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Sample records for copperii mixed compound

  1. Mixed-ligand binuclear copper(II) complex of 5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The title compound was obtained as dark green ... tals were sorted using polarizing microscope (Leica. DMLSP). Crystals ... minimum peak heights of 0.405 and –0.285 e Å. −3. , respectively. .... placed in a centre of inversion. Each unit of the ...

  2. Mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes of dipicolylamine and 1,10 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    DNA repair mechanism.13,14 Copper(II) complexes containing heterocyclic bases have received consid- erable current interest in nucleic acid chemistry due to their diverse applications following the discovery of the “chemical nuclease” activity of the [Cu. (phen)2]+ (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) complex in the presence of ...

  3. Crystal Structure and Magnetic Behavior of Two New Dinuclear Carbonato-Bridged Copper(II) Compounds. Superexchange Pathway for the Different Coordination Modes of the Carbonato Bridge in Polynuclear Copper(II) Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuer, Albert; Mautner, Franz A.; Peñalba, Evaristo; Vicente, Ramon

    1998-08-24

    Four new &mgr;-CO(3)(2-) copper(II) complexes with different coordination modes for the carbonato bridge have been obtained by fixation of atmospheric CO(2): {(&mgr;(3)-CO(3))[Cu(3)(ClO(4))(3)(Et(3)dien)(3)]}(ClO(4)) (1), Et(3)dien = N,N',N"-triethylbis(2-aminoethane)amine; {(&mgr;-CO(3))[Cu(2)(H(2)O)(Et(4)dien)(2)]}(ClO(4))(2).H(2)O (2), Et(4)dien = N,N,N",N"-tetraethyl-bis(2-aminoethane)amine; {(&mgr;-CO(3))[Cu(2)(H(2)O)(2)(EtMe(4)dien)(2)]} (ClO(4))(2).2H(2)O (3), EtMe(4)dien = N'-ethyl-N,N,N",N"-tetramethylbis(2-aminoethane)amine; and {(&mgr;-CO(3))[Cu(2)(H(2)O)(Me(5)dien)(2)]}(ClO(4))(2).H(2)O (4), Me(5)dien = N,N,N',N",N"-pentamethylbis(2-aminoethane)amine. The crystal structures have been solved for 2, monoclinic system, space group P2(1)/n, formula [C(25)H(62)Cl(2)Cu(2)N(6)O(13)] with a = 12.763(6) Å, b = 25.125(8) Å, c = 13.261(4) Å, beta = 111.85(3) degrees, Z = 4, and for 3, triclinic system, space group P&onemacr;, formula [C(21)H(58)Cl(2)Cu(2)N(6)O(15)] with a = 8.412(3) Å, b = 14.667(4) Å, c = 16.555(5) Å, alpha = 99.66(2) degrees, beta = 102.14(2) degrees, gamma = 104.72(2) degrees, Z = 2. Susceptibility measurements show ferromagnetic behavior (J = +6.7(6) cm(-)(1)) for the trinuclear compound 1 whereas 2-4 are antiferromagnetically coupled with J = -17.8(8), -125.5(9), and -21.2(3) cm(-)(1) respectively. Certain synthetic aspects that may be related to the nuclearity of the copper(II) &mgr;-CO(3)(2-) compounds and the superexchange pathway for the different coordination modes of the carbonato bridge are discussed.

  4. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  5. Hexacoordinated mixed-ligand complexes of vanadium(IV) and copper(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Motahera Begum; Roy, H.N.; Haroon, S.A.Q.M.

    1996-01-01

    The literature reports simple complexes of metal ions with Schiff bases derived from amino acids. But their mixed-ligand complexes are very rare. Keeping this fact in mind, some new mixed ligand complexes of V IV and Cu II with tridentate Schiff bases derived from glycine, salicylaldehyde and amino bases, e.g. quinoline (Q), isoquinoline (IQ), 2-picoline (2-pic), 4-picoline (4-pic) and pyridine (Py) were prepared and studied. 6 refs., 1 tab

  6. EXAFS Studies of Some Copper(II) Mixed-Ligand Complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, S. K.; Katare, R. K.; Shrivastava, B. D.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray K-absorption spectroscopic studies have been carried out on copper (II) mixed-ligand complexes with glutamic acid and aspartic acid as the primary ligands, where as water, pyridine, imidazole and benz-imidazole have been used as secondary ligands. Chemical shifts obtained from the X-ray absorption data have indicated that the glutamic acid complexes are more ionic as compared to their corresponding aspartic acid complexes having similar secondary ligands. Further, we have estimated the average metal-ligand bond distances from the from structure data. For the different complexes studied under the present investigation, the studies reveal that the bonding parameter α1 decreases with the increase in the percentage covalency of the metal-ligand bond. Thus, the bonding parameter α1 may be used for the estimation of percentage covalency of the metal-ligand bond in other similar complexes

  7. Nonlinear optical and G-Quadruplex DNA stabilization properties of novel mixed ligand copper(II) complexes and coordination polymers: Synthesis, structural characterization and computational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekhar, Bathula; Bodavarapu, Navya; Sridevi, M.; Thamizhselvi, G.; RizhaNazar, K.; Padmanaban, R.; Swu, Toka

    2018-03-01

    The present study reports the synthesis and evaluation of nonlinear optical property and G-Quadruplex DNA Stabilization of five novel copper(II) mixed ligand complexes. They were synthesized from copper(II) salt, 2,5- and 2,3- pyridinedicarboxylic acid, diethylenetriamine and amide based ligand (AL). The crystal structure of these complexes were determined through X-ray diffraction and supported by ESI-MAS, NMR, UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopic methods. Their nonlinear optical property was studied using Gaussian09 computer program. For structural optimization and nonlinear optical property, density functional theory (DFT) based B3LYP method was used with LANL2DZ basis set for metal ion and 6-31G∗ for C,H,N,O and Cl atoms. The present work reveals that pre-polarized Complex-2 showed higher β value (29.59 × 10-30e.s.u) as compared to that of neutral complex-1 (β = 0.276 × 10-30e.s.u.) which may be due to greater advantage of polarizability. Complex-2 is expected to be a potential material for optoelectronic and photonic technologies. Docking studies using AutodockVina revealed that complex-2 has higher binding energy for both G-Quadruplex DNA (-8.7 kcal/mol) and duplex DNA (-10.1 kcal/mol). It was also observed that structure plays an important role in binding efficiency.

  8. Structures of the two new compounds distrontium copper(II) triselenite(IV) and distrontium copper(II) bis[hydrogenselenite(IV)] bisselenite(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effenberger, H.

    1988-01-01

    Sr 2 Cu(SeO 3 ) 3 , M r =619.68, triclinic, Panti 1, a=7.229(3), b=7.710(3), c=8.656(3) A, α=102.68(3), β=105.31(3), γ=96.12(3) 0 , V=447.0 A 3 , Z=2, D x =4.60 Mg m -3 , λ(MoKα)=0.71073 A, μ=26.0 mm -1 , F(000)=558, room temperature, R=0.033 for 3330 reflections up to 2θ=70 0 . Sr 2 Cu(SeO 2 OH) 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 , M r =748.65, triclinic, Panti 1, a=5.260(1), b=6.961(1), c=9.052(2) A, α=67.86(1), β=75.40(1), γ=80.41(1) 0 , V=296.6A 3 , Z=1, D x =4.19 Mg m -3 , λ(MoKα)=0.71073 A, μ=22.6 mm -1 , F(000)=339, room temperature, R=0.036 for 2362 reflections up to 2θ=70 0 . In the two compounds the Sr atoms are [8] and [9] coordinated (Sr-O=2.52 to 2.93 A), the Cu atoms have a tetragonal-pyramidal [4+1] and a square-planar [4] coordination, respectively. The distance Se-O h (1.80 A) is significantly longer than the other Se-O bonds (1.66 to 1.73 A). In Sr 2 Cu(SeO 3 ) 3 , the SrO 8 polyhedra form a three-dimensional network; in Sr 2 Cu(SeO 2 OH) 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 , the SrO 9 polyhedra are edge-linked to form sheets which are connected by CuO 4 squares, SeO 3 groups and the hydrogen bond (O-H...O=2.88 A). (orig.)

  9. COMPOSITIONS BASED ON PALLADIUM(II AND COPPER(II COMPOUNDS, HALIDE IONS, AND BENTONITE FOR OZONE DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Rakitskaya

    2017-05-01

    bromide ion. For Cu(II-KBr/N-Bent composition, kinetic and calculation data show that, in the presence of bromide ions, copper(II inhibits the ozone decomposition. For Pd(II-KBr/NBent composition, it has been found that the maximum activity is attained at СPd(II = 1.02·10-5 mol/g. For bimetallic Pd(II- Cu(II-KBr/N-Bent composition, changes in τ0, τ1/2, k1/2, and Q1/2 parameters depending on a Pd(II content are similar to those for monometallic Pd(II-KBr/NBent composition; however, values of the parameters are higher for the monometallic system. Thus, the inhibiting effect of Cu(II is observed even in the presence of palladium(II.

  10. Unusual saccharin-N,O (carbonyl) coordination in mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes: Synthesis, X-ray crystallography and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtaruddin, Nur Shuhada Mohd; Yusof, Enis Nadia Md; Ravoof, Thahira B. S. A.; Tiekink, Edward R. T.; Veerakumarasivam, Abhi; Tahir, Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Three tridentate Schiff bases containing N and S donor atoms were synthesized via the condensation reaction between S-2-methylbenzyldithiocarbazate with 2-acetyl-4-methylpyridine (S2APH); 4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazide with 2-acetylpyridine (MT2APH) and 4-ethyl-3-thiosemicarbazide with 2-acetylpyridine (ET2APH). Three new, binuclear and mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes with the general formula, [Cu(sac)(L)]2 (sac = saccharinate anion; L = anion of the Schiff base) were then synthesized, and subsequently characterized by IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy as well as by molar conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The Schiff bases were also spectroscopically characterized using NMR and MS to further confirm their structures. The spectroscopic data indicated that the Schiff bases behaved as a tridentate NNS donor ligands coordinating via the pyridyl-nitrogen, azomethine-nitrogen and thiolate-sulphur atoms. Magnetic data indicated a square pyramidal environment for the complexes and the conductivity values showed that the complexes were essentially non-electrolytes in DMSO. The X-ray crystallographic analysis of one complex, [Cu(sac)(S2AP)]2 showed that the Cu(II) atom was coordinated to the thiolate-S, azomethine-N and pyridyl-N donors of the S2AP Schiff base and to the saccharinate-N from one anion, as well as to the carbonyl-O atom from a symmetry related saccharinate anion yielding a centrosymmetric binuclear complex with a penta-coordinate, square pyramidal geometry. All the copper(II) saccharinate complexes were found to display strong cytotoxic activity against the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines.

  11. Synthesis, thermogravimetric study and crystal structure of an N-rich copper(II) compound with tren ligands and nitrate counter-anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Toro, Inmaculada; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Choquesillo-Lazarte, Duane [Laboratorio de Estudios Cristalográficos, IACT, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, Av. de las Palmeras 4, E-18100 Armilla, Granada (Spain); Vílchez-Rodríguez, Esther [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Castiñeiras, Alfonso [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Niclós-Gutiérrez, Juan, E-mail: jniclos@ugr.es [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2014-10-10

    The N-rich salt [{Cu(tren)}{sub 3}(μ{sub 3}-tren)]{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 12}·3H{sub 2}O has been studied by XRD and by coupled TG and FT-IR spectroscopy of the evolved gases. After water loss, thermal decomposition of the nitrate ions and some tren ligands in the salt are overlapped. - Highlights: • A novel N-rich copper(II)-tren complex has been crystallized as a 3-hydrated nitrate salt. • Tren acts both as tripodal tetradentate and as μ{sub 3}-tren bridging ligand. • Copper(II) centers exhibit distorted trigonal bipyramidal coordination. • Coupled thermogravimetry and FT-IR spectra of evolved gases have been used. • Decomposition of nitrate anions and tren ligands occurs in an overlapped step. - Abstract: The compound [{Cu(tren)}{sub 3}(μ3-tren)]{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 12}·3H{sub 2}O has been synthesized, crystallized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry (TG) coupled to FT-IR spectroscopy of the evolved gases, TG–differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electronic (diffuse reflectance) and FT-IR spectroscopies. The sample loses the crystallization water between room temperature and 200 °C. The decomposition of the salt begins with an overlapped decomposition of nitrate anions and some tren ligands where CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, NH{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, NO and NO{sub 2} are evolved (205–235 °C). Then decomposition of additional tren ligands takes place (235–725 °C). Finally a non-pure CuO residue is obtained at 725 °C.

  12. Coordination compounds of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and zinc(II) with pantothenic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabilalov, A.A.; Yunuskhodzhaev, A.N.; Khodzhaev, O.F.; Azizov, M.A.

    1986-11-01

    The compounds Ni(PANA - H)/sub 2/ x 4H/sub 2/O (PANA stands for pantothenic acid, and - H indicates a deprotonated ligand), Cu(PANA - H)/sub 2/ x 2H/sub 2/O, Zn(PANA - H)/sub 2/ x H/sub 2/O, Co(PANA - H)Cl x H/sub 2/O, and Ni(PANA - H)Cl x 3H/sub 2/O have been synthesized on the basis of pantothenic acid and Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) salts in aqueous media. The compounds have been identified by elemental and x-ray diffraction analysis. Some physicochemical properties (solubility, melting point, molar conductivity) of the compounds obtained have been studied. The structure of the compounds isolated has been established on the basis of an analysis of their IR, ESR, and electronic spectra, as well as derivatograms.

  13. DNA binding, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction activity of a mixed-ligand copper(II) complex with taurine Schiff base and imidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; kong, Lin Lin; Gou, Yi; Yang, Feng; Liang, Hong

    2014-07-01

    A novel binuclear copper(II) complex (complex 1) with taurine Schiff base and imidazole has been synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, ESI-MS spectrometry, UV-vis and IR spectroscopy. Single-crystal analysis revealed that 1 displays the sulfonate-bridged dinuclear copper(II) centers. Both copper atoms are five-coordinated and exhibit slightly distorted square pyramidal geometries. Each of copper atom is surrounded by three oxygen atoms and one nitrogen atom from different taurine Schiff base ligands, and one nitrogen atom from one imidazole ligand. The interaction between 1 and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated by UV-vis, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and agarose gel electrophoresis. The experimental results indicated that 1 could bind to CT-DNA via an intercalative mode and show efficient cleavage activity. In addition, 1 showed an antitumor effect on cell cycle and apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that MGC-803 cells were arrested in the S phase after treatment with 1. Fluorescence microscopic observation indicated that 1 could induce apoptosis of MGC-803 cells.

  14. Mixing of III-V compound semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Ping.

    1989-01-01

    In this work, the methods as well as mechanisms of III-V compound superlattice mixing are discussed, with particular attention on the AlGaAs based superlattice system. Comparative studies of ion-induced mixing showed two distinct effects resulting from ion implantation followed by a thermal anneal; i.e. collisional mixing and impurity induced mixing. It was found that Ga and As ion induced mixing are mainly due to the collisional effect, where the extent of the mixing can be estimated theoretically, with the parameters of ion mass, incident energy and the implant dose. The impurity effect was dominant for Si, Ge, Be, Zn and Te. Quantitative studies of impurity induced mixing have been conducted on samples doped with Si or Te during the growth process. It was discovered that Si induced AlGaAs superlattice mixing yielded an activation energy of approximately 4 eV for the Al diffusion coefficient with a high power law dependence of the prefactor on the Si concentration. In the Te doped AlGaAs superlattice the Al diffusion coefficient exhibited an activation energy of ∼3.0 eV, with a prefactor approximately proportional to the Te concentration. These results are of importance in examining the current diffusion models. Zn and Si induced InP/InGaAs superlattice mixing are examined. It was found that Zn predominantly induces cation interdiffusion, while Si induces comparable cation and anion interdiffusion. In addition, widely dispersed Zn rich islands form with Zn residing in the InP layers in the form of Zn 3 P 2 . With unstrained starting material, the layer bandgap disparity increases due to mixing induced strain, while in the Si diffused sample the mixed region would be expected to exhibit bandgaps intermediate between those of the original layers. Semiconductor superlattice mixing shows technological potential for optoelectronic device fabrication

  15. Correlation between DNA interactions and cytotoxic activity of four new ternary compounds of copper(II) with N-donor heterocyclic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Priscila P; Guerra, Wendell; Dos Santos, Geandson Coelho; Fernandes, Nelson G; Silveira, Josiane N; da Costa Ferreira, Ana M; Bortolotto, Tiago; Terenzi, Hernán; Bortoluzzi, Adailton João; Neves, Ademir; Pereira-Maia, Elene C

    2014-03-01

    Four new ternary complexes of copper(II) were synthesized and characterized: [Cu(hyd)(bpy)(acn)(ClO4)](ClO4)] (1), [Cu(hyd)(phen)(acn)(ClO4)](ClO4)] (2), [Cu(Shyd)(bpy)(acn)(ClO4)](ClO4)] (3) and [Cu(Shyd)(phen)(acn)(ClO4)](ClO4)] (4), in which acn=acetonitrile; hyd=2-furoic acid hydrazide, bpy=2,2-bipyridine; phen=1,10-phenanthroline and Shyd=2-thiophenecarboxylic acid hydrazide. The cytotoxic activity of the complexes in a chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line was investigated. All complexes are able to enter cells and inhibit cellular growth in a concentration-dependent manner, with an activity higher than that of the corresponding free ligands. The substitution of Shyd for hyd increases the activity, while the substitution of bpy for phen renders the complex less active. Therefore, the most potent complex is 4 with an IC50 value of 1.5±0.2μM. The intracellular copper concentration needed to inhibit 50% of cell growth is approximately 7×10(-15)mol/cell. It is worth notifying that a correlation between cytotoxic activity, DNA binding affinity and DNA cleavage was found: 1<3<2<4. © 2013.

  16. Two solvent and temperature dependent copper(II) compounds formed by a flexible ligand: syntheses, structures and SC-SC transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haixia; Xie, Wenli; Lv, Shenghong; Xu, Yan; Wu, Yong; Zhou, Yaoming; Ma, Zhenmao; Fang, Min; Liu, Hong-Ke

    2012-07-07

    A nonporous neutral framework [CuCl(2)(m-bttmb)(2)](n) (1) was changed into a porous ionic {[Cu(m-bttmb)(2)(H(2)O)Cl]Cl(CH(3)CN)(0.5)(H(2)O)(2.75)}(n) (2) by simply increasing the amount of CH(3)CN in the mixed solvent (CH(3)CN and H(2)O) or temperature in the reactions of CuCl(2)·2H(2)O with 1,3-bis(triazol-1-ylmethyl)-2,4,6-trimethylbenzene (m-bttmb). 1 undergoes transformation into 2 when treated with CH(3)CN. Both 1 and 2 have 2D 4-connected (4,4) network architectures but in different packing arrangements. These compounds have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, elemental analysis, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis. This work may provide a way to control the formation of neutral or ionic frameworks, as well as porosities by adjusting the polarity and components of the solvents.

  17. Isotopic exchange in mixed valence compounds in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Valverde, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    This work aims at the determination of isotopic exchange kinetics and mechanism in two mixed valence compounds: Cs 10 (Sbsup(V)Cl 6 ) (Sbsup(III)Cl 6 ) 3 and Tl 3 sup(I)(Tlsup(III)Cl 6 ). The synthesis of the first compound is very difficult because in most of the cases mixtures of chloroantimoniates are obtained. Exchange in Tl 4 Cl 6 labelled on Tlsup(III) is studied in detail by radiochemical analysis and physical techniques: ionic conductivity and positon annihilation. Cation vacancies are easily created in the lattice with formation enthalpy of 0.35 eV and migration enthalpy of 0.52 eV. Isochronic and isothermal exchange curves are described by a kinetic based on species diffusion. Models are given. Exchange is increased by grinding probably because extrinseque defects are introduced [fr

  18. COORDINATION COMPOUNDS OF NICKEL(II, COPPER(II AND COBALT(II BASED ON S-METHYLISOTHIOSEMICARBAZIDE AS DYES FOR THERMOPLASTIC POLYMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Manole

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have researched the color properties of coordination compounds synthesized by us previously [1] (8-(1',2'-naphthyl-1- R3-methyl-6-thiomethyl-4,5,7-triazaocta-1,3,5,7-tetraenato-1,1'-diolato(-O, O', N4, N7-M(II, where R=CH3, C6H5, M=Ni, Co, Cu, which can be used for coloring thermoplastic masses. They meet the requirements for use as a pigment for coloring thermoplastic masses.

  19. COORDINATION COMPOUNDS OF NICKEL(II), COPPER(II) AND COBALT(II) BASED ON S-METHYLISOTHIOSEMICARBAZIDE AS DYES FOR THERMOPLASTIC POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ştefan Manole; Maria Cocu

    2011-01-01

    We have researched the color properties of coordination compounds synthesized by us previously [1] (8-(1',2'-naphthyl)-1- R3-methyl-6-thiomethyl-4,5,7-triazaocta-1,3,5,7-tetraenato-1,1'-diolato(-)O, O', N4, N7-M(II), where R=CH3, C6H5, M=Ni, Co, Cu), which can be used for coloring thermoplastic masses. They meet the requirements for use as a pigment for coloring thermoplastic masses.

  20. Studies on the mixed ligand complexes of copper(II involving a sulfa drug and some potentially bi or tridentate ligands under physiological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Regupathy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The stability constants of mixed ligand complexes formed in the Cu(II-sulfathiazole(stz(A-glycine(gly, dl-2-aminobutanoic acid(2aba, dl-3-aminobutanoic acid(3aba, 1,2-diaminopropane(dp, 1,3-diaminopropane(tp, dl-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid(dapa, dl-2,4-diaminobutanoic acid(daba, dl-2,5-diaminopentanoic acid(ornithine, orn(B systems have been determined pH-metrically at 37 °C and I = 0.15 mol dm−3 (NaClO4 using SCOGS program. Analysis of experimental data indicates the presence of CuABH, CuAB, CuAB2H2 or CuAB2 species. The Δlog K values demonstrate higher stabilities for the mixed ligand complexes compared to the binary analogues. The CuAB complexes with B = gly, 2aba, dapa & orn systems were isolated and characterized using micro analytical, magnetic moment, ESR, electrochemical studies, TG/DTA, power XRD and SEM analysis. Magnetic susceptibility and electronic spectral studies suggest square planar geometry for the CuAB complexes. The g values indicate that the unpaired electron lies in thedx2-y2 orbital. The TG/DTA studies reveal that the complexes are non hydrated and possesses high thermal stability. The powder XRD data suggest that the complex is microcrystalline. The antimicrobial activity and CT DNA cleavage studies of the complexes are also reported.

  1. Low-dimensional compounds containing cyanido groups. XXVIII. Crystal structure, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of two copper(II) tetracyanidoplatinate complexes with 1,2-diaminopropane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavra, Martin; Potočňák, Ivan; Dušek, Michal; Čižmár, Erik; Ozerov, Mykhaylo; Zvyagin, Sergei A.

    2015-01-01

    Violet crystals of ([Cu(pn) 2 ] 2 [Pt(CN) 4 ])[Pt(CN) 4 ]·2H 2 O (1, pn=1,2-diaminopropane) and blue crystals of [Cu(pn)Pt(CN) 4 ] n ·nH 2 O (2) were prepared under hydrothermal conditions and characterized using elemental analysis, IR and UV–vis spectroscopy and by X-ray crystal structure analysis. Different number of ν(C≡N) absorption bands of these two compounds reflects their different structures. An X-ray crystal structure analysis has shown that complex 1 is of ionic character and is formed from trinuclear [Cu(pn) 2 –Pt(CN) 4 –Cu(pn) 2 ] 2+ complex cation and discrete [Pt(CN) 4 ] 2– anion together with two molecules of crystal water. On the other hand, complex 2 is of polymeric character and is formed by 2D networks of [Cu(pn)Pt(CN) 4 ] n composition and completed by n molecules of crystal water. Magnetic measurements show the presence of a weak antiferromagnetic exchange interaction in complex 1 (Θ=–0.2 K), while the magnetic susceptibility of complex 2 is well described by the model of uniform S=1/2 spin chain with exchange interaction J/k B =–1.64 K. - Graphical abstract: Two complexes of different structural types from the system Cu(II) – 1,2–diaminopropane – [Pt(CN) 4 ] 2– have been isolated. These were characterized by IR and UV–VIS spectroscopy, X–ray crystal structure analysis together with the magnetic measurements. On one hand ([Cu(pn) 2 ] 2 [Pt(CN) 4 ])[Pt(CN) 4 ]∙2H 2 O is of ionic character and is formed from trinuclear complex cation and discrete anion together with two molecules of crystal water. On the other hand, [Cu(pn)Pt(CN) 4 ] n ∙nH 2 O is of polymeric character and is formed by 2D networks of [Cu(pn)Pt(CN) 4 ] n composition and completed by n molecules of crystal water. - Highlights: • Two complexes of different compositions from one system have been isolated. • First complex is of ionic character and second one is of polymeric character. • Polymeric complex described as a spin chain in contrast to

  2. DNA and protein binding, double-strand DNA cleavage and cytotoxicity of mixed ligand copper(II) complexes of the antibacterial drug nalidixic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Rangasamy; Ganeshpandian, Mani; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Palaniandavar, Mallayan; Muruganantham, Amsaveni; Ghosh, Swapan K; Riyasdeen, Anvarbatcha; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2017-09-01

    The water soluble mixed ligand complexes [Cu(nal)(diimine)(H 2 O)](ClO 4 ) 1-4, where H(nal) is nalidixic acid and diimine is 2,2'-bipyridine (1), 1,10-phenanthroline (2), 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (3), and 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (4), have been isolated. The coordination geometry around Cu(II) in 1 and that in the Density Functional Theory optimized structures of 1-4 has been assessed as square pyramidal. The trend in DNA binding constants (K b ) determined using absorption spectral titration (K b : 1, 0.79±0.1base pair. In contrast, 3 and 4 are involved in intimate hydrophobic interaction with DNA through the methyl substituents on phen ring, which is supported by viscosity and protein binding studies. DNA docking studies imply that 4 is involved preferentially in DNA major groove binding while 1-3 in minor groove binding and that all the complexes, upon removing the axially coordinated water molecule, bind in the major groove. Interestingly, 3 and 4 display prominent double-strand DNA cleavage while 1 and 2 effect only single-strand DNA cleavage in the absence of an activator. The complexes 3 and 4 show cytotoxicity higher than 1 and 2 against human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7). The complex 4 induces apoptotic mode of cell death in cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Interesting properties of some iron(II), copper(I) and copper(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Tridendate ligands with nitrogen centers, generally well-known as the tripod ligands, have been of considerable interest to inorganic chemists dealing with the preparation of model compounds for hemocyanin, tyrosinase etc. We have found that such ligands when complexed with iron(II) and copper(II) and copper(I) ions ...

  4. Mathematical modeling of the mixing zone for getting bimetallic compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Stanislav L. [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Ural Branch, Izhevsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    A mathematical model of the formation of atomic bonds in metals and alloys, based on the electrostatic interaction between the outer electron shells of atoms of chemical elements. Key words: mathematical model, the interatomic bonds, the electron shell of atoms, the potential, the electron density, bimetallic compound.

  5. Biodegradation of phenolic compounds with oxidases from sorghum and non-defined mixed bacterium media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obame, C. E. L.; Savadogo, P. W.; Mamoudou, D. H.; Dembele, R. H.; Traore, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    The biodegradation of the phenolic compounds is performed using oxidative enzymes, e. g. polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) and peroxidases (POXs). These oxidases displaying a wide spectrum for the oxidation of phenolic compounds were isolated either from sorghum or mixed bacteria. Spectrophotometric methods were used to assess the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of PPOs as well as the hydrogen-dependant oxidation of POXs. (Author)

  6. Biodegradation of phenolic compounds with oxidases from sorghum and non-defined mixed bacterium media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obame, C. E. L.; Savadogo, P. W.; Mamoudou, D. H.; Dembele, R. H.; Traore, A. S.

    2009-07-01

    The biodegradation of the phenolic compounds is performed using oxidative enzymes, e. g. polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) and peroxidases (POXs). These oxidases displaying a wide spectrum for the oxidation of phenolic compounds were isolated either from sorghum or mixed bacteria. Spectrophotometric methods were used to assess the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of PPOs as well as the hydrogen-dependant oxidation of POXs. (Author)

  7. Unexpected magnetism, and transport properties in mixed lanthanide compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arjun; Gschneidner, Karl, Jr.; Pecharsky, Vitalij; Ames Laboratory Team

    For intelligent materials design it is desirable to have compounds which have multiple functionalities such as a large magnetoresistance, ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic states, and field-induced first-order metamagnetic transitions. Here, we discuss one such example where we have combined two lanthanide elements Pr and Er in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2. This compound exhibits multiple functionalities in magnetic fields between 1 and 40 kOe. It undergoes only a trivial ferrimagnetism to paramagnetism transition in a zero magnetic field, but Pr0.6Er0.4Al2 exhibits a large positive magnetoresistance (MR) for H >=40 kOe, a small but non negligible negative MR for H field cooling from the paramagnetic state. These phenomena are attributed to the competition between single-ion anisotropies of Pr and Er ions coupled with the opposite nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor exchange interactions. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Material Sciences and Engineering. The research was performed at the Ames Laboratory. The Ames Laboratory is operated by Iowa State University for the US D.

  8. Method development for the determination of volatile organic compounds in mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, W.F.; Rogers, Y.C.; Schappert, M.F.; Boland, K.S.; Spall, W.D.; Wilkerson, C.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    While analytical methods exist for the determination of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed organic and inorganic compounds in hazardous materials, equivalent methods suitable for the characterization of radioactively contaminated samples are not at the same level of maturity. The Mixed Waste Methods Development Lab. has been established at Los Alamos National Lab. to address the need for such procedures. This presentation will focus on the efforts that have been directed toward the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in mixed waste matrices. The capabilities of the Mixed Waste Methods Development Lab. will be outlined. Modifications to the containment boxes and analytical instrumentation required for the analyses will be described, as will experimental procedures and system performance benchmarks. Preliminary results from surrogate and real mixed waste matrices will be presented, and future directions for our method development effort will be discussed

  9. Mixed valence and metamagnetism in a metal flux grown compound Eu2Pt3Si5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Sumanta; Subbarao, Udumula; Joseph, Boby; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2015-01-01

    A new compound Eu 2 Pt 3 Si 5 with plate shaped morphology has been grown from excess In flux. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic U 2 Co 3 Si 5 structure type, Ibam space group and the lattice parameters are a=10.007(2) Å, b=11.666(2) Å and c=6.0011(12) Å. The crystal structure of this compound can be conceived as inter-twinned chains of [Pt 2 Si 2 ] and [PtSi 3 ] tetrahedra connected along [100] direction to give rise to a complex three dimensional [Pt 3 Si 5 ] network. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility data suggests that Eu 2 Pt 3 Si 5 undergoes a strong antiferromagnetic ordering (T N =19 K) followed by a weak ferromagnetic transition (T C =5.5 K). The effective magnetic moment/Eu obtained from susceptibility data is 6.78 μ B accounts mixed valent Eu with almost 85% divalent Eu, which is supported by X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy. The compound undergoes a metamagnetic transition under applied magnetic field through a probable spin flop mechanism. - Graphical abstract: Eu 2 Pt 3 Si 5 , a new member in the U 2 Co 3 Si 5 (Ibam) family undergoes metamagnetic transition at high magnetic field and Eu is in mixed valence state. - Highlights: • A new compound Eu 2 Pt 3 Si 5 has been synthesized using indium as an inactive metal flux. • The compound undergoes metamagnetic transition at higher field. • Eu in this compound resides in a mixed valence state

  10. Tunable catalytic properties of bi-functional mixed oxides in ethanol conversion to high value compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gray, Michel J.; Job, Heather M.; Smith, Colin D.; Wang, Yong

    2016-04-10

    tA highly versatile ethanol conversion process to selectively generate high value compounds is pre-sented here. By changing the reaction temperature, ethanol can be selectively converted to >C2alcohols/oxygenates or phenolic compounds over hydrotalcite derived bi-functional MgO–Al2O3cata-lyst via complex cascade mechanism. Reaction temperature plays a role in whether aldol condensationor the acetone formation is the path taken in changing the product composition. This article containsthe catalytic activity comparison between the mono-functional and physical mixture counterpart to thehydrotalcite derived mixed oxides and the detailed discussion on the reaction mechanisms.

  11. Combined electrochemical degradation and activated carbon adsorption treatments for wastewater containing mixed phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkumar, D.; Palanivelu, K.; Balasubramanian, N. [Anna University, Madras (India). Center for Environmental Studies

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of mixed phenolic compounds present in coal conversion wastewater was investigated in the presence of chloride as supporting electrolyte. Initially, the degradation experiments were conducted separately with 300 mg/L of individual phenolic compound in the presence of 2500 mg/L chloride using Ti/TiO{sub 2}-RuO{sub 2}-IrO{sub 2} anode at 5.4 A/dm{sup 2} current density. Comparison of the experimental results of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal versus charge indicated that the order of decreasing COD removal for various phenolic compounds as catechol {gt} resorcinol {gt} m-cresol {gt} o-cresol {gt} phenol {gt} p-cresol. Degradation of the mixture of phenolic compounds and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) determinations at various stages of electrolysis showed that phenolic compounds were initially converted into benzoquinone and then to lower molecular weight aliphatic compounds. The COD and the total organic carbon (TOC) removal were 83 and 58.9% after passing 32 Ah/L with energy consumption of 191.6 kWh/kg of COD removal. Experiments were also conducted to remove adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) content in the treated solution using granular activated carbon. The optimum conditions for the removal of AOX was at pH 3.0, 5 mL/min flow rate and 31.2 cm bed height. Based on the investigation, a general scheme of treatment of mixed phenolic compounds by combined electrochemical and activated carbon adsorption treatment is proposed.

  12. High-throughput microfluidic mixing and multiparametric cell sorting for bioactive compound screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan M; Curry, Mark S; Ransom, John T; Ballesteros, Juan A; Prossnitz, Eric R; Sklar, Larry A; Edwards, Bruce S

    2004-03-01

    HyperCyt, an automated sample handling system for flow cytometry that uses air bubbles to separate samples sequentially introduced from multiwell plates by an autosampler. In a previously documented HyperCyt configuration, air bubble separated compounds in one sample line and a continuous stream of cells in another are mixed in-line for serial flow cytometric cell response analysis. To expand capabilities for high-throughput bioactive compound screening, the authors investigated using this system configuration in combination with automated cell sorting. Peptide ligands were sampled from a 96-well plate, mixed in-line with fluo-4-loaded, formyl peptide receptor-transfected U937 cells, and screened at a rate of 3 peptide reactions per minute with approximately 10,000 cells analyzed per reaction. Cell Ca(2+) responses were detected to as little as 10(-11) M peptide with no detectable carryover between samples at up to 10(-7) M peptide. After expansion in culture, cells sort-purified from the 10% highest responders exhibited enhanced sensitivity and more sustained responses to peptide. Thus, a highly responsive cell subset was isolated under high-throughput mixing and sorting conditions in which response detection capability spanned a 1000-fold range of peptide concentration. With single-cell readout systems for protein expression libraries, this technology offers the promise of screening millions of discrete compound interactions per day.

  13. Hammerhead ribozyme activity and oligonucleotide duplex stability in mixed solutions of water and organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-ichi Nakano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acids are useful for biomedical targeting and sensing applications in which the molecular environment is different from that of a dilute aqueous solution. In this study, the influence of various types of mixed solutions of water and water-soluble organic compounds on RNA was investigated by measuring the catalytic activity of the hammerhead ribozyme and the thermodynamic stability of an oligonucleotide duplex. The compounds with a net neutral charge, such as poly(ethylene glycol, small primary alcohols, amide compounds, and aprotic solvent molecules, added at high concentrations changed the ribozyme-catalyzed RNA cleavage rate, with the magnitude of the effect dependent on the NaCl concentration. These compounds also changed the thermodynamic stability of RNA base pairs of an oligonucleotide duplex and its dependence on the NaCl concentration. Specific interactions with RNA molecules and reduced water activity could account for the inhibiting effects on the ribozyme catalysis and destabilizing effects on the duplex stability. The salt concentration dependence data correlated with the dielectric constant, but not with water activity, viscosity, and the size of organic compounds. This observation suggests the significance of the dielectric constant effects on the RNA reactions under molecular crowding conditions created by organic compounds.

  14. Rubber/clay nanocomposites by combined latex compounding and melt mixing: A masterbatch process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Jinghua; Wang, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuanfang; Jia, Demin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Rubber/Ca-montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by the masterbatch process. → Latex compounding method is efficient to improve the Ca-montmorillonite dispersion. → Exfoliated structure was obtained in the masterbatch by latex compounding method. → Intercalated and exfoliated structures were achieved in the vulcanizate. → The properties of vulcanizate are improved by the addition of Ca-montmorillonite. -- Abstract: Rubber/Ca-montmorillonite (Ca-MMT) nanocomposites with well exfoliated Ca-MMT layers were prepared by combination of latex compounding and melt mixing. Firstly, a high Ca-MMT content masterbatch was co-coagulated by natural rubber (NR) latex and modified Ca-MMT aqueous suspension through latex compounding. The masterbatch was added in the system of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) by melt mixing subsequently. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) results showed that intercalated and exfoliated nanocomposites were obtained by the masterbatch technique. The effects of modified Ca-MMT introduction into the rubber matrix, via the masterbatch technique, on the properties of the resulting composites were studied. It was found that the vulcanization was hindered by the incorporation of modified Ca-MMT, while mechanical performances, thermal stability and aging resistance were improved. The increasingly glass transition temperature and the storage modulus with the loading of modified Ca-MMT were measured by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA).

  15. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixed culture of blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L.) juice: synergism in the aroma compounds production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Rosales, Pedro Ulises; Ragazzo-Sánchez, Juan Arturo; Ruiz-Montañez, Gabriela; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa Isela; Luna-Solano, Guadalupe; Calderón-Santoyo, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Blackberry (Rubus sp.) juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574) recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at 28°C, 200 rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA) permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains.

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mixed Culture of Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L. Juice: Synergism in the Aroma Compounds Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ulises Bautista-Rosales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry (Rubus sp. juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574 recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (<6GL° with potential to be produced at an industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at 28C°, 200 rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA, and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains.

  17. Photocleavage of DNA by copper(II) complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chemistry of ternary and binary copper(II) complexes showing efficient visible lightinduced DNA cleavage activity is summarized in this article. The role of the metal in photo-induced DNA cleavage reactions is explored by designing complex molecules having a variety of ligands. Ternary copper(II) complexes with amino ...

  18. Investigating the Lateral Mixing Coefficient in a Compound Channel with Emergent Vegetation over the Floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein hamidifar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water quality control is very important for people, animals and plants. Predicting the spread of contaminants is important for managing and protecting rivers and streams to the balance of the ecosystem. Pollutants are introduced into waterways, though a variety of sources such as point and non-point sources. Under steady state conditions, where longitudinal mixing is not significant, studying the lateral mixing is essential in evaluating the influence of pollutants on water quality. Lateral or transverse mixing is the hydraulic process by which a plume of contaminant spreads laterally and dilutes. In water quality management, the transverse mixing is more significant than either vertical or longitudinal dispersion, especially, when dealing with the release of wastes from point sources. Hence, a wide range of field, laboratory and numerical modelling approaches, including laboratory and field measurements, and analytical and numerical investigations have been developed, to quantify the lateral mixing coefficient. However, most of the researchers have ignored the effects of vegetation on the lateral mixing process in their studies. Many studies have shown that the flow characteristics through vegetation are different from those in non-vegetated waterways. For example, laboratory studies have revealed that flow velocity and large-scale turbulence tend to be greatly decreased within a plant canopy, because the resistance to flow by the vegetation. Also, vegetation affects the transport of dissolved and particulate material, such as sediment, nutrients and pollutants. In this study, the effect of the floodplain vegetation on lateral mixing coefficient in compound channels is investigated experimentally. Also, a comparison is made between the results of the present study with those obtained by previous researchers. Materials and Methods: Experiments were carried out in a laboratory flume 18m long, 0.9m wide and 0.6m high with an

  19. Comparison of Flavour and Volatile Flavour Compounds of Mixed Elderberry Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vítová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find the best composition for fruit drink based on elderberries with optimal flavour characteristics. For this purpose elderberry juice was mixed with various fruit juices (grape, black currant, apple, orange, carrot in various ratios, flavour was evaluated sensorially and instrumentally as the content of aroma compounds. Five flavour characteristics (sweet, acid/sour, bitter, astringent, characteristic elderberry, off-flavour, odour, texture (mouth-feel, colour and overall acceptability were evaluated sensorially using scale. Aroma compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction and assessed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The significant differences (P < 0.05 in flavour were found between samples, which could be explained by differences in their volatile profiles. In total 57 compounds were identified in fruit juices and included 20 alcohols, 10 aldehydes, 8 ketones, 7 acids, 7 esters and 5 other compounds. Alcohols were quantitatively the most important group of all juices. The grape-elderberry juice, in optimum ratio 7:3 (70% v/v of elderberry, was proposed for practical use owing to the pleasant sweetish, elderberry flavour, and excellent other sensory characteristics.

  20. Volatile organic compound mixing ratios above Beijing in November and December 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, William; Shaw, Marvin; Huang, Zhonghui; Wang, Zhaoyi; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Yanli; Davison, Brian; Langford, Ben; Mullinger, Neil; Nemitz, Eiko; Fu, Pingqing; Squires, Freya; Carpenter, Lucy; Lewis, Alastair; Hewitt, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere from vegetation and anthropogenic sources such as fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and the evaporation of petroleum products. These compounds play an important role in the chemistry of the lower atmosphere through secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and facilitating the formation of tropospheric ozone. As well as their indirect impact on human health via the formation of ozone and SOA, some VOCs, including benzene, directly affect human health adversely. Here we report VOC mixing ratios measured in Beijing during a 5 week intensive field campaign from the 7th November to the 10th December 2016. This work was carried out as part of the Sources and Emissions of Air Pollutants in Beijing (AIRPOLL-Beijing) work project within the Air Pollution and Human Health in a Developing Megacity (APHH-Beijing) research programme. APHH is a large multi-institutional study which aims to record the concentrations and identify the sources of urban air pollutants in Beijing, determine exposure, understand their effects on human health, and to identify solutions. VOC mixing ratios were recorded using a Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS, Ionicon Analytik) and a Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometer (SIFT-MS, SYFT Technologies). During the measurement period Beijing was subject to multiple pollution events that alternated with periods of relatively good air quality, allowing the VOCs within the polluted air masses to be identified and quantified. VOCs were sampled at 102 m with additional gradient measurements made at 3, 15, 32 and 64 m providing a vertical profile of VOC mixing ratios. Mixing ratios of methanol, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and aromatics species will be reported together with a discussion of potential sources. Comparisons will then be drawn with other large cities.

  1. Minimally processed mixed salad submitted to gamma radiation: effects on bioactive compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: fmayumi@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lanfer-Marquez, Ursula M., E-mail: lanferum@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental

    2015-07-01

    High consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a lowered incidence of oxidative stress-related diseases due to the presence of bioactive structures. Minimally processed products are a growing segment in food retail establishments because it is associated with practicality and convenience without significantly altering fresh-like characteristics. Low-dose of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processes has shown to be a promising strategy for extending shelf life and maintaining the organoleptic quality of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) free radical scavenging and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) method in minimally processed mixed salad before and after different radiation doses. Samples of minimally processed mixed salad (with green and red cabbage and carrot) were purchased at local supermarket and irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy. Phenolic compounds, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity by DPPH• and ORAC were analyzed on the same extract prepared with MeOH. The results showed that bioactive compounds levels and antioxidant activity decreased significantly (p<0.05) with an increasing on radiation dose. Gamma-rays may affect these compounds and can cause degradation or oxidation, which can explain the drop on levels. Although the radiation has affected the bioactive contents, the process seems to be interesting to maintaining organoleptic characteristics and provide microbiological security at doses up to 2.0 kGy, according to studies conducted by our research group. (author)

  2. Minimally processed mixed salad submitted to gamma radiation: effects on bioactive compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Sabato, Susy F.; Lanfer-Marquez, Ursula M.

    2015-01-01

    High consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a lowered incidence of oxidative stress-related diseases due to the presence of bioactive structures. Minimally processed products are a growing segment in food retail establishments because it is associated with practicality and convenience without significantly altering fresh-like characteristics. Low-dose of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processes has shown to be a promising strategy for extending shelf life and maintaining the organoleptic quality of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) free radical scavenging and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) method in minimally processed mixed salad before and after different radiation doses. Samples of minimally processed mixed salad (with green and red cabbage and carrot) were purchased at local supermarket and irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy. Phenolic compounds, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity by DPPH• and ORAC were analyzed on the same extract prepared with MeOH. The results showed that bioactive compounds levels and antioxidant activity decreased significantly (p<0.05) with an increasing on radiation dose. Gamma-rays may affect these compounds and can cause degradation or oxidation, which can explain the drop on levels. Although the radiation has affected the bioactive contents, the process seems to be interesting to maintaining organoleptic characteristics and provide microbiological security at doses up to 2.0 kGy, according to studies conducted by our research group. (author)

  3. The crystal structure of paramagnetic copper(ii) oxalate (CuC2O4):

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Axel Nørlund; Lebech, Bente; Andersen, Niels Hessel

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic copper(ii) oxalate, CuC2O4, was obtained in a precipitation reaction between a copper(ii) solution and an aqueous solution of oxalic acid. The product was identified from its conventional X-ray powder patterns which match that of the copper mineral Moolooite reported to have...... the composition CuC2O4·0.44H2O. Time resolved in situ investigations of the thermal decomposition of copper(ii) oxalate using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction showed that in air the compound converts to Cu2O at 215 °C and oxidizes to CuO at 345 °C. Thermo gravimetric analysis performed in an inert Ar....... The crystal structure consists of a random stacking of CuC2O4 micro-crystallites where half the Cu-atoms are placed at (2a) and the other half at (2b) positions with the corresponding oxalate molecules centred around the corresponding (2b) and (2a) site positions, respectively. The diffraction patterns...

  4. Speciation of organotin compounds by capillary electrophoresis: comparison of aqueous and mixed organic-aqueous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lei; Matysik, Frank-Michael; Glaeser, Petra [Universitaet Leipzig, Institut fuer Analytische Chemie, Leipzig (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method with direct ultraviolet detection was developed for the analysis of organotin species. Despite the fact that direct detection of organotin compounds by ultraviolet absorption is difficult because most organotins possess poor chromophoric properties, the application of low wavelength ({lambda}=200 nm) and mixed organic-aqueous media enabled a significant enhancement in sensitivity. A mixed organic-aqueous system (10% methanol/40% acetonitrile/50% H{sub 2}O) containing acetic acid and tetrabutylammonium perchlorate formed the basis for rapid, efficient and sensitive determinations of organotin cations such as tripropyltin, tributyltin, triphenyltin and diphenyltin. The concentration limits of detection (LOD) for the four organotin compounds were in the range of 0.4-14 {mu}M, comparable to that obtained with the most sensitive indirect UV method reported until now, and took advantage of a stable baseline, a symmetric peak shape and an absence of disturbing system peaks. The relative standard deviations (n=7) for the relative peak time and peak area were 0.44-0.77 and 4.8-5.8%, respectively. In addition to sensitivity enhancements, the use of organic-aqueous systems instead of pure aqueous media resulted in improved selectivity and efficiency of separations. (orig.)

  5. Distribution of Various Mycotoxins in Compound Feed, Total Mix Ration and Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sultana, A. Rashid, I. Tahira, H. U. Hanif1 and N. Q. Hanif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study was planned to assess the spectrum of natural occurrence of aflatoxins, zearalenone, ochratoxin A and A-B trichothecenes in dairy feed, silage and total mixed rations. One hundred and seventy one samples were analyzed by chromatographic technique. In cattle compound feed, there was a high incidence of aflatoxin B1 (97.3% followed by aflatoxin B2 (50.3%, aflatoxin G1 (10.7%, aflatoxin G2 (1.5%, zearalenone (39.3%, ochratoxin A (37.5% and deoxynivalenol (2.9% with average values of 29, 8, 21, 10, 862, 64 and 813 ng/g respectively. Nine samples were found tainted with T-2 toxin (282ng/g, nivalenol (285ng/g and fusarenon-x (1625ng/g respectively. However, frequency distribution showed that positive seventy-seven (51.6%samples found to be contaminated with aflatoxin B1 levels higher than permissible level of European Commission (<20ng/g. For zearalenone, forty-four (32.5% samples were tainted with levels ranging from ≥500 to 3750ng/gi.e. higher than recommendations by European commission (<500ng/g. In contrast to compound feed, mycotoxin analysis in silage samples demonstrated the high prevalence of ochratoxin A (77.8 % followed by AFB1 (25% with mean of 53 and 8.71ng/g respectively. A scrutiny of mycotoxin for total mixed ration depicted that all samples were contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A with an average of 30 and 48.5ng/g respectively. As far as multi-mycotoxin co-existence is concerned, compound feed was concurrently contaminated with two, three and four types of mycotoxins.

  6. Theoretical (in B3LYP/6-3111++G** level), spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman) and thermogravimetric studies of gentisic acid and sodium, copper(II) and cadmium(II) gentisates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulska, E; Kalinowska, M; Wojtulewski, S; Korczak, A; Sienkiewicz-Gromiuk, J; Rzączyńska, Z; Swisłocka, R; Lewandowski, W

    2014-11-11

    The DFT calculations (B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) mixed with LanL2DZ for transition metals basis sets) for different conformers of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid), sodium 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate (gentisate) and copper(II) and cadmium(II) gentisates were done. The proposed hydrated structures of transition metal complexes were based on the results of experimental findings. The theoretical geometrical parameters and atomic charge distribution were discussed. Moreover Na, Cu(II) and Cd(II) gentisates were synthesized and the composition of obtained compounds was revealed by means of elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of gentisic acid and gentisates were registered and the effect of metals on the electronic charge distribution of ligand was discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Syntheses and properties of binuclear copper(II) mixed-ligand complexes involving thiodiglycolic acid. The crystal structures of [(phen)2Cu(m-tdga)Cu(phen)](NO3)2x5H2O and [(H2O)(pmdien)Cu(micro-tdga)Cu(pmdien)(H2O)](ClO4)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopel, P.; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Marek, J.; Korabik, M.; Mrozinski, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2003), s. 411-418 ISSN 0277-5387 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/0067 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Copper(II) * Thiodiglycolic acid complexes * Crystal structures Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.584, year: 2003

  8. Extent of Intramolecular pi Stacks in Aqueous Solution in Mixed-Ligand Copper(II) Complexes Formed by Heteroaromatic Amines and 1-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]cytosine (PMEC), a Relative of Antivirally Active Acyclic Nucleotide Analogues (Part 72)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blindauer, C. A.; Sigel, A.; Operschall, B. P.; Holý, Antonín; Sigel, H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 639, 8-9 (2013), s. 1661-1673 ISSN 0044-2313 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : nucleotide analogues * antivirals * complex stabilities * isomers * equilibria * mixed ligand complexes Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.251, year: 2013

  9. Formation of mixed organic layers by stepwise electrochemical reduction of diazonium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luis; Ghilane, Jalal; Lacroix, Jean Christophe

    2012-03-28

    This work describes the formation of a mixed organic layer covalently attached to a carbon electrode. The strategy adopted is based on two successive electrochemical reductions of diazonium salts. First, bithiophene phenyl (BTB) diazonium salt is reduced using host/guest complexation in a water/cyclodextrin (β-CD) solution. The resulting layer consists of grafted BTB oligomers and cyclodextrin that can be removed from the surface. The electrochemical response of several outer-sphere redox probes on such BTB/CD electrodes is close to that of a diode, thanks to the easily p-dopable oligo(BTB) moieties. When CD is removed from the surface, pinholes are created and this diode like behavior is lost. Following this, nitrophenyl (NP) diazonium is reduced to graft a second component. Electrochemical study shows that upon grafting NP insulating moieties, the diode-like behavior of the layer is restored which demonstrates that NP is grafted predominately in the empty spaces generated by β-CD desorption. As a result, a mixed BTB/NP organic layer covalently attached to a carbon electrode is obtained using a stepwise electrochemical reduction of two diazonium compounds.

  10. Effect of Precursors on Volatile Compounds in Papaya Wine Fermented by Mixed Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Rou Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the addition of fusel oil or amino acids on the volatile compounds in papaya wine fermented with a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. bayanus R2 and Williopsis saturnus var. mrakii NCYC 2251 at a ratio of 1:1000 was studied. Fusel oil addition increased the fraction of alcohols and promoted the production of isoamyl octanoate, isoamyl decanoate and isobutyl decanoate, while decreased the fraction of ethyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate. The addition of amino acids enhanced the formation of total volatile fatty acids, 2-phenylethanol and some ethyl esters. The papaya wine with added amino acids possessed more acidic and buttery notes than the control, while that with added fusel oil had an overall aroma profile comparable to that of the control. This study suggests that papaya juice fermentation with mixed yeasts in conjunction with the added fusel oil or selected amino acids may be another method of modulating the flavour of papaya wine.

  11. trans-Bis(perchlorato-κOtetrakis(1H-pyrazole-κN2copper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Zapol'skii

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Cu(ClO42(C3H4N24], was obtained unexpectedly by the reaction of copper(II perchlorate hexahydrate with equimolar amounts of 1-chloro-1-nitro-2,2,2-tripyrazolylethane in methanol solution. The crystal structure comprises octahedrally coordinated Cu2+ ions, located on an inversion centre, with four pyrazole ligands in the equatorial plane. The average Cu—N distance is 2.000 (1 Å. Two perchlorate ions are coordinated to copper in trans positions [Cu—O = 2.4163 (11 Å].

  12. Preconcentration and extraction of copper(II) on activated carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbon modified method was used for the preconcentration and ... in real samples such as tap water, wastewater and a synthetic water sample by flame ... KEY WORDS: Copper(II), Solid phase extraction, Activated carbon, Flame ...

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and DNA Cleavage of Copper(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: DNA shearing, Copper(II) complex, Dithiothreitol, Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform .... confirm the fragmentation of DNA by the newly .... sperm. Biochem Biophys Acta 1986; 884: 124-134. 7. Cornell NW, Crivaro KE.

  14. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Mixed-Valence Compounds : Theory and Applications in Chemistry, Physics, Geology, and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    It has been a decade since two seminal reviews demonstrated that mixed-valence compounds share many unique and fascinating features. The insight pro­ vided by those early works has promoted a great deal of both experimental and theoretical study. As a result of extensive efforts, our understanding of the bonding and properties of mixed-valence compounds has advanced substantially. There has been no compre­ hensive treatment of mixed-valence compounds since 1967, and the meeting convened at Oxford in September, 1979, provided a unique opportunity to examine the subject and its many ramifications. Mixed-valence compounds play an important role in many fields. Although the major impact of the subject has been in chemistry, its importance has become increasingly clear in solid state physics, geology, and biology. Extensive interest and effort in the field of molecular metals has demonstrated that mixed-valency is a prerequisite for high elec­ trical conductivity. The intense colors of many minerals have been s...

  15. Thiophene Conversion and Ethanol Oxidation on SiO2-Supported 12-PMoV-Mixed Heteropoly Compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spojakina, A. A.; Kostova, N. G.; Sow, Bineta; Stamenova, M. W.; Jirátová, Květa

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 65, 2-4 (2001), s. 315-321 ISSN 0920-5861 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : thiophene conversion * ethanol oxidation * mixed heteropoly compounds Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.333, year: 2001

  16. Influence of deuterium on the magnetic susceptibility and thermal expansion of the mixed valence compound CePd3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinzierl, P.; Blaschko, O.; Fratzl, P.; Krexner, G.; Ernst, G.; Hilscher, G.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of studying mixed valent rare earth compounds by addition of interstitially solved hydrogen is discussed. First measurements of the thermal expansion and of the magnetic susceptibility of 4 K in intermediate valent CePd 3 Dsub(0.05) are presented. (orig.) [de

  17. Femtosecond dynamics of electron transfer in a neutral organic mixed-valence compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimenka, Raman; Margraf, Markus; Koehler, Juliane; Heckmann, Alexander; Lambert, Christoph; Fischer, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    In this article we report a femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption study of a neutral organic mixed-valence (MV) compound with the aim to gain insight into its charge-transfer dynamics upon optical excitation. The back-electron transfer was investigated in five different solvents, toluene, dibutyl ether, methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzonitrile and n-hexane. In the pump step, the molecule was excited at 760 nm and 850 nm into the intervalence charge-transfer band. The resulting transients can be described by two time constant. We assign one time constant to the rearrangement of solvent molecules in the charge-transfer state and the second time constant to back-electron transfer to the electronic ground state. Back-electron transfer rates range from 1.5 x 10 12 s -1 in benzonitrile through 8.3 x 10 11 s -1 in MTBE, around 1.6 x 10 11 s -1 in dibutylether and toluene and to 3.8 x 10 9 s -1 in n-hexane

  18. Synthesis, characterisation and antimicrobial activities of cobalt(II, copper(II and zinc(II mixed-ligand complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline and 2,2’-bipyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohamadou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new 1,10-phenanthroline and 2,2’-bipyridine mixed-ligand complexes of [Co(bpy(phen2](NO32.2H2O, [Cu(bpy(phen H2O 2]Cl2.2H2O, and [Zn(bpy2(phen]Cl2.6H2O were synthesized. The complexes were characterized by elemental, IR and visible spectroscopic analyses and the results indicate that both ligands are coordinated to the respective metal ions giving octahedral complexes. Antimicrobial studies showed that there is increased antimicrobial activity of the metal ions on coordination to the ligands. The water soluble complexes showed antimicrobial activities that are higher than those of the metal salts and 2,2’-bipyridine but lower than those of 1,10-phenanthroline. The copper complex [Cu(bpy(phen(H2O 2]Cl2.2H2O shows the highest activity.

  19. Potential value of phosphate compounds in enhancing immobilization and reducing bioavailability of mixed heavy metal contaminants in shooting range soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, B; Bolan, N S; Choppala, G; Kunhikrishnan, A; Sanderson, P; Wang, H; Currie, L D; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Y S; Kim, G

    2017-10-01

    Shooting range soils contain mixed heavy metal contaminants including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn). Phosphate (P) compounds have been used to immobilize these metals, particularly Pb, thereby reducing their bioavailability. However, research on immobilization of Pb's co-contaminants showed the relative importance of soluble and insoluble P compounds, which is critical in evaluating the overall success of in situ stabilization practice in the sustainable remediation of mixed heavy metal contaminated soils. Soluble synthetic P fertilizer (diammonium phosphate; DAP) and reactive (Sechura; SPR) and unreactive (Christmas Island; CPR) natural phosphate rocks (PR) were tested for Cd, Pb and Zn immobilization and later their mobility and bioavailability in a shooting range soil. The addition of P compounds resulted in the immobilization of Cd, Pb and Zn by 1.56-76.2%, 3.21-83.56%, and 2.31-74.6%, respectively. The reactive SPR significantly reduced Cd, Pb and Zn leaching while soluble DAP increased their leachate concentrations. The SPR reduced the bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn in earthworms by 7.13-23.4% and 14.3-54.6% in comparison with earthworms in the DAP and control treatment, respectively. Bioaccessible Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations as determined using a simplified bioaccessibility extraction test showed higher long-term stability of P-immobilized Pb and Zn than Cd. The differential effect of P-induced immobilization between P compounds and metals is due to the variation in the solubility characteristics of P compounds and nature of metal phosphate compounds formed. Therefore, Pb and Zn immobilization by P compounds is an effective long-term remediation strategy for mixed heavy metal contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mixed lactate and caffeine compound increases satellite cell activity and anabolic signals for muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Yoshimi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Yokokawa, Takumi; Hirotsu, Keisuke; Shimazu, Mariko; Uchida, Kenji; Tomi, Hironori; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2015-03-15

    We examined whether a mixed lactate and caffeine compound (LC) could effectively elicit proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells or activate anabolic signals in skeletal muscles. We cultured C2C12 cells with either lactate or LC for 6 h. We found that lactate significantly increased myogenin and follistatin protein levels and phosphorylation of P70S6K while decreasing the levels of myostatin relative to the control. LC significantly increased protein levels of Pax7, MyoD, and Ki67 in addition to myogenin, relative to control. LC also significantly increased follistatin expression relative to control and stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and P70S6K. In an in vivo study, male F344/DuCrlCrlj rats were assigned to control (Sed, n = 10), exercise (Ex, n = 12), and LC supplementation (LCEx, n = 13) groups. LC was orally administered daily. The LCEx and Ex groups were exercised on a treadmill, running for 30 min at low intensity every other day for 4 wk. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in the mass of the gastrocnemius (GA) and tibialis anterior (TA) relative to both the Sed and Ex groups. Furthermore, the LCEx group showed a significant increase in the total DNA content of TA compared with the Sed group. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in myogenin and follistatin expression of GA relative to the Ex group. These results suggest that administration of LC can effectively increase muscle mass concomitant with elevated numbers of myonuclei, even with low-intensity exercise training, via activated satellite cells and anabolic signals. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Adsorptive removal of phenolic compounds using cellulose acetate phthalate–alumina nanoparticle mixed matrix membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Raka; De, Sirshendu, E-mail: sde@che.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • Composite membrane of cellulose–acetate–phthalate and alumina nanoparticle is cast. • Surface charge of the membrane changes with nanoparticle concentration and pH. • Separation of phenolic compounds occurs due to adsorption. • The removal efficiency is maximum for 20% nanoparticle with 91% removal of catechol. • Transmembrane pressure drop has negligible effect on solute separation. -- Abstract: Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were prepared using alumina nanoparticles and cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) by varying concentration of nanoparticles in the range of 10 to 25 wt%. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron micrograph, porosity, permeability, molecular weight cut off, contact angle, surface zeta potential, mechanical strength. Addition of nanoparticles increased the porosity, permeability of the membrane up to 20 wt% of alumina. pH at point of zero charge of the membrane was 5.4. Zeta potential of the membrane became more negative up to 20 wt% of nanoparticles. Adsorption of phenolic derivatives, catechol, paranitrophenol, phenol, orthochloro phenol, metanitrophenol, by MMMs were investigated. Variation of rejection and permeate flux profiles were studied for different solutes as a function of various operating conditions, namely, solution pH, solute concentration in feed and transmembrane pressure drop. Difference in rejection of phenolic derivatives is consequence of interplay of surface charge and adsorption by alumina. Adsorption isotherm was fitted for different solutes and effects of pH were investigated. Catechol showed the maximum rejection 91% at solution pH 9. Addition of electrolyte reduced the rejection of solutes. Transmembrane pressure drop has insignificant effects on solute rejection. Competitive adsorption reduced the rejection of individual solute.

  2. Hygroscopic growth and critical supersaturations for mixed aerosol particles of inorganic and organic compounds of atmospheric relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Svenningsson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic fraction of atmospheric aerosols contains a multitude of compounds and usually only a small fraction can be identified and quantified. However, a limited number of representative organic compounds can be used to describe the water-soluble organic fraction. In this work, initiated within the EU 5FP project SMOCC, four mixtures containing various amounts of inorganic salts (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and sodium chloride and three model organic compounds (levoglucosan, succinic acid and fulvic acid were studied. The interaction between water vapor and aerosol particles was studied at different relative humidities: at subsaturation using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA and at supersaturation using a cloud condensation nuclei spectrometer (CCN spectrometer. Surface tensions as a function of carbon concentrations were measured using a bubble tensiometer. Parameterizations of water activity as a function of molality, based on hygroscopic growth, are given for the pure organic compounds and for the mixtures, indicating van't Hoff factors around 1 for the organics. The Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR mixing rule was tested on the hygroscopic growth of the mixtures and it was found to adequately explain the hygroscopic growth for 3 out of 4 mixtures, when the limited solubility of succinic acid is taken into account. One mixture containing sodium chloride was studied and showed a pronounced deviation from the ZSR mixing rule. Critical supersaturations calculated using the parameterizations of water activity and the measured surface tensions were compared with those determined experimentally.

  3. Assessing the use of food coloring as an appropriate visual guide for homogenously mixed capsule powders in extemporaneous compounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Brittany; Carlson, Christie; Rao, Deepa A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the use of food colors as a visual aid to determine homogeneous mixing in the extemporaneous preparation of capsules. Six different batches of progesterone slow-release 200-mg capsules were prepared by different mixing methods until visually determined as homogeneous based on yellow food coloring distribution in the preparation by the Central Iowa Compounding Pharmacy, Des Moines, Iowa. UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used to extract and evaluate yellow food coloring content in each of these batches and compared to an in-house, small-batch geometric dilution preparation of progesterone slow- release 200-mg capsules. Of the 6 batches tested, only one, which followed the principles of additive dilution and an appropriate mixing time, was both visually and quantitatively homogeneous in the detection of yellow food coloring. The use of food coloring alone is not a valid quality-assurance tool in determining homogeneous mixing. Principles of geometric and/or additive dilution and appropriate mixing times along with the food color can serve as a quality-assurance tool.

  4. Ecodynamics of oil-degrading bacteria and significance of marine mixed populations in the degradation of petroleum compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Tanaka, Hiroki; Komukai, Shyoko

    1993-01-01

    Ecological studies, screening of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, and studies of the potentials of various single and mixed bacterial populations in the utilization of petroleum compounds were carried out to understand the microbial hydrocarbon degradation process in marine ecosystems. Populations of hydrocarbon utilizers were larger in coastal regions than in pelagic environments. Ecological observations indicated that oil-degrading bacteria were ubiquitously distributed in both temperate and tropical environments, irrespective of oil-polluted and unpolluted ecosystem. Bacteria were grown with n-tet-radecane, pristane, propylbenzene, phenanthrene, and crude oil as the sole carbon source; and substrate specificities of the purified strains were characterized. Based on the assimilation characteristics of the isolated strains, an artificial mixed-culture system was constructed. Biodegradation of crude oil by the natural mixed population was found to be higher than by the artificial mixed population. However, when some of the substrate-specific degraders were artificially mixed with natural microflora, the degradation of hard-to-degrade aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of crude oil was enhanced

  5. Investigating the Lateral Mixing Coefficient in a Compound Channel with Emergent Vegetation over the Floodplain

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein hamidifar; Mohammad hossein Ommid; Mehdi Bahrami; Mohammad javad Amiri

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Water quality control is very important for people, animals and plants. Predicting the spread of contaminants is important for managing and protecting rivers and streams to the balance of the ecosystem. Pollutants are introduced into waterways, though a variety of sources such as point and non-point sources. Under steady state conditions, where longitudinal mixing is not significant, studying the lateral mixing is essential in evaluating the influence of pollutants on water qual...

  6. Synthesis, Characterization and DNA Cleavage of Copper(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) shearing capability of copper(II) complex of dithiothreitol (DTT) and to fevaluate its potential application in cancer therapy. Methods: A parrot green complex was synthesized by grinding copper acetate monohydrate and DTT in 1:2 molar ratio in a mortar until no fumes of acetic ...

  7. A Nanostructured Lipid System as a Strategy to Improve the in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Copper(II Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia B. da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to construct a nanostructured lipid system as a strategy to improve the in vitro antibacterial activity of copper(II complexes. New compounds with the general formulae [CuX2(INH2]·nH2O (X = Cl− and n = 1 (1; X = NCS− and n = 5 (2; X = NCO− and n = 4 (3; INH = isoniazid, a drug widely used to treat tuberculosis derived from the reaction between the copper(II chloride and isoniazid in the presence or absence of pseudohalide ions (NCS− or NCO− were synthesized and characterized by infrared spectrometry, electronic absorption spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, melting points and complexometry with 2,2′,2′′,2′′′-(Ethane-1,2-diyldinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA. The characterization techniques allowed us to confirm the formation of the copper(II complexes. The Cu(II complexes were loaded into microemulsion (MEs composed of 10% phase oil (cholesterol, 10% surfactant [soy oleate and Brij® 58 (1:2] and 80% aqueous phase (phosphate buffer pH = 7.4 prepared by sonication. The Cu(II complex-loaded MEs displayed sizes ranging from 158.0 ± 1.060 to 212.6 ± 1.539 nm, whereas the polydispersity index (PDI ranged from 0.218 ± 0.007 to 0.284 ± 0.034. The antibacterial activity of the free compounds and those that were loaded into the MEs against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC® 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC® 25922, as evaluated by a microdilution technique, and the cytotoxicity index (IC50 against the Vero cell line (ATCC® CCL-81TM were used to calculate the selectivity index (SI. Among the free compounds, only compound 2 (MIC 500 μg/mL showed activity for S. aureus. After loading the compounds into the MEs, the antibacterial activity of compounds 1, 2 and 3 was significantly increased against E. coli (MIC’s 125, 125 and 500 μg/mL, respectively and S. aureus (MICs 250, 500 and 125 μg/mL, respectively. The loaded compounds were less toxic against the Vero

  8. Mixing-assisted oxidative desulfurization of model sulfur compounds using polyoxometalate/H2O2 catalytic system

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo Earvin Sy Choi; Susan Roces; Nathaniel Dugos; Meng-Wei Wan

    2016-01-01

    Desulfurization of fossil fuel derived oil is needed in order to comply with environmental regulations. Dibenzothiophene and benzothiophene are among the predominant sulfur compound present in raw diesel oil. In this study, mixing-assisted oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene and benzothiophene were carried out using polyoxometalate/H2O2 systems and a phase transfer agent. The effects of reaction time (2–30 min) and temperature (30–70 °C) were examined in the oxidation of model sulfu...

  9. Volatile organic compound emmission rates from mixed deciduous and coniferous foest in Northern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. G. Isebrands; A. B. Guenther; P. Harley; D. Helmig; L. Klinger; L. Vierling; P. Zimmerman; C. Geron

    1999-01-01

    Biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds {VOC) from forests play an important role in regulating the atmospheric trace gas composition including global tropospheric ozone concentrations. However, more information is needed on VOC emission rates from different forest regions of the world to understand regional and global impacts and to implement possible...

  10. Crystal structures and luminescence of two cadmium-carboxylate cluster-based compounds with mixed ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hui-Fang; Lei, Qian; Wang, Yu-Ling; Yin, Shun-Gao; Liu, Qing-Yan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Key Lab. of Functional Small Organic Molecule of Ministry of Education, Jiangxi Normal Univ., Nanchang (China)

    2017-04-04

    Reactions of Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O with 2-quinolinecarboxylic acid (H-QLC) in the presence of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}-BDC) or 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (H-BTC) in DMF/H{sub 2}O solvent afforded two compounds, namely, [Cd(QLC)(BDC){sub 1/2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (1) and [Cd(QLC)(BTC){sub 1/3}]{sub n} (2). Both compounds are two-dimensional (2D) frameworks but feature different cadmium-carboxylate clusters as a result of the presence of the polycarboxylate ligands with different geometries and coordination preference. The dinuclear Cd{sub 2}(QLC){sub 2} units in 1 are bridged by the pairs of bridging water ligands to give a one-dimensional (1D) chain, which is further linked by the second ligand of BDC{sup 2-} to form a 2D structure. Compound 2 is constructed from unique hexanuclear macrometallacyclic Cd{sub 6}(QLC){sub 6} clusters, which are linked by the surrounding BTC{sup 3-} ligands to generate a 2D structure. Photoluminescence studies showed both compounds exhibit ligand-centered luminescent emissions with emission maxima at 405 and 401 nm, respectively. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Mixing ratios and eddy covariance flux measurements of volatile organic compounds from an urban canopy (Manchester, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langford

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixing ratios and fluxes of six selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured above the city of Manchester (UK during the summer of 2006. A proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer was used for the measurement of mixing ratios, and fluxes were calculated from these using both the disjunct and the virtual disjunct eddy covariance techniques. The two flux systems, which operated in alternate half hours, showed good agreement, with R2 values ranging between 0.74 and 0.9 for the individual analytes. On average, fluxes measured in the disjunct mode were approximately 20% lower than those measured in the virtual mode. This difference is due to both the dampening of the VOC signal by the disjunct flux sampler and carry over from one sample to the next. Correcting for these effects reduced the difference to less than 7%. Observed fluxes are thought to be largely controlled by anthropogenic sources, with vehicle emissions the major contributor. However, both evaporative and biogenic emissions may account for some of the VOCs present. Concentrations and fluxes of the oxygenated compounds were highest on average, ranging between 0.15 to 1 mg m−2 h−1; the fluxes of aromatic compounds were lower, between 0.12 to 0.28 mg m−2 h−1. The observed fluxes were up-scaled to give city wide emission estimates for each compound and the results compared to estimates made by the National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI for the same flux footprint. Fluxes of toluene and benzene compared most closely differing by approximately 50%, while in contrast the oxygenated fluxes were found to be between 3.6–6.3 times larger than the annual average predicted by the NAEI.

  12. Determining the Amount of Copper(II) Ions in a Solution Using a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montangero, Marc

    2015-01-01

    When dissolving copper in nitric acid, copper(II) ions produce a blue-colored solution. It is possible to determine the concentration of copper(II) ions, focusing on the hue of the color, using a smartphone camera. A free app can be used to measure the hue of the solution, and with the help of standard copper(II) solutions, one can graph a…

  13. Coordination of different ligands to copper(II) and cobalt(III) metal centers enhances Zika virus and dengue virus loads in both arthropod cells and human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Shovan; Celestine, Michael J; Khanal, Supreet; Huddleston, Alexis; Simms, Colin; Arca, Jessa Faye; Mitra, Amlan; Heller, Loree; Kraj, Piotr J; Ledizet, Michel; Anderson, John F; Neelakanta, Girish; Holder, Alvin A; Sultana, Hameeda

    2018-01-01

    Trace elements such as copper and cobalt have been associated with virus-host interactions. However, studies to show the effect of conjugation of copper(II) or cobalt(III) metal centers to thiosemicarbazone ligand(s) derived from either food additives or mosquito repellent such as 2-acetylethiazole or citral, respectively, on Zika virus (ZIKV) or dengue virus (serotype 2; DENV2) infections have not been explored. In this study, we show that four compounds comprising of thiosemicarbazone ligand derived from 2-acetylethiazole viz., (E)-N-ethyl-2-[1-(thiazol-2-yl)ethylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamide (acetylethTSC) (compound 1), a copper(II) complex with acetylethTSC as a ligand (compound 2), a thiosemicarbazone ligand-derived from citral (compound 3) and a cobalt(III) complex with a citral-thiosemicarbazone ligand (compound 4) increased DENV2 and ZIKV replication in both mosquito C6/36 cells and human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). Treatment of both cell lines with compounds 2 or 4 showed increased dengue viral titers at all three tested doses. Enhanced dengue viral plaque formation was also noted at the tested dose of 100μM, suggesting higher production of infectious viral particles. Treatment with the compounds 2 or 4 enhanced ZIKV and DENV2 RNA levels in HeLa cell line and primary cultures of mouse bone marrow derived dendritic cells. Also, pre- or post treatments with conjugated compounds 2 or 4 showed higher loads of ZIKV or DENV2 envelope (E) protein in HaCaT cells. No changes in loads of E-protein were found in ZIKV-infected C6/36 cells, when compounds were treated after infection. In addition, we tested bis(1,10-phenanthroline)copper(II) chloride ([Cu(phen) 2 ]Cl 2 , (compound 5) and tris(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III) chloride ([Co(phen) 3 ]Cl 3 , (compound 6) that also showed enhanced DENV2 loads. Also, we found that copper(II) chloride dehydrate (CuCl 2 ·2H 2 O) or cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate (CoCl 2 ·6H 2 O) alone had no effects as "free" cations

  14. Mixed valence transition metal 2D-oxides: Comparison between delafossite and crednerite compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christine; Poienar, Maria

    2017-08-01

    Transition metal oxides offer large opportunities to study relationships between structures and properties. Indeed these compounds crystallize in numerous frameworks corresponding to different dimensionalities and, accordingly, show a huge variety of properties (as high Tc superconductivity, colossal magnetoresistivity, multiferroicity..). The control of the oxidation state of the transition metal, via the monitoring of the oxygen content, is of prime importance to understand and optimize the properties, due to the strong coupling that exists between the lattice and the charges and spins of the transition metals. In this large playground for chemists, we reinvestigated several 2D-compounds derived from delafossite structure. Considering this paper as a very short review, we report here the results obtained on CuMO2 compounds (with M = Cr, Mn or Mn+Cu) by using a combination of techniques, as X-ray, neutrons and/or electrons diffraction on poly-crystals for structural characterisations that are correlated with electrical and/or magnetic properties. The complementarity of studies is also addressed by the synthesis and characterization of single crystals in addition to poly-crystals. Moreover the comparison of the structures of similar Cr and Mn based oxides highlights the crucial role of the Jahn-Teller effect of trivalent manganese to lift the degeneracy, which is responsible of the magnetic frustration in CuCrO2.

  15. Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.

  16. Mixing-assisted oxidative desulfurization of model sulfur compounds using polyoxometalate/H2O2 catalytic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Earvin Sy Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Desulfurization of fossil fuel derived oil is needed in order to comply with environmental regulations. Dibenzothiophene and benzothiophene are among the predominant sulfur compound present in raw diesel oil. In this study, mixing-assisted oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene and benzothiophene were carried out using polyoxometalate/H2O2 systems and a phase transfer agent. The effects of reaction time (2–30 min and temperature (30–70 °C were examined in the oxidation of model sulfur compounds mixed in toluene. A pseudo first-order reaction kinetic model and the Arrhenius equation were utilized in order to evaluate the kinetic rate constant and activation energy of each catalyst tested in the desulfurization process. Results showed the order of catalytic activity and activation energy of the different polyoxometalate catalysts to be H3PW12O40 > H3PM12O40 > H4SiW12O40 for both dibenzothiophene and benzothiophene.

  17. Supported Mixed Oxide Catalysts for the Total Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovanda, F.; Jirátová, Květa

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 176, č. 1 (2011), s. 110-115 ISSN 0920-5861. [International Symposium on Air Pollution Abatement Catalysis (APAC) /2./. Cracow, 08.09.2010-10.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/10/1762; GA ČR GA106/09/1664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : layered double hydroxides * mixed oxides * ethanol total oxidation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2011

  18. Synthesis and characterizaton of some new coordination compounds of boron with mixed azines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANISH GODARA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Some new boron complexes have been synthesized by the reaction of triisopropohxyborane with the mixed azines, prepared by the condensation of salicylaldehyde and hydrazine with aldehydes/ketones in a 1:1:1 mole ratio to give a new series of (OPri2B(NO type of complexes. Their structures were confirmed on the basis of elemental analyses, ultraviolet, infrared, 1H-NMR and 11B-NMR spectral studies. The ligands and their boron complexes were also screened for their antifungal activity. Several of these complexes were found to be quite active in this respect.

  19. Magnetic entropy of the mixed and sintered compound of the RAl/sub 2/ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzuhara, T.; Wakabayashi, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Hashimoto, T.; Sahashi, M.; Inomata, K.; Tomokiyo, A.; Yayama, H.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic refrigerant for the Ericsson type magnetic refrigerator should have a constant magnetic entropy difference ΔS/sub J/ between two constant magnetic field processes. However, the magnetic entropy change of an homogeneous ferromagnet exhibits a sharp peak at the Curie temperature. In the present investigation the authors succeeded to make the layer structural sintered composite composed of several kinds of RAl/sub 2/ compounds having large entropy change near their Curie temperatures and made clear that this composite has the constant πS/sub J/ in the wide temperature range suitable for the Ericsson cycle

  20. Photo-oxidation of organic compounds in liquid low-level mixed wastes at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gering, K.L.; Schwendiman, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    A bench-scale oxidation apparatus is implemented to study the effectiveness of using an artificial ultraviolet source, a 175-watt medium pressure mercury vapor lamp, to enhance the destruction of organic contaminants in water with chemical oxidants. The waste streams used in this study are samples or surrogates of mixed wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The contaminants that are investigated include methylene chloride, 1,1,1-trichlorethane, 1, 1-dichlororethane, acetone, 2-propanol, and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. We focus on H 2 O 2 -based oxidizers for our treatment scheme, which include the UV/H 2 O 2 system, the dark Fenton system (H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ ), and the photo- assisted Fenton system (UV/H 2 O 2 /Fe 3+ ) is used in particular. Variables include concentration of the chemical oxidizer, concentration of the organic contaminant, and the elapsed reaction time. Results indicate that the photo-assisted Fenton system provides the best overall performance of the oxidizing systems listed above, where decreases in concentrations of methylene chloride, 1,1,1- trichloroethane, 1,1-dichlororethane, 2-propanol, and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid were seen. However, UV-oxidation treatment provided no measurable benefit for a mixed waste containing acetone in the presence of 2-propanol

  1. Synergism studies on some radionuclides of nuclear and environmental importance using phosphonate compounds mixed with oxygen and phosphorous containing neutral compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Zahhar, A.Abd El Wahed M.

    1998-01-01

    As solvent extraction is a technique which has been highly developed within various national energy programs because of its suitability as selective separation process for fission products, actinides and other radioactive substances. It is very important to look for to be used as extractants and to study the optimum condition under which these compounds can be used as such. This work aims at studying the use of the carbamoyl phosphonate as an extractant in the extraction of certain elements. Also studying the effect of mixed extraction (possibility of enhancing extraction or synergism) as will as temperature effect on the extraction process and calculating the thermodynamic parameters of the proposed extraction reactions. To compare the extraction behavior of the phosphonate compound with other chelating agents as HTTA and HDEHP , studying the extraction of the same elements with these cheating agents under the same conditions is also one of the objectives of this work. This work also aims at studying the extraction of certain elements in comparable oxidation states. The selected elements; uranium which represents the main pert in the nuclear fuel, cobalt which is produced in the nuclear fission products, europium which is also produced as a fission product and is analog of the trivalent actinides series and chromium which is a corrosion product in the nuclear fuel cycle and is an analogue of transition elements. The work also aims at studying the extraction of the selected elements from different aqueous media of low acidic nature to classify the effect of the aqueous phase on the extraction systems handled

  2. The conversion of BTEX compounds by single and defined mixed cultures to medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodinovic, Jasmina; Kenny, Shane T; Babu, Ramesh P; Woods, Trevor; Blau, Werner J; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2008-09-01

    Here, we report the use of petrochemical aromatic hydrocarbons as a feedstock for the biotechnological conversion into valuable biodegradable plastic polymers--polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). We assessed the ability of the known Pseudomonas putida species that are able to utilize benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene (BTEX) compounds as a sole carbon and energy source for their ability to produce PHA from the single substrates. P. putida F1 is able to accumulate medium-chain-length (mcl) PHA when supplied with toluene, benzene, or ethylbenzene. P. putida mt-2 accumulates mcl-PHA when supplied with toluene or p-xylene. The highest level of PHA accumulated by cultures in shake flask was 26% cell dry weight for P. putida mt-2 supplied with p-xylene. A synthetic mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, and styrene (BTEXS) which mimics the aromatic fraction of mixed plastic pyrolysis oil was supplied to a defined mixed culture of P. putida F1, mt-2, and CA-3 in the shake flasks and fermentation experiments. PHA was accumulated to 24% and to 36% of the cell dry weight of the shake flask and fermentation grown cultures respectively. In addition a three-fold higher cell density was achieved with the mixed culture grown in the bioreactor compared to shake flask experiments. A run in the 5-l fermentor resulted in the utilization of 59.6 g (67.5 ml) of the BTEXS mixture and the production of 6 g of mcl-PHA. The monomer composition of PHA accumulated by the mixed culture was the same as that accumulated by single strains supplied with single substrates with 3-hydroxydecanoic acid occurring as the predominant monomer. The purified polymer was partially crystalline with an average molecular weight of 86.9 kDa. It has a thermal degradation temperature of 350 degrees C and a glass transition temperature of -48.5 degrees C.

  3. COPPER(II) COMPLEXES OF o -VANILLIN ACETYLHYDRAZONE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A hydrazonic ligand, o-vanillin acetylhydrazone (H2L) has been prepared and used as chelating agent towards copper(II) ion. The ligand acts like a tridentate ligand in the monodeprotonated (HL-) and dideprotonated (L2-) states. Monoanionic complexes [{Cu(HL)(H2O)}2]•2BF4 and [{Cu(HL)(Hpz)(H2O)}]•NO3 have been ...

  4. Crystal structure of the mixed-metal trisulfide BaCu1/3Ta2/3S3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejun Bu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The mixed-metal title compound, BaCu1/3Ta2/3S3 [barium copper(II tantalum(V trisulfide], was prepared through solid-state reactions. The crystal structure adopts the BaTaS3 structure type and consists of face-sharing [MS6] (M = Ta,Cu octahedra (point-group symmetry -3m. that are condensed into infinite chains along [001]. Adjacent chains are linked through the barium cations (site symmetry -6m2, which exhibit a coordination number of twelve. The M site is occupied by 2/3 of TaV and 1/3 of CuII, whereby the average M—S distances are slightly longer than those of ordered BaTaS3. The classical charge balance of the title compound can be represented by [Ba2+] [(Ta/Cu4+] [S2−]3.

  5. Enrichment of meat products with selenium by its introduction to mixed feed compounds for birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Sobolev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a biologically active microelement, contained in a number of hormones and enzymes. In a bird or animal organism selenium performs the following functions: strengthens the immune system, stimulates formation of antibodies, macrophages and interferons. Also, it is a powerful antioxidant agent. It stimulates processes of metabolism in the organism, protects the organism against toxic manifestations of cadmium, lead, thalium and silver; stimulates reproductive function, decreases acute development of inflammatory processes; stabilizes functioning of the nervous system; normalizes functioning of the endocrine system. Furthermore, it stimulates synthesis of hemoglobin, takes part in secretion of erythrocutes, neutralizes toxins, prevents and stops development of malignant tumors. It also has a positive effect on the cardiovascular system of an animal organism: prevents myocardosis and decreases the risk of development of cardiovascular diseases. Deficiency of selenium in the organism causes (depending upon the extent of deficiency either physiological changes within the regulatory norm, significant disorders of the metabolism, or specific diseases. Around 75 different diseases and symptoms of pain are related to selenium deficiency. In most countries, the level of selenium consumption remains low (20–40 µg/day. There are several ways of improving of the selenium consumption of a population: consumption of selenium as a medication or dietary supplement, producing selenium-enriched bread, growing greens and vegetables rich in selenium, producing selenium-enriched beverages, products of animal origin, which would be rich in selenium. In the scientific-agricultural sphere studies have been made on the influence of adding different doses (0.2–0.6 mg/kg of selenium in mixed feeds and peculiarities of its depositing and distribution in the muscle tissues of young growth of different species of poultry. It has been found that feeding broiler

  6. Investigation of the interaction of copper(II) oxide and electron beam irradiation crosslinkable polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bee, Soo-Tueen; Sin, Lee Tin; Ratnam, C.T.; Haraveen, K.J.S.; Tee, Tiam-Ting; Rahmat, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of electron beam irradiation on the properties of copper(II) oxide when added to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) blends were investigated. It was found that the addition of low loading level of copper(II) oxide (⩽2 phr) to LDPE results in significantly poorer gel content and hot set results. However, the incorporation of higher loading level of copper(II) oxide (⩾3 phr) could slightly increase the degree of crosslinking in all irradiated LDPE composites. This is due to the fact that higher amounts of copper(II) oxide could slightly induce the formation of free radicals in LDPE matrix. Besides, increasing irradiation doses was also found to gradually increase the gel content of LDPE composites by generating higher amounts of free radicals. As a consequence, these higher amounts of free radicals released in the LDPE matrix could significantly increase the degree of crosslinking. The addition of copper(II) oxide could reduce the tensile strength and fracture strain (elongation at break) of LDPE composites because of poorer interfacial adhesion effect between copper(II) oxide particles and LDPE matrix. Meanwhile, increasing irradiation doses on all copper(II) oxide added LDPE composites could marginally increase the tensile strength. In addition, increasing irradiation dose could enhance the thermal stability of LDPE composites by increasing the decomposition temperature. The oxidation induction time (OIT) analysis showed that, because of the crosslinking network in the copper(II) oxide added LDPE composites, oxidation reaction is much delayed.

  7. Investigation of the interaction of copper(II) oxide and electron beam irradiation crosslinkable polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bee, Soo-Tueen, E-mail: direct.beest@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Sungai Long, Bandar Sungai Long, Cheras, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sin, Lee Tin, E-mail: direct.tinsin@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Sungai Long, Bandar Sungai Long, Cheras, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ratnam, C.T. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Haraveen, K.J.S.; Tee, Tiam-Ting [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Sungai Long, Bandar Sungai Long, Cheras, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahmat, A.R. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the effects of electron beam irradiation on the properties of copper(II) oxide when added to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) blends were investigated. It was found that the addition of low loading level of copper(II) oxide (⩽2 phr) to LDPE results in significantly poorer gel content and hot set results. However, the incorporation of higher loading level of copper(II) oxide (⩾3 phr) could slightly increase the degree of crosslinking in all irradiated LDPE composites. This is due to the fact that higher amounts of copper(II) oxide could slightly induce the formation of free radicals in LDPE matrix. Besides, increasing irradiation doses was also found to gradually increase the gel content of LDPE composites by generating higher amounts of free radicals. As a consequence, these higher amounts of free radicals released in the LDPE matrix could significantly increase the degree of crosslinking. The addition of copper(II) oxide could reduce the tensile strength and fracture strain (elongation at break) of LDPE composites because of poorer interfacial adhesion effect between copper(II) oxide particles and LDPE matrix. Meanwhile, increasing irradiation doses on all copper(II) oxide added LDPE composites could marginally increase the tensile strength. In addition, increasing irradiation dose could enhance the thermal stability of LDPE composites by increasing the decomposition temperature. The oxidation induction time (OIT) analysis showed that, because of the crosslinking network in the copper(II) oxide added LDPE composites, oxidation reaction is much delayed.

  8. Nature of the magnetic ground state in the mixed valence compound CeRuSn: a single-crystal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fikáček, J; Prokleška, J; Prchal, J; Custers, J; Sechovský, V

    2013-01-01

    We report on detailed low-temperature measurements of the magnetization, the specific heat and the electrical resistivity on high-quality CeRuSn single crystals. The compound orders antiferromagnetically at T N = 2.8 K with the Ce 3+ ions locked within the a–c plane of the monoclinic structure. Magnetization shows that below T N CeRuSn undergoes a metamagnetic transition when applying a magnetic field of 1.5 and 0.8 T along the a- and c-axis, respectively. This transition manifests in a tremendous negative jump of ∼25% in the magnetoresistance. The value of the saturated magnetization along the easy magnetization direction (c-axis) and the magnetic entropy above T N derived from specific heat data correspond to the scenario of only one third of the Ce ions in the compound being trivalent and carrying a stable Ce 3+ magnetic moment, whereas the other two thirds of the Ce ions are in a nonmagnetic tetravalent and/or mixed valence state. This is consistent with the low-temperature CeRuSn crystal structure i.e., a superstructure consisting of three unit cells of the CeCoAl type piled up along the c-axis, and in which the Ce 3+ ions are characterized by large distances from the Ru ligands while the Ce–Ru distances of the other Ce ions are much shorter causing a strong 4f-ligand hybridization and hence leading to tetravalent and/or mixed valence Ce ions. (paper)

  9. Distinctive EPR signals provide an understanding of the affinity of bis-(3-hydroxy-4-pyridinonato) copper(II) complexes for hydrophobic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Maria; Leite, Andreia; Silva, André M N; Moniz, Tânia; Nunes, Ana; Amorim, M João; Queirós, Carla; Cunha-Silva, Luís; Gameiro, Paula; Burgess, John

    2014-07-07

    In this work we report the synthesis and characterization of a set of 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone copper(ii) complexes with variable lipophilicity. EPR spectroscopy was used to characterize the structure of copper(ii) complexes in solution, and as a tool to gain insight into solvent interactions. EPR spectra of solutions of the [CuL2] complexes recorded in different solvents reveal the presence of two copper species whose ratio depends on the nature of the solvent. Investigation of EPR spectra in the pure solvents methanol, dimethylsulfoxide, dichloromethane and their 50% (v/v) mixtures with toluene allowed the characterization of two types of copper signals (gzz = 2.30 and gzz = 2.26) whose spin-Hamiltonian parameters are consistent with solvated and non-solvated square-planar copper(ii) complexes. Regarding the potential biological application of ligands and complexes and to get insight into the partition properties in water-membrane interfaces, EPR spectra were also obtained in water-saturated octanol, an aqueous solution buffered at pH = 7.4 and liposome suspensions, for three compounds representative of different hydro-lipophilic balances. Analysis of the EPR spectra obtained in liposomes allowed establishment of the location of the complexes in the water and lipid phases. In view of the results of this work we put forward the use of EPR spectroscopy to assess the affinity of copper(ii) complexes for a hydrophobic environment and also to obtain indirect information about the lipophilicity of the ligands and similar EPR silent complexes.

  10. Copper(II) Thiosemicarbazone Complexes and Their Proligands upon UVA Irradiation: An EPR and Spectrophotometric Steady-State Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hricovíni, Michal; Mazúr, Milan; Sîrbu, Angela; Palamarciuc, Oleg; Arion, Vladimir B; Brezová, Vlasta

    2018-03-21

    X- and Q-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to characterize polycrystalline Cu(II) complexes that contained sodium 5-sulfonate salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazones possessing a hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, or phenyl substituent at the terminal nitrogen. The ability of thiosemicarbazone proligands to generate superoxide radical anions and hydroxyl radicals upon their exposure to UVA irradiation in aerated aqueous solutions was evidenced by the EPR spin trapping technique. The UVA irradiation of proligands in neutral or alkaline solutions and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) caused a significant decrease in the absorption bands of aldimine and phenolic chromophores. Mixing of proligand solutions with the equimolar amount of copper(II) ions resulted in the formation of 1:1 Cu(II)-to-ligand complex, with the EPR and UV-Vis spectra fully compatible with those obtained for the dissolved Cu(II) thiosemicarbazone complexes. The formation of the complexes fully inhibited the photoinduced generation of reactive oxygen species, and only subtle changes were found in the electronic absorption spectra of the complexes in aqueous and DMSO solutions upon UVA steady-state irradiation. The dark redox activity of copper(II) complexes and proligand/Cu(II) aqueous solutions towards hydrogen peroxide which resulted in the generation of hydroxyl radicals, was confirmed by spin trapping experiments.

  11. Determination of HCl and VOC Emission from Thermal Degradation of PVC in the Absence and Presence of Copper, Copper(II Oxide and Copper(II Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamad J. Jafari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl chloride (PVC has played a key role in the development of the plastic industry over the past 40 years. Thermal degradation of PVC leads to formation of many toxic pollutants such as HCl, aromatic and volatile organic carbon vapors. Thermal degradation of PVC and PVC in the present of copper, cupric oxide and copper(II chloride were investigated in this study using a laboratory scale electrical furnace. HCl and Cl- ion were analyzed by a Dionex ion chromatograph and VOCs compounds were analyzed using GC or GC-MS. The results showed that HCl plus Cl- ion and benzene formed about 99% and 80% respectively in the first step of thermal degradation under air atmosphere. The presence of cupric oxide increases the percentage of short chain hydrocarbons more than 184% and decreases the amount of the major aromatic hydrocarbon and HCl plus Cl- ion to 90% and 65% respectively. The total aromatic hydrocarbon emitted less than when atmosphere was air and difference was statistically significant (Pvalue<0.000

  12. Can the second order multireference perturbation theory be considered a reliable tool to study mixed-valence compounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Mariachiara; Helal, Wissam; Evangelisti, Stefano; Leininger, Thierry; Malrieu, Jean-Paul; Maynau, Daniel; Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo

    2008-05-07

    In this paper, the problem of the calculation of the electronic structure of mixed-valence compounds is addressed in the frame of multireference perturbation theory (MRPT). Using a simple mixed-valence compound (the 5,5(') (4H,4H('))-spirobi[ciclopenta[c]pyrrole] 2,2('),6,6(') tetrahydro cation), and the n-electron valence state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) and CASPT2 approaches, it is shown that the ground state (GS) energy curve presents an unphysical "well" for nuclear coordinates close to the symmetric case, where a maximum is expected. For NEVPT, the correct shape of the energy curve is retrieved by applying the MPRT at the (computationally expensive) third order. This behavior is rationalized using a simple model (the ionized GS of two weakly interacting identical systems, each neutral system being described by two electrons in two orbitals), showing that the unphysical well is due to the canonical orbital energies which at the symmetric (delocalized) conformation lead to a sudden modification of the denominators in the perturbation expansion. In this model, the bias introduced in the second order correction to the energy is almost entirely removed going to the third order. With the results of the model in mind, one can predict that all MRPT methods in which the zero order Hamiltonian is based on canonical orbital energies are prone to present unreasonable energy profiles close to the symmetric situation. However, the model allows a strategy to be devised which can give a correct behavior even at the second order, by simply averaging the orbital energies of the two charge-localized electronic states. Such a strategy is adopted in a NEVPT2 scheme obtaining a good agreement with the third order results based on the canonical orbital energies. The answer to the question reported in the title (is this theoretical approach a reliable tool for a correct description of these systems?) is therefore positive, but care must be exercised, either in defining the orbital

  13. Synthesis and characterization of a multifunctional inorganic-organic hybrid mixed-valence copper(I/II) coordination polymer: {[CuCN][Cu(isonic)2]}n

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Wen-Tong; Ye, Guang-Ming; Zhang, Jing; Sui, Yan

    2017-12-01

    A new multifunctional mixed-valence copper(I/II) coordination polymer, {[CuCN][Cu(isonic)2]}n(1) (Hisonic = isonicotinic acid), was synthesized by treating isonicotinic acid and 5-amino-tetrazolate (Hatz = 5-amino-tetrazolate) with copper(II) salts under hydrothermal conditions, and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and single crystal X-ray diffraction, respectively. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compound exhibit noncentrosymmetric polar packing arrangement. It is three-dimensional (3D) framework with (3,5)-connected 'seh-3' topological network constructed from metal organic framework {[Cu(isonic)2]}n and the inorganic linear chain{Cu(CN)}n subunits. A remarkable feature of 1 is the rhombic open channels that are occupied by a linear chain of {Cu(CN)}n. Impressively compound 1 displays not only a second harmonic generation (SHG) response, but also a ferroelectric behavior and magnetic properties.

  14. 3D Online Submicron Scale Observation of Mixed Metal Powder's Microstructure Evolution in High Temperature and Microwave Compound Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the influence on the mechanical properties caused by microstructure evolution of metal powder in extreme environment, 3D real-time observation of the microstructure evolution of Al-Ti mixed powder in high temperature and microwave compound fields was realized by using synchrotron radiation computerized topography (SR-CT technique; the spatial resolution was enhanced to 0.37 μm/pixel through the designed equipment and the introduction of excellent reconstruction method for the first time. The process of microstructure evolution during sintering was clearly distinguished from 2D and 3D reconstructed images. Typical sintering parameters such as sintering neck size, porosity, and particle size of the sample were presented for quantitative analysis of the influence on the mechanical properties and the sintering kinetics during microwave sintering. The neck size-time curve was obtained and the neck growth exponent was 7.3, which indicated that surface diffusion was the main diffusion mechanism; the reason was the eddy current loss induced by the external microwave fields providing an additional driving force for mass diffusion on the particle surface. From the reconstructed images and the curve of porosity and average particle size versus temperature, it was believed that the presence of liquid phase aluminum accelerated the densification and particle growth.

  15. The thermal decomposition of copper(II) oxalate revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamprecht, Emmanuel; Watkins, Gareth M.; Brown, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    DSC, TG and TG-FT-IR, and XRPD have been used to examine the effects of supposedly inert atmospheres of argon and nitrogen on the mechanism of the thermal decomposition of copper(II) oxalate. The DSC curves in pure argon at 10 deg. C min -1 show a broad endotherm with onset at about 280 deg. C and maximum at about 295 deg. C. In mixtures of argon and nitrogen, as the proportion of argon gas is decreased, the endothermic character of the decomposition decreases until, when nitrogen is the main component, the decomposition exhibits a complex broad exothermic character. XRPD studies showed that, regardless of the proportions of nitrogen and argon, the DSC residues consisted of mainly copper metal with small amounts of copper(I) oxide (cuprite) and, under some conditions, traces of copper(II) oxide (tenorite). Various explanations for this behaviour are discussed and a possible answer lies in the disproportionation of CO 2 (g) to form small quantities of O 2 (g) or monatomic oxygen. The possibility exists that the exothermicity in nitrogen could be explained by reaction of the nitrogen with atomic oxygen to form N 2 O(g), but this product could not be detected using TG-FT-IR

  16. The thermal decomposition of copper(II) oxalate revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamprecht, Emmanuel [Chemistry Department, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Watkins, Gareth M. [Chemistry Department, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Brown, Michael E. [Chemistry Department, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa)]. E-mail: m.brown@ru.ac.za

    2006-07-01

    DSC, TG and TG-FT-IR, and XRPD have been used to examine the effects of supposedly inert atmospheres of argon and nitrogen on the mechanism of the thermal decomposition of copper(II) oxalate. The DSC curves in pure argon at 10 deg. C min{sup -1} show a broad endotherm with onset at about 280 deg. C and maximum at about 295 deg. C. In mixtures of argon and nitrogen, as the proportion of argon gas is decreased, the endothermic character of the decomposition decreases until, when nitrogen is the main component, the decomposition exhibits a complex broad exothermic character. XRPD studies showed that, regardless of the proportions of nitrogen and argon, the DSC residues consisted of mainly copper metal with small amounts of copper(I) oxide (cuprite) and, under some conditions, traces of copper(II) oxide (tenorite). Various explanations for this behaviour are discussed and a possible answer lies in the disproportionation of CO{sub 2}(g) to form small quantities of O{sub 2}(g) or monatomic oxygen. The possibility exists that the exothermicity in nitrogen could be explained by reaction of the nitrogen with atomic oxygen to form N{sub 2}O(g), but this product could not be detected using TG-FT-IR.

  17. Novel metal complexes of mixed piperaquine-acetaminophen and piperaquine-acetylsalicylic acid: Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Oloruntoyin Ayipo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of coordination compounds of Zinc(II, Copper(II, Nickel(II, Cobalt(II and Iron(II with mixed piperaquine-acetaminophen and piperaquine-acetylsalicylic acid has been studied. The complexes were characterized via: solubility test, melting point determination, conductivity measurement, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, UV-Visible Spectroscopy, FTIR Spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility. The complexes were proposed to have a stoichiometry ratio of 1:1:1 between each metal salt and the ligands with tetrahedral and octahedral geometry following the reaction pattern of MX.yH2O + L1L2/3 to give ML1L2/3X.yH2O. Biological activities of the synthesized complexes have been evaluated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  18. Fermentative capabilities and volatile compounds produced by Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora and Saccharomyces yeast strains in pure and mixed cultures during Agave tequilana juice fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Robles, Ivonne Wendolyne; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María

    2015-09-01

    The fermentative and aromatic capabilities of Kloeckera africana/Hanseniaspora vineae K1, K. apiculata/H. uvarum K2, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1 and S2 were studied in pure and mixed culture fermentations using Agave tequila juice as the culture medium. In pure and mixed cultures, Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora strains showed limited growth and sugar consumption, as well as low ethanol yield and productivity, compared to S. cerevisiae, which yielded more biomass, ethanol and viable cell concentrations. In pure and mixed cultures, S. cerevisiae presented a similar behaviour reaching high biomass production, completely consuming the sugar, leading to high ethanol production. Furthermore, the presence of S. cerevisiae strains in the mixed cultures promoted the production of higher alcohols, acetaldehyde and ethyl esters, whereas Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora strains stimulated the production of ethyl acetate and 2-phenyl ethyl acetate compounds.

  19. Using a biological aerated filter to treat mixed water-borne volatile organic compounds and assessing its emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wen-Hsi

    2009-01-01

    A biological aerated filter (BAF) was evaluated as a fixed-biofilm processes to remove water-borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a multiple layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) manufacturing plant in southern Taiwan.The components of VOC were identified to be toluene,1,2,4-trimethylbenzene,1,3,5-trimethylbenzene,bromodichloromethane and isopropanol (IPA).The full-scale BAF was constructed of two separate reactors in series,respectively using 10-cm and 15-cm diameter polypropylene balls as the packing materials and a successful preliminary bench-scale experiment was performed to feasibility.Performance results show that the BAF removed over 90% chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the influent with (1188 ± 605) mg/L of COD.A total organic loading of 2.76 kg biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)/(m~3 packing·d) was determined for the packed bed,in which the flow pattern approached that of a mixed flow.A limited VOC concentration of (0.97 ± 0.29) ppmv (as methane) was emitted from the BAF system.Moreover,the emission rate of VOC was calculated using the proposed formula,based on an air-water mass equilibrium relationship,and compared to the simulated results obtained using the Water 9 model.Both estimation approaches of calculation and model simulation using Water 9 evaluating VOC emissions reveal that 0.1% IPA (0.0031-0.0037 kg/d) was aerated into a gaseous phase,and 30% to 40% (0.006-0.008 kg/d) of the toluene was aerated.

  20. Theoretical and experimental study of high-magnetic-field XMCD spectra at the L2,3 absorption edges of mixed-valence rare-earth compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotani, Akio; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H; Nojiri, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism(XMCD) spectra at the L 2,3 edges of mixed-valence rare-earth compounds in high magnetic fields are studied both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical study is based on a new framework proposed recently by Kotani. The Zeeman splitting of 4f states, the mixed-valence character of 4f states, and the 4f-5d exchange interaction are incorporated into a single impurity Anderson model. New XMCD experiments in high magnetic fields up to 40 T are carried out for the mixed-valence compounds EuNi 2 (Si 0.18 Ge 0.82 ) 2 and YbInCu 4 by using a miniature pulsed magnet, which was developed recently by Matsuda et al. The XMCD data are taken at 5 K by transmission measurements for incident X-rays with ± helicities at BL39XU in SPring-8. After giving a survey on recent developments in the theory of XMCD spectra for mixed-valence Ce and Yb compounds, we calculate the XMCD spectra of YbInCu 4 at the field-induced valence transition around 32 T by applying the recent theoretical framework and by newly introducing at 32 T a discontinuous change in the Yb 4f level and that in the hybridization strength between the Yb 4f and conduction electrons. The calculated results are compared with the experimental ones.

  1. The automated sample preparation system MixMaster for investigation of volatile organic compounds with mid-infrared evanescent wave spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, F; Karlowatz, M; Jakusch, M; Mizaikoff, B

    2003-04-01

    For efficient development assessment, and calibration of new chemical analyzers a large number of independently prepared samples of target analytes is necessary. Whereas mixing units for gas analysis are readily available, there is a lack of instrumentation for accurate preparation of liquid samples containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Manual preparation of liquid samples containing VOCs at trace concentration levels is a particularly challenging and time consuming task. Furthermore, regularly scheduled calibration of sensors and analyzer systems demands for computer controlled automated sample preparation systems. In this paper we present a novel liquid mixing device enabling extensive measurement series with focus on volatile organic compounds, facilitating analysis of water polluted by traces of volatile hydrocarbons. After discussing the mixing system and control software, first results obtained by coupling with an FT-IR spectrometer are reported. Properties of the mixing system are assessed by mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy of methanol-acetone mixtures and by investigation of multicomponent samples containing volatile hydrocarbons such as 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and tetrachloroethylene. Obtained ATR spectra are evaluated by principal component regression (PCR) algorithms. It is demonstrated that the presented sample mixing device provides reliable multicomponent mixtures with sufficient accuracy and reproducibility at trace concentration levels.

  2. Copper(II) catalysis in cyanide conversion into ethyl carbamate in spirits and relevant reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresta, M; Boscolo, M; Franco, D W

    2001-06-01

    The role of copper(II) species in the oxidation of inorganic cyanide to cyanate and in the conversion of cyanate or urea into ethyl carbamate was investigated. The oxidation process has been shown to be independent from the dissolved oxygen. Elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy have shown the formation of a mixed copper carbonate/hydroxide in the process of oxidation of cyanide to cyanate in water/ethanol. The complexation to Cu(II) of cyanate formed upon cyanide oxidation makes the former more susceptible to nucleophilic attack from ethanol, with conversion into ethyl carbamate. Comparatively, urea has a minor role with respect to cyanide in the formation of ethyl carbamate. Therefore, the urea present in some samples of Brazilian sugar cane spirit (cachaça) has been shown to have almost no influence on the ethyl carbamate content of cachaças, which comes essentially from cyanide. Fe(II,III) affords results similar to those found with Cu(II). Some suggestions are presented to avoid ethyl carbamate formation in spirits during distillation.

  3. Group IB Organometallic Chemistry XIX.Synthesis and characterization of mixed-organocopper cluster compounds R4R'2Cu6 containing aryl and acetylide ligands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Hoedt, R.W.M. ten; Noltes, J.G.

    1977-01-01

    Mixed-organocopper cluster compounds Ar4Cu6(CCR)2 (Ar = 2-Me2NC6H4, R = phenyl, 4-tolyl, 2,4-xylyl or mesityl) have been prepared in high yield by the ligand-substitution reaction of Ar4Cu6Br2 with two equivalents of LiCCR. Ar4Cu6(CCC6H4CH3-4)2 has also been prepared via the aryl¡ªarylacetylide

  4. The possibility of the mixed valence state in the uranium intermetallic compounds: UCoGa5, U2Ru2Sn and U2RuGa8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troc, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The mixed valence (MV) phenomenon has been observed so far in a large number of various compounds but containing only lanthanides. These properties are usually associated with the mixing of the localised f-state and the band states. The usual valence state for magnetic uranium intermetallics is the trivalent state 5f 3 or hybridised 5f 2 6d 1 , both are nearly degenerate in energy and can compete for a stability of the compound. In some cases a gain in an energy minimum may be achieved by very fast fluctuating between these two states with a time of 10 -14 s, which does not allow to yield the ordered state even if the exchange interactions (favourite the U-U distances) would be able for that. The latter cases seem to concern the described here intermetallics: one ternary compound based on Co, UCoGa 5 , and the two uranium ternary compounds based on Ru, namely U 2 Ru 2 Sn and U 2 RuGa 8 which all crystallize in a tetragonal unit cell. All these compounds show a maximum in their temperature dependences of the magnetic susceptibility measured along and perpendicular to the c-axis. Such a behaviour, which is reminiscent of a number of Ce (Sm, Eu) and Yb compounds for which χ(T) has in the past been considered by Sales and Wohlleben (SW) by applying their ICF model or by Lawrance et al. following their scaling procedure. It turned out that these phenomenological models can also be applied to the considered here two Ru-based uranium ternaries from which some reliable energy parameters could be found. In order to further support the mixing valence scenario for the first such cases in uranium compounds presented here, the transport and thermodynamic properties are also discussed. However, some of the most important results confirming the MV state, e.g., in U 2 RuGa 8 , has recently been achieved from the inelastic neutron scattering performed in the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory on the ISIS facility. From these measurements a characteristic gap of 60 meV has been

  5. Scaling properties for the first RE-like mixed valence examples in uranium compounds: U2Ru2Sn and U2RuGa8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troc, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The present study was motivated by the scaling characterization of the first example of mixed valence (MV) RE-like behaviour found recently among intermetallic ternary uranium compounds. The χ(T) function for both title compounds has been fitted to the interconfigurational fluctuation (ICF) model of Sales and Wohlleben in order to determine the characteristic fluctuation temperatures T sf and interconfigurational excitation energies E ex . A good scaling, with similar values of T sf like from those derived from the ICF model, has been achieved for both these ternaries by plotting Tχ(T)/C against the reduced T/T sf . Moreover, this scaling follows almost exactly those found earlier in a number of MV- RE compounds

  6. Coumarin-Based Fluorescent Probes for Dual Recognition of Copper(II and Iron(III Ions and Their Application in Bio-Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpo García-Beltrán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new coumarin-based “turn-off” fluorescent probes, (E-3-((3,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS1 and (E-3-((2,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS2, were synthesized and their detection of copper(II and iron(III ions was studied. Results show that both compounds are highly selective for Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions over other metal ions. However, BS2 is detected directly, while detection of BS1 involves a hydrolysis reaction to regenerate 3-amino-7-hydroxycoumarin (3 and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, of which 3 is able to react with copper(II or iron(III ions. The interaction between the tested compounds and copper or iron ions is associated with a large fluorescence decrease, showing detection limits of ca. 10−5 M. Preliminary studies employing epifluorescence microscopy demonstrate that Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions can be imaged in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with the tested probes.

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of silver(I) and copper(II) complexes of phosphate derivatives of pyridine and benzimidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowska-Lis, Urszula; Szewczyk, Eligia M; Chęcińska, Lilianna; Wojciechowski, Jakub M; Wolf, Wojciech M; Ochocki, Justyn

    2014-01-01

    Two silver(I) complexes--[Ag(4-pmOpe)]NO₃}(n) and [Ag(2-bimOpe)₂]NO₃--and three copper(II) complexes--[Cu₄Cl₆O(2-bimOpe)₄], [CuCl₂(4-pmOpe)₂], and [CuCl₂(2-bis(pm)Ope]--were synthesized by reaction of silver(I) nitrate or copper(II) chloride with phosphate derivatives of pyridine and benzimidazole, namely diethyl (pyridin-4-ylmethyl)phosphate (4-pmOpe), 1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl diethyl phosphate (2-bimOpe), and ethyl bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)phosphate (2-bis(pm)Ope). These compounds were characterized by ¹H, ¹³C, and ³¹P NMR as well as IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and ESIMS spectrometry. Additionally, molecular and crystal structures of {[Ag(4-pmOpe)]NO₃}n and [Cu₄Cl₆O(2-bimOpe)₄] were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The antimicrobial profiles of synthesized complexes and free ligands against test organisms from the ATCC and clinical sources were determined. Silver(I) complexes showed good antimicrobial activities against Candida albicans strains (MIC values of ∼19 μM). [Ag(2-bimOpe)₂]NO₃ was particularly active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, with MIC values of ∼5 and ∼10 μM, respectively. Neither copper(II) complexes nor the free ligands inhibited the growth of test organisms at concentrations below 500 μg mL⁻¹. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Copper(II) complexes with 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid: Syntheses, crystal structures and antifungal activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Pingping; Li, Jie; Bu, Huaiyu; Wei, Qing; Zhang, Ruolin; Chen, Sanping

    2014-01-01

    Reaction of Cu(II) with an asymmetric semi-rigid organic ligand 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid (HL), yielded five compounds, [Cu 0.5 L] n (1), [Cu(HL) 2 Cl 2 ] n (2), [Cu(HL) 2 Cl 2 (H 2 O)] (3), [Cu(L) 2 (H 2 O)] n (4) and [Cu(L)(phen)(HCO 2 )] n (5), which have been fully characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. As for compounds 1, 2 and 5, Cu(II) is bridged through HL, Cl - , and formic acid, respectively, featuring 1D chain-structure. In compound 3, Cu(II) with hexahedral coordination sphere is assembled through hydrogen-bonding into 3D supramolecular framework. In compound 4, 1D chain units –Cu–O–Cu–O– are ligand-bridged into a 3D network. All compounds were tested on fungi (Fusarium graminearum, Altemaria solani, Macrophoma kawatsukai, Alternaria alternata and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). Compound 1 exhibits a better antifungal effect compared to other compounds. An effect of structure on the antifungal activity has also been correlated. - Graphical abstract: Copper(II) compounds with 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid, were prepared, structurally characterized and investigated for antifungal activity. - Highlights: • The title compounds formed by thermodynamics and thermokinetics. • The five compounds show higher inhibition percentage than reactants. • The structure effect on the antifungal activity

  9. Template Syntheses, Crystal Structures and Supramolecular Assembly of Hexaaza Macrocyclic Copper(II) Complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehyung; Kim, Ju Chang; Lough, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Two new hexaaza macrocyclic copper(II) complexes were prepared by a template method and structurally characterized. In the solid state, they were self-assembled by intermolecular interactions to form the corresponding supramolecules 1 and 2, respectively. In the structure of 1, the copper(II) macrocycles are bridged by a tp ligand to form a macrocyclic copper(II) dimer. The dimer extends its structure by intermolecular forces such as hydrogen bonds and C-H···π interactions, resulting in the formation of a double stranded 1D supramolecule. In 2, the basic structure is a monomeric copper(II) macrocycle with deprotonated imidazole pendants. An undulated 1D hydrogen bonded array is achieved through hydrogen bonds between imidazole pendants and secondary amines, where the imidazole pendants act as a hydrogen bond acceptor. The 1D hydrogen bonded supramolecular chain is supported by C-H···π interactions between the methyl groups of acetonitrile ligands and imidazole pendants of the copper(II) macrocycles. In both complexes, the introduction of imidazoles to the macrocycle as a pendant plays an important role for the formation of supramolecules, where they act as intermolecular hydrogen bond donors and/or acceptors, C-H···π and π-π interactions

  10. Bis(morpholine) hydrogen bond pincer - a novel series of heteroleptic Cu(II) coordination compounds as receptors for electron rich guests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stilinovic, Vladimir; Uzarevic, Krunoslav; Cvrtila, Ivica; Kaitner, Branko

    2012-01-01

    Crystallisation from morpholine (morph) solutions of copper(II) salts with monovalent anions (A) and 1,3-diketones (Hdkt) yielded nine heteroleptic coordination compounds [Cu(dkt)(morph)(2)A]. The coordination polyhedron of the copper ion in these compounds is a square pyramid with a monovalent

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of mixed gaseous carbonyl compounds at low level on adsorptive TiO2/SiO2 photocatalyst using a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maolin; An, Taicheng; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying; Wang, Xinming; Hu, Xiaohong; Ding, Xuejun

    2006-06-01

    An adsorptive silica-supported titania photocatalyst TiO(2)/SiO(2) was prepared by using nanosized titania (anatase) immobilized on silica gel by the sol-gel technique with the titanium tetra isopropoxide as the main raw material and acetic acid as the acid catalyst. Meanwhile the structure and properties of the TiO(2)/SiO(2) photocatalyst were studied by means of many modern analysis techniques such as TEM, XRD, and BET. Gas-solid heterogeneous photocatalytic decomposition of four carbonyl compounds mixture at low concentration levels over ultraviolet irradiated TiO(2)/SiO(2) photocatalyst were carried out with high degradation efficiencies in a coaxial triple-cylinder-type fluidized bed photocatalytic reactor, which provided efficient continuous contact of ultraviolet photons, silica-supported titania photocatalyst, and gaseous reactants. Experimental results showed that the photocatalyst had a high adsorption performance and a good photocatalytic activity for four carbonyl compounds mixture. Some factors influencing the photocatalytic decomposition of the mixed carbonyl compounds, i.e. the gas flowrate, relative humidity, concentration of oxygen, and illumination time, were discussed in detail. It is found that the photocatalytic reaction rate of four carbonyl compounds decreased in this order: propionaldehyde, acetone, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde.

  12. Steric Effects on the Binding of Phosphate and Polyphosphate Anions by Zinc(II) and Copper(II) Dinuclear Complexes of m-Xylyl-bis-cyclen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Catarina V; Esteban-Gómez, David; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Tripier, Raphaël; Delgado, Rita

    2018-05-11

    The triethylbenzene-bis-cyclen (cyclen = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane) compound (tbmce) was designed with an imposed structural rigidity at the m-xylyl spacer to be compared to a less restrained and known parent compound (bmce). The framework of both compounds differs only in the substituents of the m-xylyl spacer. The study was centered in the differences observed in the acid-base reactions of both compounds, their copper(II) and zinc(II) complexation behaviors, as well as in the uptake of phosphate and polyphosphate anions (HPPi 3- , ATP 4- , ADP 3- , AMP 2- , PhPO 4 2- , and HPO 4 2- ). On the one hand, the acid-base reactions showed lower values for the third and fourth protonation constants of tbmce than for bmce, suggesting that the ethyl groups of the spacer in tbmce force the two cyclen units to more conformational restricted positions. On the other hand, the stability constant values for copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes revealed that bmce is a better chelator than tbmce pointing out to additional conformational restraints imposed by the triethylbenzene spacer. The binding studies of phosphates by the dinuclear copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes showed much smaller effective association constants for the dicopper complexes. Single-crystal X-ray and computational (density functional theory) studies suggest that anion binding promotes the formation of tetranuclear entities in which anions are bridging the metal centers. Our studies also revealed the dinuclear zinc(II) complex of bmce as a promising receptor for phosphate anions, with the largest effective association constant of 5.94 log units being observed for the formation of [Zn 2 bmce(HPPi)] + . Accordingly, a colorimetric study via an indicator displacement assay to detect phosphates in aqueous solution found that the [Zn 2 bmce] 4+ complex acts as the best receptor for pyrophosphate displaying a detection limit of 2.5 nM by changes visible to naked eye.

  13. Surface Structures Formed by a Copper(II Complex of Alkyl-Derivatized Indigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Honda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Assembled structures of dyes have great influence on their coloring function. For example, metal ions added in the dyeing process are known to prevent fading of color. Thus, we have investigated the influence of an addition of copper(II ion on the surface structure of alkyl-derivatized indigo. Scanning tunneling microscope (STM analysis revealed that the copper(II complexes of indigo formed orderly lamellar structures on a HOPG substrate. These lamellar structures of the complexes are found to be more stable than those of alkyl-derivatized indigos alone. Furthermore, 2D chirality was observed.

  14. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of the copper(II) aspartame chloride complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, S.; Coşkun, E.; Naumov, P.; Biçer, E.; Bulut, İ.; İçbudak, H.; Çakır, O.

    2002-08-01

    Aspartame adduct of copper(II) chloride Cu(Asp) 2Cl 2·2H 2O (Asp=aspartame) is synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT IR, UV/vis, ESR spectroscopies, TG, DTG, DTA measurements and molecular mechanics calculations. Aqueous solution of the green solid absorbs strongly at 774 and 367 nm. According to the FT IR spectra, the aspartame moiety coordinates to the copper(II) ion via its carboxylate ends, whereas the ammonium terminal groups give rise to hydrogen bonding network with the water, the chloride ions or neighboring carboxylate groups. The results suggest tetragonally distorted octahedral environment of the copper ions.

  15. Preparation of radioactive ''mixed'' waste samples for measurement of RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkins, B.A.; Caton, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    A radioactive ''mixed'' waste typically contains alpha-, beta-, or gamma-emitting radionuclides and varying quantities of semivolatile or volatile organic species, some or all of which may be named specifically by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Because there are no acceptable means available currently for disposing of these mixed wastes, they are presently stored above-ground in sealed drums. For this reason, analytical procedures which can determine RCRA organics in radioactive waste are necessary for deciding the proper approach for disposal. An important goal of this work is the development of methods for preparing mixed waste samples in a manner which allows the RCRA organics to be measured in conventional organic analysis laboratories without special precautions. Analytical procedures developed for handling mixed waste samples must satisfy not only the usual constraints present in any trace-level organic chemical determination, but also those needed to insure the protection of the operator from radioactive contamination. Consequently, procedures should be designed to use the least amount of radioactive sample commensurate with achieving acceptable sensitivity with the RCRA analytical methods. Furthermore, the unusual laboratory glassware which would normally be used should be replaced with disposable materials wherever possible, in order to reduce the ''clean-up'' time required, and thereby reduce the operator's exposure to radioactivity. Actual sample handling should be reduced to the absolute minimum. Finally, the final isolate must exhibit a sufficiently low level of alpha, beta, or gamma activity to permit detailed characterization in a conventional organic analysis laboratory. 4 refs., 5 tabs

  16. Elucidating the sorption mechanism of “mixed-mode” SPME using the basic drug amphetamine as a model compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltenburg, Hester; Groothuis, Floris A.; Droge, Steven T.J.; Bosman, Ingrid J.; Hermens, Joop L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •C18/propylsulfonic acid “mixed-mode” SPME fiber is efficient in sampling amphetamine. •Both protonated and neutral species of amphetamine sorb to the mixed-mode fiber. •Sorption of organic cations to this mixed-mode fiber depends on pH and salinity. •Amphetamine has a 20× higher affinity to the mixed-mode coating than to polyacrylate. -- Abstract: We studied the sorption of amphetamine as a model drug to represent small, polar organic cations to a new SPME coating combining C18 and propylsulfonic acid. This combination of hydrophobic and strong cation exchange (SCX) groups was compared to conventional SPME fibers with polyacrylate (PA) or C18 coating. The affinity of amphetamine at physiological pH (PBS) was 20 to 180 times greater for the new C18/SCX coating than for C18 alone and PA of different coating thickness. As amphetamine is a base and >99% protonated at physiological pH, this enhanced affinity is attributed to the ion-exchange phase in the coating. Tests at pH above the pK a of amphetamine show that, when normalized to the coating volume, neutral amphetamine also has a higher affinity compared to PA. As ion-exchange groups are not unlimitedly present in the coating, amphetamine isotherms level off to a saturation concentration on the C18/SCX fiber at the highest tested aqueous concentrations. Also, other cations (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ ) compete for the SCX sites and decrease the sorption coefficients, e.g. by 1.7 log units when comparing Milli-Q water with PBS. The C18/SCX fiber provides improved sensitivity over some of the classic SPME fibers. However, care should be taken near the cation exchange capacity of the fiber and the fiber should be calibrated in an appropriate matrix so as to eliminate competition effects

  17. Supported Layered Double Hydroxide-Related Mixed Oxides and Their Application in the Total Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovanda, F.; Jirátová, Květa

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2011), s. 305-316 ISSN 0169-1317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/10/1762; GA ČR GA106/09/1664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : layered double hydroxides * hydrothermal reaction * mixed oxides Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.474, year: 2011

  18. Cosmeceutical potentials and bioactive compounds of rice bran fermented with single and mix culture of Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Lelamurni Abd Razak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, rice bran, one of the most abundant agricultural by-products in Malaysia, was fermented with single and mixed cultures of Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae. The fermented rice bran extracts were tested for their functional properties and compared to the non-fermented counterparts. Antioxidant activities as well as phenolics and organic acid contents were evaluated. Skincare-related functionalities were also tested by evaluating tyrosinase and elastase inhibition activities. Tyrosinase inhibition activity, measured to determine the anti-pigmentation effect of extracts, was found to be the highest in the extract of rice bran fermented with A. oryzae (56.18% compared to other extracts. In determining the anti-aging effect of fermented rice bran extracts, the same extract showed the highest elastase inhibition activity with a value of 60.52%. Antioxidant activities were found to be highest in the mix-cultured rice bran extract. The results of phenolic and organic acid content were varied; the major phenolic acid detected was ferulic acid with a value of 43.19 μg/ml in the mix-cultured rice bran extract. On the other hand, citric acid was the major organic acid detected, with the highest content found in the same extract (214.6 mg/g. The results of this study suggest that the fermented rice bran extracts may have the potential to be further exploited as ingredients in cosmetics as well as in antioxidant-rich products.

  19. Luminescent MOFs comprising mixed tritopic linkers and Cd(II)/Zn(II) nodes for selective detection of organic nitro compounds and iodine capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachuri, Yadagiri; Bisht, Kamal Kumar [Analytical Discipline and Centralized Instrument Facility, CSIR–Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR–Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Parmar, Bhavesh [Analytical Discipline and Centralized Instrument Facility, CSIR–Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Suresh, Eringathodi, E-mail: esuresh@csmcri.org [Analytical Discipline and Centralized Instrument Facility, CSIR–Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR–Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India)

    2015-03-15

    Two CPs ([Cd{sub 3}(BTC){sub 2}(TIB){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}].(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}){sub n} (1) and ([Zn{sub 3}(BTC){sub 2}(TIB){sub 2}].(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}){sub n} (2) composed of tripodal linkers BTC (1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) and TIB (1,3,5-tris(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene) were synthesized via solvothermal route and structurally characterized. Single crystal structural analysis reveals 1 possesses a novel 3D framework structure, whereas 2 represents a previously established compound. Owing to the d{sup 10} configuration of metal nodes and robust 3D frameworks, 1 and 2 exhibit excellent fluorescence properties which have been exploited to sense organic nitro compounds in vapor phase. Compound 1 demonstrates selective sensing of nitromethane over structurally similar methanol with ca. 70 and 43% fluorescence quenching in case of former and later. Similarly, 58% fluorescence quenching was observed in case of nitrobenzene over the structurally resembling toluene for which 30% quenching was observed. Compound 2 did not show any preference for nitro compounds and exhibited comparable fluorescence quenching when exposed to the vapors of nitro or other geometrically resembling organic molecules. Furthermore, adsorption experiments revealed that 1 and 2 can uptake 2.74 and 14.14 wt% molecular iodine respectively in vapor phase which can be released in organic solvents such as hexane and acetonitrile. The maximal iodine uptake in case of 1 and 2 corresponds to 0.15 and 0.80 molecules of iodine per formula unit of respective frameworks. Comprehensive structural description, thermal stability and luminescence behavior for both CPs has also been presented. - Graphical abstract: Two 3D luminescent CPs comprising mixed tripodal ligands have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Iodine encapsulation capacity of synthesized CPs is evaluated and their fluorescence quenching in presence of small organic molecules is exploited for sensing of nitro

  20. RECOVERY OF COPPER(II) AND CHROMIUM(III) FROM NITRATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guerdouh A and Barkat D

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... The ionic strength of the aqueous medium was ... phases were separated completely, concentrations of the copper(II) and chromium(III) ..... [18] Huff M M, Otu E O. Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange, 2004, 22(4), 695-712.

  1. Recovery of copper(II) and chromium(III) from nitrate medium with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The solvent extraction of copper(II) and chromium(III) from nitrate medium with salicylideneaniline (HL) is studied as a function of various parameters: pH, concentration of salicylideneaniline, contact time and the nature of anoin (nitrate and sulfate) in aqueous phase. Chromium(III) is not extracted by salicylideneaniline ...

  2. Synthesis and properties of a trinuclear copper(II) complex with trithiocyanurate bridge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopel, P.; Čermáková, Š.; Doležal, Karel; Kalińska, B.; Bieńko, A.; Mroziński, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 3 (2007), s. 327-335 ISSN 0137- 5083 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : copper(II) * trithiocyanuric acid complexes * magnetic properties Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.483, year: 2007 http://ichf.edu.pl/pjch/pj-2007/pj-2007-03a.pdf

  3. Synthesis of a mixed-model stationary phase derived from glutamine for HPLC separation of structurally different biologically active compounds: HILIC and reversed-phase applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Tarık; Aral, Hayriye; Ziyadanoğulları, Berrin; Ziyadanoğulları, Recep

    2015-01-01

    A novel mixed-mode stationary phase was synthesised starting from N-Boc-glutamine, aniline and spherical silica gel (4 µm, 60 Å). The prepared stationary phase was characterized by IR and elemental analysis. The new stationary phase bears an embedded amide group into phenyl ring, highly polar a terminal amide group and non-polar groups (phenyl and alkyl groups). At first, this new mixed-mode stationary phase was used for HILIC separation of four nucleotides and five nucleosides. The effects of different separation conditions, such as pH value, mobile phase and temperature, on the separation process were investigated. The optimum separation for nucleotides was achieved using HILIC isocratic elution with aqueous mobile phase and acetonitrile with 20°C column temperature. Under these conditions, the four nucleotides could be separated and detected at 265 nm within 14 min. Five nucleosides were separated under HILIC isocratic elution with aqueous mobile phase containing pH=3.25 phosphate buffer (10mM) and acetonitrile with 20°C column temperature and detected at 265 nm within 14 min. Chromatographic parameters as retention factor, selectivity, theoretical plate number and peak asymmetry factor were calculated for the effect of temperature and water content in mobile phase on the separation process. The new column was also tested for nucleotides and nucleosides mixture and six analytes were separated in 10min. The chromatographic behaviours of these polar analytes on the new mixed-model stationary phase were compared with those of HILIC columns under similar conditions. Further, phytohormones and phenolic compounds were separated in order to see influence of the new stationary phase in reverse phase conditions. Eleven plant phytohormones were separated within 13 min using RP-HPLC gradient elution with aqueous mobile phase containing pH=2.5 phosphate buffer (10mM) and acetonitrile with 20°C column temperature and detected at 230 or 278 nm. The best separation

  4. Biosorption of copper(II) and lead(II) onto potassium hydroxide treated pine cone powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofomaja, A E; Naidoo, E B; Modise, S J

    2010-08-01

    Pine cone powder surface was treated with potassium hydroxide and applied for copper(II) and lead(II) removal from solution. Isotherm experiments and desorption tests were conducted and kinetic analysis was performed with increasing temperatures. As solution pH increased, the biosorption capacity and the change in hydrogen ion concentration in solution increased. The change in hydrogen ion concentration for lead(II) biosorption was slightly higher than for copper(II) biosorption. The results revealed that ion-exchange is the main mechanism for biosorption for both metal ions. The pseudo-first order kinetic model was unable to describe the biosorption process throughout the effective biosorption period while the modified pseudo-first order kinetics gave a better fit but could not predict the experimentally observed equilibrium capacities. The pseudo-second order kinetics gave a better fit to the experimental data over the temperature range from 291 to 347 K and the equilibrium capacity increased from 15.73 to 19.22 mg g(-1) for copper(II) and from 23.74 to 26.27 for lead(II). Activation energy was higher for lead(II) (22.40 kJ mol(-1)) than for copper(II) (20.36 kJ mol(-1)). The free energy of activation was higher for lead(II) than for copper(II) and the values of DeltaH* and DeltaS* indicate that the contribution of reorientation to the activation stage is higher for lead(II) than copper(II). This implies that lead(II) biosorption is more spontaneous than copper(II) biosorption. Equilibrium studies showed that the Langmuir isotherm gave a better fit for the equilibrium data indicating monolayer coverage of the biosorbent surface. There was only a small interaction between metal ions when simultaneously biosorbed and cation competition was higher for the Cu-Pb system than for the Pb-Cu system. Desorption studies and the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm and energy parameter, E, also support the ion-exchange mechanism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Short-Range Stacking Disorder in Mixed-Layer Compounds: A HAADF STEM Study of Bastnäsite-Parisite Intergrowths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana L. Ciobanu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Atomic-scale high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM imaging and electron diffractions are used to address the complexity of lattice-scale intergrowths of REE-fluorocarbonates from an occurrence adjacent to the Olympic Dam deposit, South Australia. The aims are to define the species present within the intergrowths and also assess the value of the HAADF STEM technique in resolving stacking sequences within mixed-layer compounds. Results provide insights into the definition of species and crystal-structural modularity. Lattice-scale intergrowths account for the compositional range between bastnäsite and parasite, as measured by electron probe microanalysis (at the µm-scale throughout the entire area of the intergrowths. These comprise rhythmic intervals of parisite and bastnäsite, or stacking sequences with gradational changes in the slab stacking between B, BBS and BS types (B—bastnäsite, S—synchysite. An additional occurrence of an unnamed B2S phase [CaCe3(CO34F3], up to 11 unit cells in width, is identified among sequences of parisite and bastnäsite within the studied lamellar intergrowths. Both B2S and associated parisite show hexagonal lattices, interpreted as 2H polytypes with c = 28 and 38 Å, respectively. 2H parisite is a new, short hexagonal polytype that can be added to the 14 previously reported polytypes (both hexagonal and rhombohedral for this mineral. The correlation between satellite reflections and the number of layers along the stacking direction (c* can be written empirically as: Nsat = [(m × 2 + (n × 4] − 1 for all BmSn compounds with S ≠ 0. The present study shows intergrowths characterised by short-range stacking disorder and coherent changes in stacking along perpendicular directions. Knowing that the same compositional range can be expressed as long-period stacking compounds in the group, the present intergrowths are interpreted as being related to disequilibrium

  6. The ligational behavior of an isatinic quinolyl hydrazone towards copper(II- ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Marwa A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of the isatinic quinolyl hydrazones arises from incorporating the quinoline ring with the indole ring. Quinoline ring has therapeutic and biological activities whereas, the indole ring occurs in Jasmine flowers and Orange blossoms. As a ligand, the isatin moiety is potentially ambidentate and can coordinate the metal ions either through its lactam or lactim forms. In a previous study, the ligational behavior of a phenolic quinolyl hydrazone towards copper(II- ions has been studied. As continuation of our interest, the present study is planned to check the ligational behavior of an isatinic quinolyl hydrazone. Results New homo- and heteroleptic copper(II- complexes were obtained from the reaction of an isatinic quinolyl hydrazone (HL with several copper(II- salts viz. Clˉ, Brˉ, NO3ˉ, ClO4-, SO42- and AcO-. The obtained complexes have Oh, Td and D4h- symmetry and fulfill the strong coordinating ability of Clˉ, Brˉ, NO3ˉ and SO42- anions. Depending on the type of the anion, the ligand coordinates the copper(II- ions either through its lactam (NO3ˉ and ClO4- or lactim (the others forms. Conclusion The effect of anion for the same metal ion is obvious from either the geometry of the isolated complexes (Oh, Td and D4h or the various modes of bonding. Also, the obtained complexes fulfill the strong coordinating ability of Clˉ, Brˉ, NO3ˉ and SO42- anions in consistency with the donor ability of the anions. In case of copper(II- acetate, a unique homoleptic complex (5 was obtained in which the AcO- anion acts as a base enough to quantitatively deprotonate the hydrazone. The isatinic hydrazone uses its lactim form in most complexes.

  7. Interactions between copper(II) and DOM in the urban stormwater runoff: modeling and characterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Wang, Chong-Chen; Li, Jun-Qi; Wang, Peng; Ou, Jia-Qi; Cui, Jing-Rui

    2018-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can strongly interact with both organic and inorganic contaminants to influence their transportation, transformation, bioavailability, toxicity and even their ultimate fate. Within this work, DOM was extracted from urban stormwater runoff samples collected from a regular sampling site of a typical residential area in Beijing, China. Copper(II) ions were selected as model to investigate the interactions between DOM and typical heavy metals. Both ultraviolet (UV) absorbance and fluorescence titration methods were introduced to determine the complex capacities (C L ) and conditional stability constants (log K M ) of bonding between DOM and copper (II) ions, which revealed that the values of C L were 85.62 and 87.23 μmol mg -1 and the log K M values were 5.37 and 5.48, respectively. The results suggested the successful complexation between DOM and copper(II) ions. Furthermore, morphology of the DOM binding to copper(II) ions was confirmed by both energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which can facilitate to clarify the corresponding mechanism. The Cu 2p 3/2 peak at 933.7 eV and the characteristic shake-up peaks of Cu-O were found in the XPS spectra, implying that copper(II) ions might coordinate with hydroxyl (aliphatic or phenolic) or carboxyl groups. With these profitable results, it can be concluded that DOM in urban stormwater runoff has a strong binding affinity with copper(II) ions, which may further lead to potentially significant influence on their migration and transformation.

  8. Hygroscopicity of organic surrogate compounds from biomass burning and their effect on the efflorescence of ammonium sulfate in mixed aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ting; Zuend, Andreas; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Wang, Weigang; Ge, Maofa

    2018-01-01

    Hygroscopic growth factors of organic surrogate compounds representing biomass burning and mixed organic-inorganic aerosol particles exhibit variability during dehydration experiments depending on their chemical composition, which we observed using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). We observed that levoglucosan and humic acid aerosol particles release water upon dehumidification in the range from 90 to 5 % relative humidity (RH). However, 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid aerosol particles remain in the solid state upon dehumidification and exhibit a small shrinking in size at higher RH compared to the dry size. For example, the measured growth factor of 4-hyroxybenzoic acid aerosol particles is ˜ 0.96 at 90 % RH. The measurements were accompanied by RH-dependent thermodynamic equilibrium calculations using the Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC) model and Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM), the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) relation, and a fitted hygroscopicity expression. We observed several effects of organic components on the hygroscopicity behavior of mixtures containing ammonium sulfate (AS) in relation to the different mass fractions of organic compounds: (1) a shift of efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of ammonium sulfate to higher RH due to the presence of 25 wt % levoglucosan in the mixture. (2) There is a distinct efflorescence transition at 25 % RH for mixtures consisting of 25 wt % of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid compared to the ERH at 35 % for organic-free AS particles. (3) There is indication for a liquid-to-solid phase transition of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in the mixed particles during dehydration. (4) A humic acid component shows no significant effect on the efflorescence of AS in mixed aerosol particles. In addition, consideration of a composition-dependent degree of dissolution of crystallization AS (solid-liquid equilibrium) in the AIOMFAC and E-AIM models leads to a

  9. Development of pyridine-containing macrocyclic copper(II) complexes: potential role in the redox modulation of oxaliplatin toxicity in human breast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana S; Costa, Judite; Gaspar, Jorge; Rueff, José; Cabral, M Fátima; Cipriano, Madalena; Castro, Matilde; Oliveira, Nuno G

    2012-09-01

    The unique redox and catalytic chemistry of Cu has justified the development of novel Cu complexes for different therapeutic uses including cancer therapy. In this work, four pyridine-containing aza-macrocyclic copper(II) complexes were prepared (CuL1-CuL4) varying in ring size and/or substituents and their superoxide scavenging activity evaluated. CuL3, the most active superoxide scavenger, was further studied as a modulator of the cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin in epithelial breast MCF10A cells and in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Our results show that CuL3 enhances the therapeutic window of oxaliplatin, by both protecting non-tumour cells and increasing its cytotoxic effect in breast carcinoma cells. CuL3 is thus a promising complex to be further studied and to be used as a lead compound for the optimization of novel chemotherapy sensitizers.

  10. Study of reactions between fuel (mixed oxide (UPu)Osub(2-x)) and cladding (stainless-steel) in reactors: influence of iodine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, Michel.

    1976-03-01

    The influence of iodine compounds on the development of the oxide-cladding reaction was examined. The action of iodine, cesium and cesium iodide on type 316 stainless was determined in the presence or absence of uranium oxide or mixed uranium-plutonium oxide type fuel in a closed system, isothermal or with a temperature gradient. The study of the stainless steel iodine reactions was developed in particular. These experiments showed that cesium combines with uranium oxide to give cesium uranate Cs 2 U 2 O 7 ; it is not unreasonable to suppose that cesium urano-plutonate Cs 2 (U,Pu) 2 O 7 could be formed inside the pile. It was then shown that cesium iodide in the presence of sufficiently non-stoichiometric mixed oxide could contribute towards the degradation of the stainless steel cladding. Under these conditions the reaction is accompained by a transport of manganese, chromium and iron into the hot parts of the fuel by a Van-Arkel type mechanism. This might explain the presence of metallic precipitates in the fuel, but the role assigned to molybdenum iodide in the same phenomenon is considered unlikely. Finally it is proposed to deposit a thin layer of manganese metal on the inner surface of the cladding in order to minimize the action of fission products (CsI, Te) [fr

  11. Th(As(III)4As(V)4O18): a mixed-valent oxoarsenic(III)/arsenic(V) actinide compound obtained under extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Na; Klepov, Vladislav V; Kegler, Philip; Bosbach, Dirk; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Alekseev, Evgeny V

    2014-08-18

    A high-temperature/high-pressure method was employed to investigate phase formation in the Th(NO3)4·5H2O-As2O3-CsNO3 system. It was observed that an excess of arsenic(III) in starting system leads to the formation of Th(As(III)4As(V)4O18), which is representative of a rare class of mixed-valent arsenic(III)/arsenic(V) compounds. This compound was studied with X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray, and Raman spectroscopy methods. Crystallographic data show that Th(As(III)4As(V)4O18) is built from (As(III)4As(V)4O18)(4-) layers connected through Th atoms. The arsenic layers are found to be isoreticular to those in previously reported As2O3 and As3O5(OH), and the geometric differences between them are discussed. Bands in the Raman spectrum are assigned with respect to the presence of AsO3 and AsO4 groups.

  12. Canopy-scale flux measurements and bottom-up emission estimates of volatile organic compounds from a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. F. Acton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the fluxes and mixing ratios of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (BVOCs 4 m above a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy. Fluxes of methanol, acetaldehyde, isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone + methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone and monoterpenes were obtained using both a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS and a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS together with the methods of virtual disjunct eddy covariance (using PTR-MS and eddy covariance (using PTR-ToF-MS. Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a mean daytime flux of 1.9 mg m−2 h−1. Mixing ratios, recorded 4 m above the canopy, were dominated by methanol with a mean value of 6.2 ppbv over the 28-day measurement period. Comparison of isoprene fluxes calculated using the PTR-MS and PTR-ToF-MS showed very good agreement while comparison of the monoterpene fluxes suggested a slight over estimation of the flux by the PTR-MS. A basal isoprene emission rate for the forest of 1.7 mg m−2 h−1 was calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN isoprene emission algorithms (Guenther et al., 2006. A detailed tree-species distribution map for the site enabled the leaf-level emission of isoprene and monoterpenes recorded using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS to be scaled up to produce a bottom-up canopy-scale flux. This was compared with the top-down canopy-scale flux obtained by measurements. For monoterpenes, the two estimates were closely correlated and this correlation improved when the plant-species composition in the individual flux footprint was taken into account. However, the bottom-up approach significantly underestimated the isoprene flux, compared with the top-down measurements, suggesting that the leaf-level measurements were not representative of actual emission rates.

  13. Canopy-scale flux measurements and bottom-up emission estimates of volatile organic compounds from a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, W. Joe F.; Schallhart, Simon; Langford, Ben; Valach, Amy; Rantala, Pekka; Fares, Silvano; Carriero, Giulia; Tillmann, Ralf; Tomlinson, Sam J.; Dragosits, Ulrike; Gianelle, Damiano; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Nemitz, Eiko

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports the fluxes and mixing ratios of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) 4 m above a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy. Fluxes of methanol, acetaldehyde, isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone + methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone and monoterpenes were obtained using both a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) together with the methods of virtual disjunct eddy covariance (using PTR-MS) and eddy covariance (using PTR-ToF-MS). Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a mean daytime flux of 1.9 mg m-2 h-1. Mixing ratios, recorded 4 m above the canopy, were dominated by methanol with a mean value of 6.2 ppbv over the 28-day measurement period. Comparison of isoprene fluxes calculated using the PTR-MS and PTR-ToF-MS showed very good agreement while comparison of the monoterpene fluxes suggested a slight over estimation of the flux by the PTR-MS. A basal isoprene emission rate for the forest of 1.7 mg m-2 h-1 was calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) isoprene emission algorithms (Guenther et al., 2006). A detailed tree-species distribution map for the site enabled the leaf-level emission of isoprene and monoterpenes recorded using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to be scaled up to produce a bottom-up canopy-scale flux. This was compared with the top-down canopy-scale flux obtained by measurements. For monoterpenes, the two estimates were closely correlated and this correlation improved when the plant-species composition in the individual flux footprint was taken into account. However, the bottom-up approach significantly underestimated the isoprene flux, compared with the top-down measurements, suggesting that the leaf-level measurements were not representative of actual emission rates.

  14. Dispersion of the linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities of the CuAl(S1−xSex)2 mixed chaclcopyrite compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshak, A. H.; Brik, M. G.; Auluck, S.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the electronic band structure, we have calculated the dispersion of the linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities for the mixed CuAl(S 1−x Se x ) 2 chaclcopyrite compounds with x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0. Calculations are performed within the Perdew-Becke-Ernzerhof general gradient approximation. The investigated compounds possess a direct band gap of about 2.2 eV (CuAlS 2 ), 1.9 eV (CuAl(S 0.75 Se 0.25 ) 2 ), 1.7 eV (CuAl(S 0.5 Se 0.5 ) 2 ), 1.5 eV (CuAl(S 0.25 Se 0.75 ) 2 ), and 1.4 eV (CuAlSe 2 ) which tuned to make them optically active for the optoelectronics and photovoltaic applications. These results confirm that substituting S by Se causes significant band gaps' reduction. The optical function's dispersion ε 2 xx (ω) and ε 2 zz (ω)/ε 2 xx (ω), ε 2 yy (ω), and ε 2 zz (ω) was calculated and discussed in detail. To demonstrate the effect of substituting S by Se on the complex second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility tensors, we performed detailed calculations for the complex second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility tensors, which show that the neat parents compounds CuAlS 2 and CuAlSe 2 exhibit | χ 123 (2) (−2ω;ω;ω) | as the dominant component, while the mixed alloys exhibit | χ 111 (2) (−2ω;ω;ω) | as the dominant component. The features of | χ 123 (2) (−2ω;ω;ω) | and | χ 111 (2) (−2ω;ω;ω) | spectra were analyzed on the basis of the absorptive part of the corresponding dielectric function ε 2 (ω) as a function of both ω/2 and ω.

  15. Copper(II) complexes with 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid: Syntheses, crystal structures and antifungal activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Pingping [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Li, Jie [Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology, Xi' an 710069 (China); Bu, Huaiyu, E-mail: 7213792@qq.com [Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology, Xi' an 710069 (China); Wei, Qing [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Zhang, Ruolin [Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology, Xi' an 710069 (China); Chen, Sanping, E-mail: sanpingchen@126.com [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Reaction of Cu(II) with an asymmetric semi-rigid organic ligand 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid (HL), yielded five compounds, [Cu{sub 0.5}L]{sub n} (1), [Cu(HL){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}]{sub n} (2), [Cu(HL){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)] (3), [Cu(L){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (4) and [Cu(L)(phen)(HCO{sub 2})]{sub n} (5), which have been fully characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. As for compounds 1, 2 and 5, Cu(II) is bridged through HL, Cl{sup -}, and formic acid, respectively, featuring 1D chain-structure. In compound 3, Cu(II) with hexahedral coordination sphere is assembled through hydrogen-bonding into 3D supramolecular framework. In compound 4, 1D chain units –Cu–O–Cu–O– are ligand-bridged into a 3D network. All compounds were tested on fungi (Fusarium graminearum, Altemaria solani, Macrophoma kawatsukai, Alternaria alternata and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). Compound 1 exhibits a better antifungal effect compared to other compounds. An effect of structure on the antifungal activity has also been correlated. - Graphical abstract: Copper(II) compounds with 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid, were prepared, structurally characterized and investigated for antifungal activity. - Highlights: • The title compounds formed by thermodynamics and thermokinetics. • The five compounds show higher inhibition percentage than reactants. • The structure effect on the antifungal activity.

  16. Reactions of the melatonin metabolite N(1)-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine with carbamoyl phosphate and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuesel, Jana T; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Pfoertner, Henrike; Aeckerle, Nelia

    2010-01-01

    N-[2-(6-methoxyquinazolin-4-yl)-ethyl] acetamide (MQA) is a compound formed from the melatonin metabolite N(1)-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK). We followed MQA production in reaction systems containing various putative reaction partners, in the absence and presence of hydrogen peroxide and/or copper(II). Although MQA may be formally described as a condensation product of either N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) with ammonia, or AMK with formamide, none of these combinations led to substantial quantities of MQA. However, MQA formation was observed in mixtures containing AMK, hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen carbonate and ammonia, or AMK, hydrogen peroxide, copper(II) and potentially carbamoylating agents, such as potassium cyanate or, more efficiently, carbamoyl phosphate. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, copper(II) and carbamoyl phosphate, MQA was the major product obtained from AMK, but the omission of copper(II) mainly led to another metabolite, 3-acetamidomethyl-6-methoxycinnolinone (AMMC). This was caused by nitric oxide (NO) generated under oxidative conditions from carbamoyl phosphate, as shown by an NO spin trap. MQA formation with carbamoyl phosphate was not due to the possible decomposition product, formamide. The reaction of AMK with carbamoyl phosphate under oxidative conditions, in which inorganic phosphate and water are released and which differs from the typical process of carbamoylation via isocyanate, may be considered as a new physiological route of MQA formation.

  17. Probing the Intramolecular Metal-Selenoether Interaction in a Bis(iminosemiquinone) copper(II) Compound

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubrin, M.; Paretzki, A.; Hübner, R.; Beyer, K.; Schwederski, B.; Neugebauer, P.; Záliš, Stanislav; Kaim, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 643, č. 21 (2017), s. 1621-1627 ISSN 0044-2313 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LTC17052 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : EPR spectroscopy * Molecular structure * Selenium ligand * Spectroelectrochemistry * Copper Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 1.144, year: 2016

  18. Synthesis, molecular docking and DNA binding studies of phthalimide-based copper(II) complex: In vitro antibacterial, hemolytic and antioxidant assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Rizwan; Nayab, Pattan Sirajuddin; Ansari, Istikhar A.; Shahid, M.; Irfan, Mohammad; Alam, Shadab; Abid, Mohammad; Rahisuddin

    2018-05-01

    In the present research work, we prepared N-substituted phthalimide, 2-(-(2-(2-(2-(1,3-dioxoisoindoline-2-yl-ethylamino)ethylamino)ethyl)isoindoline-1,3-dione (DEEI) and its copper(II) complex. The ligand (DEEI) and its Cu(II) complex were structurally identified using absorption, FTIR, NMR, electron spin resonance, X-ray diffraction spectral studies, thermogravimetric and elemental analyses. The electronic spectrum and magnetic moment value proposed that Cu(II) complex has square planar geometry. The DNA interaction ability of the ligand (DEEI) and Cu(II) complex was studied by means of absorption and fluorescence spectrophotometer, viscosity measurements, cyclic voltammetery, and circular dichroism methods. The extent of DNA binding (Kb) with Calf thymus (Ct-DNA) follows the order of Cu(II) complex (1.11 × 106 M-1) > DEEI (1.0 × 105 M-1), indicating that Cu(II) complex interact with Ct-DNA through groove binding mode and more sturdily than ligand (DEEI). Interestingly, in silico predictions were corroborated with in vitro DNA binding studies. The antibacterial evaluation of these compounds was screened against a panel of bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 2453), Salmonella enterica (MTCC 3224), Streptococcus pneumoniae (MTCC 655), Enterococcus faecalis (MTCC 439), Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). The results showed that the copper(II) complex has significant antibacterial potential (IC50 = 0.0019 μg/mL) against Salmonella enteric comparable with ligand (DEEI) and standard drug ciprofloxacin. Growth curve study of Cu(II) complex against only three bacterial strains S. enterica, E. faecalis and S. pneumoniae showed its bactericidal nature. Cu(II) complex showed less than 2% hemolysis on human RBCs indicating its non toxic nature. The results of antioxidant assay demonstrated that scavenging activity of Cu(II) complex is higher as compared to ligand and ascorbic acid as standard.

  19. Copper(II tetrafluoroborate as mild and versatile catalyst for the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihillu. S. Yadav

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A variety of -acetamido ketones and ketoesters are readily prepared in high yields under extremelymild conditions via a three component coupling of aromatic aldehydes, enolizable ketones or -ketoesters andnitriles in the presence of 10 mol% of copper(II tetrafluoroborate and a stoichiometric amount of acetylchloride. A solution of 10 mol% of Cu(BF42 in acetonitrile provides a convenient reaction medium to carry out athree component reaction under mild conditions

  20. Copper(II) Schiff base complexes and their mixed thin layers with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin layer; ZnO nanoparticles; copper complexes; AFM; SEM; fluorescence. 1. Introduction ... ZnO nanopowders29,30 and ZnO nanoparticles doped by different metal ...... Roy S, Choubey S, Bhar K, Khan S, Mitra P and Ghosh. B K 2013 J. Mol ...

  1. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Formation of a dinuclear copper(II) complex through the cleavage of CN bond of 1-benzoyl-3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shardin, Rosidah; Pui, Law Kung; Yamin, Bohari M. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Kassim, Mohammad B. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    A simple mononuclear octahedral copper(II) complex was attempted from the reaction of three moles of 1-benzoyl-3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole and one mole of copper(II) perchlorate hexahydrate in methanol. However, the product of the reaction was confirmed to be a dinuclear copper(II) complex with μ-(3-(pyridin-2-yl)-pyrazolato) and 3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole ligands attached to each of the Cu(II) centre atom. The copper(II) ion assisted the cleavage of the C{sub benzoyl}N bond afforded a 3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole molecule. Deprotonation of the 3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole gave a 3-(pyridin-2-yl)-pyrazolato, which subsequently reacted with the Cu(II) ion to give the (3-(pyridin-2-yl)-pyrazolato)(3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole)Cu(II) product moiety. The structure of the dinuclear complex was confirmed by x-ray crystallography. The complex crystallized in a monoclinic crystal system with P2(1)/n space group and cell dimensions of a = 12.2029(8) Å, b = 11.4010(7) Å, c = 14.4052(9) Å and β = 102.414(2)°. The compound was further characterized by mass spectrometry, CHN elemental analysis, infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy and the results concurred with the x-ray structure. The presence of d-d transition at 671 nm (ε = 116 dm{sup 3} mol{sup −1} cm{sup −1}) supports the presence of Cu(II) centres.

  3. Release of chlorinated, brominated and mixed halogenated dioxin-related compounds to soils from open burning of e-waste in Agbogbloshie (Accra, Ghana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Goto, Akitoshi; Takahashi, Shin; Itai, Takaaki; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2016-01-25

    Although complex mixtures of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) can be released from informal e-waste recycling, DRC contamination in African e-waste recycling sites has not been investigated. This study examined the concentrations of DRCs including chlorinated, brominated, mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs, PXDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in surface soil samples from the Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling site in Ghana. PCDD/F and PBDD/F concentrations in open burning areas (18-520 and 83-3800 ng/g dry, respectively) were among the highest reported in soils from informal e-waste sites. The concentrations of PCDFs and PBDFs were higher than those of the respective dibenzo-p-dioxins, suggesting combustion and PBDE-containing plastics as principal sources. PXDFs were found as more abundant than PCDFs, and higher brominated analogues occurred at higher concentrations. The median total WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration in open burning soils was 7 times higher than the U.S. action level (1000 pg/g), with TEQ contributors in the order of PBDFs>PCDD/Fs>PXDFs. DRC emission to soils over the e-waste site as of 2010 was estimated, from surface soil lightness based on the correlations between concentrations and lightness, at 200mg (95% confidence interval 93-540 mg) WHO-TEQ over three years. People living in Agbogbloshie are potentially exposed to high levels of not only chlorinated but also brominated DRCs, and human health implications need to be assessed in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sandwich-type mixed tetrapyrrole rare-earth triple-decker compounds. Effect of the coordination geometry on the single-molecule-magnet nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Jinglan; Wang, Hailong; Sun, Wei; Cao, Wei; Tao, Jun; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2013-08-05

    Employment of the raise-by-one step method starting from M(TClPP)(acac) (acac = monoanion of acetylacetone) and [Pc(OPh)8]M'[Pc(OPh)8] led to the isolation and free modulation of the two rare-earth ions in the series of four mixed tetrapyrrole dysprosium sandwich complexes {(TClPP)M[Pc(OPh)8]M'[Pc(OPh)8]} [1-4; TClPP = dianion of meso-tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)porphyrin; Pc(OPh)8 = dianion of 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octa(phenoxyl)phthalocyanine; M-M' = Dy-Dy, Y-Dy, Dy-Y, and Y-Y]. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals different octacoordination geometries for the two metal ions in terms of the twist angle (defined as the rotation angle of one coordination square away from the eclipsed conformation with the other) between the two neighboring tetrapyrrole rings for the three dysprosium-containing isostructural triple-decker compounds, with the metal ion locating between an inner phthalocyanine ligand and an outer porphyrin ligand with a twist angle of 9.64-9.90° and the one between two phthalocyanine ligands of 25.12-25.30°. Systematic and comparative studies over the magnetic properties reveal magnetic-field-induced single-molecule magnet (SMM), SMM, and non-SMM nature for 1-3, respectively, indicating the dominant effect of the coordination geometry of the spin carrier, instead of the f-f interaction, on the magnetic properties. The present result will be helpful for the future design and synthesis of tetrapyrrole lanthanide SMMs with sandwich molecular structures.

  5. Efficient electron-induced removal of oxalate ions and formation of copper nanoparticles from copper(II oxalate precursor layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Rückriem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper(II oxalate grown on carboxy-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAM using a step-by-step approach was used as precursor for the electron-induced synthesis of surface-supported copper nanoparticles. The precursor material was deposited by dipping the surfaces alternately in ethanolic solutions of copper(II acetate and oxalic acid with intermediate thorough rinsing steps. The deposition of copper(II oxalate and the efficient electron-induced removal of the oxalate ions was monitored by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS. Helium ion microscopy (HIM reveals the formation of spherical nanoparticles with well-defined size and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS confirms their metallic nature. Continued irradiation after depletion of oxalate does not lead to further particle growth giving evidence that nanoparticle formation is primarily controlled by the available amount of precursor.

  6. FEATURES OF INITIATION OF STYRENE POLYMERIZATION BY CUMENE HYDROPEROXIDE IN PRESENCE OF ACETULACETONATE OF COPPER(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Grekova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of sectional styrene polymerization initiated by cumene hydroperoxide, acetylacetonate of copper(II and by the system of cumene hydroperoxide — acetylacetonate of copper(II in a temperature range 333-363 K is studied. Kinetic parameters of polymerization process are determined. It is shown, that system of cumene hydroperoxide — acetylacetonate of copper(II is in 5-6 times more effective on the initiating ability comparatively to application of its individual components. From findings ensues that decline of energy of activating of initiation from 110 kdzh/mol’ to 87 kdzh/mol’ for cumene hydroperoxide at the use of the studied system is caused with participating of monomer in preliminary complexation facilitating formation of free radicals.

  7. Study of the interaction mechanism in the biosorption of copper(II) ions onto posidonia oceanica and peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, Marta; Marzal, Paula; Gabaldon, Carmen [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universitat de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Silvetti, Margherita; Castaldi, Paola [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali e Agrarie e Biotecnologie Agro-Alimentari, Sez. Chimica Agraria ed Ambientale, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    A systematic approach was used to characterize the biosorption of copper(II) onto two biosorbents, Posidonia oceanica and peat, focusing on the interaction mechanisms, the copper(II) sorption-desorption process and the thermal behavior of the biosorbents. Sorption isotherms at pH 4-6 were obtained and the experimental data were fitted to the Langmuir model with a maximum uptake (q{sub max}) at pH 6 of 85.78 and 49.69 mg g{sup -1}, for P. oceanica and peat, respectively. A sequential desorption (SD) with water, Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and EDTA was applied to copper-saturated biosorbents. Around 65-70% copper(II) were desorbed with EDTA, indicating that this heavy metal was strongly bound. The reversibility of copper(II) sorption was obtained by desorption with HCl and SD. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis detected the presence of peaks associated with OH groups in aromatic and aliphatic structures, CH, CH{sub 2}, and CH{sub 3} in aliphatic structures, COO{sup -} and COOH groups and unsaturated aromatic structures on the surface of both biosorbents, as well as peaks corresponding to Si-O groups on the surface of peat. The results of SEM-EDX and FTIR analysis of copper-saturated samples demonstrated that ion exchange was one of the mechanisms involved in copper(II) retention. Thermal analysis of biosorbent samples showed that copper(II) sorption-desorption processes affected the thermal stability of the biosorbents. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. (azo anils and oxalate ion) copper(ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    transition metal complexes compared to corresponding free ligands may be attributed to structural symmetry of ... C H, N contents in synthesized azo anils ligands and in Cu(II) complexes were found using. CHNS technique (Costech international-4100). Metal contents in synthesized complexes were. Compounds. Color.

  9. Synergistic solvent extraction investigation of Am (III), Eu (III), Zn(II), and Cs(I), using 2-heptyl-2-methyl-nonanoic acid mixed with different organophosphorus compounds from nitrate media. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, H.A.; Ramadan, A.; Abdel-Fattah, A.

    1996-01-01

    Extraction studies for investigating the effect of mixing 2-heptyl-2-methyl nonanoic acid (HA) with a number of organophosphorus compounds; namely tributyl phosphate (TBP), terphenyl phosphate oxide (TPPO); tri octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) or bis-2-(ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in benzene on the extraction of trace elements Am(III), Eu(III), Zn(II), and Cs(I) from nitrate media of ionic strength, I=0.1 M were carried out. The effect of adding different organophosphorus compounds to HA was tested to account for the presence or absence of the phenomenon of synergism. It was found that TBP, TPPO, and TOPO causing some antagonistic effects for the elements studied. Extraction enhancement was only observed with bis- (2-ethyl-hexyl) -phosphoric acid (HDEHP) for all the elements investigated. The extraction mechanisms as well as the thermodynamic parameters for the mixed extracted species are discussed. 19 figs

  10. Synergistic solvent extraction investigation of Am (III), Eu (III), Zn(II), and Cs(I), using 2-heptyl-2-methyl-nonanoic acid mixed with different organophosphorus compounds from nitrate media. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Naggar, H A; Ramadan, A; Abdel-Fattah, A [Nuclear Chemistry Department, Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Extraction studies for investigating the effect of mixing 2-heptyl-2-methyl nonanoic acid (HA) with a number of organophosphorus compounds; namely tributyl phosphate (TBP), terphenyl phosphate oxide (TPPO); tri octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) or bis-2-(ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in benzene on the extraction of trace elements Am(III), Eu(III), Zn(II), and Cs(I) from nitrate media of ionic strength, I=0.1 M were carried out. The effect of adding different organophosphorus compounds to HA was tested to account for the presence or absence of the phenomenon of synergism. It was found that TBP, TPPO, and TOPO causing some antagonistic effects for the elements studied. Extraction enhancement was only observed with bis- (2-ethyl-hexyl) -phosphoric acid (HDEHP) for all the elements investigated. The extraction mechanisms as well as the thermodynamic parameters for the mixed extracted species are discussed. 19 figs.

  11. Fluxes of ozone and Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds in a mixed Mediterranean forest over a transition period between summer and fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, S.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Hansel, A.; Petersson, F.; Matteucci, G.; Scarascia Mugnozza, G.; Jiang, X.; Guenther, A. B.; Loreto, F.

    2012-12-01

    Mediterranean plant ecosystems are exposed to abiotic stressors that may be exacerbated by climate change dynamics. Moreover, plants need now to cope with increasing anthropogenic pressures, often associated with expanding impacts of urbanization. Anthropogenic stressors include harmful gases (e.g. ozone,) that are transported from anthropogenic pollution sources to the vegetation. They may alter ecophysiology and compromise metabolism of Mediterranean plants. A disproportionate number of Mediterranean ecosystems, many dominated by forest trees, are being transformed into "urban or pre-urban forests". This is in particular the case for Castelporziano Estate, a 6,000 ha Mediterranean forest located just 25 km from Rome downtown at the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. In September 2011 an intensive field campaign was performed in Castelporziano to investigate ozone deposition and biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from a mixed Mediterranean forest, mainly composed by Quercus suber, Quercus ilex, Pinus pinea. Measurements were performed at canopy level with fast real-time instruments (a fast ozone analyzer and a Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer) that allowed eddy covariant flux measurements of ozone and BVOC. In the transitional period from a warm and dry summer to a wet and moderately cool fall we typically observed tropospheric ozone volume mixing ratios (VMR) of 60 ppb at around noon, with high deposition fluxes (up to -10 nmol m-2 s-1) into the forest canopy. Canopy models were used to to calculate that up to 90% of ozone uptake can be attributed to non-stomatal sinks, suggesting that chemical reactions between ozone and reactive BVOC may have played an important role. The concentrations of reactive isoprenoids (e.g. sesquiterpenes) were indeed observed to decrease during the central hours of the day, in coincidence with increased ozone concentrations. Concentrations and fluxes of isoprenoid

  12. Immobilized copper(II) macrocyclic complex on MWCNTs with antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarlani, Aliakbar, E-mail: Tarlani@ccerci.ac.ir [Inorganic Nanostructures and Catalysts Research Lab., Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran, Pajoohesh Blvd., km 17, Karaj Hwy, Tehran 14968-13151 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Narimani, Khashayar [Inorganic Nanostructures and Catalysts Research Lab., Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran, Pajoohesh Blvd., km 17, Karaj Hwy, Tehran 14968-13151 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Hamedi, Javad [Department of Microbial Biotechnology, School of Biology and Center of Excellence in Phylogeny of Living Organisms, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran 14155-6455 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); University of Tehran Biocompound Collection (UTBC), Microbial Technology and Products Research Center, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tahermansouri, Hasan [Department of Chemistry, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, Mostafa M. [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Behshti University, 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-30

    Graphical abstract: In an antibacterial test, grafted copper(II) macrocyclic complex on the surface of MWCNT showed higher antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis compared to the individual MWCNT-COOH and the complex. - Highlights: • Copper(II) tetraaza macrocyclic complex covalently bonded to modified MWCNT. • Grafting of the complex carried out via an interaction between −C(=O)Cl group and NH of the ligand. • The samples were subjected in an antibacterial assessment to compare their activity. • Immobilized complex showed higher antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 compared to separately MWCNT-C(C=O)-OH and CuTAM. - Abstract: In a new approach, a copper(II) tetraaza macrocyclic complex (CuTAM) was covalently bonded on modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). To achieve this purpose, MWCNTs were converted to MWCNT-COCl and then reacted to NH groups of TAM ligand. The prepared material was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy). FT-IR and TGA demonstrated the presence of the organic moieties, and XRD proved that the structure of MWCNTs remained intact during the three modification steps. An increase in the I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio in Raman spectra confirmed the surface modifications. Finally, the samples were subjected to an antibacterial assessment to compare their biological activity. The antibacterial test showed that the grafted complex on the surface of the nanotube (MWCNT-CO-CuTAM) has higher antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 than the MWCNT-COOH and CuTAM with 1000 and 2000 μg/mL.

  13. Fluorescent copper(II complexes: The electron transfer mechanism, interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA and antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Hazra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dinuclear copper(II complexes with formula [Cu2(L2(N32] (1 and [Cu2(L2(NCS2] (2 HL = (1-[(3-methyl-pyridine-2-ylimino-methyl]-naphthalen-2-ol were synthesized by controlling the molar ratio of Cu(OAC2·6H2O, HL, sodium azide (1 and ammonium thiocyanate (2. The end on bridges appear exclusively in azide and thiocyanate to copper complexes. The electron transfer mechanism of copper(II complexes is examined by cyclic voltammetry indicating copper(II complexes are Cu(II/Cu(I couple. The interactions of copper(II complexes towards bovine serum albumin (BSA were examined with the help of absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic tools. We report a superficial solution-based route for the synthesis of micro crystals of copper complexes with BSA. The antibacterial activity of the Schiff base and its copper complexes were investigated by the agar disc diffusion method against some species of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Streptococcus pneumonia and Bacillus cereus. It has been observed that the antibacterial activity of all complexes is higher than the ligand.

  14. Structural and magnetic characterization of a tetranuclear copper(II) cubane stabilized by intramolecular metal cation-π interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Raffaello; Rivière, Eric; Giorgi, Michel; Jamet, Hélène; Rousselot-Pailley, Pierre; Réglier, Marius; Simaan, A Jalila; Tron, Thierry

    2013-05-20

    A novel tetranuclear copper(II) complex (1) was synthesized from the self-assembly of copper(II) perchlorate and the ligand N-benzyl-1-(2-pyridyl)methaneimine (L(1)). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed that complex 1 consists of a Cu4(OH)4 cubane core, where the four copper(II) centers are linked by μ3-hydroxo bridges. Each copper(II) ion is in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. X-ray analysis also evidenced an unusual metal cation-π interaction between the copper ions and phenyl substituents of the ligand. Calculations based on the density functional theory method were used to quantify the strength of this metal-π interaction, which appears as an important stabilizing parameter of the cubane core, possibly acting as a driving parameter in the self-aggregation process. In contrast, using the ligand N-phenethyl-1-(2-pyridyl)methaneimine (L(2)), which only differs from L(1) by one methylene group, the same synthetic procedure led to a binuclear bis(μ-hydroxo)copper(II) complex (2) displaying intermolecular π-π interactions or, by a slight variation of the experimental conditions, to a mononuclear complex (3). These complexes were studied by X-ray diffraction techniques. The magnetic properties of complexes 1 and 2 are reported and discussed.

  15. Effect of Phosphorylation and Copper(II or Iron(II Ions Enrichment on Some Physicochemical Properties of Spelt Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Rożnowski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper provides an assessment of the effect of saturation of spelt starch and monostarch phosphate with copper or iron ions on selected physicochemical properties of the resulting modified starches. Native and modified spelt starch samples were analyzed for selected mineral element content using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. Thermodynamic properties were measured using DSC, and pasting properties by RVA. Flow curves of 5% pastes were plotted and described using the Herschel-Bulkley model. The structure recovery ratio was measured. AAS analysis established the presence of iron(II and copper(II ions in the samples of modified starches and that potassium and magnesium ions had leached from them. In comparison to unfortified samples, enriching native starch with copper(II ions decreases value of all temperatures of phase transformation about 1.3-2.7 °C, but in case of monostarch phosphates bigger changes (2.8-3.7 °C were observed. Fortified native spelt starch with copper(II ions caused increasing the final viscosity of paste from 362 to 429 mPa·s. However, presence iron(II ions in samples caused reduced its final viscosity by 170 (spelt starch and 103 mPa·s (monostarch phosphate. Furthermore, enriching monostarch phosphate contributed to reduce degree of structure recovery of pastes from 70.9% to 66.6% in case of copper(II ions and to 59.9% in case of iron(II ions.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Monolith Based Immobilized Acetylcholinesterase Flow-Through Reactor for Copper(II Determination with Spectrophotometric Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parawee Rattanakit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A monolith based immobilized acetylcholinesterase (AChE flow-through reactor has been developed for the determination of copper(II using flow injection spectrophotometric system. The bioreactor was prepared inside a microcapillary column by in situ polymerization of butyl methacrylate, ethylene dimethacrylate, and 2,2-dimethoxy-1,2-diphynyletane-1-one in the presence of 1-decanol, followed by vinyl azlactone functionalization and AChE immobilization. The behavior of AChE before and after being immobilized on the monolith was evaluated by kinetic parameters from Lineweaver and Burk equation. The detection was based on measuring inhibition effect on the enzymatic activity of AChE by copper(II using Ellman’s reaction with spectrophotometric detection at 410 nm. The linear range of the calibration graph was obtained over the range of 0.02–3.00 mg L−1. The detection limit, defined as 10% inhibition (I10, was found to be 0.04 mg L−1. The repeatability was 3.35 % (n=5 for 1.00 mg L−1 of copper(II. The proposed method was applied to the determination of copper(II in natural water samples with sampling rate of 4 h−1.

  17. Changes in magnetic properties from solid state to solution in a trinuclear linear copper(II) complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koval, I.A.; Akhideno, H.; Tanase, S.; Belle, C.; Duboc, C.; Saint-Aman, E.; Gamez, P.; Tooke, D.M.; Spek, A.L.; Pierre, J.-L.; Reedijk, J.

    2007-01-01

    A linear trinuclear copper(II) complex containing phenoxido- and alkoxido-bridges between the metal centers has been isolated and structurally characterized. The complex cation consists of a linear array of three copper ions, assembled by means of two doubly deprotonated ligands. The octahedral

  18. Flotation of traces of silver and copper(II) ions with a methyl cellosolve solution of dithizone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraide, M; Mizuike, A

    1975-06-01

    Microgram quantities of silver and copper(II) ions in aqueous solutions are collected on dithizone precipitates, which are then floated with the aid of small nitrogen bubbles. This separation technique has been successfully applied to the atomic-absorption spectrophotometric determination of down to a tenth ppm of silver and copper in high-purity lead and zinc metals.

  19. Copper(II hydrogenphosphate, CuHPO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörte Stachel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CuHPO4, has been synthesized from a mixture of phosphoric acid and copper oxide. It has the same composition as MHPO4 (M = Ca, Ba, Pb, Sr or Sn, but adopts a rhombohedral structure with all atoms on general positions. The structure features distorted PO4 tetrahedra linked by copper, forming 12-membered rings. The CuII atom is coordinated by five O atoms in a distorted square-pyramidal manner. O—H...O hydrogen bonding leads to an additional stabilization of the structure.

  20. Modulating p-hydroxycinnamate behavior as a ditopic linker or photoacid in copper(ii) complexes with an auxiliary pyridine ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldevila-Sanmartín, Joan; Calvet, Teresa; Font-Bardia, Merce; Domingo, Concepción; Ayllón, José A; Pons, Josefina

    2018-05-08

    The reaction of copper(ii) acetate monohydrate with p-hydroxycinnamic acid (HpOHcinn) and different pyridine derivatives (4-tert-butylpyridine, 4-tBupy; 4-acetylpyridine, 4-Acpy; 3-phenylpyridine, 3-Phpy; 4-phenylpyridine, 4-Phpy) was essayed in methanol solvent at room temperature. The crystal structures of the resulting compounds were elucidated. Their analysis shows that the choice of pyridine ligands determines different coordination modes of the pOHcinn ligand and the Cu(ii) coordination, nuclearity and geometry. The pOHcinn acts as a monodentate carboxylate ligand in combination with 4-tBupy or 4-Phpy, yielding monomers and dimers, associated by hydrogen bonds into supramolecular networks in which the phenol group plays a key role. Conversely, in combination with 4-Acpy or 3-Phpy, the phenol group coordinates directly to the Cu(ii), acting as a ditopic ligand and yielding 2D coordination polymers. The compound containing 3-Phpy shows interesting MeOH-H2O reversible exchange behavior. Not only has the pyridine auxiliary ligand had a tremendous effect on the coordination mode of pOHcinn, but also its reactivity is influenced. Particularly, in the case of the compound containing 4-Phpy, it undergoes a photoinduced process, in which the phenol group deprotonates and coordinates to Cu(ii) as a phenoxy ligand. This yields a coordination polymer in which two different dimers alternate, bridged by the resulting pOcinn ligand. The magneto-structural correlation of this compound is also discussed.

  1. EPR studies on binuclear copper(II) complexes with N,N',N'',N'''-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraaza-cyclotetradecane in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezierska, J.; Ozarowski, A.; Vuckovic, G.

    1997-01-01

    Binuclear copper(II) complexes of macrocyclic ligand TMPC (tetraazamacrocycle with four pendant 2-pirydylmethyl groups attached to the ring nitrogen atoms) with various anions forming bridge between copper ions, or coordinating to copper(II) ions at the apex, were prepared and their frozen solutions in DMF and NMF were investigated by EPR. The spectroscopic results have been interpreted in terms of molecular structure of investigated complexes

  2. Preconcentration and extraction of copper(II) on activated carbon using ethyl-2-quinolyl-β (p-carboxyphenyl hydrazone)dioxo propionate

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrorang Ghaedi; Farshid Ahmadi; M.R. Baezat; J. Safari

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbon modified method was used for the preconcentration and determination of copper content in real samples such as tap water, wastewater and a synthetic water sample by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The copper(II) was adsorbed quantitatively on activated carbon due to its complexation with ethyl-2-quinolyl-β(p-carboxyphenyl hydrazone)dioxo propionate (EQCPDP). The adsorbed copper(II) ion on solid phase was eluted quantitatively by using nitric acid. The important parameter...

  3. Ascorbyl palmitate/d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate monoester mixed micelles for prolonged circulation and targeted delivery of compound K for antilung cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Youwen Zhang, Deyin Tong, Daobiao Che, Bing Pei, Xiaodong Xia, Gaofeng Yuan, Xin Jin Department of Hospital Pharmacy, The First Hospital of Suqian, Suqian, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The roles of ginsenoside compound K (CK in inhibiting tumor have been widely recognized in recent years. However, low water solubility and significant P-gp efflux have restricted its application. In this study, CK ascorbyl palmitate (AP/d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate monoester (TPGS mixed micelles were prepared as a delivery system to increase the absorption and targeted antitumor effect of CK. Consequently, the solubility of CK increased from 35.2±4.3 to 1,463.2±153.3 µg/mL. Furthermore, in an in vitro A549 cell model, CK AP/TPGS mixed micelles significantly inhibited cell growth, induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest, induced cell apoptosis, and inhibited cell migration compared to free CK, all indicating that the developed micellar delivery system could increase the antitumor effect of CK in vitro. Both in vitro cellular fluorescence uptake and in vivo near-infrared imaging studies indicated that AP/TPGS mixed micelles can promote cellular uptake and enhance tumor targeting. Moreover, studies in the A549 lung cancer xenograft mouse model showed that CK AP/TPGS mixed micelles are an efficient tumor-targeted drug delivery system with an effective antitumor effect. Western blot analysis further confirmed that the marked antitumor effect in vivo could likely be due to apoptosis promotion and P-gp efflux inhibition. Therefore, these findings suggest that the AP/TPGS mixed micellar delivery system could be an efficient delivery strategy for enhanced tumor targeting and antitumor effects. Keywords: ginsenoside CK, ascorbyl palmitate, TPGS, mixed micelles, anti-tumor therapy

  4. A redox equilibrator for the preparation of cytochrome oxidase of mixed valence states and intermediate compounds for x-ray synchrotron studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chance, B.; Moore, J.; Powers, L.; Ching, Y.

    1982-01-01

    A redox titrator for the preparation of small volumes of highly concentrated biological samples of X-ray synchrotron studies provides for the redox equilibration at temperatures of 40 to -30 0 C. Anaerobic transfer directly to the X-ray sample chamber and mixing of an additional reagent just prior to freeze-trapping of the redox-equilibrated sample are provided

  5. Composition and solubility of precipitated copper(II) arsenates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Hanna; Shchukarev, Andrey; Sjoeberg, Staffan [Department of Chemistry, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Loevgren, Lars, E-mail: lars.lovgren@chem.umu.se [Department of Chemistry, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    Research Highlights: > By mixing solutions of Cu{sup 2+} and HAsO{sub 4}{sup 2-} solid phases are formed in a wide pH range. > Five different stoichiometric compositions were found. > Two of the solid phases formed in 0.1 M NaCl contained Na{sup +}. > Stability constants for all solid phases have been determined. > Aqueous complexes containing Cu{sup 2+} and AsO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ions could not be detected. - Abstract: Equilibrium reactions involving Cu(II) and As(V) have been studied with respect to formation of complexes in aqueous solutions as well as formation of solid phases. Potentiometric titrations performed at 25 deg. C (I = 0.1 M Na(Cl)) and at different Cu to As ratios gave no evidence for the existence of Cu(II) arsenate complexes in solution below the pH of the precipitation boundaries (pH {approx} 4), irrespective of the Cu to As ratio and pH. Mixing of solutions of Cu(II) and As(V) at different proportions and adjusting pH to values ranging from 4 to 9 resulted in precipitation of five different solid phases. The elemental composition of the solids was determined using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Environmental Scanning Microscopy-Field Emission Gun equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy detector. The average Cu/As ratio was determined by dissolving the solids. Total soluble concentrations of the components Cu(II) and As(V), as well as the basicity of the solid phases were determined by analysis of aqueous solutions. Based upon these experimental data the stoichiometric composition of the solid phases and their stability were determined. The resulting equilibrium model includes the solid phases Cu{sub 3}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 2}, Cu{sub 3}(AsO{sub 4})(OH){sub 3}, Cu{sub 2}(AsO{sub 4})(OH), Cu{sub 5}Na(HAsO{sub 4})(AsO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Cu{sub 5}Na{sub 2}AsO{sub 4}){sub 4}, where Cu{sub 5}Na(HAsO{sub 4})(AsO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Cu{sub 5}Na{sub 2}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 4} have not been reported previously. In 0.1 M Na(Cl), Na{sup +} was found to be

  6. In Vitro Activity of Copper(II Complexes, Loaded or Unloaded into a Nanostructured Lipid System, against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia B. da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an infectious disease caused mainly by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, presenting 9.5 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths in 2014. The aim of this study was to evaluate a nanostructured lipid system (NLS composed of 10% phase oil (cholesterol, 10% surfactant (soy phosphatidylcholine, sodium oleate, and Eumulgin® HRE 40 ([castor oil polyoxyl-40-hydrogenated] in a proportion of 3:6:8, and an 80% aqueous phase (phosphate buffer pH = 7.4 as a tactic to enhance the in vitro anti-Mtb activity of the copper(II complexes [CuCl2(INH2]·H2O (1, [Cu(NCS2(INH2]·5H2O (2 and [Cu(NCO2(INH2]·4H2O (3. The Cu(II complex-loaded NLS displayed sizes ranging from 169.5 ± 0.7095 to 211.1 ± 0.8963 nm, polydispersity index (PDI varying from 0.135 ± 0.0130 to 0.236 ± 0.00100, and zeta potential ranging from −0.00690 ± 0.0896 to −8.43 ± 1.63 mV. Rheological analysis showed that the formulations behave as non-Newtonian fluids of the pseudoplastic and viscoelastic type. Antimycobacterial activities of the free complexes and NLS-loaded complexes against Mtb H37Rv ATCC 27294 were evaluated by the REMA methodology, and the selectivity index (SI was calculated using the cytotoxicity index (IC50 against Vero (ATCC® CCL-81, J774A.1 (ATCC® TIB-67, and MRC-5 (ATCC® CCL-171 cell lines. The data suggest that the incorporation of the complexes into NLS improved the inhibitory action against Mtb by 52-, 27-, and 4.7-fold and the SI values by 173-, 43-, and 7-fold for the compounds 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The incorporation of the complexes 1, 2 and 3 into the NLS also resulted in a significant decrease of toxicity towards an alternative model (Artemia salina L.. These findings suggest that the NLS may be considered as a platform for incorporation of metallic complexes aimed at the treatment of TB.

  7. A study on superoxide dismutase activity of some model compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z; Liu, W; Liu, J; Jiang, Y; Shi, J; Liu, C

    1994-08-15

    The synthesis and characteristics of a binuclear ligand N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2'-benzimidazolyl methyl)-1,4-diethylene amino glycol ether (EGTB) and its series of coordination compounds containing copper(II), iron(III), and manganese(II) with and without exogenous bridging ligand which was imidazolate ion (Im-), bipyridine (bpy), or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) are reported. Depending on the redox potentials by cyclic voltammetry, the coordination compounds can act as catalysts for the dismutation of superoxide radicals (O2-). The detection of the rate constant of the reaction of superoxide ion with nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) which is inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and its model compounds of the EGTB system has been performed by a modified illumination method. The rate constants kQ of the catalytic dismutation have been obtained.

  8. Electrical conductivity of solutions of copper(II) nitrate crystalohydrate in dimethyl sulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyrbekova, Aigul K.; Mamitova, A. D.; Mamyrbekova, Aizhan K.

    2016-06-01

    Conductometry is used to investigate the electric conductivity of Cu(NO3)2 ṡ 3H2O solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide in the 0.01-2.82 M range of concentrations and at temperatures of 288-318 K. The limiting molar conductivity of the electrolyte and the mobility of Cu2+ and NO 3 - ions, the effective coefficients of diffusion of copper(II) ions and nitrate ions, and the degree and constant of electrolytic dissociation are calculated for different temperatures from the experimental results. It is established that solutions containing 0.1-0.6 M copper nitrate trihydrate in DMSO having low viscosity and high electrical conductivity can be used in electrochemical deposition.

  9. Antimalarial, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, DNA interaction and SOD like activities of tetrahedral copper(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Jugal V.; Gajera, Sanjay B.; Patel, Mohan N.

    2015-02-01

    The mononuclear copper(II) complexes with P, O-donor ligand and different fluoroquinolones have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electronic spectra, TGA, EPR, FT-IR and LC-MS spectroscopy. An antimicrobial efficiency of the complexes has been tested against five different microorganisms in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and displays very good antimicrobial activity. The binding strength and binding mode of the complexes with Herring Sperm DNA (HS DNA) have been investigated by absorption titration and viscosity measurement studies. The studies suggest the classical intercalative mode of DNA binding. Gel electrophoresis assay determines the ability of the complexes to cleave the supercoiled form of pUC19 DNA. Synthesized complexes have been tested for their SOD mimic activity using nonenzymatic NBT/NADH/PMS system and found to have good antioxidant activity. All the complexes show good cytotoxic and in vitro antimalarial activities.

  10. RECOVERY OF COPPER(II AND CHROMIUM(III FROM NITRATE MEDIUM WITH SALICYLIDENEANILINE DISSOLVED IN 1-OCTANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guerdouh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The solvent extraction of copper(II and chromium(III from nitrate medium with salicylideneaniline (HL is studied as a function of various parameters: pH, concentration of salicylideneaniline, contact time and the nature of anoin (nitrate and sulfate in aqueous phase. Chromium(III is not extracted by salicylideneaniline  diluted in 1-octanol. Copper(II is only extracted by salicylideneaniline and it was found that the highest extractability achieved to 95% at pH 4.9, The stoichiometry of the extracted species was determined by using the method of slope analysis. Elemental analysis, UV–vis and IR-spectra were used to confirm the structure. It is found that the copper (II is extracted as CuL2.2H2O Their equilibrium constant, distribution coefficient, percentage extraction (%E and free energy are also calculated.

  11. Green and selective synthesis of N-substituted amides using water soluble porphyrazinato copper(II) catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghodsinia, Sara S.E.; Akhlaghinia, Batool; Eshghi, Hossein; Safaei, Elham

    2013-01-01

    N, N',N , N ' -Tetramethyl tetra-2,3-pyridinoporphyrazinato copper(II) methyl sulfate ([Cu(2,3-tmtppa)](MeSO 4 ) 4 ) efficiently catalyzed the direct conversion of nitriles to N-substituted amides. The one pot selective synthesis of the N-substituted amides from nitriles and primary amines was performed in refluxing H 2 O. The catalyst was recovered and reused at least four times, maintaining its efficiency. (author)

  12. Fluorescence-based detection of nitric oxide in aqueous and methanol media using a copper(II) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Biplab; Kumar, Pankaj; Ghosh, Pokhraj; Kalita, Apurba

    2011-03-14

    The quenched fluorescent intensity of a copper(II) complex, 1, of a fluorescent ligand, in degassed methanol or aqueous (buffered at pH 7.2) solution, was found to reappear on exposure to nitric oxide. Thus, it can function as a fluorescence based nitric oxide sensor. It has been found that the present complex can be used to sense nanomolar quantities of nitric oxide in both methanol and pH 7.2 buffered-water medium.

  13. Crystal structure of di-μ-chlorido-bis[chloridobis(1,2-dimethyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazole-κN3copper(II] acetonitrile disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Quinlivan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 1,2-Dimethyl-5-nitroimidazole (dimetridazole, dimet is a compound that belongs to a class of nitroimidazole drugs that are effective at inhibiting the activity of certain parasites and bacteria. However, there are few reports that describe structures of compounds that feature metals complexed by dimet. Therefore, we report here that dimet reacts with CuCl2·H2O to yield a chloride-bridged copper(II dimer, [Cu2Cl4(C5H7N3O24] or [Cu(μ-ClCl(dimet2]2. In this molecule, the CuII ions are coordinated in an approximately trigonal–bipyramidal manner, and the molecule lies across an inversion center. The dihedral angle between the imidazole rings in the asymmetric unit is 4.28 (7°. Compared to metronidazole, dimetridazole lacks the hydroxyethyl group, and thus cannot form intermolecular O...H hydrogen-bonding interactions. Instead, [Cu(μ-ClCl(dimet2]2 exhibits weak intermolecular interactions between the hydrogen atoms of C—H groups and (i oxygen in the nitro groups, and (ii the terminal and bridging chloride ligands. The unit cell contains four disordered acetonitrile molecules. These were modeled as providing a diffuse contribution to the overall scattering by SQUEEZE [Spek (2015. Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18], which identified two voids, each with a volume of 163 Å3 and a count of 46 electrons, indicative of a total of four acetonitrile molecules. These acetonitrile molecules are included in the chemical formula to give the expected calculated density and F(000.

  14. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of copper(II) {beta}-diketonates and monothio-{beta}-diketonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: risilva@fc.up.pt; Santos, Luis M.N.B.F. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2006-07-15

    The standard (p{sup o}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of the crystalline complexes of dibenzoylmethane (Hdbm), thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Httfa), monothiodibenzoylmethane (HdbmS), and monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetone (HttfaS) of copper(II) were determined, at T=298.15K, by high precision solution-reaction calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation of the copper(II) {beta}-diketonate complexes were measured by high-temperature Calvet microcalorimetry. From the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the complexes in the gaseous state, the mean molar dissociation enthalpies copper(II)-ligand, (Cu-L), were derived. {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o} (cr){delta}{sub cr}{sup g}H{sub m}{sup o} kJ.mol{sup -1}kJ.mol{sup -1}Bis(dibenzoylmethanate)copper(II), Cu(dbm){sub 2}-364.0+/-3.9230.7+/-8.2Bis(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)copper(II), Cu(ttfa){sub 2}-1824.3+/-8.3167.9+/-7.4Bis(monothiodibenzoylmethanate)copper(II), Cu(dbmS){sub 2}35.6+/-7.7[241+/-15]Bis(monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetonate) copper(II), Cu(ttfaS){sub 2}-1405.7+/-8.3[177+/-15].

  15. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of copper(II) β-diketonates and monothio-β-diketonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Santos, Luis M.N.B.F.

    2006-01-01

    The standard (p o =0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of the crystalline complexes of dibenzoylmethane (Hdbm), thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Httfa), monothiodibenzoylmethane (HdbmS), and monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetone (HttfaS) of copper(II) were determined, at T=298.15K, by high precision solution-reaction calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation of the copper(II) β-diketonate complexes were measured by high-temperature Calvet microcalorimetry. From the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the complexes in the gaseous state, the mean molar dissociation enthalpies copper(II)-ligand, m >(Cu-L), were derived. Δ f H m o (cr)Δ cr g H m o kJ.mol -1 kJ.mol -1 Bis(dibenzoylmethanate)copper(II), Cu(dbm) 2 -364.0+/-3.9230.7+/-8.2Bis(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)copper(II), Cu(ttfa) 2 -1824.3+/-8.3167.9+/-7.4Bis(monothiodibenzoylmethanate)copper(II), Cu(dbmS) 2 35.6+/-7.7[241+/-15]Bis(monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetonate) copper(II), Cu(ttfaS) 2 -1405.7+/-8.3[177+/-15

  16. Spectroscopic and molecular docking studies on the interaction of human serum albumin with copper(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhathakurta, Bhargab; Pradhan, Ankur Bikash; Das, Suman; Bandyopadhyay, Nirmalya; Lu, Liping; Zhu, Miaoli; Naskar, Jnan Prakash

    2017-02-01

    Two osazone based ligands, butane-2,3-dione bis(2‧-pyridylhydrazone) (BDBPH) and hexane-3,4-dione bis(2‧-pyridylhydrazone) (HDBPH), were synthesized out of the 2:1 M Schiff base condensation of 2-hydrazino pyridine respectively with 2,3-butanedione and 3,4-hexanedione. The X-ray crystal structures of both the ligands have been determined. The copper(II) complex of HDBPH has also been synthesized and structurally characterized. HDBPH and its copper(II) complex have thoroughly been characterized through various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The X-ray crystal structure of the copper complex of HDBPH shows that it is a monomeric Cu(II) complex having 'N4O2' co-ordination chromophore. Interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with these ligands and their monomeric copper(II) complexes have been studied by various spectroscopic means. The experimental findings show that the ligands as well as their copper complexes are good HSA binders. Molecular docking investigations have also been done to unravel the mode of binding of the species with HSA.

  17. CFD simulation of copper(II) extraction with TFA in non-dispersive hollow fiber membrane contactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Amir; Younas, Mohammad; Rezakazemi, Mashallah

    2018-04-01

    This study presents computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of dispersion-free liquid-liquid extraction of copper(II) with trifluoroacetylacetone (TFA) in hollow fiber membrane contactor (HFMC). Mass and momentum balance Navier-Stokes equations were coupled to address the transport of copper(II) solute across membrane contactor. Model equations were simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics™. The simulation was run to study the detailed concentration distribution of copper(II) and to investigate the effects of various parameters like membrane characteristics, partition coefficient, and flow configuration on extraction efficiency. Once-through extraction was found to be increased from 10 to 100% when partition coefficient was raised from 1 to 10. Similarly, the extraction efficiency was almost doubled when porosity to tortuosity ratio of membrane was increased from 0.05 to 0.81. Furthermore, the study revealed that CFD can be used as an effective optimization tool for the development of economical membrane-based dispersion-free extraction processes.

  18. Strong copper(II) species in estuarine and sea waters investigated by a method with high detection window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Giancarla; Biesuz, Raffaela; D'Agostino, Girolamo; Scarponi, Giuseppe; Pesavento, Maria

    2007-02-15

    The distribution of copper(II) in species of different stability in some estuarine and sea water samples (Adriatic Sea) was investigated by a method based on the sorption of the metal ion on a strongly sorbing resin, Chelex 100, whose sorbing properties have been previously characterized. From them, it is possible to predict very high values of detection windows at the considered conditions, for example side reaction coefficient as high as 10(10) at pH 7.5. Strong copper(II) species in equilibrium with Chelex 100 were detected, at concentration 2-20nM, with a reaction coefficient approximately 10(10.6) at pH 7.45 in sea water, strictly depending on the acidity. They represent 50-70% of the total metal ion and are the strongest copper(II) complexes found in sea water. Weak complexes too were detected in all the samples, with reaction coefficient lower than ca. 10(9) at the same pH. The method applied, named resin titration (RT), was described in a previous investigation, and is here modified in order to be carried out on oceanographic boat during a cruise in the Adriatic Sea.

  19. Improvement of the stability of basic mixed oxides used as catalysts for aldol condensation of bio-derived compounds by palladium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faba, Laura; Díaz, Eva; Ordóñez, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous-phase aldol condensation of biomass-derived ketones and aldehydes is a key step in the preparation of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources. Furfural–acetone aldol condensation yielding C 8 and C 13 adducts was studied at 323 K and 1 MPa in a stirred batch reactor. We propose a new strategy for minimizing catalytic deactivation, consisting of modifying catalysts (MgO–ZrO 2 and MgO–Al 2 O 3 ) by Pd addition (2%). This modification slightly changes the morphology and surface chemistry of the supports, leading to changes on the catalysts performance but not reaction mechanism modifications. If condensation is performed in hydrogen atmosphere, the partial hydrogenation of the condensation adducts increases its water solubility, minimizing catalyst deactivation. In that way, the selectivity for C13 adduct decreases only 25% between two successive reaction cycles using Pd/MgO–ZrO 2 catalyst, whereas this decrease is of 90% for the un-doped mixed oxides. These effects are less marked for the MgO–Al 2 O 3 catalyst. Highlights: •Furfural and acetone aldolization on Pd/MgO–ZrO 2 and Pd/MgO–Al 2 O 3 . •Conversion and selectivity towards C8 and C13 low and unstable catalysts. •Aldolization in H 2 decreases coke formation: higher reusability of the catalysts

  20. Synthesis and characterization of nickel(II), cobalt(II), copper(II), manganese(II), zinc(II), zirconium(IV), dioxouranium(VI) and dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes of a new Schiff base derived from salicylaldehyde and 5-methylpyrazole-3-carbohydrazide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamal, A.; Maurya, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    Synthesis of a new Schiff base derived from salicylaldehyde and 5-methylpyrazole-3-carbohydrazide, and its coordination compounds with nickel(II), cobalt(II), copper(II), manganese(II), zinc(II), zirconium(IV), dioxouranium(VI) and dioxomolybdenum(VI) are described. The ligand and the complexes have been characterized on the basis of analytical, conductance, molecular weight, i.r., electronic and n.m.r. spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The stoichiometries of the complexes are represented as NiL . 3H 2 O, CoL . 2H 2 O, CuL, MnL . 2H 2 O, ZnL . H 2 O, Zr(OH) 2 (LH) 2 , Zr(OH) 2 L . 2MeOH, UO 2 L . MeOH and MoO 2 L . MeOH (where LH 2 =Schiff base). The copper(II) complex shows a subnormal magnetic moment due to antiferromagnetic exchange interaction while the nickel(II), cobalt(II) and manganese(II) complexes show normal magnetic moments at room temperature. The i.r. and n.m.r. spectral studies show that the Schiff base behaves as a dibasic and tridentate ligand coordinating through the deprotonated phenolic oxygen, enolic oxygen and azomethine nitrogen. (orig.)

  1. Synthesis and characterization of mononuclear copper(II complex of tetradentate N2S2 donor set and the study of DNA and bovine serum albumin binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipan Sarkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One mononuclear copper(II complex, containing neutral tetradentate NSSN-type ligands, of formulation [Cu II(L 1Cl]ClO 4 (1, was synthesized and isolated in pure form [where L 1˭ 1,3-bis(3-pyridylmethylthiopropane]. Green-colored copper(II complex was characterized by physicochemical, spectroscopic methods and conductivity measurement. These experimental data matched well with the proposed structure of the complex. Biological activity of the complex (1 toward calf thymus DNA and bovine serum albumin has been examined systematically and groove-binding behavior of the Copper(II complex 1 with calf thymus DNA has been observed from the spectral study.

  2. Copper(II) complexes of methimazole, an anti Grave's disease drug. Synthesis, characterization and its potential biological behavior as alkaline phosphatase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza, Nora M; Manca, Silvia G; Moyano, María A; Dellmans, Raquel Arrieta; Lezama, Luis; Rojo, Teófilo; Naso, Luciana G; Williams, Patricia A M; Ferrer, Evelina G

    2010-04-01

    Methimazole (MeimzH) is an anti-thyroid drug and the first choice for patients with Grave's disease. Two new copper(II) complexes of this drug: [Cu(MeimzH)(2)(NO(3))(2)]*0.5H(2)O and [Cu(MeimzH)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](NO(3))(2)*H(2)O were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, dissolution behavior, thermogravimetric analysis and UV-vis, diffuse reflectance, FTIR and EPR spectroscopies. As it is known that copper(II) cation can act as an inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the inhibitory effect of methimazole and its copper(II) complexes on ALP activity has also been investigated.

  3. Analysis of 13C-mixed triacylglycerol in stool by bulk (EA-IRMS) and compound specific (GC/MS) methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, C; Ling, S C; Preston, T; Weaver, L T

    2002-06-01

    This paper was presented in poster form at the 17th International Congress of Nutrition, August 27-31, Vienna, Austria (Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 2001; 45(Suppl.1):349). Some of the data were also presented in poster form at the British Society of Gastroenterology Meeting, March 18-21, Glasgow, UK (Gut 2001; 48(Suppl.1):A91). The 13C-mixed triacylglycerol (MTG) breath test is used to measure intraluminal fat digestion. In normal digestion, 20-40% of the ingested 13C label is recovered in breath CO2. We aimed to identify the proportions of ingested label excreted in stool, as well as breath following ingestion of 13C-MTG by children with impaired exocrine pancreatic function and healthy controls. 13C enrichment of breath samples was measured by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and cumulative percent dose recovered (cPDR) in 10 h was calculated. Total 13C of a faecal fat extract from each stool was measured by elemental analyser-IRMS, and 13C enrichment and concentration of the TBDMS derivative of octanoic acid was measured by GC/MS after hydrolysis of the fat extract. Stool 5-day cPDR was calculated. Mean breath cPDR was 35%. Mean cPDR in stool by combustion-IRMS and GC/ MS, respectively, was 0.8% and 1.0%. Therefore, the remaining 64% of the 13C label must remain in the body and variability in breath cPDR is due to postabsorptive rather than predigestive factors.

  4. Influence of the compound effect between nitrogen and zinc on the resource of nitrogen of herbage in mixed and pure culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhongjun; Hua Luo

    2002-01-01

    Under pot culture, the influence of compound effect between nitrogen and zinc on the resource of nitrogen of ryegrass in mono-culture and ryegrass/clover in mixture were studied on yellow brown earth which collected from sub-tropic mountain sward of southern China. The result showed as follows: (1) The percentage of nitrogen derived from atmosphere (% Ndfa) was decreased by nitrogen application in early growth stage and suitable amount of nitrogen application increased it in later growth stage. The % Ndfa of white clover in mixture was the highest with 6 mg/kg zinc application in all nitrogen levels. The transfer of fixed nitrogen by white clover to ryegrass was decreased by nitrogen application and increased by low amount of zinc application. (2) The percentage of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (% Ndff) was significantly increased by nitrogen application, of which the treatments with 6-20 mg/kg zinc application was higher than other zinc application treatments on ryegrass in monoculture, and the treatments with 6-20 mg/kg zinc application on white clover/ryegrass in mixture was lower than other zinc treatments at the range from 30 to 90 mg/kg nitrogen application. (3) The percentage of nitrogen derived from soil (% Ndfs) of ryegrass both in pure and in mixture was significantly decreased as the increasing of the levels of nitrogen application, of which ryegrass in mono-culture was not obviously influenced by zinc application, and ryegrass/clover in mixture was decreased by 6-20 mg/kg zinc application under all nitrogen levels

  5. Isospin mixing in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, E.J.; Clegg, T.B.; Fauber, R.E.; Karwowski, H.J.; Mooney, T.M.; Thompson, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    This program has provided accurate measurements of isospin mixing (ΔT = 1,2) in proton elastic scattering on even-even target nuclei up to A = 40. In order to improve experimental results and to test the hypothesis that isospin mixing is dominated by mixing in the target ground state (as opposed to mixing in the compound system) the authors have undertaken to (1) extend the proton scattering results to additional T = 3/2 states in certain compound systems and (2) examine processes which can proceed by only isotensor mixing (ΔT = 2) in order to isolate the effects of that contribution

  6. A novel aggregation induced emission active cyclometalated Ir(III) complex as a luminescent probe for detection of copper(II) ion in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wei; Yan, Liqiang; Tian, Wenwen; Cui, Xia; Qi, Zhengjian, E-mail: qizhengjian@seu.edu.cn; Sun, Yueming, E-mail: sun@seu.edu.cn

    2016-09-15

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a novel aggregation induced emission (AIE) active cyclometalated Ir(III) complex, namely [Ir(dfppy){sub 2}(phen-DPA)]PF{sub 6}, where dfppy and phen-DPA represent 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine and 2-(bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)-N-(1,10-phenanthrolin-5-yl)acetamide, respectively. The complex showed remarkable selectivity for copper(II) in aqueous solution over other competitive ions. Furthermore, this sensor showed a rapid and reversible response to copper(II) in aqueous solution with a detection limit of 65 nM.

  7. Copper(II) oxide solubility behavior in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemniak, S.E.; Jones, M.E.; Combs, K.E.S.

    1990-02-01

    A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility behavior of copper(II) oxide (CuO) in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at temperatures between 292 and 535 K. Copper solubilities are observed to increase continuously with temperature and phosphate concentration. The measured solubility is examined via a Cu(II) ion hydrolysis/complexing model and thermodynamic functions for the hydrolysis/complexing reactions are obtained from a least- squares analysis of the data. Altogether, thermochemical properties are established for five anionic complexes: Cu(OH) 3 - , Cu(OH) 4 = , Cu(OH) 2 (HPO 4 ) = , Cu(OH) 3 (H 2 PO 4 ) = , and Cu(OH) 2 (PO 4 ) ≡ . Precise thermochemical parameters are also derived for the Cu(OH) + hydroxocomplex based on CuO solubility behavior previously observed in pure water (*) at elevated temperatures. The relative ease of Cu(II) ion hydrolysis is such that Cu(OH) 3 - species become the preferred hydroxocomplex for pH ≥ 9.4. 20 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Synthesis, thermogravimetric, spectroscopic and theoretical characterization of copper(II) complex with 4-chloro-2-nitrobenzenosulfonamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camí, G.; Chacón Villalba, E.; Di Santi, Y.; Colinas, P.; Estiu, G.; Soria, D. B.

    2011-05-01

    4-Chloro-2-nitrobenzenesulfonamide (ClNbsa) was purified and characterized. A new copper(II) complex, [Cu(ClNbsa) 2(NH 3) 2], has been prepared using the sulfonamide as ligand. The thermal behavior of both, the ligand and the Cu(II) complex, was investigated by thermogravimetric analyses (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DT), and the electronic characteristics analyzed by UV-VIS, FTIR, Raman and 1H NMR spectroscopies. The experimental IR, Raman and UV-VIS spectra have been assigned on the basis of DFT calculations at the B3LYP level of theory using the standard (6-31 + G ∗∗) basis set. The geometries have been fully optimized in vacuum and in modeled dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solvent, using for the latter a continuum solvation model that reproduced the experimental conditions of the UV-VIS spectroscopy. The theoretical results converged to stable conformations for the free sulfonamide and for the complex, suggesting for the latter a distorted square planar geometry in both environments.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and study of the magnetic properties of a coordination polymer containing cobalt(II) and copper(II); Sintese, caracterizacao e estudo das propriedades magneticas de um polimero de coordenacao contendo cobalto(II) e cobre(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Tamyris T. da; Stumpf, Humberto O.; Pereira, Cynthia L.M., E-mail: cynthialopes@ufmg.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pires, Heber S.; Oliveira, Luiz F.C. de [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Pedroso, Emerson F. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nunes, Wallace C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This work describes the synthesis and characterization of two new compounds with ligand opy (N-(2-pyridyl)oxamate): the copper(II) precursor [Me{sub 4}N]{sub 2}[Cu(opy){sub 2}].5H{sub 2}O and Co{sup II} Cu{sup II} coordination polymer {l_brace}[Co Cu(opy){sub 2}]{r_brace}{sub n}x4nH{sub 2}O. This latter compound was obtained by reaction of [Me{sub 4}N]{sub 2}[Cu(opy){sub 2}].5H{sub 2}O and CoCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O in water. The heterobimetallic Co{sup II} Cu{sup II} chain was characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and magnetic measurements. Magnetic characterization revealed typical behavior of one-dimensional (1D) ferrimagnetic chain as shown in the curves of temperature (T) dependence of magnetic susceptibility ({chi}{sub M}), in the form of {chi}{sub M}T versus T, and dependence of magnetization (M) with applied field (H). (author)

  10. High stability and biological activity of the copper(II) complexes of alloferon 1 analogues containing tryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadej, Agnieszka; Kuczer, Mariola; Czarniewska, Elżbieta; Urbański, Arkadiusz; Rosiński, Grzegorz; Kowalik-Jankowska, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    Copper(II) complex formation processes between the alloferon 1 (Allo1) (HGVSGHGQHGVHG) analogues where the tryptophan residue is introducing in the place His residue H1W, H6W, H9W and H12W have been studied by potentiometric, UV-visible, CD and EPR spectroscopic, and MS methods. For all analogues of alloferon 1 complex speciation have been obtained for a 1:1 metal-to-ligand molar ratio and 2:1 of H1W because of precipitation at higher (2:1, 3:1 and 4:1) ratios. At physiological pH7.4 and a 1:1 metal-to-ligand molar ratio the tryptophan analogues of alloferon 1 form the CuH -1 L and/or CuH -2 L complexes with the 4N binding mode. The introduction of tryptophan in place of histidine residues changes the distribution diagram of the complexes formed with the change of pH and their stability constants compared to the respective substituted alanine analogues of alloferon 1. The CuH -1 L, CuH -2 L and CuH -3 L complexes of the tryptophan analogues are more stable from 1 to 5 log units in comparison to those of the alanine analogues. This stabilization of the complexes may result from cation(Cu(II))-π and indole/imidazole ring interactions. The induction of apoptosis in vivo, in Tenebrio molitor cells by the ligands and their copper(II) complexes at pH7.4 was studied. The biological results show that copper(II) ions in vivo did not cause any apparent apoptotic features. The most active were the H12W peptide and Cu(II)-H12W complex formed at pH7.4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving the Response of Copper(II) Selective PVC Membrane Electrode by Modification of N2S2 Donor Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinić, Slobodan; Buzuk, Marijo; Generalić, Eni; Bralić, Marija

    2010-06-01

    S,S'-bis(2-aminophenyl)ethanebis(thioate), (APhET), is reported as N2S2 ligand which form chelate with copper of high stability as compared to the other metals. Two modification of APhET, simpler 1,2-di-(o-aminophenylthio)ethane (DAPhTE), and the complex one 1,2-di-(o-salicylaldiminophenylthio)ethane (SAPhTE), were examined as the active material for copper(II) ion selective PVC membrane electrodes, and observed results are correlated. The obtained results with DAPhTE based electrodes show that only coordination abilities of ligand are insufficient for preparing the efficient membrane material. On the other hand, the results that are achieved with electrodes based on SAPhTE actuate interaction of ligand with polymer membrane matrix and necessity of ionophore immobilization in membrane. Optimized SAPhTE based membrane electrode has a linear range down to 10-6 mol L-1, with slope of 27.0 mV per decade, very rapid response time (under 5 seconds) and detection limit of 5.1 × 10-7 mol L-1. Such electrode is suitable for determination of copper(II) in analytical measurements by direct potentiometry and in potentiometric titrations, within pH between 2 and 7. The electrode is selective for copper(II) ions over a large number of metal ions, with the exception on Hg2+ ion when is present in concentrations above 2 × 10-5 mol L-1.

  12. Iodometric determination of peroxydiphosphate in the presence of copper(II) or iron(II) as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, S; Sharma, P D; Gupta, Y K

    1975-09-01

    Peroxydiphosphate can be determined iodometrically in the presence of a large excess of potassium iodide with copper(II) or iron(II) as catalyst through the operation of the Cu(II)/Cu(I) or Fe(II)/Fe(III) cycle. The method is applicable in HClO(4), H(2)SO(4), HCl and CH(3)COOH acid media in the range 0.1-1.0M studied. Nickel, manganese(II), cobalt(II), silver, chloride and phosphate are without effect.

  13. Kinetics of the oxidative hydroxylation of tetraphosphorus in the presence of copper(II) chloride modified by humic (fulvo-) acid

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov; Dina Akbayeva; Zh. Eshova

    2012-01-01

    It was established that in mild conditions (50-70 oC, РО2= 1 atm) white phosphorus effectively is oxidized by oxygen in water-toluene solutions of copper(II) chloride modified by humic (fulvo-) acid to give mainly phosphoric acid. Humic (fulvo-) acid was extracted from brown coal of domestic deposit Kiyakty. For determination of optimum parameters of fulvo-acid extraction the laboratory experiments were carried out using the method of experiment planning. The kinetics, intermediate and final ...

  14. Green and selective synthesis of N-substituted amides using water soluble porphyrazinato copper(II) catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodsinia, Sara S.E.; Akhlaghinia, Batool; Eshghi, Hossein, E-mail: akhlaghinia@um.ac.ir [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Sciences. Department of Chemistry; Safaei, Elham [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Department of Chemistry

    2013-06-15

    N, N',N{sup ,} N{sup '}-Tetramethyl tetra-2,3-pyridinoporphyrazinato copper(II) methyl sulfate ([Cu(2,3-tmtppa)](MeSO{sub 4}){sub 4}) efficiently catalyzed the direct conversion of nitriles to N-substituted amides. The one pot selective synthesis of the N-substituted amides from nitriles and primary amines was performed in refluxing H{sub 2}O. The catalyst was recovered and reused at least four times, maintaining its efficiency. (author)

  15. Scalable room-temperature conversion of copper(II) hydroxide into HKUST-1 (Cu3 (btc)2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majano, Gerardo; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2013-02-20

    Copper(II) hydroxide is converted directly to HKUST-1 (Cu(3) (btc)(2) ) after only 5 min at room-temperature in aqueous ethanolic solution without the need of additional solvents. Scale up to the kilogram scale does not influence porous properties yielding pure-phase product with a remarkable total surface area exceeding 1700 m(2) g(-1) featuring aggregates of nanometer-sized crystals (<600 nm) and extremely high space-time yields. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Crystal structure of mixed ligand compound [HgPhen{(C2H5)2NCS2}2] and character of intermolecular interaction in the structures of [MPhen{(C2H5)2NCS2}2] (M = Zn, Cd, Hg) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevtsova, R.F.; Glinskaya, L.A.; Zemskova, S.M.; Larionov, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    Monocrystals of mixed ligand complex [HgPhen(Et 2 NCS 2 ) 2 ] (Phen = 1, 10-phenanthroline) have been prepared and by the method of X-ray diffraction its crystal structure has been determined. The structure of mercury complex has been compared with structures of previously studied cadmium and zinc complexes similar in composition. The character of interaction between molecules of cadmium, zinc, mercury mixed ligand complexes and ways of their packing have been considered. It is shown that the structure of the complexes presents a molecular group assembled from two monomeric compounds at the expense of interaction between heterocyclic ligands contained in the mixed ligand complexes [ru

  17. Synthesis and spectral characterization of mono- and binuclear copper(II) complexes derived from 2-benzoylpyridine-N4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone: Crystal structure of a novel sulfur bridged copper(II) box-dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, K.; Sithambaresan, M.; Aiswarya, N.; Kurup, M. R. Prathapachandra

    2015-03-01

    Mononuclear and binuclear copper(II) complexes of 2-benzoylpyridine-N4-methyl thiosemicarbazone (HL) were prepared and characterized by a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Structural evidence for the novel sulfur bridged copper(II) iodo binuclear complex is obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The complex [Cu2L2I2], a non-centrosymmetric box dimer, crystallizes in monoclinic C2/c space group and it was found to have distorted square pyramidal geometry (Addison parameter, τ = 0.238) with the square basal plane occupied by the thiosemicarbazone moiety and iodine atom whereas the sulfur atom from the other coordinated thiosemicarbazone moiety occupies the apical position. This is the first crystallographically studied system having non-centrosymmetrical entities bridged via thiolate S atoms with Cu(II)sbnd I bond. The tridentate thiosemicarbazone coordinates in mono deprotonated thionic tautomeric form in all complexes except in sulfato complex, [Cu(HL)(SO4)]·H2O (1) where it binds to the metal centre in neutral form. The magnetic moment values and the EPR spectral studies reflect the binuclearity of some of the complexes. The spin Hamiltonian and bonding parameters are calculated based on EPR studies. In all the complexes g|| > g⊥ > 2.0023 and the g values in frozen DMF are consistent with the dx2-y2 ground state. The thermal stabilities of some of the complexes were also determined.

  18. Synthesis and spectral characterization of mono- and binuclear copper(II) complexes derived from 2-benzoylpyridine-N⁴-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone: crystal structure of a novel sulfur bridged copper(II) box-dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, K; Sithambaresan, M; Aiswarya, N; Kurup, M R Prathapachandra

    2015-03-15

    Mononuclear and binuclear copper(II) complexes of 2-benzoylpyridine-N(4)-methyl thiosemicarbazone (HL) were prepared and characterized by a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Structural evidence for the novel sulfur bridged copper(II) iodo binuclear complex is obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The complex [Cu2L2I2], a non-centrosymmetric box dimer, crystallizes in monoclinic C2/c space group and it was found to have distorted square pyramidal geometry (Addison parameter, τ=0.238) with the square basal plane occupied by the thiosemicarbazone moiety and iodine atom whereas the sulfur atom from the other coordinated thiosemicarbazone moiety occupies the apical position. This is the first crystallographically studied system having non-centrosymmetrical entities bridged via thiolate S atoms with Cu(II)I bond. The tridentate thiosemicarbazone coordinates in mono deprotonated thionic tautomeric form in all complexes except in sulfato complex, [Cu(HL)(SO4)]·H2O (1) where it binds to the metal centre in neutral form. The magnetic moment values and the EPR spectral studies reflect the binuclearity of some of the complexes. The spin Hamiltonian and bonding parameters are calculated based on EPR studies. In all the complexes g||>g⊥>2.0023 and the g values in frozen DMF are consistent with the d(x2-y2) ground state. The thermal stabilities of some of the complexes were also determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterisation of spin-waves in copper(II) deuteroformate tetradeuterate: A square ¤S¤=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, S.J.; Harrison, A.; Mason, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    Copper(II) formate tetrahydrate (CFTH) is a model square S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet with T-N = 16.54 +/- 0.05 K. The dispersion of spin-waves in the magnetic layers of a fully deuterated sample of this material has been mapped at 4.3 K by inelastic neutron scattering from the zone centre ...

  20. Cyclam Derivatives with a Bis(phosphinate) or a Phosphinato-Phosphonate Pendant Arm: Ligands for Fast and Efficient Copper(II) Complexation for Nuclear Medical Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    David, T.; Kubíček, V.; Gutten, Ondrej; Lubal, P.; Kotek, J.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Hermann, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 24 (2015), s. 11751-11766 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31419S Grant - others:COST(XE) TD1004 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cyclam derivatives * radiolabelling * quantum chemical calculations * copper(II) chelation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.820, year: 2015

  1. Studies on coordination and addition compounds and anti microbial activity of some mixed ligand complexes of Au(III), Mo(II), Co(II) and Cd(II) with dibasic acid and heterocyclic amines and addition compounds of As(III) and Sb(III) halides with benzamide and acetophenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.; Sultana, C.; Saidul Islam, M.; Zakaria, C.M.

    2008-06-01

    Three new mixed ligand complexes of Au(III) and Mo(II) with dibasic acid e.g., homophthalic acid, oxalic acid and heterocylic amines e.g., quinonine, iso-quinonine, bipyridine, Phenylanaline and the two new addition compounds of As(III) and Sb(III) halides with N-donor ligands viz. benzamide and acetophenone and one complex [Cd(DPH)(IQ) 2 ], where IQ = Iso-quinoline and DPH = Deprotonated phthalic acid have been prepared according to the procedure in the literature. Their conventional physical and chemical analyses have been done. Their antibacterial studies against nine gram positive and five gram negative pathogenic bacteria and antifungal activities against eight plant and three human fungi have been evaluated. Kanamycin and Nystatin have been used as a standard for carrying out experiments of antibacterial and antifungal activities, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of these compounds, as antibiotic against two gram positive and two gram negative pathogenic bacteria, have also been carried out and in this case, Amoxacilin antibiotic has been used as a standard antibiotic. (author)

  2. In vitro Solubility of Copper(II) Sulfate and Dicopper Chloride Trihydroxide for Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C S; Kim, B G

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the solubility of copper (Cu) in two sources of copper(II) sulfate (CuSO 4 ) including monohydrate and pentahydrate and three sources of dicopper chloride trihydroxide (dCCTH) including α-form (dCCTH-α), β-form (dCCTH-β), and a mixture of α- and β-form (dCCTH-αβ) at different pH and a 3-step in vitro digestion assay for pigs. In Exp. 1, Cu sources were incubated in water-based buffers at pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.8, and 6.8 for 4 h using a shaking incubator at 39°C. The CuSO 4 sources were completely dissolved within 15 min except at pH 6.8. The solubility of Cu in dCCTH-α was greater (pCopper in dCCTH sources were non-soluble at pH 6.8. In Exp. 2, the solubility of Cu was determined during the 3-step in vitro digestion assay for pigs. All sources of Cu were completely dissolved in step 1 which simulated digestion in the stomach. In Exp. 3, the solubility of Cu in experimental diets including a control diet and diets containing 250 mg/kg of additional Cu from five Cu sources was determined during the in vitro digestion assay. The solubility of Cu in diets containing additional Cu sources were greater (p<0.05) than the control diet in step 1. In conclusion, the solubility of Cu was influenced by pH of digesta but was not different among sources based on the in vitro digestion assay.

  3. COORDINATION COMPOUNDS OF 3D-METALS ACETYLACETONATES WITH THIOSEMICARBAZIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Koksharova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coordination Compounds of 3d-Metals acetylacetonates with Thiosemicarbazide were synthesized. Their physical and chemical properties and structure were studied by conductometry, IR spectroscopy, electronic spectroscopy, magnetochemistry and thermo-gravimetricstudies. The complexes compositions correspond to the formulas Co(L2(Acac and M(L(Acac, where M = Cu, Ni, Zn, HL is thiosemicarbazide, HAcac is acetylacetone. All of them are nonelectrolytes. Thiosemicarbazide is deprotonated and coordinated through the nitrogen and sulphur atoms with the formation of four-membered ring in all cases. Acetylacetonate co-ordination mode does not change at acetylacetonates with Thiosemicarbazide interaction. Copper(II and nickel(II complexes have square-planar structure, and cobalt(III complex is octahedral.

  4. Template synthesis of poly aza macrocyclic copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes: Spectral characterization and antimicrobial studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurumoorthy, P.; Ravichandran, J.; Kaliur Rahiman, A. [The New College, Chennai (India); Karthikeyan, N.; Palani, P. [Univ. of Madras, Chennai (India)

    2012-07-15

    The template synthesis of copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes derived from 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol with diethylenetriamine or 1,2-bis(3-amino propylamino)ethane produce the 12-membered N{sub 3}O and 17-membered N{sub 4}O macrocyclic complexes, respectively. The geometry of the complexes has been determined with the help of electronic and EPR spectroscopic values and found to be five coordinated square pyramidal and, six coordinated distorted tetragonal for 12-membered and 17-membered macrocyclic complexes, respectively. Electrochemical studies of the mononuclear N{sub 3}O and N{sub 4}O copper(II) complexes show one irreversible one electron reduction wave at E{sup pc} = .1.35 and .1.15 V respectively, and the corresponding nickel(II) complexes show irreversible one-electron reduction wave at E{sup pc} = .1.25 and .1.22 V, respectively. The nickel(II) complexes show irreversible one-electron oxidation wave at Epa = +0.84 and +0.82 V, respectively. All the complexes were evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against the human pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

  5. Preparation and testing of a tetra-amine copper(II) chitosan bead system for enhanced phosphate remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ilango Aswin; Viswanathan, Natrayasamy

    2018-03-01

    A tetra-amine copper(II) chitosan bead system (TAC@CS composite beads) was developed by grafting tetra-amine copper(II) (TAC) with chitosan (CS) and utilized for phosphate removal. The prepared TAC@CS composite beads possess enhanced phosphate sorption capacity (SC) of 41.42 ± 0.071 mg/g than copper grafted chitosan (Cu@CS) composite, TAC and chitosan which were found to be 37.01 ± 0.803, 33.20 ± 0.650 and 7.24 ± 0.059 mg/g respectively. In batch mode, various adsorption influencing parameters like contact time, initial phosphate concentration, solution pH, co-anions and temperature were optimized for maximum phosphate sorption. The prepared adsorbents were characterized by FTIR, XRD, UV-Visible, SEM and EDAX analysis. The adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic parameters of the adsorbent were studied. The feasible phosphate uptake mechanism of TAC@CS biocomposite beads was reported. The reusability studies of TAC@CS composite beads were carried out using NaOH as elutant. The suitability of TAC@CS composite beads at field conditions was tested with phosphate contaminated field water samples collected from nearby areas of Dindigul district. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Template Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Magnetic Properties of a Dinuclear Copper(II) Complex with Cooperative Hydrogen Bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Shin Geol; Nam, Kwang Hee; Min, Kil Sik; Lee, Uk

    2011-01-01

    The dinuclear complex with cooperative hydrogen bonds can be prepared by the metal-directed reaction of Eq. This work shows that the coordinated hydroxyl group trans to the secondary amino group is deprotonated more readily than that trans to the tertiary amino group and acts as the hydrogen-bond accepter. The lattice water molecules in act as bridges between the two mononuclear units through hydrogen bonds. The complex is quite stable as the dimeric form even in various polar solvents. The complex exhibits a weak antiferromagnetic interaction between the metal ions in spite of relatively long Cu···Cu distance. This strongly supports the suggestion that the antiferromagnetic behavior is closely related to the cooperative hydrogen bonds. The design and synthesis of polynuclear transition metal complexes have received much attention because of their potential applications in various fields, such as catalysis, supramolecular chemistry, and materials chemistry. Until now, various types of dinuclear copper(II) complexes have been prepared and investigated. Some dinuclear copper(II) complexes resulting from cooperative hydrogen bonding, such as containing two N_2O_2 donor sets, are also reported

  7. Novel Co(III)/Co(II) mixed valence compound [Co(bapen)Br2]2[CoBr4] (bapen = N,N‧-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethane-1,2-diamine): Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolko, Lukáš; Černák, Juraj; Kuchár, Juraj; Miklovič, Jozef; Boča, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Green crystals of Co(III)/Co(II) mixed valence compound [Co(bapen)Br2]2[CoBr4] (bapen = N,N‧-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethane-1,2-diamine) were isolated from the aqueous system CoBr2 - bapen - HBr, crystallographically studied and characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. Its ionic crystal structure is built up of [Co(bapen)Br2]+ cations and [CoBr4]2- anions. The Co(III) central atoms within the complex cations are hexacoordinated (donor set trans-N4Br2) with bromido ligands placed in the axial positions. The Co(II) atoms exhibit distorted tetrahedral coordination. Beside ionic forces weak Nsbnd H⋯Br intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions contribute to the stability of the structure. Temperature variable magnetic measurements confirm the S = 3/2 behavior with the zero-field splitting of an intermediate strength: D/hc = 8.7 cm-1.

  8. Volatile compound fingerprinting of mixed cultutre fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, de F.A.M.; Janssen, P.W.M.; Bayjanov, J.R.; Sieuwerts, S.; Lommen, A.; Hylckama, van J.; Molenaar, D.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the -omics era, classical technology platforms, such as hyphenated mass spectrometry, are currently undergoing a transformation toward high-throughput application. These novel platforms yield highly detailed metabolite profiles in large numbers of samples. Such profiles can be

  9. Compounds interaction on biodegradation of toluene and methyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MEK) mixtures in a composite bead biofilter was investigated. The biodegradation rate of two compounds in the exponential growth phase and stationary phase for the single compound and two compounds mixing systems was determined.

  10. A novel asymmetric chair-like hydroxyl-bridged tetra-copper compound: Synthesis, supramolecular structure and magnetic property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Du, Ke-Jie; Wang, Hong-Qing; Zhang, Xue-Li; Nie, Chang-Ming

    2017-06-01

    A new polynuclear Cu(II) compound, [Cu4(bpy)4(OH)4(H2O)(BTC)]NO3·8H2O (1), was prepared by self-assembly from the solution of copper(II) nitrate and two kinds of ligands, 2,2‧-bipyridine (bpy) and benzene-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC). Single crystal structure analysis reveals that 1 features a rare asymmetric chair-like hydroxyl-bridged tetra-copper cluster: [Cu4(OH)4] core along with one H2O and one BTC3- occupied each terminal coordinated site. In addition, the magnetic property has been investigated.

  11. Structure-antiproliferative activity studies on l-proline- and homoproline-4-N-pyrrolidine-3-thiosemicarbazone hybrids and their nickel(ii), palladium(ii) and copper(ii) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrova, Aliona; Platzer, Sonja; Bacher, Felix; Milunovic, Miljan N M; Dobrov, Anatolie; Spengler, Gabriella; Enyedy, Éva A; Novitchi, Ghenadie; Arion, Vladimir B

    2016-09-14

    Two water-soluble thiosemicarbazone-proline (H2L(1)) and thiosemicarbazone-homoproline hybrids (H2L(2)) were synthesised. By reaction of H2L(1) with NiCl2·6H2O, PdCl2 and CuCl2·2H2O in ethanol, the series of square-planar complexes [Ni(H2L(1))Cl]Cl·1.3H2O (1·1.3H2O), [Pd(H2L(1))Cl]Cl·H2O (2·H2O) and [Cu(H2L(1))Cl]Cl·0.7H2O (3·0.7H2O) was prepared, and starting from H2L(2) and CuCl2·2H2O in methanol, the complex [Cu(H2L(2))Cl2]·H2O (4·H2O) was obtained. The compounds have been characterised by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods (IR, UV-vis and NMR spectroscopy), ESI mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray crystallography (H2L(1), 1, 2 and 4). As a solid, 1 is diamagnetic, while it is paramagnetic in methanolic solution. The effective magnetic moment of 3.26 B.M. at room temperature indicates the change in coordination geometry from square-planar to octahedral upon dissolution. The in vitro anticancer potency of ligand precursors H2L(1) and H2L(2) and metal complexes 1-4 was studied in three human cancer cell lines (A549, CH1 and SW480) and in noncancerous murine embryonal fibroblasts (NIH/3T3), and the mechanism of cell death was also assayed by flow cytometry. Clear-cut structure-activity relationships have been established. The metal ions exert marked effects in a divergent manner: copper(ii) increases, whereas nickel(ii) and palladium(ii) decrease the cytotoxicity of the hybrids. The antiproliferative activity of H2L(1) and metal complexes 1-3 decreases in all three tumour cell lines in the following rank order: 3 > H2L(1) > 1 > 2. The role of square-planar geometry in the underlying mechanism of cytotoxicity of the metal complexes studied seems to be negligible, while structural modifications at the terminal amino group of thiosemicarbazide and proline moieties are significant for enhancing the antiproliferative activity of both hybrids and copper(ii) complexes.

  12. Solubility of Copper(II Sulfate and Dicopper Chloride Trihydroxide for Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the solubility of copper (Cu in two sources of copper(II sulfate (CuSO4 including monohydrate and pentahydrate and three sources of dicopper chloride trihydroxide (dCCTH including α-form (dCCTH-α, β-form (dCCTH-β, and a mixture of α- and β-form (dCCTH-αβ at different pH and a 3-step in vitro digestion assay for pigs. In Exp. 1, Cu sources were incubated in water-based buffers at pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.8, and 6.8 for 4 h using a shaking incubator at 39°C. The CuSO4 sources were completely dissolved within 15 min except at pH 6.8. The solubility of Cu in dCCTH-α was greater (p<0.05 than dCCTH-β but was not different from dCCTH-αβ during 3-h incubation at pH 2.0 and during 2-h incubation at pH 3.0. At pH 4.8, there were no significant differences in solubility of Cu in dCCTH sources. Copper in dCCTH sources were non-soluble at pH 6.8. In Exp. 2, the solubility of Cu was determined during the 3-step in vitro digestion assay for pigs. All sources of Cu were completely dissolved in step 1 which simulated digestion in the stomach. In Exp. 3, the solubility of Cu in experimental diets including a control diet and diets containing 250 mg/kg of additional Cu from five Cu sources was determined during the in vitro digestion assay. The solubility of Cu in diets containing additional Cu sources were greater (p<0.05 than the control diet in step 1. In conclusion, the solubility of Cu was influenced by pH of digesta but was not different among sources based on the in vitro digestion assay.

  13. Kinetics of the oxidative hydroxylation of tetraphosphorus in the presence of copper(II chloride modified by humic (fulvo- acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It was established that in mild conditions (50-70 oC, РО2= 1 atm white phosphorus effectively is oxidized by oxygen in water-toluene solutions of copper(II chloride modified by humic (fulvo- acid to give mainly phosphoric acid. Humic (fulvo- acid was extracted from brown coal of domestic deposit Kiyakty. For determination of optimum parameters of fulvo-acid extraction the laboratory experiments were carried out using the method of experiment planning. The kinetics, intermediate and final products, optimum conditions of new catalytic reaction of P4 oxidation by oxygen in water medium were defined by kinetics, volumometry, redox-potentiometry, 31Р{1Н} NMR spectroscopy and  titration. 

  14. Multitarget trehalose-carnosine conjugates inhibit Aβ aggregation, tune copper(II) activity and decrease acrolein toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Giuseppa Ida; Bellia, Francesco; Arena, Giuseppe; Satriano, Cristina; Vecchio, Graziella; Rizzarelli, Enrico

    2017-07-28

    Increasing evidence is accumulating, showing that neurodegenerative disorders are somehow associated with the toxicity of amyloid aggregates, metal ion dyshomeostasis as well as with products generated by oxidative stress. Within the biological oxidation products, acrolein does have a prominent role. A promising strategy to deal with the above neurogenerative disorders is to use multi-functions bio-molecules. Herein, we show how a class of bio-conjugates takes advantage of the antiaggregating, antioxidant and antiglycating properties of trehalose and carnosine. Their ability to sequester acrolein and to inhibit both self- and metal-induced aggregation is here reported. The copper(II) coordination properties of a new trehalose-carnosine conjugate and the relative antioxidant effects have also been investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Copper(II) and palladium(II) complexes with tridentate NSO donor Schiff base ligand: Synthesis, characterization and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sujit Baran; Solanki, Ankita; Kundu, Suman

    2017-09-01

    Mononuclear copper(II) complex [CuL2] and palladium(II) complexes [Pd(X)L] where X = benzoate(bz) or salicylate(sal) and HL = 2-(methylthio)phenylimino)methyl)phenol, a Schiff base ligand with NSO coordination sites have been synthesized and characterized by microanalyses, IR, UV-Visible spectra, conductivity measurement and magnetic studies. Crystal structures of all the complexes have been solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and showed that there are two molecules in a unit cell in the [CuL2] complex - one molecule has square planar geometry whereas second molecule has distorted square pyramidal geometry and palladium(II) complexes have distorted square planar geometry.

  16. Sneutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Y.

    1997-10-01

    In supersymmetric models with nonvanishing Majorana neutrino masses, the sneutrino and antisneutrino mix. The conditions under which this mixing is experimentally observable are studied, and mass-splitting of the sneutrino mass eigenstates and sneutrino oscillation phenomena are analyzed

  17. A new approach for crystallization of copper(ii) oxide hollow nanostructures with superior catalytic and magnetic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderjeet; Landfester, Katharina; Chandra, Amreesh; Muñoz-Espí, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    We report the synthesis of copper(ii) oxide hollow nanostructures at ambient pressure and close to room temperature by applying the soft templating effect provided by the confinement of droplets in miniemulsion systems. Particle growth can be explained by considering a mechanism that involves both diffusion and reaction control. The catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol in aqueous media is used as a model reaction to prove the catalytic activity of the materials: the synthesized hollow structures show nearly 100 times higher rate constants than solid CuO microspheres. The kinetic behavior and the order of the reduction reaction change due to the increase of the surface area of the hollow structures. The synthesis also leads to modification of physical properties such as magnetism.We report the synthesis of copper(ii) oxide hollow nanostructures at ambient pressure and close to room temperature by applying the soft templating effect provided by the confinement of droplets in miniemulsion systems. Particle growth can be explained by considering a mechanism that involves both diffusion and reaction control. The catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol in aqueous media is used as a model reaction to prove the catalytic activity of the materials: the synthesized hollow structures show nearly 100 times higher rate constants than solid CuO microspheres. The kinetic behavior and the order of the reduction reaction change due to the increase of the surface area of the hollow structures. The synthesis also leads to modification of physical properties such as magnetism. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Associated structural and morphological analysis, XPS characterization, BET surface area, catalytic measurements, recycle tests of the catalyst, and magnetic characterizations. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05579b

  18. Adsorption of lead(II) and copper(II) on activated carbon by complexation with surface functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesavento, Maria; Profumo, Antonella; Alberti, Giancarla; Conti, Fabio

    2003-01-01

    The adsorption of lead(II) and copper(II) on an activated carbon (Filtrasorb 300, Chemviron) was characterized assuming that it takes place by formation of complexes with functional groups, present in the activated carbon. Their concentration and conditional adsorption coefficients were determined for each metal by titration of the carbon in suspension in aqueous phase, at constant acidity, with the metal itself. For each titration point, the concentration of the metal in the solution phase after equilibration was determined, and the data were processed by the Ruzic linearization method, to obtain the concentration of the active sites involved in the sorption, and the conditional constant. The effect of the pH was also examined, in the range 4-6, obtaining that the adsorption increases at increasing pH. The protonation and adsorption constants were determined from the conditional adsorption coefficients obtained at the different acidities. The concentration of the active sites is 0.023 and 0.042 mmol g -1 , and the protonation constants are 1.0x10 6 and 4.6x10 4 M -1 for Pb(II) and Cu(II). The corresponding adsorption constants are respectively 1.4x10 5 and 6.3x10 3 M -1 . All the parameters are affected by a large uncertainty, probably due to the heterogeneity of the active groups in the activated carbon. Even if so, these parameters make it possible a good prediction of the adsorption in a wide range of conditions. Other sorption mechanism can be set up at different conditions, in particular at different pH, as it has been demonstrated in the case of copper(II)

  19. Adsorption of lead(II) and copper(II) on activated carbon by complexation with surface functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesavento, Maria; Profumo, Antonella; Alberti, Giancarla; Conti, Fabio

    2003-03-17

    The adsorption of lead(II) and copper(II) on an activated carbon (Filtrasorb 300, Chemviron) was characterized assuming that it takes place by formation of complexes with functional groups, present in the activated carbon. Their concentration and conditional adsorption coefficients were determined for each metal by titration of the carbon in suspension in aqueous phase, at constant acidity, with the metal itself. For each titration point, the concentration of the metal in the solution phase after equilibration was determined, and the data were processed by the Ruzic linearization method, to obtain the concentration of the active sites involved in the sorption, and the conditional constant. The effect of the pH was also examined, in the range 4-6, obtaining that the adsorption increases at increasing pH. The protonation and adsorption constants were determined from the conditional adsorption coefficients obtained at the different acidities. The concentration of the active sites is 0.023 and 0.042 mmol g{sup -1}, and the protonation constants are 1.0x10{sup 6} and 4.6x10{sup 4} M{sup -1} for Pb(II) and Cu(II). The corresponding adsorption constants are respectively 1.4x10{sup 5} and 6.3x10{sup 3} M{sup -1}. All the parameters are affected by a large uncertainty, probably due to the heterogeneity of the active groups in the activated carbon. Even if so, these parameters make it possible a good prediction of the adsorption in a wide range of conditions. Other sorption mechanism can be set up at different conditions, in particular at different pH, as it has been demonstrated in the case of copper(II)

  20. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic oxidation properties of multi-wall carbon nanotubes with a covalently attached copper(II) salen complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Bazarganipour, Mehdi

    2009-06-01

    Hydroxyl functionalized copper(II) Schiff-base, N,N'-bis(4-hydroxysalicylidene)-ethylene-1,2-diaminecopper(II), [Cu((OH) 2-salen)], has been covalently anchored on modified MWCNTs. The new modified MWCNTs ([Cu((OH) 2-salen)]-MWCNTs) have been characterized by TEM, thermal analysis, XRD, XPS, UV-vis, DRS, FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The modified copper(II) MWCNTs solid was used to affect the catalytic oxidation of ethylbenzene with tert-butylhydroperoxide as the oxidant at 333 K. The system is truly heterogeneous (no leaching observed) and reusable (no decrease in activity) in three consecutive runs. Acetophenone was the major product though small amounts of o- and p-hydroxyacetophenones were also formed revealing that C-H bond activation takes place both at benzylic and aromatic ring carbon atoms. Ring hydroxylation was more over the "neat" complexes than over the encapsulated complexes.

  1. Determination of formal redox potentials in aqueous solution of copper(II) complexes with ligands having nitrogen and oxygen donor atoms and comparison with their EPR and UV-Vis spectral features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbì, Giovanni; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Bonomo, Raffaele P

    2013-11-01

    Formal redox potentials in aqueous solution were determined for copper(II) complexes with ligands having oxygen and nitrogen as donor atoms. All the chosen copper(II) complexes have well-known stereochemistries (pseudo-octahedral, square planar, square-based pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal or tetrahedral) as witnessed by their reported spectroscopic, EPR and UV-visible (UV-Vis) features, so that a rough correlation between the measured redox potential and the typical geometrical arrangement of the copper(II) complex could be established. Negative values have been obtained for copper(II) complexes in tetragonally elongated pseudo-octahedral geometries, when measured against Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Copper(II) complexes in tetrahedral environments (or flattened tetrahedral geometries) show positive redox potential values. There is a region, always in the field of negative redox potentials which groups the copper(II) complexes exhibiting square-based pyramidal arrangements. Therefore, it is suggested that a measurement of the formal redox potential could be of great help, when some ambiguities might appear in the interpretation of spectroscopic (EPR and UV-Vis) data. Unfortunately, when the comparison is made between copper(II) complexes in square-based pyramidal geometries and those in square planar environments (or a pseudo-octahedral) a little perturbed by an equatorial tetrahedral distortion, their redox potentials could fall in the same intermediate region. In this case spectroscopic data have to be handled with great care in order to have an answer about a copper complex geometrical characteristics. © 2013.

  2. Synthesis and structural characterisation of iron(II) and copper(II) diphosphates containing flattened metal oxotetrahedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keates, Adam C.; Wang, Qianlong; Weller, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Single crystal and bulk polycrystalline forms of K 2 MP 2 O 7 (M=Fe(II), Cu(II)) have been synthesised and their structures determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Both compounds crystallize in the tetragonal system, space group P-42 1 m. Their structures are formed from infinite sheets of linked oxopolyhedra of the stoichiometry [MP 2 O 7 ] 2− with potassium cations situated between the layers. The MO 4 tetrahedra share oxygen atoms with [P 2 O 7 ] 4− diphosphate groups and the potassium ions have KO 8 square prismatic geometry. In both compounds the M(II) centre has an unusual strongly flattened, tetrahedral coordination to oxygen, as a result of the Jahn–Teller (JT) effect for the high spin d 6 Fe(II) and p-orbital mixing or a second order JT effect for d 9 Cu(II) centres in four fold coordination. The uncommon transition metal ion environments found in these materials are reflected in their optical absorption spectra and magnetism data. - Graphical abstract: The structures of the tetragonal polymorphs of K 2 MP 2 O 7 , M=Cu(II), Fe(II), consist of infinite sheets of stoichiometry [MP 2 O 7 ] 2− , formed from linked pyrophosphate groups and MO 4 tetrahedra, separated by potassium ions. In both compounds the unusual tetrahedral coordination of the M(II) centre is strongly flattened as a result of Jahn–Teller (JT) effects for high spin, d 6 Fe(II) and p-orbital mixing and second-order JT effects for d 9 Cu(II). Display Omitted - Highlights: • Tetrahedral copper and iron(II) coordinated by oxygen. • New layered phosphate structure. • Jahn–Teller and d 10 distorted coordinations

  3. Surface characteristics, copper release, and toxicity of nano- and micrometer-sized copper and copper(II) oxide particles: a cross-disciplinary study.

    OpenAIRE

    Midander, Klara; Cronholm, Pontus; Karlsson, Hanna L.; Elihn, Karine; Moller, Lennart; Leygraf, Christofer; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall

    2009-01-01

    An interdisciplinary and multianalytical research effort is undertaken to assess the toxic aspects of thoroughly characterized nano- and micrometer-sized particles of oxidized metallic copper and copper(II) oxide in contact with cultivated lung cells, as well as copper release in relevant media. All particles, except micrometer-sized Cu, release more copper in serum-containing cell medium (supplemented Dulbecco's minimal essential medium) compared to identical exposures in phosphate-buffered ...

  4. Copper(II) and molybdenum(VI) complexes of a tridentate ONN donor isothiosemicarbazone: synthesis, characterization, X-ray, TGA and DFT

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fasihizad, A.; Akbari, A.; Ahmadi, M.; Dušek, Michal; Henriques, Margarida Isabel Sousa; Pojarová, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 115, Sep (2016), s. 297-305 ISSN 0277-5387 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S; GA MŠk LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : isothiosemicarbazone * Copper(II) complex * molybdenum(VI) complex * crystal structure * DFT Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.926, year: 2016

  5. Theoretical studies of the tautomerism in 3-(2-R-Phenylhydrazono)-naphthalene- 1,2,4-triones: synthesis of copper(II) complexes and studies of antibacterial and antitumor activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Acacio I.; Vargas, Maria D.; Fragoso, Thais P.; Carneiro, J. Walkimar de M.; Silva, Fernando de C. da; Ferreira, Vitor F., E-mail: mdvargas@vm.uff.b [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Casellato, Annelise [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Barbosa, Jussara P. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pessoa, Claudia; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V.; Marinho Filho, Jose D.B.; Moraes, Manoel O. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia e Farmacologia; Mangrich, Antonio S. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    DFT calculations using the B3LYP and PBE1PBE functionals with the standard 6-31G(d) and 6-311+G(2d,p) basis sets were carried out for the 3-(2-phenylhydrazone)-naphthalene-1,2,4-trione system in solution (dmso) and in the gas phase, and showed the keto-hydrazone forms (rotamers Ia and Ib) to be more stable than the enol-azo forms (rotamers IIa and IIb, by about 14 kcal mol-1) and III (by approximately 6 kcal mol-1), independently of the nature of the substituent in the phenylene ring. These results were confirmed by spectroscopic data on the derivatives HL1-HL13, obtained from 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and arylamines (R = 4-OMe, 4-N{sub 2}-C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, 4-Cl, 4-I, 3-I, 2-I, 4-COOH, 3-COOH, 4-CN, 3-CN, 4-NO{sub 2}, 3-NO{sub 2}, 2-NO{sub 2}). The in vitro antitumor (against SF-295, HCT-8, MDAMB-435 and HL-60 cancer cell lines) and antibacterial activities (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) of compounds HL1-HL13 and of their respective copper(II) complexes, [Cu(L1-13){sub 2}], were tested. In general, these compounds exhibited low antibacterial activity, except for HL5 (R 3-I), more active than the control; however, the corresponding complex was inactive. In contrast, increased cytotoxicity was observed upon complexation. Complex [Cu(L13){sub 2}] (R = 3-NO{sub 2}) presented moderate cytotoxicity against human leukemia (HL-60). (author)

  6. Theoretical studies of the tautomerism in 3-(2-R-Phenylhydrazono)-naphthalene- 1,2,4-triones: synthesis of copper(II) complexes and studies of antibacterial and antitumor activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, Acacio I.; Vargas, Maria D.; Fragoso, Thais P.; Carneiro, J. Walkimar de M.; Silva, Fernando de C. da; Ferreira, Vitor F.; Pessoa, Claudia; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V.; Marinho Filho, Jose D.B.; Moraes, Manoel O. de; Mangrich, Antonio S.

    2010-01-01

    DFT calculations using the B3LYP and PBE1PBE functionals with the standard 6-31G(d) and 6-311+G(2d,p) basis sets were carried out for the 3-(2-phenylhydrazone)-naphthalene-1,2,4-trione system in solution (dmso) and in the gas phase, and showed the keto-hydrazone forms (rotamers Ia and Ib) to be more stable than the enol-azo forms (rotamers IIa and IIb, by about 14 kcal mol-1) and III (by approximately 6 kcal mol-1), independently of the nature of the substituent in the phenylene ring. These results were confirmed by spectroscopic data on the derivatives HL1-HL13, obtained from 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and arylamines (R = 4-OMe, 4-N 2 -C 6 H 5 , 4-Cl, 4-I, 3-I, 2-I, 4-COOH, 3-COOH, 4-CN, 3-CN, 4-NO 2 , 3-NO 2 , 2-NO 2 ). The in vitro antitumor (against SF-295, HCT-8, MDAMB-435 and HL-60 cancer cell lines) and antibacterial activities (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) of compounds HL1-HL13 and of their respective copper(II) complexes, [Cu(L1-13) 2 ], were tested. In general, these compounds exhibited low antibacterial activity, except for HL5 (R 3-I), more active than the control; however, the corresponding complex was inactive. In contrast, increased cytotoxicity was observed upon complexation. Complex [Cu(L13) 2 ] (R = 3-NO 2 ) presented moderate cytotoxicity against human leukemia (HL-60). (author)

  7. Preconcentration and extraction of copper(II on activated carbon using ethyl-2-quinolyl-β (p-carboxyphenyl hydrazonedioxo propionate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrorang Ghaedi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon modified method was used for the preconcentration and determination of copper content in real samples such as tap water, wastewater and a synthetic water sample by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The copper(II was adsorbed quantitatively on activated carbon due to its complexation with ethyl-2-quinolyl-β(p-carboxyphenyl hydrazonedioxo propionate (EQCPDP. The adsorbed copper(II ion on solid phase was eluted quantitatively by using nitric acid. The important parameters such as pH, amount of carrier, flow rate, amount of activated carbon and type and concentration of eluting agent for obtaining maximum recovery were optimized. The method at optimum conditions gives linear concentration range of 0.05-1.0 μg mL-1 of copper(II with correlation coefficient of 0.9994 and the detection limit of 0.99 ng mL-1. The preconcentration leads to enrichment factor of 175 and break through volume of 1750 mL. The method has good tolerance limit of interfering ions and selectivity and it has been successfully applied for determination of copper content in real sample such as blood, wastewater and river sample.

  8. Organolanthanoid compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Up to little more than a decade ago organolanthanoid compounds were still a curiosity. Apart from the description of an isolated number of cyclopentadienyl and indenyl derivatives, very few significant contributions had been made to this interesting sector of organometallic chemistry. However, subsequent systematic studies using modern preparative and analytical techniques, together with X-ray single crystal structure determinations, enabled the isolation and characterization of a large number of very interesting homoleptic and heteroleptic compounds in which the lanthanoid is bound to hydrogen, to substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl groups, to allyl or alkynyl groups, or even to phosphorus ylides, trimethylsilyl, and carbonylmetal groups. These compounds, which are all extremely sensitive to oxygen and water, open up new possibilities in the field of catalysis and have great potential in organic synthesis - as recent studies with pentamethylcyclopentadienyl derivatives, organolanthanoid(II) compounds, and hexamethyllanthanoid complexes have already shown. (orig.) [de

  9. Synthesis, X-ray crystal structures, and phosphate ester cleavage properties of bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine copper(II) complexes with guanidinium pendant groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousoff, Matthew J; Tjioe, Linda; Graham, Bim; Spiccia, Leone

    2008-10-06

    Three new derivatives of bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (DPA) featuring ethylguanidinium (L (1)), propylguanidinium (L (2)), or butylguanidinium (L (3)) pendant groups have been prepared by the reaction of N, N- bis(2-pyridylmethyl)alkane-alpha,omega-diamines with 1 H-pyrazole-1-carboxamidine hydrochloride. The corresponding mononuclear copper(II) complexes were prepared by reacting the ligands with copper(II) nitrate and were isolated as [Cu(LH (+))(OH 2)](ClO 4) 3. xNaClO 4. yH 2O ( C1: L = L (1), x = 2, y = 3; C2: L = L (2), x = 2, y = 4; C3: L = L (3), x = 1, y = 0) following cation exchange purification. Recrystallization yielded crystals of composition [Cu(LH (+))(X)](ClO 4) 3.X ( C1': L = L (1), X = MeOH; C2': L = L (2), X = H 2O; C3': L = L (3), X = H 2O), which were suitable for X-ray crystallography. The crystal structures of C1', C2', and C3' indicate that the DPA moieties of the ligands coordinate to the copper(II) centers in a meridional fashion, with a water or methanol molecule occupying the fourth basal position. Weakly bound perchlorate anions located in the axial positions complete the distorted octahedral coordination spheres. The noncoordinating, monoprotonated guanidinium groups project away from the Cu(II)-DPA units and are involved in extensive charge-assisted hydrogen-bonding interactions with cocrystallized water/methanol molecules and perchlorate anions within the crystal lattices. The copper(II) complexes were tested for their ability to promote the cleavage of two model phosphodiesters, bis( p-nitrophenyl)phosphate (BNPP) and uridine-3'- p-nitrophenylphosphate (UpNP), as well as supercoiled plasmid DNA (pBR 322). While the presence of the guanidine pendants was found to be detrimental to BNPP cleavage efficiency, the functionalized complexes were found to cleave plasmid DNA and, in some cases, the model ribose phosphate diester, UpNP, at a faster rate than the parent copper(II) complex of DPA.

  10. Crystal structures of salicylideneguanylhydrazinium chloride and its copper(II) and cobalt(III) chloride complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumakov, Yu. M.; Tsapkov, V. I.; Bocelli, G.; Antosyak, B. Ya.; Shova, S. G.; Gulea, A. P.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structures of salicylideneguanylhydrazinium chloride hydrate hemiethanol solvate (I), salicylideneguanylhydrazinium trichloroaquacuprate(II) (II), and bis(salicylideneguanylhydrazino)cobalt(III) chloride trihydrate (III) are determined using X-ray diffraction. The structures of compounds I, II, and III are solved by direct methods and refined using the least-squares procedure in the anisotropic approximation for the non-hydrogen atoms to the final factors R = 0.0597, 0.0212, and 0.0283, respectively. In the structure of compound I, the monoprotonated molecules and chlorine ions linked by hydrogen bonds form layers aligned parallel to the (010) plane. In the structure of compound II, the salicylaldehyde guanylhydrazone cations and polymer chains consisting of trichloroaquacuprate(II) anions are joined by an extended three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds. In the structure of compound III, the [Co(LH) 2 ] + cations, chloride ions, and molecules of crystallization water are linked together by a similar network

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a chiral dimeric copper(II) complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Dedicated to the memory of the late Professor Bhaskar G Maiya ... a Schiff-base derived from salicylaldehyde and (S)-(+)-2-phenylglycinol are described. Compound 1 crystallizes ... Microanalytical (C, H, N) data were obtained with a. Flash EA ...

  12. Mixing Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandzia, Claudia; Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    In this guidebook most of the known and used in practice methods for achieving mixing air distribution are discussed. Mixing ventilation has been applied to many different spaces providing fresh air and thermal comfort to the occupants. Today, a design engineer can choose from large selection...

  13. Halogen-bonded network of trinuclear copper(II 4-iodopyrazolate complexes formed by mutual breakdown of chloroform and nanojars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart A. Surmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Crystals of bis(tetrabutylammonium di-μ3-chlorido-tris(μ2-4-iodopyrazolato-κ2N:N′tris[chloridocuprate(II] 1,4-dioxane hemisolvate, (C16H36N2[Cu3(C3H2IN23Cl5]·0.5C4H8O or (Bu4N2[CuII3(μ3-Cl2(μ-4-I-pz3Cl3]·0.5C4H8O, were obtained by evaporating a solution of (Bu4N2[{CuII(μ-OH(μ-4-I-pz}nCO3] (n = 27–31 nanojars in chloroform/1,4-dioxane. The decomposition of chloroform in the presence of oxygen and moisture provides HCl, which leads to the breakdown of nanojars to the title trinuclear copper(II pyrazolate complex, and possibly CuII ions and free 4-iodopyrazole. CuII ions, in turn, act as catalyst for the accelerated decomposition of chloroform, ultimately leading to the complete breakdown of nanojars. The crystal structure presented here provides the first structural description of a trinuclear copper(II pyrazolate complex with iodine-substituted pyrazoles. In contrast to related trinuclear complexes based on differently substituted 4-R-pyrazoles (R = H, Cl, Br, Me, the [Cu3(μ-4-I-pz3Cl3] core in the title complex is nearly planar. This difference is likely a result of the presence of the iodine substituent, which provides a unique, novel feature in copper pyrazolate chemistry. Thus, the iodine atoms form halogen bonds with the terminal chlorido ligands of the surrounding complexes [mean length of I...Cl contacts = 3.48 (1 Å], leading to an extended two-dimensional, halogen-bonded network along (-110. The cavities within this framework are filled by centrosymmetric 1,4-dioxane solvent molecules, which create further bridges via C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds with terminal chlorido ligands of the trinuclear complex not involved in halogen bonding.

  14. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  15. Synthesis and structural characterisation of iron(II) and copper(II) diphosphates containing flattened metal oxotetrahedra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keates, Adam C. [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1B,. UK (United Kingdom); Wang, Qianlong [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Weller, Mark T., E-mail: m.t.weller@bath.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Single crystal and bulk polycrystalline forms of K{sub 2}MP{sub 2}O{sub 7} (M=Fe(II), Cu(II)) have been synthesised and their structures determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Both compounds crystallize in the tetragonal system, space group P-42{sub 1}m. Their structures are formed from infinite sheets of linked oxopolyhedra of the stoichiometry [MP{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup 2−} with potassium cations situated between the layers. The MO{sub 4} tetrahedra share oxygen atoms with [P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup 4−} diphosphate groups and the potassium ions have KO{sub 8} square prismatic geometry. In both compounds the M(II) centre has an unusual strongly flattened, tetrahedral coordination to oxygen, as a result of the Jahn–Teller (JT) effect for the high spin d{sup 6} Fe(II) and p-orbital mixing or a second order JT effect for d{sup 9} Cu(II) centres in four fold coordination. The uncommon transition metal ion environments found in these materials are reflected in their optical absorption spectra and magnetism data. - Graphical abstract: The structures of the tetragonal polymorphs of K{sub 2}MP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, M=Cu(II), Fe(II), consist of infinite sheets of stoichiometry [MP{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup 2−}, formed from linked pyrophosphate groups and MO{sub 4} tetrahedra, separated by potassium ions. In both compounds the unusual tetrahedral coordination of the M(II) centre is strongly flattened as a result of Jahn–Teller (JT) effects for high spin, d{sup 6} Fe(II) and p-orbital mixing and second-order JT effects for d{sup 9} Cu(II). Display Omitted - Highlights: • Tetrahedral copper and iron(II) coordinated by oxygen. • New layered phosphate structure. • Jahn–Teller and d{sup 10} distorted coordinations.

  16. Polymer compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    A Polymer compound comprising a polymer (a) that contains cyclic imidesgroups and a polymer (b) that contains monomer groups with a 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine side group. According to the formula (see formula) whereby themole percentage ratio of the cyclic imides groups in the polymer compoundwith

  17. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic Chemistry. Kamatak University,. Dharwad. Her research interests are synthesis, reactions and synthetic utility of sydnones. She is currently working on electrochemical and insecticidal/antifungal activities for some of these compounds. Keywords. Aromaticity, mesoionic hetero- cycles, sydnones, tandem re- actions.

  18. Ammonia, phosphate, phenol, and copper(II) removal from aqueous solution by subsurface and surface flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojiri, Amin; Ahmad, Zakiah; Tajuddin, Ramlah Mohd; Arshad, Mohd Fadzil; Gholami, Ali

    2017-07-01

    Water pollution is a global problem. During current study, ammonia, phosphate, phenol, and copper(II) were removed from aqueous solution by subsurface and surface flow constructed wetland. In current investigation, distilled water was polluted with four contaminants including ammonia, phosphate, copper (Cu), and phenol. Response surface methodology and central composite design were applied to optimize pollutant removal during treatment by subsurface flow constructed wetland (SSFCW). Contact time (12 to 80 h) and initial pollutant concentration (20 to 85 mg/L) were selected as independent factors; some upper and lower ranges were also monitored for accuracy. In SSFCW, water hyacinth transplanted in two substrate layers, namely zeolite and cockle shell. SSFCW removed 87.7, 81.4, 74.7, and 54.9% of ammonia, phosphate, Cu, and phenol, respectively, at optimum contact time (64.5 h) and initial pollutant concentration (69.2 mg/L). Aqueous solution was moved to a surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) after treating via SSFCW at optimum conditions. In SFCW, Typha was transplanted to a fixed powdered substrate layer, including bentonite, zeolite, and cockle shell. SFCW could develop performance of this combined system and could improve elimination efficacy of the four contaminants to 99.99%. So this combined CW showed a good performance in removing pollutants. Graphical abstract Wetlands arrangement for treating aqueous solution in current study.

  19. Selective adsorption of silver(I) ions over copper(II) ions on a sulfoethyl derivative of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Yulia S; Pestov, Alexandr V; Usoltseva, Maria K; Neudachina, Ludmila K

    2015-12-15

    This study presents a simple and effective method of preparation of N-(2-sulfoethyl) chitosan (NSE-chitosan) that allows obtaining a product with a degree of modification up to 1.0. The chemical structure of the obtained polymers was confirmed by FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopies. Cross-linking of N-(2-sulfoethyl) chitosans by glutaraldehyde allows preparation of sorbents for removal and concentration of metal ions. Capacity of sorbents towards hydroxide ions was determined depending on the degree of sulfoethylation under static and dynamic conditions. Dissociation constants of functional amino groups of the analyzed sorbents were determined by potentiometric titration. It was shown that basicity of the amino groups decreased (wherein pKa decreased from 6.53 to 5.67) with increase in degree of sulfoethylation. It explains the significant influence of sulfo groups on selectivity of sorption of metal ions on N-(2-sulfoethyl) chitosan-based sorbents. The investigated substances selectively remove copper(II) and silver(I) ions from solutions of complex composition. Wherein the selectivity coefficient KAg/Cu increased to 20 (pH 6.5, ammonium acetate buffer solution) with increase in degree of sulfoethylation of the sorbent up to 1.0. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Study on the interaction of a copper(II) complex containing the artificial sweetener aspartame with human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashanian, Soheila; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh; Filli, Soraya Moradi

    2014-05-01

    A copper(II) complex containing aspartame (APM) as ligand, Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O, was synthesized and characterized. In vitro binding interaction of this complex with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied at physiological pH. Binding studies of this complex with HSA are useful for understanding the Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O-HSA interaction mechanism and providing guidance for the application and design of new and more efficient artificial sweeteners drive. The interaction was investigated by spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, competition experiment and circular dichroism. Hyperchromicity observed in UV absorption band of Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of HSA to Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O was observed and the binding constant (Kf) and corresponding numbers of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (∆H) and entropy change (∆S) were calculated to be -458.67 kJ mol(-1) and -1,339 J mol(-1 )K(-1) respectively. According to the van't Hoff equation, the reaction is predominantly enthalpically driven. In conformity with experimental results, we suggest that Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O interacts with HSA. In comparison with previous study, it is found that the Cu(II) complex binds stronger than aspartame.

  1. XAFS Study of the Ferro- and Antiferromagnetic Binuclear Copper(II) Complexes of Azomethine Based Tridentate Ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasenko, Valery G.; Vasilchenko, Igor S.; Shestakova, Tatiana E.; Uraev, Ali I.; Burlov, Anatolii S.; Garnovskii, Alexander D.; Pirog, Irina V.

    2007-01-01

    Binuclear copper complexes are known to be models for metalloenzymes containing copper active sites, and some of them are of considerable interest due to their magnetic and charge transfer properties. The reactions of the complex formation of bibasic tridentate heterocyclic imines with copper acetate leads to two types of chelates with mono deprotonated ligands and with totally deprotonated ligands. Cu K-edge EXAFS has been applied to determine the local structure around the metal center in copper(II) azomethine complexes with five tridentate ligands: 1-(salycilideneimino)- or 1-(2-tosylaminobenzilideneimino)-2-amino(oxo, thio)benzimidazoles. It has been found that some of the chelates studied are bridged binuclear copper complexes, and others are mononuclear complexes. The copper-copper interatomic distances in the bridged binuclear copper complexes were found to be 2.85-3.01 A. Variable temperature magnetic susceptibility data indicate the presence of both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions within the dimer, the former is dominating at low temperatures and the latter at high temperatures

  2. Ternary copper(II) complex: NCI60 screening, toxicity studies, and evaluation of efficacy in xenograft models of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tai-Lin; Abdul Aziz, Norazlin; Mohd Kornain, Noor-Kaslina; Samiulla, D. S.; Lo, Kwok-Wai; Ng, Chew-Hee

    2018-01-01

    Copper(II) ternary complex, [Cu(phen)(C-dmg)(H2O)]NO3 was evaluated against a panel of cell lines, tested for in vivo efficacy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenograft models as well as for toxicity in NOD scid gamma mice. The Cu(II) complex displayed broad spectrum cytotoxicity against multiple cancer types, including lung, colon, central nervous system, melanoma, ovarian, and prostate cancer cell lines in the NCI-60 panel. The Cu(II) complex did not cause significant induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and 1A enzymes but moderately inhibited CYP isoforms 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2B6, 2C8 and 3A4. The complex significantly inhibited tumor growth in nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenograft bearing mice models at doses which were well tolerated without causing significant or permanent toxic side effects. However, higher doses which resulted in better inhibition of tumor growth also resulted in toxicity. PMID:29329342

  3. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  4. Preparation of CuO nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of double-helical dinuclear copper(II Schiff-base complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Dehno Khalaji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two double helical dinuclear copper(II complexes of bis-N,O-bidentate Schiff base ligands bis(3-methoxy-N-salicylidene-4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone (L1 and bis(5-bromo-N-salicylidene-4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone (L2 were prepared and characterized by elemental analyses (CHN, as well as thermal analysis. Elemental analyses (CHN suggested that the reaction between ligands and copper salt has been occurred in 1:1 molar ratio. In these complexes the Schiff base ligands behaves as an anionic and bis-bidentate chelate and is coordinated to the copper(II ion via two phenolic oxygen and two iminic nitrogen atoms. In these double helical dinuclear complexes, each copper(II center has a pseudo-tetrahedral coordination sphere two-wrapped ligands. Thermal analysis of ligands and their complexes were studied in the range of room temperature to 750 °C with a heating rate of 10 °C min-1. TG plots show that the ligands and their complexes are thermally decomposed via 2 and 3 thermal steps, respectively. In addition, the complexes thermally decomposed in air at 520 °C for 3 h. The obtained solids characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The X-ray pattern result shows that the CuO nanoparticles are pure and single phase. The TEM result shows the as prepared CuO nanoparticles were very small and similar shape with particle size about

  5. Copper(II) Complexes of Phenanthroline and Histidine Containing Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of their DNA Cleavage and Cytotoxic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Sílvia M G; Lima, Luís M P; Gama, Sofia; Mendes, Filipa; Orio, Maylis; Bento, Isabel; Paulo, António; Delgado, Rita; Iranzo, Olga

    2016-11-21

    Copper(II) complexes have been intensely investigated in a variety of diseases and pathological conditions due to their therapeutic potential. The development of these complexes requires a good knowledge of metal coordination chemistry and ligand design to control species distribution in solution and tailor the copper(II) centers in the right environment for the desired biological activity. Herein we present the synthesis and characterization of two ligands HL1 and H 2 L2 containing a phenanthroline unit (phen) attached to the amino group of histidine (His). Their copper(II) coordination properties were studied using potentiometry, spectroscopy techniques (UV-vis and EPR), mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and DFT calculations. The data showed the formation of single copper complexes, [CuL1] + and [CuL2], with high stability within a large pH range (from 3.0 to 9.0 for [CuL1] + and from 4.5 to 10.0 for [CuL2]). In both complexes the Cu 2+ ion is bound to the phen unit, the imidazole ring and the deprotonated amide group, and displays a distorted square pyramidal geometry as confirmed by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Interestingly, despite having similar structures, these copper complexes show different redox potentials, DNA cleavage properties and cytotoxic activity against different cancer cell lines (human ovarian (A2780), its cisplatin-resistant variant (A2780cisR) and human breast (MCF7) cancer cell lines). The [CuL2] complex has lower reduction potential (E pc = -0.722 V vs -0.452 V for [CuL1] + ) but higher biological activity. These results highlight the effect of different pendant functional groups (carboxylate vs amide), placed out of the coordination sphere, in the properties of these copper complexes.

  6. Interaction between metals and nucleic acids. Part 3. Synthesis and structural studies of copper(II) complexes with Schiff base ligands derived from barbituric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, I.; Gaudemer, A.; Chiaroni, A.; Riche, C.

    1986-02-17

    Schiff bases have been prepared from 5-formylbarbituric acid and 5-formyl-1,3-dimethyl-barbituric acid and various di- or tri-amines. The structure of the corresponding copper(II) complexes have been established by elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods. The molecular structure of one of the complexes, Cu(DiMeBardpt), was determined by X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical study shows that these complexes are reduced at slightly more negative potentials than the corresponding complexes obtained from uracil, which suggests that these new ligands are better electron-donors.

  7. Isolation of a new two-dimensional honeycomb carbonato-bridged copper(II) complex exhibiting long-range ferromagnetic ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Arpi; Choudhury, Chirantan Roy; Mitra, Samiran; Rosair, Georgina M; El Fallah, M Salah; Ribas, Joan

    2005-04-28

    Atmospheric CO2 fixation by an aqueous solution containing Cu(ClO4)2.6H2O and 4-aminopyridine (4-apy) yields a novel example of a two-dimensional mu3-CO3 bridged copper(II) complex {[Cu(4-apy)2]3(mu3-CO3)2(ClO4)2.(1/2)CH3OH}n that has been characterized by IR, UV and X-ray crystallography; preliminary magnetic measurements show that complex exhibits long-range ordered ferromagnetic coupling.

  8. Complexes cobalt(II, zinc(II and copper(II with some newly synthesized benzimidazole derivatives and their antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. PODUNAVAC-KUZMANOVIC

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and properties of some complexes of cobalt(II, zinc(II and copper(II with several newly synthesized benzimidazole derivatives (L are reported. The complexes, of the general formula [MCl2L2] (M=Co(II, Zn(II and [CuCl2L(H2O], have a tetrahedral structure. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR and absorption electronic spectra. The antibacterial activitiy of the benzimidazoles and their complexes was evaluated against Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and Erwinia amylovora. The complexes were found to be more toxic than the ligands.

  9. An efficient, cost effective, sensing behaviour liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) incorporated with 4-(4'-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole: Analysis of food samples, leafy vegetables, fertilizers and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barache, Umesh B; Shaikh, Abdul B; Lokhande, Tukaram N; Kamble, Ganesh S; Anuse, Mansing A; Gaikwad, Shashikant H

    2018-01-15

    The aim of the present work is to develop an efficient, simple and selective moreover cost-effective method for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) by using the Schiff base 4-(4'-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole [CBIMMT]. This chromogenic reagent forms a yellow coloured complex with copper(II) in acetate buffer at pH4.2. The copper(II) complex with ligand is instantly extracted into chloroform and shows a maximum absorbance at 414nm which remains stable for >48h. The composition of extracted complex is found to be 1:2 [copper(II): reagent] which was ascertained using Job's method of continuous variation, mole ratio method and slope ratio method. Under optimal conditions, the copper(II) complex in chloroform adheres to Beer's law up to 17.5μgmL -1 of copper(II). The optimum concentration range obtained from Ringbom's plot is from 5μgmL -1 to 17.5μgmL -1 . The molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity and enrichment factor of the extracted copper(II) chelate are 0.33813×10 4 Lmol -1 cm -1 , 0.01996μgcm -2 and 2.49 respectively. In the extraction of copper(II), several affecting factors including the solution pH, ligand concentration, equilibrium time, effect of foreign ions are optimized. The interfering effects of various cations and anions were also studied and use of masking agents enhances the selectivity of the method. The chromogenic sulphur containing reagent, 4-(4'-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole has been synthesized in a single step with high purity and yield. The synthesized reagent has been successfully applied first time for determination of copper(II). The reagent forms stable chelate with copper(II) in buffer medium instantly and quantitatively extracted in chloroform within a minute. The method is successfully applied for the determination of copper(II) in various synthetic mixtures, complexes, fertilizers, environmental samples such as food samples, leafy

  10. An efficient, cost effective, sensing behaviour liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) incorporated with 4-(4‧-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole: Analysis of food samples, leafy vegetables, fertilizers and environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barache, Umesh B.; Shaikh, Abdul B.; Lokhande, Tukaram N.; Kamble, Ganesh S.; Anuse, Mansing A.; Gaikwad, Shashikant H.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop an efficient, simple and selective moreover cost-effective method for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) by using the Schiff base 4-(4‧-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole [CBIMMT]. This chromogenic reagent forms a yellow coloured complex with copper(II) in acetate buffer at pH 4.2. The copper(II) complex with ligand is instantly extracted into chloroform and shows a maximum absorbance at 414 nm which remains stable for > 48 h. The composition of extracted complex is found to be 1:2 [copper(II): reagent] which was ascertained using Job's method of continuous variation, mole ratio method and slope ratio method. Under optimal conditions, the copper(II) complex in chloroform adheres to Beer's law up to 17.5 μg mL- 1 of copper(II). The optimum concentration range obtained from Ringbom's plot is from 5 μg mL- 1 to 17.5 μg mL- 1. The molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity and enrichment factor of the extracted copper(II) chelate are 0.33813 × 104 L mol- 1 cm- 1, 0.01996 μg cm- 2 and 2.49 respectively. In the extraction of copper(II), several affecting factors including the solution pH, ligand concentration, equilibrium time, effect of foreign ions are optimized. The interfering effects of various cations and anions were also studied and use of masking agents enhances the selectivity of the method. The chromogenic sulphur containing reagent, 4-(4‧-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole has been synthesized in a single step with high purity and yield. The synthesized reagent has been successfully applied first time for determination of copper(II). The reagent forms stable chelate with copper(II) in buffer medium instantly and quantitatively extracted in chloroform within a minute. The method is successfully applied for the determination of copper(II) in various synthetic mixtures, complexes, fertilizers, environmental samples such as food samples

  11. Mixed parentage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang Appel, Helene; Singla, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increase in cross border intimate relationships and children of mixed parentage, there is little mention or scholarship about them in the area of childhood and migrancy in the Nordic countries. The international literature implies historical pathologisation, contestation and current...... of identity formation in the . They position themselves as having an “in-between” identity or “ just Danes” in their every day lives among friends, family, and during leisure activities. Thus a new paradigm is evolving away- from the pathologisation of mixed children, simplified one-sided categories...

  12. Fabrication of FeSi and Fe{sub 3}Si compounds by electron beam induced mixing of [Fe/Si]{sub 2} and [Fe{sub 3}/Si]{sub 2} multilayers grown by focused electron beam induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrati, F.; Sachser, R.; Huth, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gazzadi, G. C. [S3 Center, Nanoscience Institute-CNR, Via Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Frabboni, S. [S3 Center, Nanoscience Institute-CNR, Via Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); FIM Department, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2016-06-21

    Fe-Si binary compounds have been fabricated by focused electron beam induced deposition by the alternating use of iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO){sub 5}, and neopentasilane, Si{sub 5}H{sub 12} as precursor gases. The fabrication procedure consisted in preparing multilayer structures which were treated by low-energy electron irradiation and annealing to induce atomic species intermixing. In this way, we are able to fabricate FeSi and Fe{sub 3}Si binary compounds from [Fe/Si]{sub 2} and [Fe{sub 3}/Si]{sub 2} multilayers, as shown by transmission electron microscopy investigations. This fabrication procedure is useful to obtain nanostructured binary alloys from precursors which compete for adsorption sites during growth and, therefore, cannot be used simultaneously.

  13. Theory for the mixed-valence state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    A theory is presented which explains why mixed-valence compounds behave as two component Fermi liquids, and why TmSe orders magnetically while the other known mixed-valence compounds do not. The variation of Tsub(N) and the field Hsub(T) to obtain ferromagnetic alignment with changing Tm 2+ /Tm 3+ ratio is quantitatively explained. For Tm 2+ concentration > = 0.3, TmSe is predicted to order ferromagnetically

  14. Group IB Organometallic Chemistry XXXIV: Thermal behavior and chemical reactivity of tetranuclear Me2N-substituted diarylpropenylcopper-copper anion (Vi2Cu4X2) and mixed diarylpropenyl/organocopper (Vi2Cu4R2) compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Hoedt, R.W.M. ten; Noltes, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of configurationally pure 1, 2-diarylpropenylcopper compounds Z-Vi{2}CU{4}Br{2} and Z-Vi{2}Cu{4}R{2} [Vi @? (2-Me{2}NC{6}H{4})C@?C(Me)-(C{6}H{4}Me-4), R @? 2-Me{2}NC{6}H{4} or 4-MeC{6}H{4}C@?C] predominantly results in the formation of ViH. In contrast, only dimers (ViVi) were

  15. A triple-bridged azido-Cu(II) chain compound fine-tuned by mixed carboxylate/ethanol linkers displays slow-relaxation and ferromagnetic order: synthesis, crystal structure, magnetic properties and DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyu; Chen, Sanping; Grancha, Thais; Pardo, Emilio; Ke, Hongshan; Yin, Bing; Wei, Qing; Xie, Gang; Gao, Shengli

    2014-11-07

    A new azido-Cu(II) compound, [Cu(4-fba)(N3)(C2H5OH)] (4-fba = 4-fluorobenzoic acid) (1), has been synthesized and characterized. The X-ray crystal structure analysis demonstrates that only one crystallographically independent Cu(II) ion in the asymmetric unit of 1 exhibits a stretched octahedral geometry in which two azido N atoms and two carboxylic O atoms locate in the equatorial square, while two ethanol O atoms occupy the apical positions, forming a 1D Cu(II) chain with an alternating triple-bridge of EO-azido, syn,syn-carboxylate, and μ2-ethanol. The title compound consists of ferromagnetically interacting ferromagnetic chains, which exhibit ferromagnetic order (T(c) = 7.0 K). The strong ferromagnetic coupling between adjacent Cu(II) ions within each chain is due to the countercomplementarity of the super-exchange pathways, whereas the ferromagnetic interchain interactions--responsible for the long-range magnetic ordering--are most likely due to the presence of coordinated ethanol molecules establishing hydrogen bonds with neighboring chains. DFT calculations have been performed on compound 1 to offer a qualitative theoretical explanation of the magnetic behavior.

  16. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  17. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....

  18. Lateral Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    negative (right panel c) and the kinetic energy dissipation is larger than that expected from meterological forcing alone (right panel a). This is...10.1002/grl.50919. Shcherbina, A. et al., 2014, The LatMix Summer Campaign: Submesoscale Stirring in the Upper Ocean., Bull. American Meterological

  19. Mixed-ligand complexes of copper (II with ditiolfenols and heterocyclic diamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Kuliev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By the methods spectrophotometric methods was investigated complex formation of copper with 2,6-ditiolphenol and its derivatives (2,6-ditiol-4-methylphenol, 2,6-ditiol-4-ethylphenol and 2,6-ditiol-4-tert-buthylphenol in the presence of heterocyclic diamines. As heterocyclic diamines phenantroline (Fen, batophenantroline and dipyridile were used. It was established, that mixedligand complex were formed in weak acidic medium (pHop=6,0-8,5. Maximum of light absorption observed at (=522–550 nm. Molar coefficient of light absorption was ( = (3.08–4.92?104. The stoichiometry of complexes had been discovered using shift the equilibrium and relative yield methods. During the extraction of copper(II complexes with ditiol-phenols with the presence of heterocyclic diamines there was discovered that there is no chlorophorm molecules in the composition of the extracted complexes. IR spectra shows that hydroxyl group is involved to the formation of a bond with the metal and that phenantroline is included in the composition of the copper complex. In the organic phase mixed-ligand complexes have the monomeric form and can’t polymerize; that fact can be proved by calculations. By dint of spectrophotometric, IR-spectroscopic, thermogravimetric experiments and some published data we were able to determine the structural formula of complexes. Also had been determined main spectrophotometric characteristics of copper(II mixed-ligand complexes: pH of the beginning of the deposition, optimal pH, detection limit and sensivity. For separation and finding copper, we studied the effect of interfering foreign ions: alkali, alkaline earth and rare earth elements, as well as acid anions selected masking reagents. On the base of the results was offered photometric method for determination of copper in steel different trade-marks and in food. This method characterized by good reproduction (relatively standard deviation no more 0.05 and low limit of discovery.

  20. First-principles study of mixed eldfellite compounds Nax(Fe1/2M1/2) (SO4)2 (x=0-2, M = Mn, Co, Ni): A new family of high electrode potential cathodes for the sodium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ri, Gum-Chol; Choe, Song-Hyok; Yu, Chol-Jun

    2018-02-01

    Natural abundance of sodium and its similar behavior to lithium triggered recent extensive studies of cost-effective sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) for large-scale energy storage systems. A challenge is to develop electrode materials with a high electrode potential, specific capacity and a good rate capability. In this work we propose mixed eldfellite compounds Nax(Fe1/2M1/2) (SO4)2 (x = 0-2, M = Mn, Co, Ni) as a new family of high electrode potential cathodes of SIBs and present their material properties predicted by first-principles calculations. The structural optimizations show that these materials have significantly small volume expansion rates below 5% upon Na insertion/desertion with negative Na binding energies. Through the electronic structure calculations, we find band insulating properties and hole (and/or electron) polaron hoping as a possible mechanism for the charge transfer. Especially we confirm the high electrode voltages over 4 V with reasonably high specific capacities. We also investigate the sodium ion mobility by estimating plausible diffusion pathways and calculating the corresponding activation barriers, demonstrating the reasonably fast migrations of sodium ions during the operation. Our calculation results indicate that these mixed eldfellite compounds can be suitable materials for high performance SIB cathodes.

  1. Oligo-m-phenyleneoxalamide copper(II) mesocates as electro-switchable ferromagnetic metal-organic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Emilio; Ferrando-Soria, Jesús; Dul, Marie-Claire; Lescouëzec, Rodrigue; Journaux, Yves; Ruiz-García, Rafael; Cano, Joan; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; Cañadillas-Delgado, Laura; Pasán, Jorge; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina

    2010-11-15

    Double-stranded copper(II) string complexes of varying nuclearity, from di- to tetranuclear species, have been prepared by the Cu(II)-mediated self-assembly of a novel family of linear homo- and heteropolytopic ligands that contain two outer oxamato and either zero (1 b), one (2 b), or two (3 b) inner oxamidato donor groups separated by rigid 2-methyl-1,3-phenylene spacers. The X-ray crystal structures of these Cu(II) (n) complexes (n=2 (1 d), 3 (2 d), and 4 (3 d)) show a linear array of metal atoms with an overall twisted coordination geometry for both the outer CuN(2)O(2) and inner CuN(4) chromophores. Two such nonplanar all-syn bridging ligands 1 b-3 b in an anti arrangement clamp around the metal centers with alternating M and P helical chiralities to afford an overall double meso-helicate-type architecture for 1 d-3 d. Variable-temperature (2.0-300 K) magnetic susceptibility and variable-field (0-5.0 T) magnetization measurements for 1 d-3 d show the occurrence of S=nS(Cu) (n=2-4) high-spin ground states that arise from the moderate ferromagnetic coupling between the unpaired electrons of the linearly disposed Cu(II) ions (S(Cu)=1/2) through the two anti m-phenylenediamidate-type bridges (J values in the range of +15.0 to 16.8 cm(-1)). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations for 1 d-3 d evidence a sign alternation of the spin density in the meta-substituted phenylene spacers in agreement with a spin polarization exchange mechanism along the linear metal array with overall intermetallic distances between terminal metal centers in the range of 0.7-2.2 nm. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating-disk electrode (RDE) electrochemical measurements for 1 d-3 d show several reversible or quasireversible one- or two-electron steps that involve the consecutive metal-centered oxidation of the inner and outer Cu(II) ions (S(Cu)=1/2) to diamagnetic Cu(III) ones (S(Cu)=0) at relatively low formal potentials (E values in the range of

  2. Unusual case of a polar copper(II) uranyl phosphonate that fluoresces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A.G.D.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Th.E. [Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana (United States)

    2010-06-15

    A polar Cu(II) uranyl diphosphonate, Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}.5H{sub 2}O, has been prepared under mild hydrothermal conditions. This compound has direct linkages between the oxo atoms of the uranyl moieties and the Cu(II) centers. Despite the presence of Cu(II) in the structure, vibronically-coupled emission is still observed, most likely because there are two crystallographically unique uranyl moieties, only one of which bonds to Cu(II). (authors)

  3. Synthesis, structures and Helicobacter pylori urease inhibitory activity of copper(II) complexes with tridentate aroylhydrazone ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lin; Wang, Cunfang; Yan, Kai; Zhao, Kedong; Sheng, Guihua; Zhu, Hailiang; Zhao, Xinlu; Qu, Dan; Niu, Fang; You, Zhonglu

    2016-06-01

    A series of new copper(II) complexes were prepared. They are [CuL(1)(NCS)] (1), [CuClL(1)]·CH3OH (2), [CuClL(2)]·CH3OH (3), [CuL(3)(NCS)]·CH3OH (4), [CuL(4)(NCS)]·0.4H2O (5), and [CuL(5)(bipy)] (6), where L(1), L(2), L(3) and L(4) are the deprotonated form of N'-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-3-methylbenzohydrazide, 4-bromo-N'-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzylidene)benzohydrazide, N'-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzylidene)-3-methylbenzohydrazide and 2-chloro-N'-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzylidene)benzohydrazide, respectively, L(5) is the dianionic form of N'-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-3-methylbenzohydrazide, and bipy is 2,2'-bipyridine. The complexes were characterized by infrared and UV-Vis spectra and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The Cu atoms in complexes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are coordinated by the NOO donor set of the aroylhydrazone ligands, and one Cl or thiocyanate N atom, forming square planar coordination. The Cu atom in complex 6 is in a square pyramidal coordination, with the NOO donor set of L(1), and one N atom of bipy defining the basal plane, and with the other N atom of bipy occupying the apical position. Complexes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 show effective urease inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 5.14, 0.20, 4.06, 5.52 and 0.26μM, respectively. Complex 6 has very weak activity against urease, with IC50 value over 100μM. Molecular docking study of the complexes with the Helicobacter pylori urease was performed. The relationship between structures and urease inhibitory activities indicated that copper complexes with square planar coordination are better models for urease inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, crystallographic studies and antibacterial assays of new copper(II) complexes with sulfathiazole and nimesulide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Julia Helena Bormio; de Paiva, Raphael Enoque Ferraz; Cuin, Alexandre; da Costa Ferreira, Ana Maria; Lustri, Wilton Rogério; Corbi, Pedro Paulo

    2016-05-01

    New ternary copper(II) complexes of sulfathiazole (SFT, C9H8N3O2S2) or nimesulide (NMS, C13H11N2O5S) and 2,2‧-bipyridine (bipy) were synthesized, and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic techniques. Elemental analyses indicated a 2:1:1 sulfonamide/copper/bipy composition for both complexes. Mass spectrometric measurements permitted identifying the molecular ions [Cu(SFT)2(bipy)+H]+ and [Cu(NMS)2(bipy)+H]+ at m/z 728 and 835, respectively, confirming the proposed compositions. Crystal structure of the [Cu(SFT)2(bipy)] complex was solved by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (PXRD), attesting that the Cu(II) ion is hexacoordinated in a distorted octahedral geometry. Each SFT molecule coordinates to the metal ion by the nitrogen atoms of the SO2-N group and of the heterocyclic ring. The coordination sphere is completed by a bipyridine. Electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies were carried out for the [Cu(NMS)2(bipy)] complex, indicating a tetragonal environment around the metal ion. It was suggested that NMS coordinates to Cu(II) by the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of the SO2-N group, which was confirmed by infrared spectroscopic studies. Biological studies showed the antibacterial activity of both Cu-SFT and Cu-NMS complexes, with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.10 to 0.84 mmol L-1 against Gram-negative bacteria for [Cu(SFT)2(bipy)], and from 1.50 to 3.00 mmol L-1 against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria for [Cu(NMS)2(bipy)].

  5. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Vargas Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common types of odontogenic tumors, as they are considered more as a developmental anomaly (hamartoma than as a true neoplasia. The aim of the present study is to describe a clinical case of compound odontoma, analyzing its most commonsigns, its region of location, the decade of life and patient’s gender, disorders that may occur as well as the treatment proposed. In order to attain this objective, the method was description of the present clinical case and bibliographic revision, arriving at the result that the treatment for this type of lesion invariably is surgical removal (enucleation and curettage and the prognosis is excellent. The surgical result was followed up in the post-operative period by radiographic exam, and it was possible to conclude that there was complete cicatrization and tissue repair.

  6. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  7. Copper(II) cyanido-bridged bimetallic nitroprusside-based complexes: Syntheses, X-ray structures, magnetic properties, 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and thermal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnicek, Zdenek; Herchel, Radovan; Mikulik, Jiri; Zboril, Radek

    2010-01-01

    Three heterobimetallic cyanido-bridged copper(II) nitroprusside-based complexes of the compositions [Cu(tet)Fe(CN) 5 NO].H 2 O (1), where tet=N,N'-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethylenediamine, [Cu(hto)Fe(CN) 5 NO].2H 2 O (2), where hto=1,3,6,9,11,14-hexaazatricyclo[12.2.1.1 6,9 ]octadecane and [Cu(nme) 2 Fe(CN) 5 NO].H 2 O (3), where nme=N-methylethylenediamine, were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, 57 Fe Moessbauer and FTIR spectroscopies, thermal analysis, magnetic measurements and single-crystal X-ray analysis. The products of thermal degradation processes of 2 and 3 were studied by XRD, 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, SEM and EDS, and they were identified as mixtures of CuFe 2 O 4 and CuO. - Three heterobimetallic cyano-bridged copper(II) nitroprusside-based complexes of the general compositions of [Cu(L)Fe(CN) 5 NO].xH 2 O, where L=N,N'-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethylenediamine (complex 1), 1,3,6,9,11,14-hexaazatricyclo[12.2.1.1 6,9 ]-octadecane (complex 2) and N-methylethylenediamine (complex 3), were synthesized, and fully structurally and magnetically characterized. SEM, EDS, XRD and 57 Fe Moessbauer experiments were used for characterization of thermal decomposition products of complexes 2 and 3.

  8. Treatment of model and galvanic waste solutions of copper(II) ions using a lignin/inorganic oxide hybrid as an effective sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielczyk, Filip; Bartczak, Przemysław; Klapiszewski, Łukasz; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2017-04-15

    A study was made concerning the removal of copper(II) ions from model and galvanic waste solutions using a new sorption material consisting of lignin in combination with an inorganic oxide system. Specific physicochemical properties of the material resulted from combining the activity of the functional groups present in the structure of lignin with the high surface area of the synthesized oxide system (585m 2 /g). Analysis of the porous structure parameters, particle size and morphology, elemental composition and characteristic functional groups confirmed the effective synthesis of the new type of sorbent. A key element of the study was a series of tests of adsorption of copper(II) ions from model solutions. It was determined how the efficiency of the adsorption process was affected by the process time, mass of sorbent, concentration of adsorbate, pH and temperature. Potential regeneration of adsorbent, which provides the possibility of its reusing and recovering the adsorbed copper, was also analyzed. The sorption capacity of the material was measured (83.98mg/g), and the entire process was described using appropriate kinetic models. The results were applied to the design of a further series of adsorption tests, carried out on solutions of real sewage from a galvanizing plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermoelectrical and thermal analyses of copper(II) acetate monohydrate ZnO-matrix composite powder obtained by freeze-drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, Jusmar Valentin; Pineda, Edgardo Alfonso Gomez; Rocha, Raquel de Almeida; Ponzoni, Andre Luis de Lima; Paesano, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The thermal history of freeze-dried mixtures of composite powders containing ZnO-matrix and (CH 3 COO) 2 Cu.H 2 O (copper(II) acetate monohydrate) was undertaken by thermal analysis (TA) coupled to thermoelectrical analysis (TEA). Experiments were carried out on compacted samples, under non-isothermal conditions, in air, up to 350 deg. C, by measuring the electrical resistance during heating, called thermoelectrical resistometry (TER), and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Activation energy (E a ) for exothermal events related to the decomposition of (CH 3 COO) 2 Cu (copper(II) acetate, CuAc 2 ), observed within the range 225-325 deg. C, was estimated according to ASTM E 698 method. Values of E a equal to 154 and 155 kJ/mol were obtained by TER and DSC, respectively. TER showed that the thermal decomposition of CuAc 2 involves the liberation of electrons. Results also indicated that TER may be used as an alternative or complementary method for the study of the thermal decomposition mechanisms of transition metal(II) acetates

  10. Synthesis of mononuclear copper(II) complexes of N3O2 and N4O2 donors containing Schiff base ligands: Theoretical and biological observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancha Madha, K.; Gurumoorthy, P.; Arul Antony, S.; Ramalakshmi, N.

    2017-09-01

    A new series of six mononuclear copper(II) complexes were synthesized from N3O2 and N4O2 donors containing Schiff base ligands, and characterized by various spectral methods. The geometry of the complexes was determined using UV-Vis, EPR and DFT calculations. The complexes of N3O2 donors (1-3) adopted square pyramidal geometry and the remaining complexes of N4O2 donors (4-6) show distorted octahedral geometry around copper(II) nuclei. Redox properties of the complexes show a one-electron irreversible reduction process in the cathodic potential (Epc) region from -0.74 to -0.98 V. The complexes show potent antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals. Molecular docking studies of complexes showed σ-π interaction, hydrogen bonding, electrostatic and van der Waals interactions with VEGFR2 kinase receptor. In vitro cytotoxicity of the complexes was tested against human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell lines and one normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) cell line through MTT assay. The morphological assessment data obtained by Hoechst 33258 and AO/EB staining revealed that the complexes induce apoptosis pathway of cell death.

  11. Ferromagnetic interaction in an asymmetric end-to-end azido double-bridged copper(II) dinuclear complex: a combined structure, magnetic, polarized neutron diffraction and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronica, Christophe; Jeanneau, Erwann; El Moll, Hani; Luneau, Dominique; Gillon, Béatrice; Goujon, Antoine; Cousson, Alain; Carvajal, Maria Angels; Robert, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    A new end-to-end azido double-bridged copper(II) complex [Cu(2)L(2)(N(3))2] (1) was synthesized and characterized (L=1,1,1-trifluoro-7-(dimethylamino)-4-methyl-5-aza-3-hepten-2-onato). Despite the rather long Cu-Cu distance (5.105(1) A), the magnetic interaction is ferromagnetic with J= +16 cm(-1) (H=-JS(1)S(2)), a value that has been confirmed by DFT and high-level correlated ab initio calculations. The spin distribution was studied by using the results from polarized neutron diffraction. This is the first such study on an end-to-end system. The experimental spin density was found to be localized mainly on the copper(II) ions, with a small degree of delocalization on the ligand (L) and terminal azido nitrogens. There was zero delocalization on the central nitrogen, in agreement with DFT calculations. Such a picture corresponds to an important contribution of the d(x2-y2) orbital and a small population of the d(z2) orbital, in agreement with our calculations. Based on a correlated wavefunction analysis, the ferromagnetic behavior results from a dominant double spin polarization contribution and vanishingly small ionic forms.

  12. Development of techniques of production of sulfur-35 and its inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikata, Eiji

    1981-12-01

    Techniques to produce routinely Curies of carrier-free sulfur-35 from neutron irradiated potassium chloride were developed. Firstly the ratio of sulfur-35 to phosphorus-32 produced respectively by the reactions 35 Cl(n,p) 35 S and 35 Cl(n,α) 32 P was determined. For the post-irradiation process, two processes of anion exchange and cation exchange were studied. The former process was based on the selective elution of carrier-free sulfate after precipitation of the bulk of potassium chloride by ethanol and the latter process on the selective adsorption of carrier-free phosphate on Fe +3 -cation exchange resin. A gloved box with various appendant equipments was constructed for routine production and a glass apparatus was installed in it. Sulfur-35 from 1 Ci to 5 Ci has been produced by the cation exchange process several times every year during past few years, and products of high quality have been obtained with yields higher than 90% without any troubles. In the studies on the synthesis of sulfur-35 labeled inorganic compounds, sulfate[ 35 S] was reduced with tin(II)-phosphoric acid to hydrogen sulfide[ 35 S], which was oxidized to elementary sulfur[ 35 S]. Sulfate[ 35 S] of sodium or copper(II) was precipitated from an aqueous solution of sodium or copper(II) chloride containing carrier-free sulfate [ 35 S] by adding carrier of either one of the sulfates and ethanol. Copper(II) sulfate[ 35 S] was pyrolyzed to evolve sulfur[ 35 S] dioxide, which was fixed in a sodium hydroxide solution as sodium sulfite[ 35 S]. This was allowed to react with colloidal sulfur in a boiling solution in the presence of 2-octanol to form thiosulfate[ 35 S] efficiently. By treating target potassium chloride before and after irradiation in an oxygen-free atmosphere, approximately 60% of sulfur-35 was recovered as thiosulfate. Reduction with nascent hydrogen and decomposition with acid of the thiosulfate were studied to prepare elementary sulfur [ 35 S]. (author)

  13. Group ib organometallic chemistry. XXXIV. Thermal behaviour and chemical reactivity of tetranuclear Me2N-substituted diarypropenylcopper-copper anion (Vi2Cu4X2) and mixed diarylpropenyl/organocopper (Vi2Cu4R2) compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedt, R.W.M. ten; Koten, G. van; Noltes, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of configurationally pure 1,2-diarylpropenylcopper compounds Z-Vi2CU4Br2 and Z-Vi2Cu4R2 [Vi = (2-Me2NC6H4)C=C(Me)-(C6H4Me-4), R = 2-Me2NC6H4 or 4-MeC6H4CC] predominantly results in the formation of ViH. In contrast, only dimers (ViVi) were formed on thermolysis of (Z-ViCu2OTf)η

  14. Parity mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelberger, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    The field of parity mixing in light nuclei bears upon one of the exciting and active problems of physics--the nature of the fundamental weak interaction. It is also a subject where polarization techniques play a very important role. Weak interaction theory is first reviewed to motivate the parity mixing experiments. Two very attractive systems are discussed where the nuclear physics is so beautifully simple that the experimental observation of tiny effects directly measures parity violating (PV) nuclear matrix elements which are quite sensitive to the form of the basic weak interaction. Since the measurement of very small analyzing powers and polarizations may be of general interest to this conference, some discussion is devoted to experimental techniques

  15. Rare configuration of tautomeric benzimidazolecarboxylate ligands in cadmium(II) and copper(II) coordination polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jing-Yun; Yang, Ciao-Wei; Chen, Hui-Fang; Jao, Yu-Chen; Huang, Sheng-Ming; Tsai, Chiitang; Tseng, Tien-Wen; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Peng, Shie-Ming; Lu, Kuang-Lieh

    2011-01-01

    Two Cd(HBimc)-based isomers, [Cd(HBimc N )(HBimc T )(H 2 O)].3.5H 2 O.EtOH (1a.3.5H 2 O.EtOH, H 2 Bimc=1H-benzimidazole-5-carboxylic acid) and [Cd(HBimc N )(HBimc T )(H 2 O)] (1b), and two Cu(HMBimc)-based coordination polymers, [Cu(HMBimc N ) 2 (H 2 O)].1/2H 2 O (2.1/2H 2 O, H 2 MBimc=2-methyl-1H-benzimidazole-5-carboxylic acid) and [Cu(HMBimc T ) 2 ].2THF.H 2 O (3.2THF.H 2 O), were self-assembled from Cd(ClO 4 ) 2 .6H 2 O/H 2 Bimc and Cu(ClO 4 ) 2 .6H 2 O/H 2 MBimc systems, respectively. Compound 1a adopts a ladder-like chain structure, comprised of a hydrogen-bond-stabilized Cd 2 (HBimc N ) 2 -metallocyclic stair and a 1D straight -(Cd-HBimc T ) n - edge, whereas compound 1b exhibits a 2D (4,4)-rhombus layered structure, intercrossed by 1D -(Cd-HBimc N ) n - chains and -(Cd-HBimc T ) n - chains. Compound 2 shows a 1D double-stranded wave-like chain from two single-stranded wave-like -(Cu-HMBimc N ) n - chains and compound 3 adopts a 2D (4,4)-topological layer structure, intercrossed by subunits of 1D -(Cu-HMBimc T ) n - chains. Interestingly, a pair of tautomeric HBimc building blocks-normal (N or HBimc N ) and tautomer (T or HBimc T )-is simultaneously included in the structures of 1a and 1b, whilst the N- and T-configured HMBimc building blocks are present as separate entities in Cu species, 2 and 3, respectively. The existence of only a tautomer (T) mode of the benzimidazolecarboxylate-based ligand in a Cu(II) network is observed for the first time. - Graphical abstract: A pair of tautomeric HBimc building blocks (normal (N) and tautomer (T)) is found simultaneously in two Cd(II) networks, whereas, the normal and tautomer modes of HMBimc are present as separate entities in two Cu(II) frameworks. The isolation of a Cu(II) network with only a tautomer (T) mode of the benzimidazolecarboxylate-based ligand is achieved for the first time. Highlights: →Benzimidazolecarboxylates could exhibit normal (N) and tautomer (T) configurations. → A pair of N- and T

  16. cis-Aquadichlorido[pyrimidin-2(1H-one-κN3]copper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guy Orpen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [CuCl2(C4H4N2O(H2O], the CuII cation is coordinated by two chloride anions, one pyrimidin-2-one N atom and one water molecule, giving a slightly distorted square-planar geometry. In the crystal structure, the pyrimidin-2-one rings stack along the b axis, with an interplanar distance of 3.306 Å, as do the copper coordination planes (interplanar spacing = 2.998 Å. The coordination around the Jahn–Teller-distorted CuII ion is completed by long Cu...O [3.014 (5 Å] and Cu...Cl [3.0194 (15 Å] interactions with adjacent molecules involved in this stacking. Several N—H...Cl, O—H...Cl and O—H...O intermolecular hydrogen bonds form a polar three-dimensional network.

  17. XAFS study of copper(II) complexes with square planar and square pyramidal coordination geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, A.; Klysubun, W.; Nitin Nair, N.; Shrivastava, B. D.; Prasad, J.; Srivastava, K.

    2016-08-01

    X-ray absorption fine structure of six Cu(II) complexes, Cu2(Clna)4 2H2O (1), Cu2(ac)4 2H2O (2), Cu2(phac)4 (pyz) (3), Cu2(bpy)2(na)2 H2O (ClO4) (4), Cu2(teen)4(OH)2(ClO4)2 (5) and Cu2(tmen)4(OH)2(ClO4)2 (6) (where ac, phac, pyz, bpy, na, teen, tmen = acetate, phenyl acetate, pyrazole, bipyridine, nicotinic acid, tetraethyethylenediamine, tetramethylethylenediamine, respectively), which were supposed to have square pyramidal and square planar coordination geometries have been investigated. The differences observed in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) features of the standard compounds having four, five and six coordination geometry points towards presence of square planar and square pyramidal geometry around Cu centre in the studied complexes. The presence of intense pre-edge feature in the spectra of four complexes, 1-4, indicates square pyramidal coordination. Another important XANES feature, present in complexes 5 and 6, is prominent shoulder in the rising part of edge whose intensity decreases in the presence of axial ligands and thus indicates four coordination in these complexes. Ab initio calculations were carried out for square planar and square pyramidal Cu centres to observe the variation of 4p density of states in the presence and absence of axial ligands. To determine the number and distance of scattering atoms around Cu centre in the complexes, EXAFS analysis has been done using the paths obtained from Cu(II) oxide model and an axial Cu-O path from model of a square pyramidal complex. The results obtained from EXAFS analysis have been reported which confirmed the inference drawn from XANES features. Thus, it has been shown that these paths from model of a standard compound can be used to determine the structural parameters for complexes having unknown structure.

  18. Nd2(SeO3)2(SeO4) . 2H2O - a mixed-valence compound containing selenium in the oxidation states +IV and +VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdonosov, P.S.; Dityat'yev, O.A.; Dolgikh, V.A.; Schmidt, P.; Ruck, Michael; Lightfoot, P.

    2004-01-01

    Pale pink crystals of Nd 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 (SeO 4 ) . 2H 2 O were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions from H 2 SeO 3 and Nd 2 O 3 at about 200 C. X-ray diffraction on powder and single-crystals revealed that the compound crystallizes with the monoclinic space group C 2/c (a = 12.276(1) A, b = 7.0783(5) A, c = 13.329(1) A, β = 104.276(7) ). The crystal structure of Nd 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 (SeO 4 ) . 2H 2 O is an ordered variant of the corresponding erbium compound. Eight oxygen atoms coordinate the Nd III atom in the shape of a bi-capped trigonal prism. The oxygen atoms are part of pyramidal (Se IV O 3 ) 2- groups, (Se VI O 4 ) 2- tetrahedra and water molecules. The [NdO 8 ] polyhedra share edges to form chains oriented along [010]. The selenate ions link these chains into layers parallel to (001). The layers are interconnected by the selenite ions into a three-dimensional framework. The dehydration of Nd 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 (SeO 4 ) . 2H 2 O starts at 260 C. The thermal decomposition into Nd 2 SeO 5 , SeO 2 and O 2 at 680 C is followed by further loss of SeO 2 leaving cubic Nd 2 O 3 . (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [de

  19. Cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and zinc(II) complexes with [3(5)]adamanzane, 1,5,9,13-tetraazabicyclo[7.7.3]nonadecane and [(2.3)(2).2(1)]adamanzane, 1,5,9,12-tetraazabicyclo[7.5.2]hexadecane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broge, Louise; Pretzmann, Ulla; Jensen, Nicolai

    2001-01-01

    ) and of three cobalt(II), four nickel(II), one copper(II), and two zinc(II) complexes with [3(5)]adamanzane. For nine of these compounds (2-8, 10b, and 12) the single-crystal X-ray structures were determined. The coordination geometry around the metal ion is square pyramidal in [Cu([(2.3)(2).2(1)]adz)Br]ClO4 (2......) and trigonal bipyramidal in the isostructural structures [Cu([3(5)]adz)Br]Br (3), [Ni-([3(5)]adz)Cl]Cl (5), [Ni([3(5)]adz)Br]Br (6), and [Co([3(5)]adz)Cl]Cl (8). In [Ni([3(5)]adz)(NO3)]NO3 (4) and [Ni([3(5)]-adz)(ClO4)]ClO4 (7) the coordination geometry around nickel(II) is a distorted octahedron...... with the inorganic ligands at cis positions. The coordination polyhedron around the metal ion in [Co([3(5)]adz)][ZnCl4] (10b) and [Zn([3(5)]adz)][ZnCl4] (12) is a slightly distorted tetrahedron. Anation equilibrium constants were determined spectrophotometrically for complexes 2-6 at 25 and 40 degreesC and fall...

  20. Low-dimensional compounds containing cyanido groups. XXVIII. Crystal structure, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of two copper(II) tetracyanidoplatinate complexes with 1,2-diaminopropane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavra, M.; Potočňák, I.; Dušek, Michal; Čižmár, E.; Ozerov, M.; Zvyagin, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 225, May (2015), s. 202-208 ISSN 0022-4596 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spectroscopic studies * magnetic properties * crystal structure * [Pt(CN) ]2- anion * 1,2-diaminopropane Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.265, year: 2015

  1. Isotopically modified compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the nomenclature of isotopically modified compounds in Slovak language is described. This chapter consists of following parts: (1) Isotopically substituted compounds; (2) Specifically isotopically labelled compounds; (3) Selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (4) Non-selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (5) Isotopically deficient compounds.

  2. Theoretical Proposal for the Whole Phosphate Diester Hydrolysis Mechanism Promoted by a Catalytic Promiscuous Dinuclear Copper(II) Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Lucas F; Rey, Nicolás A; Dos Santos, Hélio F; Costa, Luiz Antônio S

    2016-03-21

    The catalytic mechanism that involves the cleavage of the phosphate diester model BDNPP (bis(2,4-dinitrophenyl) phosphate) catalyzed through a dinuclear copper complex is investigated in the current study. The metal complex was originally designed to catalyze catechol oxidation, and it showed an interesting catalytic promiscuity case in biomimetic systems. The current study investigates two different reaction mechanisms through quantum mechanics calculations in the gas phase, and it also includes the solvent effect through PCM (polarizable continuum model) single-point calculations using water as solvent. Two mechanisms are presented in order to fully describe the phosphate diester hydrolysis. Mechanism 1 is of the S(N)2 type, which involves the direct attack of the μ-OH bridge between the two copper(II) ions toward the phosphorus center, whereas mechanism 2 is the process in which hydrolysis takes place through proton transfer between the oxygen atom in the bridging hydroxo ligand and the other oxygen atom in the phosphate model. Actually, the present theoretical study shows two possible reaction paths in mechanism 1. Its first reaction path (p1) involves a proton transfer that occurs immediately after the hydrolytic cleavage, so that the proton transfer is the rate-determining step, which is followed by the entry of two water molecules. Its second reaction path (p2) consists of the entry of two water molecules right after the hydrolytic cleavage, but with no proton transfer; thus, hydrolytic cleavage is the rate-limiting step. The most likely catalytic path occurs in mechanism 1, following the second reaction path (p2), since it involves the lowest free energy activation barrier (ΔG(⧧) = 23.7 kcal mol(-1), in aqueous solution). A kinetic analysis showed that the experimental k(obs) value of 1.7 × 10(-5) s(-1) agrees with the calculated value k1 = 2.6 × 10(-5) s(-1); the concerted mechanism is kinetically favorable. The KIE (kinetic isotope effect) analysis

  3. Copper(II) complexes of alloferon 1 with point mutations (H1A) and (H9A) stability structure and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusiak, Agnieszka; Kuczer, Mariola; Czarniewska, Elżbieta; Rosiński, Grzegorz; Kowalik-Jankowska, Teresa

    2014-09-01

    Mono- and polynuclear copper(II) complexes of the alloferon 1 with point mutations (H1A) A(1)GVSGH(6)GQH(9)GVH(12)G (Allo1A) and (H9A) H(1)GVSGH(6)GQA(9)GVH(12)G (Allo9A) have been studied by potentiometric, UV-visible, CD, EPR spectroscopic and mass spectrometry (MS) methods. To obtain a complete complex speciation different metal-to-ligand molar ratios ranging from 1:1 to 4:1 for Allo1A and to 3:1 for Allo9A were studied. The presence of the His residue in first position of the peptide chain changes the coordination abilities of the Allo9A peptide in comparison to that of the Allo1A. Imidazole-N3 atom of N-terminal His residue of the Allo9A peptide forms stable 6-membered chelate with the terminal amino group. Furthermore, the presence of two additional histidine residues in the Allo9A peptide (H(6),H(12)) leads to the formation of the CuL complex with 4N {NH2,NIm-H(1),NIm-H(6),NIm-H(12)} binding site in wide pH range (5-8). For the Cu(II)-Allo1A system, the results demonstrated that at physiological pH7.4 the predominant complex the CuH-1L consists of the 3N {NH2,N(-),CO,NIm} coordination mode. The inductions of phenoloxidase activity and apoptosis in vivo in Tenebrio molitor cells by the ligands and their copper(II) complexes at pH7.4 were studied. The Allo1A, Allo1K peptides and their copper(II) complexes displayed the lowest hemocytotoxic activity while the most active was the Cu(II)-Allo9A complex formed at pH7.4. The results may suggest that the N-terminal-His(1) and His(6) residues may be more important for their proapoptotic properties in insects than those at positions 9 and 12 in the peptide chain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Knigth's Move in the Periodic Table, From Copper to Platinum, Novel Antitumor Mixed Chelate Copper Compounds, Casiopeinas, Evaluated by an in Vitro Human and Murine Cancer Cell Line Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Mora, I; Ruiz-Ramírez, L; Gómez-Ruiz, C; Tinoco-Méndez, M; Márquez-Quiñones, A; Lira, L R; Marín-Hernández, A; Macías-Rosales, L; Bravo-Gómez, M E

    2001-01-01

    We synthesized a novel anticancer agents based on mixed chelate copper (II) complexes, named Casiopeínas((R)) has of general formula [Cu(N-N)(N-O)H(2)O]NO(3) (where, N-N = diimines as 1,10- phenanthroline, 2,2-bipyridine, or substituted and N-O=aminoeidate or [Cu(N-N)(O-O)H(2)O]NO(3) (where NN= diimines as 10-phenanthroline, 2,2-bipyridine or substituted Casiopeínas I, II, IV, V, VI, VII VIII and O-O=acetylacetonate, salicylaldehidate Casiopínas III). We evaluated the in vitro antitumor activity using a human cancer cell panel and some nurine cancer cells. Eleven Casiopeinas are evaluated in order to acquire some structure-activity correlations and some monodentated Casiopeinäs analogues; cisplatinum was used as control drug. The 50% growth inhibition observed is, in all cases reach with concentrations of Casiopeina's 10 or 100 times lower than cisplatinum. In a previous work we reported the induction of apoptosis by Casiopeina II. The results indicate that Casiopeinass are a promising new anticancer drug candidates to be developed further toward clinical trials.

  5. Discovery of Mixed Pharmacology Melanocortin-3 Agonists and Melanocortin-4 Receptor Tetrapeptide Antagonist Compounds (TACOs) Based on the Sequence Ac-Xaa1-Arg-(pI)DPhe-Xaa4-NH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Skye R; Freeman, Katie T; Schnell, Sathya M; Haslach, Erica M; Dirain, Marvin; Debevec, Ginamarie; Geer, Phaedra; Santos, Radleigh G; Giulianotti, Marc A; Pinilla, Clemencia; Appel, Jon R; Speth, Robert C; Houghten, Richard A; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2017-05-25

    The centrally expressed melanocortin-3 and -4 receptors (MC3R/MC4R) have been studied as possible targets for weight management therapies, with a preponderance of studies focusing on the MC4R. Herein, a novel tetrapeptide scaffold [Ac-Xaa 1 -Arg-(pI)DPhe-Xaa 4 -NH 2 ] is reported. The scaffold was derived from results obtained from a MC3R mixture-based positional scanning campaign. From these results, a set of 48 tetrapeptides were designed and pharmacologically characterized at the mouse melanocortin-1, -3, -4, and -5 receptors. This resulted in the serendipitous discovery of nine compounds that were MC3R agonists (EC 50 DPhe-Tic-NH 2 ], 1 [Ac-His-Arg-(pI)DPhe-Tic-NH 2 ], and 41 [Ac-Arg-Arg-(pI)DPhe-DNal(2')-NH 2 ] were more potent (EC 50 DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH 2 . This template contains a sequentially reversed "Arg-(pI)DPhe" motif with respect to the classical "Phe-Arg" melanocortin signaling motif, which results in pharmacology that is first-in-class for the central melanocortin receptors.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, electrochemical studies and X-ray structures of mixed-ligand polypyridyl copper(II complexes with the acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Oluwafunmilayo F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available [Cu(phen2(CH3COO](ClO4.2H2O (1 and [Cu(bipy2(CH3COO]-(ClO4.H2O (2 {phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bipy = 2,2’-bipyridine}were synthesized and characterized. The complexes were characterized by employying elemental analyses, infrared and UV-Visible spectroscopy, room temperature magnetic measurements and the crystal structures elucidated using X-ray diffraction experiment. The redox properties of the complexes were also investigated. Both structures have a square pyramidal CuN4O chromophore which exhibit significant distortions due to long Cu-O [2.217(3 Å for (1 and 2.179 (1 for (2] and Cu-N [2.631(2 Å for (1 and 2.714(1 Å for (2] bonds. This distortion if further shown by the O-Cu-N bond angles [147.71(8 o for (1 and 153.40(5 o for (2]. The elemental analyses further support the structural details unveiled by the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The infrared spectra shows the acetate vibrational frequencies at 1587 cm-1,1428 cm-1, 1314 cm-1 for (1 and 1571 cm-1, 1441 cm-1, 1319c m-1 for (2 and the perchlo-rate bands at 1059 cm-1, 720 cm-1 (1 and 1080 cm-1,768 cm-1 (2. The broad d-d bands for the copper ion at 14,514 cm-1(1 and 14,535 cm-1(2 support the adoption of square pyramid geometries. The magnetic moments for the two complexes are 1.83 B.M for (1 and 1.72 B.M for (2. The peak to peak values of the two complexes show that the electrode reactions are quasi-reversibile with ΔEp = 0.023V (1 and 0.025V for (2. In both structures, there are π-π intermolecular interactions in addition to hydrogen bonding between the units.

  7. Sequencing and characterization of mixed function monooxygenase genes CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 of Mink (Mustela vison) to facilitate study of dioxin-like compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaowei; Moore, Jeremy N.; Newsted, John L.; Hecker, Markus; Zwiernik, Matthew J.; Jones, Paul D.; Bursian, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to understand aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated toxicity in mink, cDNAs encoding for CYP1A1 and the CYP1A2 mixed function monooxygenases were cloned and characterized. In addition, the effects of selected dibenzofurans on the expression of these genes and the presence of their respective proteins (P4501A) were investigated, and then correlated with the catalytic activities of these proteins as measured by ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-deethylase (MROD) activities. The predicted protein sequences for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 comprise 517 and 512 amino acid residues, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of the mink CYP1As with protein sequences of other mammals revealed high sequence homology with sea otter, seals and the dog, with amino acid identities ranging from 89 to 95% for CYP1A1 and 81 to 93% for CYP1A2. Since exposure to both 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) and 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) resulted in dose-dependent increases of CYP1A1 mRNA, CYP1A2 mRNA and CYP1A protein levels an underlying AhR-mediated mechanism is suggested. The up-regulation of CYP1A mRNA in liver was more consistent to the sum adipose TEQ concentration than to the liver TEQ concentration in minks treated with TCDF or PeCDF. The result suggested that the hepatic-sequestered fraction of PeCDF was biologically inactive to the induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2

  8. Accessing alkali-free NASICON-type compounds through mixed oxoanion sol–gel chemistry: Hydrogen titanium phosphate sulfate, H{sub 1−x}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x} (x=0.5–1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mieritz, Daniel; Davidowski, Stephen K.; Seo, Dong-Kyun, E-mail: dseo@asu.edu

    2016-10-15

    We report a direct sol–gel synthesis and characterization of new proton-containing, rhombohedral NASICION-type titanium compounds with mixed phosphate and sulfate oxoanions. The synthetic conditions were established by utilizing peroxide ion as a decomposable and stabilizing ligand for titanyl ions in the presence of phosphates in a strong acidic medium. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), induction-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopic (ICP-OES) elemental analysis, and Raman and {sup 1}H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopic studies have determined the presence of sulfate and proton ions in the structure, for which the compositional range has been found to be H{sub 1−x}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x} (x=0.5–1). The particulate products exhibit a nanocrystalline nature observed through characterization with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The N{sub 2} sorption isotherm measurements and subsequent Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) analyses confirmed the presence of the textural meso- and macropores in the materials. Future studies would determine the potential of the new compounds in various applications as battery materials, proton conductors and solid acid catalysts. - Graphical abstract: A series of proton-containing NASICON-type compounds, H{sub 1−x}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x} (x=0.5–1), were discovered through a new sol–gel synthetic method that utilizes peroxide ion as a decomposable and stabilizing ligand for titanyl ions in the presence of phosphates in a strong acidic medium.

  9. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a 4,4'-bipyridine Linked Dinuclear Copper(II) Complex Derived from 2-{[2-(2-hydroxyethylamino)ethylimino]methyl}-6-methylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Zhen; Gu, Yitong; Li, Yuntong; Liu, Andong; Liu, Fuyao; You, Zhonglu; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2016-12-01

    A novel 4,4'-bipyridine linked dinuclear copper(II) complex, [Cu2L2(bipy)](NO3)2·bipy (L = 2-[2-(2-hydroxyethylamino) ethylimino]methyl-6-methylphenol; bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine), was prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The Cu···Cu distance is 11.129(2) Å. The CuII atom is coordinated by one phenolate O, one imine N, and one amine N atoms of a Schiff base ligand, and one N atom of the bridging 4,4'-bipyridine ligand, forming a square planar geometry. In the crystal structure of the complex, the dinuclear copper complex cations are linked by 4,4'-bipyridine molecules through intermolecular O-H···N hydrogen bonds, to form 1D chains running in the [2 0 -1] direction.

  10. Synthesis and structure elucidation of a copper(II) Schiff-base complex: in vitro DNA binding, pBR322 plasmid cleavage and HSA binding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Sartaj; Ahmad, Musheer; Afzal, Mohd; Zaki, Mehvash; Bharadwaj, Parimal K

    2014-11-01

    New copper(II) complex with Schiff base ligand 4-[(2-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzylidene)-amino]-benzoic acid (H₂L) was synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic and analytical and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies which revealed that the complex 1 exist in a distorted octahedral environment. In vitro CT-DNA binding studies were performed by employing different biophysical technique which indicated that the 1 strongly binds to DNA in comparison to ligand via electrostatic binding mode. Complex 1 cleaves pBR322 DNA via hydrolytic pathway and recognizes minor groove of DNA double helix. The HSA binding results showed that ligand and complex 1 has ability to quench the fluorescence emission intensity of Trp 214 residue available in the subdomain IIA of HSA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Removal of copper(II) from some environmental samples by sorptive-flotation using powdered marble wastes as sorbents and oleic acid as surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, S E; Samra, S E; Mahdy, A F M; El-Morsy, S M

    2004-11-01

    A simple and economic experimental sorptive -flotation procedure is presented for the removal of copper(II) species from aqueous solutions. It is based on using powdered marble wastes (PMW), which are widespread and inexpensive and may represent an environmental problem, as the effective inorganic sorbent and oleic (HOL) as the surfactant. The main parameters (i.e. initial solution pH, sorbent, surfactant and copper concentrations, stirring times, ionic strength, temperature and the presence of foreign ions) influencing the flotation of PMW and /or Cu(II) were examined. Nearly, 100% of PMW and Cu(II) were removed from aqueous solutions at pH7 after stirring for 10 min and at room temperature, (approximately 25 degrees C). The procedure was successfully applied to recover Cu(II) spiked to some natural water samples. A mechanism for sorption and flotation is suggested.

  12. Facile synthesis of gold coated copper(II) hydroxide pine-needle-like micro/nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kailin; Du, Deyang; Luo, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Weiwei; Wu, Zhangting; Si, Lifang; Qiu, Teng

    2014-08-01

    This work reports a facile method to fabricate gold coated copper(II) hydroxide pine-needle-like micro/nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) application. The effects of reaction parameters on the shape, size and surface morphology of the products are systematically investigated. The as-prepared 3D hierarchical structures have the advantage of a large surface area available for the formation of hot spots and the adsorption of target analytes, thus dramatically improving the Raman signals. The finite difference time domain calculations indicate that the pine-needle-like model pattern may demonstrate a high quality SERS property owing to the high density and abundant hot spot characteristic in closely spaced needle-like arms.

  13. Stability constants of glutarate complexes of copper(II), zinc(II), cobalt(II) and uranyl(II) by paper electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.P.; Yadava, J.R.; Yadava, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Stability constants of Copper(II), Zinc(II), Cobalt(II) and Uranyl(II) glutarates have been determined by paper electrophoresis. Glutaric acid (0.005 mol dmsup(-3)) was added to the background electrolyte : 0.1 mol dmsup(-3) HClO 4 . The proportions of (CH 2 ) 3 COOH COO - and (CH 2 ) 3 C 2 O 4 2- were varied by changing the pH of the electrolyte. These anions yielded the complexes Cu(CH 2 ) 3 C 2 O 4 , [Zn(CH 2 ) 3 COOH COO] + [Co(CH 2 ) 3 COOH COO] + and UO 2 (CH 2 ) 3 C 2 O 4 whose stability constants are found to be 10sup(3.9), 10sup(2.9), 10sup(2.7) and 10sup(13.5) respectively. (author)

  14. Synthesis and properties of complexes of copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II) and uranyl ions with 3-(p-tolylsulphonamido)rhodamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bindary, A.A.; El-Sonbati, A.Z.

    2000-01-01

    Metal complexes of copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II) and uranyl ions with 3-(p-tolylsulphonamido)rhodamine (HL) have been prepared and characterized by chemical and thermal analyses, molar conductivity , magnetic susceptibility measurements, and infrared, electronic and EPR spectra. The visible and EPR spectra indicated that the Cu(II) complex has a tetragonal geometry. From EPR spectrum of the Cu(II) complex,various parameters were calculated. The crystal field parameters of Ni(II) complex were calculated and were found to agree fairly well with the values reported for known square pyramidal complexes. The infrared spectral studies showed a monobasic bidentate behaviour with the oxygen and nitrogen donor system. Thermal stabilities of the complexes are also reported. (author)

  15. Synthesis, physico-chemical characterization and biological activity of copper(ii and nickel(ii complexes with l-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorides of copper(II and nickel(ll react with 1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole to give complexes of the type [M(LnCln(H20∙Cln (M = Cu or Ni; L = (1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole; n=O, 1 or 2. The complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity magnetic susceptibility measurements and IR spectra. These studies suggest that all the complexes possess an octahedral stereochemistry. The antibacterial activity of (1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole and their complexes was evaluated against Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp.

  16. Fabrication of fullerene nano-strucutres in mixed films and devices utilizing fullerene nano-structures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Yufei

    2017-04-06

    Embodiments provide methods for controlling crystallization of fullerene compounds in mixed films comprising one or more polymers. Methods can include depositing fullerene mixed films comprising one or more polymers on crystalline fullerene substrates and annealing the deposited mixed films. Methods can further include one or more of exposing the annealed mixed film to UV light, and washing the annealed mixed film with a solvent. Fullerene compounds can include one or more of PCBM, PCBNB, and PCBA.

  17. Non-covalent interactions in 2-methylimidazolium copper(II) complex (MeImH)2[Cu(pfbz)4]: Synthesis, characterization, single crystal X-ray structure and packing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Raj Pal; Saini, Anju; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Jitendra; Sathishkumar, Ranganathan; Venugopalan, Paloth

    2017-01-01

    A new anionic copper(II) complex, (MeImH)2 [Cu(pfbz)4] (1) where, MeImH = 2-methylimidazolium and pfbz = pentafluorobenzoate has been isolated by reacting copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, pentafluorobenzoic acid and 2-methylimidazole in ethanol: water mixture in 1:2:2 molar ratio. This complex 1 has been characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, spectroscopic techniques (UV-Vis, FT-IR) and conductance measurements. The complex salt crystallizes in monoclinic crystal system with space group C2/c. Single crystal X-ray structure determination revealed the presence of discrete ions: [Cu(pfbz)4]2- anion and two 2-methylimidazolium cation (C4H7N2)+. The crystal lattice is stabilized by strong hydrogen bonding and F⋯F interactions between cationic-anionic and the anionic-anionic moieties respectively, besides π-π interactions.

  18. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents an overview on the compounding and processing techniques of natural rubber compounds. The introductory portion deals with different types of rubbers and principles of rubber compounding. The primary and secondary fillers used...

  19. Synthesis, spectroscopy, magnetic and redox behaviors of copper(II) complexes with tert-butylated salen type ligands bearing bis(4-aminophenyl)ethane and bis(4-aminophenyl)amide backbones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumov, Veli T; Yerli, Yusuf; Kutluay, Aysegul; Aslanoglu, Mehmet

    2013-03-01

    New salen type ligands, N,N'-bis(X-3-tert-butylsalicylidene)-4,4'-ethylenedianiline [(X=H (1), 5-tert-butyl (2)] and N,N'-bis(X-3-tert-butylsalicylidene)-4,4'-amidedianiline [X=H (3), 5-tert (4)] and their copper(II) complexes 5-8, have been synthesized. Their spectroscopic (IR, (1)H NMR, UV/vis, ESR) properties, as well as magnetic and redox-reactivity behavior are reported. IR spectra of 7 and 8 indicate the coordination of amide oxygen atoms of 3 and 4 ligands to Cu(II). The solid state ESR spectra of 5-8 exhibits less informative exchange narrowed isotropic or anisotropic signals with weak unresolved low field patterns. The magnetic moments of 5 (2.92 μ(B) per Cu(II)) and 6 (2.79 μ(B) per Cu(II)) are unusual for copper(II) complexes and considerably higher than those for complexes 7 and 8. Cryogenic measurements (300-10 K) show weak antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the copper(II) centers in complexes 6 and 8. The results of electrochemical and chemical redox-reactivity studies are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tetranuclear copper(II) complexes bridged by alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate and incorporation of sugar acids through the Cu4 core structural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Merii; Sah, Ajay Kumar; Tanase, Tomoaki; Mikuriya, Masahiro

    2006-08-21

    Tetranuclear copper(II) complexes containing alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate (alpha-D-Glc-1P), [Cu4(mu-OH){mu-(alpha-D-Glc-1P)}2(bpy)4(H2O)2]X3 [X = NO3 (1a), Cl (1b), Br (1c)], and [Cu4(mu-OH){mu-(alpha-D-Glc-1P)}2(phen)4(H2O)2](NO3)3 (2) were prepared by reacting the copper(II) salt with Na2[alpha-D-Glc-1P] in the presence of diimine ancillary ligands, and the structure of 2 was characterized by X-ray crystallography to comprise four {Cu(phen)}2+ fragments connected by the two sugar phosphate dianions in 1,3-O,O' and 1,1-O mu4-bridging fashion as well as a mu-hydroxo anion. The crystal structure of 2 involves two chemically independent complex cations in which the C2 enantiomeric structure for the trapezoidal tetracopper(II) framework is switched according to the orientation of the alpha-D-glucopyranosyl moieties. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility data of 1a indicated that antiferromagnetic spin coupling is operative between the two metal ions joined by the hydroxo bridge (J = -52 cm(-1)) while antiferromagnetic interaction through the Cu-O-Cu sugar phosphate bridges is weak (J = -13 cm(-1)). Complex 1a readily reacted with carboxylic acids to afford the tetranuclear copper(II) complexes, [Cu4{mu-(alpha-D-Glc-1P)}2(mu-CA)2(bpy)4](NO3)2 [CA = CH3COO (3), o-C6H4(COO)(COOH) (4)]. Reactions with m-phenylenediacetic acid [m-C6H4(CH2COOH)2] also gave the discrete tetracopper(II) cationic complex [Cu4{mu-(alpha-D-Glc-1P)}2(mu-m-C6H4(CH2COO)(CH2COOH))2(bpy)4](NO3)2 (5a) as well as the cluster polymer formulated as {[Cu4{mu-(alpha-D-Glc-1P)}2(mu-m-C6H4(CH2COO)2)(bpy)4](NO3)2}n (5b). The tetracopper structure of 1a is converted into a symmetrical rectangular core in complexes 3, 4, and 5b, where the hydroxo bridge is dissociated and, instead, two carboxylate anions bridge another pair of Cu(II) ions in a 1,1-O monodentate fashion. The similar reactions were applied to incorporate sugar acids onto the tetranuclear copper(II) centers. Reactions of 1a with delta

  1. Sanskrit Compound Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Mittal, Vipul; Kulkarni, Amba

    Sanskrit is very rich in compound formation. Typically a compound does not code the relation between its components explicitly. To understand the meaning of a compound, it is necessary to identify its components, discover the relations between them and finally generate a paraphrase of the compound. In this paper, we discuss the automatic segmentation and type identification of a compound using simple statistics that results from the manually annotated data.

  2. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed connective tissue disease Overview Mixed connective tissue disease has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease ...

  3. Fluid mixing III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnby, N.

    1988-01-01

    Covering all aspects of mixing, this work presents research and developments in industrial applications, flow patterns and mixture analysis, mixing of solids into liquids, and mixing of gases into liquids

  4. and copper(ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Nigeria. Corresponding Author: Akinyele ... derivatives with aldehydes or ketones (Deepa and. Aravindakshan, 2005). ... used in organic synthesis, especially for the preparation of ...

  5. copper(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptadionato)copper(II) ... Abstract. Equilibrium concentrations of various condensed and gaseous phases have been thermodyna- ... phere, over a wide range of substrate temperatures and total reactor pressures.

  6. and copper(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (II) and copper(II)–zinc(II) complexes. SUBODH KUMAR1, R N PATEL1*, P V KHADIKAR1 and. K B PANDEYA2. 1 Department of Chemistry, APS University, Rewa 486 003, India. 2 CSJM University, Kanpur 208 016, India e-mail: (R N Patel) ...

  7. Uranyl citrate dimers as guests in a copper-bipyridine framework: a novel hetero-metallic inorganic-organic hybrid compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuery, P.

    2007-01-01

    Reaction of uranyl nitrate with citric acid (H 4 cit) in the presence of copper(II) bis(tri-fluoro-methane-sulfonate) and 4,4'-bipyridine (bipy) under hydrothermal conditions gave the mixed complex[Cu(bipy) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ][UO 2 (Hcit)(H 2 O)] 2 .5H 2 O, in which di-anionic uranyl citrate dimers are incorporated in the interlayer spaces of the [Cu(bipy) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] n 2n+ square grid assemblage. An extended hydrogen bonding network links the uranyl complex units together and also to the grid framework, resulting in the formation of a 3-D assemblage held by weak interactions. (author)

  8. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  9. Effect of Cu(II) coordination compounds on the activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Katarzyna; Malinowska, Katarzyna; Langer, Ewa; Dziki, Łukasz; Dziki, Adam; Majsterek, Ireneusz

    2011-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a serious medical and economical problem of our times. It is the most common gastrointestinal cancer in the world. In Poland, the treatment and detection of CRC are poorly developed and the pathogenesis is still unclear. One hypothesis suggests a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of CRC. Experimental studies in recent years confirm the participation of ROS in the initiation and promotion of CRC. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the following coordination compounds coordination compounds: dinitrate (V) tetra(3,4,5-trimethyl-N1-pyrazole-κN2) copper(II), dichloro di(3,4,5-trimethyl-N1-pyrazole-κN2) copper(II), dinitrate (V) di(1,4,5-trimethyl-N1-pyrazole-κN2) copper(II), dichloro di(1,3,4,5-tetramethyl-N1-pyrazole-κN2) copper(II) on the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, ZnCu-SOD) and catalase (CAT) in a group of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and in the control group consisting of patients with minor gastrointestinal complaints. The study was conducted in 20 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer at the age of 66.5±10.2 years (10 men and 10 women) versus the control group of 20 people (10 men and 10 women) aged 57.89±17.10 years without cancer lesions in the biological material - hemolysate prepared in a proportion of 1ml of water per 1 ml of blood. CAT activity was measured by the Beers method (1952), while SOD activity was measured by the Misra and Fridovich method (1972). We found that patients with CRC showed a statistically significant decrease of SOD and CAT activity (CAT - 12,75±1.97 U/g Hb, SOD - 1111.52±155.52 U/g Hb) in comparison with the control group (CAT - 19.65±2,17 U/g Hb, SOD - 2046.26±507.22 U/g Hb). Simultaneously, we observed that the investigated coordination compounds of Cu(II) significantly increased the antioxidant activity of CAT and SOD in patients with CRC (mean: CAT 25.23±4.86 U/g Hb, SOD - 3075.96±940.20 U/g Hb). Patients with

  10. Fabrication of fullerene nano-strucutres in mixed films and devices utilizing fullerene nano-structures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Yufei; Amassian, Aram; Tajima, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments provide methods for controlling crystallization of fullerene compounds in mixed films comprising one or more polymers. Methods can include depositing fullerene mixed films comprising one or more polymers on crystalline fullerene

  11. Efficiency of nitrogen in NP compound (Mixed) fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ying; Peng Genyuan; Wang Fujun

    1990-01-01

    Pot experiments with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) were designed to study the utilization rate of different forms of 15 N labelled components of fertilizers and the efficiency of N residual in soil. Results showed that: 1. Three kinds of fertilizers (nitrophosphate, urea + MAP, and urea + superphosphate) gave the same effect on the yields of wheat when they were used as a basal fertilizer. 2. The utilization rate of fertilizer nitrogen by the shoot of wheat depends on the nitrogen form rather than type and composition of fertilizer. The utilization rates are 35.0% for NH 4 + in urea + MAP; 31.4% for NH 4 + in nitrophosphate; 28.1% for urea N in urea + MAP; 24.8% for NO 3 - in nitrophosphate. Among the three forms, the NO 3 - of nitrophosphate was of the highest soil residual rate (48.9%) and the nitrogen in NH 4 H 2 PO 4 had the lowest loss (22.7%). 3. All types of tested fertilizers applied to spring wheat as basal nutrient were of equal effect on grain yield of the subsequently planted rice. 7.2%-8.9% of 15 N labelled components of fertilizers applied to spring wheat as basal nutrient were utilized by rice plants (grain + straw)

  12. Mixing ratio sensor of alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-07

    In order to improve combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing and change the condition of control depending upon the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, the above mixing ratio has so far been detected by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, in case when a light emitting diode is used for the light source above, two kinds of sensors are further needed. Concerning the two kinds of sensors above, this invention offers a mixing ratio sensor for the alcohol mixed fuel which can abolish a temperature sensor to detect the environmental temperature by making a single compensatory light receiving element deal with the compensation of the amount of light emission of the light emitting element due to the temperature change and the compensation of the critical angle caused by the temperature change. (6 figs)

  13. Growth effects on mixed culture of Dunaliella salina and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... compounds of nutritional supplements or food additives. (Wikfors and Ohno ... mixed cultures of marine microalgae and most of the work has been ..... This work was supported by the National Natural Science. Foundation of ...

  14. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Electroconducting Properties of a 1D Mixed-Valence Cu(I–Cu(II Coordination Polymer with a Dicyclohexyl Dithiocarbamate Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Nakatani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new mixed-valence Cu(I–Cu(II 1D coordination polymer, [CuI4CuIIBr4(Cy2dtc2]n, with an infinite chain structure is synthesized by the reaction of Cu(Cy2dtc2 (Cy2dtc− = dicyclohexyl dithiocarbamate, C13H22NS2 with CuBr·S(CH32. The as-synthesized polymer consists of mononuclear copper(II units of CuII(Cy2dtc2 and tetranuclear copper(I cluster units, CuI4Br4. In the cluster unit, all the CuI ions have distorted trigonal pyramidal coordination geometries, and the CuI–CuI or CuI–CuII distances between the nearest copper ions are shorter than the sum of van der Waals radii for Cu–Cu.

  15. Mixed culture engineering for steering starter functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spuś, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Undefined mixed complex starter cultures are broadly used in Gouda-type cheese production due to their robustness to phage predation, resilience for changes in environmental conditions and aroma compounds production ability during ripening. These microbial communities of lactic acid bacteria

  16. Continuous mixing of solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raouf, M.S.

    1963-01-01

    The most important literature on theoretical aspects of mixing solids was reviewed.

    Only when the mixed materials showed no segregation it was possible to analyse the mixing process quantitatively. In this case the mixture could be described by the 'χ' Square test. Longitudinal mixing could be

  17. Kinetics of molybdenum(6) complexation with o,o'-dihydroxyazo compounds or heterocyclic azo compounds in the presence of hydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochelaeva, G.A.; Degtyarev, M.Yu.; Ivanov, V.M.; Prokhorova, G.V.; Figurovskaya, V.N.

    1999-01-01

    The kinetics of complexation in the system molybdenum(6)-azo compound-hydroxylamine was studied. Azo compounds of the types o,o'-dihydroxyazo compounds, such as Lyumogallion IREA and Magneson IREA, and heterocyclic azo compounds, such as 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol and 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol, were studied. The formation of mixed-ligand complexes with the ratio of component 1 : 1 : 1 was detected. Rate constants, activation energies, and stability constants of the forming compounds were evaluated. It was concluded that the reagents under study are promising for the analytical chemistry of molybdenum [ru

  18. Compound process fuel cycle concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Tetsuo

    2005-01-01

    Mass flow of light water reactor spent fuel for a newly proposed nuclear fuel cycle concept 'Compound Process Fuel Cycle' has been studied in order to assess the capacity of the concept for accepting light water reactor spent fuels, taking an example for boiling water reactor mixed oxide spent fuel of 60 GWd/t burn-up and for a fast reactor core of 3 GW thermal output. The acceptable heavy metal of boiling water reactor mixed oxide spent fuel is about 3.7 t/y/reactor while the burn-up of the recycled fuel is about 160 GWd/t and about 1.6 t/y reactor with the recycled fuel burn-up of about 300 GWd/t, in the case of 2 times recycle and 4 times recycle respectively. The compound process fuel cycle concept has such flexibility that it can accept so much light water reactor spent fuels as to suppress the light water reactor spent fuel pile-up if not so high fuel burn-up is expected, and can aim at high fuel burn-up if the light water reactor spent fuel pile-up is not so much. Following distinctive features of the concept have also been revealed. A sort of ideal utilization of boiling water reactor mixed oxide spent fuel might be achieved through this concept, since both plutonium and minor actinide reach equilibrium state beyond 2 times recycle. Changes of the reactivity coefficients during recycles are mild, giving roughly same level of reactivity coefficients as the conventional large scale fast breeder core. Both the radio-activity and the heat generation after 4 year cooling and after 4 times recycle are less than 2.5 times of those of the pre recycle fuel. (author)

  19. European mixed forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material...... and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests. Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any...... density in mixed forests, (iii) conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv) economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests. Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields...

  20. Synthesis, characterization, spectroscopic and theoretical studies of new zinc(II), copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes based on imine ligand containing 2-aminothiophenol moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaatian, Bita; Mousavi, S. Sedighe; Afshari, Sadegh

    2016-11-01

    New dimer complexes of zinc(II), copper(II) and nickel(II) were synthesized using the Schiff base ligand which was formed by the condensation of 2-aminothiophenol and 2-hydroxy-5-methyl benzaldehyde. This tridentate Schiff base ligand was coordinated to the metal ions through the NSO donor atoms. In order to prevent the oxidation of the thiole group during the formation of Schiff base and its complexes, all of the reactions were carried out under an inert atmosphere of argon. The X-ray structure of the Schiff base ligand showed that in the crystalline form the SH groups were oxidized to produce a disulfide Schiff base as a new double Schiff base ligand. The molar conductivity values of the complexes in dichloromethane implied the presence of non-electrolyte species. The fluorescence properties of the Schiff base ligand and its complexes were also studied in dichloromethane. The products were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV/Vis spectroscopies, elemental analysis, and conductometry. The crystal structure of the double Schiff base was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory for the determination of the optimized structures of Schiff base complexes.

  1. Biosorption of copper(II), lead(II), iron(III) and cobalt(II) on Bacillus sphaericus-loaded Diaion SP-850 resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Usta, Canan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    The biosorption of copper(II), lead(II), iron(III) and cobalt(II) on Bacillus sphaericus-loaded Diaion SP-850 resin for preconcentration-separation of them have been investigated. The sorbed analytes on biosorbent were eluted by using 1 mol L -1 HCl and analytes were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The influences of analytical parameters including amounts of pH, B. sphaericus, sample volume etc. on the quantitative recoveries of analytes were investigated. The effects of alkaline, earth alkaline ions and some metal ions on the retentions of the analytes on the biosorbent were also examined. Separation and preconcentration of Cu, Pb, Fe and Co ions from real samples was achieved quantitatively. The detection limits by 3 sigma for analyte ions were in the range of 0.20-0.75 μg L -1 for aqueous samples and in the range of 2.5-9.4 ng g -1 for solid samples. The validation of the procedure was performed by the analysis of the certified standard reference materials (NRCC-SLRS 4 Riverine Water, SRM 2711 Montana soil and GBW 07605 Tea). The presented method was applied to the determination of analyte ions in green tea, black tea, cultivated mushroom, boiled wheat, rice and soil samples with successfully results

  2. The interaction of taurine-salicylaldehyde Schiff base copper(II) complex with DNA and the determination of DNA using the complex as a fluorescence probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Qianru; Yang, Zhousheng

    2010-09-01

    The interaction of taurine-salicylaldehyde Schiff base copper(II) (Cu(TSSB) 22+) complex with DNA was explored by using UV-vis, fluorescence spectrophotometry, and voltammetry. In pH 7.4 Tris-HCl buffer solution, the binding constant of the Cu(TSSB) 22+ complex interaction with DNA was 3.49 × 10 4 L mol -1. Moreover, due to the fluorescence enhancing of Cu(TSSB) 22+ complex in the presence of DNA, a method for determination of DNA with Cu(TSSB) 22+ complex as a fluorescence probe was developed. The fluorescence spectra indicated that the maximum excitation and emission wavelength were 389 nm and 512 nm, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the calibration graphs are linear over the range of 0.03-9.03 μg mL -1 for calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA), 0.10-36 μg mL -1 for yeast DNA and 0.01-10.01 μg mL -1 for salmon DNA (SM-DNA), respectively. The corresponding detection limits are 7 ng mL -1 for CT-DNA, 3 ng mL -1 for yeast DNA and 3 ng mL -1 for SM-DNA. Using this method, DNA in synthetic samples was determined with satisfactory results.

  3. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of sodium ceftriaxone with n-propyl alcohol-ammonium sulfate-water system by extraction flotation of copper(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Li, Quanmin

    2008-05-01

    Although the determination methods of sodium ceftriaxone has been increasingly reported, these methods have their inherent limits preventing them from being broadly applied in common laboratories. In order to circumvent this problem, a rapid and simple method for the indirect spectrophotometric determination of sodium ceftriaxone is reported. Sodium ceftriaxone was degraded completely in the presence of 0.20 mol/l sodium hydroxide in boiling water bath for 20 min. The thiol group (-SH) of the degradation product (I) of sodium ceftriaxone could reduce cupric to cuprous ions, and the resulting which was precipitated with the thiol group (-SH) of the degradation product (II) at pH 4.0. By determining the residual amount of copper (II), the indirect determination of sodium ceftriaxone can be achieved. Standard curve of sodium ceftriaxone versus the flotation yield of copper(II) showed that sodium ceftriaxone could be determined in low concentrations. The linear range of sodium ceftriaxone was 0.70-32 microg/ml and the detection limit evaluated by calibration curve (3sigma/k) was found to be 0.60 microg/ml. A simple and efficient method was developed and it has been successfully applied to the determination of sodium ceftriaxone in human serum and urine samples, respectively. It is expected that this method will find broad applications in the detection of cephalosporin derivatives with similar structure.

  4. Selective flotation-spectrophotometric determination of trace copper(II) in natural waters, human blood and drug samples using phenanthraquinone monophenylthiosemicarbazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, M E; Akl, M A; Ghazy, S E

    2001-06-01

    Copper(II) forms 1:1 and 1:2 intense red complexes with phenanthraquinone monophenylthiosemicarbazone (PPT) at pH 3-3.5 and > or =6.5, respectively. These complexes exhibit maximal absorbance at 545 and 517 nm, the molar absorptivity being 2.3 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1), respectively. However, the 1:1 complex was quantitatively floated with oleic acid (HOL) surfactant in the pH range 4.5-5.5, providing a highly selective and sensitive procedure for the spectrophotometric determination of CuII. The molar absorptivity of the floated Cu-PPT complex was 1.5 x 10(5) l mol)(-1) cm(-1). Beer's law was obeyed over the range 3-400 ppb at 545 nm. The analytical parameters affecting the flotation process and hence the determination of copper traces were reported. Also, the structure of the isolated solid complex and the mechanism of flotation were suggested. Moreover, the procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of CuII in natural waters, serum blood and some drug samples.

  5. Synthesis, Structure and Electrochemistry of Tetranuclear Oxygen-Centered Copper(II) Clusters with Acetylacetone and Benz-pyrazole Hydrolyzed Derivatives as Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafazadeh, Rasoul; Willis, Anthony C

    2016-01-01

    Two copper(II) clusters Cu(4)OCl(6)(pyrazole)4, 1, and Cu(4)OBr(6)(Br-pyrazole)4, 2, have been synthesized by reacting acetylacetone and benzohydrazide (1:1 ratio) with CuX(2) (X = Cl for 1 and X= Br for 2) in methanol solutions. The structures of both clusters have been established by X-ray crystallography. The clusters contain four Cu, one O, six μ(2)-X atoms, and four pyrazole ligands. The pyrazoles was prepared in situ by the reaction of acetylacetone with benzohydrazide in methanol under reflux. In 2, the methine hydrogens of the pyrazole ligands have been replaced by bromine atoms. The four copper atoms encapsulate the central O atom in a tetrahedral arrangement. All copper atoms are five-coordinate and have similar coordination environments with slightly distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. The cyclic voltammogram of the clusters 1 and 2 show a one-electron quasi-reversible reduction wave in the region 0.485 to 0.731 V, and a one-electron quasi-reversible oxidation wave in the region 0.767 to 0.898 V. In 1, one irreversible oxidative response is observed on the positive of side of the voltammogram at 1.512 V and this can be assigned to Cu(II) to Cu(III) oxidation.

  6. The solvent extraction of zinc, iron, and indium from chloride solutions by neutral organophosphorus compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, J.S.; Du Preez, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    The preparation of several neutral organophosphorus compounds and their evaluation as selective extractants for zinc in chloride media are described. The compounds belong to the series trialkyl phosphates (RO) 3 PO, dialkyl alkylphosphonates R'PO(OR) 2 , alkyl dialkylphosphinates R 2 'PO(OR), and trialkyl-phosphine oxides R 3 'PO. They were characterized by measurement of their physical properties (melting and boiling points, refractive indices, and densities), and their purities were confirmed by osmometric determination of their molecular masses; by carbon and hydrogen microanalysis; by the titrimetric determination of acidic impurities; and, for liquid products, by comparison of their experimental molar refractivities with empirical values. Metal-distribution equilibria were determined for solutions of the extractants in xylene and aqueous phase containing 0,5 to 5,0 M sodium chloride. Moderately good selectivities were shown for zinc(II) over iron(III), and excellent selectivities were shown for zinc(II) over iron(II), copper(II), lead(II), and cadmium(II). The extraction of indium(III) was similar to that of zinc(II). The extraction of zinc(III), iron(III), and indium(III) increased markedly through the series. (RO) 3 PO 2 2 'PO(OR) 3 'PO. The incorporation of phenyl groups into the compounds led to weaker extraction. The extracted complexes of zinc(II), iron(III), and indium(III) have the stoichiometries ZnCl 2 L 2 ,FeCl 3 L 2 (H 2 O), and InCl 3 L 2 (H 2 O) respectively, where L represents the neutral organophosphorus compound

  7. Mixing ratio sensor for alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-24

    In order to improve the combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, a mixing ratio sensor has so far been proposed to detect the above mixing ratio by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, because of the arrangement of its transparent substance in the fuel passage with the sealing material in between, this sensor invited the leakage of the fluid due to deterioration of the sealing material, etc. and its cost became high because of too many parts to be assembled. In view of the above, in order to reduce the number of parts, to lower the cost of parts and the assembling cost and to secure no fluid leakage from the fuel passage, this invention formed the above fuel passage and the above transparent substance both concerning the above mixing ratio sensor in an integrated manner using light transmitting resin. (3 figs)

  8. Dinuclear copper(II) complexes with {Cu2(mu-hydroxo)bis(mu-carboxylato)}+ cores and their reactions with sugar phosphate esters: A substrate binding model of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Merii; Tanase, Tomoaki; Mikuriya, Masahiro

    2006-04-03

    Reactions of CuX2.nH2O with the biscarboxylate ligand XDK (H2XDK = m-xylenediamine bis(Kemp's triacid imide)) in the presence of N-donor auxiliary ligands yielded a series of dicopper(II) complexes, [Cu2(mu-OH)(XDK)(L)2]X (L = N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (tetmen), X = NO3 (1a), Cl (1b); L = N,N,N'-trimethylethylenediamine (tmen), X = NO3 (2a), Cl (2b); L =2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), X = NO3 (3); L = 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), X = NO3 (4); L = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (Me2bpy), X = NO3 (5); L = 4-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Mephen), X = NO3 (6)). Complexes 1-6 were characterized by X-ray crystallography (Cu...Cu = 3.1624(6)-3.2910(4) A), and the electrochemical and magnetic properties were also examined. Complexes 3 and 4 readily reacted with diphenyl phosphoric acid (HDPP) or bis(4-nitrophenyl) phosphoric acid (HBNPP) to give [Cu2(mu-phosphate)(XDK)(L)2]NO3 (L = bpy, phosphate = DPP (11); L = phen, phosphate = DPP (12), BNPP (13)), where the phsophate diester bridges the two copper ions in a mu-1,3-O,O' bidentate fashion (Cu...Cu = 4.268(3)-4.315(1) A). Complexes 4 and 6 with phen and Mephen have proven to be good precursors to accommodate a series of sugar monophosphate esters (Sugar-P) onto the biscarboxylate-bridged dicopper centers, yielding [Cu2(mu-Sugar-P)(XDK)(L)2] (Sugar-P = alpha-D-Glc-1-P (23a and b), D-Glc-6-P (24a and b), D-Man-6-P (25a), D-Fru-6-P (26a and b); L = phen (a), Mephen (b)) and [Cu2(mu-Gly-n-P)(XDK)(Mephen)2] (Gly-n-P = glycerol n-phosphate; n = 2 (21), 3 (22)), where Glc, Man, and Fru are glucose, mannose, and fructose, respectively. The structure of [Cu2(mu-MNPP)(XDK)(phen)2(CH3OH)] (20) was characterized as a reference compound (H2MNPP = 4-nitrophenyl phosphoric acid). Complexes 4 and 6 also reacted with d-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (D-Fru-1,6-P2) to afford the tetranuclear copper(II) complexes formulated as [Cu4(mu-D-Fru-1,6-P2)(XDK)2(L)4] (L = phen (27a), Mephen (27b)). The detailed structure of 27a was determined by X

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Tert-Butylgallium-Antimony Compounds; X-Ray Crystal Structures of t-Bu3Ga. Sb(SiMe3)3, T-Bu2GaSb(SiMe3)2, and t-Bu2GaSb(SiMe3)Ga(t-Bu)2Cl, The first Example of a Gallium-Antimony Mixed-Bridge Compound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wells, Richard

    1997-01-01

    ...:1 equilibration of t-Bu2GaCl with 2. These new gallium-antimony compounds have been characterized through multinuclear solution NMR spectroscopy, partial elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray structural analysis...

  10. Transition metal complexes with thiosemicarbazide-based ligands. Part 60. Reactions of copper(II bromide with pyridoxal S-methylisothiosemicarbazone (PLITSC. Crystal structure of [Cu(PLITSC−HH2O]Br•H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leovac Vukadin M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and structural characterization of a square-planar copper(II complex with pyridoxal S-methylisothiosemicarbazone (PLITSC of the formula [Cu(PLITSC−HH2O]Br•H2O (1 as the first Cu(II complex with monoanionic form of this ligand were described. Complex 1 together with two previously synthesized complexes [Cu(PLITSCBr2] (2 and [Cu(PLITSCBr(MeOH]Br (3 were characterized by elemental analysis, IR and electronic spectra and also by the methods of thermal analysis, conductometry and magnetochemistry. [Projekat Pokrajisnkog sekretarijata za nauku i tehnoloski razvoj Vojvodine i Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172014

  11. Antioxidant, DNA interaction, VEGFR2 kinase, topoisomerase I and in vitro cytotoxic activities of heteroleptic copper(II) complexes of tetrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines and diimines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haleel, A.; Mahendiran, D. [Post-Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, The New College (Autonomous), Chennai 600 014 (India); Veena, V.; Sakthivel, N. [Department of Biotechnology, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry 605 014 (India); Rahiman, A. Kalilur, E-mail: akrahmanjkr@gmail.com [Post-Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, The New College (Autonomous), Chennai 600 014 (India)

    2016-11-01

    A series of heteroleptic mononuclear copper(II) complexes of the type [Cu(L{sup 1–3})(diimine)]ClO{sub 4} (1–6) containing three tetrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine core ligands, ethyl 5-methyl-7-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-4,7-dihydrotetrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidine-6-carboxylate (HL{sup 1}), ethyl 5-methyl-7-(4-diethylamino-2-hydroxyphenyl)-4,7-dihydrotetrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidine-6-carboxylate (HL{sup 2}) or ethyl 5-methyl-7-(2-hydroxy-4-nitrophenyl)-4,7-dihydrotetrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidine-6-carboxylate (HL{sup 3}), and two diimine coligands, 2,2′-bipyridyl (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) have been synthesized and characterized by spectral methods. The geometry of complexes have been determined with the help of electronic absorption and EPR splitting patterns, which suggest four coordinated square planar geometry around copper(II) ion. The lowering of HOMO–LUMO band gap value of complex 4 implies its higher biological activity compared to other complexes. Antioxidant studies revealed that the complexes possess considerable radical scavenging potency against DPPH. The binding studies of the complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT–DNA) revealed groove mode of binding, which was further supported by docking simulation. The complexes 3 and 4 strongly inhibit the topoisomerase I, and also strongly interact with VEGFR2 kinase receptor via π–π, σ–π and hydrogen bonding interaction. Gel electrophoresis experiments demonstrated the ability of the complexes to cleave plasmid DNA in the absence of activators. In vitro cytotoxic activities of the complexes were examined on three cancerous cell lines such as human lung (A549), cervical (HeLa) and colon (HCT-15), and two normal cells such as human embryonic kidney (HEK) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The live cell and fluorescent imaging of cancer cells were observed with acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining assay. All encouraging chemical and biological findings indicate that the complex 4 is a suitable candidate

  12. Structure-Activity Relationships for Some Diamine, Triamine and Schiff Base Derivatives and Their Copper(II) Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Bolos, C. A.; Nikolov, G. St.; Ekateriniadou, L.; Kortsaris, A.; Kyriakidis, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    Ethylenediamine (en), putrescine (pu), diethylenetriamine (dien), dipropylenetriamine (dpta), spermidine (spmd) and their CuII compounds as well as the Schiff bases with 2-furaldehyde (dienOO), 2- thiophenecarboxaldehyde (dienSS) and pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde (dienNN) of dien and that of dpta with 2- thiophenecarboxaldehyde (dptaSS), were prepared and characterised. They were tested against Bacillus substilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Xanth...

  13. Arctic Mixed Layer Dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morison, James

    2003-01-01

    .... Over the years we have sought to understand the heat and mass balance of the mixed layer, marginal ice zone processes, the Arctic internal wave and mixing environment, summer and winter leads, and convection...

  14. [Mixed odontogenic tumors in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulai-Gaál, Szabolcs; Takács, Daniel; Barabás, József; Tarján, Ildikó; Martonffy, Katalin; Szabó, György; Suba, Zsuzsanna

    2007-04-01

    Mixed odontogenic tumors in the jaws of children and adolescents usually cause dentition anomalies. The typical forms of these are ameloblastic fibroma, ameloblastic fibroodontoma, complex odontoma and compound odontoma. In the present study mixed odontogenic tumor cases are presented in patients under 20 years of age. All of them were associated with tooth eruption disturbances. Further aim of this study was to discuss the nature and interrelationships of this group of lesions. Ameloblastic fibromas (AFs) are true, mixed, soft tissue neoplasms, deriving from the proliferation of both odontogenic epithelium and mesenchyma. They have a potential to both recurrence and malignant transformation. Ameloblastic fibroodontomas (AFOs) may be regarded as hamartomas, which exhibit epithelial, mesenchymal and abundant hard tissue components of the developing teeth. Odontomas are calcifying benign hamartomas, and represent the most common type of odontogenic jaw tumors among patients less than 20y, having complex and compound variants. Complex odontomas (CXOs) are built up from amorphous hard tissue elements, and generally occur in the premolar or molar regions of the maxilla. Compound odontomas (CDOs) usually appear in the maxilla, in the region of the incisors and canines, and contain small, radio-opaque structures reminiscent of rudimentary teeth. Early diagnosis and treatment of mixed odontogenic jaw tumors in children may prevent the serious orthodontic complications and jaw deformations.

  15. SPORT MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are importa...

  16. THE MARKETING MIX OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    SABOU FELICIA

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the marketing mix and the necessity of the marketing mix optimization. In the marketing mix a particularly important issue is to choose the best combination of its variables, this lead to the achievement objectives, in time. Choosing the right marketing mix is possible only by reporting information to some clear benchmarks, these criteria a related to the objective of the company at the time of analyze. The study shows that the companies must give a great importance to opti...

  17. Mixed methods research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of iron(III), manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes of salicylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H2L1) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H2L2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouEl-Enein, S A; El-Saied, F A; Kasher, T I; El-Wardany, A H

    2007-07-01

    Salicylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H(2)L(1)) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H(2)L(2)) and their iron(III), manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by IR, electronic spectra, molar conductivities, magnetic susceptibilities and ESR. Mononuclear complexes are formed with molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 (M:L). The IR studies reveal various modes of chelation. The electronic absorption spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements show that the iron(III), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) complexes of H(2)L(1) have octahedral geometry. While the cobalt(II) complexes of H(2)L(2) were separated as tetrahedral structure. The copper(II) complexes have square planar stereochemistry. The ESR parameters of the copper(II) complexes at room temperature were calculated. The g values for copper(II) complexes proved that the Cu-O and Cu-N bonds are of high covalency.

  19. Mixing vane grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Galbraith, K.P.

    1978-01-01

    An improved mixing vane grid spacer having enhanced flow mixing capability by virtue of mixing vanes being positioned at welded intersecting joints of the spacer wherein each mixing vane has an opening or window formed therein substantially directly over the welded joint to provide improved flow mixing capability is described. Some of the vanes are slotted, depending on their particular location in the spacers. The intersecting joints are welded by initially providing consumable tabs at and within each window, which are consumed during the welding of the spacer joints

  20. Copper(ii) oxide nanoparticles penetrate into HepG2 cells, exert cytotoxicity via oxidative stress and induce pro-inflammatory response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piret, Jean-Pascal; Jacques, Diane; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Mejia, Jorge; Boilan, Emmanuelle; Noël, Florence; Fransolet, Maude; Demazy, Catherine; Lucas, Stéphane; Saout, Christelle; Toussaint, Olivier

    2012-10-01

    The potential toxic effects of two types of copper(ii) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) with different specific surface areas, different shapes (rod or spheric), different sizes as raw materials and similar hydrodynamic diameter in suspension were studied on human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Both CuO NPs were shown to be able to enter into HepG2 cells and induce cellular toxicity by generating reactive oxygen species. CuO NPs increased the abundance of several transcripts coding for pro-inflammatory interleukins and chemokines. Transcriptomic data, siRNA knockdown and DNA binding activities suggested that Nrf2, NF-κB and AP-1 were implicated in the response of HepG2 cells to CuO NPs. CuO NP incubation also induced activation of MAPK pathways, ERKs and JNK/SAPK, playing a major role in the activation of AP-1. In addition, cytotoxicity, inflammatory and antioxidative responses and activation of intracellular transduction pathways induced by rod-shaped CuO NPs were more important than spherical CuO NPs. Measurement of Cu2+ released in cell culture medium suggested that Cu2+ cations released from CuO NPs were involved only to a small extent in the toxicity induced by these NPs on HepG2 cells.The potential toxic effects of two types of copper(ii) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) with different specific surface areas, different shapes (rod or spheric), different sizes as raw materials and similar hydrodynamic diameter in suspension were studied on human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Both CuO NPs were shown to be able to enter into HepG2 cells and induce cellular toxicity by generating reactive oxygen species. CuO NPs increased the abundance of several transcripts coding for pro-inflammatory interleukins and chemokines. Transcriptomic data, siRNA knockdown and DNA binding activities suggested that Nrf2, NF-κB and AP-1 were implicated in the response of HepG2 cells to CuO NPs. CuO NP incubation also induced activation of MAPK pathways, ERKs and JNK/SAPK, playing a major

  1. Dichloridobis(4-methyl-3,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-κN2copper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayad Hossaini Sadr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [CuCl2(C16H14N22], comprises half of the complex. The CuII atom lies on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis and shows a significantly distorted tetrahedral coordination geometry. The dihedral angle between the phenyl rings is 74.3 (2°. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.635 (2–3.803 (3 Å].

  2. Bromidotetra?kis?(1H-2-ethyl-5-methyl?imidazole-?N 3)copper(II) bromide

    OpenAIRE

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Baranowska, Katarzyna; Socha, Joanna; Do??ga, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The CuII ion in the title compound, [CuBr(C6H10N2)4]Br, is coordinated in a square-based-pyramidal geometry by the N atoms of four imidazole ligands and a bromide anion in the apical site. Both the CuII and Br− atoms lie on a crystallographic fourfold axis. In the crystal, the [CuBr(C6H10N2)4]+ complex cations are linked to the uncoordinated Br− anions (site symmetry overline{4}) by N—H...Br hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. The ethyl group ...

  3. Synthesis, CMC Determination, Antimicrobial Activity and Nucleic Acid Binding of A Surfactant Copper(II) Complex Containing Phenanthroline and Alanine Schiff-Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Karuppiah; Sakthinathan, Subramanian; Arunachalam, Sankaralingam

    2014-03-01

    A new water-soluble surfactant copper(II) complex [Cu(sal-ala)(phen)(DA)] (sal-ala = salicylalanine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, DA = dodecylamine), has been synthesized and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) values of this surfactant-copper(II) complex in aqueous solution were obtained from conductance measurements. Specific conductivity data (at 303, 308, 313. 318 and 323 K) served for the evaluation of the temperature-dependent CMC and the thermodynamics of micellization (ΔG(0)m, ΔH(0)m and ΔS(0)m). The interaction of this complex with nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) has been explored by using electronic absorption spectral titration, competitive binding experiment, cyclic voltammetry, circular dichroism (CD) spectra, and viscosity measurements. Electronic absorption studies have revealed that the complex can bind to nucleic acids by the intercalative binding mode which has been verified by viscosity measurements. The DNA binding constants have also been calculated (Kb = 1.2 × 10(5) M(-1) for DNA and Kb = 1.6 × 10(5) M(-1) for RNA). Competitive binding study with ethidium bromide (EB) showed that the complex exhibits the ability to displace the DNA-bound-EB indicating that the complex binds to DNA in strong competition with EB for the intercalative binding site. The presence of hydrophobic ligands, alanine Schiff-base, phenanthroline and long aliphatic chain amine in the complex were responsible for this strong intercalative binding. The surfactant-copper (II) complex was screened for its antibacterial and antifungal activities against various microorganisms. The results were compared with the standard drugs, amikacin(antibacterial) and ketokonazole(antifungal).

  4. Self-assembled copper(II) metallacycles derived from asymmetric Schiff base ligands: efficient hosts for ADP/ATP in phosphate buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Pandey, Rampal; Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Dubey, Mrigendra; Mohammed, Akbar; Mobin, Shaikh M; Pandey, Daya Shankar

    2015-10-21

    Novel asymmetric Schiff base ligands 2-{[3-(3-hydroxy-1-methyl-but-2-enylideneamino)-2,4,6-trimethylphenylimino]-methyl}-phenol (H2L(1)) and 1-{[3-(3-hydroxy-1-methyl-but-2-enylideneamino)-2,4,6-trimethylphenylimino]-methyl}-naphthalen-2-ol (H2L(2)) possessing dissimilar N,O-chelating sites and copper(ii) metallacycles (CuL(1))4 (1) and (CuL(2))4 (2) based on these ligands have been described. The ligands and complexes have been thoroughly characterized by satisfactory elemental analyses, and spectral (IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR, ESI-MS, UV/vis) and electrochemical studies. Structures of H2L(2) and 1 have been unambiguously determined by X-ray single crystal analyses. The crystal structure of H2L(2) revealed the presence of two distinct N,O-chelating sites on dissimilar cores (naphthalene and β-ketoaminato groups) offering a diverse coordination environment. Metallacycles 1 and 2 having a cavity created by four Cu(ii) centres coordinated in a homo- and heteroleptic fashion with respective ligands act as efficient hosts for adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) respectively, over other nucleoside polyphosphates (NPPs). The disparate sensitivity of these metallacycles toward ADP and ATP has been attributed to the size of the ligands assuming diverse dimensions and spatial orientations. These are attuned for π-π stacking and electrostatic interactions suitable for different guest molecules under analogous conditions, metallacycle 1 offers better orientation for ADP, while 2 for ATP. The mechanism of the host-guest interaction has been investigated by spectral and electrochemical studies and supported by molecular docking studies.

  5. Synthesis, structures, spectroscopy and antimicrobial properties of complexes of copper(II) with salicylaldehyde N-substituted thiosemicarbazones and 2,2'-bipyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobana, Tarlok S; Indoria, Shikha; Jassal, Amanpreet Kaur; Kaur, Harpreet; Arora, Daljit S; Jasinski, Jerry P

    2014-04-09

    Among the biometals (Cu, Co, Ni-cofactors in many enzymes), copper derivatives of O, N, S-donor salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazones have received considerable attention owing to their potential biological applications. Eight new complexes of salicylaldehyde-N-substituted thiosemicarbazones [5-MeO-2-HO-C₆H₄-C(2)(H)N(3)-N(2)H-C(1)(S)-N(1)HR; R = Me, H2L(1); Et, H₂L(1), Ph, H₂L(3), H, H₂L(4)] with copper(II), namely, [Cu(κ(3)-O,N,S-L)( κ(2)-N,N-L')] {(L)(2-) = (L(1))(2-), L' = bipy, 1, phen, 2; (L)(2-) = (L(2))(2-), L' = bipy, 3, phen, 4; (L)(2-) = (L(3))(2-), L' = bipy, 5, phen, 6; (L)(2-) = (L(4))(2-), L' = bipy, 7, phen, 8} have been isolated. Complexes have slightly distorted square pyramidal geometry around the metal center (τ parameter = 0.243-0.357) and display weak to intense fluorescence in the region, 375-475 nm. These copper complexes have shown significant growth inhibitory activity (antimicrobial activity) against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC740), methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae 1 (MTCC109), Shigella flexneri (MTCC1457), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC741) and Candida albicans (MTCC227). The activity against MRSA is an interesting observation as the commercially available gentamycin is found to be inactive against this bacterial strain. Specifically complex 5 formed by 5-methoxysalicylaldehyde-N-phenylthiosemicatbazone has shown novel antimicrobial activity against various bacteria and yeast investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  7. The DFT Calculations of Structures and EPR Parameters for the Dinuclear Paddle-Wheel Copper(II) Complex {Cu2(μ2-O2CCH3)4}(OCNH2CH3) as Powder or Single Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chang-Chun; Wu, Shao-Yi; Xu, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Zhu, Qin-Sheng; Wu, Ming-He; Teng, Bao-Hua

    2017-10-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the structures and the Cu2+ g factors (gx, gy and gz ) and hyperfine coupling tensor A (Ax , Ay and Az ) were performed for the paddle-wheel (PW)-type binuclear copper(II) complex {Cu2(μ2-O2CCH3)4}(OCNH2CH3) powder and single crystal. Calculations were carried out with the ORCA software using the functionals BHandHlyp, B3P86 and B3LYP with five different basis sets: 6-311g, 6-311g(d,p), VTZ, def-2 and def2-TZVP. Results were tested by the MPAD analysis to find the most suitable functional and basis sets. The electronic structure and covalency between copper and oxygen were investigated by the electron localisation function and the localised orbital locator as well as the Mayer bond order for the [CuO5] group. The optical spectra were theoretically calculated by the time-dependent DFT module and plotted by the Multiwfn program for the [CuO5] group and reasonably associated with the local structure in the vicinity of the central ion copper. In addition, the interactions between the OCNH2CH3, NH3 and H2O molecules and the uncoordinated PW copper(II) complex were studied, and the corresponding adsorption energies, the frequency shifts with respect to the free molecules and the changes of the Cu-Cu distances were calculated and compared with the relevant systems.

  8. Electrochemical treatment of mixed and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.; Nuttall, E.

    1995-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and The University of New Mexico are jointly developing an electrochemical process for treating hazardous and radioactive wastes. The wastes treatable by the process include toxic metal solutions, cyanide solutions, and various organic wastes that may contain chlorinated organic compounds. The main component of the process is a stack of electrolytic cells with peripheral equipment such as a rectifier, feed system, tanks with feed and treated solutions, and a gas-venting system. During the treatment, toxic metals are deposited on the cathode, cyanides are oxidized on the anode, and organic compounds are anodically oxidized by direct or mediated electrooxidation, depending on their type. Bench scale experimental studies have confirmed the feasibility of applying electrochemical systems to processing of a great variety of hazardous and mixed wastes. The operating parameters have been defined for different waste compositions using surrogate wastes. Mixed wastes are currently treated at bench scale as part of the treatability study

  9. MIXED AND MIXING SYSTEMS WORLDWIDE: A PREFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán Patrick Donlan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue of the Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal (South Africa sees thepublication of a selection of articles derived from the Third International Congress ofthe World Society of Mixed Jurisdiction Jurists (WSMJJ. That Congress was held atthe Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel in the summer of 2011. It reflected athriving Society consolidating its core scholarship on classical mixed jurisdictions(Israel, Louisiana, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Quebec, Scotland, and South Africawhile reaching to new horizons (including Cyprus, Hong Kong and Macau, Malta,Nepal, etc. This publication reflects in microcosm the complexity of contemporaryscholarship on mixed and plural legal systems. This complexity is, of course, wellunderstoodby South African jurists whose system is derived both from the dominantEuropean traditions as well as from African customary systems, including both thosethat make up part of the official law of the state as well as those non-state norms thatcontinue to be important in the daily lives of many South Africans.

  10. Compounding around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounding is universal in its prevalence. Variations in disease patterns, culture, and tradition; the role of government in health care; and the availability of essential equipment and required agents shape a compounding profile unique to each country worldwide. In the following reflections, pharmacists form Argentina, Belgium, Colombia, Germany, Puerto Rico, Spain, and the United States describe their experiences in the compounding setting unique to their practice and their nation. The unifying theme in their comments is the dedication of each contributor to enabling recovery and ensuring the good health of his or her clients.

  11. Physicochemical properties of mixed phosphorus halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladkov, I.B.; Tugarinova, N.S.

    1996-01-01

    Certain physicochemical properties (thermodynamic characteristics at boiling point, critical constants, density of liquid on the saturation line) of mixed phosphorus halides (PI 3 , PI 2 F, PIF 2 , PI 2 Cl, PICl 2 , PI 1 Br, PIBr 2 , PIClF, PIBrCl, etc.) are determined by means of approximate methods. Reliability of the results obtained is confirmed by comparison of calculated and experimental data for phosphorus compounds of the same type. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Structural observations of heterometallic uranyl copper(II) carboxylates and their solid-state topotactic transformation upon dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchowka, Jakub; Falaise, Clément; Volkringer, Christophe; Henry, Natacha; Loiseau, Thierry

    2013-02-04

    The hydrothermal reactions of uranyl nitrate and metallic copper with aromatic polycarboxylic acids gave rise to the formation of five heterometallic UO(2)(2+)-Cu(2+) coordination polymers: (UO(2))Cu(H(2)O)(2)(1,2-bdc)(2) (1; 1,2-bdc = phthalate), (UO(2))Cu(H(2)O)(2)(btec)⋅4 H(2)O (2) and (UO(2))Cu(btec) (2'; btec = pyromellitate), (UO(2))(2)Cu(H(2)O)(4)(mel) (3; mel = mellitate), and (UO(2))(2)O(OH)(2)Cu(H(2)O)(2)(1,3-bdc)⋅H(2)O (4; 1,3-bdc = isophthlalate). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of compound 1 revealed 2D layers of chains of UO(8) and CuO(4)(H(2)O)(2) units that were connected through the phthalate ligands. In compound 2, these sheets were connected to each other through the two additional carboxylate arms of the pyromellitate, thus resulting in a 3D open-framework with 1D channels that trapped water molecules. Upon heating, free and bonded water species (from Cu-OH(2)) were evacuated from the structure. This thermal transition was followed by in situ XRD and IR spectroscopy. Heating induced a solid-state topotactic transformation with the formation of a new set of Cu-O interactions in the crystalline anhydrous structure (2'), in order to keep the square-planar environment around the copper centers. The structure of compound 3 was built up from trinuclear motifs, in which one copper center, CuO(4)(OH(2))(2), was linked to two uranium units, UO(5)(H(2)O)(2). The assembly of this trimer, "U(2)Cu", with the mellitate generated a 3D network. Complex 4 contained a tetranuclear uranyl core of UO(5)(OH)(2) and UO(6)(OH) units that were linked to two copper centers, CuO(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(2), which were then connected to each other through isophthalate ligands and U=O-Cu interactions to create a 3D structure. The common structural feature of these different compounds is a bridging oxo group of U=O-Cu type, which is reflected by apical Cu-O distances in the range 2.350(3)-2.745(5) Å. In the case of a shorter Cu-O distance, a slight lengthening

  13. Structural observations of heterometallic uranyl copper(II) carboxylates and their solid-state topotactic transformation upon dehydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olchowka, Jakub; Falaise, Clement; Volkringer, Christophe; Henry, Natacha; Loiseau, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    The hydrothermal reactions of uranyl nitrate and metallic copper with aromatic polycarboxylic acids gave rise to the formation of five heterometallic UO 2 2+ -Cu 2+ coordination polymers: (UO 2 )Cu(H 2 O) 2 (1,2-bdc) 2 (1; 1,2-bdc=phthalate), (UO 2 )Cu(H 2 O) 2 (btec).4 H 2 O (2) and (UO 2 )Cu(btec) (2'; btec=pyromellitate), (UO 2 ) 2 Cu(H 2 O) 4 (mel) (3; mel=mellitate), and (UO 2 ) 2 O(OH) 2 Cu(H 2 O) 2 (1,3-bdc).H 2 O (4; 1,3-bdc=isophthlalate). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of compound 1 revealed 2D layers of chains of UO 8 and CuO 4 (H 2 O) 2 units that were connected through the phthalate ligands. In compound 2, these sheets were connected to each other through the two additional carboxylate arms of the pyromellitate, thus resulting in a 3D open-framework with 1D channels that trapped water molecules. Upon heating, free and bonded water species (from Cu-OH 2 ) were evacuated from the structure. This thermal transition was followed by in situ XRD and IR spectroscopy. Heating induced a solid-state topotactic transformation with the formation of a new set of Cu-O interactions in the crystalline anhydrous structure (2'), in order to keep the square-planar environment around the copper centers. The structure of compound 3 was built up from trinuclear motifs, in which one copper center, CuO 4 (OH 2 ) 2 , was linked to two uranium units, UO 5 (H 2 O) 2 . The assembly of this trimer, ''U 2 Cu'', with the mellitate generated a 3D network. Complex 4 contained a tetranuclear uranyl core of UO 5 (OH) 2 and UO 6 (OH) units that were linked to two copper centers, CuO(OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 , which were then connected to each other through isophthalate ligands and U=O-Cu interactions to create a 3D structure. The common structural feature of these different compounds is a bridging oxo group of U=O-Cu type, which is reflected by apical Cu-O distances in the range 2.350(3)-2.745(5) Aa. In the case of a shorter Cu-O distance, a slight

  14. Structural observations of heterometallic uranyl copper(II) carboxylates and their solid-state topotactic transformation upon dehydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olchowka, Jakub; Falaise, Clement; Volkringer, Christophe; Henry, Natacha; Loiseau, Thierry [Unite de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide (UCCS), UMR CNRS 8181, Universite de Lille Nord de France, USTL-ENSCL, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2013-02-04

    The hydrothermal reactions of uranyl nitrate and metallic copper with aromatic polycarboxylic acids gave rise to the formation of five heterometallic UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}-Cu{sup 2+} coordination polymers: (UO{sub 2})Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(1,2-bdc){sub 2} (1; 1,2-bdc=phthalate), (UO{sub 2})Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(btec).4 H{sub 2}O (2) and (UO{sub 2})Cu(btec) (2'; btec=pyromellitate), (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}(mel) (3; mel=mellitate), and (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}O(OH){sub 2}Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(1,3-bdc).H{sub 2}O (4; 1,3-bdc=isophthlalate). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of compound 1 revealed 2D layers of chains of UO{sub 8} and CuO{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} units that were connected through the phthalate ligands. In compound 2, these sheets were connected to each other through the two additional carboxylate arms of the pyromellitate, thus resulting in a 3D open-framework with 1D channels that trapped water molecules. Upon heating, free and bonded water species (from Cu-OH{sub 2}) were evacuated from the structure. This thermal transition was followed by in situ XRD and IR spectroscopy. Heating induced a solid-state topotactic transformation with the formation of a new set of Cu-O interactions in the crystalline anhydrous structure (2'), in order to keep the square-planar environment around the copper centers. The structure of compound 3 was built up from trinuclear motifs, in which one copper center, CuO{sub 4}(OH{sub 2}){sub 2}, was linked to two uranium units, UO{sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}. The assembly of this trimer, ''U{sub 2}Cu'', with the mellitate generated a 3D network. Complex 4 contained a tetranuclear uranyl core of UO{sub 5}(OH){sub 2} and UO{sub 6}(OH) units that were linked to two copper centers, CuO(OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}, which were then connected to each other through isophthalate ligands and U=O-Cu interactions to create a 3D structure. The common structural feature of these different compounds is

  15. MARKETING MIX THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-01-01

    Aim of article is to analyze marketing mix theoretical aspects. The article discusses that marketing mix is one of the main objectives of the marketing mix elements for setting objectives and marketing budget measures. The importance of each element depends not only on the company and its activities, but also on the competition and time. All marketing elements are interrelated and should be seen in the whole of their actions. Some items may have greater importance than others; it depends main...

  16. Vitrification development for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, R.; Whittington, K.; Peters, R.

    1995-02-01

    Vitrification is a promising approach to waste-form immobilization. It destroys hazardous organic compounds and produces a durable and highly stable glass. Vitrification tests were performed on three surrogate wastes during fiscal year 1994; 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin waste from Hanford, bottom ash from the Oak Ridge TSCA incinerator, and saltcrete from Rocky Flats. Preliminary glass development involved melting trials followed by visual homogeneity examination, short-duration leach tests on glass specimens, and long-term leach tests on selected glasses. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements were taken for the most durable glass formulations. Results for the saltcrete are presented in this paper and demonstrate the applicability of vitrification technology to this mixed waste

  17. Protocol Fuel Mix reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The protocol in this document describes a method for an Electricity Distribution Company (EDC) to account for the fuel mix of electricity that it delivers to its customers, based on the best available information. Own production, purchase and sale of electricity, and certificates trading are taken into account. In chapter 2 the actual protocol is outlined. In the appendixes additional (supporting) information is given: (A) Dutch Standard Fuel Mix, 2000; (B) Calculation of the Dutch Standard fuel mix; (C) Procedures to estimate and benchmark the fuel mix; (D) Quality management; (E) External verification; (F) Recommendation for further development of the protocol; (G) Reporting examples

  18. Mixed waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Currently, limited storage and treatment capacity exists for commercial mixed waste streams. No commercial mixed waste disposal is available, and it has been estimated that if and when commercial mixed waste disposal becomes available, the costs will be high. If high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and management options. Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition) no migration petition) and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly. Another option for mixed waste management that is being explored is the feasibility of Department of Energy (DOE) accepting commercial mixed waste for treatment, storage, and disposal. A study has been completed that analyzes DOE treatment capacity in comparison with commercial mixed waste streams. (author)

  19. Mixed Waste Management Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brummond, W.; Celeste, J.; Steenhoven, J.

    1993-08-01

    The DOE has developed a National Mixed Waste Strategic Plan which calls for the construction of 2 to 9 mixed waste treatment centers in the Complex in the near future. LLNL is working to establish an integrated mixed waste technology development and demonstration system facility, the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF), to support the DOE National Mixed Waste Strategic Plan. The MWMF will develop, demonstrate, test, and evaluate incinerator-alternatives which will comply with regulations governing the treatment and disposal of organic mixed wastes. LLNL will provide the DOE with engineering data for design and operation of new technologies which can be implemented in their mixed waste treatment centers. MWMF will operate under real production plant conditions and process samples of real LLNL mixed waste. In addition to the destruction of organic mixed wastes, the development and demonstration will include waste feed preparation, material transport systems, aqueous treatment, off-gas treatment, and final forms, thus making it an integrated ''cradle to grave'' demonstration. Technologies from offsite as well as LLNL's will be tested and evaluated when they are ready for a pilot scale demonstration, according to the needs of the DOE

  20. Thermochemical investigation into coordination ability of zinc and cadmium alkyl compounds in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, Yu.A.; Fedostseva, G.A.; Tsvetkov, V.G.; Lebedev, S.A.; Kozyrkin, B.I.

    1983-01-01

    Enthalpies of zinc alkyl compounds mixing, as well as those of dimethyl cadmium mixing with hexane, previously used as a solvent during the study of liquid-phase autooxidation of Me 2 Cd and Me 2 Zn, and with a series of organic bases at 298 K and at components ratio 1:1 or 1:2, are determined. Using calorimetric method dimethyl cadmium association in liquid state has been evaluated. Coordination ability of zinc alkyl compounds is higher than for the corresponding cadmium compounds. With the increase of alkyl radical length the electron seeking ability of zinc compounds decreases. On the basis of thermochemical data relative stability of coordination compounds of zinc and cadmium alkyl compounds with certain alkyl compounds of group 6 elements is evaluated: it has the maximum value for sulfur compounds

  1. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  2. Hexavalent Chromium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about chromium, exposure to which can increase your risk of lung cancer and cancer of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Hexavalent chromium compounds have been used as corrosion inhibitors in a wide variety of products and processes.

  3. MEA 86 Compound data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data file contains the full raw parameter data for the 86 compounds tested in the developmental MEA assay, as well as Area Under the Curve (AUC) calculations...

  4. Mixing of solids in different mixing devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INGRID BAUMAN, DUŠKA ´CURI ´C and MATIJA BOBAN ... whose main cause is the difference in particle size, density shape and resilience. ..... Gyebis J, Katai F 1990 Determination and randomness in mixing of particulate solids, Chem.

  5. Unlock your Compound Management

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Eller

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical industry faces the increased demand for innovative medicines against various diseases. In this regard, the compound library in pharmaceutical industry is the most valuable asset. However, the compound distribution from the library into the screening plates is often still done manually and binds highly qualified resources to very time-consuming, tedious and error-prone tasks. To overcome these challenges, Chemspeed launched the first automated true one-to-one gravimetric "pi...

  6. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  7. Experiences with treatment of mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nuttall, E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    1996-04-10

    During its many years of research activities involving toxic chemicals and radioactive materials, Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) has generated considerable amounts of waste. Much of this waste includes chemically hazardous components and radioisotopes. Los Alamos chose to use an electrochemical process for the treatment of many mixed waste components. The electro-chemical process, which the authors are developing, can treat a great variety of waste using one type of equipment built at a moderate expense. Such a process can extract heavy metals, destroy cyanides, dissolve contamination from surfaces, oxidize toxic organic compounds, separate salts into acids and bases, and reduce the nitrates. All this can be accomplished using the equipment and one crew of trained operating personnel. Results of a treatability study of chosen mixed wastes from Los Alamos Mixed Waste Inventory are presented. Using electrochemical methods cyanide and heavy metals bearing wastes were treated to below disposal limits.

  8. Experiences with treatment of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.H.; Nuttall, E.

    1996-01-01

    During its many years of research activities involving toxic chemicals and radioactive materials, Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) has generated considerable amounts of waste. Much of this waste includes chemically hazardous components and radioisotopes. Los Alamos chose to use an electrochemical process for the treatment of many mixed waste components. The electro-chemical process, which the authors are developing, can treat a great variety of waste using one type of equipment built at a moderate expense. Such a process can extract heavy metals, destroy cyanides, dissolve contamination from surfaces, oxidize toxic organic compounds, separate salts into acids and bases, and reduce the nitrates. All this can be accomplished using the equipment and one crew of trained operating personnel. Results of a treatability study of chosen mixed wastes from Los Alamos Mixed Waste Inventory are presented. Using electrochemical methods cyanide and heavy metals bearing wastes were treated to below disposal limits

  9. Treating contaminated organic compounds using the DETOX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsberry, K.; Dhooge, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    Waste matrices containing organic compounds, radionuclides, and metals pose difficult problems in waste treatment and disposal when the organic compounds and/or metals are considered to be hazardous. This paper describes the results of bench-scale studies of DETOX applied to the components of liquid mixed wastes, with the goal of establishing parameters for designing a prototype waste treatment unit. Apparent reaction rate orders for organic compounds and the dependence of apparent reaction rate on solution composition and the contact area were measured for vacuum pump oil, scintillation fluids, and trichloroethylene. Reaction rate was superior in chloride-based solutions and was proportional to the contact area above about 20 g/kg loading of organic material. Oxidations in 4-L volume, mixed bench-top reactor have given destruction efficiencies of 0.999999+ g/g for common organic compounds. Reaction rates achieved in the mixed bench-top reactor were one to two orders of magnitude greater than had been achieved in unmixed reactions; a thoroughly mixed reactor should be capable of oxidizing 10 to 100+ g of organic material per L-hr. Results are also presented on the solvation efficiency of DETOX for mercury, cerium, and neodymium, and for removal/destruction of organic compounds sorbed on vermiculite. The next stage of development will be converting the bench-top unit to continuous processing

  10. Bioprocessing of concentrated mixed hazardous industrial waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Silver, G.; Attalla, A.; Prisc, M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of selected microorganisms for the degradation and/or the detoxification of hazardous organic compounds is gaining wide acceptance as an alternative waste treatment technology. This work describes the unique capabilities of an isolated strain of Pseudomonas for metabolizing methylated aromatic compounds. This strain of Pseudomonas putida Idaho is unique in that it can tolerate and grow under a layer of neat p-xylene. A bioprocess has been developed to degrade LLW and mixed wastes containing methylated aromatic compounds, i.e., pseudocumene, toluene and p-xylene. The process is now in the demonstration phase at a DOE facility and has been running for one year. Feed concentrations of 21200 ppm of the toxic organic substrate have been fed to the bioreactor. This report describes the results obtained thus far

  11. Lichen compounds restrain lichen feeding by bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybakken, Line; Helmersen, Anne-Marit; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Selås, Vidar

    2010-03-01

    Some lichen compounds are known to deter feeding by invertebrate herbivores. We attempted to quantify the deterring efficiency of lichen compounds against a generalist vertebrate, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In two separate experiments, caged bank voles had the choice to feed on lichens with natural or reduced concentrations of secondary compounds. We rinsed air-dry intact lichens in 100% acetone to remove extracellular compounds non-destructively. In the first experiment, pairs of control and rinsed lichen thalli were hydrated and offered to the bank voles. Because the lichens desiccated fast, we ran a second experiment with pairs of ground control and compound-deficient thalli, each mixed with water to porridge. Eight and six lichen species were tested in the first and second experiment, respectively. In the first, bank voles preferred compound-deficient thalli of Cladonia stellaris and Lobaria pulmonaria, but did not discriminate between the other thallus pairs. This was likely a result of deterring levels of usnic and stictic acid in the control thalli. When lichens were served as porridge, significant preference was found for acetone-rinsed pieces of Cladonia arbuscula, C. rangiferina, Platismatia glauca, and Evernia prunastri. The increased preference was caused mainly by lower consumption of control thalli. Grinding and mixing of thallus structures prevented bank voles from selecting thallus parts with lower concentration of secondary compounds and/or strengthened their deterring capacity. We conclude that some lichen secondary compounds deter feeding by bank voles.

  12. Processing and Properties of PCL/Cotton Linter Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra,Elieber Barros; França,Danyelle Campos; Morais,Dayanne Diniz de Souza; Rosa,Morsyleide de Freitas; Morais,João Paulo Saraiva; Araújo,Edcleide Maria; Wellen,Renate Maria Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradable compounds of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/ cotton linter were melting mixed with filling content ranging from 1% to 5% w/w. Cotton linter is an important byproduct of textile industry; in this work it was used in raw state and after acid hydrolysis. According to the results of torque rheometry no decaying of viscosity took place during compounding, evidencing absence of breaking down in molecular weight. The thermal stability increased by 20% as observed in HDT for PCL/cotton...

  13. Some functional limit theorems for compound Cox processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, Victor Yu. [Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Informatics Problems FRC CSC RAS (Russian Federation); Chertok, A. V. [Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Euphoria Group LLC (Russian Federation); Korchagin, A. Yu. [Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kossova, E. V. [Higher School of Economics National Research University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zeifman, Alexander I. [Vologda State University, S.Orlova, 6, Vologda (Russian Federation); Institute of Informatics Problems FRC CSC RAS, ISEDT RAS (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    An improved version of the functional limit theorem is proved establishing weak convergence of random walks generated by compound doubly stochastic Poisson processes (compound Cox processes) to Lévy processes in the Skorokhod space under more realistic moment conditions. As corollaries, theorems are proved on convergence of random walks with jumps having finite variances to Lévy processes with variance-mean mixed normal distributions, in particular, to stable Lévy processes.

  14. Some functional limit theorems for compound Cox processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolev, Victor Yu.; Chertok, A. V.; Korchagin, A. Yu.; Kossova, E. V.; Zeifman, Alexander I.

    2016-01-01

    An improved version of the functional limit theorem is proved establishing weak convergence of random walks generated by compound doubly stochastic Poisson processes (compound Cox processes) to Lévy processes in the Skorokhod space under more realistic moment conditions. As corollaries, theorems are proved on convergence of random walks with jumps having finite variances to Lévy processes with variance-mean mixed normal distributions, in particular, to stable Lévy processes.

  15. Music Mixing Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Büchert, Morten; Andersen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-touch based interface for mixing music. The goal of the interface is to provide users with a more intuitive control of the music mix by implementing the so-called stage metaphor control scheme, which is especially suitable for multi-touch surfaces. Specifically, we...

  16. Warm Mix Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-17

    State of Alaska State of Alaska - Warm Mix Project Warm Mix Project: Location - Petersburg, Alaska which is Petersburg, Alaska which is located in the heart of Southeast Alaska located in the heart of Southeast Alaska's Inside Passage at the tip of M...

  17. The Mixed language Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin.......A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin....

  18. A curcumin-based TPA four-branched copper(II) complex probe for in vivo early tumor detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pi, Zongxin [Department of Chemical and Chemical Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230001 (China); Wang, Jiafeng; Jiang, Bo [Department of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230038 (China); Cheng, Gang [Department of Chemical and Chemical Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230001 (China); Zhou, Shuangsheng, E-mail: zshuangsheng@126.com [Department of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230038 (China); Center of Modern Experimental Technology, Anhui University, Hefei 230038 (China)

    2015-01-01

    A multibranched Cu(II) complex CuL{sub 2} curcumin-based was synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The photophysical properties of the complex have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The results show that the target complex exhibits higher quantum yield and larger two-photon absorption (TPA) cross-section in the near infrared (NIR) region compared with its free ligand. The cell imaging studies in vitro and in vivo reveal that the complex shows good photostability and excellent tumor targeting capability to tested cancerous cells, which can be potentially used for early tumor detection. - Graphical abstract: A multibranched Cu(II) complex was prepared from curcumin. The photophysical properties of the obtained complex have been investigated. The results exhibit that the complex has high capability to test cancerous cells and can distinguish between the cancerous and noncancerous cells, which should be potentially used for early tumor detection. - Highlights: • A novel multi-branched copper complex was synthesized. • The obtained compounds exhibited obvious TPA in high polar solvents. • The complex is a low toxicity at low-micromolar concentrations. • The complex exhibits larger TPA cross-section and brighter TPF imaging. • The complex has excellent targeting capability to tested cancerous cells.

  19. Structure-Activity Relationships for Some Diamine, Triamine and Schiff Base Derivatives and Their Copper(II) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolos, C A; Nikolov, G S; Ekateriniadou, L; Kortsaris, A; Kyriakidis, D A

    1998-01-01

    Ethylenediamine (en), putrescine (pu), diethylenetriamine (dien), dipropylenetriamine (dpta), spermidine (spmd) and their Cu(II) compounds as well as the Schiff bases with 2-furaldehyde (dienOO), 2- thiophenecarboxaldehyde (dienSS) and pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde (dienNN) of dien and that of dpta with 2- thiophenecarboxaldehyde (dptaSS), were prepared and characterised. They were tested against Bacillus substilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Xanthomonas campestris as antibacterial reagents, the highest activity being exhibited by Cu(dptaSS)(NO(3))(2) complex, which acts as antibiotic. In the antiproliferative tests (vs. T(47)D,L(929) and BHK(21/c13) cell lines) the best results were obtained with Cu(dptaSS)(2+) and Cu(dienSS)(2+). Electronic structure calculations gave for dptaSS and dienSS the higher negative charges on the N atoms. The counter-ions (Br(-), NO(3) (-) and SO(4) (2-)) play an important role by modulating the reagent's selectivity versus the bacteria [Gram(+) or Gram(-)], but they have no effect on the antiproliferative activity.

  20. Passive Mixing inside Microdroplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengmin Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Droplet-based micromixers are essential units in many microfluidic devices for widespread applications, such as diagnostics and synthesis. The mixers can be either passive or active. When compared to active methods, the passive mixer is widely used because it does not require extra energy input apart from the pump drive. In recent years, several passive droplet-based mixers were developed, where mixing was characterized by both experiments and simulation. A unified physical understanding of both experimental processes and simulation models is beneficial for effectively developing new and efficient mixing techniques. This review covers the state-of-the-art passive droplet-based micromixers in microfluidics, which mainly focuses on three aspects: (1 Mixing parameters and analysis method; (2 Typical mixing element designs and the mixing characters in experiments; and, (3 Comprehensive introduction of numerical models used in microfluidic flow and diffusion.

  1. Oxidation of refractory sulfur compounds over Ti-containing mesoporous molecular sieves prepared by using a fluorosilicon compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Cho, Chin-Soo; Chae, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Chul-Ung; Jeong, Soon-Yong

    2010-05-01

    Titanium containing mesoporous molecular sieve (Ti-MMS) catalysts were studied for the oxidative desulfurization of refractory sulfur compounds. Ti-MMS catalysts were synthesized from fluorosilicon compounds and Ti with the hydrolysis reaction of H2SiF6 in an ammonia-surfactant mixed solution. The solid products were characterized by XRD, XRF, nitrogen adsorption, and diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy. Effects of Ti loading and oxidant/sulfur mole ratio, and sulfur species on ODS activity were investigated.

  2. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; David Tamburello, D

    2008-01-01

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four dual-nozzle jet mixers located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The work described in this report establishes the basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, the benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations, and the application of those indicators to SRS waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. If shorter mixing times can be shown to support Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or other feed requirements, longer pump lifetimes can be achieved with associated operational cost and

  3. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; David Tamburello, D

    2008-11-13

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four dual-nozzle jet mixers located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The work described in this report establishes the basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, the benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations, and the application of those indicators to SRS waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. If shorter mixing times can be shown to support Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or other feed requirements, longer pump lifetimes can be achieved with associated operational cost and

  4. Trinuclear Schiff base complexes with uranium(V) and copper(II) or zinc(II) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, L.; Thuery, P.; Ephritikhine, M. [CEA Saclay, DSM, DRECAM, Serv Chim Mol, Lab Claude Frejacques, CNRS URA 331, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

    2007-07-01

    Treatment of the uranium(IV) complexes [{l_brace}ML{sup 1}(py){r_brace}{sub 2}U(IV)] (M = Cu, Zn; L{sup 1} = N, N'-bis(3-hydroxy-salicylidene)-1,3-propane-diamine) with silver nitrate in pyridine led to the formation of the corresponding cationic uranium(V) species which were found to be thermally unstable and were converted back into the parent U(IV) complexes; no electron transfer was observed in solution between the U(IV) and U(V) compounds. In the crystals of [{l_brace}ML{sup 1}(py){r_brace}{sub 2}U(IV)][{l_brace}ML{sup 1}(py){r_brace}{sub 2}U(V)][NO{sub 3}], the neutral U(IV) and cationic U(V) species are clearly identified by the distinct U-O distances. Similar reaction of [{l_brace}ZnL{sup 2}(py){r_brace}{sub 2}U(IV)] [L{sup 2} N,N'-bis(3-hydroxy-salicylidene)-1,4-butane-diamine] with AgNO{sub 3} gave crystals of [{l_brace}ZnL{sup 2}(py){r_brace}U(V){l_brace}ZnL{sup 2}(py){sub 2}{r_brace}][NO{sub 3}] but the copper counterpart was not isolated. Crystals of [{l_brace}ZnL{sup 1}(py){r_brace}{sub 2}U(V)][OTf].THF (OTf = OSO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}) were obtained fortuitously from the reaction of [Zn(H{sub 2}L{sup 1})] and U(OTf){sub 3}. (authors)

  5. Copper(II) oxide nanoparticles augment antifilarial activity of Albendazole: In vitro synergistic apoptotic impact against filarial parasite Setaria cervi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Atif; Ahmad, Irshad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-03-30

    Mass treatment of lymphatic filariasis with Albendazole (ABZ), a therapeutic benzimidazole, is fraught with serious limitations such as possible drug resistance and poor macrofilaricidal activity. Therefore, we need to develop new ABZ-based formulations to improve its antifilarial effectiveness. CuO nanoparticles were used as an adjuvant with ABZ to form ABZ-CuO nanocomposite, which was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, AFM and SEM. Antifilarial activity of nanocomposite was evaluated using relative motility assay and dye exclusion test in dark and under UV light. ROS generation, antioxidant levels, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation in nanocomposite treated parasites were estimated. Biophysical techniques were employed to ascertain the mode of binding of nanocomposite to parasitic DNA. Nanocomposite increases parasite mortality as compared to ABZ in dark, and its antifilarial effect was increased further under UV light. Elevated ROS production and decline of parasitic-GST and GSH levels were observed in nanocomposite treated worms in dark, and these effects were pronounced further under UV light. Nanocomposite leads to higher DNA fragmentation as compared to ABZ alone. Further, we found that nanocomposite binds parasitic DNA in an intercalative manner where it generates ROS to induce DNA damage. Thus, oxidative stress production due to ROS generation and consequent DNA fragmentation leads to apoptosis in worms. This is the first report supporting CuO nanoparticles as a potential adjuvant with ABZ against filariasis along with enhanced antifilarial activity of nanocomposite under UV light. These findings, thus, indicate that development of ABZ-loaded nanoparticle compounds may serve as promising leads for filariasis treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Compound-specific radiocarbon analysis - Analytical challenges and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, G.; Rethemeyer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Within the last decades, techniques have become available that allow measurement of isotopic compositions of individual organic compounds (compound-specific isotope measurements). Most often the carbon isotopic composition of these compounds is studied, including stable carbon (δ13C) and radiocarbon (Δ14C) measurements. While compound-specific stable carbon isotope measurements are fairly simple, and well-established techniques are widely available, radiocarbon analysis of specific organic compounds is a more challenging method. Analytical challenges include difficulty obtaining adequate quantities of sample, tedious and complicated laboratory separations, the lack of authentic standards for measuring realistic processing blanks, and large uncertainties in values of Δ14C at small sample sizes. The challenges associated with sample preparation for compound-specific Δ14C measurements will be discussed in this contribution. Several years of compound-specific radiocarbon analysis have revealed that in most natural samples, purified organic compounds consist of heterogeneous mixtures of the same compound. These mixtures could derive from multiple sources, each having a different initial reservoir age but mixed in the same terminal reservoir, from a single source but mixed after deposition, or from a prokaryotic organism using variable carbon sources including mobilization of ancient carbon. These processes not only represent challenges to the interpretation of compound-specific radiocarbon data, but provide unique tools for the understanding of biogeochemical and sedimentological processes influencing the preserved organic geochemical records in marine sediments. We will discuss some examples where compound-specific radiocarbon analysis has provided new insights for the understanding of carbon source utilization and carbon cycling.

  7. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Dimenna, R; Tamburello, D

    2011-02-14

    The process of recovering and processing High Level Waste (HLW) the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four mixers (pumps) located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are typically set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The focus of the present work is to establish mixing criteria applicable to miscible fluids, with an ultimate goal of addressing waste processing in HLW tanks at SRS and quantifying the mixing time required to suspend sludge particles with the submersible jet pump. A single-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was taken for the analysis of jet flow patterns with an emphasis on the velocity decay and the turbulent flow evolution for the farfield region from the pump. Literature results for a turbulent jet flow are reviewed, since the decay of the axial jet velocity and the evolution of the jet flow patterns are important phenomena affecting sludge suspension and mixing operations. The work described in this report suggests a basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, with benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations. Although the indicators are somewhat generic in nature, they are applied to Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in

  8. THE MARKETING MIX OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABOU FELICIA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available ing mix a particularly important issue is to choose the best combination of its variables, this lead to the achievement objectives, in time. Choosing the right marketing mix is possible only by reporting information to some clear benchmarks, these criteria a related to the objective of the company at the time of analyze. The study shows that the companies must give a great importance to optimize the marketing mix, because of how its combines and integrates company policies relating to the product, price, distribution and promotion, depends the success or the failure on its market. The practice has shown that if an element of the marketing mix is wrong implemented, marketing strategies and programs do not achieve their objectives, and the company can not generate the expected profit. To optimize the marketing mix, companies should consider the following issues: the resources (materials, financial and human, which will be properly allocated to all the elements of the marketing mix, the specific marketing tools and the relationship of interdependence of all the methods and tools used to optimize the marketing mix.

  9. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18 F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18 F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride- 18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18 F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  10. The mixing of fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottino, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    What do the eruption of Krakatau, the manufacture of puff pastry and the brightness of stars have in common? Each involves some aspect of mixing. Mixing also plays a critical role in modern technology. Chemical engineers rely on mixing to ensure that substances react properly, to produce polymer blends that exhibit unique properties and to disperse drag-reducing agents in pipelines. Yet in spite of its of its ubiquity in nature and industry, mixing is only imperfectly under-stood. Indeed, investigators cannot even settle on a common terminology: mixing is often referred to as stirring by oceanographers and geophysicists, as blending by polymer engineers and as agitation by process engineers. Regardless of what the process is called, there is little doubt that it is exceedingly complex and is found in a great variety of systems. In constructing a theory of fluid mixing, for example, one has to take into account fluids that can be miscible or partially miscible and reactive or inert, and flows that are slow and orderly or very fast and turbulent. It is therefore not surprising that no single theory can explain all aspect of mixing in fluids and that straightforward computations usually fail to capture all the important details. Still, both physical experiments and computer simulations can provide insight into the mixing process. Over the past several years the authors and his colleague have taken both approaches in an effort to increase understanding of various aspect of the process-particularly of mixing involving slow flows and viscous fluids such as oils

  11. Chloric organic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moalem, F.

    2000-01-01

    Since many years ago, hazardous and toxic refuses which are results of human activities has been carelessly without any Biological and Engineering facts and knowledge discharged into our land and water. The effects of discharging those materials in environment are different. Some of refuse materials shows short and other has long-time adverse effects in our environment, Among hazardous organic chemical materials, chlorine, consider, to be the main element. Organic materials with chlorine is called chlorine hydrocarbon as a hazardous compound. This paper discuss the hazardous materials especially chloric organic compound and their misuse effects in environment and human being

  12. Medicinal gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, R.V.; Cottrill, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    A major use of gold compounds in the pharmaceutical industry is for anti-arthritic agents. The disease itself is not understood and little is known about the way in which the drugs act, but detailed pictures of the distribution of gold in the body are available, and some of the relevant biochemistry is beginning to emerge. The purpose of this article is to give a survey of the types of compounds presently employed in medicine, of the distribution of gold in the body which results from their use, and of some relevant chemistry. Emphasis is placed on results obtained in the last few years

  13. Compound semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This book provides one of the most rigorous treatments of compound semiconductor device physics yet published. A complete understanding of modern devices requires a working knowledge of low-dimensional physics, the use of statistical methods, and the use of one-, two-, and three-dimensional analytical and numerical analysis techniques. With its systematic and detailed**discussion of these topics, this book is ideal for both the researcher and the student. Although the emphasis of this text is on compound semiconductor devices, many of the principles discussed will also be useful to those inter

  14. Prediction of intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhanov, Gennady S; Kiselyova, N N

    2009-01-01

    The problems of predicting not yet synthesized intermetallic compounds are discussed. It is noted that the use of classical physicochemical analysis in the study of multicomponent metallic systems is faced with the complexity of presenting multidimensional phase diagrams. One way of predicting new intermetallics with specified properties is the use of modern processing technology with application of teaching of image recognition by the computer. The algorithms used most often in these methods are briefly considered and the efficiency of their use for predicting new compounds is demonstrated.

  15. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  16. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization

  17. Idealized mixing impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The dispersion of tetraphenylborate in continuous stirred tank reactors plays a significant role in the utility achieved from the tetraphenylborate. Investigating idealized mixing of the materials can illuminate how this dispersion occurs

  18. SPORT MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are important for the marketer. Information for making educated decisions involving the four Ps comes from the marketing research involving primarily the four Cs - consumer, competitor, company and climate. A critical decision and one of the greatest challenges for the sport business is how to strategically combine the four Ps to best satisfy the consumer, meet company objectives, enhance market position, and enhance competitive advantages.

  19. Synthesis of Two Potentially Heptadentate (N4O3 Schiff-base Ligands Derived from Condensation of Tris(3-aminopropyl-amine and Salicylaldehyde or 4-Hydroxysalicylaldehyde. Nickel(II and Copper(II Complexes of the Former Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Parish

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Two potentially heptadentate (N4O3 tripodal Schiff-base ligands: tris(3-(salicylideneiminopropylamine (H3L1 and tris(3-(4’-hydroxysalicylideneimino-propylamine (H3L2 have been prepared and characterized by various spectroscopic methods (IR, FAB-MS, NMR. They are derived from the condensation reactions of tris(3-aminopropylamine (tpt, with 3 equivalents of either salicylaldehyde or the ringsubstituted salicylaldehyde, 4-hydroxysalicylaldehyde. The nickel(II and copper(II complexes of H3L1 were obtained from the its reactions Ni(II and Cu(II salts in absolute methanol. These complexes were studied by IR and FAB-Mass spectrometry.

  20. Optimization and validation of a method for the determination of the refractive index of milk serum based on the reaction between milk and copper(II) sulfate to detect milk dilutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Patrícia Sueli; Carmo, Geraldo Paulo do; Esteves, Eduardo Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    We report the use of a method to determine the refractive index of copper(II) serum (RICS) in milk as a tool to detect the fraudulent addition of water. This practice is highly profitable, unlawful, and difficult to deter. The method was optimized and validated and is simple, fast and robust. The optimized method yielded statistically equivalent results compared to the reference method with an accuracy of 0.4% and quadrupled analytical throughput. Trueness, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision) and ruggedness are determined to be satisfactory at a 95.45% confidence level. The expanded uncertainty of the measurement was ±0.38°Zeiss at the 95.45% confidence level (k=3.30), corresponding to 1.03% of the minimum measurement expected in adequate samples (>37.00°Zeiss). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Studies of a New Mannich Base N-[Morpholino(phenylmethyl]acetamide and Its Cobalt(II, Nickel(II and Copper(II Metal Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Muruganandam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Mannich base N-[morpholino(phenylmethyl]acetamide (MBA, was synthesized and characterized by spectral studies. Chelates of MBA with cobalt(II, nickel(II and copper(II ions were prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and UV spectral studies. MBA was found to act as a bidentate ligand, bonding through the carbonyl oxygen of acetamide group and CNC nitrogen of morpholine moiety in all the complexes. Based on the magnetic moment values and UV-Visible spectral data, tetracoordinate geometry for nitrato complexes and hexacoordinate geometry for sulphato complexes were assigned. The antimicrobial studies show that the Co(II nitrato complex is more active than the other complexes.

  2. MARKETING MIX IN SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Srećko Novaković; Slobodan Živkucin

    2011-01-01

    Marketing mix'' along the term of life cycle has robbed the trademark for the conception of marketing and the market direction of company, corporations and institutions. Essence marketing-mixa is in the simultaneous determining of the target market group of consumer (the buyer) or stays the public and specially prepared and the coordinated impact of elements mixa, and this is the product, price, distributions and graduation ceremonies. Given that is mix combinations of verified variables, com...

  3. Mixed Reality Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dieter Müller

    2009-01-01

    Currently one of the most challenging aspects of human computer interaction design is the integration of physical and digital worlds in a single environment. This fusion involves the development of "Mixed Reality Systems”, including various technologies from the domains of augmented and virtual reality. In this paper I will present related concepts and discuss lessons learned from our own research and prototype development. Our recent work involves the use of mixed reality (as opposed to ‘pur...

  4. Features of neutrino mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, S. H.; Kuo, T. K.

    2018-03-01

    The elements (squared) of the neutrino mixing matrix are found to satisfy, as functions of the induced mass, a set of differential equations. They show clearly the dominance of pole terms when the neutrino masses "cross." Using the known vacuum mixing parameters as initial conditions, it is found that these equations have very good approximate solutions, for all values of the induced mass. The results are applicable to long baseline experiments.

  5. Compound floating pivot micromechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    2001-04-24

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

  6. The Onium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarevsky, Nicolay V.; Slaveykova, Vera; Manev, Stefan; Lazarov, Dobri

    1997-06-01

    The onium salts are of a big interest for theoretical and structural chemistry, and for organic synthesis. Some representatives of the group (e.g. ammonium salts) were known from the oldest times. Many onium salts are met the nature: ammonium salts (either as inorganic salts, and organic derivatives, e.g. aminoacids, salts of biogenic amines and alkaloids, etc.); oxonium salts (plant pigments as anthocyans are organic oxonium compounds), etc. In 1894 C. Hartmann and V. Meyer prepared the first iodonium salts - 4-iododiphenyliodonium hydrogensulfate and diphenyliodonium salts, and suggested the ending -onium for all compounds with properties similar to those of ammonium salts. Nowadays onium compounds of almost all nonmetals are synthesised and studied. A great variety of physical methods: diffraction (e.g. XRD) and spectral methods (IR-, NMR-, and UV-spectra), as well as the chemical properties and methods of preparation of onium salts have been used in determination of the structure of these compounds. The application of different onium salts is immense. Ammonium, phosphonium and sulfonium salts are used as phase-transfer catalysts; diazonium salts - for the preparation of dyes, metalochromic and pH-indicators. All the onium salts and especially diazonium and iodonium salts are very useful reagents in organic synthesis.

  7. Forecasting of superconducting compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskii, E.M.; Gribulya, V.G.; Kiseleva, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    In forecasting new superconducting intermetallic compounds of the A15 and Mo 3 Se types most promising from the viewpoint of high critical temperature Tsub(c), high critical magnetic fields Hsub(c), and high critical currents and in estimating their transition temperature it is proposed to apply cybernetic methods of computer learning

  8. NATURAL POLYACETYLENE COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Nasukhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the review of the initial stage of researches of natural polyacetylene compounds is resulted. The high reactionary ability leading to fast oxidation and degradation of these compounds, especially at influence of Uf-light, oxygen of air, pH and other factors, has caused the serious difficulties connected with an establishment of structure and studying of their physical and chemical properties. Therefore the greatest quantity of works of this stage is connected with studying of essential oils of plants from families Apiaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae, Campanulaceae, Olacaceae, Pittosporaceae and Santalaceae where have been found out, basically, diacetylene compounds. About development of physical and chemical methods of the analysis of possibility of similar researches have considerably extended. More than 2000 polyacetylenes are known today, from them more than 1100 are found out in plants fam. Asteraceae. Revolution in the field of molecular biology has allowed to study processes of biosynthesis of these compounds intensively.

  9. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain

  10. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1990-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  11. Hyperon compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1987-11-01

    The formation of various hypernuclei from K - absorption at rest is discussed from the viewpoints of compound decay of highly excited hypernuclei in contrast to the direct reaction mechanism. Recent (stopped K - , π) experiments at KEK as well as old data of emulsion and bubble chamber experiments are discussed. Some future direction of hypernuclear spectroscopy is suggested. (author)

  12. Toxicology of perfluorinated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Thorsten [Hessian State Laboratory, Wiesbaden (Germany); Mattern, Daniela; Brunn, Hubertus [Hessian State Laboratory, Giessen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds [PFCs] have found a wide use in industrial products and processes and in a vast array of consumer products. PFCs are molecules made up of carbon chains to which fluorine atoms are bound. Due to the strength of the carbon/fluorine bond, the molecules are chemically very stable and are highly resistant to biological degradation; therefore, they belong to a class of compounds that tend to persist in the environment. These compounds can bioaccumulate and also undergo biomagnification. Within the class of PFC chemicals, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorosulphonic acid are generally considered reference substances. Meanwhile, PFCs can be detected almost ubiquitously, e.g., in water, plants, different kinds of foodstuffs, in animals such as fish, birds, in mammals, as well as in human breast milk and blood. PFCs are proposed as a new class of 'persistent organic pollutants'. Numerous publications allude to the negative effects of PFCs on human health. The following review describes both external and internal exposures to PFCs, the toxicokinetics (uptake, distribution, metabolism, excretion), and the toxicodynamics (acute toxicity, subacute and subchronic toxicities, chronic toxicity including carcinogenesis, genotoxicity and epigenetic effects, reproductive and developmental toxicities, neurotoxicity, effects on the endocrine system, immunotoxicity and potential modes of action, combinational effects, and epidemiological studies on perfluorinated compounds). (orig.)

  13. Chemical compounds in teak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Viana da Silva Leonardo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinone compounds are largely generated at extractive fraction of the woods in a complex and variable biological system. The literature has indications for many segments from food industry to pharmaceutical industry. Within the field of industrial use of wood, they are less desirable since they are treated only as incidental substances in production strings of pulp, paper, charcoal, and sawmill. In spite of its small amount, compared to other chemical compounds called essential, these substances have received special attention from researchers revealing a diverse range of offerings to market products textiles, pharmaceuticals, colorants, and other polymers, for which are being tested and employed. Quinones are found in fungi, lichens, and mostly in higher plants. Tectona grandis, usually called teak, is able to biosynthesize anthraquinones, which is a quinone compound, byproduct of secondary metabolism. This species provides wood that is much prized in the furniture sector and can also be exploited for metabolites to supply the market in quinone compounds and commercial development of new technologies, adding value to the plantations of this species within our country.

  14. Oxyfluoride Chemistry of Layered Perovskite Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Tsujimoto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review recent progress and new challenges in the area of oxyfluoride perovskite, especially layered systems including Ruddlesden-Popper (RP, Dion-Jacobson (DJ and Aurivillius (AV type perovskite families. It is difficult to synthesize oxyfluoride perovskite using a conventional solid-state reaction because of the high chemical stability of the simple fluoride starting materials. Nevertheless, persistent efforts made by solid-state chemists have led to a major breakthrough in stabilizing such a mixed anion system. In particular, it is known that layered perovskite compounds exhibit a rich variety of O/F site occupation according to the synthesis used. We also present the synthetic strategies to further extend RP type perovskite compounds, with particular reference to newly synthesized oxyfluorides, Sr2CoO3F and Sr3Fe2O5+xF2−x (x ~ 0.44.

  15. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-10-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear because of limitations of the exposure data, inconsistent results across cohorts, and the presence of mixed exposures to water-insoluble nickel compounds and other confounders that are known or suspected carcinogens. Moreover, well-conducted animal inhalation studies, where exposures were solely to soluble nickel, failed to demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. Similar negative results were seen in animal oral studies. A model exists that relates respiratory carcinogenic potential to the bioavailability of nickel ion at nuclear sites within respiratory target cells. This model helps reconcile human, animal, and mechanistic data for soluble nickel compounds. For inhalation exposures, the predicted lack of bioavailability of nickel ion at target sites suggests that water-soluble nickel compounds, by themselves, will not be complete human carcinogens. However, if inhaled at concentrations high enough to induce chronic lung inflammation, these compounds may enhance carcinogenic risks associated with inhalation exposure to other substances. Overall, the weight of evidence indicates that inhalation exposure to soluble nickel alone will not cause cancer; moreover, if exposures are kept below levels that cause chronic respiratory toxicity, any possible tumor-enhancing effects (particularly in smokers) would be avoided.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of volatile technetium compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, Bradley C.; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Ken R.

    2013-01-01

    Technetium-99 is an important fission (T 1/2 = 2.13.105 y) product of the nuclear industry. Technetium in its highest oxidation state (VII) is highly mobile and can represent a threat to the environment. There are over 55 million gallons of high level mixed waste located at the Hanford site. Waste tanks at the Hanford site contain Tc that could potentially leak, and in the context of management of technetium, a glass waste form was proposed to counteract the issue. In the process of synthesizing melt glass between the temperatures of 600°C and 1100°C, volatile technetium compounds were observed in the reaction tube. These compounds displayed characteristic colors based upon the reaction environments of either breathing air or nitrogen gas. A breathing air atmosphere produces a red compound that adheres to the walls of the reaction tube. An atmosphere of nitrogen gas produces a white compound that was observed on the walls of the reaction tube. (author)

  17. Development of Lead Compounds as Fusion Inhibitors for Dengue Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    mixed stereo chemistry ), but no chemical modification was desired because of the high specificity of the fragment definition. This generation...therefore promising candidates for virtual screening, synthesis and biological testing. Out of the generation process, more than 80% of the...size and biological class of compounds (analogs of peptides, alkaloids , anthracyclines, etc.). We therefore have included the prediction of the effect

  18. Synthesis and structural characterization of actinide oxalate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, C.

    2011-01-01

    Oxalic acid is a well-known reagent to recover actinides thanks to the very low solubility of An(IV) and An(III) oxalate compounds in acidic solution. Therefore, considering mixed-oxide fuel or considering minor actinides incorporation in ceramic fuel materials for transmutation, oxalic co-conversion is convenient to synthesize mixed oxalate compounds, precursors of oxide solid solutions. As the existing oxalate single crystal syntheses are not adaptable to the actinide-oxalate chemistry or to their manipulation constrains in gloves box, several original crystal growth methods were developed. They were first validate and optimized on lanthanides and uranium before the application to transuranium elements. The advanced investigations allow to better understand the syntheses and to define optimized chemical conditions to promote crystal growth. These new crystal growth methods were then applied to a large number of mixed An1(IV)-An2(III) or An1(IV)-An2(IV) systems and lead to the formation of the first original mixed An1(IV)-An2(III) and An1(IV)-An2(IV) oxalate single crystals. Finally thanks to the first thorough structural characterizations of these compounds, single crystal X-ray diffraction, EXAFS or micro-RAMAN, the particularly weak oxalate-actinide compounds structural database is enriched, which is essential for future studied nuclear fuel cycles. (author) [fr

  19. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  20. Cerium compounds in the fashion of the light actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelling, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    Researchers familiar with the light actinides easily recognize in cerium compounds a microcosm of the rich variety of properties seen in the light actinides. The parallelism seen between comparable cerium and actinide compounds strongly suggests that the same physical models are applicable. The most significant is the relative size of the f-orbital. Localization is generally tighter in Ce compounds than uranium compounds, making Ce roughly analogous to Np through Am. A way to see the actinide parallelism is to compare Hill plots. Compounds in the different regions of the plots (representing different physics) are isostructural compounds with the same companion (B) elements. The most common materials expected to exhibit direct f-f interaction are the cubic Laves compounds. Accordingly, we have determined the band structures of CeRu 2 , CeRh 2 , CeIr 2 , and CeNi 2 . Surprisingly, it was found that an f-d interaction overshadows any direct f-f interaction in these systems. Compounds illustrative of the interaction of f-orbitals with ''ligand'' orbitals are the Cu 3 Au structured materials. Materials calculated in this class are CeRh 3 , CePd 3 , and CeSn 3 - the materials of much interest as ''mixed valent''. Although the focus is on the Ce compounds, calculations performed on uranium isomorphs are used to highlight the interesting physics. (orig.)

  1. Cerium compounds in the fashion of the light actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelling, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Researchers familiar with the light actinides easily recognize in cerium compounds a microcosm of the rich variety of properties seen in the light actinides. The parallelism seen between comparable cerium and actinide compounds strongly suggests that the same physical models are applicable. The most significant is the relative size of the f-orbital. Localization is generally tighter in Ce compounds than uranium compounds, making Ce roughly analogous to Np through Am. A way to see the actinide parallelism is to compare Hill plots. Compounds in the different regions of the plots (representing different physics) are isostructural compounds with the same companion (B) elements. The most common materials exhibiting a direct f-f interaction are the cubic Laves compounds. Accordingly, we have determined the band structures of CeRu 2 , CeRh 2 , CeIr 2 , CeOs 2 , and CeNi 2 . Compounds illustrative of the interaction of f-orbitals with ligand orbitals are the Cu 3 Au structured materials. Materials calculated in this class are CeRh 3 , CePd 3 , and CeSn 3 - the materials of much interest as mixed valent. Although the focus is on the Ce compounds, calculations performed on uranium isomorphs are used to highlight the interesting physics

  2. A novel trinuclear copper(II) complex containing a symmetric tetradentate N.sub.2./sub.O.sub.2./sub. Schiff base ligand: synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and its usage as a new precursor for the preparation of CuO particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khalaji, A.D.; Ghorbani, M.; Feizi, N.; Akbari, A.; Eigner, Václav; Dušek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, Jan (2017), s. 9-12 ISSN 0277-5387 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12653S; GA MŠk LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : trinuclear complex * copper(II) complex * Schiff base * crystal structure * thermal decomposition Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 1.926, year: 2016

  3. Compound semiconductor device modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Compound semiconductor devices form the foundation of solid-state microwave and optoelectronic technologies used in many modern communication systems. In common with their low frequency counterparts, these devices are often represented using equivalent circuit models, but it is often necessary to resort to physical models in order to gain insight into the detailed operation of compound semiconductor devices. Many of the earliest physical models were indeed developed to understand the 'unusual' phenomena which occur at high frequencies. Such was the case with the Gunn and IMPATI diodes, which led to an increased interest in using numerical simulation methods. Contemporary devices often have feature sizes so small that they no longer operate within the familiar traditional framework, and hot electron or even quantum­ mechanical models are required. The need for accurate and efficient models suitable for computer aided design has increased with the demand for a wider range of integrated devices for operation at...

  4. Hydraulic jett mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Efficient mixing of reactants into a waste stream has always been a problem in that there has been no mixer capable of combining all the elements of enhanced mixing into a single piece of equipment. Through the development of a mixing system for the mining industry to treat acid mine water containing heavy metals, a versatile new hydraulic jetting static mixer has been developed that has no moving parts and a clean bore with no internal components. This paper reports that the main goal of the development of the hydraulic jett mixer was to reduce the size of the tankage required for an acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment plant through development of a static mixing device that could coincidentally aerate the treatment flow. This process equipment being developed would simultaneously adjust the pH and oxidize the metals allowing formation of the hydroxide sludges required for sedimentation and removal of the metals from the treatment stream. In effect, the device eliminates two reaction tanks, the neutralization/mixing tank and the aeration tank

  5. Tripolar Mesoionic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Shuki, Araki; Jiro, Mizuya; Naomitsu, Aoyama; Yasuo, Butsugan

    1995-01-01

    Tripolar mesoionic compounds have been synthesized by the reaction of (1,3-diphenyltetrazol-5-ylio)cyclopentadienide (or -indenide) with the dicationic ether salts derived from mesoionic olates and trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride. The structures of the newly prepared mesoionic systems are discussed on the basis of spectroscopic analysis; it is shown that the tripolar [tetrazolium-cyclopentadienide (or indenide)-tetrazolium] canonical structure contributes significantly to the ground state ...

  6. Oligosilanylated Antimony Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Zitz, Rainer; Gatterer, Karl; Reinhold, Crispin R. W.; M?ller, Thomas; Baumgartner, Judith; Marschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    By reactions of magnesium oligosilanides with SbCl3, a number of oligosilanylated antimony compounds were obtained. When oligosilanyl dianions were used, either the expected cyclic disilylated halostibine was obtained or alternatively the formation of a distibine was observed. Deliberate formation of the distibine from the disilylated halostibine was achieved by reductive coupling with C8K. Computational studies of Sb?Sb bond energies, barriers of pyramidal inversion at Sb, and the conformati...

  7. Labelled compounds. (Pt. B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buncel, E.; Jones, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Since the end of World War II there has been a tremendous increase in the number of compounds that have been synthesized with radioactive or stable isotopes. They have found application in many diverse fields, so much so, that hardly a single area in pure and applied science has not benefited. Not surprisingly it has been reflected in appearance of related publications. The early proceedings of the Symposia on Advances in Trace Methodology were soon followed by various Euratom sponsored meetings in which methods of preparing and storing labelled compounds featured prominently. In due course a resurgence of interest in stable isotopes, brought about by their greater availability (also lower cost) and partly by development of new techniques such as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (gc-ms), led to the publication of proceedings of several successful conferences. More recently conferences dealing with the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds have been established on a regular basis. In addition to the proceedings of conferences and journal publications individuals left their mark by producing definitive texts, usually on specific nuclides. Only the classic two volume publication of Murray and Williams (Organic syntheses with isotopes, New York 1985), now over 30 years old and out of print, attempted to do justice to several nuclides. With the large amount of work that has been undertaken since then it seems unlikely that an updated edition could be produced. The alternative strategy was to ask scientists currently active to review specific areas and this is the approach adopted in the present series of monographs. In this way it is intended to cover the broad advances that have been made in the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds in the physical and biomedical sciences. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  8. Process for compound transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-29

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of using a catalytic system to chemically transform a compound (e.g., a hydrocarbon). In an embodiment, the method does not employ grafting the catalyst prior to catalysis. In particular, embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a process of hydrocarbon (e.g., C1 to C20 hydrocarbon) metathesis (e.g., alkane, olefin, or alkyne metathesis) transformation, where the process can be conducted without employing grafting prior to catalysis.

  9. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Park, S. H.; Lee, W. G.; Ha, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    In 1945, Van Heerden measured α, β and γ radiations with the cooled AgCl crystal. It was the first radiation measurement using the compound semiconductor detector. Since then the compound semiconductor has been extensively studied as radiation detector. Generally the radiation detector can be divided into the gas detector, the scintillator and the semiconductor detector. The semiconductor detector has good points comparing to other radiation detectors. Since the density of the semiconductor detector is higher than that of the gas detector, the semiconductor detector can be made with the compact size to measure the high energy radiation. In the scintillator, the radiation is measured with the two-step process. That is, the radiation is converted into the photons, which are changed into electrons by a photo-detector, inside the scintillator. However in the semiconductor radiation detector, the radiation is measured only with the one-step process. The electron-hole pairs are generated from the radiation interaction inside the semiconductor detector, and these electrons and charged ions are directly collected to get the signal. The energy resolution of the semiconductor detector is generally better than that of the scintillator. At present, the commonly used semiconductors as the radiation detector are Si and Ge. However, these semiconductor detectors have weak points. That is, one needs thick material to measure the high energy radiation because of the relatively low atomic number of the composite material. In Ge case, the dark current of the detector is large at room temperature because of the small band-gap energy. Recently the compound semiconductor detectors have been extensively studied to overcome these problems. In this paper, we will briefly summarize the recent research topics about the compound semiconductor detector. We will introduce the research activities of our group, too

  10. Bronzes and relative compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehlls, A.

    1987-01-01

    Preparation and the crystal structure of bronzes based on complex oxides of transition (Ti, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, Re, Ru and etc.) and alkali metals, as well as oxides of some other elements (Sr, In, La and etc.) are described. Peculiarities of formation of the structure of tetragonal, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium bronzes and their analogs depending on the chemical composition of these compounds are considered

  11. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Shamai (Shitz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom (s.d.o.f. are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the s.d.o.f. for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable s.d.o.f. is given for the general case.

  12. Antifungal compounds from cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Tânia K; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P D; Fiore, Marli F; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-04-13

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  13. Toxic compounds in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Antifungal Compounds from Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia K. Shishido

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  15. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom ( are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable is given for the general case.

  16. Charm mixing at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Di Canto, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    We report a measurement of the time-dependent ratio of $D^0\\to K^+\\pi^-$ to $D^0\\to K^-\\pi^+$ decay rates in $D^{*+}$-tagged events using 1.0\\,fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity recorded by the LHCb experiment. We measure the mixing parameters $x'^2=(-0.9\\pm1.3)\\times10^{-4}$, $y'=(7.2\\pm2.4)\\times10^{-3}$ and the ratio of doubly-Cabibbo-suppressed to Cabibbo-favored decay rates $R_D=(3.52\\pm0.15)\\times10^{-3}$. The result excludes the no-mixing hypothesis with a probability corresponding to 9.1 standard deviations and represents the first observation of charm mixing from a single measurement

  17. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base

  18. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  19. Bimaximal fermion mixing from the quark and leptonic mixing matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, we show how the mixing angles of the standard parameterization add when multiplying the quark and leptonic mixing matrices, i.e., we derive explicit sum rules for the quark and leptonic mixing angles. In this connection, we also discuss other recently proposed sum rules for the mixing angles assuming bimaximal fermion mixing. In addition, we find that the present experimental and phenomenological data of the mixing angles naturally fulfill our sum rules, and thus, give rise to bilarge or bimaximal fermion mixing

  20. In situ enhanced soil mixing. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    In Situ Enhanced Soil Mixing (ISESM) is a treatment technology that has been demonstrated and deployed to remediate soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The technology has been developed by industry and has been demonstrated with the assistance of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science and Technology and the Office of Environmental Restoration. The technology is particularly suited to shallow applications, above the water table, but can be used at greater depths. ISESM technologies demonstrated for this project include: (1) Soil mixing with vapor extraction combined with ambient air injection. [Contaminated soil is mixed with ambient air to vaporize volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The mixing auger is moved up and down to assist in removal of contaminated vapors. The vapors are collected in a shroud covering the treatment area and run through a treatment unit containing a carbon filter or a catalytic oxidation unit with a wet scrubber system and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter.] (2) soil mixing with vapor extraction combined with hot air injection [This process is the same as the ambient air injection except that hot air or steam is injected.] (3) soil mixing with hydrogen peroxide injection [Contaminated soil is mixed with ambient air that contains a mist of diluted hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) solution. The H 2 O 2 solution chemically oxidizes the VOCs to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water.] (4) soil mixing with grout injection for solidification/stabilization [Contaminated soil is mixed as a cement grout is injected under pressure to solidify and immobilize the contaminated soil in a concrete-like form.] The soils are mixed with a single-blade auger or with a combination of augers ranging in diameter from 3 to 12 feet

  1. Potential Antifreeze Compounds in Present-Day Martian Seepage Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiin-Shuh Jean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Is the recently found seepage groundwater on Mars pure H2O, or mixed with salts and other antifreeze compounds? Given the surface conditions of Mars, it is unlikely that pure water could either exist in its liquid state or have shaped Mars¡¦ fluid erosional landforms (gullies, channels, and valley networks. More likely is that Mars¡¦ seepage groundwater contains antifreeze and salt compounds that resist freezing and suppress evaporation. This model better accounts for Mars¡¦ enigmatic surface erosion. This paper suggests 17 antifreeze compounds potentially present in Martian seepage groundwater. Given their liquid state and physical properties, triethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and 1,3-propylene glycol are advanced as the most likely candidate compounds. This paper also explores how a mixing of glycol or glycerol with salts in the Martian seepage groundwater may have lowered water¡¦s freezing point and raised its boiling point, with consequences that created fluid gully and channel erosion. Ethylene glycol and related hydrocarbon compounds have been identified in Martian and other interstellar meteorites. We suggest that these compounds and their proportions to water be included for detection in future explorations.

  2. Mixed language programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burow, Burkhard D.

    1996-01-01

    Computing in the next millennium will be using software from this millennium. Programming languages evolve and new ones continue to be created. The use of legacy code demonstrates why some present and future applications may span programming languages. Even a completely new application may mix programming languages, if it allows its components to be more conveniently expressed. Given the need, mixed language programming should be easy and robust. By resolving a variety of difficulties, the well established cfortran.h package provides, the desired convenient interface across the C and Fortran programming languages, as demonstrated using CERN's Book. (author)

  3. Turbulence and Interfacial Mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glimm, James; Li, Xiaolin

    2005-03-15

    The authors study mix from analytical and numerical points of view. These investigations are linked. The analytical studies (in addition to laboratory experiments) provide bench marks for the direct simulation of mix. However, direct simulation is too detailed to be useful and to expensive to be practical. They also consider averaged equations. Here the major issue is the validation of the closure assumptions. They appeal to the direct simulation methods for this step. They have collaborated with several NNSA teams; moreover, Stony Brook alumni (former students, faculty and research collaborators) presently hold staff positions in NNSA laboratories.

  4. Mixed Reality Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Müller

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently one of the most challenging aspects of human computer interaction design is the integration of physical and digital worlds in a single environment. This fusion involves the development of "Mixed Reality Systems”, including various technologies from the domains of augmented and virtual reality. In this paper I will present related concepts and discuss lessons learned from our own research and prototype development. Our recent work involves the use of mixed reality (as opposed to ‘pure’ virtual reality techniques to support seamless collaborative work between remote and hands-on laboratories.

  5. Nomenclature on an inorganic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This book contains eleven chapters : which mention nomenclature of an inorganic compound with introduction and general principle on nomenclature of compound. It gives the description of grammar for nomenclature such as brackets, diagonal line, asterisk, and affix, element, atom and groups of atom, chemical formula, naming by stoichiometry, solid, neutral molecule compound, ion, a substituent, radical and name of salt, oxo acid and anion on introduction and definition of oxo acid, coordination compound like symbol of stereochemistry , boron and hydrogen compound and related compound.

  6. Giant exchange interaction in mixed lanthanides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieru, Veacheslav; Iwahara, Naoya; Ungur, Liviu; Chibotaru, Liviu F.

    2016-01-01

    Combining strong magnetic anisotropy with strong exchange interaction is a long standing goal in the design of quantum magnets. The lanthanide complexes, while exhibiting a very strong ionic anisotropy, usually display a weak exchange coupling, amounting to only a few wavenumbers. Recently, an isostructural series of mixed (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) have been reported, in which the exchange splitting is estimated to reach hundreds wavenumbers. The microscopic mechanism governing the unusual exchange interaction in these compounds is revealed here by combining detailed modeling with density-functional theory and ab initio calculations. We find it to be basically kinetic and highly complex, involving non-negligible contributions up to seventh power of total angular momentum of each lanthanide site. The performed analysis also elucidates the origin of magnetization blocking in these compounds. Contrary to general expectations the latter is not always favored by strong exchange interaction. PMID:27087470

  7. Optimizing the strategic patient mix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanberkel, P.T.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Hans, Elias W.; Hurink, Johann L.

    In this paper we address the decision of choosing a patient mix for a hospital that leads to the most beneficial treatment case mix. We illustrate how capacity, case mix and patient mix decisions are interrelated and how understanding this complex relationship is crucial for achieving the maximum

  8. Sylgard® Mixing Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Mollie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Welch, Cynthia F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goodwin, Lynne Alese [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Keller, Jennie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-08-22

    Sylgard® 184 and Sylgard® 186 silicone elastomers form Dow Corning® are used as potting agents across the Nuclear Weapons Complex. A standardized mixing procedure is required for filled versions of these products. The present study is a follow-up to a mixing study performed by MST-7 which established the best mixing procedure to use when adding filler to either 184 or 186 base resins. The most effective and consistent method of mixing resin and curing agent for three modified silicone elastomer recipes is outlined in this report. For each recipe, sample size, mixing type, and mixing time was varied over 10 separate runs. The results show that the THINKY™ Mixer gives reliable mixing over varying batch sizes and mixing times. Hand Mixing can give improved mixing, as indicated by reduced initial viscosity; however, this method is not consistent.

  9. Glueball-meson mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vento, Vicente [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Calculations in unquenched QCD for the scalar glueball spectrum have confirmed previous results of Gluodynamics finding a glueball at ∝1750 MeV. I analyze the implications of this discovery from the point of view of glueball-meson mixing in light of the experimental scalar spectrum. (orig.)

  10. Mixed-Initiative Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yifen

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

  11. Mixing Over Rough Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    www.apl.washington.edu/ people /profile.php?last_name=Gregg&first_name=Mike LONG-TERM GOALS To understand quantify diapycnal mixing in the ocean...ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) Office of Naval Research ONR 875 North Randolph Street Arlington, VA 22203-1995 11

  12. Mixed Lubricated Line Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraon, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is

  13. Against Mixed Epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Milburn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2015v19n2p183 We can call any reductive account of knowledge that appeals to both safety and ability conditions a mixed account of knowledge. Examples of mixed accounts of knowledge include Pritchard’s (2012 Anti-Luck Virtue Epistemology, Kelp’s (2013 Safe-Apt account of knowledge, and Turri’s (2011 Ample belief account of knowledge. Mixed accounts of knowledge are motivated by well-known counterexamples to pure safety and pure ability accounts of knowledge. It is thought that by combining both safety and ability conditions we can give an extensionally adequate reductive account of knowledge. In this paper I argue that the putative counterexamples to pure safety and pure ability accounts of knowledge fail to motivate mixed accounts of knowledge. In particular, I argue that if the putative counterexamples are problematic for safety accounts they are problematic for ability accounts and vice-versa. The reason for this, I argue, is that the safety condition and ability condition should be understood as alternative expressions of the same intuition — that knowledge must come from a reliable source.

  14. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  15. Toxicology of alkylmercury compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschner, Michael; Onishchenko, Natalia; Ceccatelli, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Methylmercury is a global pollutant and potent neurotoxin whose abundance in the food chain mandates additional studies on the consequences and mechanisms of its toxicity to the central nervous system. Formulation of our new hypotheses was predicated on our appreciation for (a) the remarkable affinity of mercurials for the anionic form of sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, and (b) the essential role of thiols in protein biochemistry. The present chapter addresses pathways to human exposure of various mercury compounds, highlighting their neurotoxicity and potential involvement in neurotoxic injury and neurodegenerative changes, both in the developing and senescent brain. Mechanisms that trigger these effects are discussed in detail.

  16. Compound composite odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kailasam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common type of odontogenic tumors and generally they are asymptomatic. Frequently, it may interfere with the eruption of the teeth. This is a case report of a compound composite odontoma in a 10-year-old girl, which results in failure of eruption of the permanent upper right central incisor while the contralateral tooth had erupted. A calcified mass was seen in the radiograph and was provisionally diagnosed as odontoma following which the odontoma was enucleated. Routine follow-up was done for more than a year and no recurrence was seen. This case report indicates that early diagnosis and management ensures better prognosis.

  17. Flavour Compounds in Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravasio, Davide Antonio

    . This selection of strains was used in fermentations with the aim of identifying new interesting flavour producers. Fermentation profiles, volatile analyses, off-flavour identification and resistance to osmotic/oxidative stress have been addressed to highlight new candidates to use for industrial applications....... This resulted in the identification of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Pichia kluyveri as high producers of esters fruity compounds, which contribute to enhance the complexity of wine and beer product. In addition the strain Debaromyces subglobosus showed high yields of aldehydes and fruity ketones, which...

  18. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-08-28

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  19. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  20. Catalytic properties of niobium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, K.; Iizuka, T.

    1983-04-01

    The catalytic activity and selectivity of niobium compounds including oxides, salts, organometallic compounds and others are outlined. The application of these compounds as catalysts to diversified reactions is reported. The nature and action of niobium catalysts are characteristic and sometimes anomalous, suggesting the necessity of basic research and the potential use as catalysts for important processes in the chemical industry. (Author) [pt

  1. Molecular modeling of inorganic compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Comba, Peter; Hambley, Trevor W; Martin, Bodo

    2009-01-01

    ... mechanics to inorganic and coordination compounds. Initially, simple metal complexes were modeled, but recently the field has been extended to include organometallic compounds, catalysis and the interaction of metal ions with biological macromolecules. The application of molecular mechanics to coordination compounds is complicated by the numbe...

  2. Organometallic compounds in the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Craig, P. J

    2003-01-01

    ... of Organometallic Species in the Environment 20 1.10 Stability of Organometallic Compounds in Biological Systems 1.11 G eneral Comments on the Toxicities of Organometallic Compounds 22 1.12 General Considerations on Environmental R eactivity of Organometallic Compounds 24 1.13 Microbial Biotransformation of Metals and M etalloids 25 1.13.1 Introduction 25 1...

  3. Corrosion inhibition of aluminum 6063 using some pharmaceutical compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouda, A.S.; Al-Sarawy, A.A.; Ahmed, F.Sh.; El-Abbasy, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition characteristics of some pharmaceutical compounds on aluminum 6063 in 0.5 mol l -1 H 3 PO 4 has been studied using weight loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. Results showed that the inhibition occurs through adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the metal surface. The inhibition efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration, but decreased with increasing temperature. The adsorption of first group pharmaceutical compounds on the metal surface is found to obey Frumkin's adsorption isotherm, but the adsorption of second group pharmaceutical compounds is found to obey Temkin's adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters for adsorption process were determined. Galvanostatic polarization studies showed that first and second groups' pharmaceutical compounds are mixed-type inhibitors and the results obtained from the two techniques are in good agreement

  4. Goldenphilicity: Luminescent gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansores, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the solids and molecules different types of bonds are presented depending on the involved atoms, covalent bonds are common among elements of open shell, where more bond orbitals are filled than anti bond orbitals. It is expected that ionic bonds among closed shell atoms which have charges of opposite sign. Bonds type Van der Waals are presented among molecules which have a bipolar moment. It would not be expected bonds among zero charge species, or more generally with the same nominal charge and in any case the attractive forces would be very small. In fact it is expected that two metallic cations to be repelled each other. There recently is evidence that in organic or organometallic compounds could exist attractive interactions between two cations of the d 8 -d 10 -s 2 families. These bonds are weak but stronger than those of Van der Waals. They are compared with the hydrogen bonds. In this work it was reviewed some examples in which the goldenphilicity plays an important role in the luminescence that the gold complexes present. Examples of mono, bi and trinuclear and the structures that these organometallic compounds could take are examined. (Author)

  5. Building Asphalt Pavement with SBS-based Compound Added Using a Dry Process in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Hosin; Kim, Yongjoo; Geisler, Nivi

    2009-01-01

    PMA where it is formulated to melt and blend with asphalt quickly during a batch mixing process. The main objectives of this study are to (1) build asphalt pavement using asphalt mixtures with SBS-based compound added using a “dry” process at the batch plant and (2) evaluate its performance under......-based compound seemed to affect the asphalt mix to become more flexible under the heavy loads. By adding SBS-based compound to asphalt mixtures using a “dry” process, it is expected that the pavement would become more resistant to rutting than a typical asphalt mixture used in Greenland while enduring its arctic...

  6. The standardization of an apparatus for the mixing of soil samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative determination of nematode populations in soils frequently necessitates the mixing of representative soil samples to form a homogeneous, compound sample from which the nematodes are extracted. A mixing apparatus was developed and standardized with the aid of a spectrophotometric technique by which ...

  7. Unitarity constraints on trimaximal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev

    2010-01-01

    When the neutrino mass eigenstate ν 2 is trimaximally mixed, the mixing matrix is called trimaximal. The middle column of the trimaximal mixing matrix is identical to tribimaximal mixing and the other two columns are subject to unitarity constraints. This corresponds to a mixing matrix with four independent parameters in the most general case. Apart from the two Majorana phases, the mixing matrix has only one free parameter in the CP conserving limit. Trimaximality results in interesting interplay between mixing angles and CP violation. A notion of maximal CP violation naturally emerges here: CP violation is maximal for maximal 2-3 mixing. Similarly, there is a natural constraint on the deviation from maximal 2-3 mixing which takes its maximal value in the CP conserving limit.

  8. Semiconducting III-V compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hilsum, C; Henisch, Heinz R

    1961-01-01

    Semiconducting III-V Compounds deals with the properties of III-V compounds as a family of semiconducting crystals and relates these compounds to the monatomic semiconductors silicon and germanium. Emphasis is placed on physical processes that are peculiar to III-V compounds, particularly those that combine boron, aluminum, gallium, and indium with phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony (for example, indium antimonide, indium arsenide, gallium antimonide, and gallium arsenide).Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an assessment of the crystal structure and binding of III-V compounds, f

  9. Filtering apparatus and method for mixing, extraction and/or separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a filtering apparatus and method for mixing a compound of solid and fluid phases, separating the phases and/or extracting fluid from the compound. One embodiment of the invention discloses a filtering apparatus comprising a first filter section accommodating a fir...... in a beer brewing procedure....

  10. Renormalization of fermion mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiopu, R.

    2007-01-01

    Precision measurements of phenomena related to fermion mixing require the inclusion of higher order corrections in the calculation of corresponding theoretical predictions. For this, a complete renormalization scheme for models that allow for fermion mixing is highly required. The correct treatment of unstable particles makes this task difficult and yet, no satisfactory and general solution can be found in the literature. In the present work, we study the renormalization of the fermion Lagrange density with Dirac and Majorana particles in models that involve mixing. The first part of the thesis provides a general renormalization prescription for the Lagrangian, while the second one is an application to specific models. In a general framework, using the on-shell renormalization scheme, we identify the physical mass and the decay width of a fermion from its full propagator. The so-called wave function renormalization constants are determined such that the subtracted propagator is diagonal on-shell. As a consequence of absorptive parts in the self-energy, the constants that are supposed to renormalize the incoming fermion and the outgoing antifermion are different from the ones that should renormalize the outgoing fermion and the incoming antifermion and not related by hermiticity, as desired. Instead of defining field renormalization constants identical to the wave function renormalization ones, we differentiate the two by a set of finite constants. Using the additional freedom offered by this finite difference, we investigate the possibility of defining field renormalization constants related by hermiticity. We show that for Dirac fermions, unless the model has very special features, the hermiticity condition leads to ill-defined matrix elements due to self-energy corrections of external legs. In the case of Majorana fermions, the constraints for the model are less restrictive. Here one might have a better chance to define field renormalization constants related by

  11. Renormalization of fermion mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiopu, R.

    2007-05-11

    Precision measurements of phenomena related to fermion mixing require the inclusion of higher order corrections in the calculation of corresponding theoretical predictions. For this, a complete renormalization scheme for models that allow for fermion mixing is highly required. The correct treatment of unstable particles makes this task difficult and yet, no satisfactory and general solution can be found in the literature. In the present work, we study the renormalization of the fermion Lagrange density with Dirac and Majorana particles in models that involve mixing. The first part of the thesis provides a general renormalization prescription for the Lagrangian, while the second one is an application to specific models. In a general framework, using the on-shell renormalization scheme, we identify the physical mass and the decay width of a fermion from its full propagator. The so-called wave function renormalization constants are determined such that the subtracted propagator is diagonal on-shell. As a consequence of absorptive parts in the self-energy, the constants that are supposed to renormalize the incoming fermion and the outgoing antifermion are different from the ones that should renormalize the outgoing fermion and the incoming antifermion and not related by hermiticity, as desired. Instead of defining field renormalization constants identical to the wave function renormalization ones, we differentiate the two by a set of finite constants. Using the additional freedom offered by this finite difference, we investigate the possibility of defining field renormalization constants related by hermiticity. We show that for Dirac fermions, unless the model has very special features, the hermiticity condition leads to ill-defined matrix elements due to self-energy corrections of external legs. In the case of Majorana fermions, the constraints for the model are less restrictive. Here one might have a better chance to define field renormalization constants related by

  12. Experiments in mixed reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krum, David M.; Sadek, Ramy; Kohli, Luv; Olson, Logan; Bolas, Mark

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Institute for Creative Technologies and the School of Cinematic Arts at the University of Southern California, the Mixed Reality lab develops technologies and techniques for presenting realistic immersive training experiences. Such experiences typically place users within a complex ecology of social actors, physical objects, and collections of intents, motivations, relationships, and other psychological constructs. Currently, it remains infeasible to completely synthesize the interactivity and sensory signatures of such ecologies. For this reason, the lab advocates mixed reality methods for training and conducts experiments exploring such methods. Currently, the lab focuses on understanding and exploiting the elasticity of human perception with respect to representational differences between real and virtual environments. This paper presents an overview of three projects: techniques for redirected walking, displays for the representation of virtual humans, and audio processing to increase stress.

  13. Marketing-Mix

    OpenAIRE

    Huppertz, Matthias; Schneider, Andreas Dirk

    2006-01-01

    Der Marketing-Mix mit seinen 4Ps zur operativen Marketingplanung ist innerhalb des Marketing-Managements die nächste Stufe nach der Marktanalyse in dem die strategische Marketingplanung erarbeitet wurde. Die strategische Marketingplanung befasst sich mit der Analyse des Zielmarktes und der grundsätzlichen Zielrichtung des Unternehmens. Auf Basis der gewonnenen Erkenntnisse wird in der Phase der operativen Marketingplanung versucht, die Unternehmensaktivitäten am Zielmarkt des Unternehmens aus...

  14. New flash mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackmann, I.

    1980-01-01

    It was found that even for stars evolved away from the red giant branch, a new mixing of nucleo-synthesis products from the hydrogen-burning shells into surface layers was possible, from the penetration of the contaminated intershell region with the H- and He-ionization convection zones. This is due to the helium shell flash driving an immense expansion of an inner carbon pocket, namely, by a factor of 12,000 in radius, a drop in density of about 10 12 , and a cooling of inner pockets normally near 10 8 K to 23,000 K. The surface would be enriched in carbon ( 12 C), helium ( 4 He), and s-process elements, but not significantly in nitrogen ( 14 N), oxygen ( 16 O), or the isotope 13 C. This new type of mixing might provide the missing clue for FG Sagittae. Such a mixing had been suggested by the observations of FG Sagittae, but had been unexplainable by theory up to now

  15. Stability of mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher; Krothapalli, A

    1993-01-01

    The research program for the first year of this project (see the original research proposal) consists of developing an explicit marching scheme for solving the parabolized stability equations (PSE). Performing mathematical analysis of the computational algorithm including numerical stability analysis and the determination of the proper boundary conditions needed at the boundary of the computation domain are implicit in the task. Before one can solve the parabolized stability equations for high-speed mixing layers, the mean flow must first be found. In the past, instability analysis of high-speed mixing layer has mostly been performed on mean flow profiles calculated by the boundary layer equations. In carrying out this project, it is believed that the boundary layer equations might not give an accurate enough nonparallel, nonlinear mean flow needed for parabolized stability analysis. A more accurate mean flow can, however, be found by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. The advantage of the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations is that its accuracy is consistent with the PSE method. Furthermore, the method of solution is similar. Hence, the major part of the effort of the work of this year has been devoted to the development of an explicit numerical marching scheme for the solution of the Parabolized Navier-Stokes equation as applied to the high-seed mixing layer problem.

  16. MARKETING MIX IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marketing mix'' along the term of life cycle has robbed the trademark for the conception of marketing and the market direction of company, corporations and institutions. Essence marketing-mixa is in the simultaneous determining of the target market group of consumer (the buyer or stays the public and specially prepared and the coordinated impact of elements mixa, and this is the product, price, distributions and graduation ceremonies. Given that is mix combinations of verified variables, companies he use in order to would achieve are wished the scope sales on the target market. In the wider context significant influence of environment on the chosen structure marketing-mixa have not only technological, economic and competitive services already and socially-owned, legislative, legal and political services. From those reasons chant the marketing -mixa occasionally replaces expression are coordinated term acts on the market. Elements marketing-mix-and at sport marketings same are as well as at marketings every other activity. They contain the sportively product and the service, appreciate the sport product and services, distribution of sport product and services and the promotion of sport product and services.

  17. Mixing of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Weinekötter, Ralf

    2000-01-01

    This book is a welcome edition to the Particle Technology Series, formerly Powder Technology Series. It is the second book in the series which describes powder mixing and we make no excuses for that. The topic of powder mixing is fundamental to powder technology and is one which always aroses interest. That will not change. As powder products become more complex they will pose new mixing problems. The solutions lie in the intelligent use of equipment, an understanding of powder properties and a good knowledge of basic statistics. The authors of this book have presented those three ingredients with great clarity. The book is based on long experience and deep thought, I have enjoyed reading it and am pleased to recommend it. Delft University of Technology, NL-Delft, July 1999 Brian Scarlett, Series Editor IX VII Foreword to the English Edition In response to many enquiries from industrial organisations and institutes involved with the technology of processing bulk materials, we are pleased to present the Englis...

  18. Mixing, entropy and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A Y

    2012-01-01

    Non-traditional thermodynamics, applied to random behaviour associated with turbulence, mixing and competition, is reviewed and analysed. Competitive mixing represents a general framework for the study of generic properties of competitive systems and can be used to model a wide class of non-equilibrium phenomena ranging from turbulent premixed flames and invasion waves to complex competitive systems. We demonstrate consistency of the general principles of competition with thermodynamic description, review and analyse the related entropy concepts and introduce the corresponding competitive H-theorem. A competitive system can be characterized by a thermodynamic quantity—competitive potential—which determines the likely direction of evolution of the system. Contested resources tend to move between systems from lower to higher values of the competitive potential. There is, however, an important difference between conventional thermodynamics and competitive thermodynamics. While conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. Intransitivities are common in the real world and are responsible for complex behaviour in competitive systems. This work follows ideas and methods that have originated from the analysis of turbulent combustion, but reviews a much broader scope of issues linked to mixing and competition, including thermodynamic characterization of complex competitive systems with self-organization. The approach presented here is interdisciplinary and is addressed to the general educated readers, whereas the mathematical details can be found in the appendices. (comment)

  19. Company Marketing Mix

    OpenAIRE

    Vyroubalová, Klára

    2015-01-01

    Tématem této bakalářské práce je ,,Marketingový mix společnosti SKITECH, s. r. o.“ Práce se zabývá vypracováním marketingového mixu a navrţením lyţařských produktů skiareálu. Předpokladem pro vytvoření marketingového mixu je provedení SWOT analýzy a analýzy konkurence. Na základě těchto výsledků budou stanoveny vize a cíle skiareálu a návrhy jednotlivých produktů. V závěrečné části je aplikován marketingový mix na konkrétní produkt. This thesis deals with the marketing mix of the SKITECH c...

  20. Volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silseth, May Liss

    1998-01-01

    The goal is: Not more emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than necessary. The items discussed in this presentation are the VOCs, how to calculate emission of VOCs, how to reduce or avoid them, and different recovery processes. The largest source of Norwegian emissions of non methane VOCs (NMVOCs) is offshore loading of raw petroleum. Emissions of VOCs should be reduced mainly for two reasons: (1) on sunny days NMVOCs may react with NOx to form ozon and smog close to the surface, (2) ozone and smog close to the surface may be harmful to plants and animals, and they are hazardous to human health. As for the calculation of VOC emissions, the VOCON project will release the calculation program HCGASS in 1999. This project is a cooperative project headed by SINTEF/Marintek

  1. Synthesis of labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, T.W.

    1977-01-01

    Intermediate compounds labeled with 13 C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15 N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1- 13 C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO 2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose- 13 C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13 CO 2 and galactose- 13 C from galactosylglycerol- 13 C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate- 13 C

  2. Deposition of acidifying compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, D.; Cape, J.N.; Sutton, M.A.; Mourne, R.; Hargreaves, K.J.; Duyzer, J.H.; Gallagher, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Inputs of acidifying compounds to terrestrial ecosystems include deposition of the gases NO 2 , NO, HNO 2 , HNO 3 , NH 3 and SO 2 and the ions NO 3- , NH 4+ , SO 4 2- and H + in precipitation, cloud droplets and particles. Recent research has identified particular ecosystems and regions in which terrestrial effects are closely linked with specific deposition processes. This review paper identifies areas in which important developments have occurred during the last five years and attempts to show which aspects of the subject are most important for policy makers. Amongst the conclusions drawn, the authors advise that current uncertainties in estimates of S and N inputs by dry deposition should be incorporated in critical load calculations, and that, in regions dominated by wet deposition, spatial resolution of total inputs should be improved to match the current scales of information on landscape sensitivity to acidic inputs. 44 refs., 9 figs

  3. Orientation distribution in Bi2Te3-based compound prepared by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.T.; Kim, Y.H.; Lim, C.H.; Cho, D.C.; Lee, Y.S.; Lee, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    P-type Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 compounds doped with 3wt.% Te were fabricated by spark plasma sintering after mixing large powders(P L ) and small powders(P S ). We could obtained the highest figure of merit(Z C ) of 2.89 x 10 -3 /K in sintered compound mixed to P L :P S =80:20. This resulted from the increase of orientation by large powders(P S ) and the reduce of pores by small powders. The figure of merit(Z C ) of the sintered compound using only small powders(P S ) showed lower value of 2.67 x 10 -3 /K compared with that of sintered compound mixed to P L :P S =80:20 due to the increase of electrical resistivity. (orig.)

  4. Extent of Intramolecular p-Stacks in Aqueous Solution in Mixed-Ligand Copper(II) Complexes Formed by Heteroaromatic Amines and Several 2-Aminopurine Derivatives of the Antivirally Active Nucleotide Analog 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gómez-Coca, R. B.; Blindauer, C. A.; Sigel, A.; Operschall, B. P.; Holý, Antonín; Sigel, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 9 (2012), s. 2008-2034 ISSN 1612-1872 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : copper complexes * nucleotides * acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * ANPs * antiviral activity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.808, year: 2012

  5. The Value of Mixed Methods Research: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Courtney A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to examine the perceived value of mixed methods research for graduate students. The quantitative phase was an experiment examining the effect of a passage's methodology on students' perceived value. Results indicated students scored the mixed methods passage as more valuable than those who…

  6. Crystal structures of a copper(II and the isotypic nickel(II and palladium(II complexes of the ligand (E-1-[(2,4,6-tribromophenyldiazenyl]naphthalen-2-ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souheyla Chetioui

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the copper(II complex, bis{(E-1-[(2,4,6-tribromophenyldiazenyl]naphthalen-2-olato}copper(II, [Cu(C16H8Br3N2O2], (I, the metal cation is coordinated by two N atoms and two O atoms from two bidentate (E-1-[(2,4,6-tribromophenyldiazenyl]naphthalen-2-olate ligands, forming a slightly distorted square-planar environment. In one of the ligands, the tribromobenzene ring is inclined to the naphthalene ring system by 37.4 (5°, creating a weak intramolecular Cu...Br interaction [3.134 (2 Å], while in the other ligand, the tribromobenzene ring is inclined to the naphthalene ring system by 72.1 (6°. In the isotypic nickel(II and palladium(II complexes, namely bis{(E-1-[(2,4,6-tribromophenyldiazenyl]naphthalen-2-olato}nickel(II, [Ni(C16H8Br3N2O2], (II, and bis{(E-1-[(2,4,6-tribromophenyldiazenyl]naphthalen-2-olato}palladium(II, [Pd(C16H8Br3N2O2], (III, respectively, the metal atoms are located on centres of inversion, hence the metal coordination spheres have perfect square-planar geometries. The tribromobenzene rings are inclined to the naphthalene ring systems by 80.79 (18° in (II and by 80.8 (3° in (III. In the crystal of (I, molecules are linked by C—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [010]. The chains are linked by C—H...π interactions, forming sheets parallel to (011. In the crystals of (II and (III, molecules are linked by C—H...π interactions, forming slabs parallel to (10-1. For the copper(II complex (I, a region of disordered electron density was corrected for using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2015. Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18]. The formula mass and unit-cell characteristics of the disordered solvent molecules were not taken into account during refinement.

  7. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  8. Warm mix asphalt : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The performance of pavements constructed using warm mix asphalt (WMA) technology were : compared to the performance of conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements placed on the : same project. Measurements of friction resistance, rutting/wear, ride ...

  9. Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    Final Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/01/2009 – 12/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Lateral Mixing Experiment (LATMIX) focused on mixing and...anomalies. LATMIX2 targeted the wintertime Gulf Stream, where deep mixed layers, strong lateral density gradients (Gulf Stream north wall) and the

  10. The resilience of paradigm mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Langhelle, Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a policy regime based on a paradigm mix may be resilient when challenged by changing power balances and new agendas. Controversies between the actors can be contained within the paradigm mix as it enables them to legitimize different ideational positions. Rather than engaging...... context changed. The paradigm mix proved sufficiently flexible to accommodate food security concerns and at the same time continue to take steps toward further liberalization. Indeed, the main players have not challenged the paradigm mix....

  11. Ion-beam-mixing in metal-metal systems and metal-silicon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, L.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of energetic ion bombardment on the composition and structure of thin film materials and utilization of ion-beam-mixing techniques to modify interfacial reactions are reported in this thesis. The phase formation in metals by using ion mixing techniques has been studied. Upon ion irradiation of Al/Pt, Al/Pd and Al/Ni thin films, only the simplest intermetallic compounds of PdAl and NiAl were formed in crystalline structure, while the amorphous phase has been observed over a large range of composition. Ion mixing of Au/Cu bilayers resulted in the formation of substitutional solid solutions with no trace of ordered compounds. The formation of the ordered compound CuAu was achieved either by irradiation of bilayers with Ar ions at elevated substrate temperature or by irradiation of the mixed layers with He ions at relatively low temperature. In the Au/Al system several crystal compounds existed in the as-deposited samples. These phases remained crystalline or transformed into other equilibrium compounds upon ion irradiation. The results suggest that the phase formation by ion mixing is dependent on the high quench rate in the collision cascade region and the atomic mobility at the irradiation temperature. The argument can be applied to silicide forming systems. With near-noble metals, the mixed atoms are mobile and form metallurgically distinct phases. With refractory metals, amorphous phases are formed due to lack of atomic mobility

  12. Mixing properties of quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.

    1988-01-01

    We generalize the classical notion of topological mixing for automorphisms of C * -algebras in two ways. We show that for Galilean invariant Fermi systems the weaker form of mixing is satisfied. With some additional requirement on the range of the interaction we can also demonstrate the stronger mixing property. (Author)

  13. B Lifetimes and Mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Harold G.

    2009-01-01

    The Tevatron experiments, CDF and D0, have produced a wealth of new B-physics results since the start of Run II in 2001. We've observed new B-hadrons, seen new effects, and increased many-fold the precision with which we know the properties of b-quark systems. In these proceedings, we will discuss two of the most fruitful areas in the Tevatron B-physics program: lifetimes and mixing. We'll examine the experimental issues driving these analyses, present a summary of the latest results, and discuss prospects for the future.

  14. Transition mixing among baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiman, D.

    1976-01-01

    A degenerate perturbation theory model for mass splitting within the 70,1 - baryon multiplet is proposed. It is found that dominance of the lowest-lying two-body 56x35 intermediate states produces mixing angles in fair approximation to those previously deduced from SU(6)sub(W) analysis of decay data. The prediction of the couplings of all hitherto undetected members of the multiplet and of mass were made. The results call into question the nature of Λ (1405). (author)

  15. Mixed dimers, ch. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deursen, A.P.J. van; Reuss, J.

    1976-01-01

    An attempt has been made to detect mixed dimers in nozzle beams of mixtures; NeAr and HeNe dimers were observed with sufficient intensity to determine the total collision cross section. A similar attempt for H 2 Ar was partially hampered by the circumstance that the corresponding HAr + ion must be detected on the wing of the thousand times larger Ar + peak. The search for H 2 He, H 2 Ne and HeAr dimers was not successful, due to masking ion peaks, H 5 + for HHe + , 21 Ne + for H 20 Ne + , and CO 2 + for HeAr + . (Auth.)

  16. Mixed Interaction Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke-Olesen, Andreas; Eriksson, E.; Hansen, T.R.

    In this paper, we describe a new interaction technique for mobile devices named Mixed Interaction Space that uses the camera of the mobile device to track the position, size and rotation of a fixed-point. In this demonstration we will present a system that uses a hand-drawn circle, colored object...... or a person’s face as a fixed-point to determine the location of the device. We use these features as a 4 dimensional input vector to a set of different applications....

  17. MixedNotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokela, Tero; Lucero, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Affinity Diagramming is a technique to organize and make sense of qualitative data. It is commonly used in Contextual Design and HCI research. However, preparing notes for and building an Affinity Diagram remains a laborious process, with a wide variety of different approaches and practices....... In this paper, we present MixedNotes, a novel technique to prepare physical paper notes for Affinity Diagramming, and a software tool to support this technique. The technique has been tested with large real-life Affinity Diagrams with overall positive results....

  18. Coloring mixed hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Voloshin, Vitaly I

    2002-01-01

    The theory of graph coloring has existed for more than 150 years. Historically, graph coloring involved finding the minimum number of colors to be assigned to the vertices so that adjacent vertices would have different colors. From this modest beginning, the theory has become central in discrete mathematics with many contemporary generalizations and applications. Generalization of graph coloring-type problems to mixed hypergraphs brings many new dimensions to the theory of colorings. A main feature of this book is that in the case of hypergraphs, there exist problems on both the minimum and th

  19. Simulation of uranium and plutonium oxides compounds obtained in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselov, Ivan Yu.; Karengin, Alexander G.; Babaev, Renat G.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to carry out thermodynamic simulation of mixed plutonium and uranium oxides compounds obtained after plasma treatment of plutonium and uranium nitrates and to determine optimal water-salt-organic mixture composition as well as conditions for their plasma treatment (temperature, air mass fraction). Authors conclude that it needs to complete the treatment of nitric solutions in form of water-salt-organic mixtures to guarantee energy saving obtainment of oxide compounds for mixed-oxide fuel and explain the choice of chemical composition of water-salt-organic mixture. It has been confirmed that temperature of 1200 °C is optimal to practice the process. Authors have demonstrated that condensed products after plasma treatment of water-salt-organic mixture contains targeted products (uranium and plutonium oxides) and gaseous products are environmental friendly. In conclusion basic operational modes for practicing the process are showed.

  20. TSTA compound cryopump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Patrick, R.E.; Call, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA), at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, is intended to demonstrate realistic fuel supply and cleanup scenarios for future fusion reactors. The vacuum pumps must be capable of handling large quantities of reactor exhaust gases consisting largely of mixtures of hydrogen and helium isotopes. Cryocondensing pumps will not pump helium at 4.2 K; while cryosorption pumps using molecular sieves or charcoal have good helium pumping speed, the adsorbent clogs with condensed hydrogen while pumping mixtures of both. A solution to this problem is a compound design whereby the first stage condenses the hydrogen and the second, or sorption, stage pumps the helium. The TSTA pump designed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses argon gas to cryotrap the helium in the helium-hydrogen mixture. The argon is sprayed directly onto the 4.2 K surface at a rate proportional to the helium flow rate, permitting continuous pumping of the helium-hydrogen mixtures in a single-stage pump. However, the possibility of differential desorption as a first stage in the TSTA gas separation cycle required the inclusion of a first-stage hydrogen isotope condenser. The design, performance, and operating characteristics are discussed