. Above and below ground biomass was intensively measured over two two-year rotations. Significant genotypic differences in biomass allocation were identified, with below ground allocation differing by up to 10% between genotypes. Importantly, the genotype with the highest below ground biomass also had the highest above ground yield. Furthermore, leaf area was found to be a good predictor of below ground biomass. Growth environment significantly impacted allocation; the willow genotypes grown in west Wales had up to 94% more biomass below ground by the end of the second rotation. A single investigation into fine roots showed the same pattern with double the volume of fine roots present. This greater below ground allocation may be attributed primarily to higher wind speeds, plus differences in humidity and soil characteristics. These results demonstrate that the capacity exists to breed plants with both high yields and high potential for C accumulation. - Highlights: • SRC willows are a source of biomass and act as carbon (C) sinks. • Biomass allocation was measured in 4 willow genotypes grown in two UK field sites. • The greatest yielding genotype had the greatest below ground biomass at both sites. • Below ground biomass allocation differed by up to 10% between genotypes and 94% between sites. • Environment e.g. wind

  15. Back from a predicted climatic extinction of an island endemic: a future for the Corsican Nuthatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Barbet-Massin

    Full Text Available The Corsican Nuthatch (Sitta whiteheadi is red-listed as vulnerable to extinction by the IUCN because of its endemism, reduced population size, and recent decline. A further cause is the fragmentation and loss of its spatially-restricted favourite habitat, the Corsican pine (Pinus nigra laricio forest. In this study, we aimed at estimating the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of the Corsican Nuthatch using species distribution models. Because this species has a strong trophic association with the Corsican and Maritime pines (P. nigra laricio and P. pinaster, we first modelled the current and future potential distribution of both pine species in order to use them as habitat variables when modelling the nuthatch distribution. However, the Corsican pine has suffered large distribution losses in the past centuries due to the development of anthropogenic activities, and is now restricted to mountainous woodland. As a consequence, its realized niche is likely significantly smaller than its fundamental niche, so that a projection of the current distribution under future climatic conditions would produce misleading results. To obtain a predicted pine distribution at closest to the geographic projection of the fundamental niche, we used available information on the current pine distribution associated to information on the persistence of isolated natural pine coppices. While common thresholds (maximizing the sum of sensitivity and specificity predicted a potential large loss of the Corsican Nuthatch distribution by 2100, the use of more appropriate thresholds aiming at getting closer to the fundamental distribution of the Corsican pine predicted that 98% of the current presence points should remain potentially suitable for the nuthatch and its range could be 10% larger in the future. The habitat of the endemic Corsican Nuthatch is therefore more likely threatened by an increasing frequency and intensity of wildfires or anthropogenic

  16. The growth productivity, and environmental impact of the cultivation of energy crops on sandy soil in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, V. [Institut fuer Agrartechnik Bornim e.V., Potsdam (Germany); Ellerbrock, R. [Zentrum fuer Agrarlandschafts- und Landnutzungsforschung e.V. Muencheberg (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Energy plants, cultivated on set-aside land, could substitute nearly 3% of the primary energy in Germany and could raise the income of farmers. However, the substitution of fossil fuels by plants requires the selection of plant species with high site suitability, an ecologically benign farming system and high yields. This paper describes results of the cultivation of 10 energy plant species suitable for combustion. Over a period of 6 yr, yield, energy gain, and environmentally relevant substances in the plant and the soil were determined under practical conditions. Fertilization was carried out in four variants each ranging from 0 to 150 kgNha{sup -1} and with wood- and straw-ashes, as well as basic mineral fertilizer. Plant protection products were entirely dispensed with. The results show that, except for topinambur haulm (Jerusalem artichoke) and short rotation coppice with undersown crops, the mean yield ranges between 8 and 12 t{sub DM} ha{sup -1} and that a reduction of nitrogen application from 150 to 75 kgNh{sup -1} causes only slight yield losses. Without fertilization, yields diminish by 20-40% after 6 years, except for poplars, which reach similarly a high yield level as with fertilization. The contents of the emission- and combustion-relevant plant nutrients, such as nitrogen, potassium, sulfur and chlorine, are significantly lower in poplars and willows than in grass, rye, triticale and hemp. Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead, are absorbed differently. Hemp, poplars, and winter rye allow high-energy yields to be achieved. Even if nitrogen fertilization is reduced, net energy gains of more than 120 GJha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} (3.2 kl oil equivalent ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) are reached. (author)

  17. Modifying woody plants for efficient conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinus, R.J.; Dimmel, D.R.; Feirer, R.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Malcolm, E.W. (Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    The Short Rotation Woody Crop Program (SRWCP), Department of Energy, is developing woody plant species as sources of renewable energy. Much progress has been made in identifying useful species, and testing site adaptability, stand densities, coppicing abilities, rotation lengths, and harvesting systems. Conventional plant breeding and intensive cultural practices have been used to increase above-ground biomass yields. Given these and foreseeable accomplishments, program leaders are now shifting attention to prospects for altering biomass physical and chemical characteristics, and to ways for improving the efficiency with which biomass can be converted to gaseous and liquid fuels. This report provides a review and synthesis of literature concerning the quantity and quality of such characteristics and constituents, and opportunities for manipulating them via conventional selection and breeding and/or molecular biology. Species now used by SRWCP are emphasized, with supporting information drawn from others as needed. Little information was found on silver maple (Acer saccharinum), but general comparisons (Isenberg 1981) suggest composition and behavior similar to those of the other species. Where possible, conclusions concerning means for and feasibility of manipulation are given, along with expected impacts on conversion efficiency. Information is also provided on relationships to other traits, genotype X environment interactions, and potential trade-offs or limitations. Biomass productivity per se is not addressed, except in terms of effects that may by caused by changes in constituent quality and/or quantity. Such effects are noted to the extent they are known or can be estimated. Likely impacts of changes, however effected, on suitability or other uses, e.g., pulp and paper manufacture, are notes. 311 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Accumulation of Elements in Salix and Other Species Used in Vegetation Filters with Focus on Wood Fuel Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Anneli

    2007-07-01

    Woody or herbaceous perennials used as vegetation filters for treatment of different types of wastes can be suitable for production of solid biofuels when their above ground harvestable biomass yield is sufficiently high and when biomass contains appropriate concentrations of minerals with regard to fuel combustion processes. The concentrations of nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and heavy metals (especially Zn and Cd) in fuel should be low and calcium (Ca) concentrations high to avoid technical problems and environmentally harmful emissions during combustion. Since soil supplementation with essential elements improves biomass yield, a conflict might arise between yield and quality aims. There are various possibilities to influence fuel quality during the growing phase of the life cycle of perennial biomass crops. This study assessed the suitability of two deciduous woody perennials (Salix and Populus) and two summer green herbaceous perennials (Phragmites and Urtica) for phytoremediation in terms of growth and nutrient allocation patterns. Salix and Populus proved suitable as vegetation filters when nutrients were available to plants in near-optimal proportions, but when unbalanced nutrient solutions (wastewater) were applied, stem biomass fraction was strongly reduced. Phragmites was more tolerant to wastewater treatment in terms of plant biomass production and nutrient allocation patterns, so if the N:P ratio of the wastewater is suboptimal, a vegetation filter using Phragmites could be considered. In further studies, a method was developed to determine the proportions of nutrient-rich bark in coppiced Salix, while heavy metal phytoextraction capacity was assessed in two Salix vegetation filters. The relevance of proportion of bark on wood fuel quality and element removal from vegetation filters was also investigated. The concentrations of the elements studied in harvestable Salix shoot biomass were higher, meaning lower wood fuel quality, in plantations where

  19. Life cycle assessment: an application to poplar for energy cultivated in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Bacenetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of the bioenergy sector has led to an increasing interest in energy crops. Short rotation coppices (SRC are forestry management systems in which fast-growing tree species are produced under intensive cultivation practices to obtain high wood chips yields. In Italy, most SRC plantations consist of poplar biomass-clones. SRC plantations can be carried out with different management systems with diverse cutting times; consequently, the cultivation system can be crucial for attaining high yields depending on: i short and ii medium cutting frequency. Nowadays, the larger part of Italian SRC is based on 2-year cutting short rotation forestry (SRF but the best quality of wood chips is linked to 5-year plantation medium rotation forestry (MRF. This work compares an SRF and an MRF poplar plantation located in the Po Valley in northern Italy. In particular, a life cycle assessment (LCA was carried out to evaluate their energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions. The LCA software SimaPro 7.10 was used to create the LCA model and to assure an accurate impact assessment calculation. The analysis shows several differences between MRF and SRF in terms of fertiliser requirements and intensive agricultural activities. Results highlight that MRF produces a more sustainable wood chip production than SRF according to energy and environmental concerns. Furthermore, hot spots were identified in both SRF and MRF due to the high energy consumption and the related emissions. These hot spots were: i mineral fertilisation; ii mechanical weed-control; iii harvesting and biomass transport.

  20. Genetics of phenotypic plasticity and biomass traits in hybrid willows across contrasting environments and years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Sofia; Hallingbäck, Henrik R; Beyer, Friderike; Nordh, Nils-Erik; Weih, Martin; Rönnberg-Wästljung, Ann-Christin

    2017-07-01

    Phenotypic plasticity can affect the geographical distribution of taxa and greatly impact the productivity of crops across contrasting and variable environments. The main objectives of this study were to identify genotype-phenotype associations in key biomass and phenology traits and the strength of phenotypic plasticity of these traits in a short-rotation coppice willow population across multiple years and contrasting environments to facilitate marker-assisted selection for these traits. A hybrid Salix viminalis  × ( S. viminalis × Salix schwerinii ) population with 463 individuals was clonally propagated and planted in three common garden experiments comprising one climatic contrast between Sweden and Italy and one water availability contrast in Italy. Several key phenotypic traits were measured and phenotypic plasticity was estimated as the trait value difference between experiments. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analyses were conducted using a dense linkage map and phenotypic effects of S. schwerinii haplotypes derived from detected QTL were assessed. Across the climatic contrast, clone predictor correlations for biomass traits were low and few common biomass QTL were detected. This indicates that the genetic regulation of biomass traits was sensitive to environmental variation. Biomass QTL were, however, frequently shared across years and across the water availability contrast. Phenology QTL were generally shared between all experiments. Substantial phenotypic plasticity was found among the hybrid offspring, that to a large extent had a genetic origin. Individuals carrying influential S. schwerinii haplotypes generally performed well in Sweden but less well in Italy in terms of biomass production. The results indicate that specific genetic elements of S. schwerinii are more suited to Swedish conditions than to those of Italy. Therefore, selection should preferably be conducted separately for such environments in order to maximize biomass

  1. Firewood, food and human niche construction: the potential role of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in actively structuring Scotland's woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Rosie R.; Church, Mike J.; Rowley-Conwy, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades the potential role of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in actively constructing their own niches, through the management of wild plants, has frequently been discussed. It is probable that Mesolithic hunter-gatherers systematically exploited specific woodland resources for food and fuel and influenced the 'natural' abundance or distribution of particular species within Mesolithic environments. Though there has been considerable discussion of the pollen evidence for potential small-scale human-woodland manipulation in Mesolithic Scotland, the archaeobotanical evidence for anthropogenic firewood and food selection has not been discussed in this context. This paper assesses the evidence for the active role of Mesolithic hunter-gatherer communities in systematically exploiting and managing woodlands for food and fuel in Scotland. While taphonomic factors may have impacted on the frequency of specific species in archaeobotanical assemblages, it is suggested that hunter-gatherers in Mesolithic Scotland were systematically using woodland plants, and in particular hazel and oak, for food and fuel. It is argued that the pollen evidence for woodland management is equivocal, but hints at the role of hunter-gatherers in shaping the structure of their environments, through the maintenance or creation of woodland clearings for settlement or as part of vegetation management strategies. It is proposed that Mesolithic hunter-gatherers may have actively contributed to niche construction and that the systematic use of hazel and oak as a fuel may reflect the deliberate pruning of hazel trees to increase nut-yields and the inadvertent - or perhaps deliberate - coppicing of hazel and oak during greenwood collection.

  2. Changes in understory species occurrence of a secondary broadleaved forest after mass mortality of oak trees under deer foraging pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Itô

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of mass mortality of oak trees by Japanese oak wilt has affected secondary deciduous broadleaved forests that have been used as coppices in Japan. The dieback of oak trees formed gaps in the crown that would be expected to enhance the regeneration of shade-intolerant pioneer species. However, foraging by sika deer Cervus nippon has also affected forest vegetation, and the compound effects of both on forest regeneration should be considered when they simultaneously occur. A field study was conducted in Kyôto City, Japan to investigate how these compound effects affected the vegetation of the understory layer of these forests. The presence/absence of seedlings and saplings was observed for 200 quadrats sized 5 m ×5 m for each species in 1992, before the mass mortality and deer encroachment, and in 2014 after these effects. A hierarchical Bayesian model was constructed to explain the occurrence, survival, and colonization of each species with their responses to the gaps that were created, expanded, or affected by the mass mortality of Quercus serrata trees. The species that occurred most frequently in 1992, Eurya japonica, Quercus glauca, and Cleyera japonica, also had the highest survival probabilities. Deer-unpalatable species such as Symplocos prunifolia and Triadica sebifera had higher colonization rates in the gaps, while the deer-palatable species Aucuba japonica had the smallest survival probability. The gaps thus promoted the colonization of deer-unpalatable plant species such as Symplocos prunifolia and Triadica sebifera. In the future, such deer-unpalatable species may dominate gaps that were created, expanded, or affected by the mass mortality of oak trees.

  3. Natural and human controls of the Holocene evolution of the beach, aeolian sand and dunes of Caesarea (Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, J.; Sivan, D.; Shtienberg, G.; Roskin, E.; Porat, N.; Bookman, R.

    2015-12-01

    The study focuses on the Holocene appearance, chronology and drivers of beach sand deposition and inland aeolian sand transport around the Roman-Byzantine ruins of Caesarea, Israel. Beach sand, sand sheets, nebkha, linear and transverse dunes as well as parabolic and transverse interdunes along two transects were sampled in the current study down to their substrate. Sixteen new optically stimulated luminescence ages cluster at ∼5.9-3.3 ka, ∼1.2-1.1 ka (800-900 AD) and ∼190-120 years ago (1825-1895 AD) indicating times of middle and late Holocene sand sheet depositions and historical dune stabilization. The first age cluster indicates that beach sand accumulated when rates of global sea level rise declined around 6-5 ka. Until ∼4 ka sand sheets encroached up to 2.5 km inland. Historical and archaeological evidence points to sand mobilization since the first century AD. Sand sheets dating to 1.2-1.1 ka, coevally found throughout the dunefield represent sand stabilization due to vegetation reestablishment attributed to gradual and fluctuating decline in human activity from the middle Early Islamic period until the 10th century. Historical and chronological evidence of the existence of transverse and coppice dunes from the 19th century suggest that dunes only formed in the last few centuries. The study illustrates the initial role of natural processes, in this case decline in global sea level rise and the primary and later role of fluctuating human activity upon coastal sand mobility. The study distinguishes between sand sheets and dunes and portrays them as sensors of environmental changes.

  4. Spatial distribution of arsenic and heavy metals in willow roots from a contaminated floodplain soil measured by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, Dana; Kruse, Jens; Baum, Christel; Borca, Camelia; Laue, Michael; Hause, Gerd; Meissner, Ralph; Leinweber, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Under changing redox conditions some plants create plaques at their root surface, which may affect the mobility and uptake of As and heavy metals but it is unknown to what extent this also holds true for willows in contaminated floodplain soils. Therefore, willow roots were sampled from a phytoremediation trial in the contaminated floodplain of the river Elbe (Germany), cryofixed, freeze-dried, and cross sections were mapped for the distribution of As, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, S and Zn by synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The elements Ca, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were concentrated in the aerenchymatic tissue, and not associated with Fe and Mn. Mixed Fe-Mn plaques covered the surface of the willow roots and As was accumulated in these plaques. The observed association pattern between As and Fe was explained by the different sorption/desorption properties of As(III) and As(V). The Cu and Zn intensities were not associated with the intensity of Fe in the plaque, which seems to be a willow-specific difference compared to other wetland plants. These results suggested that willows are especially suited to stabilize low-phytoextractable elements like Cu and As in their roots and rhizosphere. Thus, short rotation coppicing of willows may be a practical approach to mitigate the adverse effects of floodplain soil contamination. - Research highlights: → Elemental distributions were mapped on willow roots for the first time by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence. → Ca, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were enriched in the aerenchyma but As, Fe and Mn formed root plaques. → The Cu and Zn enrichments in aerenchyma but absence in plaques appeared to be willow-specific. → In the plaques were three groups of pixels which strongly differed in the As to Fe and As to Mn ratios. → This indicated different species of these redox-sensitive elements.

  5. Harvested wood products and carbon sink in a young beech high forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilli R

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol (KP, Italy has elected forest management as additional human-induced activity to attain the goal of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The whole forest area not subjected to afforestation, reforestation or deforestation processes since 1990 will be considered as managed forest. In order to analyse different management strategies, the Carbon-Pro Project, involving 9 partners of the European CADSES area, considered a young beech high forest (ex-coppice, defined as "transitory silvicultural system" as a common case study for the Pre-alps region. Using data collected with forest plans during the period 1983 - 2005, aboveground and belowground forest carbon stock and sink of a specific forest compartment were estimated by the Carbon Stock Method proposed by the IPCC Guidelines. In order to apply this approach 41 trees were cut and a species-specific allometric equation was developed. Considering the aboveground tree biomass, the carbon sink amounts to 1.99 and 1.84 Mg C ha-1 y-1 for the period 1983 - 1994 and 1994 - 2005 respectively. Adding the belowground tree biomass, the estimated sink amounts to 2.59 and 2.39 Mg C ha-1 y-1 for each period. Taking the harvested wood products (firewood, the total carbon sequestration during the second period is 0.16 Mg C ha-1 y-1. The case study highlights the possible rules for the different management strategies. In effect, the utilisation of the entire increase in aboveground biomass as firewood gives an energy substitution effect but, according to the Marrakesh Accords, it cannot be accounted for the KP. On the other hand, an accumulation strategy gives the maximum possible carbon absorption and retention.

  6. Impacts of paper sludge and manure on soil and biomass production of willow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaye, Amos K.; Volk, Timothy A.; Hafner, Sasha; Leopold, Donald J.; Schirmer, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Land application of organic wastes to short rotation woody crops (SRWC) can reduce the environmental impacts associated with waste disposal and enhance the productivity of biomass production systems. Understanding the potential impacts of organic amendments however, requires the examination of changes in soil characteristics and plant productivity. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of paper sludge and dairy manure on biomass production of shrub willow (Salix dasyclados SV1) and to determine the impacts of these amendments on soil chemical properties. Treatments included urea, dairy manure and paper sludge separately and in combination, and a control. These materials were applied in the summer of 2005 to two fields of SV1 at different stages of growth: An old field with one year old shoots on a 10 year old root system and a young field which was beginning regrowth after being coppiced at the end of its first growing season. Foliar nutrient concentrations and soil chemical properties were analyzed at the end of the second growing season after treatment application to determine plant response to the fertilization regimes and to determine the effects of fertilization on soil characteristics. Fertilization did not increase biomass production in either field. However, application of the N-poor paper sludge did not reduce yield either. In general, fertilization did not influence soil or foliar chemistry, although there were some exceptions. The lack of response observed in this study is probably related to the nutrient status of the site or losses of applied nutrients. -- Highlights: → The fertilization treatments did not have any significant effect biomass production. → Application of paper sludge did not reduce willow biomass yield in both fields. → Foliar N concentration of willow crops in this study is in the range considered for optimal growth. → The limited response of foliar nutrients to fertilization indicates that the site was not limited by

  7. Modelling impacts of second generation bioenergy production on Ecosystem Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, D. N.; Smith, P.; Davies, C.; McNamara, N. P.

    2016-12-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and likely to play a major role in transitioning to a lower CO2 energy system. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on broader sustainability encompassed by ecosystem services, further enhanced by ongoing climate change. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive model that covers ecosystem services at a continental scale including biodiversity and pollination, water and air security, erosion control and soil security, GHG emissions, soil C and cultural services like tourism value. The technical distribution potential and likely yield of second generation energy crops, such as Miscanthus, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC; willow and poplar) was modelled using ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor models. In addition, methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models are utilised. We will present results for synergies and trade-offs between land use change and ecosystem services, impact on food security and land management. Further, we will show modelled yield maps for different cultivars of Miscanthus, willow and poplar in Europe and constraint/opportunity maps based on projected yield and other factors e.g. total economic value, technical potential, current land use, climate change and trade-offs and synergies. It will be essential to include multiple ecosystem services when assessing the potential for bioenergy production/expansion that does not impact other land uses or provisioning services. Considering that the soil GHG balance is dominated by change in soil organic carbon (SOC) and the difference among Miscanthus and SRC is largely determined by yield, an important target for management of perennial energy crops is to achieve the best possible yield using the most appropriate energy crop and cultivar for the local situation. This research could inform future policy decisions on bioenergy crops in

  8. The opportunities for woody biomass fuels in New Zealand produced in association with land disposal of effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, R.E.H.; Collins, C.

    1993-01-01

    An assessment of the future New Zealand biomass resource has shown exotic forest arisings could supply 970 GWh/year by the year 2002; wood processing residues 280 GWh/year; and fuelwood plantations 2,060 GWh/year with potential to rise to 10,000 GWh/year by 2012. Currently annual electricity demand is around 30,000 GWh 70% of which is generated by hydro power. A further 25% stems from natural gas, a resource with estimated reserves of only approximately 14 years. This paper describes how part replacement of gas by biomass could be a feasible proposition for the future. Life cycle cost analyses showed electricity could be generated from arisings for 4.8--6 c/kWh; from residues for 2.4--4.8 c/kWh; and from plantations for 4.8--7.2 c/kWh. For comparison the current retail electricity price is around 4--5.5 c/kWh and estimates for wind power generation range from 5--10 c/kWh. Future hydro-power schemes will generate power between 4--9 c/kWh depending on site suitability. The link between land disposal of effluent and short rotation coppice production can reduce the biomass costs. A meatworks processing 1.6 million sheep annually has planted 90 ha in trees for flood irrigation of effluent and biomass fuel production for use on site. Similar schemes linking sewage disposal with wood-fired power generation are under evaluation

  9. Assessment of soil erosion sensitivity and post-timber-harvesting erosion response in a mountain environment of Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasquale; Schütt, Brigitta

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of forest management on the occurrence of accelerated soil erosion by water. The study site is located in a mountainous area of the Italian Central Apennines. Here, forest harvesting is a widespread forestry activity and is mainly performed on the moderate to steep slopes of the highlands. Through modeling operations based on data on soil properties and direct monitoring of changes in the post-forest-harvesting soil surface level at the hillslope scale, we show that the observed site became prone to soil erosion after human intervention. Indeed, the measured mean soil erosion rate of 49 t ha- 1 yr- 1 for the harvested watershed is about 21 times higher than the rate measured in its neighboring undisturbed forested watershed (2.3 t ha- 1 yr- 1). The erosive response is greatly aggravated by exposing the just-harvested forest, with very limited herbaceous plant cover, to the aggressive attack of the heaviest annual rainfall without adopting any conservation practices. The erosivity of the storms during the first four months of field measurements was 1571 MJ mm h- 1 ha- 1 in total (i.e., from September to December 2008). At the end of the experiment (16 months), 18.8%, 26.1% and 55.1% of the erosion monitoring sites in the harvested watershed recorded variations equal or greater than 0-5, 5-10 and > 10 mm, respectively. This study also provides a quantification of Italian forestland surfaces with the same pedo-lithological characteristics exploited for wood supply. Within a period of ten years (2002-2011), about 9891 ha of coppice forest changes were identified and their potential soil erosion rates modeled.

  10. Fast growing plantations for wood production – integration of ecological effects and economic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eBredemeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass crops are perceived as a feasible means to substitute sizeable amounts of fossil fuel in the future. A prospect of CO2 reduction (resp. CO2 neutrality is credited to biomass fuels, and thus a potential contribution to mitigate climate change. Short rotation coppices (SRC with fast growing poplar and willow trees are an option for producing high yields of woody biomass, which is suitable for both energetic and material use. One negative effect that comes along with the establishment of SRC may be a decrease in groundwater recharge, because high rates of transpiration and interception are anticipated. Therefore, it is important to measure, analyse, and model the effects of SRC-planting on landscape water budgets. To analyse the effects on the water budget a poplar SRC plot was studied by measuring hydrological parameters to be used in the hydrological model WaSim. Results reveal very low or even missing ground water recharge for SRC compared to agricultural land use or grassland, especially succeeding dry years. However, this strong effect on plot level is moderated on the larger spatial scale of catchment level, for which the modelling was also performed. In addition to water, nutrient fluxes and budgets were studied. Nitrogen is still a crucial issue in today's agriculture. Intensive fertilization or increased applications of manure from concentrated livestock breeding are often leading to high loads of nitrate leaching, or enhanced N2O emissions to the atmosphere on arable crop fields. SRC or agroforestry systems (AF on former crop land may offer an option to decrease such N losses, while simultaneously producing woody biomass. This is mainly due to the generally smaller N requirements of woody vegetation, which usually entail no need for any fertilization. The trees supply deep and permanent rooting systems, which can be regarded as a safety net to prevent nutrient leaching. Thus, SRC altogether can help to diminish N eutrophication.

  11. Interaction between isoprene and ozone fluxes at ecosystem level in a poplar plantation and its impact at European level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, T.; Hendriks, C.; Brilli, F.; Gioli, B.; Portillo Estrada, M.; Schaap, M.; Ceulemans, R.

    2015-12-01

    The emissions of Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from vegetation, mainly in form of isoprenoids, play an important role in the tropospheric ozone (O3) formation. The potential large expansion of isoprene emitter species (e.g. poplar) as biofuels feedstock might impact the ground level O3 formation. Here we report the simultaneous observations, using the eddy covariance (EC) technique, of isoprene, O3 and CO2 fluxes in a short rotation coppice (SRC) of poplar. The impact of current poplar plantations and associated isoprene emissions on ground level ozone concentrations for Europe was evaluated using a chemistry transport model (CTM) LOTOS-EUROS. The isoprene fluxes showed a well-defined seasonal and daily cycle that mirrored with the stomata O3 uptake. The isoprene emission and the stomata O3 uptake showed significant statistical relationship especially at elevated temperature. Isoprene was characterized by a remarkable peak of emissions (e.g. 38 nmol m-2s-1) occurring for few days as a consequence of the rapid variation of the air and surface temperature. During these days the photosynthetic apparatus (i.e. the CO2 fluxes) and transpiration rates did not show significant variation while we did observe a variation of the energy exchange and a reduction of the bowen ratio. The response of isoprene emissions to ambient O3 concentration follows the common form of the hormetic dose-response curve with a considerable reduction of the isoprene emissions at [O3] > 80 ppbv indicating a potential damping effect of the O3 levels on isoprene. Under the current condition the impact of SRC plantations on ozone concentrations / formation is very limited in Europe. Our findings indicate that, even with future scenarios with more SRC, or conventional poplar plantations, the impact on Ozone formation is negligible.

  12. Net carbon dioxide emissions from alternative firewood-production systems in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, K.I.; Booth, T.H.; Jovanovic, T.; Polglase, P.J.; Elliott, A.; Kirschbaum, M.U.F.

    2006-01-01

    The use of firewood for domestic heating has the potential to reduce fossil-fuel use and associated CO 2 emissions. The level of possible reductions depends upon the extent to which firewood off-sets the use of fossil fuels, the efficiency with which wood is burnt, and use of fossil fuels for collection and transport of firewood. Plantations grown for firewood also have a cost of emissions associated with their establishment. Applying the FullCAM model and additional calculations, these factors were examined for various management scenarios under three contrasting firewood production systems (native woodland, sustainably managed native forest, and newly established plantations) in low-medium rainfall (600-800mm) regions of south-eastern Australia. Estimates of carbon dioxide emissions per unit of heat energy produced for all scenarios were lower than for non-renewable energy sources (which generally emit about 0.3-1.0kgCO 2 kWh -1 ). Amongst the scenarios, emissions were greatest when wood was periodically collected from dead wood in woodlands (0.11kgCO 2 kWh -1 ), and was much lower when obtained from harvest residues and dead wood in native forests ( 2 kWh -1 ). When wood was obtained from plantations established on previously cleared agricultural land, use of firewood led to carbon sequestration equivalent to -0.06kgCO 2 kWh -1 for firewood obtained from a coppiced plantation, and -0.17kgCO 2 kWh -1 for firewood collected from thinnings, slash and other residue in a plantation grown for sawlog production. An uncertainty analysis, where inputs and assumptions were varied in relation to a plausible range of management practices, identified the most important influencing factors and an expected range in predicted net amount of CO 2 emitted per unit of heat energy produced from burning firewood. (author)

  13. The influence of tagasaste (chamaecytisus proliferus link) trees on the water balance of an alley cropping system on deep sand in south-western Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefroy, E.C.; Pate, J.S.; Stirzaker, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Components of the water balance of an alley cropping system were measured to assess the extent to which tree rows 30 m apart with access to a fresh, perched watertable at 5 m depth were able to capture deep drainage from an inter-cropped cereal-legume rotation. Neutron probe data showed that the 4-year-old trees, cut back to 0.6-m high at the beginning of the experiment, depleted soil water to 2, 4, and 8 m laterally from the tree rows in their first, second, and third years of coppice regrowth, respectively. Combining data from soil water depletion in summer and comparisons of deuterium/hydrogen ratios of groundwater, xylem sap of trees, and herbaceous plants, it was shown that tagasaste trees drew on soil water for 80% of their transpiration in the first winter and 40% in the second, while switching to near total dependence on groundwater each summer and early autumn. Tree water use on a whole plot basis was 170 mm in 1997 (68% from groundwater) v. 167 mm in 1998 (73% from groundwater). Recharge to the perched watertable was estimated to be 193 mm under sole crop in 1998 (52% of rainfall), reducing to 32 mm when uptake of groundwater by trees was included. The degree of complementarity between tagasaste trees and crops in alley cropping used for water management is quantified for 1998 by calculating the ratio of the distance over which trees reduced drainage to zero to the distance over which they reduced crop yield to zero. It is concluded that segregated monocultures of trees and crops would be a more appropriate strategy than a closely integrated system such as alley cropping in this case. Copyright (2001) CSIRO Australia

  14. Reconstructing European forest management from 1600 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, M. J.; Luyssaert, S.; Meyfroidt, P.; Kaplan, J. O.; Bürgi, M.; Chen, Y.; Erb, K.; Gimmi, U.; McInerney, D.; Naudts, K.; Otto, J.; Pasztor, F.; Ryder, J.; Schelhaas, M.-J.; Valade, A.

    2015-07-01

    Because of the slow accumulation and long residence time of carbon in biomass and soils, the present state and future dynamics of temperate forests are influenced by management that took place centuries to millennia ago. Humans have exploited the forests of Europe for fuel, construction materials and fodder for the entire Holocene. In recent centuries, economic and demographic trends led to increases in both forest area and management intensity across much of Europe. In order to quantify the effects of these changes in forests and to provide a baseline for studies on future land-cover-climate interactions and biogeochemical cycling, we created a temporally and spatially resolved reconstruction of European forest management from 1600 to 2010. For the period 1600-1828, we took a supply-demand approach, in which supply was estimated on the basis of historical annual wood increment and land cover reconstructions. We made demand estimates by multiplying population with consumption factors for construction materials, household fuelwood, industrial food processing and brewing, metallurgy, and salt production. For the period 1829-2010, we used a supply-driven backcasting method based on national and regional statistics of forest age structure from the second half of the 20th century. Our reconstruction reproduces the most important changes in forest management between 1600 and 2010: (1) an increase of 593 000 km2 in conifers at the expense of deciduous forest (decreasing by 538 000 km2); (2) a 612 000 km2 decrease in unmanaged forest; (3) a 152 000 km2 decrease in coppice management; (4) a 818 000 km2 increase in high-stand management; and (5) the rise and fall of litter raking, which at its peak in 1853 resulted in the removal of 50 Tg dry litter per year.

  15. Spatial distribution of arsenic and heavy metals in willow roots from a contaminated floodplain soil measured by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, Dana, E-mail: dana.zimmer@uni-rostock.de [Soil Science, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Kruse, Jens; Baum, Christel [Soil Science, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Borca, Camelia [Paul Scherrer Institute, Swiss Light Source, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Laue, Michael [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Rostock, Medical Faculty, Strempelstr. 14, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Hause, Gerd [Microscopy Unit, Biocenter of the University of Halle, Weinbergweg 22, D-06120 Halle/Saale (Germany); Meissner, Ralph [UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Soil Physics, Lysimeter Station, Dorfstrasse 55, D-39615 Falkenberg (Germany); Leinweber, Peter [Soil Science, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    Under changing redox conditions some plants create plaques at their root surface, which may affect the mobility and uptake of As and heavy metals but it is unknown to what extent this also holds true for willows in contaminated floodplain soils. Therefore, willow roots were sampled from a phytoremediation trial in the contaminated floodplain of the river Elbe (Germany), cryofixed, freeze-dried, and cross sections were mapped for the distribution of As, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, S and Zn by synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The elements Ca, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were concentrated in the aerenchymatic tissue, and not associated with Fe and Mn. Mixed Fe-Mn plaques covered the surface of the willow roots and As was accumulated in these plaques. The observed association pattern between As and Fe was explained by the different sorption/desorption properties of As(III) and As(V). The Cu and Zn intensities were not associated with the intensity of Fe in the plaque, which seems to be a willow-specific difference compared to other wetland plants. These results suggested that willows are especially suited to stabilize low-phytoextractable elements like Cu and As in their roots and rhizosphere. Thus, short rotation coppicing of willows may be a practical approach to mitigate the adverse effects of floodplain soil contamination. - Research highlights: {yields} Elemental distributions were mapped on willow roots for the first time by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence. {yields} Ca, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were enriched in the aerenchyma but As, Fe and Mn formed root plaques. {yields} The Cu and Zn enrichments in aerenchyma but absence in plaques appeared to be willow-specific. {yields} In the plaques were three groups of pixels which strongly differed in the As to Fe and As to Mn ratios. {yields} This indicated different species of these redox-sensitive elements.

  16. Productivity of agricultural surfaces in the eastern parts of Germany under the influence of climatic changes; Die Ertragsfaehigkeit ostdeutscher Ackerflaechen unter Klimawandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wechsung, Frank; Gerstengarbe, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Lasch, Petra; Luettger, Andrea (eds.)

    2008-12-15

    statistical yield models relating yearly changes in major climate variables to those in crop yield at the county level. The models were calibrated for the period 1990 to 2006 and then used for simulating the climate dominated yield variability beginning in 1951 up to 2055. The results received after integration revealed that the climate-determined yield level will probably remain stable under the projected climatic conditions for the next 20 to 30 years. A significant yield loss is to be expected by the middle of the 21st century, especially at locations in the eastern sandy lowlands distant from coast and mountain regions. The losses will be greater in the cultivation of the summer crop maize than that of the winter crop wheat. However, the increase in atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) might compensate part or all of these losses. Due to the fertilizing effect of this greenhouse gas, yields of wheat can even be expected to increase above current levels and yield losses of maize due to water stress will be mostly diminished. An optimum nitrogen provision is a necessary precondition for the CO2 fertilization to come to its full effect, though. In contrast to wheat and maize, yields of fast growing aspen in short rotation coppice plantation are expected to increase under the presumed changes of climate also on sandy soils with low water holding capacity even when neglecting the beneficial effect of higher CO2. This is indicated by simulation results using the eco-physiological forest dynamics model 4C. The model was applied to those areas of East-Germany's arable land where cereal cropping is less productive than the current median level. Following these results, short rotation coppicing of aspen is a promising cultivation alternative for farmers to secure future incomes. Woody biomass generated in short rotation coppice plantations with aspen is particularly suitable for bio-energy production. Taken the simulated effects of the projected climate change on

  17. Climate protection and carbon in wood. Comparison of management strategies; Klimaschutz und Kohlenstoff in Holz. Vergleich verschiedener Strategien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, J.

    2008-11-05

    Forests are important for climate protection: They sequester and store carbon, and provide timber for wood products and fossil fuel substitution. These functions interact in a complex way. From a climate protection point of view it is desirable to optimize these interactions, i.e. to maximize the amount of carbon stored in the whole system (called ''forest-timber-option'') and to analyse what impact a management decision at the local level has with regard to the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. Inventory methods to estimate the total amount of carbon in a forest are needed. Classical forest inventories assess above-ground tree volume. To estimate total carbon in accordance with the requirements of the Kyoto-Protocol, these inventories need to be expanded with regard to the assessment of disturbances, dead wood decomposition, soil carbon, and the estimation of carbon from volume. Methods invented here can also be used to assess local-level management activities, or to ''factor out'' non-human-induced changes in carbon pools. The optimization of the ''forest-timber-option'' is restricted due to regulations of the Kyoto-Protocol, because forest-related measures are accounted for under other sectors than wood and timber use. Harvested timber is estimated as an ''emission'' from the forest, and forest owners have no benefit from the use of wood for industrial purposes. Here, an inclusion of forestry in emission trading schemes can be advantageous. Alternative ways to produce wood are short-rotation coppice plantations on agricultural soils. Information about growth and yield potentials are scarce for the regions where land availability is high. Aspen (P. tremula, P. tremuloides) was parameterized in an eco-physiological forest growth model (''4C'') to assess these potentials on sites in Eastern Germany under current and under changing climatic conditions. The results

  18. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUDIANTO AMIRTA

    2016-05-01

    sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Calliandra calothyrsus Meissner., Bridelia tomentosa Blume, Vitex pinnata L., Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham. and Bauhinia purpurea var. corneri de Wit. were suitable to be used as sustainable feedstocks for the electricity generated and promising to be developed as energy plant species in the future using Short Rotation Coppice system (SRC.

  19. Bioethanol from poplar: a commercially viable alternative to fossil fuel in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Jade; Guo, Miao; Boerjan, Wout; Murphy, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The European Union has made it a strategic objective to develop its biofuels market in order to minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, to help mitigate climate change and to address energy insecurity within the transport sector. Despite targets set at national and supranational levels, lignocellulosic bioethanol production has yet to be widely commercialized in the European Union. Here, we use techno-economic modeling to compare the price of bioethanol produced from short rotation coppice (SRC) poplar feedstocks under two leading processing technologies in five European countries. Our evaluation shows that the type of processing technology and varying national costs between countries results in a wide range of bioethanol production prices (€0.275 to 0.727/l). The lowest production prices for bioethanol were found in countries that had cheap feedstock costs and high prices for renewable electricity. Taxes and other costs had a significant influence on fuel prices at the petrol station, and therefore the presence and amount of government support for bioethanol was a major factor determining the competitiveness of bioethanol with conventional fuel. In a forward-looking scenario, genetically engineering poplar with a reduced lignin content showed potential to enhance the competitiveness of bioethanol with conventional fuel by reducing overall costs by approximately 41% in four out of the five countries modeled. However, the possible wider phenotypic traits of advanced poplars needs to be fully investigated to ensure that these do not unintentionally negate the cost savings indicated. Through these evaluations, we highlight the key bottlenecks within the bioethanol supply chain from the standpoint of various stakeholders. For producers, technologies that are best suited to the specific feedstock composition and national policies should be optimized. For policymakers, support schemes that benefit emerging bioethanol producers and allow renewable fuel to be

  20. Net ecosystem carbon exchange in three contrasting Mediterranean ecosystems – the effect of drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. David

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Droughts reduce gross primary production (GPP and ecosystem respiration (Reco, contributing to most of the inter-annual variability in terrestrial carbon sequestration. In seasonally dry climates (Mediterranean, droughts result from reductions in annual rainfall and changes in rain seasonality. We compared carbon fluxes measured by the eddy covariance technique in three contrasting ecosystems in southern Portugal: an evergreen oak woodland (savannah-like with ca.~21% tree crown cover, a grassland dominated by herbaceous annuals and a coppiced short-rotation eucalyptus plantation. During the experimental period (2003–2006 the eucalyptus plantation was always the strongest sink for carbon: net ecosystem exchange rate (NEE between −861 and −399 g C m−2 year−1. The oak woodland and the grassland were much weaker sinks for carbon: NEE varied in the oak woodland between −140 and −28 g C m−2 year−1 and in the grassland between −190 and +49 g C m−2 year−1. The eucalyptus stand had higher GPP and a lower proportion of GPP spent in respiration than the other systems. The higher GPP resulted from high leaf area duration (LAD, as a surrogate for the photosynthetic photon flux density absorbed by the canopy. The eucalyptus had also higher rain use efficiency (GPP per unit of rain volume and light use efficiency (the daily GPP per unit incident photosynthetic photon flux density than the other two ecosystems. The effects of a severe drought could be evaluated during the hydrological-year (i.e., from October to September of 2004–2005. Between October 2004 and June 2005 the precipitation was only 40% of the long-term average. In 2004–2005 all ecosystems had GPP lower than in wetter years and carbon sequestration was strongly restricted (less negative NEE. The grassland was a net source of carbon dioxide (+49 g C m−2 year−1. In the oak woodland a large proportion of GPP resulted from carbon assimilated by its annual vegetation

  1. DIVERSIDADE DE QUINZE ESPÉCIES DE BORBOLETAS (LEPIDOPTERA, PAPILIONIDAE EM SETE COMUNIDADES DE SANTA MARIA, RS DIVERSITY OF FIFTEEN SPECIES OF BUTTERFLIES (LEPIDOPTERA, PAPILIONIDAE IN SEVEN COMMUNITIES OF SANTA MARIA, RS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Schwartz

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho compara a diversidade estimada para sete áreas de Santa Maria, RS, com diferentes níveis de antropização, com base na abundância, similaridade e constância de 15 espécies de papilionídeos. O estudo foi realizado de Setembro de 1994 a Março de 1995, e de Novembro de 1995 a Fevereiro de 1996. As capturas foram efetuadas em intervalos médios de trinta dias, utilizando rede entomológica convencional, durante intervalos médios de 4 horas. As borboletas foram transportadas em envelopes glicinados, individualizados e etiquetados, para o laboratório do Departamento de Biologia da UFSM. Os dados sugerem que a cobertura vegetal desempenha uma função importante na distribuição e abundância dessas borboletas, e os mecanismos que agem em escalas geográficas mais amplas podem ser diferentes daqueles que atuam em escalas menores. Habitats, como capões e ambientes urbanos, representam locais favoráveis onde as borboletas podem usar esses ambientes complexos, exibindo uma norma de reação que minimiza a competição e a ação de inimigos naturais.The research has as objective to compare the esteemed diversity for seven of Santa Maria's counties, RS, Brazil, with different urbane levels, based on the study of abundance, similarity and steadiness among 15 Papilionidae species, from September 1994 to March 1995 and November 1995 to February 1996. Captures were performed in intervals of thirty days, using entomological net, during intervals of 4 hours average. The butterflies were transported in glassine envelopes, individualized, properly labeled to the Laboratory at UFSM Biology Department. The results suggest that the canopy carries out an important function in the distribution and abundance of those butterflies. The mechanisms that act in wider geographical scales can be different from those that act in smaller scales. Coppices and urban landscapes can represent locals, where butterflies can use these complex environments

  2. APPLICATION OF SOMACLONAL VARIABILITY TO PRODUCTION OF FAST-GROWING TREES AS A RAW MATERIAL FOR BIOFUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinikov V.K.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Wood is one of the most widespread materials on the Earth. Wood raw materials may be used either to generate energy directly or to produce biofuel. The demand for sufficient amount of wood for these purposes necessitated establishment of arboreal plantations. Poplar тополь (Populus sp. is the most promising object to produce wood from plantations. In the last few years the Institute has been involved in the studies of potential of somaclonal variability in tissue cultivars to select plants with high growth indices. Berlin polar (P. × berolinensis, has been selected for this purpose, as its pyramid-shaped crown allows to place more plants on a plantation square area unit. It easily propagates by grafts and coppice shoots and is fairly resistant to leaf rust. Fast-growing trees may be acquired due to somaclonal variability and genetic transformation. In both cases an indispensable preliminary condition is a well-tested protocol of acquiring regenerates and their propagation in the cultivar of isolated tissues. Such a protocol has been worked out by now. It comprises the following phases: 1 isolation of stem tops in the first half of summer ant their sterilization; 2 cutting of explantates and their cultivation on the medium to induce regeneration; 3 propagation of regenerates on propagation medium; 4 elongation of regenerants; 5 rooting of regenerants; 6 acclimation and transfer of plants to the field for growth. At phases 3, 4 and 5 plants with desirable somaclonal changes are selected. Somaclonal varieties are selected on the basis of a large number of regenerants. For their further growth prior to planting on the Institute test site hydroponic units installed at the artificial climate station are used. This ensures equal conditions of nutrition and moisturizing for all the regenerants planted. Little plants cultivated in vitro, which are acquired at this stage of the work, will be further used for genetic transformation. A gene

  3. Growth, water use efficiency, and adaptive features of the tree legume tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus Link.) on deep sands in south-western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefroy, E. C.; Pate, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    Four-year-old tagasaste trees in dense plantation and wide-spaced alley cropping layouts at Moora, Western Australia, were cut back to 0.6 m high and their patterns of coppice regrowth and water use monitored over 3 years. Trees reached a permanent fresh watertable at 5 m depth by means of deeply penetrating sinker roots. Dry matter (DM) accumulation and transpiration loss were closely similar at the 2 planting densities despite higher soil water contents in alley plots. Yearly transpiration at plantation density amounted to 0.55 and 0.63 of Penman-Montieth potential evapotranspiration (E 0 ) in the second and third years, respectively. Mean water use efficiency over the 3 years was 247 L/kg DM, compared with values in the range 186-320 L/kg for younger pot-and column-grown trees. Using a combination of neutron moisture metre (NMM) assays of soil moisture and deuterium: hydrogen ratios of groundwater and xylem water of tagasaste and annual weeds, it was shown that trees became increasingly dependent on groundwater over time and had the capacity to switch rapidly between soil and groundwater sources. Seasonal changes in carbon isotope composition of new shoot tip dry matter indicated that plantation trees were less stressed than alley trees by the third summer as they adapted to heavy dependence on groundwater. In the third season, when plantation trees were transpiring at rates equivalent to 2.3 times annual rainfall, NMM profiles and time domain reflectometry (TDR) assays indicated that no free drainage occurred and that trees were capable of hydraulically lifting groundwater to near surface soil in the dry season. Additional adaptive features of importance to this environment included heat stress induced leaf shedding, development of perennial root nodules on lower parts of tap roots, and an ability to respond in summer to artificial irrigation or a seasonal rainfall by rapidly increasing transpiration 2-3-fold to values equalling E 0 . Copyright (2001) CSIRO

  4. Climate protection and carbon in wood. Comparison of management strategies; Klimaschutz und Kohlenstoff in Holz. Vergleich verschiedener Strategien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, J

    2008-11-05

    Forests are important for climate protection: They sequester and store carbon, and provide timber for wood products and fossil fuel substitution. These functions interact in a complex way. From a climate protection point of view it is desirable to optimize these interactions, i.e. to maximize the amount of carbon stored in the whole system (called ''forest-timber-option'') and to analyse what impact a management decision at the local level has with regard to the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. Inventory methods to estimate the total amount of carbon in a forest are needed. Classical forest inventories assess above-ground tree volume. To estimate total carbon in accordance with the requirements of the Kyoto-Protocol, these inventories need to be expanded with regard to the assessment of disturbances, dead wood decomposition, soil carbon, and the estimation of carbon from volume. Methods invented here can also be used to assess local-level management activities, or to ''factor out'' non-human-induced changes in carbon pools. The optimization of the ''forest-timber-option'' is restricted due to regulations of the Kyoto-Protocol, because forest-related measures are accounted for under other sectors than wood and timber use. Harvested timber is estimated as an ''emission'' from the forest, and forest owners have no benefit from the use of wood for industrial purposes. Here, an inclusion of forestry in emission trading schemes can be advantageous. Alternative ways to produce wood are short-rotation coppice plantations on agricultural soils. Information about growth and yield potentials are scarce for the regions where land availability is high. Aspen (P. tremula, P. tremuloides) was parameterized in an eco-physiological forest growth model (''4C'') to assess these potentials on sites in Eastern Germany under current and under changing climatic conditions. The results indicate that growth potentials are more sensitive to soil quality than to climatic conditions

  5. Modelling impacts of second generation bioenergy production on Ecosystem Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, Dagmar; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; McNamara, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and are a possible mechanism to mitigate global climate warming, by replacing fossil fuel energy with higher greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on ecosystem services. This uncertainty is further enhanced by the unpredictable climate change currently going on. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive model that covers high impact, policy relevant ecosystem services at a Continental scale including biodiversity and pollination, water and air security, erosion control and soil security, GHG emissions, soil C and cultural services like tourism value. The technical distribution potential and likely yield of second generation energy crops, such as Miscanthus, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) with willow, poplar, eucalyptus and other broadleaf species and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF), is currently being modelled using ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor, and ecosystem models will be used to examine the impacts of these crops on ecosystem services. The project builds on models of energy crop production, biodiversity, soil impacts, greenhouse gas emissions and other ecosystem services, and on work undertaken in the UK on the ETI-funded ELUM project (www.elum.ac.uk). In addition, methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models (e.g. InVest, TEEB database, GREET LCA Model, World Business Council for Sustainable Development corporate ecosystem valuation, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Ecosystem Services Framework) will be utilised. Research will focus on optimisation of land use change feedbacks on above named ecosystem services, impact on food security, land management practices and impacts from climate change. We will present results for GHG emissions and soil organic carbon change after different land use change scenarios (e.g. arable to Miscanthus, forest to SRF), and

  6. Detecting local establishment strategies of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Hans-Rolf

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround P. avium, a pioneer tree species that colonizes early forest successional stages, is assumed to require an effective strategy allowing stably repeatable rounds of local establishment, dispersal and local extinction. Consequently, the early replacement of cherry by climax tree species makes the establishment of several local generations very unlikely, especially in central European continuous cover forests. This has to be seen in connection with the mixed reproduction system involving asexual reproduction as a complementary adaptational strategy. Tests of the local establishment of wild cherry must therefore consider the possibility of first generation establishment via seedling recruitment potentially followed by an asexual generation (root suckering. Successful establishment can therefore be determined only among adult individuals with the option of detecting vegetative reproduction at these stages. To test the implied suggestion about local establishment strategies of wild cherry, nuclear microsatellites were used to analyse patterns of asexual propagation among adult stages that have been subjected to one of two major types of forest management. These management types, the historical "coppice with standards system" (CWS and the "high forest system" (HFS, can be reasonably assumed to have affected the reproduction system of P. avium. Results Clear differences were found in the reproduction pattern between two stands representing the two forest management types: 1 Clonal propagation is observed in both management systems, but with a distinctly higher frequency in the CWS. Hence, sexual recruitment as a first local generation is followed by a second asexual generation in both, whereas in the CWS there is evidence for an additional clonal generation. 2 The estimation of amounts of clonal reproduction critically depends on the assumptions about multilocus gene associations. This is revealed by the application of newly developed

  7. Shorter Fallow Cycles Affect the Availability of Noncrop Plant Resources in a Shifting Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Paule. Dalle

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation systems, one of the most widely distributed forms of agriculture in the tropics, provide not only crops of cultural significance, but also medicinal, edible, ritual, fuel, and forage resources, which contribute to the livelihoods, health, and cultural identity of local people. In many regions across the globe, shifting cultivation systems are undergoing important changes, one of the most pervasive being a shortening of the fallow cycle. Although there has been much attention drawn to declines in crop yields in conjunction with reductions in fallow times, little if any research has focused on the dynamics of noncrop plant resources. In this paper, we use a data set of 26 fields of the same age, i.e., ~1.5 yr, but differing in the length and frequency of past fallow cycles, to examine the impact of shorter fallow periods on the availability of noncrop plant resources. The resources examined are collected in shifting cultivation fields by the Yucatec Maya in Quintana Roo, Mexico. These included firewood, which is cut from remnant trees and stumps spared at the time of felling, and 17 forage species that form part of the weed vegetation. Firewood showed an overall decrease in basal area with shorter fallow cycles, which was mostly related to the smaller diameter of the spared stumps and trees in short-fallow milpas. In contrast, forage species showed a mixed response. Species increasing in abundance in short-fallow milpas tended to be short-lived herbs and shrubs often with weedy habits, whereas those declining in abundance were predominantly pioneer trees and animal-dispersed species. Coppicing tree species showed a neutral response to fallow intensity. Within the cultural and ecological context of our study area, we expect that declines in firewood availability will be most significant for livelihoods because of the high reliance on firewood for local fuel needs and the fact that the main alternative source of firewood, forest

  8. Co-combustion of sewage sludge and energy-rich waste fuels or forest fuels; Sameldning av roetslam och energirika avfallsbraenslen eller skogsbraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linder, Kristina [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    In this report literature on incineration of sewage sludge is summarises. In Sweden there is a yearly production of about 0,24 million-ton dry sewage sludge of which 50% is deposited. Recent changes in legislation will restrict and later prohibit the dumping of sewage sludge. Alternative methods for handling the material have not yet been found. In other parts of Europe the problem has been solved by incineration. Sludge incineration can be performed in several ways depending of the pretreatment. The sludge can be raw or digested, dewatered or dried. The sludge can be burnt as single fuel or in mixtures with other fuels. Focus in this work has been on co-combustion with biofuel or waste, as it will make use of existing plants. Digested sludge is also of major interest as 70% of the Swedish sludge is digested. The report describes the situation both in Sweden and in the rest of Europe. Sludge has a varying quality depending on origin and treatment, which affects the combustion properties. Ash and moisture contents differ from other fuels. The heating value of sewage sludge is approximately 20 MJ/kg per dry combustible matter and the amount of organic is around 70%. Compared to forest residue and demolition wood, sludge contains high levels of nitrogen and sulphur, which will cause emissions. The nitrogen level is about 10 times higher and the sulphur level 25 to 50 times higher. Sulphur, in combination with alkali metals, can cause deposit problems in boilers. However, sludge contains low levels of alkali. In the experimental investigation leaching of digested sludge showed low values on water conductivity which indicates a low concentration of sintering ash species in the sludge. A comparison of the aerodynamic properties of dried digested sludge and wood chips from energy coppice showed that sludge has a lower fraction of fines. This indicates that the sewage sludge is not likely to be carried over in the furnace but rather to stay in the fuel and ash bed on the

  9. Effects of dark brooders and overhangs on free-range use and behaviour of slow-growing broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadig, L M; Rodenburg, T B; Reubens, B; Ampe, B; Tuyttens, F A M

    2017-12-04

    Broiler chickens often make limited use of the free-range area. Range use is influenced by type of shelter available. Range use may possibly be improved by a more gradual transition from the house to the range and by using dark brooders (secluded warm, dark areas in the home pen) that mimic aspects of a broody hen and possibly reduce fearfulness. The aim of this study was to assess effects of dark brooders on fearfulness, free-range use and behaviour later in life. Another aim was to test the chickens' preference for shelter type and the effects of overhangs outside of the pop holes to provide a gradual transition to the range. Three production rounds, each with 440 Sasso broiler chickens (110/group), were completed. Chicks were housed indoors from days 0 to 25; per round, two groups had access to a dark brooder, whereas the other two groups had conventional IR lamps. Fearfulness was assessed by the open field (OF) and tonic immobility (TI) tests on days 22 to 24 on 25 chicks/group per round. Birds were then moved to four mobile houses from which they could access both grassland with artificial shelter (AS) and short rotation coppice (SRC). Two of the houses had overhangs extending from the pop holes; these were switched between the four houses weekly. Free-range use and behaviour were observed three times daily from Monday to Friday. Dark brooders did not affect results from the OF or TI test, except for jumps in the OF test which tended to occur less often in brooded chicks. Neither dark brooders (34.9% without v. 31.7% with brooder) nor overhangs (32.5% without v. 34.1% with overhangs) influenced the percentage of chickens outside. Chickens showed a clear preference for SRC, range use increased over time in SRC, and more birds ranged farther from the house in SRC. Behaviours of chickens observed outside were mainly influenced by shelter type, age of the birds and distance from the house. Locomotion tended to occur more in the presence of overhangs. Overall

  10. Effects of free-range access on production parameters and meat quality, composition and taste in slow-growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadig, Lisanne M; Rodenburg, T Bas; Reubens, Bert; Aerts, Johan; Duquenne, Barbara; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2016-12-01

    Demand for meat from free-range broiler chickens is increasing in several countries. Consumers are motivated by better animal welfare and other product attributes such as quality and taste. However, scientific literature is not unanimous about whether free-range access influences quality, composition, and taste of the meat. Because chickens normally do not use free-range areas optimally, it is possible that provision of more suitable shelter will lead to more pronounced differences between chickens raised indoors and outdoors. In this study, an experiment with 2 production rounds of 600 slow-growing broilers each was performed. In each round, 200 chickens were raised indoors (IN), 200 had free-range access to grassland with artificial shelter (AS), and 200 had free-range access to short-rotation coppice with willow (SRC). Free-range use, feed intake, and growth were monitored, and after slaughter (d72) meat quality, composition, and taste were assessed. Free-range use was higher in SRC than in AS chickens (42.8 vs. 35.1%, P free-range access was darker (P = 0.021) and yellower (P = 0.001) than that of IN chickens. Ultimate pH was lower (5.73 vs. 5.79; P = 0.006) and drip loss higher (1.29 vs. 1.09%; P = 0.05) in IN versus AS chickens. The percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids was higher in AS than in IN meat (35.84 vs. 34.59%; P = 0.021). The taste panel judged breast meat of SRC chickens to be more tender (P = 0.003) and less fibrous (P = 0.013) compared to that of AS and IN chickens, and juicier compared to the IN chickens (P = 0.017). Overall, free-range access negatively affected slaughter weight, but positively affected meat quality, taste, and composition. Only a few differences between AS and SRC were found, possibly due to limited differences in free-range use. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Aeolian responses to climate variability during the past century on Mesquite Lake Playa, Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, John W.; Breit, George N.; Buckingham, S.E.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Bogle, Rian C.; Luo, Lifeng; Goldstein, Harland L.; Vogel, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The erosion and deposition of sediments by wind from 1901 to 2013 have created large changes in surface features of Mesquite Lake playa in the Mojave Desert. The decadal scale recurrence of sand-sheet development, migration, and merging with older dunes appears related to decadal climatic changes of drought and wetness as recorded in the precipitation history of the Mojave Desert, complemented by modeled soil-moisture index values. Historical aerial photographs, repeat land photographs, and satellite images document the presence and northward migration of a mid-20th century sand sheet that formed during a severe regional drought that coincided with a multi-decadal cool phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The sand sheet slowly eroded during the wetter conditions of the subsequent PDO warm phase (1977–1998) due to a lack of added sediment. Sand cohesion gradually increased in the sand sheet by seasonal additions of salt and clay and by re-precipitation of gypsum, which resulted in the wind-carving of yardangs in the receding sand sheet. Smaller yardangs were aerodynamically shaped from coppice dunes with salt-clay crusts, and larger yardangs were carved along the walls and floor of trough blowouts. Evidence of a 19th century cycle of sand-sheet formation and erosion is indicated by remnants of yardangs, photographed in 1901 and 1916, that were found buried in the mid-20th century sand sheet. Three years of erosion measurements on the playa, yardangs, and sand sheets document relatively rapid wind erosion. The playa has lowered 20 to 40 cm since the mid-20th century and a shallow deflation basin has developed since 1999. Annually, 5–10 cm of surface sediment was removed from yardang flanks by a combination of wind abrasion, deflation, and mass movement. The most effective erosional processes are wind stripping of thin crusts that form on the yardang surfaces after rain events and the slumping of sediment blocks from yardang flanks. These wind

  12. Reformă, contrareformă și fără-fond formă [Reforms, counter-reforms and contentless shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drăgoi M.

    2017-07-01

    even 40 years will not skyrocket the allowable cut because the reference level of the normal age class goes up and the overplus of harvestable wood will be used to compensate larger deficits brought about by the un-even actual age structure and the higher normal age class. The coppice with standards is also supported as a technical solution for harvesting more fuel wood for rural population.

  13. Bioenergy and biodiversity: Intensified biomass extraction from hedges impairs habitat conditions for birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbrei, Ralf; Aue, Birgit; Krippes, Christian; Diehl, Eva; Wolters, Volkmar

    2017-02-01

    Biomass is increasingly used as an alternative source for energy in Europe. Woody material cut from hedges is considered to provide a suitable complement to maize and oilseed rape, which are currently the dominant biomass sources. Since shrubs and trees are also important habitats for birds, however, coppicing of hedges at the landscape scale may adversely affect the diversity of the avifauna. To evaluate this risk, we estimated the response of hedge birds to three management scenarios differing in cutting intensity and hedge selection. The analysis was done using hedge data of the Lautertal municipality (n = 339 hedges; Vogelsberg area, Hesse, Germany). It focused on 25 bird species, which are all listed in the hedge programme of the German Ornithological Stations. Information on the preferences of these birds for certain hedge features such as height or width was gathered by an extensive literature review. A cluster analysis on the consolidated literature data allowed us to identify three groups of birds according to their preference for certain hedge attributes. Two groups, which included Yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella L.) (i) and Blackbird (Turdus merula L.) (ii), favoured trees located in hedges, but differed in their preference for hedge shape, with (i) being attracted by long and broad hedges and (ii) by high hedges. The third group, which included the Whitethroat (Sylvia communis L.), preferred small hedges with gaps and medium vegetation density. Spatially explicit suitability models based on these data allowed us to predict the status quo of hedge suitability for these species groups. Field surveys proved the accuracy of the predictions to be sufficient, since the hedge suitability predicted was significantly and positively correlated to the occurrence of 9 out of the 12 testable focal species. Our models predicted biomass extraction to almost always reduce hedge suitability for the three bird groups. Concerning the Yellowhammer and the Blackbird

  14. Historical analysis and modeling of the forest carbon dynamics using the Carbon Budget Model: an example for the Trento Province (NE, Italy

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    Pilli R

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Historical analysis and modeling of the forest carbon dynamics using the Carbon Budget Model: an example for the Trento Province (NE, Italy. The Carbon Budget Model (CBM-CFS3 developed by the Canadian Forest Service was applied to data collected by the last Italian National Forest Inventory (INFC for the Trento Province (NE, Italy. CBM was modified and adapted to the different management types (i.e., even-aged high forests, uneven-aged high forests and coppices and silvicultural systems (including clear cuts, single tree selection systems and thinning applied in this province. The aim of this study was to provide an example of down-scaling of this model from a national to a regional scale, providing (i an historical analysis, from 1995 to 2011, and (ii a projection, from 2012 to 2020, of the forest biomass and the carbon stock evolution. The analysis was based on the harvest rate reported by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (from 1995 to 2011, corrected according to the last INFC data and distinguished between timber and fuel woods and between conifers and broadleaves. Since 2012, we applied a constant harvest rate, equal to about 1300 Mm3 yr-1, estimated from the average harvest rate for the period 2006-2011. Model results were consistent with similar data reported in the literature. The average biomass C stock was 90 Mg C ha-1 and the biomass C stock change was 0.97 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 and 0.87 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, for the period 1995 -2011 and 2012-2020, respectively. The C stock cumulated by the timber products since 1995 was 96 Gg C yr-1, i.e., about 28% of the average annual C stock change of the forests, equal to 345 Gg C yr-1. CBM also provided estimates on the evolution of the age class distribution of the even-aged forests and on the C stock of the DOM forest pools (litter, dead wood and soil. This study demonstrates the utility of CBM to provide estimates at a regional or local scale, using not only the data provided by the forest

  15. Effects of shelter type, early environmental enrichment and weather conditions on free-range behaviour of slow-growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadig, L M; Rodenburg, T B; Ampe, B; Reubens, B; Tuyttens, F A M

    2017-06-01

    Free-range use by broiler chickens is often limited, whereas better use of the free-range area could benefit animal welfare. Use of free-range areas could be stimulated by more appropriate shelter or environmental enrichment (by decreasing birds' fearfulness). This study aimed to assess the effects of shelter type, early environmental enrichment and weather conditions on free-range use. Three production rounds with 440 slow-growing broiler chickens (Sasso T451) were carried out. Birds were housed indoors in four groups (two with males, two with females) from days 0 to 25, during which two of the groups received environmental enrichment. At day 23 birds' fearfulness was assessed with a tonic immobility (TI) test (n=100). At day 25 all birds were moved (in mixed-sex groups) to mobile houses, and provided with free-range access from day 28 onwards. Each group could access a range consisting for 50% of grassland with 21 artificial shelters (ASs, wooden A-frames) and for 50% of short rotation coppice (SRC) with willow (dense vegetation). Free-range use was recorded by live observations at 0900, 1300 and 1700 h for 15 to 21 days between days 28 and 63. For each bird observed outside the shelter type (AS or SRC), distance from the house (0 to 2, 2 to 5, >5 m) and its behaviour (only rounds 2 and 3) were recorded. Weather conditions were recorded by four weather stations. On average, 27.1% of the birds were observed outside at any given moment of observation. Early environmental enrichment did not decrease fearfulness as measured by the TI test. It only had a minor effect on the percentage of birds outside (0.4% more birds outside). At all distances from the house, SRC was preferred over AS. In AS, areas closer to the house were preferred over farther ones, in SRC this was less pronounced. Free-range use increased with age and temperature and decreased with wind speed. In AS, rainfall and decreasing solar radiation were related to finding more birds outside, whereas the

  16. N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Mosier

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship, on a global basis, between the amount of N fixed by chemical, biological or atmospheric processes entering the terrestrial biosphere, and the total emission of nitrous oxide (N2O, has been re-examined, using known global atmospheric removal rates and concentration growth of N2O as a proxy for overall emissions. For both the pre-industrial period and in recent times, after taking into account the large-scale changes in synthetic N fertiliser production, we find an overall conversion factor of 3–5% from newly fixed N to N2O-N. We assume the same factor to be valid for biofuel production systems. It is covered only in part by the default conversion factor for "direct" emissions from agricultural crop lands (1% estimated by IPCC (2006, and the default factors for the "indirect" emissions (following volatilization/deposition and leaching/runoff of N: 0.35–0.45% cited therein. However, as we show in the paper, when additional emissions included in the IPCC methodology, e.g. those from livestock production, are included, the total may not be inconsistent with that given by our "top-down" method. When the extra N2O emission from biofuel production is calculated in "CO2-equivalent" global warming terms, and compared with the quasi-cooling effect of "saving" emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2, the outcome is that the production of commonly used biofuels, such as biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from corn (maize, depending on N fertilizer uptake efficiency by the plants, can contribute as much or more to global warming by N2O emissions than cooling by fossil fuel savings. Crops with less N demand, such as grasses and woody coppice species, have more favourable climate impacts. This analysis only considers the conversion of biomass to biofuel. It does not take into account the use of fossil fuel on the farms and for fertilizer and pesticide production, but it also neglects the production of useful co-products. Both factors

  17. Soil CO2, CH4 and N2O effluxes and concentrations in soil profiles down to 15.5m depth in eucalypt plantations under contrasted rainfall regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germon, A.; Nouvellon, Y.; Christophe, J.; Chapuis-Lardy, L.; Robin, A.; Rosolem, C. A.; Gonçalves, J. L. D. M.; Guerrini, I. A.; Laclau, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Silvicultural practices in planted forests affect the fluxes of greenhouse gases at the soil surface and the major factors driving greenhouse gas production in forest soils (substrate supply, temperature, water content,…) vary with soil depth. Our study aimed to assess the consequences of drought on the temporal variability of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes throughout very deep soil profiles in Eucalyptus grandis plantations 3 months before the harvest then in coppice, the first 18 months after clear-cutting. Two treatments were compared: one with 37% of throughfall excluded by plastic sheets (TE), and one without rainfall exclusion (WE). Measurements of soil CO2 efflux were made every two weeks for 30 months using a closed-path Li8100 system in both treatment. Every two weeks for 21 months, CO2, CH4 and N2O surface effluxes were measured using the closed-chamber method and concentrations in the soil were measured at 7 depths down to 15.5 m in both TE and WE. At most measurement dates, soil CO2 efflux were significantly higher in TE than in WE. Across the two treatments and the measurement dates, CO2 concentrations increased from 4446 ± 2188 ppm at 10 cm deep to 15622 ± 3523 ppm at 15.5 m, CH4 concentrations increased from 0.41 ± 0.17 ppm at 10 cm deep to 0.77 ± 0.24 ppm at 15.5 m and N2O concentrations remained roughly constant and were on average 478 ± 55 ppb between soil surface and 15.5 m deep. CO2 and N2O concentrations were on average 20.7 and 7.6% lower in TE than in WE, respectively, across the sampling depths. However, CH4 concentrations in TE were on average 44.4% higher than in WE, throughout the soil profile. Those results suggest that extended drought periods might reduce the production of CO2 and N2O but increase the accumulation of CH4 in eucalypt plantations established in deep tropical soils. Very deep tropical soils cover huge areas worldwide and improving our understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics of gas concentrations in deep soil layers

  18. Biofuels as an opportunity of development for the rural area. Regional-economic analysis with the example of Northrhine-Westphalia; Biokraftstoffe als Entwicklungschance fuer den laendlchen Raum. Regionaloekonomische Analyse am Beispiel Nordrhein-Westfalens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    energy crops which are already well-known in the agriculture by RAUMIS, qualitative analyses for so far few energy crops like Short Rotation Coppice and Miscanthus delivered regional yields, transport costs and profit possibilities. In selected regions it was then examined whether the socio-economic conditions necessary for a successful marketing are present or could be created. From the analysis of the development obstacles as well as from some best practice examples a draft of a promotion policy (recommendations) for rural areas has been developed.

  19. Probabilistic estimation of future emissions of isoprene and surface oxidant chemistry associated with land-use change in response to growing food needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Hardacre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the impact of land-use change, determined by our growing demand for food and biofuel production, on isoprene emissions and subsequent atmospheric oxidant chemistry in 2015 and 2030, relative to 1990, ignoring compound climate change effects over that period. We estimate isoprene emissions from an ensemble (n = 1000 of land-use change realizations from 1990–2050, broadly guided by the IPCC AR4/SRES scenarios A1 and B1. We also superimpose land-use change required to address projected biofuel usage using two scenarios: (1 assuming that world governments make no changes to biofuel policy after 2009, and (2 assuming that world governments develop biofuel policy with the aim of keeping equivalent atmospheric CO2 at 450 ppm. We present the median and interquartile range (IQR statistics of the ensemble and show that land-use change between −1.50 × 1012 m2 to +6.06 × 1012 m2 was found to drive changes in the global isoprene burden of −3.5 to +2.8 Tg yr−1 in 2015 and −7.7 to +6.4 Tg yr−1 in 2030. We use land-use change realizations corresponding to the median and IQR of these emission estimates to drive the GEOS-Chem global 3-D chemistry transport model to investigate the perturbation to global and regional surface concentrations of isoprene, nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2, and the atmospheric concentration and deposition of ozone (O3. We show that across subcontinental regions the monthly surface O3 increases by 0.1–0.8 ppb, relative to a zero land-use change calculation, driven by increases (decreases in surface isoprene in high (low NOx environments. At the local scale (4° × 5° we find that surface O3 increases by 5–12 ppb over temperate North America, China and boreal Eurasia, driven by large increases in isoprene emissions from short-rotation coppice crop cultivation for biofuel production.

  20. Growth and development of moringa (Moringa oleifera L. stem cuttings as affected by diameter magnitude, growth media, and indole-3-butyric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsuddeen Rufai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The acknowledged status of Moringa oleifera L. in sub-Saharan Africa, especially western Africa, has of recent accorded it the significance of being a good source of income to a large segment of many of its populace. Intensification of research into the realization of its full economic potential will be of utmost value to impoverished societies globally. One way to achieve this is the full exploration of all possible means that will facilitate its successful growth, propagation, and domestication. Even though it can be successfully raised through seeds, the high level outcrossing (64.3% observed is a hindrance to realization of true to type trees. Vegetative propagation can be employed as an option to tackle the noted limitation, ease the cultivation process, and achieve the required realization of its economic potential. Our trial was carried out to study the influence of two growth media and three levels of indole 3-butyric acid (IBA on root and shoot development in cuttings taken from a coppiced moringa tree existent in Universiti Putra Malaysia. Semi-hardwood cuttings of moringa, of between 20 and 30 mm diameter, cut into 25 cm length, were obtained, rinsed with a fungicide, then dipped, through their basal portion, inside varying levels (0, 1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA for between 7 and 10 seconds. The treated cuttings were then transplanted into a polyethylene bags (23 cm × 36 cm, containing two growth media - a munchong series soil (M and a combination of a munchong series soil thoroughly mixed with biochar (MB in a 3:1 ratio sequence. The trial was conducted inside a shade house where the humidity of the experimental area was manipulated through a regular daily manual hand sprinkling. Plant height, percentage of primary branch produced, leaf area, and dry matter (DM were found to be significantly (P<0.05 influenced by variation in stem diameter magnitude, while the diameter of the primary branch and spad

  1. Fast Growing Plantations for Wood Production - Integration of Ecological Effects and Economic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Michael; Busch, Gerald; Hartmann, Linda; Jansen, Martin; Richter, Falk; Lamersdorf, Norbert P

    2015-01-01

    Biomass crops are perceived as a feasible means to substitute sizeable amounts of fossil fuel in the future. A prospect of CO2 reduction (resp. CO2 neutrality) is credited to biomass fuels, and thus a potential contribution to mitigate climate change. Short rotation coppices (SRCs) with fast growing poplar and willow trees are an option for producing high yields of woody biomass, which is suitable for both energetic and material use. One negative effect that comes along with the establishment of SRC may be a decrease in groundwater recharge, because high rates of transpiration and interception are anticipated. Therefore, it is important to measure, analyze, and model the effects of SRC-planting on landscape water budgets. To analyze the effects on the water budget, a poplar SRC plot was studied by measuring hydrological parameters to be used in the hydrological model WaSim. Results reveal very low or even missing ground water recharge for SRC compared to agricultural land use or grassland, especially succeeding dry years. However, this strong effect on plot level is moderated on the larger spatial scale of catchment level, for which the modeling was also performed. In addition to water, nutrient fluxes and budgets were studied. Nitrogen is still a crucial issue in today's agriculture. Intensive fertilization or increased applications of manure from concentrated livestock breeding are often leading to high loads of nitrate leaching, or enhanced N2O emissions to the atmosphere on arable crop fields. SRC or agroforestry systems on former crop land may offer an option to decrease such N losses, while simultaneously producing woody biomass. This is mainly due to the generally smaller N requirements of woody vegetation, which usually entail no need for any fertilization. The trees supply deep and permanent rooting systems, which can be regarded as a "safety net" to prevent nutrient leaching. Thus, SRC altogether can help to diminish N eutrophication. It is important to

  2. Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

    2012-06-01

    Biomass is part of the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is produced after combustion of biomass. Over a relatively short timescale, carbon dioxide is renewed from atmosphere during next generation of new growth of green vegetation. Contribution of renewable energy including hydropower, solar, biomass and biofuel in total primary energy consumption in world is about 19%. Traditional biomass alone contributes about 13% of total primary energy consumption in the world. The number of traditional biomass energy users expected to rise from 2.5 billion in 2004 to 2.6 billion in 2015 and to 2.7 billion in 2030 for cooking in developing countries. Residential biomass demand in developing countries is projected to rise from 771 Mtoe in 2004 to 818 Mtoe in 2030. The main sources of biomass are wood residues, bagasse, rice husk, agro-residues, animal manure, municipal and industrial waste etc. Dedicated energy crops such as short-rotation coppice, grasses, sugar crops, starch crops and oil crops are gaining importance and market share as source of biomass energy. Global trade in biomass feedstocks and processed bioenergy carriers are growing rapidly. There are some drawbacks of biomass energy utilization compared to fossil fuels viz: heterogeneous and uneven composition, lower calorific value and quality deterioration due to uncontrolled biodegradation. Loose biomass also is not viable for transportation. Pelletization, briquetting, liquefaction and gasification of biomass energy are some options to solve these problems. Wood fuel production is very much steady and little bit increase in trend, however, the forest land is decreasing, means the deforestation is progressive. There is a big challenge for sustainability of biomass resource and environment. Biomass energy can be used to reduce greenhouse emissions. Woody biomass such as briquette and pellet from un-organized biomass waste and residues could be used for alternative to wood fuel, as a result, forest will be saved and

  3. Bioengineering applied to erosion and stability control in the North Apennines (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy): a check about critical aspects of the works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Lavinia; Cavazza, Claudio; Pavanelli, Donatella

    2013-04-01

    Because of its geological structure, in the Emilia-Romagna Region over 32,000 landslides have been identified. Several works have been made in order to control mass movement's dynamics and to secure of Reno and Lamone Mountain Basin Rivers, the road network and near by villages and towns. Most of the control works dealt with bioengineering practices: palisades piles, geotextiles, seedings, surface flow control works, dikes within main drainage ditches. In order to check about critical aspects related to the use of these techniques in the Apennines, a survey in this basins was designed with specific interest in the several kinds of works realised, in which plant species were mostly used and in the factors that affected the success or failure of the works. Territory encompasses steep slopes covered with woods to low reliefs covered with grasslands. It is characterized by prevailing clays, inducing instability, and arenaceous lithology with impermeable soils; drainage density is quite high and hillsides suffer extensive and severe erosion and slope stability problems. Chestnut woods mainly represent land use at higher altitudes, while coppice, pastures and crops are present on milder hillsides. The remaining part of the basin is covered by vineyards, orchards, ponds and urban areas, which are basically located in the valley floor. Precipitation events mainly consist of rainfall ranging between 950-1015 mm per year; few snowfalls occur during winter and a long dry season lasts from June until September. We have analyzed 187 works designed mainly for the consolidation of slope instabilities through a widespread enhancement of the vegetation cover. The surveyed works are classified as a function of their building features: it can be seen that cribwalls and palisades are by far the most common types, being the 24% and the 34% respectively of the works. As far as the most adopted plant species, they were silver willow (Salix alba), Spanish Broom (Spartium Junceum) and

  4. Measuring Evapotranspiration of five Alley Cropping systems in Germany using the Eddy-Covariance- and Bowen-Ratio Energy-Balance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwitz, Christian; Knohl, Alexander; Siebicke, Lukas

    2017-04-01

    The inclusion of trees into the agricultural landscape of Europe is gaining popularity as a source for energy production. Fast growing tree species such as poplar or willow are included as short rotation coppice or alley cropping systems, which consist of tree alleys interleaved by annual rotating crops or perennial grasslands. Estimating turbulent fluxes of those systems using the eddy-covariance- (ECEB) and bowen-ratio energy-balance (BREB) method is challenging due to the methods limitation to horizontally homogeneous terrain and steady state conditions. As the conditions are not fulfilled for those systems the energy-balance is commonly not fully closed, with the non-closure being site specific. An underestimation of measured heat fluxes leads to an overestimation of the latent heat fluxes inferred from the ECEB method. The aim of our study is to 1) quantify the site specific non-closure of the energy-balance and 2) characterize the performance of both methods, compared to direct eddy-covariance measurements using a high frequency infra-red gas analyzer (LI-7200, Licor Inc.). To assess continuous evapotranspiration (ET) rates on a 30-minute time scale we installed a combined ECEB and BREB system at five alley cropping and five agricultural reference sites across Germany. For time periods of four weeks we performed direct eddy covariance flux measurements for H2O and CO2 over one crop- and one grassland alley cropping- and their respective reference systems during the growing season of 2016. We found a non-closure between 21 and 26 % for all sites, considering all day- and night-time data. The residual energy was highest during the morning and lowest in the afternoon. Related to that the energy-balance ratio (EBR), i.e. the ratio between the turbulent heat fluxes and available energy, was below one in the morning hours and increased slightly during the day up to 1.8, until the EBR decreased sharply after sunset. The EBR correlated to the daily cycle of solar

  5. W-519 Sagebrush Mitigation Project FY-2004 Final Review and Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, Robin E.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2004-09-30

    . The principle findings include: (1) a clear indication that in most settings, bare-root seedling survival is considerably higher than tubling survival; (2) we can expect low plant survival at sites with a high cover of large native bunchgrasses--especially bluebunch wheatgrass; (3) mycorrhizal root treatments appeared to increase growth and survival at the Coppice Dune and 98-Burn Undisturbed sites, but appeared to have little effect at the 98-Burn Disturbed, 111-Road Sitanion, or Cold Creek sites; (4) use of a hydrogel dip at planting increases survival of bare-root plants compared to dipping roots in plain water; (5) reducing leaf area via clipping after planting did not increase survival of bare-root plants; (6) seedlings planted on a south-aspect hillside at the Lower Cold Creek planting area had higher survival than seedlings planted on the hilltop or northern-aspects although these survival rates were lower than the survival rate down on the flats at this same location. Rectification of the transmission line corridor occurred in early March 2001, with the broadcast seeding of Sandberg's bluegrass and sagebrush. Success criteria for this site-of-disturbance rectification required a grass establishment after four years with greater than 25% total canopy cover with 60% of the plant cover from planted species (DOE 1998). This planting met the total canopy criterion but failed the criterion of 60% relative coverage of planted species. Although the performance standard was not met, the planting is not necessarily a failure; the communities on the tower pads appear to be developing toward the desired end state. We feel that there are no reasonable mitigative actions that can be taken at this time that would significantly alter or speed up the plant community development on these sites. In fact, most options, such as overseeding, may cause damage to the currently establishing communities on those sites.

  6. 137Cs Results and Interpretation of Cesium Soil Data on the Upper Fortymile Wash Alluvial Fan, Amargosa Valley, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, C.

    2004-12-01

    Studies using 137Cs were used to produce soil Cs profiles and to use them to determine erosion rates on interchannel divides of the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan over the last 50 years. Sample locations whose 137Cs profiles most resemble the reference-sample (stable surface) profiles are located on interchannel divide areas between distributary channels. These profiles are similar to the reference profiles that have low 137Cs values (in the range of 0.02 to 0.08 pCi/g) in the 3 to 6 cm layers. However, the surface layers (1-3 cm depth) typically have values much less than the reference samples from equivalent depths (range from 0.251 to 0.421 pCi/g). The data indicate that many of these interchannel divide areas have had part of the upper layer removed. Interchannel divide areas have the least likelihood of having been submerged during floods over the last fifty years. Thus, the loss of material from these otherwise stable surfaces appears to be due to eolian processes. Erosion of an interchannel divide area with little evidence of recent water movement is most easily explained by eolian removal. Evidence for wind erosion as the predominant process on the interchannel divide areas includes the lack of new or developing stream channels and the presence of modern coppice dunes near channels on interchannel divides. The presence of nearby Big Dune and other eolian deposits provides strong support for eolian erosion and transport. The amount of material removed from the interchannel divide areas was estimated by comparing the 137Cs value of the upper 3 cm layer to that of the reference value and calculating the thickness of the layer that would have to be removed to obtain the lower value. Applying this method across the interchannel divide sample locations indicates 1 to 2 cm of material has been removed from the interchannel divide surfaces in the last 50 years. This results in erosion rates that range from 0.02 to 0.04 cm/yr. These rates are similar to erosion rates

  7. W-519 Sagebrush Mitigation Project FY-2004 Final Review and Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, Robin E.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    . The principle findings include: (1) a clear indication that in most settings, bare-root seedling survival is considerably higher than tubling survival; (2) we can expect low plant survival at sites with a high cover of large native bunchgrasses--especially bluebunch wheatgrass; (3) mycorrhizal root treatments appeared to increase growth and survival at the Coppice Dune and 98-Burn Undisturbed sites, but appeared to have little effect at the 98-Burn Disturbed, 111-Road Sitanion, or Cold Creek sites; (4) use of a hydrogel dip at planting increases survival of bare-root plants compared to dipping roots in plain water; (5) reducing leaf area via clipping after planting did not increase survival of bare-root plants; (6) seedlings planted on a south-aspect hillside at the Lower Cold Creek planting area had higher survival than seedlings planted on the hilltop or northern-aspects although these survival rates were lower than the survival rate down on the flats at this same location. Rectification of the transmission line corridor occurred in early March 2001, with the broadcast seeding of Sandberg's bluegrass and sagebrush. Success criteria for this site-of-disturbance rectification required a grass establishment after four years with greater than 25% total canopy cover with 60% of the plant cover from planted species (DOE 1998). This planting met the total canopy criterion but failed the criterion of 60% relative coverage of planted species. Although the performance standard was not met, the planting is not necessarily a failure; the communities on the tower pads appear to be developing toward the desired end state. We feel that there are no reasonable mitigative actions that can be taken at this time that would significantly alter or speed up the plant community development on these sites. In fact, most options, such as overseeding, may cause damage to the currently establishing communities on those sites

  8. Leaf ontogeny dominates the seasonal exchange of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in a SRC-poplar plantation during an entire growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, Federico; Gioli, Beniamino; Fares, Silvano; Zenone, Terenzio; Zona, Donatella; Gielen, Bert; Loreto, Francesco; Janssens, Ivan; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2015-04-01

    The declining cost of many renewable energy technologies and changes in the prices of fossil fuels have recently encouraged governments policies to subsidize the use of biomass as a sustainable source of energy. Deciduous poplars (Populus spp.) trees are often selected for biomass production in short rotation coppiced (SRC) for their high CO2 photosynthetic assimilation rates and their capacity to develop dense canopies with high values of leaf area index (LAI). So far, observations and projections of seasonal variations of many VOC fluxes has been limited to strong isoprenoids emitting evergreen ecosystems such tropical and Mediterranean forests as well as Citrus and oil palm plantation, all having constant values of LAI. We run a long-term field campaign where the exchange of VOC, together with CO2 and water vapor was monitored during an entire growing season (June - November, 2012) above a SRC-based poplar plantation. Our results confirmed that isoprene and methanol were the most abundant fluxes emitted, accounting for more than 90% of the total carbon released in form of VOC. However, Northern climates characterized by fresh summertime temperatures and recurring precipitations favored poplar growth while inhibiting the development of isoprene emission that resulted in only 0.7% of the net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE). Besides, measurements of a multitude of VOC fluxes by PTR-TOF-MS showed bi-directional exchange of oxygenated-VOC (OVOC) such as: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene oxidation products (iox, namely MVK, MAC and MEK) as well as ethanol and formic acid. The application of Self Organizing Maps to visualize the relationship between the full time-series of many VOC fluxes and the observed seasonal variations of environmental, physiological and structural parameters proved the most abundant isoprene ad methanol fluxes to occur mainly on the hottest days under mid-high light intensities when also NEE and evapotraspiration reached the highest

  9. Participatory approach used to develop a sustainability assessment tool for wood-based bioenergy industry in upper Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Ashma; Mayer, Audrey

    2015-04-01

    Biofuel production has grown significantly in the past few decades as a result of global concern over energy security, climate change implications and unsustainable attributes of fossil fuels. Currently, biofuels produced from food crops (such as corn, sugarcane, soy, etc.) constitute the bulk of global biofuel production. However, purported adverse impacts of direct and indirect land-use changes (such as increased food prices, competition for agricultural land and water, and carbon emissions from land-use change) resulting from large-scale expansion of the crop-based biofuel industry have motivated many nations to further shift their attention to second-generation (non crop-based) biofuel production. Current R&D on second-generation biofuel production is largely focused on exploring prospects of using abandoned/fallow land for growing feedstock (such as Jatropha, short rotation woody coppice, Willow/Poplar species, Micanthus etc.), and on producing fuel that is cost-effective and compatible with existing infrastructures. The bulk of existing research on second-generation biofuel production concentrates on enhancing its technical feasibility and compatibility with existing infrastructure; very few have attempted to qualitatively determine and understand stakeholders' concerns and perception regarding this emergent industry. Stakeholders' decisions regarding land and resource use will play a crucial role in ensuring the social sustainability of any industry. Our research is focused on understanding stakeholders' concerns and perceptions regarding biofuel production in the upper Michigan region, where wood-based bioenergy development is being planned and researched by businesses, government agencies, and the local university. Over a century ago, the region's economy was dependent upon mining and clear-cut logging industries, which left the area once the resources were depleted. Since that time, the region has lost significant population due to the lack of economic

  10. Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Enell, Anja; Rihm, Thomas; Haglund, Kristina; Wik, Ola [Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden); Blom, Sonja; Angelbratt, Alexandra [FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Bardos, Paul [r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom); Track, Thomas [DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Keuning, Sytze [Bioclear b.v., Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    In this report, results are presented based on interviews and literature surveys on the triggers and stoppers for non food crop on contaminated land in Sweden. The report also includes a first estimate of potential marginal land for biofuel production in Sweden. The report is a first step to explore the feasibility of a range of possible approaches to combine risk based land management (RBLM) with non-food crop land-uses and organic matter re-use as appropriate in a Swedish context. The focus of the report is on the treatment of contaminated land by phyto-remediation and on biofuel cultivation. In Sweden, like all other countries in Europe, areas of land have been degraded by past use. Such previously developed land includes areas affected by mining, fallout from industrial processes such as smelting, areas elevated with contaminated dredged sediments, former landfill sites and many other areas where the decline of industrial activity has left a legacy of degraded land and communities. The extent of contamination may not be sufficient to trigger remediation under current regulatory conditions, and there may be little economic incentive to regenerate the affected areas. An ideal solution would be a land management approach that is able to pay for itself. Biomass from coppice or other plantations has long been seen as a possible means of achieving this goal. Phyto remediation offers a low cost method for remediation of areas that are not candidates for conventional regeneration. The optimal conditions for phyto remediation are large land areas of low or mediate contamination. Phyto remediation is also suitable to prevent spreading of contaminants, for example in green areas such as in cities, as waste water buffer and small size remediation areas with diffuse spreading. Phyto remediation implies that plants, fungi or algae are used to remediate, control or increase the natural attenuation of contaminants. Depending on the contaminating species and the site conditions

  11. The estimated additional costs for combustion of agro fuel and the potential of farmers to influence fuel quality; Identifiering av energiverkens merkostnader vid foerbraenning av aakerbraenslen samt lantbrukarens moejlighet att paaverka braenslekvaliteten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myringer, Aase; Petersen, Martin; Olsson, Johanna; Roennbaeck, Marie; Bubholz, Monika; Forsberg, Maya

    2009-05-15

    The main objectives of this study were to identify and calculate the additional costs to energy plants of combustion of agro fuels instead of wood chips, and to determine the potential farmers have to influence fuel quality and thus identify parameters that could be used for pricing in the future. The overall aim is to increase the volume of agro fuels produced. Four agro fuels were considered in this study: willow, straw, husks and reed canary grass. These four were selected because data were available on their combustion at energy plants and because they are representative of different categories of agro fuels: short rotation coppice, crop by-products, seeds and grass. Data were obtained through literature surveys, telephone interviews with farmers, researchers, advisors and contractors, and visits to six energy plants. Combustion properties for each crop and data on combustion were compared. Measures that could be taken by farmers to improve fuel quality today and perhaps in the future were estimated. Although information and experience proved to be lacking in this area, it was possible to identify some potential measures, which are listed below for each fuel. To promote expansion of the agro fuel market, issues concerning business contacts and forms of organisation were examined. The choices and preferences of farmers as regards sale and delivery are influenced by a number of different factors, which were investigated here by studies of the literature and interviews with farmers. There was little documentary evidence available on combustion of agro fuels. Short-term trials have been carried out on small amounts of a number of crop species without specific documentation of emissions, maintenance costs, ash handling, etc. The additional costs to energy plants for combustion of agro fuels compared with wood chips were investigated on visits to energy plants by collecting data directly and by interviewing plant personnel. The additional costs were then calculated

  12. Insight on Biomass Supply and Feedstock Definition for Fischer-Tropsch Based BTL Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coignac, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Process chains of thermo chemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass through gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (known as BTL) represent promising alternatives for biofuels production. Since biomass is heterogeneous and not homogeneously spread over territories, one of the major technological stakes of the project is to develop a flexible industrial chain capable of co-treating the widest possible range of biomass and fossil fuel feedstock. The present study aims at characterizing biomass diversity (availability and potentials by area, cost and mineral composition) by carrying out a state of the art, as a preliminary step in order to define a series of biomass to be tested in the demonstration plant and therefore define specifications for the process. Fifty different biomass were considered for their bio-energy application potential and were finally classified into four categories: agricultural by-products, dedicated energy crops, (Very) Short Rotation Coppice ((V)SRC) and forestry biomass. Biomass availability and potentials were investigated by the mean of a literature review of past and current projects (e.g. RENEW project, Biomass Energy Europe Project, etc.) and scientific articles. Most collected data are technical potentials, meaning that they take into account biophysical limits of crops and forests, technological possibilities, competition with other land uses and ecological constraints (e.g. natural reserves). Results show various emerging markets: North and South America have considerable amounts of agricultural by-products, forest residues, and large land areas which could be dedicated to energy crops; Africa shows relevant possibilities to grow Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) and energy crops; Russia has large available quantities of agricultural by-products and forest residues, as well as little valuable land where energy crops and SRC could be grown, and Asia shows relevant amounts of forest residues and possibilities of growing SRC, as well

  13. Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Enell, Anja; Rihm, Thomas; Haglund, Kristina; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja; Angelbratt, Alexandra (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Keuning, Sytze (Bioclear b.v., Groningen (Netherlands))

    2009-07-01

    In this report, results are presented based on interviews and literature surveys on the triggers and stoppers for non food crop on contaminated land in Sweden. The report also includes a first estimate of potential marginal land for biofuel production in Sweden. The report is a first step to explore the feasibility of a range of possible approaches to combine risk based land management (RBLM) with non-food crop land-uses and organic matter re-use as appropriate in a Swedish context. The focus of the report is on the treatment of contaminated land by phyto-remediation and on biofuel cultivation. In Sweden, like all other countries in Europe, areas of land have been degraded by past use. Such previously developed land includes areas affected by mining, fallout from industrial processes such as smelting, areas elevated with contaminated dredged sediments, former landfill sites and many other areas where the decline of industrial activity has left a legacy of degraded land and communities. The extent of contamination may not be sufficient to trigger remediation under current regulatory conditions, and there may be little economic incentive to regenerate the affected areas. An ideal solution would be a land management approach that is able to pay for itself. Biomass from coppice or other plantations has long been seen as a possible means of achieving this goal. Phyto remediation offers a low cost method for remediation of areas that are not candidates for conventional regeneration. The optimal conditions for phyto remediation are large land areas of low or mediate contamination. Phyto remediation is also suitable to prevent spreading of contaminants, for example in green areas such as in cities, as waste water buffer and small size remediation areas with diffuse spreading. Phyto remediation implies that plants, fungi or algae are used to remediate, control or increase the natural attenuation of contaminants. Depending on the contaminating species and the site conditions

  14. An eighty years long history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Fabbio

    2013-12-01

    in the Italian silviculture (1981-82, up to the special issues dealing with national and European projects joined by the Institution as coordinator or partner. Among these, it is worth reminding volumes on Tree farming experiments with valuable hardwood broadleaves (1994-95, Management of coppice forests in the Med. area (1996, and the four volumes on the activity of Italian teams involved in the Intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems within ICP-Forests programme (1999-2006.  Up to 1993, submitted papers underwent a peer-review at care of R. Morandini, director and member of many editorial boards in Italy and abroad. Since 1994, the referees’ committee was officially declared and issued. It was renewed per volume according to contents and expertise required. Scientists of other networks in Italy and foreign countries took usually part in the referees’ committee. The Editorial staff, together with Guest editors in case of special issues, took care of the revision process.  The Annali were issued in 1500 copies and distributed over 45 countries in Europe and outside Europe. Their diffusion allowed the exchange with about 100 foreign Journals and largely contributed to update the collection of periodicals at our library.The editorial format was renewed in 1996 (vol. 27 and since 1999 (vol. 30 texts are available also in digital format. Full texts of special issues dealing with international research activity were published in English.The Annali archive URL is http://ojs-cra.cilea.it/index.php/asr/issue/archive  Annals of Silvicultural Research (ASR ASR are now part of the CRA Journals published by the Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura. The newly born Annals are a double blind peer-reviewed open access journal aimed at maintaining an updated form of scientifically and technically sound dissemination of main research and experimental findings. Its diffusion is addressed to the suite of stakeholders - scientists, technicians, managers

  15. A baseline analysis of the distribution, host-range, and severity of the rust Puccinia Psidii in the Hawaiian islands, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Puccinia psidii was first described by Winter (1884) on guava (Psidium guajava L.) in Brazil. The rust is still a major pest of native guava in Brazil and is often referred to as “guava rust” internationally. It is unusual among rust fungi because of its broad and ever-expanding host-range within the Myrtaceae plant family (Simpson et al. 2006). The pathogen is regarded as a major threat to Eucalyptus plantations and other Myrtaceae worldwide (Coutinho et al. 1998, Grgurinovic et al. 2006, Glen et al. 2007). Infections of leaves and meristems are particularly severe on susceptible seedlings, cuttings, young trees, and coppice, causing plants to be stunted and multi-branched, inhibiting normal growth and development, and sometimes causing death to young seedlings (Booth et al. 2000, Rayachhetry et al. 2001). The fungus has expanded its host-range in Brazil, affecting both native and introduced Myrtaceae (Coutinho et al. 1998). Since its discovery in 1884, P. psidii has continually been discovered to have an expanding host-range within the Myrtaceae, affecting hosts throughout much of South and Central America and the Caribbean. Spreading out originally from Brazil in 1884, the fungus has been reported on hosts in the following countries (first record in parentheses): Paraguay (1884), Uruguay (1889), Ecuador (1891), Colombia (1913), Puerto Rico (1913), Cuba (1926), Dominican Republic (1933), Venezuela (1934), Jamaica (1936), Argentina (1946), Dominica (1948), Trinidad and Tobago (1951), Guatemala (1968), United States (Florida; 1977), Mexico (1981), El Salvador (1987), and Costa Rica (1998) (Simpson et al. 2006). It is possible that P. psidii was present in El Salvador and Costa Rica prior to 1980, but was not reported until 1987 and 1998, respectively. Until recently, Puccinia psidii was restricted to the Neotropics, Mexico, and the state of Florida in the United States. While the rust has been present in Florida for over 30 years, only recently has it spread

  16. الأحوال الاقتصادية في مدينة الحلة منذ عام 495هـ وحتى نهاية القرن الثامن الهجري وأثارها في بناء مدينة الحلة Economic Status in the city of Hilla, since 495 Ah And until the end of the eighth century AH And raised in the construction of the city of Hilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Dhahir Zabah Alshimery أ .م. د . ظاهر ذباح الشمري

    2012-06-01

    side of the Euphrates River indicates that Coppice was one of the favorite places for the rebels (7 has given these advantages the city of Hilla prestige in the eyes of the visited, where he stated Parsons (Parsons The city of Hilla, the heir to the glory of Babylon, which played an important cultural and political center and became an important economic source (9, and human capacity in terms of the number of people make all of this city settled leaders and governors to be taken based (10. The study factors founding cities of great importance to researchers for the nature of these factors, particularly if each city * or more workers to choose a place built on the basis of that city was the economic factor of the main factors that drove charity bin more to build the city of Hilla, Vmoda on banks of the Shatt Al Hillah led to be the city's fertile land extending to large areas benefited from the perfusion Alchrista, has elaborated historians and Albuldaon Arabs in Male farmland that surround the city of Hilla, and here is the look charity bin more economic in the selection of the place where he wanted to be his hometown in site differs from other specifications that RPR site of the city of Hilla. The importance of research in being interested in studying the economic conditions in the city of Hilla, since its founding in 495 AH and until the end of the ninth century AH, where is the economic factor to do with the mission to build a lot of cities and their development, and study this aspect has prejudice great to see the importance of economic factors that encouraged charity to choose gatherers first place to build the city of Hilla and development, and research is an attempt to determine the impact of economic factors and clarify the vision charity about choosing this place, and how helped conditions agricultural, commercial and industrial Prince Mazeedi to take a substitute for Nile homes ancestors that has become of great importance in various fields of life which gave

  17. El aprovechamiento tradicional de la dehesa boyal en un área de montaña del centro de España. Puebla de la Sierra (Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Jiménez, Eva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional management of an open wood for the feeding of ploughing cattle (dehesa boyal, located in a mountain area of Central Spain, was studied. The study area is situated in Puebla de la Sierra (Madrid. The dehesa has 336 ha and is strategically situated between the communal lands of the higher slopes and the village. The main tree species is melojo oak (Quercus pyrenaica with other less frequent species interesting from a conservation point of view like sessile oak (Quercus petraea. The management rules in the dehesa originated in medieval times, with two main types of wood management: the coppice and the open wood pasture (monte hueco. The dehesa of La Puebla was mostly used as an open wood pasture until the 20th century. Characteristics of the traditional management of the dehesa have been recreated through interviews to the old inhabitants of the village. The seasonal grazing by cows, sheep and goats is described for different parts of the dehesa. Lopping for the different tree species and the rules that regulated them are described. Also are discussed the effects of traditional management on the structure and composition of the dehesa wood. Finally, the importance of the woodland traditional management for nature conservation is analysed. The utility of the management rules studied, which does not change a large quantity of the forest characteristics (large trees, diversity, heterogeneity, etc., is pointed out. Also is highlighted to integrate the traditional management for local people, scientific support for the improvement of the nature conservation methods and the cultural and educational programs in the planning of this highly interesting nature reserve.

    [es] Se ha estudiado la gestión tradicional de una dehesa boyal localizada en un área montañosa del centro de España, en el municipio madrileño de Puebla de la Sierra, y sus efectos sobres las caracter