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Sample records for copper deposits central

  1. Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits: with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter J in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Causey, J. Douglas; Denning, Paul D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Horton, John D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.; Parks, Heather L.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The Central African Copperbelt (CACB) is one of the most important copper-producing regions of the world. The majority of copper produced in Africa comes from this region defined by the Neoproterozoic Katanga sedimentary basin of the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and northern Zambia. Copper in the CACB is mined from sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits associated with red beds and includes the giant deposits in the Kolwezi and Tenge-Fungurume districts in the DRC and the Konkola-Musoshi and Nchanga-Chingola districts in Zambia. In recent years, sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits, such as the giant Kansanshi deposit in Zambia have become important exploration targets in the CACB region.

  2. Mineralized and Barren Tourmaline Breccia at Río Blanco-Los Bronces Copper Deposit, Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohf, Michael; Seifert, Thomas; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Rabbia, Osvaldo; Krause, Joachim; Haser, Sabine; Cuadra, Patricio

    2014-05-01

    The Río Blanco-Los Bronces porphyry copper-molybdenum cluster (14.8-4.3 Ma) in central Chile is one of the largest mining districts of the world with more than 200 Mt of contained Cu; almost 30% of these resources are hosted by hydrothermal breccias. These breccia complexes are tourmaline-, biotite-, chlorite-, or iron oxide-cemented and are widespread in the Paleo-Eocene and Mio-Pliocene porphyry Cu-Mo belt of the central Andes. The ongoing research project aims to understand the time-space relationships between the different breccia bodies and the multiple porphyry intrusions. For this, two cross sections in the southern part of the deposit (Sur-Sur and La Americana areas) are studied. Most interesting from the economic/genetic point of view is the intermineral breccia (tourmaline- and biotite-cemented), which have high copper grades. It is under debate whether there is a vertical mineralogical zonation of the cement of the breccia body from tourmaline-rich at the top to biotite-dominated at the bottom, or there are two superimposed breccia formation events. Textural and mineralogical observations of benches- and tunnels-outcrops, drill cores, and polished-thin sections support the first hypothesis. Our work has been focused on tourmaline chemistry due to its high resistance to alteration and weathering, which allows this mineral to retain its original isotopic signature. Preliminary results of 127 microprobe measurements of tourmaline chemistry from the early mineralized breccia (BXT) and the late barren one (BXTTO) show that all the tourmalines belong to the alkali group and the composition ranges between the dravite-schorl end members. There is a pronounced negative correlation between Fe (ferric?) and Al, probably due to exchange at the Z octahedral position. The backscatter images of tourmaline show oscillatory and sector zonings, i.e., alternating light bands/zones (high CaO, FeO, Na2O) and darker ones (enriched in Al2O3 and MgO). There is no significant

  3. An Introduction to Copper Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    There are 11 genetic types of copper deposit in China, three of which (porphyry,contact metasomatic and VMS types) are the most important. The copper deposits distribute widely both temporally and spatially in China. The features of copper ores in China are mostly poor in copper tenor and complex in metal associated. The copper metallogeny in China predominantly occurs in three metallogenic megadomains, namely the circum-Pacific, the paleo-Asian and the Tethys-Himalayan.

  4. Preliminary Model of Porphyry Copper Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Wynn, Jeffrey C.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program develops mineral-deposit models for application in USGS mineral-resource assessments and other mineral resource-related activities within the USGS as well as for nongovernmental applications. Periodic updates of models are published in order to incorporate new concepts and findings on the occurrence, nature, and origin of specific mineral deposit types. This update is a preliminary model of porphyry copper deposits that begins an update process of porphyry copper models published in USGS Bulletin 1693 in 1986. This update includes a greater variety of deposit attributes than were included in the 1986 model as well as more information about each attribute. It also includes an expanded discussion of geophysical and remote sensing attributes and tools useful in resource evaluations, a summary of current theoretical concepts of porphyry copper deposit genesis, and a summary of the environmental attributes of unmined and mined deposits.

  5. Porphyry copper deposits of the world

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Information on porphyry copper deposits from around the world with grade and tonnage models, a general classification based on geologic setting, mineralogy, with...

  6. Hereditary iron and copper deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Flaten, Trond Peder; Andersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    can be successfully treated, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis. Serum ferritin values, transferrin saturation and genetic analysis are used when diagnosing haemochromatosis. The diagnostics of Wilson's disease depends on the use of urinary copper values, serum ceruloplasmin and liver...

  7. Duobaoshan Porphyry Copper Deposit and Its Associated Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Duobaoshan porphyry copper deposit, situated in Nenjiang County of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, lies tectonically in the Mongolian-Okhotsk geosyncline.Duobaoshan porphyry copper ore field consisting of Duobaoshan copper deposit and Tongshan copper deposit contains rich copper associated with molybdenum, gold, silver and osmium (OsX87). In this sense, this porphyry copper ore field will turn into a large industrial base of copper, gold, silver and osmium. At present, in Duobaoshan porphyry copper deposit occurs a usable B+C+-D grade reserve of 3 276 630ton Cu, 122 920 ton Mo, 87 ton gold and 1 417 ton Ag.

  8. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul D.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  9. The copper deposits of Bor, eastern Serbia: Geology and origin of the deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper deposits of Bor, volcanic activities in the area and relationship of minerals through time are presented by formations within the Cenomanian-Turonian range. Geology and age of the deposits are given in the geological-time order based on superposition of the Timok mineral-ore Formation and the underlying (Cenomanian and fossiliferous overlying (Senonian strata. The concept of dating Bor deposits the Turonian is discussed in this context. Bor deposits lie between the Cenomanian Krivelj Formation and the Senonian epiclastic Metovnica Formation. Embedded between the two formations is the Timok volcanogenic Formation. Described in this paper are principal members of the Timok Formation strata: volcanogenic and subvolcanogenic- intrusive rocks, a zone of hydrothermally altered rocks and main types of the Bor ore deposits: (a Deposits of massive sulphide coppers; (b Vein and stockwork-disseminated type of mineralisation; (c Porphyry mineralisation; and (d Reworked ore-clasts of copper sulphides of the Novo Okno deposit. Identified deposits, according to the Bor Geological Service records and published works, are systematized and summarized into three geographic units: (1 Group of deposits Severozapad (Brezanik; (2 Central Bor Deposits (Tilva Roš, Čoka Dulkan, Tilva Mika, Borska Reka, and Veliki Krivelj and many ore bodies; (3 Copper deposits Jugoistok (ore bodies X and J and olistostrome deposit Novo Okno. Information given in this paper, the discussion on relative geologic age of the Bor deposit’s floor and roof in particular, support our concept that the process ceased before the Upper Turonian, and that age of the primary copper mineralization is Turonian.

  10. Structural controls and evolution of gold-, silver-, and REE-bearing copper-cobalt ore deposits, Blackbird district, east-central Idaho: Epigenetic origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, K.; Tysdal, R.G.; Evans, K.V.; Kunk, M.J.; Pillers, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Cu-Co ± Au (± Ag ± Ni ± REE) ore deposits of the Blackbird district, east-central Idaho, have previously been classified as Besshi-type VMS, sedex, and IOCG deposits within an intact stratigraphic section. New studies indicate that, across the district, mineralization was introduced into the country rocks as a series of structurally controlled vein and alteration systems. Quartz-rich and biotite-rich veins (and alteration zones) and minor albite and siderite veinlets maintain consistent order and sulfide mineral associations across the district. Both early and late quartz veins contain chalcopyrite and pyrite, whereas intermediate-stage tourmaline-biotite veins host the cobaltite. Barren early and late albite and late carbonate (generally siderite) form veins or are included in the quartz veins. REE minerals, principally monazite, allanite, and xenotime, are associated with both tourmaline-biotite and late quartz veins. The veins are in mineralized intervals along axial planar cleavage, intrafolial foliation, and shears.

  11. The Underpotential Deposition of Copper on Pt(311): Site Selective Deposition and Anion Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-14

    AD-A278 022 OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH CONTRACT N00014-84-k-0656/PP0002 R & T Code 4133034 Technical Report #36 The Underpotential Deposition of Copper...Include Security Clauffication) The Underpotential Deposition of Copper on Pt(311): Site Selective Deposition and Anion Effects 𔃼 OERSONAL AUTHOR(S...Alacant, Spain ABSTRACT The underpotential deposition of copper on Pt(31 1)=Pt[2(111 )x(100)] stepped surfaces has been studied and the results are compared

  12. Porphyry-copper mineralisation in the central Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strashimirov, Strashimir; Petrunov, Rumen; Kanazirski, Milko

    2002-08-01

    The porphyry-copper systems in the central part of the Srednogorie zone (Bulgaria) are represented by three major deposits (Elatsite, Medet and Assarel) and several smaller deposits and occurrences, all of them within the Panagyurishte ore district. The hydrothermal systems are related to Late Cretaceous calc-alkaline igneous complexes. Ore mineralisation is developed predominantly in the apical parts of subvolcanic and intrusive bodies as well as within the volcanic and basement metamorphic rocks. Several of the porphyry systems are spatially associated with shallow-level intermediate and high-sulphidation volcanic-hosted epithermal deposits of economic importance, such as the major gold-copper mine at Chelopech located 10 km from the Elatsite porphyry-copper deposit. Mineralisation processes in the porphyry deposits start with intensive hydrothermal alteration of the wall rocks. K-silicate alteration is characteristic for pre-ore hydrothermal activity in all of them, and it is located mostly in their central parts. Propylitic alteration is prominent in the Medet and Assarel deposits. The Assarel deposit is located in the central part of a palaeovolcanic structure and shows a large spectrum of pre-ore alterations, including propylitic, sericitic, and advanced argillic assemblages. The initial stages of the hydrothermal systems are characterised by high temperatures (>550-500 °C) and highly saline (50-20 wt% NaCl equiv.) and vapour-rich fluids of likely magmatic origin. The composition of the fluids gradually changes from H2O-NaCl±FeCl2 to H2O-NaCl-KCl and H2O-NaCl-dominated as the fluids cool, react with wall rocks, and may become diluted with meteoric water. Fe-Ti-oxide mineral associations were formed early in all deposits, later followed, in the Elatsite deposit, by an assemblage of bornite, chalcopyrite, platinum group element (PGE) phases, Co-Ni thiospinels, Ag- and Bi-tellurides, and selenides. The main ore stage in all deposits is dominated by

  13. Deposition of copper selenide thin films and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yunxiang; Afzaal, Mohammad; Malik, Mohammad A.; O'Brien, Paul

    2006-12-01

    A new method is reported for the growth of copper selenide thin films and nanoparticles using copper acetylacetonate and trioctylphosphine selenide. Aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition experiments lead to successful deposition of tetragonal Cu 2Se films. In contrast, hexadecylamine capped nanoparticles are composed of cubic Cu 2-xSe. The deposited materials are optically and structurally characterized. The results of this comprehensive study are described and discussed.

  14. Re-Os Dating of the Pulang Porphyry Copper Deposit in Zhongdian, NW Yunnan, and Its Geological Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Pusheng; HOU Zengqian; WANG Haiping; QU Wenjun; MENG Yifeng; YANG Zhusen; LI Wenchang

    2004-01-01

    The Pulang porphyry copper deposit is located in the Zhongdian island arc belt, NW Yunnan, in the central part of the Sanjiang area, SW China, belonging to the southern segment of the Yidun island arc belt on the western margin of the Yangtze Platform. In the Yidun island arc, there occur well-known "Gacun-style" massive sulfide deposits in the northern segment and plenty of porphyry copper deposits in the southern segment, of which the Pulang porphyry copper deposit is one of the representatives. Like the Yulong porphyry copper deposit, this porphyry copper deposit is also one of the most important porphyry copper deposits in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. But it is different from other porphyry copper deposits in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (e.g. those in the Gangdise porphyry copper belt and Yulong porphyry copper belt) in that it formed in the Indosinian period, while others in the Himalayan period. Because of its particularity among the porphyry copper deposits of China, this porphyry copper deposit is of great significance for the study of the basic geology and the evaluation and prediction of mineral resources in the Zhongdian island arc belt.However, no accurate chronological data are available for determining the timing of mineralization of the porphyry copper deposit. By field observation in the study area and Re-Os dating of molybdenite and K-Ar dating of hydrothermal minerals and whole rock from the typical geological bodies, the timing of mineralization of the porphyry copper deposit has systematically been determined for the first time. The K-Ar age for the hydrothermal mineralization of biotite-quartz monzonitic porphyry that has undergone patassic silicate (biotite and K-feldspar) alteration ranges from 235.4±2.4 to 221.5±2.0 Ma and the Re-Os age for molybdenite in the quartz-molybdenite stage is ~213±3.8 Ma. These data are very close to each other, suggesting that the ore-forming processes of the Pulang porphyry copper deposit was

  15. Analysis of tectonic settings of global superlarge porphyry copper deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA; Bin(夏斌); CHEN; Genwen(陈根文); WANG; He(王核)

    2003-01-01

    About three quarters of superlarge porphyry copper deposits throughout the world occur along the eastern Pacific basin rim, most of which were formed during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Porphyry copper deposits often occur in the upper parts of a subduction zone and in a within-plate orogenic belt. Some porphyry copper deposits are inconsistent with plate subduction with respect to their formation time, and most of them in the world are associated with tensional environment. Metallogenic porphyries originated from the mantle, and the involvement of the lower-crust or oceanic crust materials have played an important role. Based on the geochemical characteristics and tectonic settings of the ore-bearing porphyries in the Gandise and Yulong metallogenic zones, it is proposed that delamination may be the important mechanism of formation of porphyry copper deposits.

  16. In situ deposits of copper and copper oxide containing condensation polyimide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, G. M.; Taylor, L. T.

    1987-01-01

    Novel copper-polyimide composites have been synthesized via simultaneous thermal decomposition of solid solutions of bis (trifluoroacetylacetonato) copper (II) and thermal cyclodehydration of polyimide acid. In contrast to conventional filled polymer composites which are prepared by dispersion of particles or fibers in a polymer matrix this study has yielded in general uniform Cu or CuO dispersions of very small particle size that reside near the film surface that was exposed to the atmosphere during curing. The nature of the copper deposit, the thickness of the copper deposit, and the polyimide overlayer which bonds the copper to the polymer substrate depend on the curing atmosphere used. A variety of analytical surface methods along with thermogravimetric analysis and variable temperature (surface and volume) electrical resistivity measurements have been used to characterize these thin, flexible copper doped polyimide films.

  17. Geochronologic constraints on magmatic intrusions and mineralization of the Zhunuo porphyry copper deposit in Gangdese, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In situ zircon U-Pb ages for the recently discovered Zhunuo porphyry copper deposit in the western part of the Gangdese metallogenic belt in Tibet were determined by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP). The ages can be divided into two separate groups, reflecting more than four major tectono-magmatic events in the area. The 62.5±2.5 Ma age of inherited zircons may be related to the volcanic eruption of the Linzizong Group formed shortly after the India-Asia continental collision. The 50.1±3.6 Ma age most likely corresponds to the time of underplating of mantle-derived mafic magma in Gangdese. The 15.6±0.6 Ma age obtained from magmatic zircons is interpreted as the age of crystallization of the Zhunuo ore-forming porphyry. Finally, a molybdenite Re-Os isochron age of 13.72±0.62 Ma is consistent with another zircon U-Pb age of 13.3 ±0.2 Ma, representing the time of copper mineralization. These ages, in combination with available literature data, indicate that magmatic crystallization and copper mineralization in the Gangdese metallogenic belt became gradually younger westward, and further suggest that the Zhunuo porphyry copper deposit was formed in the same tectonic stage as other porphyry copper deposits in the eastern and central Gangdese belt. This conclusion provides critical information for future exploration of porphyry copper deposits in western Gangdese.

  18. Kinetics of electroless deposition: the copper-dimethylamine borane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, Daniela; Campbell, Andrew I; Patole, Samson N; Shul, Galyna; Dryfe, Robert A W

    2010-06-15

    A kinetic study of the electroless deposition of copper on gold, using dimethylamine borane (DMAB) as a reducing agent, has been carried out. The copper deposition rate in the electroless bath was determined to be 50 nm min(-1), through electrochemical stripping of the copper deposits as well as from direct measurements of the film thickness using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Comparison with a galvanic cell setup, where the two half-reactions were physically separated, yielded a lower deposition rate of 30 nm min(-1). An important kinetic effect of the surface on the oxidation of the reducing agent, and thus on the overall process, was therefore revealed. The efficiency of the process was measured over time, revealing the contribution of side reactions in the cathodic half-cell, particularly during the initial stages of the electroless process.

  19. Deposition of copper coatings in a magnetron with liquid target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumarkin, A. V., E-mail: sanyahrustal@mail.ru; Kaziev, A. V.; Kolodko, D. V.; Pisarev, A. A.; Kharkov, M. M.; Khodachenko, G. V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Copper coatings were deposited on monocrystalline Si substrates using a magnetron discharge with a liquid cathode in the metal vapour plasma. During the deposition, the bias voltage in the range from 0 V to–400 V was applied to the substrate. The prepared films were investigated by a scanning electron microscope, and their adhesive properties were studied using a scratch tester. It was demonstrated that the adhesion of the deposited films strongly depends on the bias voltage and varies in a wide range.

  20. Magnetic field effects on copper metal deposition from copper sulfate aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udagawa, Chikako; Maeda, Aya; Katsuki, Akio; Maki, Syou; Morimoto, Shotaro; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi

    2014-05-01

    Effects of a magnetic field (≤0.5 T) on electroless copper metal deposition from the reaction of a copper sulfate aqueous solution and a zinc thin plate were examined in this study. In a zero field, a smooth copper thin film grew steadily on the plate. In a 0.38 T field, a smooth copper thin film deposited on a zinc plate within about 1 min. Then, it peeled off repeatedly from the plate. The yield of consumed copper ions increased about 2.1 times compared with that in a zero field. Mechanism of this magnetic field effect was discussed in terms of Lorentz force- and magnetic force-induced convection and local volta cell formation.

  1. Niobium thin film coating on a 500-MHz copper cavity by plasma deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haipeng Wang; Genfa Wu; H. Phillips; Robert Rimmer; Anne-Marie Valente; Andy Wu

    2005-05-16

    A system using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma source for the deposition of a thin niobium film inside a copper cavity for superconducting accelerator applications has been designed and is being constructed. The system uses a 500-MHz copper cavity as both substrate and vacuum chamber. The ECR plasma will be created to produce direct niobium ion deposition. The central cylindrical grid is DC biased to control the deposition energy. This paper describes the design of several subcomponents including the vacuum chamber, RF supply, biasing grid and magnet coils. Operational parameters are compared between an operating sample deposition system and this system. Engineering work progress toward the first plasma creation will be reported here.

  2. Coper Isotope Fractionation in Porphyry Copper Deposits: A Controlled Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J.; Mathur, R.; Uhrie, J. L.; Hiskey, B.

    2001-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that copper is fractionated in the environment. However, the mechanisms for isotope fractionation and the role of organic and inorganic processes in the fractionation are not well understood. Here we used the well controlled experiments used by Phelps Dodge Corporation aimed at leaching copper from their ore deposits to constrain the mechanism of copper isotope fractionation in natural systems. The isotope data were collected on a Micromass Isoprobe. High temperature copper sulfides from ore deposits in Chile and Arizona yield delta 65Cu near 0 permil. The reproducibility of the data is better that 0.1 permil. Controlled experiments consisting of large columns of rocks were fed solutions containing bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferroxidans and Leptospirrilium ferroxidan. Solutions fom the columns were sampled for sixty days and analyzed for copper concentrations, oxidation potential, ferrous/ferric ratios and pH. The results indicate that the bacterially aided dissolution of copper fractionated copper. Preliminary experiments of copper dissolution not using bacteria show no isotope fractionation The original rock in the experiment has a delta 65Cu of -2.1. The first solutions that were collected from the columns had a delta 65Cu of -5.0 per mil. The liquid changed its isotopic composition from -50 to -10 during the sixty days of sampling. The greatest shift in the isotope ratios occurred the first 30 days when the copper recovered was less than 40% and the ferrous/ferric ratios were somewhat constant. At approximately 35 days after the start of the experiments, the copper recovery increases the ferrousferric ratio decreased and the copper isotope ratio of the fluids remained fairly constant. The data suggest that the bacteria are required to effectively fractionate copper isotopes in natural systems and that the mechanisms of bacterial aided copper dissolution may include a direct dissolution of the sulfides by the bacteria. Experiments

  3. Estrogen Intake and Copper Depositions: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Amtage

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with chronic postmenopausal estrogen intake with presence of Kayser-Fleischer ring in the cornea and Alzheimer's disease and discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms of estrogen intake and copper accumulation in various tissues, including the central nervous system. Sonography was compatible with copper accumulation in the basal ganglia, but the patient showed no clinical signs of Wilson's disease. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography revealed a typical pattern for Alzheimer's disease. We propose increased copper levels as a direct effect of estrogen intake due to an augmented ATP7A-mRNA in the intestine. Moreover, we discuss the impact of elevated free serum copper on accompanying Alzheimer's disease, knowing that copper plays a crucial role in the formation of amyloid plaques and tau aggregation. This might offer a partial explanation for the observation that postmenopausal estrogen therapy is associated with a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Analysis Of The Underpotential Deposition Of Cadmium On Copper

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalik R.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the process of deposition of cadmium on polycrystalline copper electrode in sulfate solution was investigated. The process of underpotential and bulk deposition was analyzed by classical electrochemical method: cyclic voltammetry(CV), anodic stripping voltammetry(ASV) and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance(EQCM). The obtained results were compared with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) measurements. CV, EQCM and EIS results suggest that the UPD of cadmium star...

  5. Ordovician Intrusive-related Gold-Copper Mineralization in West-Central New South Wales, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three major types of Ordovician intrusive-related gold-copper deposits are recognized in central-west New South Wales,, Australia: porphyry, skam and high sulphidation epithermal deposits.These deposits are mainly distributed within two Ordovician volcano-intrusive belts of the Lachlan Fold Be1t: the Orange-Wellington Belt and the Parkes-Narromine Belt. Available isotopic age data suggest that mineralization of the three types of deposits is essentially coeval with the Ordovician intrusive rocks (480-430 Ma). Porphyry gold-copper deposits can be further divided into two groups. The first group is associated with monzoniteshowing shoshonitic features represented by Cadia and Goonumbla. The second group is associated with diorite and dacite, including the Copper Hill and Cargo gold-copper deposits. Gold skarn is associated with Late Ordovician (430-439 Ma) monzonitic intrusive complexes in the Junction Reefs area (Sheahan-Grants, Frenchmans, and Cornishmens), Endeavour 6, 7 and 44, Big and Little Cadia. The epithermal gold deposits with high sulphidation including Gidginbung (Temora) and Peak Hill mainly occur within Ordovician andesite and volcaniclastic rocks, and are associated with advanced argillic alteration. Available isotopic age data indicate that both alteration and mineralization of the porphyry, skam and epithermal gold-copper deposits are broadly coeval with the Late Ordovician hoshonitic mangmatism, which is thought to result from the melting of sub-continental lithosphere caused by Palaeozoic subduction events. The Ordovician intrusive-related gold-copper deposits are restricted to two longitudinal parallel volcano-intrusive belts, rarely extending outside them. Diagonal intra-belt trends of mineralization are common, particularly at the intersections of longitudinal and transverse (oblique) fault/fracture zones basedon the authors'review of available geological data. The locations of these gold-copper deposits are obviously influenced by transverse

  6. X-Ray diffraction Investigation of Electrochemically Deposited Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Jensen, Jens Dahl; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Copper layers were deposited from acidic electrolytes containing different amounts of organic additives, designed for the formation of Cu-interconnect structures. Amorphous Ni-P substrates allow to study the unbiased growth of the electrodeposits. The crystallographic texture was investigated...

  7. Porphyry copper deposit model: Chapter B in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Barton, Mark D.; Blakely, Richard J.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Dilles, John H.; Gray, Floyd; Graybeal, Fred T.; Mars, John L.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Seal, Robert R., II; Taylor, Ryan D.; Vikre, Peter G.; John, David A.

    2010-01-01

    This report contains a revised descriptive model of porphyry copper deposits (PCDs), the world's largest source (about 60 percent) and resource (about 65 percent) of copper and a major source of molybdenum, gold and silver. Despite relatively low grades (average 0.44 percent copper in 2008), PCDs have significant economic and societal impacts due to their large size (commonly hundreds of millions to billions of metric tons), long mine lives (decades), and high production rates (billions of kilograms of copper per year). The revised model describes the geotectonic setting of PCDs, and provides extensive regional- to deposit-scale descriptions and illustrations of geological, geochemical, geophysical, and geoenvironmental characteristics. Current genetic theories are reviewed and evaluated, knowledge gaps are identified, and a variety of exploration and assessment guides are presented. A summary is included for users seeking overviews of specific topics.

  8. Surface ordering during underpotential deposition of lead on copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Natasa

    Recently there has been an increased fundamental and practical interest in studies of ultra-thin films in systems with large atomic size mismatch. For those systems interesting surface stress-driven phenomena are observed, such as surface-confined alloying resulting in self-assembly and ordering of domain structures. The system of interest in the present study is the electrochemical deposition of lead on copper that has an atomic size mismatch of 37%. This system shows no bulk alloying and has been thoroughly examined in ultra high vacuum (UHV). Electrodeposition of lead on copper starts by formation of one epitaxial monolayer in the potential region positive with respect to the reversible potential of bulk lead deposition, a phenomenon known in electrochemistry as underpotential deposition (UPD). On copper (111), in-situ STM results have shown (4 x 4) Moire structure of the complete lead monolayer, a structure identical to that observed in UHV. Following stripping of the lead monolayer, STM results revealed nano-organization of the topmost copper layer. Depending on the solution pH value, different types of nanoscale organization have been observed: (i) a Moire pattern of anion-induced reconstruction of the top copper layer, and (ii) a star pattern dislocation network. Additional experiments in lead-free aerated and deaerated solutions at different pH values suggest that observed structures are results of lead-assisted oxy-anion adsorption in which lead plays a catalytic role. On copper (100), the lead UPD process features coverage-dependent phase behavior identical to that observed in UHV. As a function of lead coverage, phases corresponding to a dilute random alloy phase and ordered surface alloy phase that appears at a surface coverage ratio of three lead atoms to eight copper atoms are observed. With increasing lead coverage, lead dealloys from this ordered phase resulting in the formation of a c(2 x 2) lead overlayer phase that transforms with increasing lead

  9. The geology and geochemistry of Philippine Porphyry copper deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divis, Allan F.

    Porphyry copper deposits and their relationship to felsic intrusions are of considerable economic as well as academic interest. They generally occur near continental margins and in island arcs. Although some conjecture exists as to the ultimate source of transition metals associated with the deposits, a growing body of evidence suggests the metals are principally derived from a magmatic source: the porphyry intrusions. These intrusions may also give rise to adjacent vein and precious metal deposits. Over 40 potential deposits have been reported in the Philippine island arc and approximately nine are or have been in production. The known and inferred reserves from these deposits exceed three billion metric tons of ore— approximately 10 to 20 million tons of metallic copper. Several deposits may ultimately have more than a billion tons of ore reserves. There appears to be a remarkable correlation between the timing of porphyry intrusions in the Philippines and that in other areas, particularly New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. These intrusions also show a close relationship to the timing of oceanic plate tectonic processes. Periods of increased subduction rate and accompanying dilation and/or shearing within the arc may be conducive to the generation of porphyry magmas on an episodic rather than continuous basis. Ultimately, the development of an economically significant ore body requires the presence of a hydrous magma and may be associated with other primary compositional characteristics. However, anomalous high primary magmatic concentrations of copper do not appear to be required for the formation of the porphyry deposits. The Philippine porphyry intrusions differ somewhat from `continental' porphyries and are chemically similar to mineralized island arc intrusions of the Carribean and the southwest Pacific. The Philippine intrusions generally range from diorites and quartz diorites to low potassium granodiorites. Initial 87-Sr/86-Sr ratios are low, ranging

  10. Atmospheric Deposition of Copper and Zinc in Maramures County (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buteana Claudia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to reduce pollution to levels that minimize adverse effects on human health involve the monitoring of air quality, including dry depositions and their metal content. The analysis of these parameters aims to investigate the air quality in Maramures County (with nonferrous mining activities and in the Romanian - Ukraine transboundary area. The paper presents the experimental results obtained for dry atmospheric deposition of copper and zinc using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The samples were collected from four location/cities of Maramures County (Baia Mare, Sighetu Marmatiei, Viseu de Sus and Borsa during May-October 2014. The highest average values of copper concentration in the dry depositions were found in Baia Mare (199.88 μg/g, that is the most important industrial centre in Maramures County, followed by Borsa (111.49 μg/g, that used to be a nonferrous mining centre. In Viseu de Sus and Sighetu Marmatiei the average concentrations of copper in the dry depositions were lower: 75.63 μg/g and 64.26 μg/g, respectively. Zn average concentrations in dry depositions were 6.4-12 times higher than Cu concentrations. In Viseu de Sus and Borsa relative high values of Pearson correlation coefficients between the logarithm of Cu and Zn content in the dry deposition were found (0.702 and 0.737, respectively estimating that both pollutants in the ambient air have the same sources, probably the re-suspension of the dust from the tailing ponds. This study is implemented within the frame of ENPI Cross-border Cooperation Programme Hungary-Slovakia-Romania-Ukraine 2007-2013, in the project Clean Air Management in the Romania-Ukraine Transboundary Area - (CLAMROUA, financed by the European Union

  11. Analysis Of The Underpotential Deposition Of Cadmium On Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalik R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the process of deposition of cadmium on polycrystalline copper electrode in sulfate solution was investigated. The process of underpotential and bulk deposition was analyzed by classical electrochemical method: cyclic voltammetry(CV, anodic stripping voltammetry(ASV and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance(EQCM. The obtained results were compared with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS measurements. CV, EQCM and EIS results suggest that the UPD of cadmium starts below potential −0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. Additionally the stripping analysis indicates the formation of cadmium monolayer with different density of deposited atoms depending on the applied potential. The transition from UPD to bulk deposition occurs below potential −0,7 V.

  12. Association of pyrobitumen with copper mineralization from the Uchumi and Talcuna districts, central Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Nicholas S.F.; Zentilli, Marcos [Geological Survey of Canada Calgary, 3303-33rd St. N.W., Calgary (AB Canada T2L 2A7)

    2006-01-03

    Pyrobitumen has been shown to be an essential component in formation of some Chilean manto-type (strata-bound) copper deposits and its presence has been observed in a number of other deposits but has received limited investigation. In this paper we present paragenetic and geochemical data from two central Chilean manto-type deposits from the Uchumi and Talcuna districts where solid pyrobitumen (residual petroleum) is intimately associated with copper sulfides. Pyrobitumen in the Uchumi deposit occurs in pore space within the host conglomerates and is adjacent to a granitoid stock; pyrobitumen predates bornite-chalcocite mineralization and may have reduced subsequent mineralizing fluids. Pyrobitumen from the Manto Delirio deposit, Talcuna District, fills the cores of early sphalerite veins and was partially replaced by later Cu-As mineralization; pyrobitumen is petrographically intergrown with Cu-Fe sulfides and light {delta}{sup 13}C values of gangue calcite indicates the interaction of pyrobitumen with the mineralizing fluid. The presence of pyrobitumen within the ores of other manto-type copper deposits in the Lower Cretaceous basin of Chile suggests that degraded petroleum reservoirs, in particular if biodegradation generated authigenic pyrite, can be important controls for metallic mineralization derived from hydrothermal solutions of different sources. (author)

  13. Fate of copper complexes in hydrothermally altered deep-sea sediments from the Central Indian Ocean Basin.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Sander, S.G.; Jayachandran, S.; Nath, B.N.; Nagaraju, G.; Chennuri, K.; Vudamala, K.; Lathika, N.; Mascarenhas-Pereira, M.B.L.

    version: Environ. Pollut., vol.194; 2014; 138-144 Fate of copper complexes in hydrothermally altered deep-sea sediments from the Central Indian Ocean Basin Parthasarathi Chakraborty*1, Sylvia G. Sander2, Saranya Jayachandran1, B. Nagender Nath1, , G... sulphide deposits on the seafloor. Mining companies are exploring underwater volcanic vents, hoping to extract metals such as gold (Au), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), rare earth element etc (Birney et al., 2006). The initial stages of exploration are still...

  14. Characterization of copper selenide thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamun; Islam, A. B. M. O.

    2004-11-01

    A low-cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been used for the preparation of Cu2-xSe thin films onto glass substrates and deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Good quality thin films of smooth surface of copper selenide thin films were deposited using sodium selenosulfate as a source of selenide ions. The structural and optical behaviour of the films are discussed in the light of the observed data.

  15. Genesis of Yangla Banded Skarn-Hosted Copper Deposit in Tethys Orogenic Belt of Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Yangla copper deposit is the largest banded skarn-hosted copper deposit found recently in the Tethys orogenic belt of Southwestern China. On the basis of the study of distribution, petrology and mineralogy as well as major element, REE and isotope geochemistry, the authors find that the banded skarn, which hosts the deposit, was precipitated from hydrothermal solutions in the form of exhalate sediment. Therefore, the banded skarn-hosted copper deposit is a Sedex-type deposit, with a series of stacked, conformable lenses underlain by at least one stringer zone. The deposit, intercalated at the contact of lower clastic rock and upper carbonate rock of Gajinxueshan Group, was formed in the Carboniferous ((296.1±7.0) Ma), contemporary to the host Gajinxueshan Group. The interpretation of the genesis of Yangla banded skarn-hosted copper deposit is of fundamental exploration significance for the discovery of Sedex-type copper deposit in the region.

  16. Stress of electroless copper deposits on insulating and metal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brüning, Ralf, E-mail: rbruening@mta.ca [Physics Department, Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick E4L 1E6 (Canada); Sibley, Allison; Sharma, Tanu; Brown, Delilah A.; Demay, Thibault [Physics Department, Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick E4L 1E6 (Canada); Brüning, Frank; Bernhard, Tobias [Atotech Deutschland GmbH, Erasmusstrasse 20, 10553 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-08-28

    In the fabrication of printed circuit boards, electroless copper is plated on insulating substrates. However, data for film stress by substrate bending are frequently obtained with metal substrates. We compare the stress evolution on an insulating substrate (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) with results from commercial Ni–Fe and Cu–Fe alloy test strips, as well as X-ray diffraction based strain data. Tests were done with two plating bath formulations, one with and one without added nickel. Substrate type and condition determine the stress near the beginning of plating. Stress of the Ni-free films depends more strongly on the substrate material. Further, when the samples are cooled from the bath operating temperature to room temperature, the thermal contraction of the insulating substrate compresses the plated thin copper film. The measured stress change agrees with the change predicted by calculation. Data correction methods are discussed, and other substrate materials can be tested readily with the method employed here. - Highlights: • We report stress of electroless Cu deposits on insulating and metal substrates. • The final deposit stress is substrate-independent. • The final deposit stress and the X-ray diffraction based strain agree. • The stress change due to the thermal contraction of the substrate is observed. • Plating bath type, substrate and surface preparation alter the stress.

  17. The copper and uranium deposits of the Coyote district, Mora County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschanz, C.M.; Laub, D.C.; Fuller, G.W.

    1954-01-01

    The copper and uranium-vanadium deposits of the Coyote district, Mora County, N. Mec, are confined to the lower 2,000 feet of the Sangre de Gristo formation of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. A narrow belt of deposits in steeply dipping or overturned rocks extends for 7 miles along Coyote Creek south of Guadalupita. Earlier studies showed that the copper deposits contained uranium, but both the reserves and the uranium content of the copper-bearing

  18. Copper content and distribution in vineyard soils of central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Ninkov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the copper content of vineyard soils as affected by the long-term use of copper-based fungicides. The soil samples were taken from individual vineyards located in the central region of Serbia, from two depths: 0-30 and 30-60 cm. At the same time, at each site, control samples were collected from a nearby forest in order to determine the background concentrations. The pseudototal (CuT and available (CuEDTA copper content were analysed in 60 soil samples in total, 46 of which represented vineyard soils and 14 control samples. The maximum value of copper was 200.1 mg/kg of pseudototal and 82.1 mg/kg of available copper. Comparison of the copper content in vineyards to the background concentrations of control samples clearly confirmed anthropogenic influence. Out of 46 vineyard soil samples, about one half (22 of them had the CuT concentration above the critical level of 60 mg/kg. Eleven samples had the pseudototal content over the MAC of 100 mg/kg. Anthropogenic influence was also confirmed on the basis of copper bioavailability and copper distribution along the soil profile. Available content of over 50 mg/kg was found in 8 out of 46 analysed samples of vineyard soils. According to the percentage contribution of available CuEDTA to pseudototalCuT, half of the samples were above 36%, which is potentially phytotoxic. The concentration of copper was the highest in the surface layer in the vineyard soil samples. A check of the background Cu levels has shown that the distribution of CuT and CuEDTA is uniform throughout the soil profile. Data from some of the analysed plots indicate that the process of erosion is under way at the site. The soil on lower-lying terrain has been found to be more exposed to copper pollution than the soil of higher terrain. Since copper at the surveyed sites is very persistent and accumulates in a short period of time, focus should be placed on the preventive measures of reducing the use of copper

  19. Liquid precursor for deposition of copper selenide and method of preparing the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Franciscus Antonius Maria Van Hest, Marinus; Ginley, David S.; Hersh, Peter A.; Eldada, Louay; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2015-09-08

    Liquid precursors containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semiconductor applications are disclosed. Methods of preparing such liquid precursors and methods of depositing a precursor on a substrate are also disclosed.

  20. Deposition of thermal and hot-wire chemical vapor deposition copper thin films on patterned substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitropoulos, G; Davazoglou, D

    2011-09-01

    In this work we study the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) of copper films on blanket and patterned substrates at high filament temperatures. A vertical chemical vapor deposition reactor was used in which the chemical reactions were assisted by a tungsten filament heated at 650 degrees C. Hexafluoroacetylacetonate Cu(I) trimethylvinylsilane (CupraSelect) vapors were used, directly injected into the reactor with the aid of a liquid injection system using N2 as carrier gas. Copper thin films grown also by thermal and hot-wire CVD. The substrates used were oxidized silicon wafers on which trenches with dimensions of the order of 500 nm were formed and subsequently covered with LPCVD W. HWCVD copper thin films grown at filament temperature of 650 degrees C showed higher growth rates compared to the thermally ones. They also exhibited higher resistivities than thermal and HWCVD films grown at lower filament temperatures. Thermally grown Cu films have very uniform deposition leading to full coverage of the patterned substrates while the HWCVD films exhibited a tendency to vertical growth, thereby creating gaps and incomplete step coverage.

  1. Genetic Analogy Between Sediment—Hosted Gold Deposits and Sediment—Hosted Copper Deposits in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖荣阁; 陈卉泉; 等

    1996-01-01

    The sediment-hosted copper deposits according to the authors' study were formed from connate formation water during the post-sedimentary or diagenetic stage while the sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits are unanimously considered to be of post-sedimentary hydrothermal origin.Therefore,apart from their own individulities.These two types of deposits must share some characters in common.Comparisons are attempted,in this paper,between the sediment-hosted copper deposits in southwest China and the Triassic sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi Triangle in terms of geological and geochemical features.

  2. Porphyry copper assessment of Central America and the Caribbean Basin: Chapter I in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Floyd; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Ludington, Stephen; Zürcher, Lukas; Nelson, Carl E.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Miller, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. The U.S. Geological Survey prepared a probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Central America and the Caribbean Basin in collaboration with geoscientists from academia and the minerals industry. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within the permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver that could be contained in undiscovered deposits. The assessment was done using a three-part mineral resource assessment based on established mineral deposit models. Permissive tracts were delineated based primarily on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with convergent plate margins. Five permissive tracts were delineated: the Early Cretaceous through Eocene Santiago tract, the Late Cretaceous through Oligocene Chortis tract, the Paleocene through Oligocene Darién tract, the Miocene and Pliocene Cocos tract, and the Eocene to Holocene Lesser Antilles tract. These tracts range in size from about 3,000 to about 204,000 square kilometers.

  3. Atomic layer deposition of copper sulfide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Nathanaelle, E-mail: n.schneider@chimie-paristech.fr; Lincot, Daniel; Donsanti, Frédérique

    2016-02-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) of copper sulfide (Cu{sub x}S) thin films from Cu(acac){sub 2} (acac = acetylacetonate = 2,4-pentanedionate) and H{sub 2}S as Cu and S precursors is reported. Typical self-saturated reactions (“ALD window”) are obtained in the temperature range T{sub dep} = 130–200 °C for an average growth per cycle (GR) = 0.25 Å/cycle. The morphology, crystallographic structure, chemical composition, electrical properties and optical band gap of thin films were investigated using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction under Grazing Incidence conditions (GI-XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), Hall effect measurements, and UV–vis spectroscopy. The obtained copper sulfide films are heavily p-doped (charge carrier concentration ~ 10{sup 21} –10{sup 22} cm{sup −3}) with optical band gaps in the range of 2.2–2.5 eV for direct and 1.6–1.8 eV for indirect band gaps. Depending on the number of ALD cycles, multiphase compounds (made of digenite Cu{sub 1.8}S, chalcocite Cu{sub 2}S, djurleite Cu{sub 31}S{sub 16} and covellite CuS) or single-phase digenite Cu{sub 1.8}S films are obtained via a growth mechanism that involves in-situ copper reduction and loss of sulfur by evaporation. - Highlights: • Cu{sub x}S films were synthesized by atomic layer deposition from Cu(acac){sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. • Self-saturated reactions at T{sub dep} = 130–200 °C for growth = 0.25 Å/cycle • Multi- or single- phase films are obtained depending on the number of cycles. • Growth mechanism involves copper reduction and loss of sulfur by evaporation.

  4. Sandstone copper assessment of the Chu-Sarysu Basin, Central Kazakhstan: Chapter E in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Stephen E.; Syusyura, Boris; Hayes, Timothy S.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Seltmann, Reimar; Chechetkin, Vladimir; Dolgopolova, Alla; Cossette, Pamela M.; Wallis, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments represent a synthesis of available information to estimate the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources in the upper part of the Earth’s crust. This report presents a probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within the late Paleozoic Chu-Sarysu Basin in central Kazakhstan by the U.S. Geological Survey as a contribution to a global assessment of mineral resources. The purposes of this study are to: (1) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects in this area, (2) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within 2 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The assessment uses the three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993; Singer and Menzie, 2010).

  5. Prediction of Central Burst Defects in Copper Wire Drawing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, G.; Haddi, A.; Imad, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the prediction of chevron cracks (central bursts) in copper wire drawing process is investigated using experimental and numerical approaches. The conditions of the chevron cracks creation along the wire axis depend on (i) the die angle, the friction coefficient between the die and the wire, (ii) the reduction in crosssectional area of the wire, (iii) the material properties and (iv) the drawing velocity or strain rate. Under various drawing conditions, a numerical simulation for the prediction of central burst defects is presented using an axisymmetric finite element model. This model is based on the application of the Cockcroft and Latham fracture criterion. This criterion was used as the damage value to estimate if and where defects will occur during the copper wire drawing. The critical damage value of the material is obtained from a uniaxial tensile test. The results show that the die angle and the reduction ratio have a significant effect on the stress distribution and the maximum damage value. The central bursts are expected to occur when the die angle and reduction ratio reach a critical value. Numerical predictions are compared with experimental observations.

  6. Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition of Few-Layer Graphene on Copper Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Víctor-Manuel Freire; Badia-Canal, Jordi; Roca, Carles Corbella; Miralles, Esther Pascual; Serra, Enric Bertran; Bella, José-Luís Andújar

    2013-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of graphene on copper is an efficient technology for producing high-quality graphene for large areas. The objective of this work is to deposit graphene/few-layer graphene (FLG) using different types of copper substrate by a new hot-wire CVD process. We carried out the processes at temperatures below 1000 °C with acetylene (C2H2) as a precursor gas. After a general characterization of the samples, the results mostly indicate the formation of FLG on copper samples by this method. Nevertheless, the presence of pure, crystalline, and sufficiently flat surfaces is needed for depositing high-quality graphene layers.

  7. The effect of antimony presence in anodic copper on kinetics and mechanism of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Z.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the presence of Sb atoms, as foreign metal atoms in anode copper, on kinetics, and, on the mechanism of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of copper in acidic sulfate solution has been investigated. The galvanostatic single-pulse method has been used. Results indicate that presence of Sb atoms in anode copper increase the exchange current density as determined from the Tafel analysis of the electrode reaction. It is attributed to the increase of the crystal lattice parameter determined from XRD analysis of the electrode material.

  8. Thin films of copper oxide and copper grown by atomic layer deposition for applications in metallization systems of microelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waechtler, Thomas

    2010-05-25

    Copper-based multi-level metallization systems in today's ultralarge-scale integrated electronic circuits require the fabrication of diffusion barriers and conductive seed layers for the electrochemical metal deposition. Such films of only several nanometers in thickness have to be deposited void-free and conformal in patterned dielectrics. The envisaged further reduction of the geometric dimensions of the interconnect system calls for coating techniques that circumvent the drawbacks of the well-established physical vapor deposition. The atomic layer deposition method (ALD) allows depositing films on the nanometer scale conformally both on three-dimensional objects as well as on large-area substrates. The present work therefore is concerned with the development of an ALD process to grow copper oxide films based on the metal-organic precursor bis(trin- butylphosphane)copper(I)acetylacetonate [({sup n}Bu{sub 3}P){sub 2}Cu(acac)]. This liquid, non-fluorinated {beta}-diketonate is brought to react with a mixture of water vapor and oxygen at temperatures from 100 to 160 C. Typical ALD-like growth behavior arises between 100 and 130 C, depending on the respective substrate used. On tantalum nitride and silicon dioxide substrates, smooth films and selfsaturating film growth, typical for ALD, are obtained. On ruthenium substrates, positive deposition results are obtained as well. However, a considerable intermixing of the ALD copper oxide with the underlying films takes place. Tantalum substrates lead to a fast self-decomposition of the copper precursor. As a consequence, isolated nuclei or larger particles are always obtained together with continuous films. The copper oxide films grown by ALD can be reduced to copper by vapor-phase processes. If formic acid is used as the reducing agent, these processes can already be carried out at similar temperatures as the ALD, so that agglomeration of the films is largely avoided. Also for an integration with subsequent

  9. The Sedimentation—reworking Genesis of Dongchuan—type Stratiform Copper Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华仁民

    1990-01-01

    The Dongchuan-type copper deposits have long been studied and well reported because of their great economic significance.The present paper proposes a "sedimentation-reworking" origin for this type of deposits to challenge the current "sedimentation-metamorphism" model which has been widely asscpted since 1970s.According to the new idea,orebodies were not directly deposited in the Luoxue dolomite where they are hosted.Instead,copper was preliminarily concentrated in the Yinmin Formation.During or after diagenesis,copper in the Yinmin Formation was mobilized and leached by hydrothermal solutions derived from the interstitial water of sediments under the high geothermal gradient of rift environment,Thus,copper was transported from the source bed(the Yinmin Formation)upward to the Luoxue algal dolomite where sulfur was produced by the reduction of sulfates.The copper sulfides were formed through replacement of initial sulfides by Cu-bearing solutions.

  10. Flank collapse at Mount Wrangell, Alaska, recorded by volcanic mass-flow deposits in the Copper River lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, C.F.; Wallace, K.L.

    2002-01-01

    An areally extensive volcanic mass-flow deposit of Pleistocene age, known as the Chetaslina volcanic mass-flow deposit, is a prominent and visually striking deposit in the southeastern Copper River lowland of south-central Alaska. The mass-flow deposit consists of a diverse mixture of colorful, variably altered volcanic rocks, lahar deposits, glaciolacustrine diamicton, and till that record a major flank collapse on the southwest flank of Mount Wrangell. The deposit is well exposed near its presumed source, and thick, continuous, stratigraphic exposures have permitted us to study its sedimentary characteristics as a means of better understanding the origin, significance, and evolution of the deposit. Deposits of the Chetaslina volcanic mass flow in the Chetaslina River drainage are primary debris-avalanche deposits and consist of two principal facies types, a near-source block facies and a distal mixed facies. The block facies is composed entirely of block-supported, shattered and fractured blocks with individual blocks up to 40 m in diameter. The mixed facies consists of block-sized particles in a matrix of poorly sorted rock rubble, sand, and silt generated by the comminution of larger blocks. Deposits of the Chetaslina volcanic mass flow exposed along the Copper, Tonsina, and Chitina rivers are debris-flow deposits that evolved from the debris-avalanche component of the flow and from erosion and entrainment of local glacial and glaciolacustrine diamicton in the Copper River lowland. The debris-flow deposits were probably generated through mixing of the distal debris avalanche with the ancestral Copper River, or through breaching of a debris-avalanche dam across the ancestral river. The distribution of facies types and major-element chemistry of clasts in the deposit indicate that its source was an ancestral volcanic edifice, informally known as the Chetaslina vent, on the southwest side of Mount Wrangell. A major sector collapse of the Chetaslina vent initiated

  11. Sorbitol as an efficient reducing agent for laser-induced copper deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemirovsky, V. A.; Logunov, L. S.; Safonov, S. V.; Tumkin, I. I.; Tver'yanovich, Yu. S.; Menchikov, L. G.

    2012-10-01

    We have pioneered in revealing the fact that sorbitol may be used as an efficient reducing agent in the process of laser-induced copper deposition from solutions; in this case, it is possible to obtain copper lines much higher quality than by using conventional formalin.

  12. Generation of porphyry copper deposits by gas-brine reaction in volcanic arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundy, J.; Mavrogenes, J.; Tattitch, B.; Sparks, S.; Gilmer, A.

    2015-03-01

    Porphyry copper deposits, that is, copper ore associated with hydrothermal fluids rising from a magma chamber, supply 75% of the world's copper. They are typically associated with intrusions of magma in the crust above subduction zones, indicating a primary role for magmatism in driving mineralization. However, it is not clear that a single, copper-rich magmatic fluid could trigger both copper enrichment and the subsequent precipitation of sulphide ore minerals within a zone of hydrothermally altered rock. Here we draw on observations of modern subduction zone volcanism to propose an alternative process for porphyry copper formation. We suggest that copper enrichment initially involves metalliferous, magmatic hyper-saline liquids, or brines, that exsolve from large, magmatic intrusions assembled in the shallow crust over tens to hundreds of thousands of years. In a subsequent step, sulphide ore precipitation is triggered by the interaction of the accumulated brines with sulphur-rich gases, liberated in short-lived bursts from the underlying mafic magmas. We use high-temperature and high-pressure laboratory experiments to simulate such gas-brine interactions. The experiments yield copper-iron sulphide minerals and hydrogen chloride gas at magmatic temperatures of 700-800 °C, with textural and chemical characteristics that resemble those in porphyry copper deposits. We therefore conclude that porphyry copper ore forms in a two-stage process of brine enrichment followed by gas-induced precipitation.

  13. Tempo of magma degassing and the genesis of porphyry copper deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelle-Michou, Cyril; Rottier, Bertrand; Caricchi, Luca; Simpson, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Porphyry deposits are copper-rich orebodies formed by precipitation of metal sulphides from hydrothermal fluids released from magmatic intrusions that cooled at depth within the Earth’s crust. Finding new porphyry deposits is essential because they are our largest source of copper and they also contain other strategic metals including gold and molybdenum. However, the discovery of giant porphyry deposits is hindered by a lack of understanding of the factors governing their size. Here, we use thermal modelling and statistical simulations to quantify the tempo and the chemistry of fluids released from cooling magmatic systems. We confirm that typical arc magmas produce fluids similar in composition to those that form porphyry deposits and conclude that the volume and duration of magmatic activity exert a first order control on the endowment (total mass of deposited copper) of economic porphyry copper deposits. Therefore, initial magma enrichment in copper and sulphur, although adding to the metallogenic potential, is not necessary to form a giant deposit. Our results link the respective durations of magmatic and hydrothermal activity from well-known large to supergiant deposits to their metal endowment. This novel approach can readily be implemented as an additional exploration tool that can help assess the economic potential of magmatic-hydrothermal systems.

  14. Electrodeposition of a protective copper/nickel deposit on the magnesium alloy (AZ31)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: gfehu@mail.cgu.edu.tw; Wang, T.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Weirich, T. [Gemeinschaeftslabor fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Neubert, V. [Zentrum fuer Funktionswerkstoe GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    An environmental-friendly Cu electrodeposition process was proposed for the Magnesium alloy (AZ 31). Experimental results show that a good bonding between Cu deposit and Mg alloy surface can be achieved with a pretreatment of galvanostatic etching and then copper electrodeposition in the alkaline copper-sulfate plating bath. Microstructures between Cu deposit and Mg alloy substrate were examined with scanning electron and energy-filtering transmission electron microscopes (SEM and EF-TEM). The Cu-deposited Mg alloy can be further electroplated in acidic Cu and Ni plating baths to acquire a protective Cu/Ni deposit.

  15. The Unusual Colour of Copper Deposited on a Graphite Electrode in an Aqueous Solution of CuSO[subscript 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusevski, Vladimir M.; Stojanovska, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The colour of the copper layer deposited on a graphite electrode during electrolysis of an aqueous solution of copper(II) sulfate looks whitish-grey when inspected in situ. Taking the electrode out of the solution reveals the familiar orange-red colour of deposited copper. The explanation is found in terms of the almost ideal complementary colours…

  16. The Unusual Colour of Copper Deposited on a Graphite Electrode in an Aqueous Solution of CuSO[subscript 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusevski, Vladimir M.; Stojanovska, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The colour of the copper layer deposited on a graphite electrode during electrolysis of an aqueous solution of copper(II) sulfate looks whitish-grey when inspected in situ. Taking the electrode out of the solution reveals the familiar orange-red colour of deposited copper. The explanation is found in terms of the almost ideal complementary colours…

  17. Characterization of hafnium oxide resistive memory layers deposited on copper by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, B.D.; Bishop, S.M. [SUNY College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, 255 Fuller Road, Albany, NY 12203 (United States); Leedy, K.D. [Air Force Research Laboratory, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States); Cady, N.C., E-mail: ncady@albany.edu [SUNY College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, 255 Fuller Road, Albany, NY 12203 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Hafnium oxide-based resistive memory devices have been fabricated on copper bottom electrodes. The HfO{sub x} active layers in these devices were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 250 °C with tetrakis(dimethylamido)hafnium(IV) as the metal precursor and an O{sub 2} plasma as the reactant. Depth profiles of the HfO{sub x} by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed a copper concentration on the order of five atomic percent throughout the HfO{sub x} film. In addition to the Cu doped HfO{sub x}, a thin layer (20 nm) of Cu{sub x}O is present at the surface. This surface layer is believed to have formed during the ALD process, and greatly complicates the analysis of the switching mechanism. The resistive memory structures fabricated from the ALD HfO{sub x} exhibited non-polar resistive switching, independent of the top metal electrode (Ni, Pt, Al, Au). Resistive switching current voltage (I–V) curves were analyzed using Schottky emission and ionic hopping models to gain insight into the physical mechanisms underpinning the device behavior. During the forming process it was determined that, at voltages in excess of 2.5 V, an ionic hopping model is in good agreement with the I–V data. The extracted ion hopping distance ∼ 4 Å was within the range of interatomic spacing of HfO{sub 2} during the forming process consistent with ionic motion of Cu{sup 2+} ions. Lastly the on state I–V data was dominated at larger voltages by Schottky emission with an estimated barrier height of ∼ 0.5 eV and a refractive index of 2.59. The consequence of the Schottky emission analysis indicates the on state resistance to be a product of a Pt/Cu{sub 2}O/Cu filament(s)/Cu{sub 2}O/Cu structure. - Highlights: • HfO{sub 2} was grown via atomic layer deposition at 250 and 100 °C on Cu substrates. • A Cu{sub 2}O surface layer and Cu doping were observed in post-deposition of HfO{sub 2}. • Resistive memory devices were fabricated and

  18. Modeling of dust deposition in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The deposition of dust particles has a significant influence on the global bio-geochemical cycle. Currently, the lack of spatiotemporal data creates great uncertainty in estimating the global dust budget. To improve our understanding of the fate, transport and cycling of airborne dust, there is a ne...

  19. Isotopic and fluid-inclusion constraints on the formation of polymetallic vein deposits in the central Argentinian Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonghe, Léon; Darras, Benoît; Hughes, Guillermo; Muchez, Philippe; Scoates, James S.; Weis, Dominique

    2002-03-01

    The lead isotope compositions of galena and the fluid-inclusion systematics of nine barite-bearing polymetallic (Au, Ag, Pb, Zn) deposits of the central Argentinian Patagonia (Chubut and Rio Negro provinces) have been investigated to constrain the compositions and sources of the mineralizing fluids. Most of the deposits occur as veins, with less common wall-rock disseminations and/or stockworks, and are low-sulfidation epithermal deposits hosted in Jurassic volcanic rocks. Fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures (Th) from quartz and sphalerite from the deposits fall within the range of 100-300 °C, with the highest measured average temperatures for the most eastern deposits (Mina Angela - 298 °C; Cañadón Bagual - 343 °C). The salinities of the hydrothermal fluids at all deposits were low to moderate (≤10.4 equiv. wt% NaCl). Three groups of ore deposits can be defined on the basis of 206Pb/204Pb ratios for galena and these show a general decrease from west to east (from 18.506 to 18.000). The central Argentinian Patagonia deposits have distinctly less radiogenic lead isotope compositions than similar deposits from Peru and Chile, except for the porphyry copper deposits of central and southern Peru. Galena from the Mina Angela deposit is characterized by very low radiogenic lead isotope compositions (18.000Precambrian basement. The geographic trend in lead isotope compositions of both galena and whole rocks indicates a crustal contribution which increases eastwards, also reflected in the strontium-neodymium isotope systematics of the host lavas. Finally, due to the lack of precise age determinations for the central Patagonian polymetallic deposits, a potential link with Andean porphyry copper systems remains an open question.

  20. GIS-based identification of areas with mineral resource potential for six selected deposit groups, Bureau of Land Management Central Yukon Planning Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James V.; Karl, Susan M.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora B.; Granitto, Matthew; Hayes, Timothy S.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Todd, Erin; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    This study, covering the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Central Yukon Planning Area (CYPA), Alaska, was prepared to aid BLM mineral resource management planning. Estimated mineral resource potential and certainty are mapped for six selected mineral deposit groups: (1) rare earth element (REE) deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic intrusive igneous rocks, (2) placer and paleoplacer gold, (3) platinum group element (PGE) deposits associated with mafic and ultramafic intrusive igneous rocks, (4) carbonate-hosted copper deposits, (5) sandstone uranium deposits, and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum-fluorspar deposits associated with specialized granites. These six deposit groups include most of the strategic and critical elements of greatest interest in current exploration.

  1. The current efficiency during the cathodic period of reversing current in copper powder deposition and the overall current efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. NIKOLIC

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The current efficiency during the cathodic period of reversing current in copper powder deposition was determined by measuring the quantity of hydrogen evolved. The diagrams from which the instantaneous and average current efficiencies for copper deposition can be extracted for any deposition time up to 30 min are given. A procedure for the calculation of the overall current efficiency is proposed.

  2. Fabrication of copper nanorods by low-temperature metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; Frank Leung-Yuk Lam; HU Xijun; YAN Zifeng

    2006-01-01

    Copper nanorods have been synthesized in mesoporous SBA-15 by a low-temperature metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)employing copper (Ⅱ) acetylacetonate, Cu(acac)2,and hydrogen as a precursor and reactant gas, respectively. The hydrogen plays an important role in chemical reduction of oganometallic precursor which enhances mass transfer in the interior of the SBA-15 porous substrate. Such copper nanostructures are of great potentials in the semiconductor due to their unusual optical, magnetic and electronic properties.In addition, it has been found that chemically modifying the substrate surface by carbon deposition is crucial to such synthesis of copper nanostructures in the interior of the SBA-15, which is able to change the surface properties of SBA-15 from hydrophilic to hydrophobic to promote the adsorption of organic cupric precursor. It has also been found that the copper nanoparticles deposited on the external surface are almost eliminated and the copper nanorods are more distinct while the product was treated with ammonia. This approach could be achieved under a mild condition: a low temperature (400℃) and vacuum (2 kPa) which is extremely milder than the conventional method. It actually sounds as a foundation which is the first time to synthesize a copper nanorod at a mild condition of a low reaction temperature and pressure.

  3. Geochemistry of Subvolcanic-Type Copper-Silver Deposits in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The metallogenesis of subvolcanic deposits is controlled by subvolcanic activities. The copper polymetallic deposits are genetically related to intermediate-acid rocks, and the silver polymetallic deposits are more closely related to acid rocks. The abundance of Cu is relatively high in the intermediate-acid rocks and subvolcanic rocks, whereas the abundances of Pb, An and Ag are high in acid rocks, indicating rich ore-forming elements in original magmas. The study of REEs shows that the magmatic type related to copper deposits is the syntectic type, and that related to silver polymetallic deposits is mainly the re-melting type. The deposits were formed under medium-low temperatures and low salinity. The metallogenic times were the late stage of the early Yanshanian or the late Yanshanian, dating 78- 147 Ma.

  4. On the Yangtze—type Copper Deposits and Their Polygentic Origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文达

    1990-01-01

    The so-called“Yangtze-type”copper deposits include:(1)Cu-bearing massive pyrite bed ,(2)Cu-bearing skarn and magnetite-type ore deposits,with replacement Cu-vein-type deposits near the metasomatic zone,and (3)mineralized intrusive bodies and breccia pipes ,some of which are known as porphyry copper ores(e.g.Chengmenshan).This type of ore deposits is a typical example to verify the polygenesis of inost of the deposits in China,as has been promoted by Prof.Tu Guangchi in view of the polycyclic development of the geological history in China.This paper is con-cemed with one sub-type of such deposits.

  5. Combined optical second harmonic generation/quartz crystal microbalance study of underpotential deposition processes: copper electrodeposition on polycrystalline gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkaraju, S; Bennahmias, M J; Borges, G L; Gordon Ii, J G; Lazaga, M; Stone, B M; Ashley, K

    1990-11-20

    Optical second harmonic generation and quartz crystal microbalance techniques are used as in situ probes of copper underpotential deposition on polycrystalline gold surfaces in sulfuric acid electrolyte. The second harmonic signal from a polished bulk gold substrate is observed to decrease by >60% as a result of copper underpotential deposition on gold. Also, the mass of an underpotentially deposited copper adlayer is monitored in situ by an oscillating quartz crystal microbalance, yielding an estimated coverage of ~8.0 x 10(-10) mol cm(-2) and an electrosorption valency of 1.5 for a copper adlayer on the surface of vapor-deposited polycrystalline gold.

  6. Cold Spray Deposition of Copper Electrodes on Silicon and Glass Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Yeon; Park, Jung-Jae; Lee, Jong-Gun; Kim, Donghwan; Tark, Sung Ju; Ahn, Sejin; Yun, Jae Ho; Gwak, Jihye; Yoon, Kyung Hoon; Chandra, Sanjeev; Yoon, Sam S.

    2013-10-01

    Copper lines with widths varying from 150 to 1500 μm were deposited onto crystalline silicon wafers and soda-lime glass plates by cold spraying copper particles with 1 μm average diameter through a mask. This direct deposition method yielded high-aspect-ratio electrodes with minimum shadowing effects and maximum electrode-to-silicon contact area. The copper lines had triangular cross sections with aspect ratios (height/width) ranging from 0.1 to 1.1, depending on the number of spray gun passes. Copper particles were densely packed with increasing the width of the masking slit. This study presents the potential use of the cold spray technology in printing lines as front electrodes in solar cell applications.

  7. Structural, optical and electrical properties of chemically deposited copper selenide films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R H Bari; V Ganesan; S Potadar; L A Patil

    2009-02-01

    Stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric thin films of copper selenide have been prepared by chemical bath deposition technique at temperature below 60°C on glass substrate. The effect of nonstoichiometry on the optical, electrical and structural properties of the film was studied. The bandgap energy was observed to increase with the increase in at % of copper in composition. The grain size was also observed to increase with the decrease of at % of copper in composition. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), absorption spectroscopy, and AFM. The results are discussed and interpreted.

  8. Surface modification of an epoxy resin with polyamines and polydopamine: Adhesion toward electroless deposited copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, David; Mader, Lothar; Dubruel, Peter; Vanfleteren, Jan

    2015-10-01

    In this paper the influence of the epoxy roughness, surface modifications and ELD (electroless copper deposition) temperatures on the adhesive strength of the copper is studied. Good adhesion at low roughness values is targeted due to their applicability in high density electronic circuits. Roughened epoxy surfaces are modified with adsorbed polyamines, polydopamine and polyamines grafted to polydopamine. Next the, adhesive strength of ELD copper is determined with peel strength measurements and the interphases are examined with SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Polydopamine and polyamines grafted to polydopamine can lead to increased adhesive strength at lower roughness values compared to the non-modified samples at specific plating temperatures.

  9. Lambton generating station's experience with HP turbine copper deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravaggio, M. [Lambton Generating Station, Ontario Power Generation Inc., Courtright, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper covers the understanding developed from, as well as the timeline and techniques that were used to address, rapid, dramatic HP turbine performance losses associated with copper deposition on two of four 500 MW coal-fired drum units at Ontario power generation's (OPG's) Lambton generating station (GS) over the last three years. The two affected units both had greater than 20 MW de-rates caused by copper deposition and 5-10% losses in HP cylinder efficiency during the period. On one unit the HP cylinder was being replaced by a dense pack HP turbine (decision made prior to identifying the copper deposition issue), and on the other unit a physical clean of the turbine was opted for, with additional study being conducted for possible chemical cleans in the future. This paper outlines Lambton's current understanding of the copper transport cycle through a drum type boiler (based on industry literature and OPG/Lambton GS operating experience), as well as Lambton's experiences to date with the solutions chosen for addressing HP turbine copper deposition. (orig.)

  10. Cobalt Deposits in the Central China Orogenic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cobalt mostly occurs as an associated metal in Cu-Ni sulphide deposits, skarn Fe-Cu-Pb-Zn deposits and volcanic-hosted massive sulphide (VHMS) or sedex deposits. There are different types of cobalt deposits in the Central China orogenic belt. In the Tamu-Kalangu Mississippi-valley type Pb-Zn deposits, many cobalt-nickel sulphide minerals were found. The cobalt content of the ore is 0.064%- 0.46% in sedex-type Kendekeke Fe-Pb-Zn-Au deposits, and cobalt sulphide veins with Co contents of 4%- 9% have also been found. About 28000 tons of cobalt reserves were delineated in the Durgoi Cu-Co-Zn deposit of VHMS type in the A'nyemaqên Mountains. It is considered that the exploration potential for cobalt is attractive in this district, especially in sedex-type deposits and Co-rich sulphide veins in sedex-type Fe, Cu and Pb-Zn deposits and their surroundings.

  11. Stochastic modelling of deep magmatic controls on porphyry copper deposit endowment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, Massimo; Caricchi, Luca

    2017-03-01

    Porphyry deposits, our main source of copper and of significant amounts of Mo, Re and Au, form at convergent margins in association with intermediate-felsic magmas. Although it is accepted that copper is transported and precipitated by fluids released by these magmas, the magmatic processes leading to the formation of economic deposits remain elusive. Here we perform Monte Carlo petrological and geochemical modelling to quantitatively link crustal magmatic processes and the geochemical signatures of magmas (i.e., Sr/Y) to the formation of porphyry Cu deposits of different sizes. Our analysis shows that economic deposits (particularly the largest ones) may only form in association with magma accumulated in the lower-middle crust (P > ~0.5 GPa) during ≥2–3 Ma, and subsequently transferred to and degassed in the upper crust over periods of up to ~2.0 Ma. Magma accumulation and evolution at shallower depths (<~0.4 GPa) dramatically reduces the potential of magmatic systems to produce economic deposits. Our modelling also predicts the association of the largest porphyry deposits with a specific Sr/Y interval (~100 ± 50) of the associated magmatic rocks, which is virtually identical to the range measured in giant porphyry copper deposits.

  12. Wood textures in Jinman copper deposit in western Yunnan and their genetic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jiajun

    2001-01-01

    [1]Shuai Dequan, On the biological textures of metallic minerals, Acta Mineralogica and Petrologica (in Chinese with Eng-lish abstract), 1985, 5(4): 80-84.[2]Shuai Dequan, On the Biological Fabrics of Metallic Minerals (in Chinese), Chengdu: Sichuan University Press, 1988, 70-76.[3]Picot, P., Johan, Z., Atlas of Ore Minerals (in German), 2nd ed., Amsterdam: B.R.G.M.Elsevier, 1980, 455.[4]Ramdohr, P., The Ore Minerals and Their Intergrodoths, 2nd ed., (English translation of the 4th edition, with additions and corrections by the authors), Vol. 2, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1980, 164-1062.[5]Ramdohr, P., The Ore Minerals and Their Intergrodoths (in German), Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1975.[6]Picot, P., Johan, Z., Atlas of Ore Minerals (Translation by Guiloux, J., Reviewed by Watkinson, D. H.), Amsterdam: B.R.G.M.Elsevier, 1982, 54.[7]Yan Wen, Li Chaoyang, Geochemical characteristics and hydrothermal sedimentary origin of a new type of copper depos-its, Geochimica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1997, 26(1): 55-63.[8]Shi Xingjian, Li Xingxue, Plant Fossils in China (in Chinese), Vol. 2, Beijing: Science Press, 1963, 341.[9]Ji Hongbing, Li Chaoyang, Geochemical characteristics and origin of ore-forming fluids in Jinman copper deposit, west-ern Yunnan, Acta Mineralogica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1998, 18(1): 28-37.[10]Zhuang Hanping, Ran Chongying, He Mingqing et al., Interactions between copper, salt and organic matter and the for-mation of sandstone-hosted copper deposits, Acta Geologica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1996, 70(2): 162-172.[11]Yang Yingxuan, Chou Dingmao, Kan Meiying et al., Precambrian Stratabound Copper Deposits in Xichang-Central Yun-nan (in Chinese), Chongqing: Chongqing Publishing House, 1988, 291-299.[12]Li Feng, Pu Weimin, Ran Chongying, Ore-forming material source of Jinman copper deposit in Lanping, western Yunnan, Bulletin of Kunming College of Technology (in Chinese

  13. Using different chemical methods for deposition of copper selenide thin films and comparison of their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzeldir, Betül; Sağlam, Mustafa

    2015-11-05

    Different chemical methods such as Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR), spin coating and spray pyrolysis methods were used to deposite of copper selenide thin films on the glass substrates. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) spectroscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The XRD and SEM studies showed that all the films exhibit polycrystalline nature and crystallinity of copper selenide thin films prepared with spray pyrolysis greater than spin coating and SILAR methods. From SEM and AFM images, it was observed copper selenide films were uniform on the glass substrates without any visible cracks or pores. The EDX spectra showed that the expected elements exist in the thin films. Optical absorption studies showed that the band gaps of copper selenide thin films were in the range 2.84-2.93 eV depending on different chemical methods. The refractive index (n), optical static and high frequency dielectric constants (ε0, ε∞) values were calculated by using the energy bandgap values for each deposition method. The obtained results from different chemical methods revealed that the spray pyrolysis technique is the best chemical deposition method to fabricate copper selenide thin films. This absolute advantage was lead to play key roles on performance and efficiency electrochromic and photovoltaic devices.

  14. Surface modification of an epoxy resin with polyamines and polydopamine: Adhesion toward electroless deposited copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaubroeck, David, E-mail: David.Schaubroeck@elis.ugent.be [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), IMEC and Ghent University, Technologiepark 914A, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Mader, Lothar [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), IMEC and Ghent University, Technologiepark 914A, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Dubruel, Peter [Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4 bis, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vanfleteren, Jan [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), IMEC and Ghent University, Technologiepark 914A, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Surface modifications of epoxy resins with polydopamine and grafted polyamines can significantly increase the adhesion toward electroless deposited copper. • A clear characterization of the copper/epoxy interphase is provided by SEM analyses of cross sections. • Tailored conditions such as etching time (roughness) and electroless deposition temperature are needed to increase the adhesion of the modified surfaces. - Abstract: In this paper the influence of the epoxy roughness, surface modifications and ELD (electroless copper deposition) temperatures on the adhesive strength of the copper is studied. Good adhesion at low roughness values is targeted due to their applicability in high density electronic circuits. Roughened epoxy surfaces are modified with adsorbed polyamines, polydopamine and polyamines grafted to polydopamine. Next the, adhesive strength of ELD copper is determined with peel strength measurements and the interphases are examined with SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Polydopamine and polyamines grafted to polydopamine can lead to increased adhesive strength at lower roughness values compared to the non-modified samples at specific plating temperatures.

  15. Characterization of fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes in the Iju porphyry copper deposit, North West of Shahr-e-Babak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Golestani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Iju porphyry copper deposit is located in the southern part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (Dehaj-Sarduieh belt within the Kerman copper belt (Dimitrijevic, 1973. The Porphyry Copper mineralization in the Iranian plate occurs dominantly along the Urumieh-Dokhtar arc, which has resulted from the subduction of the Arabian plate beneath the central Iran and the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean during the Alpine orogeny (Hassanzadeh, 1993. The Iju porphyry copper deposit with 25 million tons of ore reserves is one of the main copper deposits within the Kerman copper belt. The mining area is composed of upper Miocene volcanic and subvolcanic rocks (mineralized and barren subvolcanic rocks and quaternary deposits. Two hydrothermal alteration zones of quartz-sericite-pyrite and propylitic zones can be identified in the Iju area. The copper mineralization in the Iju deposit occurs as disseminated, stockwork and hydrothermal breccia. In the hypogene zone, the mineral paragenesis include chalcopyrite, pyrite, with minor occurrences of bornite and magnetite. This paper reports geological, mineralogical, fluid inclusion and S isotope data from the Iju deposit in order to investigate ore-bearing fluids’ characteristics and the mechanisms of ore deposition. Materials and methods Fifteen samples of syngenetic quartz+pyrite bearing veinlets within the quartz-sericite-pyrite zone were selected from different depths across the seven boreholes. Quartz was used for double-polished thin sections and pyrite was used for sulfur isotope analysis. Fluid inclusion studies were performed using the Linkam cooling and heating stage, the THMSG 600 model. The syngenetic pyrite with thermometry quartz sample was used for the sulfur isotope experiments. Stable isotope analysis was performed at the Hatch Stable Isotope Laboratory in the University of Ottawa, Canada. Results The fluid inclusions of the Iju deposit represent a wide range in the

  16. The effect of bi presence as impurities in anodic copper on kinetics and mechanism of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Zvonimir D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Bi, as foreign metal atoms in anode copper, on kinetics and mechanism of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of copper in acidic sulfate solution was investigated using the galvanostatic single-pulse method. Results indicate that presence of Bi atoms in anode copper increases the exchange current density, as determined from the Tafel analysis of the electrode reaction, which is attributed to the increase of the crystal lattice parameter determined from XRD analysis of the electrode material.

  17. Electrochemical atomic layer deposition of copper nanofilms on ruthenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregziabiher, Daniel K.; Kim, Youn-Geun; Thambidurai, Chandru; Ivanova, Valentina; Haumesser, Paul-Henri; Stickney, John L.

    2010-04-01

    As ULSI scales to smaller and smaller dimensions, it has become necessary to form layers of materials only a few nm thick. In addition, trenches are now being incorporated in ULSI formation which require conformal coating and will not be amenable to CMP. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is being developed to address such issues. ALD is the formation of materials layer by layer using self-limiting reactions. This article describes the formation of Cu seed layers (for the Cu damascene process) on a Ru barrier layer. The deposit was formed by the electrochemical analog of ALD, using electrochemical self-limiting reactions which are referred to as underpotential deposition (UPD). Monolayer restricted galvanic displacement was used to form atomic layers of Cu. First Pb UPD was deposited, forming a sacrificial layer, and then a Cu +2 solution was flushed into the cell and Pb was exchanged for Cu. A linear dependence was shown for Cu growth over 8 ALD cycles, and STM showed a conformal deposition, as expected for an ALD process. Relative Cu coverages were determined using Auger electron spectroscopy, while absolute Cu coverages were obtained from coulometry during oxidative stripping of the deposits. Use of a Cl - containing electrolyte results in Cu deposits covered with an atomic layer of Cl atoms, which have been shown to protect the surfaced from oxidation during various stages of the deposition process. The 10 nm thick Ru substrates were formed on Si(1 0 0) wafers, and were partially oxidized upon receipt. Electrochemical reduction, prior to Cu deposition, removed the oxygen and some traces of carbon, the result of transport. Ion bombardment proved to clean all oxygen and carbon traces from the surface.

  18. Relations between A-type granites and copper mineralization as exemplified by the Machangqing Cu deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕献武; 胡瑞忠; 叶造军; 邵树勋

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the relations between the Machangqing rockbody which corresponds to the A-type granites and porphyry copper mineralization in terms of petrochemistry, trace element geochemistry, fluid inclusion geochemistry and isotope geochemistry. The results show that the Machangqing porphyry copper deposit was formed from the fluid predominated by mag-matic fluid. This kind of ore-forming fluid was just differentiated from the magma responsible for the A-type granites. Therefore, as viewed from whether they contain water or not, the A-type granites can, at least, be divided into two types: water-bearing and water-free. The water-bearing A-type granites can serve as the host of porphyry copper deposits under certain geological conditions.

  19. Relations between A-type granites and copper mineralization as exemplified by the Machangqing Cu deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the relations between the Machangqing rockbody which corresponds to the A-type granites and porphyry copper mineralization in terms of petrochemistry,trace element geochemistry,fluid inclusion geochemistry and isotope geochemistry.The results show that the Machangqing porphyry copper deposit was formed from the fluid predominated by magmatic fluid.This kind of ore-forming fluid was just differentiated from the magma responsible for the A-type granites.Therefore,as viewed from whether they contain water or not,the A-type granites can,at least,be divided into two types:water-bearing and water-free.The water-bearing A-type granites can serve as the host of porphyry copper deposits under certain geological conditions.

  20. Hydrogeochemical prospecting for porphyry copper deposits in the tropical-marine climate of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W.R.; Ficklin, W.H.; Learned, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrogeochemical survey utilizing waters from streams and springs was conducted in the area of two known porphyry copper deposits in the tropical-marine climate of westcentral Puerto Rico. The most important pathfinder for regional hydrogeochemical surveys is sulfate which reflects the associated pyrite mineralization. Because of increased mobility due to intense chemical weathering and the low pH environment, dissolved copper can also be used as a pathfinder for regional surveys and has the advantage of distinguishing barren pyrite from pyrite associated with copper mineralization. For follow-up surveys, the most important pathfinders are copper, sulfate, pH, zinc, and fluoride. High concentrations of dissolved copper and moderate concentrations of sulfate is a diagnostic indication of nearby sources of copper minerals. An understanding of the geochemical processes taking place in the streambeds and the weathering environment, such as the precipitation of secondary copper minerals, contributes to the interpretation of the geochemical data and the selection of the most favorable areas for further exploration. ?? 1982.

  1. Direct chemical vapour deposited grapheme synthesis on silicon oxide by controlled copper dewettting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Beld, Wesley Theodorus Eduardus; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for direct uniform graphene synthesis onto silicon oxide in a controlled manner. On a grooved silicon oxide wafer is copper deposited under a slight angle and subsequently the substrate is treated by a typical graphene synthesis process. During this process

  2. Spatial control of direct chemical vapor deposition of graphene on silicon dioxide by directional copper dewetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Beld, Wesley Theodorus Eduardus; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for the spatial control of direct graphene synthesis onto silicon dioxide by controlled dewetting. The dewetting process is controlled through a combination of using a grooved substrate and conducting copper deposition at an angle. The substrate is then treated

  3. Grade and Tonnage Model of Contact Metasomatic Copper Deposit in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Grade-tonnage model is one of the research frontiers of systematical exploration theory. Based on the “Reserve Database of Mineral Resources in China (1997)”, this paper establishes the geological model, grade model, tonnage model, grade-tonnage model and tonnage-sequence model of contact metasomatic copper deposits in China. The mathematical properties of these models are described in detail.

  4. Direct chemical vapour deposited grapheme synthesis on silicon oxide by controlled copper dewettting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beld, van den Wesley T.E.; Berg, van den Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for direct uniform graphene synthesis onto silicon oxide in a controlled manner. On a grooved silicon oxide wafer is copper deposited under a slight angle and subsequently the substrate is treated by a typical graphene synthesis process. During this process di

  5. Spatial control of direct chemical vapor deposition of graphene on silicon dioxide by directional copper dewetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beld, van den Wesley T.E.; Berg, van den Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for the spatial control of direct graphene synthesis onto silicon dioxide by controlled dewetting. The dewetting process is controlled through a combination of using a grooved substrate and conducting copper deposition at an angle. The substrate is then treated usin

  6. An electroplating topography model based on layout-dependent variation of copper deposition rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qiang; Chen Lan; Li Zhigang; Ruan Wenbiao

    2011-01-01

    A layout-pattern-dependent electroplating model is developed based on the physical mechanism of the electroplating process.Our proposed electroplating model has an advantage over former ones due to a consideration of the variation of copper deposition rate with different layout parameters during the process.The simulation results compared with silicon data demonstrate the improvement in accuracy.

  7. The role of oxygen in the deposition of copper-calcium thin film as diffusion barrier for copper metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhinong; Ren, Ruihuang; Xue, Jianshe; Yao, Qi; Li, Zhengliang; Hui, Guanbao; Xue, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The properties of copper (Cu) metallization based on copper-calcium (CuCa) diffusion barrier as a function of oxygen flux in the CuCa film deposition were investigated in view of adhesion, diffusion and electronic properties. The CuCa film as the diffusion barrier of Cu film improves the adhesion of Cu film, however, and increases the resistance of Cu film. The introduction of oxygen into the deposition of CuCa film induces the improvement of adhesion and crystallinity of Cu film, but produces a slight increase of resistance. The increased resistance results from the partial oxidation of Cu film. The annealing process in vacuum further improves the adhesion, crystallinity and conductivity of Cu film. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) show that the CuCa alloy barrier layer deposited at oxygen atmosphere has perfect anti-diffusion between Cu film and substrate due to the formation of Ca oxide in the interface of CuCa/substrate.

  8. Unusual behavior in magnesium-copper cluster matter produced by helium droplet mediated deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, S. B., E-mail: samuel.emery@navy.mil; Little, B. K. [University of Dayton Research Institute, 300 College Park, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, 2306 Perimeter Rd., Eglin AFB, Florida 32542 (United States); Xin, Y. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Ridge, C. J.; Lindsay, C. M. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, 2306 Perimeter Rd., Eglin AFB, Florida 32542 (United States); Buszek, R. J. [ERC Inc., Edwards AFB, California 93524 (United States); Boatz, J. A. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Aerospace System Directorate, Edwards AFB, California 93524 (United States); Boyle, J. M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center Indian Head Explosive Ordnance Technology Division, Indian Head, Maryland 20640 (United States)

    2015-02-28

    We demonstrate the ability to produce core-shell nanoclusters of materials that typically undergo intermetallic reactions using helium droplet mediated deposition. Composite structures of magnesium and copper were produced by sequential condensation of metal vapors inside the 0.4 K helium droplet baths and then gently deposited onto a substrate for analysis. Upon deposition, the individual clusters, with diameters ∼5 nm, form a cluster material which was subsequently characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Results of this analysis reveal the following about the deposited cluster material: it is in the un-alloyed chemical state, it maintains a stable core-shell 5 nm structure at sub-monolayer quantities, and it aggregates into unreacted structures of ∼75 nm during further deposition. Surprisingly, high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy images revealed that the copper appears to displace the magnesium at the core of the composite cluster despite magnesium being the initially condensed species within the droplet. This phenomenon was studied further using preliminary density functional theory which revealed that copper atoms, when added sequentially to magnesium clusters, penetrate into the magnesium cores.

  9. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  10. Copper-Coated Liquid-Crystalline Elastomer via Bioinspired Polydopamine Adhesion and Electroless Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Carl P; Merkel, Daniel R; Laursen, Christopher M; Brinckmann, Stephan A; Yakacki, Christopher M

    2016-12-01

    This study explores the functionalization of main-chain nematic elastomers with a conductive metallic surface layer using a polydopamine binder. Using a two-stage thiol-acrylate reaction, a programmed monodomain is achieved for thermoreversible actuation. A copper layer (≈155 nm) is deposited onto polymer samples using electroless deposition while the samples are in their elongated nematic state. Samples undergo 42% contraction when heated above the isotropic transition temperature. During the thermal cycle, buckling of the copper layer is seen in the direction perpendicular to contraction; however, transverse cracking occurs due to the large Poisson effect experienced during actuation. As a result, the electrical conductivity of the layer reduced quickly as a function of thermal cycling. However, samples do not show signs of delamination after 25 thermal cycles. These results demonstrate the ability to explore multifunctional liquid-crystalline composites using relatively facile synthesis, adhesion, and deposition techniques.

  11. Determination of cadmium and copper with ET-AAS after electrochemical deposition on a graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraná, A; Komárek, J

    1996-06-01

    The electrodeposition of cadmium and copper on a special graphite disk electrode has been performed at controlled potential. The electrode with the deposit has been inserted into the graphite atomizer HGA-400 by an adapted automatic sampler for the final determination by ET-ASS. The sensitivity of determination has been 0.371 (microg l(-1))(-1) for cadmium and 0.025 (microg l(-1))(-1) for copper for 2 min electrodeposition and increased linearly with the time of deposition. The limit of detection (3s(bl)) has been 7.9 ng l(-1) Cd(2+) and 0.11 microg l(-1) Cu(2+) for 2 min deposition and it has been improved with increased time of electrodeposition. The technique has been applied to the determination of both metals in seawater and to speciation in the presence of EDTA complexing agent.

  12. Multistage Carbonatization and Mineral Geochemistry of a Skarn—type Copper Deposit at Tongshan ,Guichi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱瑞龙

    1991-01-01

    The Tongshan copper deposit at Guichi can be considered as a skarn-type copper deposit.Mul-ti-stage carbonatization was well developed in the skarn zone and copper-bearing orebodies,Mineralogy,mineral chemistry and stable isotope data allow it to be divided into five stages:(1)carbonatization of single calcite crystals in the skarn stage;(2)calcite carbonatization in the oxide stage;(3)carbonatization in the early sulfide stage;(4)carbonatization in the late sulfide stage;and (5)carbonatization in the post-sulfide stage.Carbonatization in the early sulide stage is ,among other things,closely related to copper mineralization and is one of the alteration indicators of copper mineralization of this type.C.O,Rb and Sr isotopic studies indicate that the cakites of skarn and oxide stages were formed from hydrothermal solutions predominated by magmatic water,and those of sulfide stage were formed from hydrothermal solutions mainly involving heated meteoric warer.The former was formed in the environment where ?o2(?o2>10-33and 10-33>?o2>10-36)(pH=7-8)is high as compared with the latter(10-35>?o2>10-38;pH=5.7).

  13. Copper selenide thin films by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, V. M.; Nair, P. K.; Nair, M. T. S.

    1999-05-01

    We report the structural, optical, and electrical properties of thin films (0.05 to 0.25 μm) of copper selenide obtained from chemical baths using sodium selenosulfate or N,N-dimethylselenourea as a source of selenide ions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies on the films obtained from baths using sodium selenosulfate suggest a cubic structure as in berzelianite, Cu 2- xSe with x=0.15. Annealing the films at 400°C in nitrogen leads to a partial conversion of the film to Cu 2Se. In the case of films obtained from the baths containing dimethylselenourea, the XRD patterns match that of klockmannite, CuSe. Annealing these films in nitrogen at 400°C results in loss of selenium, and consequently a composition rich in copper, similar to Cu 2- xSe, is reached. Optical absorption in the films result from free carrier absorption in the near infrared region with absorption coefficient of ˜10 5 cm -1. Band-to-band transitions which gives rise to the optical absorption in the visible-ultraviolet region may be interpreted in terms of direct allowed transitions with band gap in the 2.1-2.3 eV range and indirect allowed transitions with band gap 1.2-1.4 eV. All the films, as prepared and annealed, show p-type conductivity, in the range of (1-5)×10 3 Ω -1 cm -1. This results in high near infrared reflectance, of 30-80%.

  14. Nucleation and growth of copper phthalocyanine aggregates deposited from solution on planar surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, Fatemeh [Department of Theory & Bio-Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1 Golm, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Gojzewski, Hubert, E-mail: hubert.gojzewski@put.poznan.pl [Department of Theory & Bio-Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1 Golm, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Riegler, Hans [Department of Theory & Bio-Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1 Golm, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Copper phthalocyanine deposited on planar surfaces by 3 solution process methods. • Aggregate morphology examined for coverage extending over 3 orders of magnitude. • Morphologies vary from small individual domains to mesh-like multilayers. • Nucleation and growth model explains the observed deposit morphologies. - Abstract: Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) dissolved in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is deposited on solid SiO{sub 2} surfaces by solvent evaporation. The deposited CuPc aggregates are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The CuPc deposits were prepared by spin casting, dip coating, and spray deposition. Depending on the amount of deposited CuPc the aggregate morphology ranges from small individual domains to mesh-like multilayers. Each domain/layer consists of many parallel stacks of CuPc molecules with the square, plate-like molecules piled face-wise within each stack. The parallel stacks are attached sideways (i.e., edgewise attachment molecularly) to the substrate forming “nanoribbons” with uniform thickness of about 1 nm and varying width. The thickness reflects the length of a molecular edge, the width the number of stacks. A nucleation and growth model is presented that explains the observed aggregate and multilayer morphologies as result of the combination of nucleation, transport processes and a consequence of the anisotropic intermolecular interactions due to the shape of the CuPc molecule.

  15. Deposition of Antimicrobial Copper-Rich Coatings on Polymers by Atmospheric Pressure Jet Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kredl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inanimate surfaces serve as a permanent reservoir for infectious microorganisms, which is a growing problem in areas in everyday life. Coating of surfaces with inorganic antimicrobials, such as copper, can contribute to reduce the adherence and growth of microorganisms. The use of a DC operated air plasma jet for the deposition of copper thin films on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS substrates is reported. ABS is a widespread material used in consumer applications, including hospitals. The influence of gas flow rate and input current on thin film characteristics and its bactericidal effect have been studied. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and atomic force microscopy confirmed the presence of thin copper layers on plasma-exposed ABS and the formation of copper particles with a size in the range from 20 to 100 nm, respectively. The bactericidal properties of the copper-coated surfaces were tested against Staphylococcus aureus. A reduction in growth by 93% compared with the attachment of bacteria on untreated samples was observed for coverage of the surface with 7 at. % copper.

  16. Copper deposition and its replacement by platinum on a gold electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misicak, Daniel; Ruthenburg, Travis C. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Fawcett, W. Ronald, E-mail: wrfawcett@ucdavis.ed [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The decoration of single crystal gold electrodes with platinum using underpotential deposited copper as an intermediate has been studied in detail. It was found that a significant fraction of the copper is lost in the transfer process from the upd cell to the exchange cell. In addition the surface of the gold is not covered uniformly by the platinum. Nevertheless, acceleration of the electroreduction of oxygen was observed with a loading of 0.14 {mu}g cm{sup -2}. The structure of the decorating layer was studied by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  17. Copper electrodeposition and additives: from underpotential deposition to bulk growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanson, Yuriy; Frenken, Joost; Rost, Marcel [Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    Cu electrodeposition at different stages on Au(111) surface is accessed in-situ on atomic scale by means of our newly developed fast electrochemical STM. We show the effect of industrially used additives, such as bis-(3-sodiumsulfopropyl) disulfide (SPS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), on the Cu deposit. The EC-STM results are complemented by electrochemical measurements and discussed in the light of current state of knowledge on electrodeposition and molecular processes involving the additives.

  18. Inkjet catalyst printing and electroless copper deposition for low-cost patterned microwave passive devices on paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin S.; Fang, Yunnan; Kim, Sangkil; Le, Taoran; Goodwin, W. Brandon; Sandhage, Kenneth H.; Tentzeris, Manos M.

    2013-09-01

    A scalable, low-cost process for fabricating copper-based microwave components on flexible, paper-based substrates is demonstrated. An inkjet printer is used to deposit a catalyst-bearing solution (tailored for such printing) in a desired pattern on commercially-available, recyclable, non-toxic (Teslin®) paper. The catalystbearing paper is then immersed in an aqueous copper-bearing solution to allow for electroless deposition of a compact and conformal layer of copper in the inkjet-derived pattern. Meander monopole antennas comprised of such electroless-deposited copper patterns on paper exhibited comparable performance as for antennas synthesized via inkjet printing of a commercially-available silver nanoparticle ink. However, the solution-based patterning and electroless copper deposition process avoids nozzle-clogging problems and costs associated with noble metal particle-based inks. This process yields compact conductive copper layers without appreciable oxidation and without the need for an elevated temperature, post-deposition thermal treatment commonly required for noble metal particle-based ink processes. This low-cost copper patterning process is readily scalable on virtually any substrate and may be used to generate a variety of copper-based microwave devices on flexible, paper-based substrates.

  19. Paragenesis And Evolution Of The Hydrothermal Bacuri Iron Oxide-copper-gold Deposit, Carajás Province (pa)

    OpenAIRE

    De Melo G.H.C.; Monteiro L.V.S.; Moreto C.P.N.; Xavier R.P.; Da Silva M.A.D.

    2014-01-01

    The Bacuri copper deposit is located about 9 km east of the world-class Sossego iron oxide-copper-gold deposit in the Carajás Province. It is hosted by the ca. 2.84 Ga Serra Dourada granite, the Bacuri Porphyry, and subordinated gabbro. The Bacuri deposit is situated within the regional-scale, WNW-ESE-trending ductile Canaã shear zone, characterized by early albite, scapolite-magnetite, potassium feldspar and biotite-scapolite-magnetite hydrothermal alteration zones. Copper mineralization was...

  20. Surface modification of an epoxy resin with polyamines and polydopamine: The effect on the initial electroless copper deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, David; Mader, Lothar; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino; Dubruel, Peter; Vanfleteren, Jan

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the influence of polydopamine and polyamine surface modifications of an etched epoxy cresol novolak (ECN) resin on the initial electroless copper deposition. Three different strategies to introduce polyamines on a surface in aqueous environment are applied: via polyethyleneimine adsorption (PEI), via polydopamine and via polyamines grafted to polydopamine. Next, the influence of these surface modifications on the catalytic palladium activation is investigated through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Finally, the initial electroless copper deposition on modified epoxy surfaces is evaluated using SEM and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Grafted polyamines on polydopamine surface modifications result in a large increase of the initial deposited copper.

  1. Investigation of the mechanism of electroless deposition of copper on functionalized alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers adsorbed on gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Walker, Amy V

    2007-12-04

    We have investigated the reaction pathways involved in the unseeded electroless deposition of copper on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) adsorbed on Au, using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. At 22 degrees C copper deposits on both -CH3 and -COOH terminated SAMs. No copper deposition is observed on -OH terminated SAMs because the hydroxyl terminal groups react with formaldehyde in the plating solution, forming an acetal which prevents Cu deposition. At higher deposition temperatures (45 degrees C), no Cu is observed to deposit on -CH3 terminated SAMs because Cu2+ ions are not stabilized on the SAM surface. Copper complexes are still able to form with the -COOH terminal group at 45 degrees C, and so copper continues to be deposited on -COOH terminated SAMs. Copper also penetrates through -CH3 and -COOH terminated SAMs to the Au/S interface, suggesting that soft deposition techniques do not prevent the penetration of low-to-moderate reactivity metals through organic films.

  2. Effect of copper concentration on the physical properties of copper doped NiO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani Menaka, S., E-mail: manimenaka.phy@gmail.com [PG and Research Department of Physics, Government Arts College, Coimbatore, 641018, Tamilnadu (India); Umadevi, G. [PG and Research Department of Physics, Government Arts College, Coimbatore, 641018, Tamilnadu (India); Manickam, M. [SRMV College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore, 641020, Tamilnadu (India)

    2017-04-15

    The spray pyrolysis (SP) technique is an important and powerful method for the preparation of nickel oxide (NiO) and copper-doped nickel oxide thin films. The best films were obtained when the substrate temperature, T{sub s} = 450 °C on glass substrates. Copper (Cu) concentrations in the films were varied from 0 to 8%. The effect of Cu concentration on the structural, morphological, spectral, optical, and electrical properties of the thin films were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis–NIR spectrophotometer, Hot probe and Hall system. The X-ray diffraction result shows the polycrystalline cubic structure of sprayed films with (200) preferred orientation. The variations of the structural parameters such as lattice parameters and grain sizes were investigated. The SEM image displays the surface morphology of the NiO and Cu:NiO thin films. The FTIR of the as-deposited films were associated with chemical identification. The optical transmittance and absorbance spectra of the films were measured by UV–vis–NIR spectrophotometer. The absorption coefficient and band gaps of the films were calculated using the optical method. All the NiO and Cu:NiO films were p-type. The resistivity of the above films decreases with the increase in copper concentration and so the conductivity of the films depend on the precursor concentration. - Highlights: • Pure and Cu:NiO films were deposited by Spray pyrolysis technique. • The XRD result shows the polycrystalline nature of pure and Cu:NiO films. • The formation of pure and Cu:NiO were confirmed by FTIR analysis. • Band gap values of pure and Cu:NiO decreases. • All the pure and Cu:NiO films were p-type.

  3. Atomic layer deposition of copper and copper silver films using an electrochemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.S., E-mail: jsfang@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei 63201, Taiwan (China); Liu, Y.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei 63201, Taiwan (China); Chin, T.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the formation and properties of Cu and Cu(Ag) films on a Ru/Si substrate using electrochemical atomic layer deposition. The process was performed layer-by-layer using underpotential deposition (UPD) and surface-limited redox reactions. The first Cu atomic layer was deposited on the Ru/Si substrate via UPD. Using UPD, atomic layered of Pb, which acts as a sacrificial layer, was applied on the Cu layer. Then, a Cu{sup 2+} solution was flushed into the cell at an open-circuit potential, and the Pb layer was exchanged for Cu via redox replacements. The above sequences were repeated 500 times to form a Cu film. The Cu(Ag) alloy films were formed using Cu–UPD and Ag–UPD in predetermined sequences. The lowest electrical resistivity achieved was 3.6 and 2.2 μΩ cm for the Cu film and Cu(Ag) film, respectively, after annealing at 400 °C. Due to the self-limiting reactions, the process has the ability to deposit atomic layers to meet the requirement of Cu interconnects. - Highlights: • Layer-by-layer growth of Cu and Cu(Ag) films are prepared using electrochemical atomic layer deposition. • Cu coverage is from 0.33 to 0.51 ML for each deposition cycle in different NaCl concentrations. • The process can be applied in Cu interconnections.

  4. High-temperature conductivity in chemical bath deposited copper selenide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanam, M.; Manoj, P. K.; Prabhu, Rajeev. R.

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports high-temperature (305-523 K) electrical studies of chemical bath deposited copper (I) selenide (Cu 2-xSe) and copper (II) selenide (Cu 3Se 2) thin films. Cu 2-xSe and Cu 3Se 2 have been prepared on glass substrates from the same chemical bath at room temperature by controlling the pH. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles, it has been found that Cu 2-xSe and Cu 3Se 2 have cubic and tetragonal structures, respectively. The composition of the chemical constituent in the films has been confirmed from XRD data and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). It has been found that both phases of copper selenide thin films have thermally activated conduction in the high-temperature range. In this paper we also report the variation of electrical parameters with film thickness and the applied voltage.

  5. Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of copper(II) oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iivonen, Tomi, E-mail: tomi.iivonen@helsinki.fi; Hämäläinen, Jani; Mattinen, Miika; Popov, Georgi; Leskelä, Markku [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Marchand, Benoît; Mizohata, Kenichiro [Division of Materials Physics, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kim, Jiyeon; Fischer, Roland A. [Chair of Inorganic Chemistry II, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Copper(II) oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using bis-(dimethylamino-2-propoxide)copper [Cu(dmap){sub 2}] and ozone in a temperature window of 80–140 °C. A thorough characterization of the films was performed using x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, UV‐Vis spectrophotometry, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis techniques. The process was found to produce polycrystalline copper(II) oxide films with a growth rate of 0.2–0.3 Å per cycle. Impurity content in the films was relatively small for a low temperature ALD process.

  6. Ore-forming fluid constraints on illite crystallinity (IC) at Dexing porphyry copper deposit, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Illite, a distinctive kind of clay minerals of potassiumalteration within the hydrothermal alteration zone, frequently occurs at the Tongchang porphyry copper deposit ore field. The illite crystallinity (IC) value and expandability are mainly affected by water/rock ratio or fluid flux. It was formed by illitization of plagioclase and micas during hydrothermal fluid-rock interaction within the porphyry body and near the contact zone with wall rocks. Moreover, the negative correlation between illite index (IC) and copper grade indicates that within the alteration zone, the smaller the illite crystallinity value, the higher the alteration degree, and the higher the copper grade due to higher water/rock ratio. At lower levels of the porphyry body, however, the illite crystallinity (IC) values are mainly controlled by temperature and time duration.

  7. Isotopic tracing of ore-forming source materials for Dexing porphyry copper deposit of Jiangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng QIAN; Jianjun LU

    2008-01-01

    Dexing copper deposit is the biggest porphyry copper deposit in China. By researching isotopes of C,Si and Cu from the samples of Tongchang and Fujiawu ore-field, the authors found that δ13CPDB values of siderite were close to the δ13CPDB value of original magma; δ30Si values of the samples at the ore-forming stage were close to the δ30Si value range of magma, δ30Si values of partial samples were far away from it; Cu isotopic compositions of massive chalcopyrite formed at the early ore-forming stage are higher than that of veinal chalcopyrite formed at the later ore-forming stage. The results show that ore-forming materials were mainly derived from the porphyry body, and part of them were from wall rock materials.

  8. Deposition of thin titanium-copper films with antimicrobial effect by advanced magnetron sputtering methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranak, V., E-mail: stranak@physik.uni-greifswald.de [University of Greifswald, Institute of Physics, Felix-Hausdorff Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Wulff, H. [University of Greifswald, Institute of Physics, Felix-Hausdorff Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Rebl, H. [University of Rostock, Biomedical Res. Center, Dept. of Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, 18057 Rostock (Germany); Zietz, C. [University of Rostock, Dept. of Orthopaedics, Doberaner Str. 142, 18057 Rostock (Germany); Arndt, K. [University of Rostock, Dept. of Med. Microbiol., Virology and Hygiene, Schillingallee 70, 18057 Rostock (Germany); Bogdanowicz, R. [University of Greifswald, Institute of Physics, Felix-Hausdorff Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Nebe, B. [University of Rostock, Biomedical Res. Center, Dept. of Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, 18057 Rostock (Germany); Bader, R. [University of Rostock, Dept. of Orthopaedics, Doberaner Str. 142, 18057 Rostock (Germany); Podbielski, A. [University of Rostock, Dept. of Med. Microbiol., Virology and Hygiene, Schillingallee 70, 18057 Rostock (Germany); Hubicka, Z. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics, Na Slovance 2, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Hippler, R. [University of Greifswald, Institute of Physics, Felix-Hausdorff Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2011-10-10

    The antibacterial effect of thin titanium-copper (Ti-Cu) films combined with sufficient growth of human osteoblastic cells is reported in the paper. Thin Ti-Cu films were prepared by three different plasma-assisted magnetron sputtering methods: direct current magnetron sputtering (dc-MS), dual magnetron sputtering (dual-MS) as well as dual high power impulse magnetron sputtering (dual-HiPIMS). The antimicrobial effect is caused by copper released from the metallic Ti-Cu films, which was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The copper release is influenced by the chemical and physical properties of the deposited films and was investigated by X-ray diffractometry and X-ray reflectometry (GIXD and XR) techniques. It was found that, within the first 24 h the amount of Cu released from dual-HiPIMS films (about 250 {mu}g) was much higher than from dc-MS and dual-MS films. In vitro planktonic growth tests on Ti-Cu surfaces for Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus demonstrated the killing of both bacteria using the Ti-Cu films prepared using the dual-HiPIMS technique. The killing effects on biofilm bacteria were less obvious. After the total release of copper from the Ti-Cu film the vitality of exposed human osteoblast MG-63 cells increased significantly. An initial cytotoxic effect followed by the growth of osteoblastic cells was demonstrated. The cytotoxic effect combined with growth of osteoblastic cells could be used in joint replacement surgery to reduce the possibility of infection and to increase adoption of the implants. Highlights: {yields} Ti-Cu films with significant cytotoxic effect were prepared by dual-HiPIMS technique. {yields} The cytotoxic effect is caused by total release of copper species from thin films. {yields} The copper release is influenced by crystallography and chemical properties of thin films. {yields} Sufficient growth of osteoblastic cells follows after copper release.

  9. Structural, optical and electrical properties of chemically deposited nonstoichiometric copper indium diselenide films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R H Bari; L A Patil; P P Patil

    2006-10-01

    Thin films of copper indium diselenide (CIS) were prepared by chemical bath deposition technique onto glass substrate at temperature, 60°C. The studies on composition, morphology, optical absorption, electrical conductivity and structure of the films were carried out and discussed. Characterization included X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and absorption spectroscopy. The results are discussed and interpreted.

  10. Underpotential deposition of a copper monolayer on a gold film sensed by integrated optical surface plasmon resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Abanulo, J.C.; Harris, R.D.; Bartlett, P.N.; Wilkinson, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated optical surface plasmon resonance sensor combined with electrochemical control is used to monitor the underpotential deposition of a copper monolayer onto a gold film from 1 mM Cu2+ in 0.1 M perchloric acid.

  11. Mineralogy and fluid inclusion studies in kalchoye Copper- gold deposit, East of Esfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Mehvary

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Kalchoye Copper-gold deposit is located about 110 kilometers east of Esfahan province and within the Eocene volcano sedimentary rocks. Sandy tuff and andesite lava are important members of this complex.The form of mineralization in area is vein and veinlet and quartz as the main gangue phase. The main ore minerals are chalcopyrite, chalcocite, galena and weathered minerals such as goethite, iron oxides, malachite and azurite. Studies in area indicate that ore mineralization Kalchoye is low sulfide, quartz type of hydrothermal ore deposits and results of thermometry studies on quartz minerals low- medium fluid with low potential mineralization is responsible for mineralization in this area.

  12. Wood textures in Jinman copper deposit in western Yunnan and their genetic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘家军; 李朝阳; 张乾; 潘家永; 刘玉平; 刘显凡; 刘世荣; 杨伟光

    2001-01-01

    Jinman vein copper deposit in western Yunnan occurs in a salt-bearing red clastic rock formation composed of sandstone, siltstone and shale. Wood texture is considerably developed in the ores. The metallic minerals making up the wood textures mainly include pyrite, chalcopyrite and bornite. Studies on the samples and examination of their micrographs and electron micrographs have confirmed that they belong to xenoxylon, reflecting that the ore-hosting rock series is the product of sedimentation in the terrestrial environment. Organic geochemistry and sulfur and carbon isotopic composition data indicate that the formation of the deposit is substantially related with underground hot brines and biological processes.

  13. Electrochemical deposition of copper onto Pt(111) in the presence of (bi)sulfate anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, C.A. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool, L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Markovic, N.M.; Ross, P.N. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Using {ital in situ} x-ray diffraction we have studied the underpotential deposition (UPD) of copper onto a Pt(111) electrode in sulfuric acid. Deposition occurs in a two-stage process; close to a full monolayer of Cu being preceded by a ({radical}(3){times}{radical}(3))R30{degree} structure that consists of both Cu and (bi)sulfate anions and is similar to the structure observed on the Au(111) electrode. Utilizing anomalous scattering methods we can accurately determine the Cu coverage during UPD and propose structural models based on crystal truncation rod measurements. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Deposition of copper and sulfate on Au(1 1 1): New insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madry, B.; Wandelt, K.; Nowicki, M.

    2016-12-01

    The adsorption of sulfate anions (SO42-) and copper cations on Au(1 1 1) from CuSO4 containing H2SO4 solution was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The underpotential deposition from solution results first in the formation of 2/3 monolayer of copper with the well known (√{ 3} ×√{ 3}) structure of sulfate followed by the completion of the first copper monolayer at lower potentials. Just after formation of 1ML of Cu STM reveals a disordered surface. At more negative potential values, already in the overpotential deposition region, the STM images reflect a (√{ 3} ×√{ 7}) sulfate structure on terraces of the first pseudomorphic Cu layer, a (√{ 3} ×√{ 3}) -like structure on terraces of the second uncompleted Cu layer with sulfate anions residing in atomic vacancies, and the known Moiré structure on terraces of the multi-layer Cu deposit. The formation of the (√{ 3} ×√{ 7}) sulfate structure on pseudomorphic monolayer Cu terraces on Au(1 1 1) is discussed in the context of results obtained for sulfate on bare Au(1 1 1) and Cu(1 1 1) electrodes in H2SO4 solution.

  15. The Novo Okno copper deposit of olistostrome origin (Bor, Eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper deposit Novo Okno, uncovered at present, with non-ore and ore clasts of massive sulphides (from 0.5 to 50 m3 in size, has many distinctive features that indicate its olistostrome origin. The deposit is chaotic in structure, unstratified, with the lower surface unconformable over the underlying parent rock of the basin. It is a lens-like body, with the longer axis directed east and west, variable in thickness from 15 to 28 metres, about 335 metres long and less than 140 metres wide. These and other characteristics of the body indicate a unified, reworked, olistostrome copper deposit formed from primary ore bodies of the Bor mineral deposit and vulcanite, destroyed by volcanic explosion into blocks and rocks of Turonian age and extrusion and concurrent deposition on the land surface. Gravitational massive sliding of the consolidated rocks down the slopes of the volcanic relief and chaotic accumulation of ore and non-ore clasts (olistoliths in a marine basin evolved in the Upper Turonian and the Lower Senonian.

  16. Corrosion of aluminium in copper-aluminium couples under a marine environment: Influence of polyaniline deposited onto copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, Rosa, E-mail: rvera@ucv.c [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avda. Brasil 2950, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Verdugo, Patricia [Departamento de Quimica y Bioquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaiso, Av. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaiso (Chile); Orellana, Marco; Munoz, Eduardo [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avda. Brasil 2950, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The presence of Polyaniline in the Al-Cu system produces a decrease in the oxygen reduction reaction. {yields} In the marine enviroment, aluminium in Al-Cu couples, suffers pitting and exfoliation. {yields} The aluminium deterioration increases with chloride and enviromental sulphur dioxide presence, mainly when it is united to bare copper. - Abstract: In this study, we examined how aluminium corrosion in Al-Cu/PANI galvanic couples in a marine environment is influenced by deposition of polyaniline (PANI) on copper. Polarization curves and immersion assays in 0.1 M NaCl were performed. The morphologies of etched Al and corrosion products were observed by SEM, and the Al ions in solution were quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy. A reduction in aluminium damage due to galvanic corrosion was observed as a result of decreased effective area for the oxygen reduction reaction on Cu/PANI electrode. Furthermore, an electrochemical reduction of PANI from leucoemeraldine to emeraldine base is proposed.

  17. Uranium deposits in the Eureka Gulch area, Central City district, Gilpin County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, P.K.; Osterwald, F.W.; Tooker, E.W.

    1954-01-01

    The Eureka Gulch area of the Central City district, Gilpin County, Colo., was mined for ores of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc; but there has been little mining activity in the area since World War I. Between 1951 and 1953 nine radioactive mine dumps were discovered in the area by the U.S. Geological Survey and by prospectors. the importance of the discoveries has not been determined as all but one of the mines are inaccessible, but the distribution, quantity, and grade of the radioactive materials found on the mine dumps indicate that the area is worth of additional exploration as a possible source of uranium ore. The uranium ans other metals are in and near steeply dipping mesothermal veins of Laramide age intrusive rocks. Pitchblende is present in at least four veins, and metatorbernite, associated at places with kosolite, is found along two veins for a linear distance of about 700 feet. The pitchblends and metatorbernite appear to be mutually exclusive and seem to occur in different veins. Colloform grains of pitchblende were deposited in the vein essentially contemporaneously with pyrite. The pitchblende is earlier in the sequence of deposition than galena and sphalerite. The metatorbernite replaces altered biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss and altered amphibolite, and to a lesser extent forms coatings on fractures in these rocks adjacent to the veins; the kasolite fills vugs in highly altered material and in altered wall rocks. Much of the pitchblende found on the dumps has been partly leached subsequent to mining and is out of equilibrium. Selected samples of metatorbernite-bearing rock from one mine dump contain as much as 6.11 percent uranium. The pitchblende is a primary vein mineral deposited from uranium-bearing hydrothermal solutions. The metatorbernite probably formed by oxidation, solution, and transportation of uranium from primary pitchblende, but it may be a primary mineral deposited directly from fluids of different composition from these

  18. Discovery of the copper deposits with features of the Keweenawan type in the border area of Yunnan and Guizhou provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炳泉; 胡耀国; 张正伟; 常向阳

    2003-01-01

    There existed intense Cu anomaly on the northeastern side of the geochemical boundary with NW strike in the border area between the Yunnan and Guizhou provinces. Through field observation, ore bodies of high-grade native coppers have been found. The copper mineralization was constrained by the ancient volcanic vents of Permian basalt eruption and the overlain strata of carbonaceous argillites. Native coppers with flaky, net veined and impregnated occurrences, fine-grained tenorites and massive chalcocites widely occur in volcanic breccias, tuffs, carbonaceous-siliceous argillites and siliceous bitumen rocks with bed thickness of about 15-80 m. Cu contents vary from 0.5% to 20%. The copper mineralization was tightly related to actinolite-tremolitization, zeolitization and bituminization and involved in extensive reduction environments. Continental flood basalts erupted in mantle plume environments usually have high Cu concentrations (~170 ×10-6 in the Emeishan basalts), which provided a copper source of mineralization. Thus, metallogenesis of the native copper deposits in the Yunnan-Guizhou border area is tightly associated with intensive crust-mantle and organic-inorganic interactions. The tremolitization and chalcocitization indicate that the metallogenic temperatures are in a range of 400-100℃. The geologic background and characteristics of ore and alteration for the native copper deposits in this area are somewhat similar to those of the Keweenawan native copper deposit in Michigan, USA.

  19. Mineral potential for sediment-hosted copper deposits in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (phase V, deliverable 75): Chapter K in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Neoproterozoic through Cambrian, continental, siliciclastic sedimentary rocks interbedded with dolomitic carbonates, shales, and glacial tillites similar to the Katanga Supergroup host rocks of the Central African Copperbelt and other sediment-hosted copper-bearing Proterozoic sequences worldwide, is first order criteria for consideration of the Neoproterozoic units of the Taoudeni Basin in Mauritania as prospective for sediment-hosted copper deposits. Review of the National Mineral Occurrences Database (Marsh and Anderson, 2015) and previous literature suggest that only a handful of small sediment-hosted copper occurrences have been found to date in Mauritania and that the resource potential for this deposit type is low. In the northern Taoudeni Basin, the most important occurrence is at Taradent. This occurrence consists of three mineralized horizons in the lower Neoproterozoic Char Group in three outcrop areas separated by alluvium over a strike length of 12 kilometers (km). The most extensively mineralized horizon consists of malachite and disseminated copper sulfides, and is concentrated at the base of a dolomitic interval, consistent with a reduced faciestype sediment-hosted copper deposit model. Additional and poorly described copper occurrences in the Taoudeni Basin margin sedimentary rocks in northeastern Mauritania, such as Chegga Guettatira and Sidi Bara, may be sediment-hosted copper occurrences and extend the potential throughout this portion of the Basin.

  20. Effects of sputtering power on properties of copper oxides thin films deposited on glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooi, P. K.; Ng, S. S.; Abdullah, M. J. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Copper oxides are deposited by radio frequency sputtering using copper target in the mixture of argon and oxygen gasses. The structural and optical properties of the copper oxides deposited at different sputtering powers have been investigated. All the films are single phase polycrystalline. At low RF power (100 W), the film is monoclinic structure of cupric oxide (CuO). Meanwhile, the films are cubic structure of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) at higher RF power. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images show the films have different morphologies with small grain size and consist of a lot of voids. The analysis of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy shows that the ratio of Cu to O is increased as the RF power increased. From the ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, the films have a broad absorption edge in the range of 300–500 nm. The band gap of the films grown at RF power of 100 W, and 120 W and above, were 1.18 eV and 2.16 eV, respectively.

  1. Rocking disc electro-deposition of copper films on Mo/MoSe{sub 2} substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, Charles Y.; Frith, Paul E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Zoppi, Guillaume; Forbes, Ian [Northumbria Photovoltaics Applications Centre, Northumbria University, NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Rogers, Keith D. [Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Shrivenham Campus, Swindon, SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Lane, David W. [Department of Applied Science, Security and Resilience, Cranfield University, Shrivenham, Swindon, SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Marken, Frank, E-mail: F.Marken@bath.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-31

    A novel electro-deposition method based on a rocking disc system with {pi}/3 amplitude and variable frequency is introduced. Uniform copper films were deposited from a 0.1 M CuSO{sub 4}/3.0 M NaOH/0.2 M sorbitol bath directly onto 12.1 cm{sup 2} Mo/MoSe{sub 2} substrates with X-ray diffraction showing a thickness variation of {+-}5% over this area. Investigation of the mass transport conditions suggests (i) uniform diffusion over the sample, (ii) a rate of mass transport proportional to the square root of the rocking rate, and (iii) turbulent conditions, which are able to dislodge gas bubbles during electro-deposition.

  2. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Woehrl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A plasma enhanced vapor deposition process is used to synthesize graphene from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture on copper samples. The graphene samples were transferred onto SiO2 substrates and characterized by Raman spectroscopic mapping and atomic force microscope topographical mapping. Analysis of the Raman bands shows that the deposited graphene is clearly SLG and that the sheets are deposited on large areas of several mm2. The defect density in the graphene sheets is calculated using Raman measurements and the influence of the process pressure on the defect density is measured. Furthermore the origin of these defects is discussed with respect to the process parameters and hence the plasma environment.

  3. Combined effects of iron and copper from atmospheric dry deposition on ocean productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F. J.; Chen, Y.; Guo, Z. G.; Gao, H. W.; Mackey, K. R.; Yao, X. H.; Zhuang, G. S.; Paytan, A.

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric deposition can provide nutrients and potential toxicants to marine ecosystem, hence affecting ocean net primary productivity (NPP). Nonetheless, the interactive effects of mixed aerosol components on phytoplankton have rarely been reported. Here we explored the combined effects of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) on NPP over the East China Sea. In aerosol addition mesocosm experiments, phytoplankton growth was suppressed under high aerosol Cu but was increased when high Cu was accompanied by high Fe in aerosols. A time series of soluble aerosol Fe and Cu deposition was obtained and compared to regional chlorophyll a (Chl a) abundances from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer/Aqua. Strong positive correlations were observed between the dry flux ratios of soluble Fe/Cu and Chl a abundances in the large offshore area, whereas these variables were uncoupled in coastal regions where riverine input and upwelling dominated the biogeochemistry. Current work provides insight into the complex linkage between atmospheric deposition and marine productivity.

  4. Deposition and characterization of CuInS2 thin films deposited over copper thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Titu; Kumar, K. Rajeev; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2015-06-01

    Simple, cost effective and versatile spray pyrolysis method is effectively combined with vacuum evaporation for the deposition of CuIns2 thin films for photovoltaic applications. In the present study In2s3 was spray deposited over vacuum evaporated Cu thin films and Cu was allowed to diffuse in to the In2S3 layer to form CuInS2. To analyse the dependence of precursor volume on the formation of CuInS2 films structural, electrical and morphological analzes are carried out. Successful deposition of CuInS2thin films with good crystallinity and morphology with considerably low resistivity is reported in this paper.

  5. Copper-vapor-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition of graphene on dielectric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Wu, Tianru; Wang, Haomin; Zhang, Xuefu; Shi, Zhiyuan; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-07-01

    Direct synthesis of high-quality graphene on dielectric substrates is important for its application in electronics. In this work, we report the process of copper-vapor-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition of high-quality and large graphene domains on various dielectric substrates. The copper vapor plays a vital role on the growth of transfer-free graphene. Both single-crystal domains that are much larger than previous reports and high-coverage graphene films can be obtained by adjusting the growth duration. The quality of the obtained graphene was verified to be comparable with that of graphene grown on Cu foil. The progress reported in this work will aid the development of the application of transfer-free graphene in the future.

  6. Controlled growth of few-layer hexagonal boron nitride on copper foils using ion beam sputtering deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haolin; Zhang, Xingwang; Meng, Junhua; Yin, Zhigang; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Yajuan; Zhang, Liuqi

    2015-04-01

    Ion beam sputtering deposition (IBSD) is used to synthesize high quality few-layer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) on copper foils. Compared to the conventional chemical vapor deposition, the IBSD technique avoids the use of unconventional precursors and is much easier to control, which should be very useful for the large-scale production of h-BN in the future.

  7. Novel electroless copper deposition on carbon fibers with environmentally friendly processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jang-Woo

    2010-08-15

    A novel electroless deposition (ELD) of copper (Cu) on carbon fibers (CFs) with environmentally friendly processes, silver (Ag) aerosol activation and subsequent nonformaldehyde Cu ELD, was developed. Spark-generated Ag aerosol nanoparticles (approximately 10 nm in mode diameter) were deposited (48.4 microg Ag/g CF in activation intensity) onto the surfaces of CFs. After annealing (at 220 degrees C in a nitrogen atmosphere), the catalytically activated CFs were placed into a solution for Cu ELD (at 82 degrees C). Homogeneous Cu coating (approximately 5.1 nm/min) on CFs was achieved with 90 min of deposition and the corresponding mass deposition rate and Cu grain size for 30-90 min of deposition had ranges of 0.25-1.14 mg Cu/g CF-min and 14.8-37.2 nm, respectively. The porosity of CFs decreased by depositing the Cu for 30-90 min, and the specific surface area and pore volume of CFs decreased from 1536 to 1399 m(2)/g and from 0.65 to 0.57 cm(3)/g, respectively.

  8. Effects of Implant Copper Layer on Diamond Film Deposition on Cemented Carbides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The deposition of high-quality diamond films and their adhesion on cemented carbides are strongly influenced by the catalytic effect of cobalt under typical deposition conditions.Decreasing Co content on the surface of the cemented carbide is often used for the diamond filmdeposition. But the leaching of Co from the WC-Co substrate leading to a mechanical weak surface often causes a poor adhesion. In this paper we adopted an implant copper layer preparedby vaporization to improve the mechanical properties of the Co-leached substrate. The diamondfilms were grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition from CH4 :H2 gas mixture. Thecross section and the morphology of the diamond film were characterized by scanning electronmicroscopy (SEM). The non-diamond content in the film was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy.The effects of pretreatment on the concentrations of Co and Cu near the interfacial region wereexamined by energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) equipped with SEM. The adhesion of the diamondon the substrate was evaluated with a Rockwell-type hardness tester. The results indicate that thediamond films prepared with implant copper layer have a good adhesion to the cemented carbidesubstrate due to the recovery of the mechanical properties of the Co-depleted substrate after thecopper implantation and the formation of less amorphous carbon between the substrate and thediamond film.

  9. Timing of multiple hydrothermal events in the iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreto, Carolina P. N.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Creaser, Robert A.; DuFrane, S. Andrew; Melo, Gustavo H. C.; Delinardo da Silva, Marco A.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Sato, Kei

    2015-06-01

    The Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil, hosts several iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits, including Sossego, Cristalino, Alvo 118, Bacuri, Bacaba, Castanha, and Visconde. Mapping and U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) IIe zircon geochronology allowed the characterization of the host rocks, situated within regional WNW-ESE shear zones. They encompass Mesoarchean (3.08-2.85 Ga) TTG orthogneiss, granites, and remains of greenstone belts, Neoarchean (ca. 2.74 Ga) granite, shallow-emplaced porphyries, and granophyric granite coeval with gabbro, and Paleoproterozoic (1.88 Ga) porphyry dykes. Extensive hydrothermal zones include albite-scapolite, biotite-scapolite-tourmaline-magnetite alteration, and proximal potassium feldspar, chlorite-epidote and chalcopyrite formation. U-Pb laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) analysis of ore-related monazite and Re-Os NTIMS analysis of molybdenite suggest multiple Neoarchean (2.76 and 2.72-2.68 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.06 Ga) hydrothermal events at the Bacaba and Bacuri deposits. These results, combined with available geochronological data from the literature, indicate recurrence of hydrothermal systems in the Southern Copper Belt, including 1.90-1.88-Ga ore formation in the Sossego-Curral ore bodies and the Alvo 118 deposit. Although early hydrothermal evolution at 2.76 Ga points to fluid migration coeval with the Carajás Basin formation, the main episode of IOCG genesis (2.72-2.68 Ga) is related to basin inversion coupled with Neoarchean (ca. 2.7 Ga) felsic magmatism. The data suggest that the IOCG deposits in the Southern Copper Belt and those in the Northern Copper Belt (2.57-Ga Salobo and Igarapé Bahia-Alemão deposits) do not share a common metallogenic evolution. Therefore, the association of all IOCG deposits of the Carajás Province with a single extensive hydrothermal system is precluded.

  10. Nature, origin and evolution of the granitoid-hosted early Proterozoic copper-molybdenum mineralization at Malanjkhand, Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S. C.; Kabiraj, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Pal, A. B.

    1996-07-01

    At Malanjkhand, Central India, lode-type copper (-molybdenum) mineralization occurs within calcalkaline tonalite-granodiorite plutonic rocks of early Proterozoic age. The bulk of the mineralization occurs in sheeted quartz-sulfide veins, and K-silicate alteration assemblages, defined by alkali feldspar (K-feldspar≫albite)+dusty hematite in feldspar±biotite±muscovite, are prominent within the ore zone and the adjacent host rock. Weak propylitic alteration, defined by albite+biotite+epidote/zoisite, surrounds the K-silicate alteration zone. The mineralized zone is approximately 2 km in strike length, has a maximum thickness of 200 m and dips 65° 75°, along which low-grade mineralization has been traced up to a depth of about 1 km. The ore reserve has been conservatively estimated to be 92 million tonnes with an average Cu-content of 1.30%. Supergene oxidation, accompanied by limited copper enrichment, is observed down to a depth of 100 m or more from the surface. Primary ores consist essentially of chalcopyrite and pyrite with minor magnetite and molybdenite. δ34S (‰) values in pyrite and chalcopyrite (-0.38 to +2.90) fall within the range characteristic of granitoid-hosted copper deposits. δ18O (‰) values for vein quartz (+6.99 to +8.80) suggest exclusive involvement of juvenile water. Annealed fabrics are common in the ore. The sequence of events that led to the present state of hypogene mineralization is suggested to be as follows: fracturing of the host rock, emplacement of barren vein quartz, pronounced wall-rock alteration accompanied by disseminated mineralization and the ultimate stage of intense silicification accompanied by copper mineralization. Fragments of vein quartz and altered wall rocks and striae in the ore suggest post-mineralization deformation. The recrystallization fabric, particularly in chalcopyrite and sphalerite, is a product of dynamic recrystallization associated with the post-mineralization shearing. The petrology of the host

  11. Characterisation of sputter deposited niobium and boron interlayer in the copper-diamond system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, J; Chirtoc, M; Eisenmenger-Sittner, C; Hutter, H; Kornfeind, N; Kijamnajsuk, P; Kitzmantel, M; Neubauer, E; Zellhofer, K

    2012-09-15

    In most metal matrix composites (MMCs) interfaces are decisive but hard to manipulate. Especially copper-carbon composites can exhibit excellent mechanical and thermal properties only if the Cu/C interface is modified by an optimised interlayer. Due to the excellent thermal conductivity and mechanical stability of diamond this form of carbon is preferred as reinforcement in heat sink materials (copper-diamond composite) which are often subjected to severe thermal and mechanical loads. In the present case niobium and boron interlayers of various thicknesses were deposited on diamond and vitreous carbon substrates by magnetron sputter deposition. After the coverage of all samples by a copper film, a part of the samples was subjected to heat treatment for 30 min at 800 °C under high vacuum (HV) to simulate the thermal conditions during the production of the composite material by uniaxial hot pressing. De-wetting during heat treatment leads to the formation of holes or humps in the Cu coating. This effect was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A comparison of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF SIMS) profiles of heat treated samples with those of as deposited ones showed the influence of interdiffusion during the heating process. Diffusion behaviour and chemical composition of the interface were also studied by cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (X-TEM) investigations using focused ion beam (FIB) cut samples. The thermal contact resistance (TCR) of the interface was calculated from results obtained from modulated infrared radiometry (IR). Thin interlayers suppressed de-wetting most effectively and consequently the TCR at the Cu-diamond interface was found to decrease. Therefore they are promising candidates for optimising the Cu-diamond interface.

  12. Potential Dependent Structural Changes of Underpotentially Deposited Copper on an Iodine Treated Platinum Surface Determined In Situ by Surface EXAFS and Its Polarization Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-25

    of Underpotentially Deposited Copper on an Iodine Treated Platinum Surface Determined In Situ by Surface EXAFS and Its Polarization Dependence G.M...fiCAtson) Potential Dependent Structural Changes of Underpotentially Deposited Copper on an Irodine Treated Platinum Surface Determined In Situ by...necessary and identify by block number) An in situ structural investigation of the underpotential deposition of copper on an iodine covered platinum

  13. Generation of porphyry copper deposits by gas-brine reaction in volcanic arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundy, Jon; Mavrogenes, John; Tattitch, Brian; Sparks, Steve; Gilmer, Amy

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) are characterised by a close spatial and temporal association with small, hypabyssal intrusions of silicic magmas in volcanic arcs. PCD formation requires elevated chlorine and water to concentrate copper in magmatic hypersaline liquids (or brines), and elevated sulphur to precipitate copper-rich sulphides. These twin requirements are hard to reconcile with experimental and petrological evidence that voluminous chlorine-rich, hydrous silicic magmas, of the variety favourable to copper enrichment, lack sufficient sulphur to precipitate directly the requisite quantities of sulphides. These features are, however, consistent with observations of active volcanic arcs whereby PCDs can be viewed as roots of dome volcanoes above shallow reservoirs where silicic magmas accumulate over long time spans. During protracted periods of dormancy metal-enriched dense brines accumulate in and above the silicic reservoir through slow, low-pressure degassing. Meanwhile cogenetic volatile-rich mafic magmas and their exsolved, sulphur and CO2-rich fluids accumulate in deeper reservoirs. Periodic destabilisation of these reservoirs leads to short-lived bursts of volcanism liberating sulphurous gases, which react with the shallow-stored brines to form copper-rich sulphides and acidic vapours. We test this hypothesis with a novel set of 'porphyry in a capsule' experiments designed to simulate low-pressure (1-2 kbar) interaction of basalt-derived, sulphur-rich gases with brine-saturated, copper-bearing, but sulphur-free, granite. Experiments were run at 720-850 ° C in cold-seal apparatus with basaltic andesite, loaded with H2O and S, situated below dacite, loaded with H2O, Cl and Cu. At run conditions both compositions are substantially degassed and crystallized. S-rich gas from the basaltic andesite ascends to react with Cu-rich brines exsolved from the dacite, Our experiments reveal the direct precipitation of copper-sulphide minerals, in vugs and veins

  14. Ion beam analysis of copper selenide thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E.; García, V. M.; Nair, P. K.; Nair, M. T. S.; Zavala, E. P.; Huerta, L.; Rocha, M. F.

    2000-03-01

    Analyses of Rutherford back scattered (RBS) 4He+-particle spectra of copper selenide thin films deposited on glass slides by chemical bath were carried out to determine the changes brought about in the thin film by annealing processes. The atomic density per unit area and composition of the films were obtained from these measurements. This analysis shows that annealing in a nitrogen atmosphere at 400°C leads to the conversion of Cu xSe thin film to Cu 2Se. Results of X-ray diffraction, optical, and electrical characteristics on the films are presented to supplement the RBS results.

  15. Fluid inclusion and isotope geochemistry of the Yangla copper deposit, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi-An; Liu, Jia-Jun; Yang, Long-Bo; Han, Si-Yu; Sun, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Huan

    2014-04-01

    The Yangla copper deposit, with Cu reserves of 1.2 Mt, is located between a series of thrust faults in the Jinshajiang-Lancangjiang-Nujiang region, Yunnan, China, and has been mined since 2007. Fluid inclusion trapping conditions ranged from 1.32 to 2.10 kbar at 373-409 °C. Laser Raman spectroscopy confirms that the vapour phase in these inclusions consists of CO2, CH4, N2 and H2O. The gas phases in the inclusions are H2O and CO2, with minor amounts of N2, O2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6. Within the liquid phase, the main cations are Ca2+ and Na+ while the main anions are SO4 2- and Cl-. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of the ore-forming fluids (-3.05‰ ≤ δ18OH2O ≤ 2.5‰; -100‰ ≤ δD ≤ -120‰) indicate that they were derived from magma and evolved by mixing with local meteoric water. The δ34S values of sulfides range from -4.20‰ to 1.85‰(average on -0.85‰), supporting a magmatic origin. Five molybdenite samples taken from the copper deposit yield a well-constrained 187Re-187Os isochron age of 232.8 ± 2.4 Ma. Given that the Yangla granodiorite formed between 235.6 ± 1.2 Ma and 234.1 ± 1.2 Ma, the Cu metallogenesis is slightly younger than the crystallization age of the parent magma. A tectonic model that combines hydrothermal fluid flow and isotope compositions is proposed to explain the formation of the Yangla copper deposit. At first, westward subduction of the Jinshajiang Oceanic Plate in the Early Permian resulted in the development of a series of thrust faults. This was accompanied by fractional melting beneath the overriding plate, triggering magma ascent and extensive volcanism. The thrust faults, which were then placed under tension during a change in tectonic mode from compression to extension in the Late Triassic, formed favorable pathways for the magmatic ore-forming fluids. These fluids precipitated copper-sulfides to form the Yangla deposit.

  16. Petrography, sulfide mineral chemistry, and sulfur isotope evidence for a hydrothermal imprint on Musina copper deposits, Limpopo Province, South Africa: Evidence for a breccia pipe origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumba, Jeff B.; Mundalamo, Humbulani R.; Ogola, Jason S.; Cox, J. A.; Fleisher, C. J.

    2016-08-01

    The Musina copper deposits are located in the Central Zone of the Limpopo orogenic belt in Limpopo Province, South Africa. We carried out a petrographic, sulfide composition, and δ34S study on samples from Artonvilla and Campbell copper deposits and a country rock granitic gneiss to Artonvilla Mine to place some constrains on the origin of these deposits. The assemblages at both Artonvilla and Campbell Mines of brecciated quartz, potassium feldspar, muscovite, chlorite, calcite, and amphibole are consistent with sericitic alteration. Quartz, amphibole, feldspars, and micas often display angular textures which are consistent with breccias. Sulfur concentrations in pyrite from Artonvilla Mine plot in a narrow range, from 50.2 wt. % to 55.7 wt. %. With the exception of a positive correlation between Fe and Cu, no well defined correlations are shown by data from the Musina copper deposits. The occurrence of sulfides both as inclusions in, or as interstitial phases in silicates, suggests that hydrothermal alteration that affected these deposits most likely helped concentrate the mineralization at the Musina copper deposits. Sulfur concentrations in chalcopyrite samples investigated vary widely whereas the copper concentrations in chalcopyrite are not unusually higher compared to those from chalcopyrite from other tectonic settings, probably indicating that either the Cu in the Musina copper deposits occurs in native form, and/or that it is hosted by other phases. This observation lends support to the Cu having been concentrated during a later hydrothermal event. One sample from Artonvilla Mine (AtCal01) yielded pyrite δ34S values of 3.1and 3.6‰ and chalcopyrite from the same sample yielded a value of 3.9‰. A country rock granitic gneiss to Artonvilla Mine yielded a δ34Spyrite value of 8.2‰. For Campbell Mine samples, one quartz vein sample has a δ34Spyrite value of 0.5‰ whereas chalcopyrite samples drilled from different areas within the same sample yielded

  17. Uplift and submarine formation of some Melanesian porphyry copper deposits: Stable isotope evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivas, A.R.; O'Neil, J.R.; Katchan, G.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope analyses of sericites and kaolinites from four young porphyry copper deposits (Ok Tedi (1.2 Ma) and Yandera (6.5 Ma), Papua New Guinea; Koloula (1.5 Ma), Solomon Islands; and Waisoi (ocean water. For Ok Tedi, the non-magmatic component was a meteoric water with an isotopic composition different from that of the present meteoric water in the region. The isotopic signature of the former meteoric water is consistent with a surface elevation of 200 m a.s.l. or less at the time of mineralization. The deposit was later exposed and supergene kaolinitization commenced at approximately 1200 m a.s.l. Uplift and erosion has continued to the present at which time the elevation of the exposed deposit is 1800 m a.s.l. This rate of uplift is consistent with that known from other geological evidence. If the rate of uplift were approximately constant during the last 1.2 Ma, the age of supergene enrichment can be dated at approximately 0.4 Ma B.P. Similarly, influx of meteoric water at Yandera occurred when the ground surface above the deposit was at an elevation of approximately 600 m a.s.l. The deposit's present elevation is 1600 m a.s.l. In this case a total uplift of approximately 2.2 km is indicated, with removal of 1.2 km of overburden by erosion. ?? 1984.

  18. Geology, Geochemistry and Minerogenesis of the Shijuligou Zinc-Copper Deposit in Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenyuan; DENG Jun; GAO Yongbao; GUO Zhouping; ZHANG Zhaowei; SONG Zhongbao

    2009-01-01

    The Shijuligou deposit was separated by an arcuate ductile shear zone cross the center of the deposit region, resulting in the difference between the southern and northern ore bodies. The lead (Pb) isotopic data of ores of the Shijuligou copper deposit have averages of ~(206)Pb/~(204)Pb, ~(207)Pb/~(204)Pb, and ~(208)Pb/~(204)Pb in 17.634, 15.444, and 37.312, respectively. It has been shown that ore-forming metals originated from intrusive and extrusive rocks in the upper part of ophiolites. The sulfur isotopic data of pyrite and chalcopyrite in the northern part change from +7.61‰ to +8.09‰ and +4.95‰ to +8.88‰ in the southern part. Isotopes of δ~(18)O in the Shijuligou copper deposit are between +11.1‰ and +18.6‰, with the calculated δ~(18)O_(H_2O) at +0.65‰. It is suggested that the mineralized fluid is a mixture of magma fluid, meteorological water, and seawater through circulating and leaching metals from the volcanic rocks. The zircon uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating of gabbro is 457.9±1.2 Ma, and the lower crossing age of the discordant and concordia curves of pyroxene spilite of zircon is 454±15 Ma. It is indicated that the Shijuligou deposit formed in a new ocean crust (ophiolite) of the back-arc basin in the late Ordovician. Mineralization should occur in the intermittence period after strong volcanic activity, and the age should be the late Ordovician. Moreover, the mineralization of ophiolite-hosted massive sulfide deposits in the ancient orogenic belt of the late Ordovician in the northern Qilian Mountains was controlled by the primary fault/fracture, with the forming of a metallogenic hydrothermai system by a mixture of volcanic magma fluid and seawater, which circularly leached the metaliogenic metals from the volcanic rocks, resulting in their accumulation. The ore bodies were transformed with morphology and metallogeuic elements. Jasperoid is an important sign for prospecting such deposits. There were many island arcs in the continent of

  19. Electrochemical Deposition of Niobium onto the Surface of Copper Using a Novel Choline Chloride-Based Ionic Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wixtroma, Alex I. [Christopher Newport U.; Buhlera, Jessica E. [Christopher Newport U.; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M. [Christopher Newport U.

    2013-06-01

    Recent research has shown that choline chloride-based solutions can be used to replace acid-based electrochemical polishing solutions. In this study niobium metal was successfully deposited on the surface of copper substrate via electrochemical deposition using a novel choline chloride-based ionic liquid. The niobium metal used for deposition on the Cu had been dissolved in the solution from electrochemical polishing of a solid niobium piece prior to the deposition. The visible coating on the surface of the Cu was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). This deposition method effectively recycles previously dissolved niobium from electrochemical polishing.

  20. Bath Parameter Dependence of Chemically-Deposited Copper Selenide Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamun; Islam, A. B. M. O.

    In this article, a low cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been used for the preparation of Cu2-xSe thin films on to glass substrate. Different thin films (0.2-0.6 μm) were prepared by adjusting the bath parameter like concentration of ammonia, deposition time, temperature of the solution, and the ratios of the mixing composition between copper and selenium in the reaction bath. From these studies, it reveals that at low concentration of ammonia or TEA, the terminal thicknesses of the films are less, which gradually increases with the increase of concentrations and then drop down at still higher concentrations. It has been found that complexing the Cu2+ ions with TEA first, and then addition of ammonia yields better results than the reverse process. The film thickness increases with the decrease of value x of Cu2-xSe.

  1. Effect of post deposition annealing on the performance of copper phthalocyanine based organic thin film transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, N.; Sawant, Shilpa N.; Sen, Shaswati; Gupta, S. K.

    2013-02-01

    The electrical performance of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) based OFETs on SiO2 dielectric was studied with and without post deposition annealing of CuPc films. Field effect mobility of holes and the drain current modulation (Ion/Ioff) was found to increase by one order for devices with annealed films as compared to that with as deposited film. This is attributed to well connected grains and increased crystallinity of CuPc film. Subthreshold slope (SS) was found to be reducing with increase in annealing temperature and was minimum for the device with CuPc film annealed at 225 °C, implying lesser traps affecting the mobility of charge carriers.

  2. Categories used to classify the basin-fill deposits in the Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the categories used to classify the basin-fill deposits in the Central Valley as either coarse-grained or fine-grained deposits. This...

  3. Prehistoric (Chalcolithic) Eastern Mediterranean tsunami deposit identified offshore central Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyuleneva, Natalia; Braun, Yael; Suchkov, Igor; Goodman-Tchernov, Beverly

    2017-04-01

    The shallow shelf area ( 15-30 m water depth) offshore Israel, bears great potential for paleo-tsunami studies. It was shown in the course of previous research that in these offshore marine deposits, tsunami generated sedimentary layers can be well preserved and readily identified; unlike in onshore sedimentary sequences, which experience continuous exogenous natural and anthropogenic influence. A sediment core, 219 cm long, was obtained from 15.3 m water depth, in about 4 km north of Caesarea. Grain size at 1 cm interval as well as XRD and XRF analyses at coarser resolution were performed. Previously carried out research allowed correlation of two anomalous layers in this core with well described sediment sequences offshore Caesarea. These two events correspond best with the proposed events of 749 AD and 1500 BC. Identified unusual layers in this core bear certain set of proxies that are characteristic for tsunami generated deposits and easily distinguished from the local normal marine setting. The latter is characterized by three dominating mineralogical components, such as carbonaceous sand derived either from biogenic material, namely shell fragments or from eroded limestones and dolomites that outcrop the mountains to the east; siliciclastic quartz for the sand fraction and mineral smectite for the clays. The supply of the two latter terrigenous sedimentary components comes from the Nile River, which has been a stable and predominant source of sediments for the past 8 ka. The aim of this study is to characterize the earliest unusual sedimentary layer found down core between 191 and 211 cm. This layer was attributed to a tsunami-generated sedimentary sequence in the studied core. Absolute age determination based on 14C gave the time frame from 5.6 to 6 ka BP, making this event the oldest identified in the Eastern Mediterranean to date. This tsunami corresponds to the Chalcolithic ('Copper Age') cultural period of the region. Prehistoric age of these sediments

  4. The mass balance calculation of hydrothermal alteration in Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit is located 65 km southwest of Rafsanjan in Kerman province. The Sarcheshmeh deposit belongs to the southeastern part of Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic assemblage (i.e., Dehaj-Sarduyeh zone. Intrusion of Sarcheshmeh granodiorite stock in faulted and thrusted early-Tertiary volcano-sedimentary deposits, led to mineralization in Miocene. In this research, the mass changes and element mobilities during hydrothermal process of potassic alteration were studied relative to fresh rock from the deeper parts of the plutonic body, phyllic relative to potassic, argillic relative to phyllic and propylitic alteration relative to fresh andesites surrounding the deposit. In the potassic zone, enrichment in Fe2O3 and K2O is so clear, because of increasing Fe coming from biotite alteration and presence of K-feldspar, respectively. Copper and molybdenum enrichments resulted from presence of chalcopyrite, bornite and molybdenite mineralization in this zone. Enrichment of SiO2 and depletion of CaO, MgO, Na2O and K2O in the phyllic zone resulted from leaching of sodium, calcium and magnesium from the aluminosilicate rocks and alteration of K-feldspar to sericite and quartz. In the argillic zone, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O and MnO have also been enriched in which increasing Al2O3 may be from kaolinite and illite formation. Also, enrichment in SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO in propylitic alteration zone can be attributed to the formation of chlorite, epidote and calcite as indicative minerals of this zone.

  5. Evidence for Metallogenic Geochemistry of Volcano-Hot Spring Deposition in Xiqiu Copper deposit,Zhejiang Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There were strong volcanic and hot spring activities in Late proterozic in the Xiqiu mining district,Zhejiang province,The volcanic rocks and hydrothermal sedimentary cherts have high contents of the major metallogenic elements,Their atomic percentage of Cu:Zn:Pb is similar very much between volcanic rock,hydrothermal sedimentary chert and ore.Therefore,the metallization has a direct bearing on the volcanic and hot spring activities in the Xiqiu area.The δ34S values vary from -6.5‰to 2.8‰,the δ30Si Values from-0.2‰ to 0.6‰,and the δ18O Values from 8.14‰ to 22.32‰,Lead isotopes were derived mainly from the lower crust.The ores have high contents of As,Sb,Bi,Ga,Zn,and Ba,and low Al/(Al+Fe+Mn)ratios,with Zn/(Zn+Pb)ratios approximate to unity,Therefore,the Xiqiu massive copper sulfide deposit can be ascribed to volcano-hot spring deposition.

  6. Characteristics and evolution of ore-forming fluids of the Chongjiang copper deposit in the Gangdise porphyry copper belt, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuling Xie; Jiuhua Xu; Guangming Li; Zhiming Yang; Longsheng Yi

    2007-01-01

    Petrography, microthermometry, and scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS) studies were performed on the fluid inclusions in the ore-bearing quartz veins and quartz phenocrysts in the porphyry of the Chongjiang porphyry copper deposit. The analyses of the fluid inclusions indicate that the ore-forming fluids were exsolved from magma. They are near-saturated, supercritical, rich in volatile constituents, and have the capture temperature of 362-389°C and salinities of 17.7wt%-18.9wt% NaCl eq. With the decreasing of temperature and pressure, the supercritical fluids were separated into a low salinity vapor phase and a high salinity liquid phase. During quartz-sericitization, the high salinity fluid boiled and separated into a low salinity vapor phase and a high salinity liquid phase. The high salinity inclusions that formed in the boiling process had daughter mineral melting temperatures higher than the homogenization temperatures of the vapor and liquid phases. The late fluids that are responsible for argillization are of lower temperature and salinity.

  7. Femtosecond to nanosecond excited state dynamics of vapor deposited copper phthalocyanine thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplins, Benjamin W; Mullenbach, Tyler K; Holmes, Russell J; Blank, David A

    2016-04-28

    Vapor deposited thin films of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) were investigated using transient absorption spectroscopy. Exciton-exciton annihilation dominated the kinetics at high exciton densities. When annihilation was minimized, the observed lifetime was measured to be 8.6 ± 0.6 ns, which is over an order of magnitude longer than previous reports. In comparison with metal free phthalocyanine (H2Pc), the data show evidence that the presence of copper induces an ultrafast relaxation process taking place on the ca. 500 fs timescale. By comparison to recent time-resolved photoemission studies, this is assigned as ultrafast intersystem crossing. As the intersystem crossing occurs ca. 10(4) times faster than lifetime decay, it is likely that triplets are the dominant excitons in vapor deposited CuPc films. The exciton lifetime of CuPc thin films is ca. 35 times longer than H2Pc thin films, while the diffusion lengths reported in the literature are typically quite similar for the two materials. These findings suggest that despite appearing to be similar materials at first glance, CuPc and H2Pc may transport energy in dramatically different ways. This has important implications on the design and mechanistic understanding of devices where phthalocyanines are used as an excitonic material.

  8. Thermal chemistry of copper acetamidinate atomic layer deposition precursors on silicon oxide surfaces studied by XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yunxi; Zaera, Francisco, E-mail: zaera@ucr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The thermal surface chemistry of copper(I)-N,N′-di-sec-butylacetamidinate, [Cu({sup s}Bu-amd)]{sub 2}, a metalorganic complex recently proposed for the chemical-based deposition of copper films, has been characterized on SiO{sub 2} films under ultrahigh vacuum conditions by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Initial adsorption at cryogenic temperatures results in the oxidation of the copper centers with Cu 2p{sub 3/2} XPS binding energies close to those seen for a +2 oxidation state, an observation that the authors interpret as the result of the additional coordination of oxygen atoms from the surface to the Cu atoms of the molecular acetamidinate dimer. Either heating to 300 K or dosing the precursor directly at that temperature leads to the loss of one of its two ligands, presumably via hydrogenation/protonation with a hydrogen/proton from a silanol group, or following a similar reaction on a defect site. By approximately 500 K the Cu 2p{sub 3/2}, C 1s, and N 1s XPS data suggest that the remaining acetamidinate ligand is displaced from the copper center and bonds to the silicon oxide directly, after which temperatures above 900 K need to be reached to promote further (and only partial) decomposition of those organic moieties. It was also shown that the uptake of the Cu precursor is self-limiting at either 300 or 500 K, although the initial chemistry is somewhat different at the two temperatures, and that the nature of the substrate also defines reactivity, with the thin native silicon oxide layer always present on Si(100) surfaces being less reactive than thicker films grown by evaporation, presumably because of the lower density of surface nucleation sites.

  9. Influence of different deposition potential on the structural and optical properties of copper selenide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harmanmeet; Kaur, Jaskiran; Singh, Lakhwant

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, nanowires were successfully fabricated from the aqueous solution containing 0.2 M/l CuSO4.5H2O, 0.1 M/l SeO2, 1 g/l PVP and a few drops of H2SO4 in Milli-Q water using electrodeposition technique at room temperature. Influence of different deposition potential on structural and optical properties of copper selenide nanowires has been investigated here. Morphological, structural and optical properties were monitored through field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-visible 1800 spectrophotometer. From the XRD analysis, it was found that the stoichiometric (CuSe) nanowires are formed at deposition potential (-0.6 V) and (+0.6 V). Band gap of nanowires were found to be maximum around 3.13 eV for deposition potential (-0.8 V) and minimum of 2.81 eV for deposition potential (-0.6 V).

  10. Fabrication of cuprous chloride films on copper substrate by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Ting; Ci, Ji-Wei; Tu, Wei-Chen [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Uen, Wu-Yih, E-mail: uenwuyih@ms37.hinet.net [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Lan, Shan-Ming [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Yang, Tsun-Neng; Shen, Chin-Chang; Wu, Chih-Hung [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-11, Lungtan 32500, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-30

    Polycrystalline CuCl films were fabricated by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on a Cu substrate at a low solution temperature of 90 °C. Continuous CuCl films were prepared using the copper (II) chloride (CuCl{sub 2}) compound as the precursor for both the Cu{sup 2+} and Cl{sup −} sources, together with repeated HCl dip treatments. An HCl dip pretreatment of the substrate favored the nucleation of CuCl crystallites. Further, interrupting the film deposition and including an HCl dip treatment of the film growth surface facilitated the deposition of a full-coverage CuCl film. A dual beam (FIB/SEM) system with energy dispersive spectrometry facilities attached revealed a homogeneous CuCl layer with a flat-top surface and an average thickness of about 1 μm. Both the excitonic and biexcitonic emission lines were well-resolved in the 6.4 K photoluminescence spectra. In particular, the free exciton emission line was observable at room temperature, indicating the good quality of the CuCl films prepared by CBD. - Highlights: • Cuprous chloride (CuCl) was prepared on Cu substrate by chemical bath deposition. • HCl dip treatments facilitated the deposition of a full-coverage CuCl film. • A homogeneous elemental distribution was recognized for the deposited CuCl layer. • Excitonic and biexcitonic photoluminescence lines of CuCl films were well-resolved. • The free exciton emission line of CuCl films was observable at room temperature.

  11. CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY STUDIES OF COPPER (II AND TELLURIUM (IV IONS IN ACIDIC AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS FOR THIN FILM DEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARAVANAN NAGALINGAM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammetry studies of copper (II and tellurium (IV ions in acidic aqueous solutions were carried out to determine the optimum condition for copper telluride thin film deposition. The voltammetry studies include reversible scans at different solution pH. Based on the voltammogram, suitable deposition conditions was determined to be in the range of -0.35 V to -0.45 V versus Ag/AgCl at pH values between 2.0 to 2.2 under non diffusion-limited conditions.

  12. Deposit Types and Geological Characteristics of the Copper Deposits in Zambia%赞比亚铜矿床类型及地质特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张道俊; 冷莹莹

    2013-01-01

    Zambia is one of the most famous copper production places in the world.The copper ore deposits in Zambia include stratabound,sedimentary,metamorphosed-deformation and hydrothermal types,and are dominated by the sedimentary type.Statistics indicate that the sedimentary copper ore resources account for 79% of the whole resources in Zambia.All kinds of the copper ore deposits are controlled by the Luflian arc.The stratabound copper deposits are mainly discovered in the perifornical region,and the ore-bearing rock serious are the Muva megagroup biotite schist and around the anticlines and two-mica quartz schist.The sedimentary copper deposits are mainly distributed around anticlines and the peripheral dome,and the ore-bearing rock series are the lower Katanga megagroup sandstone-shale beds.%赞比亚是世界著名的铜产地之一,其铜矿类型可分为层控型、沉积型、变质改造型及热液型,以沉积型为主.据现有大中型矿床铜资源量统计,沉积型矿产铜资源量占赞比亚铜总资源量的79%.各类型铜矿床总体受卢弗里安(Luflian)弧控制,层控型铜矿主要分布在穹窿核部边缘,含矿岩系为莫瓦(Muva)超群的黑云母片岩、二云石英片岩;沉积型铜矿主要分布在背斜或穹窿外缘周围,含矿岩系主要是加丹加(Katanga)超群下部的砂页岩层.

  13. Plasma Deposition and Characterization of Copper-doped Cobalt Oxide Nanocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek TYCZKOWSKI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of pure and copper-doped cobalt oxide films was prepared by plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (PEMOCVD. The effect of Cu-doping on the chemical structure and morphology of the deposited films was investigated. Raman and FTIR spectroscopies were used to characterize the chemical structure and morphology of the produced films. The bulk composition and homogeneity of the samples were investigated by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS was employed to assess the surface chemical composition of pure and doped materials. The obtained results permit to affirm that the PEMOCVD technique is a simple, versatile and efficient method for providing homogeneous layers of cobalt oxides with a different content of copper. It has been found that pure cobalt oxide films mainly contain Co3O4 in the form of nanoclusters whereas the films doped with Cu are much more complex, and CoOx (also Co3O4, mixed Co-Cu oxides and CuOx nanoclusters are detected in them. Preliminary catalytical tests show that Cu-doped cobalt oxide films allow to initiate catalytic combustion of n-hexane at a lower temperature compared to the pure cobalt oxide (Co3O4 films. From what has been stated above, the plasma-deposited thin films of Cu-doped cobalt oxides pave the way towards a new class of nanomaterials with interesting catalytic properties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.2320

  14. OSL age determinations of Pleistocene fluvial deposits in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio A.A. Soares

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Absolute dating methods have been used in chronological studies of geological processes and sedimentary units of Quaternary age in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Although radiocarbon dating has been very useful in archaeological research and soil studies, the temporal interval of this method is inefficient in evaluating the sedimentation aspects and geological events from the beginning of the Quaternary in the Amazon basin. The use of crystal luminescence dating has been one of the most promising tool for determining the absolute dating of Quaternary deposits in the Amazonian region. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating, following the MAR and SAR protocols, in a tectonic-sedimentary study of Quaternary fluvial deposits in the confluence area of the Negro and Solimões rivers, indicated ages from 1.3 (Holocene to about 67.4 kyears (Late Pleistocene for these sediments. Low radioactive isotope concentrations were found about 2ppm for 235U and 238U; 5ppm for 232Th; and the 40K concentrations were almost zero. A comparison was made between MAR and SAR protocols taking into account the fluvial depositional process.Métodos de datação absoluta têm sido usados em estudos cronológicos de processos geológicos e unidades sedimentares de idade quaternária na Amazônia Central, Brasil. Embora as datações pelo 14C tenham sido muito úteis na pesquisa arqueológica e estudos de solos, o intervalo de tempo abrangido por este método é ineficiente para avaliar aspectos da sedimentação e eventos geológicos do início do Quaternário na bacia Amazônica. O uso da datação por luminescência de cristais tem sido uma das ferramentas mais promissoras para a determinação da idade absoluta de depósitos quaternários na região amazônica. A datação por luminescência opticamente estimulada (LOE, seguindo os protocolos MAR e SAR, em um estudo tectono-sedimentar de depósitos aluviais quaternários da área de confluência dos rios Negro e Solim

  15. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits of the Kodar-Udokan area, Russia: Chapter M in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Chechetkin, Vladimir S.; Parks, Heather L.; Box, Stephen E.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Dolgopolova, Alla; Hayes, Timothy S.; Seltmann, Reimar; Syusyura, Boris; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wintzer, Niki E.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments integrate and synthesize available information as a basis for estimating the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources. This probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Kodar-Udokan area in Russia is a contribution to a global assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purposes of this study are to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) to indicate where undiscovered sandstone-hosted copper deposits may occur within 2 km of the surface, (2) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu) and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The workshop for the assessment, held in October 2009, used a three-part form of mineral resource assessment as described by Singer (1993) and Singer and Menzie (2010).

  16. Mineralogy of Copper-Gold Deposit, Masjid Daghi Area, Jolfa, IRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenoozi, Roya

    2010-05-01

    The Copper-Gold deposit of Masjid Daghi area is located in the Jolfa quadrangle (scale 1:100,000), East Azerbaijan Province, north-west Iran. The deposit, hosting by sub-volcanic bodies comprise of quartz monzonite composition whose intruded the Tertiary volcanic and volcanic-sedimentary rocks and turbidities. The Tertiary volcanic rocks consist of andesite, trachy andesite and quartz andesite. These mineral-bearing bodies related to Late Eocene sub-volcanic activities which intrudded the Eocene volcanic rocks. Mineralography, XRD and SEM studies showed that the variations in mineralization of the area. The main agent of mineralization is the intrusion of Late Eocene sub volcanic bodies inside the Tertiary volcanic units. The mineralography studies revealed two main groups of mineralization as oxides and sulfides. The sulfide minerals formed as veins, vein lets and stock work.The economic minerals comprise of native gold, copper sulfides. The native gold occurring in siliceous veins and almost as inclusions inside the sulfides minerals such as chalcopyrite. The copper sulfides, contain pyrite, chalcopyrite and chalco-pyrrhoyite. Pyrite is main sulfide in the area and formed as disseminations, cavity filling and colloform. The amount of pyrite, chalcopyrite and chalco-pyrrhoyite increases with depth. Supergene alteration produced digenite, covellite, bornite, and malachite. The alteration occurred as potassic, phyllic, argillic and propylitic minerals. Furthermore, selective sercitic, sericitic-chloritic and alunitic alterations are seen around the mineralized veins. The mineralography studies indicate that pyrite is main mineral phase and native gold occurred in silicious vein almost as inclusions inside the sulfide mineral. Most of economic mineral formed as veins, vein lets, disseminated, cavity filling and colloform which related to intrusions of Late Eocene quartz monzonite bodies into the Eocene volcanic rocks and turbiditse. Some types of alterations such as

  17. Potential links between porphyry copper deposits and exhumed metamorphic basement complexes in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Frances; Docherty, Alistair; Perkins, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) are typically associated with magmatic arcs in compressional subduction zone settings where thickened crust and fractionated calc-alkaline magmas produce favourable conditions for copper mineralisation. A classic example is the Eocene-Oligocene PCD belt of Chile, the world's leading copper producing country. In other parts of the world, older late Cretaceous to early Tertiary PCDs are found in regions of former subduction-related magmatism that have undergone subsequent post-orogenic crustal extension, such as the Basin and Range province of western North America, and the Eurasian Balkan-Carpathian-Dinaride belt. In the Basin and Range there is a striking correlation between the location of many PCDs and exhumed metamorphic core complexes (isolated remnants of the middle to lower crust exhumed during extensional normal faulting). This close spatial relationship raises questions about the links between the two. For example, are their exhumation histories related? Could the presence of impermeable metamorphic rocks at depth affect and localise mineralising fluids? In Chile there appears to be a similar spatial relationship between PCDs and isolated outcrops of exhumed metamorphic basement. In northern Chile, isolated exposures of high-grade metamorphic gneisses and amphibolites are thought to be exhumed remnants of the pre-subduction Proterozoic-Paleozoic continental margin of Gondwana [2], although little is known about when they were exhumed and by what mechanism. For example, the Limón Verde metamorphic complex, exhumed from a depth of ca. 50 km, is situated adjacent to Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world. In northernmost Chile, another metamorphic exposure, the Belén complex, sits close to the Dos Hermanos PCD, a small deposit that is not actively mined. Comprising garnet-bearing gneisses and amphibolites, the Belén is thought to have been exhumed from a depth of ca. 25 km, but when and how is unclear [3

  18. Ground-water quality in quaternary deposits of the central high plains aquifer, south-central Kansas, 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water samples from 20 randomly selected domestic water-supply wells completed in the Quaternary deposits of south-central Kansas were collected as part of the High...

  19. Influence of pulse ratio on codeposition of copper species with calcium phosphate coatings on titanium by means of electrochemically assisted deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Brandstetter, Cornelia; Oswald, Steffen; Bierbaum, Susanne; Wiesmann, Hans-Peter; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this study was to combine the well-known biocompatibility and ostoeconductivity of thin calcium phosphate coatings on titanium with proangiogenic signals from codeposited copper species. Copper species could be integrated in mineral layers based on hydroxyapatite by means of electrochemically assisted deposition from electrolytes containing calcium, phosphate, and copper ions. Different combinations of duration and intensity of galvanostatic pulses result in different amounts of deposited calcium phosphate and of copper species even for the same applied total charge. Absolute amounts of copper varied between 2.1 and 6.9 μg/cm², and the copper was distributed homogeneously as shown by EDX mapping. The presence of copper did not change the crystalline phase of deposited calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) but provoked a significant decrease in deposited amounts by factor 3 to 4. The copper was deposited mainly as Cu(I) species with a minor fraction of basic copper phosphates. Reduction of copper occurred not only at the surface of titanium but also within the hydroxyapatite coating due to the reaction with hydrogen produced by the electrolysis of water during the cathodic polarization of the substrate.

  20. 斑岩铜矿床研究进展%Review of Porphyry Copper Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云国; 周朝宪

    2011-01-01

    斑岩铜矿不但形成于环太平洋成矿域,还形成于特提斯成矿域和中亚成矿域(古亚洲洋成矿域)。成矿物质来源于深部,经过“洋壳一地幔熔岩流”、“原始岩浆”、“浅部富矿岩浆”和“岩浆结晶一成矿”4个阶段,其中在“原始弧岩浆”阶段,通过MASH过程,有大量成矿物质和能量的聚集。成矿流体为富H2O、高温、高压、高盐度、强氧化性、高氧逸度的富矿气液相流体,这些特点有利于成矿物质在岩浆一热液分离过程中向流体富集,并以氯络合物的形式运移。随着成矿流体的上侵,温度和压力的降低是成矿物质沉淀的主要影响因素。磁铁矿的结晶为成矿流体提供了大量的S2-离子,也是导致成矿物质沉淀的主要因素。斑岩型蚀变带从里向外为石英内核、钾化带、SCC带和泥化带,铜矿化主要发育在矿化带外围以及SCC带。目前,斑岩铜矿成矿模型主要有经典模型、系统模型和多阶段叠加模型。%Porphyry copper deposit as the largest source of Cu is one of the most important deposits in the world. Porphyry Copper Deposit not only occured in Circum-Pacific ore-forming region, but also oceured in Tethys ore-forming region and Middle-Asian(Paleo-Asian Oceanic) ore-forming region. The mineralization materials de- rived from the deep. Porphyry forms through four stages: "Oceanic Crust-Mantle Lava Flow"," Original Magma", "Shallow Ore Magma"," Crystallization of Magma-Minerali- zation". In the stage of "Original Magma", much met- allogenic materials and energy gather through the process of "MASH". Ore-forming fluids are high-grade fliuds of gas-liquid phase, which are of fluid-rich, high temperature, high pressure, high salinity, strong oxidizing, high ox- ygen fugacity. The characteristics of ore-torming fluids are favorable tbr metallogenic materials to gather from mag- mas to fluids in the

  1. Geophysical model of the Cu-Mo porphyry ore deposit at Copper Flat Mine, Hillsboro, Sierra County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Adrian Emmanuel Gutierrez

    A 3D gravity model of the Copper Flat Mine was performed as part of the exploration of new resources in at the mine. The project is located in the Las Animas Mining District in Sierra County, New Mexico. The mine has been producing ore since 1877 and is currently owned by the New Mexico Copper Corporation, which plans o bringing the closed copper mine back into production with innovation and a sustainable approach to mining development. The Project is located on the Eastern side of the Arizona-Sonora-New Mexico porphyry copper Belt of Cretaceous age. Copper Flat is predominantly a Cretaceous age stratovolcano composed mostly of quartz monzonite. The quartz monzonite was intruded by a block of andesite alter which a series of latite dikes creating veining along the topography where the majority of the deposit. The Copper Flat deposit is mineralized along a breccia pipe where the breccia is the result of auto-brecciation due to the pore pressure. There have been a number of geophysical studies conducted at the site. The most recent survey was a gravity profile on the area. The purpose of the new study is the reinterpretation of the IP Survey and emphasizes the practical use of the gravity geophysical method in evaluating the validity of the previous survey results. The primary method used to identify the deposit is gravity in which four Talwani models were created in order to created a 3D model of the ore body. The Talwani models have numerical integration approaches that were used to divide every model into polygons. The profiles were sectioned into polygons; each polygon was assigning a specific density depending on the body being drawn. Three different gridding techniques with three different filtering methods were used producing ten maps prior to the modeling, these maps were created to establish the best map to fit the models. The calculation of the polygons used an exact formula instead of the numerical integration of the profile made with a Talwani approach. A

  2. Uniformly Distributed Graphene Domain Grows on Standing Copper via Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hao Chan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniformly distributed graphene domains were synthesized on standing copper foil by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition system. This method improved the distribution of the graphene domains at different positions on the same piece of copper foil along the forward direction of the gas flow. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed the average size of the graphene domains to be about ~20 m. This results show that the sheet resistance of monolayer graphene on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate is about ~359 /□ whereas that of the four-layer graphene films is about ~178 /□, with a transmittance value of 88.86% at the 550 nm wavelength. Furthermore, the sheet resistance can be reduced with the addition of HNO3 resulting in a value of 84 /□. These values meet the absolute standard for touch sensor applications, so we believe that this method can be a candidate for some transparent conductive electrode applications.

  3. The deposition characteristics of copper(I) compounds for CVD by FT-IR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardcastle, F.D.; Peden, C.H.F.; Omstead, T.R.; Blewer, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Farkas, J.; Hampden-Smith, M.J.; Kodas, T.T. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to investigate the adsorption and thermally-induced decomposition of copper (I) {beta}-diketonate precursors of the type (hfac)CuL, where hfac is the hexafluoroacetylacetonate bidentate ligand and L is trimethylphosphine or 1,5-cyclooctadiene. The (hfac)CuPMe{sub 3} precursor desorbs from the surface at very low temperatures whereas the (hfac)Cu(1,5-COD) dissociates on adsorption, liberating 1,5-COD and leaving a surface(hfac)Cu complex which can subsequently disproportionate. Evidence is provided for hydrogen-bonding between the hfac ligand and the surface silanols for (hfac)CuPMe{sub 3}, but not for (hfac)Cu(1,5-COD). These results are consistent with the selective behavior of these precursors for copper deposition and suggest that the selectivity of the (hfac)CuPMe{sub 3} and (hfac)Cu(1, 5-COD) precursors may be due to the ability of the hfac ligand to hydrogen bond to the surface silanol groups.

  4. The deposition characteristics of copper(I) compounds for CVD by FT-IR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardcastle, F.D.; Peden, C.H.F.; Omstead, T.R.; Blewer, R.S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Farkas, J.; Hampden-Smith, M.J.; Kodas, T.T. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to investigate the adsorption and thermally-induced decomposition of copper (I) {beta}-diketonate precursors of the type (hfac)CuL, where hfac is the hexafluoroacetylacetonate bidentate ligand and L is trimethylphosphine or 1,5-cyclooctadiene. The (hfac)CuPMe{sub 3} precursor desorbs from the surface at very low temperatures whereas the (hfac)Cu(1,5-COD) dissociates on adsorption, liberating 1,5-COD and leaving a surface(hfac)Cu complex which can subsequently disproportionate. Evidence is provided for hydrogen-bonding between the hfac ligand and the surface silanols for (hfac)CuPMe{sub 3}, but not for (hfac)Cu(1,5-COD). These results are consistent with the selective behavior of these precursors for copper deposition and suggest that the selectivity of the (hfac)CuPMe{sub 3} and (hfac)Cu(1, 5-COD) precursors may be due to the ability of the hfac ligand to hydrogen bond to the surface silanol groups.

  5. Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Deposited Copper Sulphide Thin Films for Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. E. Firat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline copper sulphide (CuxS thin films were grown by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method using aqueous solutions of copper chloride and thiourea without any complexing agent at various substrate temperatures of 240, 280, and 320°C. The films were characterized for their structural, optical, and electrical properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX, atomic force microscopy (AFM, contact angle (CA, optical absorption, and current-voltage (I-V measurements. The XRD analysis showed that the films had single or mixed phase polycrystalline nature with a hexagonal covellite and cubic digenite structure. The crystalline phase of the films changed depending on the substrate temperature. The optical band gaps (Eg of thin films were 2.07 eV (CuS, 2.50 eV (Cu1.765S, and 2.28 eV (Cu1.765S–Cu2S. AFM results indicated that the films had spherical nanosized particles well adhered to the substrate. Contact angle measurements showed that the thin films had hydrophobic nature. Hall effect measurements of all the deposited CuxS thin films demonstrated them to be of p-type conductivity, and the current-voltage (I-V dark curves exhibited linear variation.

  6. Natural Radioactivity at the Sin Quyen Iron-Oxide-Copper-Gold Deposit in North Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dinh Chau; Khanh, Phon Le; Jodłowski, Paweł; Pieczonka, Jadwiga; Piestrzyński, Adam; Van, Hao Duong; Nowak, Jakub

    2016-12-01

    The field radiometric and laboratory measurements were performed at the Sin Quyen copper deposit in North Vietnam. The field gamma-ray spectrometry indicated the concentration of uranium ranging from 5.5 to 87 ppm, thorium from 5.6 to 33.2 ppm, and potassium from 0.3 to 4.7%. The measured dose rates ranged from 115 to 582 nGy/h, the highest doses being at the copper ore. Concentrations in the solid samples were in the range of 20-1700 Bq/kg for uranium, 20-92.7 Bq/kg for thorium, and 7-1345 Bq/kg for potassium. The calculated doses were from 22 to 896 nGy/h; both measured and calculated dose rates are mostly related to uranium. Concentrations of radium in water samples were below 0. 17 Bq/L. Uranium in water samples was significantly higher than the hydrogeological background; the maximum of 13 Bq/L was at the waste zone pool, but neither radium nor uranium were present in tap water. Radon concentration in the dwelling air was from 42 to 278 Bq/m3 for 222Rn and from 8 to 193 Bq/m3 for 220Rn. The estimated committed dose rates were principally related to 222Rn concentration and ranged from 1.1 to 8.1 mSv/y.

  7. Natural Radioactivity at the Sin Quyen Iron-Oxide-Copper-Gold Deposit in North Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dinh Chau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The field radiometric and laboratory measurements were performed at the Sin Quyen copper deposit in North Vietnam. The field gamma-ray spectrometry indicated the concentration of uranium ranging from 5.5 to 87 ppm, thorium from 5.6 to 33.2 ppm, and potassium from 0.3 to 4.7%. The measured dose rates ranged from 115 to 582 nGy/h, the highest doses being at the copper ore. Concentrations in the solid samples were in the range of 20-1700 Bq/kg for uranium, 20-92.7 Bq/kg for thorium, and 7-1345 Bq/kg for potassium. The calculated doses were from 22 to 896 nGy/h; both measured and calculated dose rates are mostly related to uranium. Concentrations of radium in water samples were below 0. 17 Bq/L. Uranium in water samples was significantly higher than the hydrogeological background; the maximum of 13 Bq/L was at the waste zone pool, but neither radium nor uranium were present in tap water. Radon concentration in the dwelling air was from 42 to 278 Bq/m3 for 222Rn and from 8 to 193 Bq/m3 for 220Rn. The estimated committed dose rates were principally related to 222Rn concentration and ranged from 1.1 to 8.1 mSv/y.

  8. Cr13Ni5Si2-Based Composite Coating on Copper Deposited Using Pulse Laser Induction Cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Hailin; Zhu, Guangzhi; Zhu, Xiao

    2017-02-10

    A Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating was successfully deposited on copper by pulse laser induction hybrid cladding (PLIC), and its high-temperature wear behavior was investigated. Temperature evolutions associated with crack behaviors in PLIC were analyzed and compared with pulse laser cladding (PLC) using the finite element method. The microstructure and present phases were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Compared with continuous laser induction cladding, the higher peak power offered by PLIC ensures metallurgical bonding between highly reflective copper substrate and coating. Compared with a wear test at room temperature, at 500 °C the wear volume of the Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating increased by 21%, and increased by 225% for a NiCr/Cr3C2 coating deposited by plasma spray. This novel technology has good prospects for application with respect to the extended service life of copper mold plates for slab continuous casting.

  9. [Leaching of copper ore of the Udokanskoe deposit at low temperatures by an association of acidophilic chemolithotrophic microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat'eva, T F; Pivovarova, T A; Krylova, L N; Melamud, V S; Adamov, E V; Karavaĭko, G I

    2011-01-01

    Pure cultures of indigenous microorganisms Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain TFUd, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans strain LUd, and Sulfobacillus thermotolerans strain SUd have been isolated from the oxidation zone of sulfide copper ore of the Udokanskoe deposit. Regimes of bacterial-chemical leaching of ore have been studied over a temperature range from -10 to +20 degrees C. Effects of pH, temperature, and the presence of microorganisms on the extraction of copper have been shown. Bacterial leaching has been detected only at positive values of temperature, and has been much more active at +20 than at +4 degrees C. The process of leaching was more active when the ore contained more hydrophilic and oxidized minerals. The possibility of copper ore leaching of the Udokanskoe deposit using sulfuric acid with pH 0.4 at negative values of temperature and applying acidophilic chemolithotrophic microorganisms at positive values of temperature and low pH values was shown.

  10. Direct Deposition of Bamboo-Like Carbon Nanotubes on Copper Substrates by Sulfur-Assisted HFCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Lakshmi Katar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Films of bamboo-like carbon nanotubes (BCNTs were grown directly on copper substrates by sulfur-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD. The effects of substrate temperature and growth time over the BCNT structure were investigated. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy (RS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and electron field emission (EFE studies. SEM and Raman characterization indicate a transition from the growth of microcrystalline diamond to the growth of a dense entangled network of carbon nanotubes or fibers as the substrate temperature is increased from 400 to 900°C that is accounted for by the base growth model. TEM images show that the nanotubes have regular arrays of nanocavities. These BCNTs show good electron field emission properties as other carbon films.

  11. Cubic Copper Hexacyanoferrates Nanoparticles: Facile Template-Free Deposition and Electrocatalytic Sensing Towards Hydrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cubic copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF nanoparticles prepared via electrolytic deposition are presented with their morphology and crystalline structure characterized with SEM and XRD. The advantage of this methodology is that it allows the fabrication of uniform cubic nanoparticles with permeable structures onto the desired underlying electrode substrate. It was observed that the CuHCF film acts as a permeable membrane for cations such as K+, Na+, Li+, and NH4+ with a selection order of K+> Li+>NH4+> Na+. Furthermore, the analytical utility of these cubic-like CuHCF morphologies supported on a glassy carbon electrode was evaluated towards the electrochemical oxidation of hydrazine which was found to exhibit a linear response over the range 66 M to 17 mM with a detection limit corresponding to 16.5 M.

  12. Characteristics of copper meshes coated with carbon nanotubes via electrophoretic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bu-Jong; Park, Jong-Seol; Hwang, Young-Jin; Park, Jin-Seok

    2016-09-01

    This study demonstrates the characteristics of a hybrid-type transparent electrode for touch screen panels, which was fabricated by coating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on copper (Cu)-meshes. The surface morphologies, visible-range transmittance and reflectance, and chromatic properties, such as yellowness and redness, of the fabricated CNTs-coated Cu mesh electrodes were characterized as functions of their dimensions (line-to-line spacing, line width, and electrode thickness) and compared with those of the Cu-mesh electrodes without coating of CNTs. The experimental results showed that the coating of CNTs substantially reduced the reflectance of the Cu-mesh electrodes and also improved their chromatic properties with their transmittance and sheet resistance only slightly changed, subsequently indicating that the CNTs-coated Cu-mesh electrodes possessed desirable characteristics for touch screen panels.

  13. Ultrahigh-mobility graphene devices from chemical vapor deposition on reusable copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banszerus, Luca; Schmitz, Michael; Engels, Stephan; Dauber, Jan; Oellers, Martin; Haupt, Federica; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Beschoten, Bernd; Stampfer, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Graphene research has prospered impressively in the past few years, and promising applications such as high-frequency transistors, magnetic field sensors, and flexible optoelectronics are just waiting for a scalable and cost-efficient fabrication technology to produce high-mobility graphene. Although significant progress has been made in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and epitaxial growth of graphene, the carrier mobility obtained with these techniques is still significantly lower than what is achieved using exfoliated graphene. We show that the quality of CVD-grown graphene depends critically on the used transfer process, and we report on an advanced transfer technique that allows both reusing the copper substrate of the CVD growth and making devices with mobilities as high as 350,000 cm2 V–1 s–1, thus rivaling exfoliated graphene. PMID:26601221

  14. Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Aluminium and Copper Composite Coatings Deposited by LPCS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnicki M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of microstructure and corrosion resistance of composite coatings (Al+Al2O3 and Cu+Al2O3 deposited by Low Pressure Cold Spraying method (LPCS. The atmospheric corrosion resistance was examined by subjecting the samples to cyclic salt spray and Kesternich test chambers, with NaCl and SO2 atmospheres, respectively. The selected tests allowed reflecting the actual working conditions of the coatings. The analysis showed very satisfactory results for copper coatings. After eighteen cycles, with a total time of 432 hours, the samples show little signs of corrosion. Due to their greater susceptibility to chloride ions, aluminium coatings have significant corrosion losses.

  15. Fabrication of copper (Ⅰ) nitride nanorods within SBA-15 by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Copper (Ⅰ) nitride nanorods grown in channels of mesoporous silica SBA-15 by chemical vapor deposition method has been synthesized. The morphology and microstructure of the resulting product were characterized by XRD patters, TEM images, EDS analysis and Raman spectra. The XRD and TEM revealed that the Cu3N phase was confined in channels of SBA-15 forming continuous nanowires with 6 nm around and hundreds of nanometers in length. Raman spectra of the final product and pure Cu3N showed peaks shift due to the quantum confinement effect of the nanowires. This preparation methodology only requires a mild working condition and is capable of template synthesis of other binary nitride nanostructures with controlled morphology inside the channels of mesoporous materials.

  16. Evaluating the Metal Source(s) of Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold (IOCG) Deposits (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. C.; Bilenker, L.; Lundstrom, C.; Reich, M.; Barra, F.; Hanchar, J. M.; Westhues, A.

    2013-12-01

    Iron oxide - copper - gold deposits (IOCG) are characterized by high modal abundances of magnetite and/or hematite, ubiquitous and variable grades of Cu and Au, and, often, economic grades of other metals including REE, U, Ag, Mo and Zn. The largest deposits contain >1 billion tonnes of iron. There seems to be a general consensus that metals in IOCG deposits were transported by, and precipitated from, aqueous fluids. However, there is a lack of agreement for the source of the metal-bearing aqueous fluid(s) as well as the source of iron and other metals (i.e., magmatic or hydrothermal, or some combination of the two). Published fluid inclusion data indicate that metal-bearing aqueous fluids were trapped over a wide range of temperatures, with homogenization temperatures between 500 and 600 °C for inclusions associated with the precipitation of iron-oxide minerals, and between 300 and 500 °C for inclusions associated with main-stage sulfides (e.g., chalcopyrite, pyrite). The high trapping temperatures for fluid inclusions and the observation that some IOCG deposits appear to be related temporally and spatially to igneous intrusions, characteristics similar to those observed for porphyry-type ore deposits, have led some authors to propose that magmatic-hydrothermal aqueous fluids are responsible for IOCG formation. Others, however, favor a genetic model that invokes large-scale circulation of basinal brines, which are heated by magmatic intrusions and subsequently leach Fe and other metals from the crust. Evidence cited for this model includes the pervasive alkali metasomatism associated with some IOCG deposits, and the depletion of Fe, Cu and Au in some deposit wall rocks. Stable isotope evidence thus far is inconclusive. Published d34S values for IOCG deposits range from -30 to +30, but generally cluster around zero per mil. d18O ranges from ~0 to +10 per mil. Chlorine isotope values for fluids in inclusions liberated from quartz, calcite and apatite are

  17. Copper-nickel-rich, amalgamated ferromanganese crust-nodule deposits from Shatsky Rise, NW Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, J.R.; Conrad, T.A.; Frank, M.; Christl, M.; Sager, W.W.

    2012-01-01

    A unique set of ferromanganese crusts and nodules collected from Shatsky Rise (SR), NW Pacific, were analyzed for mineralogical and chemical compositions, and dated using Be isotopes and cobalt chronometry. The composition of these midlatitude, deep-water deposits is markedly different from northwest-equatorial Pacific (PCZ) crusts, where most studies have been conducted. Crusts and nodules on SR formed in close proximity and some nodule deposits were cemented and overgrown by crusts, forming amalgamated deposits. The deep-water SR crusts are high in Cu, Li, and Th and low in Co, Te, and Tl concentrations compared to PCZ crusts. Thorium concentrations (ppm) are especially striking with a high of 152 (mean 56), compared to PCZ crusts (mean 11). The deep-water SR crusts show a diagenetic chemical signal, but not a diagenetic mineralogy, which together constrain the redox conditions to early oxic diagenesis. Diagenetic input to crusts is rare, but unequivocal in these deep-water crusts. Copper, Ni, and Li are strongly enriched in SR deep-water deposits, but only in layers older than about 3.4 Ma. Diagenetic reactions in the sediment and dissolution of biogenic calcite in the water column are the likely sources of these metals. The highest concentrations of Li are in crust layers that formed near the calcite compensation depth. The onset of Ni, Cu, and Li enrichment in the middle Miocene and cessation at about 3.4 Ma were accompanied by changes in the deep-water environment, especially composition and flow rates of water masses, and location of the carbonate compensation depth.

  18. Mineral Deposit Data for Epigenetic Base- and Precious-metal and Uranium-thorium Deposits in South-central and Southwestern Montana and Southern and Central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    Metal deposits spatially associated with the Cretaceous Boulder and Idaho batholiths of southwestern Montana and southern and central Idaho have been exploited since the early 1860s. Au was first discovered in placer deposits; exploitation of vein deposits in bedrock soon followed. In 1865, high-grade Ag vein deposits were discovered and remained economically important until the 1890s. Early high-grade deposits of Au, Ag and Pb were found in the weathered portions of the veins systems. As mining progressed to deeper levels, Ag and Pb grades diminished. Exploration for and development of these vein deposits in this area have continued until the present. A majority of these base- and precious-metal vein deposits are classified as polymetallic veins (PMV) and polymetallic carbonate-replacement (PMR) deposits in this compilation. Porphyry Cu and Mo, epithermal (Au, Ag, Hg and Sb), base- and precious-metal and W skarn, W vein, and U and Th vein deposits are also common in this area. The world-class Butte Cu porphyry and the Butte high-sulfidation Cu vein deposits are in this study area. PMV and PMR deposits are the most numerous in the region and constitute about 85% of the deposit records compiled. Several types of syngenetic/diagenetic sulfide mineral deposits in rocks of the Belt Supergroup or their equivalents are common in the region and they have been the source of a substantial metal production over the last century. These syngenetic deposits and their metamorphosed/structurally remobilized equivalents were not included in this database; therefore, deposits in the Idaho portion of the Coeur d'Alene district and the Idaho Cobalt belt, for example, have not been included because many of them are believed to be of this type.

  19. Hydrothermal alteration and its effects on the magnetic properties of Los Pelambres, a large multistage porphyry copper deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Joseline; Townley, Brian; Córdova, Loreto; Poblete, Fernando; Arriagada, César

    2016-09-01

    The Los Pelambres porphyry copper deposit is located 190 km north of Santiago, Chile. A paleomagnetic and mineralogical study was conducted at this deposit to determine the effects of hydrothermal alteration on the magnetic properties and minerals of rocks within the deposit when compared to the surrounding country rock. In the Los Pelambres deposit, magnetic properties of rocks are carried by titano-hematite and titano-magnetite solid solution minerals, where the former commonly indicates the exsolution of rutile. Magnetic minerals of intrusive rocks from the greater Los Pelambres region show that magmatic titano-magnetites and magnetites are the main magnetization carriers. The hydrothermal fluid associated with rutile exsolution textures could have played an important role in the mineralization of Cu in this deposit. The paleomagnetic properties in the Los Pelambres deposit can be divided in three main groups: (i) HMRG (high magnetic remanence group), (ii) HMSG (high magnetic susceptibility group), and (iii) LMSG (low magnetic susceptibility/remanence group). In-situ magnetic properties of the HMSG and LMSG are similar to the formations and units present regionally, however HRMG samples clearly differ from the country rocks. The high variability of in-situ magnetic properties presented in the Los Pelambres deposit has also been characteristic of other porphyry copper deposits in Chile (e.g., Chuquicamata and El Teniente). Regarding the field of exploration geophysics and porphyry copper deposits, this study suggests that phyllic, chloritic, and potassic alterations are related to low, intermediate, and high in-situ NRM, respectively, suggesting that geophysical methods must target a noisy magnetic signal depending on the scale of the study. The knowledge and results obtained are especially meaningful because magnetic surveys conducted for exploration do not commonly allow for the detection of ore mineralization.

  20. In Situ Structural Studies of the Underpotential Deposition of Copper onto an Iodine Covered Platinum Surface Using X-Ray Standing Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    ABSTRAc C We present initial results of an in situ structural investigation of the underpotential deposition of copper on an iodine covered platinum...compare the result of surface coverage isotherms derived from both electrochemical and x-ray measurements. 1. INTRODUCIION The underpotential deposition ...the underpotential deposition of copper on an iodine covered platinum/carbon layered synthetic microstructure. 2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND X-ray standing

  1. Metallogenetic Mechanism and Timing of Late Superimposing Fluid Mineralization in the Dongguashan Diplogenetic Stratified Copper Deposit, Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhaowen; LU Xiancai; LING Hongfei; LU Jianjun; JIANG Shoyong; NIE Guiping; HUANG Shunsheng; HUA Ming

    2005-01-01

    An important diplogenetic mineralization event superimposed on pre-existing exhalation sediments in the Tongling area, Anhui province, was triggered by widespread granitic magmatism along the northeastern margin of the Yangtze Block during 140-135 Ma under extensional tectonic circumstances following the collision between the North China and Yangtze blocks. The main orebodies of the Dongguashan copper deposit, a typical diplogenetic stratified deposit among many polymetallic ore deposits in China, are hosted by strata between Upper Devonian sandstone and Carboniferous limestone, and its mineralization was genetically related to the Qingshanjiao intrusive. The Rb-Sr isotopic isochron of the Qingshanjiao intrusive yields an age of about 136.5±1.4 Ma. The ore-forming fluid reflected by the inclusion fluid in quartz veins is characterized by high temperature and high salinity, and its age was also determined by Rb-Sr isotope dating as 134±11 Ma. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition data suggest that the ore-forming fluid was derived mainly from magmatism. By integrating these isotopic dating data, characteristics of fluid inclusions and the geology of the deposit, the mineralization of the Dongguashan copper deposit is divided into two stages. First, a stratiform sedimentary deposit or protore layer formed in the Late Devonian to the Early Carboniferous, while in the second stage the pre-existing protore was superimposed by hydrothermal fluid that was derived from the Yanshanian magmatic activities occurring around 135 Ma ago. This two-stage mineralization formed the Dongguashan statiform copper deposit.Associated "porphyry" mineralization found in the bottom of and in surrounding intrusive rocks of the orebodies might have occurred in the same period as a second-stage mineralization of this deposit.

  2. Geochemistry and S, Pb isotope of the Yangla copper deposit, western Yunnan, China: Implication for ore genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi-An; Liu, Jia-Jun; Cao, Ye; Han, Si-Yu; Gao, Bing-yu; Wang, Huan; Liu, Yue-Dong

    2012-07-01

    The Yangla copper deposit, situated in the middle section of Jinshajiang tectonic belt between Zhongza-Zhongdian block and Changdu-Simao block, is a representative and giant copper deposit that has been discovered in Jinshajiang-Lancangjiang-Nujiang region in recent years. There are coupled relationships between Yangla granodiorite and copper mineralization in the Yangla copper deposit. Five molybdenite samples yielded a well-constrained 187Re-187Os isochron age of 233.3 ± 3 Ma, the metallogenesis is therefore slightly younger than the crystallization age of the granodiorite. S, Pb isotopic compositions of the Yangla copper deposit indicate that the ore-forming materials were derived from the mixture of upper crust and mantle, also with the magmatic contributions. In the late Early Permian, the Jinshajiang Oceanic plate was subducted to the west, resulting in the formation of a series of gently dipping thrust faults in the Jinshajiang tectonic belt, meanwhile, accompanied magmatic activities. In the early Late Triassic, which was a time of transition from collision-related compression to extension in the Jinshajiang tectonic belt, the thrust faults were tensional; it would have been a favorable environment for forming ore fluids. The ascending magma provided a channel for the ore-forming fluid from the mantle wedge. After the magma arrived at the base of the early-stage Yangla granodiorite, the platy granodiorite at the base of the body would have shielded the late-stage magma from the fluid. The magma would have cooled slowly, and some of the ore-forming fluid in the magma would have entered the gently dipping thrust faults near the Yangla granodiorite, resulting in mineralization.

  3. Magmatic context of Bou Skour copper deposit (Eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco): Petrogrography, geochemistry and alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL Azmi, Daoud; Aissa, M.; Ouguir, H.; Mahdoudi, M. L.; El Azmi, M.; Ouadjo, A.; Zouhair, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Bou Skour copper deposit is located in the western part of the Saghro massif (Eastern Anti-Atlas), about 50 km East of the city of Ouarzazate. It is subdivided into several areas that are, from North to South: “Panthère”, “Chaigne”, “Anne Marie”, “Chapeau de fer” and “Patte d'Oie”. The latter is economically the most important and is the object of this study. The “Patte d'Oie” district consists mainly of extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks. The extrusive rocks are represented by andesites spatially associated with pyroclastic terms (ignimbrites and pyroclastic breccias). This volcanic unit is intruded by a pink granite pluton and a I-type granodiorite with equigranular texture (Bou Skour granodiorite) showing to the border a microgranular facies (microgranodiorite). All these magmatic formations are intersected by rhyolitic dykes (NNE-SSW) and doleritic dykes (WNW-ESE to NW-SE). The granodiorite and andesite have undergone a polyphase hydrothermal alteration: (i) potassic alteration, (ii) phyllitic alteration, (iii) silicification, (iv) argillic alteration and (v) propylitic alteration. The analysis of geochemical data of granodiorite, granite, andesite and dolerite confirmed: (i) their petrographic natures, (ii) the medium-K calc-alkaline affiliation of andesite and granodiorite, which would have been set up into an active geotectonic environment, probably of island arc or collision, during the Pan-African orogeny, (iii) The high-K calc-alkaline character of granite indicating a post-collision development during the Pan-African orogeny and (iv) The alkaline affinity of the dolerite which is linked to an extensive post-orogenic setting (post-Pan-African). The copper mineralization of “Patte d'Oie” area is hosted, exclusively, in the andesitic and granodioritic facies. It is represented, essentially, by chalcopyrite and bornite minerals and is, probably, related to a porphyry system (disseminated and stockwork mineralization

  4. Palladium-free electroless deposition of pure copper film on glass substrate using hydrazine as reducing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobari, N.; Behboudnia, M.; Maleki, Ramin

    2016-11-01

    Thin copper films were fabricated on glass substrates by palladium-free electroless deposition, using hydrazine. The effects of modifying the deposition parameters like temperature, initial concentration and pH of electroless bath on the deposition rate and morphology of resulting films were studied and optimized. The film deposition is performed in two simple steps which shortens the pretreatment time and avoids applying expensive components and is environmentally benign. FESEM images show a uniform dispersion of Cu nanoparticles on the glass substrates in the first step. These nanoparticles act as an activator in the growth of homogeneous Cu thin film in the second step. The activation energy for the growth of Cu films was found to be 62 kJ/mol. EDX and XRD analysis demonstrates that the composition of the deposits was pure Cu with FCC crystal structure. The Cu films of 260 nm thickness showed a resistivity of about 2 × 10-6 Ω cm.

  5. Fluid inclusion evidence for hydrothermal fluid evolution in the Darreh-Zar porphyry copper deposit, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nateghi, Arash; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir

    2013-09-01

    The Darreh-Zar porphyry copper deposit is associated with a quartz monzonitic-granodioritic-porphyritic stock hosted by an Eocene volcanic sedimentary complex in which magmatic hydrothermal fluids were introduced and formed veins and alteration. Within the deepest quartz-rich and chalcopyrite-poor group A veins, LVHS2 inclusions trapped high salinity, high temperature aqueous fluids exsolved directly from a relatively shallow magma (0.5 kbar). These late fluids were enriched in NaCl and reached halite saturation as a result of the low pressure of magma crystallization and fluid exsolution. These fluids extracted Cu from the crystallizing melt and transported it to the hydrothermal system. As a result of ascent, the temperature and pressure of these fluids decreased from 600 to 415 °C, and approximately 500-315 bars. At these conditions, K-feldspar and biotite were stabilized. Type A veins were formed at a depth of ∼1.2 km under conditions of lithostatic pressure and abrupt cooling. Upon cooling and decompressing, the fluid intersected with the liquid-vapor field resulting in separation of immiscible liquid and vapor. This stage was recorded by formation of LVHS1, LVHS3 and VL inclusions. These immiscible fluids formed chalcopyrite-pyrite-quartz veins with sericitic alteration envelopes (B veins) under the lithostatic-hydrostatic pressure regime at temperatures between 415 and 355 °C at 1.3 km below the paleowater table. As the fluids ascended, copper contents decreased and these fluids were diluted by mixing with the low salinity-external fluid. Therefore, pyrite-dominated quartz veins were formed in purely hydrostatic conditions in which pressure decreased from 125 bars to 54 bars and temperature decreased from 355 to 298 °C. During the magmatic-hydrothermal evolution, the composition and P-T regime changed drastically and caused various types of veins and alterations. The abundance of chalcopyrite precipitation in group B veins suggests that boiling and

  6. In-Plane Structure of Underpotentially Deposited Copper on Gold (111) Determined by Surface EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-28

    D-Al 263 INN-PLANE STRUCTURE OF UNDERPOTENTIALLY DEPOSITED COPPER /. ON GOLD (Iii) DET (U) PUERTO RICO UNIV RIO PIEDRAS DEPT OF PHVS I CS 0 R...051-0776 TECHNICAL REPORT #33 In-Plane Structure of Underpotentially Deposited Copper on Gold (111) Determined by Surface EXAFS by O.R. Melroy*, M.G...Strueture of Underpotentially Deposited Copper on Gold ( 11) determincd hv Surface EXAFS 0. R. Melroy*, N1. G. Samant, G. L. Borges. and J. G. Gordon

  7. Maps showing mineral resource assessment for porphyry and stockwork deposits of copper, molybdenum, and tungsten and for stockwork and disseminated deposits of gold and silver in the Butte 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.E.; Moll, S.H.; Wallace, C.A.; Lee, G.K.; Antweiler, J.C.; Lidke, D.J.; Rowan, L.C.; Hanna, W.F.; Trautwein, C.M.; Dwyer, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the assessment for potential occurrences of undiscovered porphyry and stockwork deposits of copper, molybdenum, and tungsten (porphyry Cu-Mo-W) and stockwork and disseminated deposits of gold and silver (disseminated Au-Ag) in the Butte 1 °X2° quadrangle. The Butte quadrangle, in west-central Montana, is one of the best known mineral producing regions in the U.S. Mining districts in the quadrangle, including the world famous Butte or Summit Valley district, have produced a variety of metallic and nonmetallic mineral commodities valued at more than $6.4 billion (at the time of production). Because of its importance as a mineral producing region, the Butte quadrangle was selected for study by the U.S. Geological Survey under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Under this program, new data on geology, geochemistry, geophysics, geochronology, mineral resources, and remote sensing were collected and synthesized. The field and laboratory studies were supported, in part, by funding from the Geologic Framework and Synthesis Program and the Wilderness Program. The methods used in this resource assessment for porphyry Cu-Mo-W and disseminated Au-Ag deposits in the quadrangle include a compilation of all data, the development of descriptive occurrence models, and the analysis of data using techniques provided by a Geographic Information System (GIS). This map is one of several maps on the Butte 1 °X2° quadrangle. Other deposit types have been assessed for the Butte quadrangle, and maps (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Miscellaneous Investigation Series Maps) for each of the following have been prepared: Vein and replacement deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, manganese, and tungsten (Elliott, Wallace, and others, 1992a) and skarn deposits of gold, silver, copper, tungsten, and iron (Elliott and others, 1992b ). Other publications resulting from this study include linear features map (Rowan and others, 1991

  8. The discrepancy between the absence of copper deposition and the presence of neuronal damage in the brain of Atp7b(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Shi, Sheng-Sheng; Chen, Sheng; Ni, Wang; Zhu, Min; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2015-02-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is caused by mutations within the copper-transporting ATPase (ATP7B), characterized by copper deposition in various organs, principally the liver and the brain. With the availability of Atp7b(-/-) mice, the valid animal model of WD, the mechanism underlying copper-induced hepatocyte necrosis has been well understood. Nonetheless, little is known about the adverse impact of copper accumulation on the brain in WD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify copper disturbances according to various brain compartments and further dissect the causal relationship between copper storage and neuronal damage using Atp7b(-/-) mice. Copper levels in the liver, whole brain, brain compartments and basal ganglia mitochondria of Atp7b(-/-) mice and age-matched controls were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Delicate electron microscopic studies on hepatocytes and neurons in the basal ganglia were performed. Here we further confirmed the remarkably elevated copper content and abnormal ultrastructure findings in livers of Atp7b(-/-) mice. Interestingly, we found the ultrastructure abnormalities in neurons of the basal ganglia of Atp7b(-/-) mice, whereas copper deposition was not detected in the whole brain, even within the basal ganglia and its mitochondria. The disparity provided a new understanding of neuronal dysfunction in WD, and strongly indicated that copper might not be the sole causative player and other unidentified pathogenic factors could enhance the toxic effects of copper on neurons in WD.

  9. Energy deposition in a thin copper target downstream and off-axis of a proton-radiography target

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, G A; Snead, C L; Hanson, A L; Murray, M M

    2002-01-01

    A series of proton energy-deposition experiments was conducted to measure the energy deposited in a copper target located downstream and off-axis of a high-energy proton-radiography target. The proton/target interactions involved low-intensity bunches of protons at 24 GeV/c onto a spherical target consisting of concentric shells of tungsten and copper. The energy-deposition target was placed at five locations downstream of the proton-radiography target, off-axis of the primary beam transport, and was either unshielded or shielded by 5 or 10 cm of lead. Maximum temperature rises measured in the energy-deposition target due to single bunches of 5x10 sup 1 sup 0 protons on the proton-radiography target were approximately 20 mK per bunch. The data indicated that the scattered radiation was concentrated close to the primary transport axis of the beam line. The energy deposited in the energy-deposition target was reduced by moving the target radially away from the primary transport axis. Placing lead shielding in f...

  10. A reconnaissance of the Cu isotopic compositions of hydrothermal vein-type cop-per deposit, Jinman, Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Jinman deposit is a low-temperature hydrothermal vein-type copper deposit, which occurs along faults and fractures within Middle Jurassic sandstone and mudstone units of the Lanping-Simao Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin of Yunnan Province. In this note, we report for the first time the Cu isotopic compositions of Cu-sulfides from the Jinman deposit. The data show large variations and low 65Cu values of 3.70‰ to +0.30‰, which are in sharp contrast to the 65Cu values of high-temperature magmatic-hydrothermal copper deposits (0.62‰ to +0.40‰) and the modern ocean-floor massive sulfide deposits (0.48‰ to +1.15‰). It is suggested that the Cu isotope fractionation at Jinman is affected mainly by the following factors, i.e. a low temperature of ore formation (150-286℃); a sedimentary source for ore materials; various stages of ore deposition; and involvement of organic matter in the ore-forming processes.

  11. Distribution characteristics of co-rich manganese deposits on a seamount in the central Pacific Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yamazaki, T.; Sharma, R.

    Distribution characteristics of cobalt-rich manganese deposits were evaluated from stereo photographs and video data on a seamount in the central Pacific Ocean by image analysis, photogrammetric technique, and visual observations. The results show...

  12. A study of the initial stages of the electrochemical deposition of thallium on copper, Part IV. The potential step results: Underpotential deposition on (111), (110) and (100) oriented copper single c

    OpenAIRE

    Jovićević Jovan N.; Bewick Alan

    2005-01-01

    The underpotential deposition and dissolution of thallium onto carefully chemically polished single crystal copper (111), (110) and (100) electrode surfaces from acetate, sulphate and perchlorate solutions have been investigated using single and double potential step techniques. It appeared that the different anions used did not change the current-time response characteristics significantly. Current-time responses to the potential steps applied strongly resemble those observed in the case of ...

  13. Gold deposits in the western sector of the Central Spanish System; Depositos auriferos del sector occidental del sistema Central espanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios, S.; Florido, P.; Reguilon, R.

    2010-07-01

    The gold deposits in the western sector of the Central Spanish System can be grouped in: (1) gold quartz veins type (El Chivote, La Pedrera), (2) paleoplacers: gold nuggets in tertiary alluvial deposits (Las Cavenes, Sierro de Coria), (3) quaternary placers (Rio Erjas), (4) gold nuggets in a regolith developed on the Schist and Graywacke Complex (CEG) (Casillas de Coria). The morphological study of gold nuggets will provide physical, chemical, bacteriological and climatic characteristics. Mining works are located on these deposits from roman time to the present day. (Author)

  14. Diversity of Mineralization and Spectrum of the Gejiu Superlarge Tin-Copper Polymetallic Deposit,Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shouting; Xia Qinglin; Zhao Pengda; Gao Yang

    2008-01-01

    The Gejiu (个旧) deposit is a superlarge tin-copper polymetallic ore-forming concentration area characterized by excellent metallogenic geological settings and advantageous ore-controlling factors. The deposit displays diverse mineralization properties due to different minerals and mineral deposit types. Based on the principal metallogenic factors, metallogenic mechanisms, mineralized components, and occurrence of mineral deposits or ore bodies, the Gejiu mineral district can be divided into 2 combinations of metallogenic series, 4 metallogenic series, 8 subseries, and 27 mineral deposit types. Spatial zonality is evident. The distribution regularity of the elements in both plane and section is Be-W, Sn (Cu, Mo, Bi, Be)-Sn, Pb, Ag-Pb, Zn around a granitic intrusion. The metallogenic epoch is mainly concentrated in the late Yanshanian. During this period, large-scale metallogenic processes related to movement caused by tectonics and magmatism occurred, and a series of magmatic hydrothermal deposits formed. The ore-forming processes can be divided into 4 stages: the silicate stage, the oxide stage, the sulphide stage, and the carbonate stage. Based on the orderliness and diversity (in terms of time, space, and genesis) of the mineralization, the authors have developed a comprehensive spectrum of ore deposits in the Gejiu area. This newly proposed diversity of mineralization and the spectrum developed in this work are useful not only for interpreting the genesis of the Gejiu deposit but also for improving mineral exploration in the area, and in particular, for finding large deposits.

  15. Landsat-4 thematic mapper and thematic mapper simulator data for a porphyry copper deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aircraft thematic mapper (TM) data were analyzed to evaluate the potential utility of the Landsat-4 thematic mapper for geologic mapping and detection of hydrothermal alteration zones in the Silver Bell porphyry copper deposit in southern Arizona. The data allow a comparison between aircraft TV simulator data and the Landsat-4 TM satellite data which possess similar spectral bands. A color rationcomposite of 30-m pixels was resampled, in order to clearly define a number of hydroxyl bearing minerals, (kaolinite, sericite, white mica), pyrite and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals. The iron oxide minerals have diagnostic absorption bands in the 0.45 and 0.85 micron regions of the spectrum, and the hydrous minerals are characterized by an absorption in the 2.2 micron region. The position of the spectral bands allow the TM to identify regions of hydrothermal alteration without resorting to a data processing algorithm. The comparison of the aircraft and Landsat-4 TM data showed considerable agreement, and confirmed the utility of TM data for identifying hydrothermal alteration zones. Samples of some color TM images are provided.

  16. Formation of copper tin sulfide films by pulsed laser deposition at 248 and 355 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettlinger, Rebecca Bolt; Crovetto, Andrea; Canulescu, Stela;

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the laser wavelength on the deposition of copper tin sulfide (CTS) and SnS-rich CTS with a 248-nm KrF excimer laser (pulse length τ = 20 ns) and a 355-nm frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser (τ = 6 ns) was investigated. A comparative study of the two UV wavelengths shows that the CTS...

  17. TECHNICAL DESIGN NOTE: The method for controlling dew droplets deposited on a copper plate by scattered laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shigeaki

    2008-01-01

    Tiny dew droplets deposited on a copper plate were controlled constantly by a developed control technique using scattered laser light for studying initial dropwise condensation. The technique employs proportional control combined with shifting movement by an integrator. The droplets were controlled for 60 min at almost constant diameters in a range from only a few micrometers to tens of micrometers and were almost hemispherical in the initial condensation at room temperature.

  18. Formation of copper tin sulfide films by pulsed laser deposition at 248 and 355 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettlinger, Rebecca Bolt; Crovetto, Andrea; Canulescu, Stela

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the laser wavelength on the deposition of copper tin sulfide (CTS) and SnS-rich CTS with a 248-nm KrF excimer laser (pulse length τ = 20 ns) and a 355-nm frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser (τ = 6 ns) was investigated. A comparative study of the two UV wavelengths shows that the CTS...

  19. Assessment of undergorund mining of Nussir copper deposit: With special emphasize on cut-off and mining method

    OpenAIRE

    Sletten, Audun Mortveit

    2012-01-01

    The narrow steeply dipping strata bound sediment hosted copper deposit, Nussir, located in Kvalsund community, Finmark, Norway, have been subject to an assessment of underground mining. Resources classified as Indicated, within a 0,9%Cu cut-off limit have been identified as suitable for sublevel open stoping mining method, accessed by 590m long tunnel from fjord, a 2000m haulage tunnel in footwall progressing westward along strike and two individual ramps separated by 1280m along strike. Stop...

  20. The effects of a magnetic field on the morphologies of nickel and copper deposits: the concept of “effective overpotential”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEBOJSA D. NIKOLIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The morphologies of nickel and copper deposits obtained without applied magnetic fields, and with both parallel and perpendicular applied magnetic fields were examined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM technique. Changes in the morphologies of the metals caused by the effect of the magnetic fields are explained by the concept of “effective overpotential”. The morphologies of the nickel and copper deposits obtained under parallelly oriented magnetic fields were similar to those obtained at some lower cathodic potentials without an applied magnetic field. The magnetic field with a perpendicular orientation to the electrode surface increased the dispersity of the nickel and copper deposits. Nickel and copper deposits obtained under this orientation of the magnetic field were similar to those obtained at some higher cathodic potentials without an applied magnetic field.

  1. Morphology and Thickness Control of Thin Copper Films Prepared by Electrochemical Deposition onto Mo-sputtered Stainless Steel Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Mi Kyung; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Chi Woo [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Su Byeong; Yang, Jeom Sik [ILJIN Materials Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Electrodeposition of CIGS precursor films can be performed by using either single step or multistep process. Although Bhattacharya et al. have reported the development of a 15.4% efficiency CIGS cell by employing a single-bath electrochemical deposition following physical vapor deposition, no other laboratory has reproduced it. We succeeded in producing copper thin films suitable for industrial purpose. Work is in progress to find the mechanistic aspect of Cu film formation and the electrodeposition conditions of other elements (In, Ga, and Se) as well with high speed for commercialization of CIGS solar cells.

  2. Magmatic sulfide-rich nickel-copper deposits related to picrite and (or) tholeiitic basalt dike-sill complexes-A preliminary deposit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; Chandler, Val W.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Magmatic sulfide deposits containing nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu), with or without (?) platinum-group elements (PGEs), account for approximately 60 percent of the world's Ni production and are active exploration targets in the United States and elsewhere. On the basis of their principal metal production, magmatic sulfide deposits in mafic rocks can be divided into two major types: those that are sulfide-rich, typically with 10 to 90 percent sulfide minerals, and have economic value primarily because of their Ni and Cu contents; and those that are sulfide-poor, typically with 0.5 to 5 percent sulfide minerals, and are exploited principally for PGE. Because the purpose of this deposit model is to facilitate the assessment for undiscovered, potentially economic magmatic Ni-Cu?PGE sulfide deposits in the United States, it addresses only those deposits of economic significance that are likely to occur in the United States on the basis of known geology. Thus, this model focuses on deposits hosted by small- to medium-sized mafic and (or) ultramafic dikes and sills that are related to picrite and tholeiitic basalt magmatic systems generally emplaced in continental settings as a component of large igneous provinces (LIPs). World-class examples (those containing greater than 1 million tons Ni) of this deposit type include deposits at Noril'sk-Talnakh (Russia), Jinchuan (China), Pechenga (Russia), Voisey's Bay (Canada), and Kabanga (Tanzania). In the United States, this deposit type is represented by the Eagle deposit in northern Michigan, currently under development by Kennecott Minerals.

  3. Copper overload and deficiency both adversely affect the central nervous system of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joab E C; de Bruyne, Marinus; Warr, Coral G; Burke, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The human copper homeostasis disorders Menkes and Wilson disease both have severe neurological symptoms. Menkes is a copper deficiency disorder whereas Wilson disease patients suffer from copper toxicity, indicating that tight control of neuronal copper levels is essential for proper nervous system development and function. Here we examine the consequences of neuronal copper deficiency and excess in the Drosophila melanogaster nervous system, using targeted manipulation of the copper uptake genes Ctr1A and Ctr1B and efflux gene ATP7 in combination with altered dietary copper levels. We find that pan-neuronal over expression of Ctr1B and ATP7 both result in a reduction in viability. The effects of Ctr1B over expression are exacerbated by dietary copper supplementation and rescued by copper limitation indicating a copper toxicity phenotype. Dietary manipulation has the opposite effect on ATP7 over expression, indicating that this causes neuronal copper deficiency due to excessive copper efflux. Copper deficiency also causes a highly penetrant developmental defect in surviving adult flies which can be replicated by both copper excess and copper deficiency targeted specifically to a small subset of neuropeptidergic cells. We conclude that both copper overload and excess have detrimental effects on Drosophila neuronal function, reducing overall fly viability as well as impacting on a specific neuropeptide pathway.

  4. Cherts from the Yangla copper deposit, western Yunnan Province: geochemical characteristics and relationship with massive sulfide mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Four layers of cherts were found for the first time in the Yanglacopper deposit, western Yunnan Province. The cherts possessed the following geochemical characteristics: ① Low TiO2 and Al2O3 contents, but high ore-forming element (e.g. Cu, Au, Ag) contents; ② low total REE contents and clear negative Eu anomalies when normalized to chondrite similar to the REE contents and distribution patterns of associated massive sulfide ores; ③ silicon isotopic compositions of cherts in the Yangla deposit being the same as cherts and geyserite of hot-water sedimentary origin; ④ lead and sulfur isotopic compositions of cherts in the Yangla deposit being similar to those of the massive sulfide ores in the Yangla deposit; ⑤ Rb-Sr isochron age of cherts from the Yangla deposit being identical with that of host strata. Hence, we conclude that the cherts in the Yangla deposit are of hot-water sedimentary origin, which have a close relationship with the massive sulfide ores. The discovery of hydrothermal cherts from the Yangla copper deposit provides further evidence for the hydrothermal exhalative origin of the massive sulfide deposits.

  5. Macro controlling of copper oxide deposition processes and spray mode by using home-made fully computerized spray pyrolysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Mohammed Sh.; Chiad, Bahaa T.; Shafeeq, Omer Sh.

    2017-09-01

    Thin Films of Copper Oxide (CuO) absorption layer have been deposited using home-made Fully Computerized Spray Pyrolysis Deposition system FCSPD on glass substrates, at the nozzle to substrate distance equal to 20,35 cm, and computerized spray mode (continues spray, macro-control spray). The substrate temperature has been kept at 450 °c with the optional user can enter temperature tolerance values ± 5 °C. Also that fixed molar concentration of 0.1 M, and 2D platform speed or deposition platform speed of 4mm/s. more than 1000 instruction program code, and specific design of graphical user interface GUI to fully control the deposition process and real-time monitoring and controlling the deposition temperature at every 200 ms. The changing in the temperature has been recorded during deposition processes, in addition to all deposition parameters. The films have been characterized to evaluate the thermal distribution over the X, Y movable hot plate, the structure and optical energy gap, thermal and temperature distribution exhibited a good and uniform distribution over 20 cm2 hot plate area, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement revealed that the films are polycrystalline in nature and can be assigned to monoclinic CuO structure. Optical band gap varies from 1.5-1.66 eV depending on deposition parameter.

  6. Study of the structure and electrical properties of the copper nitride thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo-Vega, C. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, A. Postal 2732, 22860, Ensenada B.C. (Mexico)]. E-mail: gallardo@ccmc.unam.mx; Cruz, W. de la [Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada, UNAM, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, A. Postal 2681, 22860, Ensenada B.C. (Mexico)

    2006-09-15

    Copper nitride thin films were prepared on glass and silicon substrates by ablating a copper target at different pressure of nitrogen. The films were characterized in situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and ex situ by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The nitrogen content in the samples, x = [N]/[Cu], changed between 0 and 0.33 for a corresponding variation in nitrogen pressure of 9 x 10{sup -2} to 1.3 x 10{sup -1} Torr. Using this methodology, it is possible to achieve sub-, over- and stoichiometric films by controlling the nitrogen pressure. The XPS results show that is possible to obtain copper nitride with x = 0.33 (Cu{sub 3}N) and x = 0.25 (Cu{sub 4}N) when the nitrogen pressure is 1.3 x 10{sup -1} and 5 x 10{sup -2} Torr, respectively. The lattice constants obtained from XRD results for copper nitride with x = 0.25 is of 3.850 A and with x = 0.33 have values between 3.810 and 3.830 A. The electrical properties of the films were studied as a function of the lattice constant. These results show that the electrical resistivity increases when the lattice parameter is decreasing. The electrical resistivity of copper nitride with x = 0.25 was smaller than samples with x = 0.33.

  7. Facile and Cost-Effective Synthesis and Deposition of a YBCO Superconductor on Copper Substrates by High-Energy Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Abdul Hai; Assad, Mhd Adel; Aokal, Camilia

    2016-09-01

    The article investigates the synthesis and deposition of YBCO on a copper substrate for various functional purposes. The superconductor is first prepared by mechanically alloying elemental components (yttrium, barium, and copper) for 50 hours in a high-energy ball mill with subsequent protocol of heat treatment in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to arrive at stoichiometric ratios of YBa2Cu3O7. The material is then deposited on a thin copper substrate also by ball milling under various parameters of rotational speed and deposition time to select the best and most homogenous substrate coverage. Atomic force microscopy has confirmed the desired results, and other microstructural, thermal, and electrical techniques are used to characterize the obtained material. High-energy ball milling proved to be a versatile means to synthesize and deposit the material in a straightforward manner and controllable parameters for different deposit thicknesses and coverages.

  8. Facile and Cost-Effective Synthesis and Deposition of a YBCO Superconductor on Copper Substrates by High-Energy Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Abdul Hai; Assad, Mhd Adel; Aokal, Camilia

    2016-12-01

    The article investigates the synthesis and deposition of YBCO on a copper substrate for various functional purposes. The superconductor is first prepared by mechanically alloying elemental components (yttrium, barium, and copper) for 50 hours in a high-energy ball mill with subsequent protocol of heat treatment in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to arrive at stoichiometric ratios of YBa2Cu3O7. The material is then deposited on a thin copper substrate also by ball milling under various parameters of rotational speed and deposition time to select the best and most homogenous substrate coverage. Atomic force microscopy has confirmed the desired results, and other microstructural, thermal, and electrical techniques are used to characterize the obtained material. High-energy ball milling proved to be a versatile means to synthesize and deposit the material in a straightforward manner and controllable parameters for different deposit thicknesses and coverages.

  9. Ore-forming fluid constraints on illite crystallinity (IC) at Dexing porphyry copper deposit, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN; Zhangdong

    2001-01-01

    [1]uatier, M. D., Peacor, D. R., O’Neil, J. R., Smectite-illite transition in Barbados accretionary wedge sediments: TEM and AEM evidence for dissolution/crystallization at low temperature, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1992, 40(1): 65.[2]Eberl, D., Hower, J., Kinetics of illite formation, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 1976, 9: 1326[3]Elliott, W. C., Matisoff, G., Evaluation of kinetic models for smectite to illite transformation, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1996, 44(1): 77.[4]Ji Junfeng, Browne, P. R. L., Liu Yingjun et al., Kinetic model for the smectite to illite transformation in active geothermal system, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 1997, 42 (21): 2313[5]Pollastro, R. M., Considerations and applications of the illite/smectite geothermometer in hydrocarbonbearing rocks of Miocene to Mississippian age, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1993, 41(1): 119[6]Harvey, C. C., Browne, P. R. L., Mixed-layer clay geothermometry in the Wairakei geothermal field, New Zealand, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1991, 39(3): 614[7]Whitney, G., Role of water in the smectite-to-illite reaction, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1990, 38 (2): 343.[8]Inoue, A., Kitagawa, R., Morphological characteristics of illitic clay minerals from a hydrothermal system, American Mineralogist, 1994, 79: 700.[9]Velde, B., Vasseur, G., Estimation of the diagenetic smectite to illite in time-temperature space, American Mineralogist, 1992, 77: 967.[10]hu Xun, Huang Chongke, Rui Zongyao et al., Dexing Porphyry Copper Deposit (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1983.[11]Kisch, H. J., Illite crystallinity: recommendation on sample preparation, X-ray diffraction settings and interlaboratory samples, Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 1991, 9: 665.[12]Eberl, D. D., Velde, B., Beyond the Kübler Index, Clay Minerals, 1989, 24(3): 571.[13]Srodon, J., Eberl, D. D., Illite. Micas, Reviews in Mineralogy (ed. Bailey, S. W.), 1984, 13: 495.[14]Yao, Y. C

  10. Nanostructured Multilayer Composite Films of Manganese Dioxide/Nickel/Copper Sulfide Deposited on Polyethylene Terephthalate Supporting Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awangku Nabil Syafiq Bin Awangku Metosen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured multilayer manganese dioxide/nickel/copper sulfide (MnO2/Ni/CuS composite films were successfully deposited onto supporting polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate through the sequential deposition of CuS, Ni, and MnO2 thin films by chemical bath deposition, electrodeposition, and horizontal submersion deposition techniques, respectively. Deposition of each thin-film layer was optimized by varying deposition parameters and conditions associated with specific deposition technique. Both CuS and Ni thin films were optimized for their electrical conductivity whereas MnO2 thin film was optimized for its microstructure and charge capacity. The electrochemical properties of nanostructured multilayer MnO2/Ni/CuS composite films were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry as electrode materials of an electrochemical capacitor prototype in a dual-planar device configuration. Cyclic voltammogram in mild Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte exhibited a featureless and almost rectangular shape which was indicative of the ideal capacitive behavior and high cycling reversibility of the electrochemical capacitor prototype. Nanostructured multilayer MnO2/Ni/CuS composite films on supporting polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate could potentially be utilized as electrode materials for the fabrication of high performance electrochemical capacitors.

  11. Investigation of defects in ultra-thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on pure copper by the atomic layer deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, M.L.; Wang, L.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, H.C., E-mail: hclinntu@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, M.J., E-mail: mjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, K.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Some residual OH ligands originating from incomplete reaction between TMA and surface species of OH* during ALD process induce the defects in deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. Three possible types of defects are suggested. The analytic results indicate the defects are Type-I and/or Type-II but do not directly expose the substrate, like pinholes (Type-III). - Highlights: • Oxidation trials were conducted to investigate the defects in ultra-thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited ALD technique on pure copper. • The residual OH ligands in the deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films induce looser micro-structure which has worse oxidation resistance. • Superficial contamination particles on substrate surface are confirmed to be one of nucleation sites of the defects. - Abstract: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films with various thicknesses were deposited by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique on pure copper at temperatures of 100–200 °C. Oxidation trials were conducted in air at 200 °C to investigate the defects in these films. The analytic results show that the defects have a looser micro-structure compared to their surroundings, but do not directly expose the substrate, like pinholes. The film's crystallinity, mechanical properties and oxidation resistance could also be affected by these defects. Superficial contamination particles on the substrate surface are confirmed to be nucleation sites of the defects. A model for the mechanism of defect formation is proposed in this study.

  12. Remote sensing evaluation of the regional chemistry and element dispersion of porphyry copper deposits in the Silver Bell Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Nieves, Lorna G.

    Porphyry copper deposits in southeastern Arizona belong to a cluster of 38 mineralized centers covering a region extending from northern Mexico to western New Mexico and southern Arizona. Presently, some of these deposits are being actively mined and the rest are prospects or abandoned mining sites. As a result of the large number of porphyry copper deposits in this region, research on the interaction between mineralized centers and the environment is important; in particular, the dispersion characteristics of acid-generating metal-enriched materials at the shallow alluvial margins of these centers. The present research uses remote sensing techniques, groundwater chemistry, trace element, and mineralogical analysis to characterize dispersion chemistry surrounding porphyry copper deposits in the Silver Bell Mountains. Hyperspectral imagery obtained by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Spectrometer and HyMap are used to map supergene minerals by analyzing their spectral profiles in the visible and short wave infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Reflectance profiles are characteristic of each mineral and shifts in absorption features within one mineral are a result of differences in cation content. Image reflectance profiles are compared with stream sediment mineralogy and reflectance spectral profiles to better outline concentrations of Fe, S, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cu, and Al. In addition, groundwater modeling in the Silver Bell Mountains is considered for various flow paths within shallow aquifers in the region and compared to actual groundwater chemistry and surface lithology. The Silver Bell Mountains serve as a case study for element mobility and concentration distribution in other areas where undisturbed deposits, historic and present-day excavation activity occurs, where semi-arid climate and a deep vadose zone are variables that influence element mobility and concentration. Results obtained from hyperspectral image processing indicate the possible enrichment

  13. Evolution of the microstructure in electrochemically deposited copper films at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2007-01-01

    The room temperature evolution of the microstructure in copper electrodeposits (self-annealing) was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and simultaneous measurement of the electrical resistivity as a function of time with an unprecedented time resolution. Independent of the copper...

  14. Copper/bamboo fabric composite prepared via a silver catalytic electroless deposition process for electromagnetic shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Qian; Lu, Yinxiang [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Materials Science

    2013-09-15

    Copper/bamboo fabric composite prepared via a silver catalytic electroless plating process is reported. The microstructure of the composite was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, which illustrated that the copper coating was composed of spherical particles and clusters. The composition and chemical state of the metal layer were measured using X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis spectra; copper and a small amount of nickel were detected. Mechanical properties were measured based on a standard (ISO 13934-1:1999) for the fabrics with and without copper coating. The breaking force for the composite was improved by about 16.8% compared to uncoated bamboo fabric. The electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of the composite was more than 40 dB at frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 1000MHz. The copper coating on bamboo fabric passed the Scotch {sup registered} -tape test. (orig.)

  15. Cr13Ni5Si2-Based Composite Coating on Copper Deposited Using Pulse Laser Induction Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating was successfully deposited on copper by pulse laser induction hybrid cladding (PLIC, and its high-temperature wear behavior was investigated. Temperature evolutions associated with crack behaviors in PLIC were analyzed and compared with pulse laser cladding (PLC using the finite element method. The microstructure and present phases were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Compared with continuous laser induction cladding, the higher peak power offered by PLIC ensures metallurgical bonding between highly reflective copper substrate and coating. Compared with a wear test at room temperature, at 500 °C the wear volume of the Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating increased by 21%, and increased by 225% for a NiCr/Cr3C2 coating deposited by plasma spray. This novel technology has good prospects for application with respect to the extended service life of copper mold plates for slab continuous casting.

  16. Cr13Ni5Si2-Based Composite Coating on Copper Deposited Using Pulse Laser Induction Cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Hailin; Zhu, Guangzhi; Zhu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    A Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating was successfully deposited on copper by pulse laser induction hybrid cladding (PLIC), and its high-temperature wear behavior was investigated. Temperature evolutions associated with crack behaviors in PLIC were analyzed and compared with pulse laser cladding (PLC) using the finite element method. The microstructure and present phases were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Compared with continuous laser induction cladding, the higher peak power offered by PLIC ensures metallurgical bonding between highly reflective copper substrate and coating. Compared with a wear test at room temperature, at 500 °C the wear volume of the Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating increased by 21%, and increased by 225% for a NiCr/Cr3C2 coating deposited by plasma spray. This novel technology has good prospects for application with respect to the extended service life of copper mold plates for slab continuous casting. PMID:28772519

  17. Electrical Properties Analysis of Copper doped CdTe/CdS Deposited Thin Films on ITO Coated Glass Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, Darren; Flaherty, James; Sahiner, M. Alper

    CdTe proves to be a viable source for renewable energy in the form of photovoltaic conversion. While CdTe/CdS naturally provide interesting results adding dopants to the cell can yield higher conversion efficiencies. Copper, famous for its electrical properties, can be used as a dopant in the CdTe layer. In conjunction with its dopant characteristics Copper also improves cell performance by acting as a low resistant and high current back contact. All thin films were synthesized using pulsed laser deposition onto ITO coated glass substrates. The CdS layer across all cells has an approximate thickness of 1500 Angstroms. The following CdTe layer has an approximate thickness of 5500 Angstroms. This created the base cell that was then doped. Cu, typically deposited using sublimation or vapor deposition, was done by PLD as well. Two of the three base cells were treated with Cu using the same deposition parameters. The third cell also received a CdCl treatment on top of the Cu layer to understand the effect when the oxygen layer is deferred. Ellipsometer measurements were used to confirm layer thickness. XRD analysis was used to confirm the presence of Cu and the crystal structure of the thin films. A Hall Effect Measurement system was used to measure active charge carrier concentration introduced by dopant. Also, a Keithley sourcemeter was utilized to determine photovoltaic properties. Notable results discussed will be the effects of Copper dopant on the electrical properties of CdS/CdTe based solar cells.

  18. A vapor-phase deposited polymer film to improve the adhesion of electroless-deposited copper layer onto various kinds of substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jae Bem; Kim, Shin Young; Park, Yong Jin; Ko, Young Gwan; Im, Sung Gap

    2014-01-28

    The adhesion of electrodeposited metal film to polymeric circuit board substrate is one of the key elements to successful miniaturization of electronic devices. However, as the size of the circuit pattern continuously decreases, a novel method is urgently required to increase the adhesion of the metal film on the substrate, especially on the smooth surface, which is critical to decrease the minimum feature size of the metal pattern. In this research, we developed an adhesion promoter layer by depositing metal chelating poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) film onto various organic and inorganic substrates via initiated chemical vapor deposition process (iCVD) to enhance the adhesion between the electroless deposited copper (Cu) layer and the substrate. The highest peel strength obtained between the electroless deposited Cu layer and P4VP coated substrate was 1.22 kgf/cm. Many advantageous characteristics of the adhesion promoter layer, including extreme thinness, the improved adhesion strength, conformal coverage, scalability of the deposition process, and short process time, will prompt the applicability of this adhesion promoter layer to industrial scale production.

  19. New data on age of ore-hosting sequence of the Saf'yanovka deposit, Central Urals, based on foraminifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvashov, B. I.; Anfimov, A. L.; Soroka, E. I.; Yaroslavtseva, N. S.

    2011-08-01

    The Saf'yanovka copper massive sulfide deposit is situated 10 km northeast from the town of Rezh, on the eastern slope of the Central Urals. The ore-hosting plagiorhyolite-dacitic sequence consists of tephrites and tuffites with interlayers of dark gray siliceous-carboniferous pelites and psephytes from 0.1 to 1.5 m thick. The shells of the Parathurammina tamarae L. Petrovae, 1981 foraminifer were identified in one of the lightened interlayers in the siliceous-carboniferous sequence. The samples for study were taken from the southern part of the orebody in the open-pit between prospecting lines 2 and 3, horizons 170 and 157. The inner part of the shell is composed of quartz and apatite, and the wall, by apatite with rare calcite grains. One shell contains a tacking disk allowing us to refer these foraminifers to the attached benthos typical of the shallow marine basin (sublitoral). In the Urals, the Parathurammina tamarae L. Petrovae, 1981 foraminifer is known in limestones from the Eifel-Givetian (Langurskii and Vysotinskii Horizons); the siliceous-carboniferous rocks from the ore-hosting sequence from the Saf'yanovka deposit has the same age.

  20. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  1. The influence of the modification of acidic montmorillonites with polyacrylamide and copper deposition on SCR-NH3 catalytic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świrk Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of the modification of montmorillonites by carbonaceous and Al species as well as copper deposition. Commercial acid-treated montmorillonites, K5 and K30 (Sigma-Aldrich GmBH, were modified and used as catalysts in Selective Catalytic Reduction process of nitrogen oxides by ammonia. The characterisation was carried out by low-temperature nitrogen sorption, Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Catalytic performance in SCR-NH3 of so-modified montmorillonites was compared under the following conditions: mass of catalyst: 200 g, flow 100 cm3/min, reaction mixture: 800 ppm NO, 800 ppm NH3, 3 % O2, and He. The modification with copper and polyacrylamide led to the increase in NO conversion. The studied catalysts showed low N2O formation.

  2. Characterization of Copper Coatings Deposited by High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spray for Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimijazi, H. R.; Aghaee, M.; Salehi, M.; Garcia, E.

    2017-08-01

    Copper coatings were deposited on steel substrates by high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying. The microstructure of the feedstock copper powders and free-standing coatings were evaluated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The x-ray diffraction pattern was utilized to determine phase compositions of powders and coatings. Oxygen content was determined by a LECO-T300 oxygen determiner. The thermal conductivity of the coatings was measured in two directions, through-thickness and in-plane by laser flash apparatus. The electrical resistivity of the coatings was measured by the four-point probe method. Oxygen content of the coatings was two times higher than that of the initial powders (0.35-0.37%). The thermal and electrical conductivities of the coatings were different depending on the direction of the measurement. The thermal and electrical conductivity of the coatings improved after annealing for 6 h at a temperature of 600°C.

  3. El Salvador, Chile porphyry copper deposit revisited: Geologic and geochronologic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, P.; Tosdal, R.M.; Mpodozis, C.; Tomlinson, A.J.; Rivera, O.; Fanning, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Eocene (42 to 41 Ma) El Salvador porphyry copper deposit in the Indio Muerto district, northern Chile (26?? 15??? S Lat.), formerly thought to have formed at the culmination of a 9-m.y. period of episodic magmatism, is shown by new mapping, U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology, and petrologic data to have formed during the younger of two distinct but superposed magmatic events - a Paleocene (???63 to 58 Ma) and an Eocene (44 to 41 Ma) event. In the district, high-K Paleocene volcano-plutonic activity was characterized by a variety of eruptive styles and magmatic compositions, including a collapse caldera associated with explosive rhyolitic magmatism (El Salvador trap-door caldera), a post-collapse rhyolite dome field (Cerro Indio Muerto), and andesitic-trachyandesitic stratovolcanos (Kilo??metro Catorce-Los Amarillos sequence). Precaldera basement faults were reactivated during Paleocene volcanism as part of the collapse margin of the caldera. Beneath Cerro Indio Muerto, where the porphyry Cu deposit subsequently formed, the intersection of two major basement faults and the NNE-striking rotational axis of tilted ignimbrites of the Paleocene El Salvador caldera localized emplacement of post-collapse rhyolite domes and peripheral dikes and sills. Subsequent Eocene rhyolitic and granodioritic-dacitic porphyries intruded ???14 m.y. after cessation of Paleocene magmatism along the same NNE-striking structural belt through Cerro Indio Muerto as did the post-collapse Paleocene rhyolite domes. Eocene plutonism over a 3-m.y. period was contemporaneous with NW-SE-directed shortening associated with regional sinistral transpression along the Sierra Castillo fault, lying ???10 km to the east. Older Eocene rhyolitic porphyries in the Indio Muerto district were emplaced between 44 and 43 Ma, and have a small uneconomic Cu center associated with a porphyry at Old Camp. The oldest granodioritic-dacitic porphyries also were emplaced at ???44 to 43 Ma, but their petrogenetic relation to

  4. Fluid inclusion characteristics and molybdenite Re-Os geochronology of the Qulong porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Selby, David; Feely, Martin; Costanzo, Alessandra; Li, Xian-Hua

    2017-02-01

    The Qulong porphyry copper and molybdenum deposit is located at the southwest margin of the Lhasa Terrane and in the eastern region of the Gangdese magmatic belt. It represents China's largest porphyry copper system, with ˜2200 million tonnes of ore comprising 0.5 % Cu and 0.03 % Mo. The mineralization is associated with Miocene granodiorite, monzogranite and quartz-diorite units, which intruded into Jurassic volcanic units in a post-collisional (Indian-Asian) tectonic setting. Field observations and core logging demonstrate the alteration and mineralization at Qulong are akin to typical porphyry copper systems in subduction settings, which comprise similar magmatic-hydrothermal, potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration assemblages. Molybdenite Re-Os geochronology confirms the relative timeframe defined by field observations and core logging and indicates that the bulk copper and molybdenum at Qulong were deposited within 350,000 years: between 16.10 ± 0.06 [0.08] (without and with decay constant uncertainty) and 15.88 ± 0.06 [0.08] Ma. This duration for mineralization is in direct contrast to a long-lived intrusive episode associated with mineralization based on previous zircon U-Pb data. Our fluid inclusion study indicates that the ore-forming fluid was oxidized and contained Na, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Mo, Cl and S. The magmatic-hydrothermal transition occurred at ˜425 °C under lithostatic pressure, while potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration occurred at hydrostatic pressure with temperature progressively decreasing from 425 to 280 °C. The fluid inclusion data presented here suggests that there has been ˜2.3 km of erosion at Qulong after its formation, and this erosion may be related to regional uplift of the Lhasa Terrane.

  5. Formation of TiO2 photoanodes by simultaneous electrophoretic deposition of anatase and rutile particles for photoassisted electrolytic copper ions removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeimmy Y. Peralta-Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Anatasa/Rutile ratio on TiO2 films, grown by electrophoretic deposition was studied in the photoassisted electrolytic copper ions removal from cyanide solutions. The proper dispersant dosage allowing the simultaneous electrophoretic deposition of Anatase and Rutile was chosen based on electrokinetic measurements; evidenced by the XRD spectra of the formed films. The evaluation of films photoassisted electrolytic copper ion removal showeds that it is possible to enhance the activity of Anatase films by adding some Rutile exploiting the synergetic interaction between these two materials, achieve by its proper deposition.

  6. Co-sputter deposited nickel-copper bimetallic nanoalloy embedded carbon films for electrocatalytic biomarker detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Shunsuke; Kato, Dai; Kamata, Tomoyuki; Niwa, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    We report the fabrication of a nickel (Ni)-copper (Cu) bimetallic nanoalloy (~3 nm) embedded carbon film electrode with the unbalanced magnetron (UBM) co-sputtering technique, which requires only a one-step process at room temperature. Most of each nanoalloy body was firmly embedded in a chemically stable carbon matrix with an atomically flat surface (Ra: 0.21 nm), suppressing the aggregation and/or detachment of the nanoalloy from the electrode surface. The nanoalloy size and composition can be controlled simply by individually controlling the target powers of carbon, Ni and Cu, which also makes it possible to localize the nanoalloys near the electrode surface. This electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for d-mannitol, which should be detected with a low detection limit in urine samples for the diagnosis of severe intestinal diseases. With a Ni/Cu ratio of around 64/36, the electrocatalytic current per metal area was 3.4 times larger than that of an alloy film electrode with a similar composition (~70/30). This improved electrocatalytic activity realized higher stability (n = 60, relative standard deviation (RSD): 4.6%) than the alloy film (RSD: 32.2%) as demonstrated by continuous measurements of d-mannitol.We report the fabrication of a nickel (Ni)-copper (Cu) bimetallic nanoalloy (~3 nm) embedded carbon film electrode with the unbalanced magnetron (UBM) co-sputtering technique, which requires only a one-step process at room temperature. Most of each nanoalloy body was firmly embedded in a chemically stable carbon matrix with an atomically flat surface (Ra: 0.21 nm), suppressing the aggregation and/or detachment of the nanoalloy from the electrode surface. The nanoalloy size and composition can be controlled simply by individually controlling the target powers of carbon, Ni and Cu, which also makes it possible to localize the nanoalloys near the electrode surface. This electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for d

  7. Geochemistry of the Jinman Vein—Type Copper Deposit,Western Yunnan Province,China——I.Element Geochemical Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季宏兵; 李朝阳

    1996-01-01

    The Jinman copper deposit,which is situated on the northern margin of the Lanping-Simao back-arc basin,western Yunnan Province,is a silver-bearing,high-grade vein-type copper deposit.Comprehensive element geochemical studies of the host rocks and hydrothermal minerals revealed the regularities in the distribution,mobilization and transport of elements from the host rocks to hydrothermal minerals.In conjunction with the fluid inclusion and isotope data,it is suggested that the ore-forming fluid was derived mainly from a deep source characterized by CO2 enrichment and reduction in nature.It is also suggested that the oreforming materials come largely from a deep source.although the contribution of the country rocks should not be ruled out.It is also found that some hydrothermal minerals are possessed of MREE-enrichment patterns.It is deduced that the REEs in the deep-source ore fluid were transported in the form of CO32- complexes and were deposited in a continental basin(or a hot-spring basin).

  8. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-14

    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  9. Deposition of copper from Cu(i) and Cu(ii) precursors onto HOPG surface: Role of surface defects and choice of a precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yichen; Teplyakov, Andrew V.

    2017-02-01

    The surface reactivity of two copper-containing precursors, (Cu(hfac)2 and Cu(hfac)VTMS, where hfac is hexafluoroacetyloacetonate and VTMS is vinyltrimethylsilane), was investigated by dosing the precursors onto a surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) at room temperature. The behavior of these precursors on a pristine HOPG was compared to that on a surface activated by ion sputtering and subsequent oxidation to induce controlled surface defects. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to confirm copper deposition and its surface distribution, and to compare with the results of scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy investigations. As expected, surface defects promote copper deposition; however, the specific structures deposited depend on the deposition precursor. Density functional theory was used to mimic the reactions of each precursor molecule on this surface and to determine the origins of this different reactivity.

  10. In situ study of key material and process reliability issues in the chemical vapor deposition of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Ishing

    With the limitations of current aluminum based metallization schemes used in microelectronics, the development of a manufacturable chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for copper metallization schemes is crucial to meet the stringent requirements of sub-quarter micron device technology and beyond. The work presented herein focused on investigating key material and process reliability issues pertaining to Cu CVD processing. In particular, a unique combination of in-situ gas phase Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) was employed to study the role of hydrogen in thermal CVD of copper using (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac). These studies showed that hydrogen provides significant enhancement in the deposition rate of copper interconnects. Based on the QMS and FTIR data, this enhancement could be attributed to the role of hydrogen in assisting in the removal of tmvs from (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac), thus enhancing the conversion of Cusp{I}(hfac) intermediates to Cusp{o} and Cusp{II}(hfac)sb2 and providing a wider process window with higher conversion efficiency. In addition, in-situ real time QMS studies were performed of the gas phase evolution and decomposition pathways of (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac) during thermal CVD of copper. The QMS investigations focused on determining the ionization efficiency curves and appearance potentials of (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac) under real CVD processing conditions. The resulting curves and associated potentials were then employed to identify the most likely precursor decomposition pathways and examine relevant implications for thermal CVD of copper from (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac). Finally, a hydrogen-plasma assisted CVD (PACVD) process was developed for the growth of device quality gold for incorporation as dopant in emerging Cu CVD based metallization interconnects. In particular, it was demonstrated that the PACVD gold process window identified can maintain very low gold deposition rates (gold is a promising in-situ Cu doping technique

  11. Microbiota and stratigraphy of lower Paleogene deposits of the Urma Plateau, Central Dagestan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbinina, E. A.; Aleksandrova, G. N.; Iakovleva, A. I.; Stupin, S. I.; Zakrevskaya, E. Yu.

    2014-01-01

    The study of nannofossils, dinocysts, and foraminifera from Paleogene deposits of the Urma Plateau of Central Dagestan revealed the Paleocene-Eocene age of the Gray Formation, to apply zonations based on of all three groups of microplankton, and to correlate the regional dinocyst and planktonic foraminifer zonations to the standard nannofossil scale. Nannofossil zonation of O. Varol's (1989) is shown to be successfully applied for subdivision of Danian deposits. The large foraminifer assemblage found in the lower Eocene deposits is correlated to the NP12-NP13 zones of the nannofossil scale.

  12. Copper phthalocyanine films deposited by liquid-liquid interface recrystallization technique (LLIRCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, K R; Sathaye, S D; Hawaldar, R; Sathe, B R; Mandale, A B; Mitra, A

    2007-11-15

    The simple recrystallization process is innovatively used to obtain the nanoparticles of copper phthalocyanine by a simple method. Liquid-liquid interface recrystallization technique (LLIRCT) has been employed successfully to produce small sized copper phthalocyanine nanoparticles with diameter between 3-5 nm. The TEM-SAED studies revealed the formation of 3-5 nm sized with beta-phase dominated mixture of alpha and beta copper phthalocyanine nanoparticles. The XRD, SEM, and the UV-vis studies were further carried out to confirm the formation of copper phthalocyanine thin films. The cyclic voltametry (CV) studies conclude that redox reaction is totally reversible one electron transfer process. The process is attributed to Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox reaction.

  13. A review of the geological characteristics and geodynamic setting of Late Paleozoic porphyry copper deposits in the Junggar region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuquan; Mao, Jingwen; Pirajno, Franco; Yan, Shenghao; Liu, Guoren; Zhou, Gang; Zhang, Zhixin; Liu, Feng; Geng, Xinxia; Guo, Chunli

    2012-04-01

    In this review, we describe the geological characteristics of porphyry copper deposits in Junggar region, Xinjiang, and place these into their metallogenic-tectonic context. These porphyry copper deposits are mainly found in four metallogenic belts: (1) a Late Silurian to Early Devonian Cu-Mo metallogenic belt in the Qiongheba area; (2) the Late Devonian Kalaxiange'er Cu metallogenic belt; (3) the Early Carboniferous Xilekuduke-Suoerkuduke porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo metallogenic belt; and (4) the Late Carboniferous Baogutu porphyry Cu metallogenic belt. The ages of mineralization can be divided into three broad intervals: copper deposits range mainly from 300 to 180 °C. Salinity ranges from 0.5 to 21.7 wt.% NaCl equiv and 28.9 to 66.76 wt.% NaCl equiv. Ore-forming fluids in the Baogutu and Yunyingshan deposits in the Baogutu and Qiongheba belts, were mainly derived from magmatic fluids, whereas those in the Halasu, Yulekenhalasu and Xilekuduke deposits in the Kalaxiange'er and Xilekuduke-Suoerkuduke belts were mainly derived from magmatic fluids, with some contributions from meteoric water. Sulfur isotope compositions of some porphyry copper deposits cluster around 0‰, indicating that the sulfur was probably derived from mantle-related magmas. The ore-forming processes in all porphyry copper deposits are closely related to the emplacement of intermediate, intermediate-felsic and felsic porphyry intrusions. Porphyry copper deposits in Junggar region developed in a range of tectonic regimes including continental arc, ocean island arc and post collisional settings.

  14. Simultaneous synthesis of nanodiamonds and graphene via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW PE-CVD) on copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Steven; Wöhrl, Nicolas; Schulz, Stephan; Buck, Volker

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous growth of both nanodiamonds and graphene on copper samples is described for the first time. A PE-CVD process is used to synthesize graphene layers and nanodiamond clusters from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture as it is typically done successfully in thermal CVD processes for graphene synthesis. However, the standard thermal CVD process is not without problems since the deposition of graphene is affected by the evaporation of a notable amount of copper caused by the slow temperature increase typical for thermal CVD resulting in a long process time. In sharp contrast, the synthesis of graphene by PE-CVD can circumvent this problem by substantially shortening the process time at holding out the prospect of a lower substrate temperature. The reduced thermal load and the possibility to industrially scale-up the PE-CVD process makes it a very attractive alternative to the thermal CVD process with respect to the graphene production in the future. Nanodiamonds are synthesized in PE-CVD reactors for a long time because these processes offer a high degree of control over the film's nanostructure and simultaneously providing a significant high deposition rate. To model the co-deposition process, the three relevant macroscopic parameters (pressure, gas mixture and microwave power) are correlated with three relevant process properties (plasma ball size, substrate temperature and C2/Hα-ratio) and the influence on the quality of the deposited carbon allotropes is investigated. For the evaluation of the graphene as well as the nanodiamond quality, Raman spectroscopy used whereas the plasma properties are measured by optical methods. It is found that the diamond nucleation can be influenced by the C2/Hα-ratio in the plasma, while the graphene quality remains mostly unchanged by this parameter. Moreover it is derived from the experimental data that the direct plasma contact with the copper surface is beneficial for the nucleation of the diamond while the growth and

  15. Influence of copper oxide nanoparticle form and shape on toxicity and bioaccumulation in the deposit feeder, Capitella teleta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Lina; Banta, Gary Thomas; Selck, Henriette;

    2015-01-01

    Few in vivo studies have been conducted to assess how nanoparticle (NP) characteristics such as particle form and shape affect their toxicity and bioaccumulation. In the present study, the deposit feeder, Capitella teleta, was used to investigate the influence of copper form (CuO NPs, micron...... increased to approximately 26.3% on average in all Cu treatments after the depuration period indicating a delayed effect of Cu exposure, despite more than 90% depuration of Cu during this period. A significant effect of nanoparticle shape was detected on body burden, the gross uptake rate constant...

  16. The role of oxygen in the deposition of copper–calcium thin film as diffusion barrier for copper metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhinong, E-mail: znyu@bit.edu.cn [School of Optoelectronics and Beijing Engineering Research Center of Mixed Reality and Advanced Display, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Ren, Ruihuang [School of Optoelectronics and Beijing Engineering Research Center of Mixed Reality and Advanced Display, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Xue, Jianshe; Yao, Qi; Li, Zhengliang; Hui, Guanbao [Beijing BOE Optoelectronics Technology Co., Ltd, Beijing 100176 (China); Xue, Wei [School of Optoelectronics and Beijing Engineering Research Center of Mixed Reality and Advanced Display, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The CuCa film as the diffusion barrier of Cu film improves the adhesion of Cu film. • The introduction of oxygen into the deposition of CuCa film is necessary to improve the adhesion of Cu film. • The CuCa alloy barrier layer deposited at oxygen atmosphere has perfect anti-diffusion between Cu film and substrate. - Abstract: The properties of copper (Cu) metallization based on copper–calcium (CuCa) diffusion barrier as a function of oxygen flux in the CuCa film deposition were investigated in view of adhesion, diffusion and electronic properties. The CuCa film as the diffusion barrier of Cu film improves the adhesion of Cu film, however, and increases the resistance of Cu film. The introduction of oxygen into the deposition of CuCa film induces the improvement of adhesion and crystallinity of Cu film, but produces a slight increase of resistance. The increased resistance results from the partial oxidation of Cu film. The annealing process in vacuum further improves the adhesion, crystallinity and conductivity of Cu film. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) show that the CuCa alloy barrier layer deposited at oxygen atmosphere has perfect anti-diffusion between Cu film and substrate due to the formation of Ca oxide in the interface of CuCa/substrate.

  17. Wet and dry nitrogen deposition in the central Sichuan Basin of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Fuhong; Liu, Xuejun; Zhu, Bo; Shen, Jianlin; Pan, Yuepeng; Su, Minmin; Goulding, Keith

    2016-10-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) plays a key role in the atmospheric environment and its deposition has induced large negative impacts on ecosystem health and services. Five-year continuous in-situ monitoring of N deposition, including wet (total nitrogen (WTN), total dissolved nitrogen (WTDN), dissolved organic nitrogen (WDON), ammonium nitrogen (WAN) and nitrate nitrogen (WNN)) and dry (DNH3, DHNO3, DpNH4+, DpNO3- and DNO2) deposition, had been conducted since August 2008 to December 2013 (wet) and May 2011 to December 2013 (dry) in Yan-ting, China, a typical agricultural area in the central Sichuan Basin. Mean annual total N deposition from 2011 to 2013 was 30.8 kg N ha-1 yr-1, and speculated that of 2009 and 2010 was averaged 28.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Wet and dry N deposition accounted for 76.3% and 23.7% of annual N deposition, respectively. Reduced N (WAN, DNH3 and DpNH4+) was 1.7 times of oxidized N (WNN, DHNO3, DNO2 and DpNO3-) which accounted for 50.9% and 30.3% of TN, respectively. Maximum loadings of all N forms of wet deposition, gaseous NH3, HNO3 and particulate NH4+ in dry deposition occurred in summer and minimum loadings in winter. Whether monthly, seasonal or annual averaged, dissolved N accounted for more than 70% of the total. N deposition in the central Sichuan Basin increased during the sampling period, especially that of ammonium compounds, and has become a serious threat to local aquatic ecosystems, the surrounding forest and other natural or semi-natural ecosystems in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River.

  18. Enhancement of surface integrity of titanium alloy with copper by means of laser metal deposition process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erinosho, MF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The laser metal deposition process possesses the combination of metallic powder and laser beam respectively. However, these combinations create an adhesive bonding that permanently solidifies the laser-enhanced-deposited powders. Titanium alloys (Ti...

  19. Tantalum Coating of Steel, Copper, Aluminum, and Titanium by Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Bjerrum, Niels

    1998-01-01

    Tantalum coatings ranging from 0.5 to 120 mm has been deposited by CVD at 625-1000 C using tantalum pentachloride as precursor. Deposition rates range from 1 to 80mm/h and an activation energy of 103 kJ/mole is calculated. Well adhering deposits has been obtained on stainless steel, carbon steels...

  20. The role of bitumen in strata-bound copper deposit formation in the Copiapo area, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisternas, M. Eugenia; Hermosilla, Juan

    2006-07-01

    In northern Chile, between 27 and 33°S, there are numerous deposits where residual petroleum is associated with Cu-(Ag) mineralisation (the most famous being El Soldado). All of these deposits are hosted by Lower Cretaceous volcanic or volcanoclastic facies along the axis of a former backarc basin. This close relationship suggests that the generation, migration and emplacement of hydrocarbons in the Cretaceous volcanic units is a regional process, associated with the evolution of the Cretaceous backarc basin and points to the importance of pyrobitumen as an exploration tool for similar Cu-(Ag) deposits. The present work analyses four small strata-bound copper deposits located along a north-south belt approximately 10 km east of Copiapó in northern Chile. These deposits are typically hosted by pyrobitumen-rich andesitic volcanic to volcanoclastic rocks intercalated with the marine carbonate Pabellón Formation, the youngest formation within the Chañarcillo Group. The strong genetic and spatial relationships between the pyrobitumen-rich lavas and the mineral deposits allow us to define this volcanic belt as the Ocoita-Pabellón Metallotect. Two hydrothermal events can be distinguished based on the mineralogical, textural, fluid inclusion and isotope data of ore and gangue and on the optical properties of residual petroleum. During the early event, petroleum was mobilised from the source rocks into the primary and secondary porosity of the lavas by Fe-rich hydrothermal fluids, which precipitated pyrite as an early sulphide phase. The second event is characterised by Cu-rich hydrothermal fluids, which induced three successive sub-stages of Cu-sulphide precipitation. The hydrothermal fluids chemically and thermally altered the first-stage bitumen, transforming it into pyrobitumen. The present work documents similarities between the Ocoita-Pabellón Metallotect and the El Soldado ore deposit and emphasises important differences. In the El Soldado host rocks, a

  1. Estimate of undiscovered copper resources of the world, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kathleen M.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 3,500 million metric tons (Mt) of undiscovered copper among 225 tracts around the world. Annual U.S. copper consumption is 2 Mt; global consumption is 20 Mt. The USGS assessed undiscovered copper in two deposit types that account for about 80 percent of the world's copper supply. Results of the assessment are provided by deposit type for 11 regions. Approximately 50 percent of the global total occurs in South America, South Central Asia and Indochina, and North America combined.

  2. Oscillatory Changes of the Heterogeneous Reactive Layer Detected with the Motional Resistance during the Galvanostatic Deposition of Copper in Sulfuric Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Alejandro; Agrisuelas, Jerónimo; García-Jareño, José J; Vicente, Francisco

    2015-11-24

    Metallic copper was galvanostatically deposited on quartz|gold resonant electrodes by applying a constant current in a 0.5 M CuSO4/0.1 M H2SO4 aqueous solution. Galvanostatic copper deposition is one of the best methodologies to calibrate the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalances (EQCM), a gravimetric sensor to evaluate changes in mass during the electrochemical reactions through the Sauerbrey equation. The simultaneous measurement of mass, current density, and motional resistance by an EQCM with motional resistance monitoring allows us to characterize the processes occurring on the electrode surface and at the interfacial regions with unprecedented detail. During the galvanostatic copper deposition, Cu(H2O)4(OH)2 is accumulated close to the copper surface, generating a passive layer. This passive layer can act as Cu(2+) reservoir for the Cu(2+) → Cu process since the copper deposition is not affected. The analysis of motional resistance evolution in different experimental conditions reveals that the passive layer is formed by the reaction of oxidizing agents generated at the counter electrode with the metallic copper surface. The simplistic Cu(2+) → Cu process is completed with a more detailed mechanism, which includes the passive layer formation/dissolution and the transport of species from the counter electrode surface (Pt) to the working electrode surface. The results further support the calibration procedure of EQCM by the galvanostatic deposition of copper in sulfuric solutions. However, we suggest applying high current densities, separating the counter electrode and quartz|gold resonant electrode about 0.5 cm, and keeping oxygen in solution for the EQCM calibration. Moreover, the better interval time to calculate the Sauerbrey's constant from charge and resonant frequency data is between 150 and 300 s.

  3. Debris reduction for copper and diamond-like carbon thin films produced by magnetically guided pulsed laser deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Tsui, Y Y; Vick, D; Fedosejevs, R

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of debris reduction using magnetically guided pulsed laser deposition (MGPLD) is reported here. KrF laser pulses (248 nm) of 100 mJ energy were focused to intensities of 6x10 sup 9 W/cm sup 2 onto the surface of a copper or a carbon source target and a magnetic field of 0.3 T as used to steer the plasma around a curved arc of 0.5 m length to the deposition substrate. Debris counts were compared for films produced by the MGPLD and conventional PLD (nonguided) techniques. A significant reduction in particulates of size greater than 0.1 mu m was achieved using MGPLD. For the copper films, particulate count was reduced from 150 000 particles/cm sup 2 /nm to 50 particulates/cm sup 2 /nm and for diamond-like carbon thin films particulate count was reduced from 25 000 particles/cm sup 2 /nm to 1200 particles/cm sup 2 /nm.

  4. Mineralization and leaching process in the Jian copper deposit, northeastern Fars province: Application of petrography and stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Moore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the first principles in the formation of a reserve is mineralogical, construction and mineral textures studies and investigation of paragenetic relations in the ore minerals. In addition, to petrographic studies, isotopic investigates have wide applications in economic geology. In general, copper isotope variability in primary (high temperature mineralization forms a tight cluster, in contrast to secondary mineralization, which has a much larger isotope range. A distinct pattern of heavier copper isotope signatures is evident in supergene samples, and a lighter signature characterizes the leached cap and oxidation-zone minerals. This relationship has been used to understand oxidation–reduction processes (Hoefs, 2009. Also for a better understanding of the origin of the Jian Cu deposit, this research focuses on the origin and composition of the fluid and elucidation of its evolution during the mineralization process. In order to achieve this end, field observations, vein petrography, microthermometry of fluid inclusions and stable isotope analyses of veins and minerals were investigated. The present study also compares high and low temperature sulfide samples in an attempt to document and explain diagnostic δ65Cu ranges in minerals from the Jian deposit. Materials and methods The samples were taken from different depths to measure Cu isotope variations within each reservoir. Mineralogical composition was determined using X-ray diffractometry. In addition, chromatographic separation was carried out on all samples (except for native Cu samples in a clean lab and was conducted as outlined in Mathur et al. (Mathur et al., 2009. These samples were measured into a Multicollector Inductively-Coupled-Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICPMS, the Micro mass Isoprobe at the University of Arizona in low resolution mode using a microconcentric nebulizer to increase sensitivity for the samples with lower concentrations of copper. Preparation

  5. Daughter minerals in fluid inclusions of garnet and diopside from Tongguanshan Copper Deposit by SEM/EDS and LRM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuling Xie; Jiuhua Xu; Zengqian Hou; Zhusen Yang; Wenyi Xu; Yifeng Meng; Baohua Wang

    2004-01-01

    Tongguanshan copper deposit of Tongling large ore belt is one of the typical skarn copper deposits. Based on careful observation under microscope many daughter minerals including transparent ones and opaque ones have been distinguished in the fluid inclusions of garnet and diopside. The results of SEM/EDS (scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer) and LRM (laser Raman microprobe) analysis show that these daughter minerals in garnet are sylvite, halite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and carbonate. Sylvite daughter mineral is very popular in garnet and diopside. The existence of so much sylvite daughter mineral and other daughter minerals in the fluid inclusions indicates that the ore-forming fluid is of supper-high salinity and high potassium concentration. High potassium concentration in the fluid inclusions agrees with K-rich mesotype-acid rock and K-silicate alteration that occurred widely in this area. The daughter mineral assemblage in garnet and diopside is similar to the mineral assemblage of oreforming stage that followed skarn stage.

  6. Spray-Deposited Large-Area Copper Nanowire Transparent Conductive Electrodes and Their Uses for Touch Screen Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsun-Chen; Chang, Yen-Chen; Lin, Yow; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Wei-Chung; Li, Guo-An; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2016-05-25

    Large-area conducting transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) were prepared by a fast, scalable, and low-cost spray deposition of copper nanowire (CuNW) dispersions. Thin, long, and pure copper nanowires were obtained via the seed-mediated growth in an organic solvent-based synthesis. The mean length and diameter of nanowires are, respectively, 37.7 μm and 46 nm, corresponding to a high-mean-aspect ratio of 790. These wires were spray-deposited onto a glass substrate to form a nanowire conducting network which function as a TCE. CuNW TCEs exhibit high-transparency and high-conductivity since their relatively long lengths are advantageous in lowering in the sheet resistance. For example, a 2 × 2 cm(2) transparent nanowire electrode exhibits transmittance of T = 90% with a sheet resistance as low as 52.7 Ω sq(-1). Large-area sizes (>50 cm(2)) of CuNW TCEs were also prepared by the spray coating method and assembled as resistive touch screens that can be integrated with a variety of devices, including LED lighting array, a computer, electric motors, and audio electronic devices, showing the capability to make diverse sizes and functionalities of CuNW TCEs by the reported method.

  7. Landsat Thematic Mapper observations of debris avalanche deposits in the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, P. W.; Wells, G. L.

    1988-01-01

    Remote sensing with the Landsat Thematic Mapper of debris avalanche deposits in the Central Andes between 18 and 27 deg S revealed, for the first time, the presence of 28 breached volcanic cones and 11 major volcanic debris avalanche deposits, several of which cover areas in excess of 100 sq km. It is concluded that such avalanche deposits are normal products of the evolution of large composite volcanoes, comparable with lava and pyroclastic flow deposits. A statistical survey of 578 composite volcanoes in the same area indicated that a majority of cones which achieve edifice heights between 2000 and 3000 m may undergo sector collapse. The paper describes morphological criteria for identifying breached composite cones and volcanic debris avalanches using orbital images.

  8. The Cretaceous sediment-hosted copper deposits of San Marcos (Coahuila, Northeastern Mexico): An approach to ore-forming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alonso, Donají; Canet, Carles; González-Partida, Eduardo; Villanueva-Estrada, Ruth Esther; Prol-Ledesma, Rosa María; Alfonso, Pura; Caballero-Martínez, Juan Antonio; Lozano-Santa Cruz, Rufino

    2011-04-01

    In the San Marcos ranges of Cuatrociénegas, NE Mexico, several sediment-hosted copper deposits occur within the boundary between the Coahuila Block, a basement high mostly granitic in composition and Late Paleozoic to Triassic in age, and the Mesozoic Sabinas rift basin. This boundary is outlined by the regional-scale synsedimentary San Marcos Fault. At the basin scale, the copper mineralization occurs at the top of a ˜1000 m thick red-bed succession (San Marcos Formation, Berrisian), a few meters below a conformable, transitional contact with micritic limestones (Cupido Formation, Hauterivian to Aptian). It consists of successive decimeter-thick roughly stratiform copper-rich horizons placed just above the red-beds, in a transitional unit of carbonaceous grey-beds grading to micritic limestones. The host rocks are fine- to medium-grained arkoses, with poorly sorted and subangular to subrounded grains. The detrital grains are cemented by quartz and minor calcite; besides, late iron oxide grain-coating cement occurs at the footwall unmineralized red-beds. The source area of the sediments, indicated by their modal composition, is an uplifted basement. The contents of SiO 2 (40.70-87.50 wt.%), Al 2O 3 (5.91-22.00 wt.%), K 2O (3.68-12.50 wt.%), Na 2O (0.03-2.03 wt.%) and CaO (0.09-3.78 wt.%) are within the ranges expected for arkoses. Major oxide ratios indicate that the sedimentary-tectonic setting was a passive margin. The outcropping copper mineralization essentially consists in a supergene assemblage of chrysocolla, malachite and azurite. All that remains of the primary mineralization are micron-sized chalcocite grains shielded by quartz cement. In addition, pyrite subhedral grains occur scattered throughout the copper-mineralized horizons. In these weathered orebodies copper contents range between 4.24 and 7.72 wt.%, silver between 5 and 92 ppm, and cobalt from 8 to 91 ppm. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusions in quartz and calcite crystals from

  9. Identification of hydrothermal alteration zones of the Baogutu porphyry copper deposits in northwest China using ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nannan; Zhou, Kefa

    2017-01-01

    Remote sensing technology plays a vital role in the initial stages of ore deposits exploration, with special significance in arid and semiarid regions. Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) creates opportunities for geologists and many researchers to study the extraction of hydrothermal alterations of the porphyry copper and epithermal gold deposits. ASTER data were used to map distribution of hydrothermal alteration of deposits in the Baogutu region which is located in western Junggar, Xinjiang, China, including Baogutu II and Baogutu V deposits. Band ratio logical operator (BRLO), principal component analysis (PCA), mixture-tuned matched-filtering (MTMF), and constrained energy minimization (CEM) techniques were used for detailed hydrothermal alteration mapping. The alteration zones were identified using BRLO and PCA. The minerals subject to alteration were extracted by MTMF and CEM. The results were validated through field observation, spectral measurements, and petrographic studies. By comparing the extraction results and accuracy rates of four methods, CEM boasts the highest accuracy and identifies the altered minerals corresponding to three types of alterations at accuracy of over 80%. The identifying result of CEM method indicates that the prospect areas that were located in the southeast part of the Baogutu II rocks and in the southwest part of the Baogutu V rocks are valuable for further exploration.

  10. Study on the origin of the Hongshan brecciated copper deposit in Huichang County,Jiangxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Hongshan copper deposit is a typical cryptoexplosive breccia-type deposit, which occurs in a Metamorphic rock series of the Mesoproterozoic Taoxiyuan Formation. Orebodies are distributed inside and outside porphyry-cryptoexplosive breccia pipes. The isotope geochemistry of the deposit is consistent with the origin of porphyry breccia: the δ18OH2O values ranging from 1.2‰ to 6.1‰ and the δ34S values varying from 0 to 2.5‰.206Pb/204Pb,207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of pyrite, which coexists with ore minerals, indicate it was derived from the orogenic belt. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that the main metals were deposited largely as a result of the decreasing of proton concentrations associated with H2S and CO2 exsolution during exploslon and temperature dropping.Based on K-Ar dating of quartz coexisting with ore minerals,the age of mineralization was estimated to be 97.1-98.8 Ma,which suggests that mineralization occurred between the Early and Late Cretaceous. According to the relevant informtion obtained,a diagenetic and metallogenic pattern in the area has been presented in this paper.

  11. Effects of sediment-associated copper to the deposit-feeding snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Chengfang; Selck, Henriette; Misra, Superb K

    2012-01-01

    the case of metal oxide NPs using CuO to understand if the effects of NPs differ from micron-sized particles of CuO and aqueous Cu (CuCl2). To address this issue, we compared effects of copper added to the sediment as aqueous Cu, nano- (6 nm) and micro- (snail...

  12. Database of significant deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Keith R.; DeYoung, Jr., John H.; Ludington, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the largest mineral deposits contain most of the known mineral endowment (Singer and DeYoung, 1980). Sometimes called giant or world-class deposits, these largest deposits account for a very large share of historic and current mineral production and resources in industrial society (Singer, 1995). For example, Singer (1995) shows that the largest 10 percent of the world’s gold deposits contain 86 percent of the gold discovered to date. Many mineral resource issues and investigations are more easily addressed if limited to the relatively small number of deposits that contain most of the known mineral resources. An estimate of known resources using just these deposits would normally be sufficient, because considering smaller deposits would not add significantly to the total estimate. Land-use planning should treat mainly with these deposits due to their relative scarcity, the large share of known resources they contain, and the fact that economies of scale allow minerals to be produced much more cheaply from larger deposits. Investigation of environmental and other hazards that result from mining operations can be limited to these largest deposits because they account for most of past and current production.

  13. Mineralogic, fluid inclusion, and sulfur isotope evidence for the genesis of Sechangi lead-zinc (-copper) deposit, Eastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, Azadeh; Karimpour, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-07-01

    The Sechangi lead-zinc (-copper) deposit lies in the Lut block metallogenic province of Eastern Iran. This deposit consists of ore-bearing vein emplaced along fault zone and hosted by Late Eocene monzonite porphyry. Hydrothermal alteration minerals developed in the wall rock include quartz, kaolinite, illite, and calcite. Microscopic studies reveal that the vein contains galena and sphalerite with minor chalcopyrite and pyrite as hypogene minerals and cerussite, anglesite, covellite, malachite, hematite, and goethite as secondary minerals. Fluorite and quartz are the dominant gangue minerals and show a close relationship with sulfide mineralization. Calculated δ34S values for the ore fluid vary between -9.9‰ and -5.9‰. Sulfur isotopic compositions suggest that the ore-forming aqueous solutions were derived from magmatic source and mixed with isotopically light sulfur, probably leached from the volcanic and plutonic country rocks. Microthermometric study of fluid inclusions indicates homogenization temperatures of 151-352 °C. Salinities of ore-forming fluids ranged from 0.2 to 16.5 wt.% NaCl equivalent. The ore-forming fluids of the Sechangi deposit are medium- to low-temperature and salinity. Fluid mixing may have played an important role during Pb-Zn (-Cu) mineralization. The key factors allowing for metal transport and precipitation during ore formation include the sourcing of magmatic fluids with high contents of metallogenic elements and the mixing of these hydrothermal fluids with meteoric waters resulting in the formation of deposit. In terms of the genetic type of deposit, the Sechangi is classified as a volcanic-subvolcanic hydrothermal-related vein deposit.

  14. Heat deposition into the superconducting central column of a spherical tokamak fusion plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, C. G.; Morgan, J. G.; Buxton, P. F.

    2015-02-01

    A key challenge in designing a fusion power plant is to manage the heat deposition into the central core containing superconducting toroidal field coils. Spherical tokamaks have limited space for shielding the central core from fast neutrons produced by fusion and the resulting gamma rays. This paper reports a series of three-dimensional computations using the Monte Carlo N-particle code to calculate the heat deposition into the superconducting core. For a given fusion power, this is considered as a function of plasma major radius R0, core radius rsc and shield thickness d. Computations over the ranges 0.6 m ⩽ R0 ⩽ 1.6 m, 0.15 m ⩽ rsc ⩽ 0.25 m and 0.15 m ⩽ d ⩽ 0.4 m are presented. The deposited power shows an exponential dependence on all three variables to within around 2%. The additional effects of source profile, the outer shield and shield material are all considered. The results can be interpolated to 2% accuracy and have been successfully incorporated into a system code. A possible pilot plant with 174 MW of fusion is shown to lead to a heat deposition into the superconducting core of order 30 kW. An estimate of 1.7 MW is made for the cryogenic plant power necessary for heat removal, and of 88 s running time for an adiabatic experiment where the heat deposition is absorbed by a 10 K temperature rise.

  15. Base surge deposits, eruption history, and depositional processes of a wet phreatomagmatic volcano in Central Anatolia (Cora Maar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençalioğlu-Kuşcu, Gonca; Atilla, Cüneyt; Cas, Ray A. F.; Kuşcu, İlkay

    2007-01-01

    Cora Maar is a Quaternary volcano located to the 20 km northwest of Mount Erciyes, the largest of the 19 polygenetic volcanic complexes of the Cappadocian Volcanic Province in central Anatolia. Cora Maar is a typical example of a maar-diatreme volcano with a nearly circular crater with a mean diameter of c.1.2 km, and a well-bedded base surge-dominated maar rim tephra sequence up to 40 m in thickness. Having a diameter/depth ratio ( D/ d) of 12, Cora is a relatively "mature" maar compared to recent maar craters in the world. Cora crater is excavated within the andesitic lava flows of Quaternary age. The tephra sequence is not indurated, and consists of juvenile clasts up to 70 cm, non-juvenile clasts up to 130 cm, accretionary lapilli up to 1.2 cm in diameter, and ash to lapilli-sized tephra. Base surge layers display well-developed antidune structures indicating the direction of the transport. Both progressive and regressive dune structures are present within the tephra sequence. Wavelength values increase with increasing wave height, and with large wavelength and height values. Cora tephra display similarities to Taal and Laacher See base surge deposits. Impact sags and small channel structures are also common. Lateral and vertical facies changes are observed for the dune bedded and planar bedsets. According to granulometric analyses, Cora Maar tephra samples display a bimodal distribution with a wide range of Md φ values, characteristic for the surge deposits. Very poorly sorted, bimodal ash deposits generally vary from coarse tail to fine tail grading depending on the grain size distribution while very poorly sorted lapilli and block-rich deposits display a positive skewness due to fine tail grading.

  16. Sm-Nd isotope dating of hydrothermal calcites from the Xikuangshan antimony deposit, Central Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The research on Samarium-Neodymium isotope systematics of hydrothermal calcites from the Xikuangshan antimony deposit, Central Hunan, places precise timing constraints on the Sb mineralization in this area. It is revealed that the Xikuangshan deposit formed during the late Jurassic-early Cretaceous Period, the early- and late- stage mineralization took place at (155.5 ± 1.1) Ma and (124.1 ± 3.7) Ma, respectively. The accurate age determination of mineralization is very crucial for revealing the super-enrichment mechanism of the element Sb at the Xikuangshan mine, and lays some foundations for the further understandings of its ore genesis and mineralization mechanism.

  17. Nanosecond laser ablation and deposition of silver, copper, zinc and tin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzaniga, Andrea Carlo; Ettlinger, Rebecca Bolt; Canulescu, Stela

    2014-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser deposition of different metals (Ag, Cu, Sn, Zn) has been studied in high vacuum at a laser wavelength of 355 nm and pulse length of 6 ns. The deposition rate is roughly similar for Sn, Cu and Ag, which have comparable cohesive energies, and much higher for the deposition o...... be explained by the continuous erosion by nanoparticles during deposition of the Sn films which appear to have a much rougher surface than those of the other metals studied in the present work....

  18. Relationship between magmatic carbonatite and copper mineralization in the Ruina copper ore field, central province of Zambia%赞比亚中央省瑞娜铜矿区碳酸岩及其与成矿的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙希文; 边千韬; 王作琦

    2013-01-01

    通过对赞比亚中央省瑞娜铜矿区钻孔岩芯的系统研究,作者认为该区的含矿围岩为典型的火成碳酸岩,详细的岩矿相学研究也揭示瑞娜铜矿为碳酸岩岩浆型铜矿床.岩浆发生液态不混溶作用,溶离出碱性硅酸盐熔体、金属硫化物熔体和挥发份(CO2、H2O、F、Cl、B、P等)等流体,岩浆所携带的碱质使接触带地层交代蚀变成霓长岩,挥发份以络合物的形式携带部分Cu、Au、Ag、Ga、Co、REE、Ni等金属元素在外接触带地层碎裂岩和内接触带处成矿.%Through the systematic observation of drill core samples collected from Ruina copper ore field in central province of Zambia,the authors conclude that the copper-bearing country rock is a typical carbonatite with magnetic origin.The detailed study of mineral assemblages and petrographical characteristics also indicate that the Ruina copper deposit is a magmatic carbonatite-type cooper mineralization.When the magma evolved into the immiscible stage,the alkali-containing silicate melt,sulfides melt and volatile components (including CO2,H2O,F,Cl,B,P)are dissolved.The alkali compositions accompanying the magma reacted with the contact host rock,then the fenite was formed; and the volatile components which contain mineralization elements such as Cu,Au,Ag,Ga,Co,REE and Ni in the form of chemical complex deposited in the fractures of host rocks within the outlier contact zone as well as inner contact zone.The result of this study will be useful and meaningful for mineral prospecting in this region.

  19. Structural characteristics of copper/hydrogenated amorphous carbon composite films prepared by microwave plasma-assisted deposition processes from methane-argon and acetylene-argon gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiery, F.; Pauleau, Y.; Grob, J.J.; Babonneau, D

    2004-11-01

    Copper/hydrogenated amorphous carbon (Cu/a-C:H) composite films have been deposited on silicon substrates by a hybrid technique combining microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and sputter-deposition from methane-argon and acetylene-argon gas mixtures. The major objective of this work was to investigate the effect of the carbon gas precursor on the structural characteristics of Cu/a-C:H composite films deposited at ambient temperature. The major characteristics of CH{sub 4}-argon and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}-argon plasmas were analyzed by Langmuir probe measurements. The composition of films was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, energy recoil detection analyses and nuclear reaction analyses. The carbon content in the films was observed to vary in the range 20-77 at.% and 7.5-99 at.% as the CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} concentrations in the gas phase increased from 10 to 100%, respectively. The atom number ratio H/C in the films was scattered approximately 0.4 whatever the carbon gas precursor used. The crystallographic structure and the size of copper crystallites incorporated in the a-C were determined by X-ray diffraction techniques. The copper crystallite size decreased from 20 nm in pure copper films to less than 5 nm in Cu/a-C:H films containing more than 40 at.% of carbon. Grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering measurements were performed to investigate the size distribution and distance of copper crystallites as functions of the deposition parameters. The structural characteristics of copper crystallites were dependent on the hydrocarbon gas precursor used. The crystallite size and the width of the size distribution were homogeneous in films deposited from CH{sub 4}. Copper crystallites with an anisotropic shape were found in films deposited from C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. The major radicals formed in the plasma and condensed on the surface of growing films, namely CH and C{sub 2}H radicals for films produced from CH{sub 4} and C

  20. Occurrence model for magmatic sulfide-rich nickel-copper-(platinum-group element) deposits related to mafic and ultramafic dike-sill complexes: Chapter I in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Seal, Robert R., II; Piatak, Nadine M.; Chandler, Val W.; Mars, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Magmatic sulfide deposits containing nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu), with or without (±) platinum-group elements (PGE), account for approximately 60 percent of the world’s nickel production. Most of the remainder of the Ni production is derived from lateritic deposits, which form by weathering of ultramafic rocks in humid tropical conditions. Magmatic Ni-Cu±PGE sulfide deposits are spatially and genetically related to bodies of mafic and/or ultramafic rocks. The sulfide deposits form when the mantle-derived mafic and/or ultramafic magmas become sulfide-saturated and segregate immiscible sulfide liquid, commonly following interaction with continental crustal rocks.

  1. Copper transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats.

  2. Depositional environments of Late Triassic lake, east-central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hester, P.M. (Bureau of Land Management, Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The Redonda Member of the Chinle Formation represents deposition in a large, polymictic lake during the Late Triassic (Norian) in east-central New Mexico. This study documents and defines an extensive lacustrine system situated in western Pangaea which was influenced by both tectonic and climatic events. Areal extent of the lake may have been as much as 5,000 km{sup 2}.

  3. Determination of Mineralization Zones Using Interpretation of IP and RS Data in The GarmabCopper Deposit (South Khorasan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Adelpour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Garmab copper deposit is located northeast of Qaen (South Khorasan province in the1:100,000 scale map of Abiz in the eastern tectonic zone of Iran. It is hosted by Late Paleocene-Eocene lava flows consisting mainly of andesite, trachy¬andesite, andesite-basalt and basalt lavas, as well as pyroclastic rocks, including tuffs and ignimbrites. The Lut Block has undergone intense magmatic activitywith a variety of geochemical characteristics due to changing tectonic conditions (e.g., compression during subduction followed by tensional conditions; Karimpour et al., 2012; Zarrinkoub et al., 2012. The Lut Block has a great potential for the discovery of new mineral deposits, like the Mahrabad and Khonik porphyry copper-gold deposits (Malekzadeh shafarodi, 2009, the Dehsalam porphyry copper deposit (Arjmandzadeh, 2011, high sulfidation epithermal gold deposits such as Chah Shalghami (Karimpour, 2005 and IOCG deposits such as Kuh-E-Zar and Qaleh Zari (Mazlomi et al., 2008. Materials and methods After field studies of the Garmab area, 32 thin sections and 21 polished sections were prepared for petrological and mineralogical studies.In addition, 10 least-altered and fractured samples of volcanic rocks were selected for geochemical studies. Major oxides were determined using XRF analyses at the Zarazma laboratory. Induced polarization and resistivity geophysical data were collected and correlated with geological and alteration maps. The geophysical datawere collectedfrom 420 individual points, using a dipole-dipole arrangement along five profiles separated 60m apart.This covered the study area entirely. After a change in the mineralization trend was observed,additional profileswere designed, twoon bearings of 25º and three on 75º. Results The Garmab volcanic rocks exhibit typical geochemical characteristics of subduction zone magmas including strong enrichment in LILE and depletion in HFSE. Based on the discrimination plot of Irvine and

  4. Sediment Deposition, Erosion, and Bathymetric Change in Central San Francisco Bay: 1855-1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregoso, Theresa A.; Foxgrover, Amy C.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2008-01-01

    Central San Francisco Bay is the hub of a dynamic estuarine system connecting the San Joaquin and Sacramento River Deltas, Suisun Bay, and San Pablo Bay to the Pacific Ocean and South San Francisco Bay. To understand the role that Central San Francisco Bay plays in sediment transport throughout the system, it is necessary to first determine historical changes in patterns of sediment deposition and erosion from both natural and anthropogenic forces. The first extensive hydrographic survey of Central San Francisco Bay was conducted in 1853 by the National Ocean Service (NOS) (formerly the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey (USCGS)). From 1894 to 1979, four additional surveys, composed of a total of approximately 700,000 bathymetric soundings, were collected within Central San Francisco Bay. Converting these soundings into accurate bathymetric models involved many steps. The soundings were either hand digitized directly from the original USCGS and NOS hydrographic sheets (H-sheets) or obtained digitally from the National Geophysical Data Center's (NGDC) Geophysical Data System (GEODAS) (National Geophysical Data Center, 1996). Soundings were supplemented with contours that were either taken directly from the H-sheets or added in by hand. Shorelines and marsh areas were obtained from topographic sheets. The digitized soundings, depth contours, shorelines, and marsh areas were entered into a geographic information system (GIS) and georeferenced to a common horizontal datum. Using surface modeling software, bathymetric grids with a horizontal resolution of 25 m were developed for each of the five hydrographic surveys. Before analyses of sediment deposition and erosion were conducted, interpolation bias was removed and all of the grids were converted to a common vertical datum. These bathymetric grids were then used to develop bathymetric change maps for subsequent survey periods and to determine long-term changes in deposition and erosion by calculating volumes and

  5. A reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy study of underpotential deposition of copper onto Au(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. I.; Farell, T.; Lucas, C. A.; Nichols, R. J.; Weightman, P.

    2005-11-01

    The underpotential deposition of Cu on Au(110) has been monitored by Reflection Anisotropy Spectroscopy (RAS). The changes in the intensity of spectral features observed at 2.6 eV and 3.4 eV in the RA spectrum of Au(110) that are induced by the deposition of Cu occur on different timescales. It is suggested that these changes arise, respectively, from the partial quenching of surface states and from changes in surface morphology.

  6. Cyclic voltammetry deposition of copper nanostructure on MWCNTs modified pencil graphite electrode: An ultra-sensitive hydrazine sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydari, Hamid [Faculty of Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholivand, Mohammad B., E-mail: mbgholivand@razi.ac.ir [Faculty of Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdolmaleki, Abbas [Department of Chemistry, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-01

    In this study, Copper (Cu) nanostructures (CuNS) were electrochemically deposited on a film of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified pencil graphite electrode (MWCNTs/PGE) by cyclic voltammetry method to fabricate a CuNS–MWCNTs composite sensor (CuNS–MWCNT/PGE) for hydrazine detection. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used for the characterization of CuNS on the MWCNTs matrix. The composite of CuNS-MWCNTs was characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The preliminary studies showed that the proposed sensor have a synergistic electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of hydrazine in phosphate buffer. The catalytic currents of square wave voltammetry had a linear correlation with the hydrazine concentration in the range of 0.1 to 800 μM with a low detection limit of 70 nM. Moreover, the amperometric oxidation current exhibited a linear correlation with hydrazine concentration in the concentration range of 50–800 μM with the detection limit of 4.3 μM. The proposed electrode was used for the determination of hydrazine in real samples and the results were promising. Empirical results also indicated that the sensor had good reproducibility, long-term stability, and the response of the sensor to hydrazine was free from interferences. Moreover, the proposed sensor benefits from simple preparation, low cost, outstanding sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility for hydrazine determination. - Highlights: • The Copper nanostructures (CuNS) were prepared by cyclic voltammetry deposition. • The CuNS-MWCNT/PGE sensor shows high activity toward hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}). • The proposed sensor exhibits a wide linear range (0.1 to 800 μM), low detection limit (70 nM), high sensitivity and stability for hydrazine.

  7. Novel Microbial Assemblages Dominate Weathered Sulfide-Bearing Rock from Copper-Nickel Deposits in the Duluth Complex, Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S; Lapakko, Kim A; Wenz, Zachary J; Olson, Michael C; Roepke, Elizabeth W; Sadowsky, Michael J; Novak, Paige J; Bailey, Jake V

    2017-08-15

    The Duluth Complex in northeastern Minnesota hosts economically significant deposits of copper, nickel, and platinum group elements (PGEs). The primary sulfide mineralogy of these deposits includes the minerals pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and cubanite, and weathering experiments show that most sulfide-bearing rock from the Duluth Complex generates moderately acidic leachate (pH 4 to 6). Microorganisms are important catalysts for metal sulfide oxidation and could influence the quality of water from mines in the Duluth Complex. Nevertheless, compared with that of extremely acidic environments, much less is known about the microbial ecology of moderately acidic sulfide-bearing mine waste, and so existing information may have little relevance to those microorganisms catalyzing oxidation reactions in the Duluth Complex. Here, we characterized the microbial communities in decade-long weathering experiments (kinetic tests) conducted on crushed rock and tailings from the Duluth Complex. Analyses of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts showed that differences among microbial communities correspond to pH, rock type, and experimental treatment. Moreover, microbial communities from the weathered Duluth Complex rock were dominated by taxa that are not typically associated with acidic mine waste. The most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were from the genera Meiothermus and Sulfuriferula, as well as from diverse clades of uncultivated Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria Specific taxa, including putative sulfur-oxidizing Sulfuriferula spp., appeared to be primarily associated with Duluth Complex rock, but not pyrite-bearing rocks subjected to the same experimental treatment. We discuss the implications of these results for the microbial ecology of moderately acidic mine waste with low sulfide content, as well as for kinetic testing of mine waste.IMPORTANCE Economic sulfide mineral deposits in the Duluth Complex may represent the largest undeveloped

  8. Depositional features of a late Weichselian outwash fan; central East Jylland, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmark-Nielsen, Michael

    1983-10-01

    Four major sedimentary facies are present in coarse-grained, ice-marginal deposits from central East Jylland, Denmark. Facies A and B are matrix-supported gravels deposited by subaerial sediment gravity flows as mudflows (facies A) and debris flows (facies B). Facies C consists of clast-supported, water-laid gravels and facies D are cross-bedded sand and granules. The facies can be grouped into three facies associations related to the supraglacial and proglacial environments: (1) the flow-till association is made up of alternating beds of remobilized glacial mixton (facies A) and well-sorted cross-bedded sand (facies D); (2) the outwash apron association resembles the sediments of alluvial fans in containing coarse-grained debris-flow deposits (facies B), water-laid gravel deposited by sheet floods (facies C) and cross-bedded sand and granules (facies D) from braided distributaries; (3) the valley sandur association comprises water-laid gravel (facies C) interpreted as sheet bars and longitudinal bars interbedded with cross-bedded sand and granules (facies D) deposited in channels between bars in a braided environment. The general coarsening-upward trend of the sedimentary sequences caused by the transition of bars and channel-dominated facies to debris-flow-dominated facies indicate an increasing proximality of the outwash deposits, picturing the advance and still stand of a large continental lowland ice-sheet. The depositional properties suggest that sedimentation was caused by melting along a relatively steep, active glacier margin as a first step towards the final vanishing of the Late Weichselian icesheet (the East Jylland ice) covering eastern Denmark.

  9. Surface chemistry of copper metal and copper oxide atomic layer deposition from copper(ii) acetylacetonate: a combined first-principles and reactive molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Schuster, Jörg; Schulz, Stefan E; Gessner, Thomas

    2015-10-28

    Atomistic mechanisms for the atomic layer deposition using the Cu(acac)2 (acac = acetylacetonate) precursor are studied using first-principles calculations and reactive molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that Cu(acac)2 chemisorbs on the hollow site of the Cu(110) surface and decomposes easily into a Cu atom and the acac-ligands. A sequential dissociation and reduction of the Cu precursor [Cu(acac)2 → Cu(acac) → Cu] are observed. Further decomposition of the acac-ligand is unfavorable on the Cu surface. Thus additional adsorption of the precursors may be blocked by adsorbed ligands. Molecular hydrogen is found to be nonreactive towards Cu(acac)2 on Cu(110), whereas individual H atoms easily lead to bond breaking in the Cu precursor upon impact, and thus release the surface ligands into the gas-phase. On the other hand, water reacts with Cu(acac)2 on a Cu2O substrate through a ligand-exchange reaction, which produces gaseous H(acac) and surface OH species. Combustion reactions with the main by-products CO2 and H2O are observed during the reaction between Cu(acac)2 and ozone on the CuO surface. The reactivity of different co-reactants toward Cu(acac)2 follows the order H > O3 > H2O.

  10. Remote-sensing ore prediction in and around the Linghou copper-polymetal deposit, southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F.; Zhao, B.; Wu, J. J.; Liao, Y. Z.; Zhang, T.

    2017-06-01

    Taking advantage of the band-ratioing operation, principal component analysis (PCA), and multifractal model, the OLI image was employed to extract iron - stained and hydroxyl alteration in and around the Linghou copper-polymetal mine. Findings showed that the extraction results successfully bypassed the interferences caused by the quite thick vegetational and sedimentary covers, and can accurately locate the Linghou diggings, as well as several suspected ore spots. This study may have contributed a useful case study for in-depth geological remote-sensing analysis.

  11. REDBED RELATED GOLD DEPOSIT,LUBINSIEROSZOWICE COPPER DISTRICT,SW POLAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Piestrzynski; J.Pieczonka

    2001-01-01

    @@ Underground prospecting within the Lubin-Sieroszowice mining area which took place during last 5 years,led to a discovery of a new type of Au,Pt and Pd mineralisation located0-0.5 m below the copper-silver orebody in the south-western part of the Polish Permian Basin.The gold-bearing zone lies mainly in the Weissliegendes sandstone (Iower Permian),but locally transgresses the stratigraphic sequence into the overlying kupferschiefer and Werra limestone (Zechstein).

  12. REDBED RELATED GOLD DEPOSIT,LUBINSIEROSZOWICE COPPER DISTRICT,SW POLAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Piestrzynski; J.Pieczonka

    2001-01-01

    Underground prospecting within the Lubin-Sieroszowice mining area which took place during last 5 years,led to a discovery of a new type of Au,Pt and Pd mineralisation located0-0.5 m below the copper-silver orebody in the south-western part of the Polish Permian Basin.The gold-bearing zone lies mainly in the Weissliegendes sandstone (Iower Permian),but locally transgresses the stratigraphic sequence into the overlying kupferschiefer and Werra limestone (Zechstein).……

  13. Detailed 40Ar/39Ar dating of geologic events associated with the Mantos Blancos copper deposit, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Verónica; Féraud, Gilbert; Aguirre, Luis; Ramírez, Luis; Fornari, Michel; Palacios, Carlos; Parada, Miguel

    2008-03-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar geochronological method was applied to date magmatic and hydrothermal alteration events in the Mantos Blancos mining district in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile, allowing the distinction of two separate mineralization events. The Late Jurassic Mantos Blancos orebody, hosted in Jurassic volcanic rocks, is a magmatic-hydrothermal breccia-style Cu deposit. Two superimposed mineralization events have been recently proposed. The first event is accompanied by a phyllic hydrothermal alteration affecting a rhyolitic dome. The second mineralization event is related to the intrusion of bimodal stocks and sills inside the deposit. Because of the superposition of several magmatic and hydrothermal events, the obtained 40Ar/39Ar age data are complex; however, with a careful interpretation of the age spectra, it is possible to detect complex histories of successive emplacement, alteration, mineralization, and thermal resetting. The extrusion of Jurassic basic to intermediate volcanic rocks of the La Negra Formation is dated at 156.3 ± 1.4 Ma (2 σ) using plagioclase from an andesitic lava flow. The first mineralization event and associated phyllic alteration affecting the rhyolitic dome occurred around 155-156 Ma. A younger bimodal intrusive event, supposed to be equivalent to the bimodal stock and sill system inside the deposit, is probably responsible for the second mineralization event dated at ca. 142 Ma. Other low-temperature alteration events have been dated on sericitized plagioclase at ca. 145-146, 125, and 101 Ma. This is the first time that two distinct mineralization events have been documented from radiometric data for a copper deposit in the metallogenic belt of the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile.

  14. Cherts from the Yangla copper deposit, western Yunnan Province: geochemical characteristics and relationship with massive sulfide mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN; Jiayong; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Wei Junqi, Zhan Mingguo, Lu Yuanfa et al., Geochemistry of granitoid from the Yangla ore district, Geology and Mineral Resources of South China (in Chinese), 1997 (4): 50.[2]He Longqing, Zhan Mingguo, Lu Yuanfa, Division of sequence stratigraphy and study on ore-bearing beds in the Yangla copper orefield, western Yunnan, Geology and Mineral Resources of South China (in Chinese), 1998 (3): 37.[3]Zhan Mingguo, Lu Yuanfa, Chen Shifang et al., Formation condition and type of the Yangla large scale copper deposit, Western Yunnan, Mineral Deposits (in Chinese), 1998, 17 (supplement): 183.[4]Lu Yuanfa, Chen Kaixu, Zhan Mingguo et al., Geochemical evidence of exhalative-sedimentary ore-bearing skarns in Yangla copper mineralization concentrated Area, Earth Science (in Chinese), 1999, 24(3): 298.[5]Yomamoto, K., Geochemical characteristics and depositional environments of cherts and associated rocks in the Franciscan and Shimanto terranes, Sedimentary Geology, 1987, 52: 65.[6]Zhou, Y. Z., Geochemical characteristics of siliceous rocks originated from a fossil hydrothermal system in the upper Devonian strata, Guangxi, southern China, Acta Sedimentologia, 1990, 8 (3): 75.[7]Zhou Yongzhang, Geology and Geochemistry of Hetai Gold Field, Southern China, Guangzhou: South China University of Technology Press, 1993, 53-107.[8]Bostroem, K., Harold, R., Oiva, J., Provenance and accumulation rates of opaline silica, Al, Fe, Tl, Mn, Cu, Ni and Co in Pacific pelagic sediment, Chem. Geol., 1973, 11: 123.[9]Herzig, P. M., Becker, K. P., Stoffers, P. et al., Hydrothermal silica chimney field in the Galapagos rift center at 81°W, Earth Pla. Sci. Lett., 1987, 52: 65.[10] Douthitt, C. B., The geochemistry of the stable isotopes of the silicon, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1982, 16: 129.[11] Ying Hanlong, Cai Xinping, Liu Bingguang, Geochemical features and formation of auriferous cherts in Mojiang Gold Mine, Yunnan, Geochemistry (in Chinese), 1999

  15. Electrochemical deposition of copper decorated titania nanotubes and its visible light photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y. C.; Siti, A. S.; Nur Amiera, P.; Devagi, K.; Lim, Y. P.

    2017-09-01

    Coupling of titania with narrow band gap materials has been a promising strategy in preparing visible light responsive photocatalyst. In this work, self-organized copper decorated TiO2 nanotube (Cu/TNT) was prepared via electrodeposition of Cu onto highly ordered titania nanotube arrays (TNT). The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The DRS studies clearly show the extended absorption of Cu/TNT into the visible region and present a red shift of band gap to 2.1 eV. FESEM analysis has shown the dispersion of cubic-like Cu particles upon electrodeposition and EDX analysis supports the presence of copper species on the nanotubes surface. The photocatalytic ability of Cu/TNT was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange from aqueous solution under low power visible light illumination. Compared to TNT, an appreciable improvement in methyl orange removal was observed for Cu/TNT and the highest removal efficiency of 80% was achieved. The effects of catalyst loading and samples repeatability were investigated and under optimum conditions, the removal efficiency of methyl orange over Cu/TNT had further increased to 93.4%. This work has demonstrated a feasible and simple way to introduce narrow band gap transition metal into nanotube arrays, which could create novel properties for functionalized nanotube arrays as well as promise a wide range of applications.

  16. Magnetic properties related to hydrothermal alteration processes at the Escondida porphyry copper deposit, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, K.; Veloso, E.; Campos, E.; Menzies, A.; Véliz, W.

    2014-08-01

    Fluid-rock interaction related to the circulation of hydrothermal fluids can strongly modify the physicochemical properties of wall rocks in porphyry Cu deposits. These processes can also produce compositional and textural changes in ferromagnetic minerals, which can be quantified using magnetic methods. In the Escondida porphyry Cu deposit of northern Chile, each hydrothermally altered lithology is characterized by a discrete assemblage of Fe-Ti oxide minerals. These minerals have distinctive bulk magnetic susceptibility ( K bulk), temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility, and magnetic hysteresis parameters. Selectively altered rocks (i.e., potassic and chloritic alteration types) exhibit the highest K bulk values (>3.93 × 10-3 SI units), and their hysteresis parameters indicate multidomain magnetic mineral behavior. This suggests that these rocks are composed of the coarsest magnetic grain sizes within the deposit. Optical analyses and susceptibility-temperature curves confirm that the magnetic signals in selectively altered rocks are mainly carried by secondary magnetite. In contrast, pervasively altered rocks (i.e., quartz-sericite and argillic alteration types) exhibit low K bulk values (hydrothermal alteration processes, Fe-Ti oxide minerals, and magnetic properties of the wall rock in the Escondida deposit. These magnetic methods can be considered a sensitive and efficient petrophysical tool for the identification and semi-quantification of alteration assemblages, and facilitating the recognition and mapping of discrete hydrothermal zones during exploration and operation of porphyry Cu deposits.

  17. Application of the fractal method to determine the membership function parameter for geoelectrical data (case study: Hamyj copper deposit, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi Ferdows, Mohammad; Ramazi, Hamidreza

    2015-12-01

    The selection of a suitable membership function and its parameters plays a critical role in the integration of layer information by the fuzzy method. In this paper, parameters of membership function for induced polarization (IP) and resistivity (RS) data (in the Hamyj copper deposit) have been determined by the threshold parameter of IP and resistivity data, already determined by expert opinion or drilling data. The Hamyj deposit is located about 80 km west of Birjand city, South Khorasan province, Iran. In this area, resistivity and induced polarization data have been surveyed by dipole-dipole array. In this paper, outlier-induced polarization data have been corrected by the Doerffel method and then IP and resistivity data have been inversed by the Newton and Gauss-Newton methods. The threshold of the IP data is recognized by statistical (gap statistic) and fractal (concentration-area) methods. The determined threshold by the fractal method is higher than the gap statistic. These two thresholds have been used to determine the S-shape function for the IP data. The thresholds of the RS data are recognized by the fractal method. These two thresholds have been used to determine the Z-shape function for the RS data. The integration of geoelectrical layer information has been carried out by the Gama method. Finally, the best drilling points were proposed based on fuzzy modelling for the area. The results show that the optimum exploration borehole is located at a depth of 25 m.

  18. Mapping hydrothermal alteration using aircraft VNIR scanners at the Rosemont porphyry copper deposit. [Visible-Near Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, R. M.; Abrams, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Two Visible-Near Infrared (VNIR) scanners, the NS-001 and the M2S, were flown over the Rosemont porphyry copper deposit as part of the NASA/JPL/GEOSAT test site program. This program was established to determine the feasibility and limitations of mapping hydrothermal alteration with multispectral scanners. Data from the NS-001 at 0.83 and 2.2 microns were used to identify Fe(3+) and OH enriched outcrops. These areas were then correlated with three alteration assemblages. The first correlation, hematite-epidote, was the most obvious and appeared as a strong ferric iron signature associated with hematite stained Cretaceous arkoses and andesites. The second correlation, qtz-sericite, showed a combined ferric-hydroxyl signature for a phyllicly altered quartz monzonite. The third correlation, skarn, was identified only after a review of calc-silicate mineral VNIR spectra. Altered limestones that outcrop west of the deposit have a similar ferric iron-hydroxyl signature as the quartz-sericite altered quartz monzonite. This skarn signature has been interpreted to indicate the presence of andradite, hydro-grossularite and idocrase. Data from the second scanner, M2S, was used to search for variation in ferric iron mineral type. Resulting imagery data indicated that hematite was the dominant ferric iron mineral present in the Rosemont area.

  19. Mapping hydrothermal alteration using aircraft VNIR scanners at the Rosemont porphyry copper deposit. [Visible-Near Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, R. M.; Abrams, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Two Visible-Near Infrared (VNIR) scanners, the NS-001 and the M2S, were flown over the Rosemont porphyry copper deposit as part of the NASA/JPL/GEOSAT test site program. This program was established to determine the feasibility and limitations of mapping hydrothermal alteration with multispectral scanners. Data from the NS-001 at 0.83 and 2.2 microns were used to identify Fe(3+) and OH enriched outcrops. These areas were then correlated with three alteration assemblages. The first correlation, hematite-epidote, was the most obvious and appeared as a strong ferric iron signature associated with hematite stained Cretaceous arkoses and andesites. The second correlation, qtz-sericite, showed a combined ferric-hydroxyl signature for a phyllicly altered quartz monzonite. The third correlation, skarn, was identified only after a review of calc-silicate mineral VNIR spectra. Altered limestones that outcrop west of the deposit have a similar ferric iron-hydroxyl signature as the quartz-sericite altered quartz monzonite. This skarn signature has been interpreted to indicate the presence of andradite, hydro-grossularite and idocrase. Data from the second scanner, M2S, was used to search for variation in ferric iron mineral type. Resulting imagery data indicated that hematite was the dominant ferric iron mineral present in the Rosemont area.

  20. Mechanism for the atomic layer deposition of copper using diethylzinc as the reducing agent: a density functional theory study using gas-phase molecules as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Gangotri; Elliott, Simon D

    2012-09-06

    We present theoretical studies based on first-principles density functional theory calculations for the possible gas-phase mechanism of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of copper by transmetalation from common precursors such as Cu(acac)(2), Cu(hfac)(2), Cu(PyrIm(R))(2) with R = (i)Pr and Et, Cu(dmap)(2), and CuCl(2) where diethylzinc acts as the reducing agent. An effect on the geometry and reactivity of the precursors due to differences in electronegativity, steric hindrance, and conjugation present in the ligands was observed. Three reaction types, namely, disproportionation, ligand exchange, and reductive elimination, were considered that together comprise the mechanism for the formation of copper in its metallic state starting from the precursors. A parallel pathway for the formation of zinc in its metallic form was also considered. The model Cu(I) molecule Cu(2)L(2) was studied, as Cu(I) intermediates at the surface play an important role in copper deposition. Through our study, we found that accumulation of an LZnEt intermediate results in zinc contamination by the formation of either Zn(2)L(2) or metallic zinc. Ligand exchange between Cu(II) and Zn(II) should proceed through a Cu(I) intermediate, as otherwise, it would lead to a stable copper molecule rather than copper metal. Volatile ZnL(2) favors the ALD reaction, as it carries the reaction forward.

  1. Copper deposit resource potential and prospecting targets in Afghanistan%阿富汗铜矿资源潜力与找矿方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高辉; 梅燕雄; 王浩琳; 范世家

    2012-01-01

    Afghanistan is located in the convergence of Ancient India subcontinent and Asia plate, and it is sure to be a preferable regional prospecting area where Tethys - Himalaya metallogenic belt and magmatic arc running through. There are good conditions for mineralization and extremely metal - rich mineral resources in the region. About more than 300 documented copper deposits (occurrences) have been discovered in Afghanistan, which are composed of sediment - hosted, skarn, porphyry and vein -hosted type, including the world - class sedimentary stratabound Aynak deposit. The research indicates that Tethys - Himalaya metallogenic belt has undergone alternative deposition and uplift during the old and new Tethys Ocean's expansion and closure, and two large - scale phases of subduction and collision of tectonic plate as well, and then folded and formed the youngest Mesozoic and Cenozoic Orogenic Belts on Earth. Afghanistan has also undergone a complicated tectonic evolution of long history with regional metallogenic background environment' s conversion from the former Cambrian inner continent to convergent orogenic environment. The pre Neo - proterozoic and Meso - proterozoic ore - sourced terranes and the magma reactivated, and the magmatism and derivative mineralization/process occurred, and the mineralization had the favorable conditions such as the mineralization preferentiality and the best coupling. The porphyry copper deposits and sand shale copper deposits developed broadly in Afghanistan with huge copper resources potential. The sand shale copper deposits and the porphyry copper deposits are significant exploration targets. The skarn copper deposits and vein copper deposits, which developed broadly, are the symbols and favorable zones for deep exploration of porphyry copper/gold deposit.%阿富汗位于远古印度次大陆同亚洲大陆板块碰撞的交汇处,也是全球性成矿带——特提斯—喜马拉雅造山带(岩浆弧)成矿有利区段,金属

  2. Quaternary deposits and landscape evolution of the central Blue Ridge of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eaton L.; Morgan, B.A.; Craig, Kochel R.; Howard, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    A catastrophic storm that struck the central Virginia Blue Ridge Mountains in June 1995 delivered over 775 mm (30.5 in) of rain in 16 h. The deluge triggered more than 1000 slope failures; and stream channels and debris fans were deeply incised, exposing the stratigraphy of earlier mass movement and fluvial deposits. The synthesis of data obtained from detailed pollen studies and 39 radiometrically dated surficial deposits in the Rapidan basin gives new insights into Quaternary climatic change and landscape evolution of the central Blue Ridge Mountains. The oldest depositional landforms in the study area are fluvial terraces. Their deposits have weathering characteristics similar to both early Pleistocene and late Tertiary terrace surfaces located near the Fall Zone of Virginia. Terraces of similar ages are also present in nearby basins and suggest regional incision of streams in the area since early Pleistocene-late Tertiary time. The oldest debris-flow deposits in the study area are much older than Wisconsinan glaciation as indicated by 2.5YR colors, thick argillic horizons, and fully disintegrated granitic cobbles. Radiocarbon dating indicates that debris flow activity since 25,000 YBP has recurred, on average, at least every 2500 years. The presence of stratified slope deposits, emplaced from 27,410 through 15,800 YBP, indicates hillslope stripping and reduced vegetation cover on upland slopes during the Wisconsinan glacial maximum. Regolith generated from mechanical weathering during the Pleistocene collected in low-order stream channels and was episodically delivered to the valley floor by debris flows. Debris fans prograded onto flood plains during the late Pleistocene but have been incised by Holocene stream entrenchment. The fan incision allows Holocene debris flows to largely bypass many of the higher elevation debris fan surfaces and deposit onto the topographically lower surfaces. These episodic, high-magnitude storm events are responsible for

  3. Morphology, origin and infrared microthermometry of fluid inclusions in pyrite from the Radka epithermal copper deposit, Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzmanov, Kalin; Bailly, Laurent; Ramboz, Claire; Rouer, Olivier; Bény, Jean-Michel

    2002-08-01

    Pyrite samples from the Radka epithermal, replacement type, volcanic rock-hosted copper deposit, Bulgaria, have been studied using near-infrared (IR) microscopy. Two generations of pyrite based on their textures, composition and behaviour in IR light can be distinguished. Electron microprobe analyses, X-ray elemental mapping and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to study the relationship between crystal zoning, trace element contents and IR transmittance of pyrite. The observed crystal zoning is related to variable arsenic contents in massive fine-grained and colloform pyrite from the early pyrite-quartz assemblage, and cobalt contents in pyrite crystals from the late quartz-pyrite vein assemblage. There is a negative correlation between trace element content and IR transmittance of pyrite. The IR transparency of pyrite is thus a sensitive indicator of changes in trace element concentrations. Fluid inclusions have only been found in the second pyrite generation. Scanning electron microscopy observations on open fluid inclusion cavities permitted the crystallographic features of vacuoles to be determined. A characteristic feature of primary fluid inclusions in pyrite is a negative crystal habit, shaped mainly by {100}, {111} and {210}. This complicated polyhedral morphology is the reason for the observed opacity of some isometric primary inclusions. Secondary fluid inclusion morphology depends on the nature of the surface of the healed fracture. Recognition of the primary or secondary origin of fluid inclusions is enhanced by using crystallographically oriented sections. Microthermometric measurements of primary inclusions indicate that the second pyrite generation was deposited at maximum P-T conditions of 400 °C and 430 bar and from a fluid of low bulk salinity (3.5-4.6 wt%), possibly KCl-dominant. There are large ranges for homogenisation temperatures in secondary inclusions because of necking-down processes. Decrepitation features of some of

  4. Geochronology and isotope geochemistry of the Baogutu porphyry copper deposit in the West Junggar region, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Shen, Yuanchao; Pan, Hongdi; Li, Xian-hua; Dong, Lianhui; Wang, Jingbin; Zhu, Heping; Dai, Huawu; Guan, Weina

    2012-04-01

    The Baogutu copper deposit, a newly-discovered middle-sized porphyry copper deposit, is located in the West Junggar region of Xinjiang, NW China. Baogutu is associated with a Late Carboniferous intrusive complex that was emplaced into Lower Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary strata. The intrusive complex comprises main-stage diorites and minor late-stage diorite porphyries. Their intrusive activity occurred in 313.0 ± 2.2 Ma to 312.3 ± 2.2 Ma based on U-Pb zircon SIMS analyses. Molybdenite separated from ore-bearing quartz veins yields Re-Os model ages from 309.4 ± 4.4 Ma to 314.1 ± 4.5 Ma with a weighted mean age of 312.4 ± 1.8 Ma. Biotites, separated from fresh diorite and hydrothermal breccias in main-stage diorites, yield 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 308.26 ± 1.88 and 305.69 ± 1.76 Ma, respectively. These dates obtained from three independent dating techniques constrain the ore-forming age of the Baogutu deposit. Stable isotopes (H, O, S) and radiogenic isotope (Pb) have been used to discriminate the sources of the ore-forming fluid at Baogutu. The δ18O (1.14-1.74‰) and δD (-74‰ to -98‰) data indicate that the water of the ore-forming fluids was derived from magmatic water. The δ34S values (-0.24‰ to +0.4‰) show that the sulfur isotope composition of the ore fluids is characterized by magma sulfur. Lead isotope compositions (206Pb/204Pb = 17.92-18.89, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.45-15.62, 208Pb/204Pb = 37.68-38.36) indicate that the lead of the ore fluids is derived from the mantle. These data confirm the occurrence of a Cu-Au-Mo mineralizing event at Late Carboniferous in the Baogutu region and the ore-forming fluids are mainly derived from the mantle. The event is inferred to be associated with Late Carboniferous Junggar oceanic crust subduction.

  5. Study on mineralization at Jian copper deposit, Fars province, using petrographical and geochemical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Rajabzade

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Jian Cu deposit is hosted by Surian volcano-sedimentary complex of Permo-Triassic age on the eastern edge of the Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone at a distance of 195 km from Shiraz, southwestern Iran. The complex consists mainly of metabasalt, chlorite-quartz schist, chlorite-muscovite schist, mica schist and graphite schist. Pyrite is the most important sulfide and chalcopyrite is the major Cu-bearing mineral occurring as disseminated grains and veinlets in host chlorite-quartz schist and chlorite-muscovite schist. Chondrite-normalized REE pattern of metabasalt with La/LuN=2/9 indicates mantle tholeiitic basalt as the source of metamorphosed igneous rocks. Geochemical data on the metabasalts, especially the content of immobile elements (e.g., Ti and High Field Strength Elements (HFSE (e.g., Zr، Nb and Y, show low degree of partial melting for parental magma with E-MORB affinity. Chloritic, silicification and minor sericitic assemblages are the main alteration types associated with the Jian Cu deposit. The Y/Ho ratio of Cu ores varies from 29.9 to 32.5, indicating the important role of sea water in the mineralizing system. Petrographical and geochemical data indicate that the Jian Cu deposit was formed as volcano-sedimentary hosted massive sulfide. The Ishikawa alteration index (AI in association with chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index (CCP is useful for the geochemical exploration of Cu deposits in the study area.

  6. Formation of tilted clusters in the electrochemical deposition of copper on n-gas(001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilgies, D.M.; Feidenhans'l, Robert Krarup; Scherb, G.

    1996-01-01

    Using in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, we have studied the epitaxial properties of Cu clusters electrochemically deposited on n-GaAs(001) substrates. The Cu clusters have (001) base planes and their [100] directions are aligned with the [110] directions of the GaAs(001) surface unit cell, b...

  7. Electroreduction of CO{sub 2} using copper-deposited on boron-doped diamond (BDD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panglipur, Hanum Sekar; Ivandini, Tribidasari A., E-mail: ivandini.tri@sci.ui.ac.id [Department of Chemistry, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Einaga, Yasuaki [Department of Chemistry, Keio University (Japan); Wibowo, Rahmat

    2016-04-19

    Electroreduction of CO{sub 2} was studied at copper-modified boron-doped diamond (Cu-BDD) electrodes as the working electrode. The Cu-BDD electrodes were prepared by electrochemical reduction with various concentrations of CuSO{sub 4} solutions. FE-SEM was utilized to characterize the electrodes. At Cu-BDD electrodes, a reduction peak at around -1.2 V (vs Ag/AgCl) attributtable to CO{sub 2} reductions could be observed by cyclic voltammetry technique of CO{sub 2} bubbled in water containing 0.1M NaCl. Accordingly, electroreduction of CO{sub 2} was conducted at -1.2 V (vs Ag/AgCl) using amperometry technique. The chemical products of the electroreduction analyzed by using HPLC showed the formation of formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetic acid at Cu-BDD electrodes.

  8. Fabrication of copper (Ⅰ) nitride nanorods within SBA-15 by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; Frank Leung-Yuk Lam; YAN ZiFeng; HU XiJun

    2009-01-01

    Copper (Ⅰ) nitride nanorods grown in channels of mesoporous silica SBA-15 by chemical vapor depo- sition method has been synthesized. The morphology and microstructure of the resulting product were characterized by XRD patters, TEM images, EDS analysis and Raman spectra. The XRD and TEM re-vealed that the Cu3N phase was confined in channels of SBA-15 forming continuous nanowires with 6 nm around and hundreds of nanometers in length. Raman spectra of the final product and pure Cu3N showed peaks shift due to the quantum confinement effect of the nanowires. This preparation meth-odology only requires a mild working condition and is capable of template synthesis of other binary nitride nanostructures with controlled morphology inside the channels of mesoporous materials.

  9. Distribution of Energy Deposited in Plastic Tubing and Copper-Wire Insulation by Electron Beam Irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Walther Batsberg; Miller, Arne; Pejtersen, K.

    1978-01-01

    Scanned electron beam treatment is used to improve the physical properties of certain polymers, such as shrinkable plastic tubing and insulated wire and cable. Tubing or wires are passed at high speed under the beam scanner, and the material is irradiated to absorbed doses of several Mrad...... as uniformly as possible, usually by means of a multipass arrangement. In the present study, using irradiation by a scanned 0.4 MeV electron beam, measurements were made of high-resolution distributions of absorbed dose in polyethylene tubing and copper wire coated with polyethylene, nylon, or polyvinyl...... chloride insulation. Radiochromic dye films equivalent to the insulating materials were used as accurate dosimeters having a response independent of dose rate. Irradiations were in various geometries, wire and plastic thicknesses, positions along the beam scan, and with different backing materials near...

  10. Patterns of seabird and marine mammal carcass deposition along the central California coast, 1980-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, J.L.; Jameson, R.

    1991-01-01

    At monthly intervals from February 1980 through December 1986, a 14.5-km section of central California coastline was systematically surveyed for beach-cast carcasses of marine birds and mammlas. Five hundred and fifty-four bird carcasses and 194 marine mammal carcasses were found. Common murres, western grebes, and Brandt's cormorants composed 45% of the bird total. California sea lions, sea otters, and harbor seals composed 90% of the mammal total. Several factors appeared to affect patterns of carcass deposition. The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of 1982-1983 was the dominate influence in terms of interannual variation in carcassdeposition. During this ENSO, 56% of the seabirds and 48% of the marine mammals washed ashore. Patterns of intra-annual variation were species specificand were related to animal migration patterns, reproduction, and seasonal changes in weather. Nearshore currents and winds influenced the general area of carcass deposition, while beach subtrate type and local patterns of san deposition influenced the location of carcass carcass deposition on a smaller spatial scale. Weekly surveys along a 1.1-km section of coastline indicated that 62% of bird carcasses and 41% of mammal carcasses remained on the beach less than 9 days. Cause of death determined for only 8% of the carcasses. Oiling was the most common indication of cause of death in birds (6%). Neonates composed 8% of all mammal carcasses.

  11. Effect of adding sorbitol to the electroplating solution on the process of depositing lead on copper and the morphology of the film produced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, J. L. P.; Carlos, I. A.

    The electrodeposition of lead on to a copper substrate from a plumbite solution, 0.1 M Pb(NO 3) 2 + 0.2 M sorbitol + NaOH, was investigated over a range of concentrations of the hydroxide. Interactions between the copper electrode surface and the lead deposit were investigated by the voltammetric technique. From these experiments, it was concluded that underpotential deposition (upd) of lead does not occur on copper and that lead nucleation occurs as soon as deposition is operative from -0.78 V. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the lead films corroborates this result. Lead films obtained at -0.78 and -0.90 V were adherent and could be used as a support in battery plates, but this adhesion of lead to copper cannot be attributed to upd. SEM analysis showed that films produced at potentials down to -0.90 V were smooth and that this is the critical potential for a transition from dense to pyramidal or dendritic crystals patterns. The dendritic crystallites can be transformed into a high-purity lead powder.

  12. Geochemical and diatom records of recent changes in depositional environment of a tropical wetland, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pande, A.; Nayak, G.N.; Prasad, V.; PrakashBabu, C

    Two mudflat sediment cores collected from a sub-channel (S-61) and the main channel (S-60) of a tropical wetland, along central west coast of India, were investigated for recent changes in depositional environment using geochemical (sediment grain...

  13. Radiation induced deposition of copper nanoparticles inside the nanochannels of poly(acrylic acid)-grafted poly(ethylene terephthalate) track-etched membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Güven, Olgun; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Atıcı, Ayse Bakar; Gorin, Yevgeniy G.; Zdorovets, Maxim V.; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) PET, track-etched membranes (TeMs) with 400 nm average pore size were UV-grafted with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) after oxidation of inner surfaces by H2O2/UV system. Carboxylate groups of grafted PAA chains were easily complexed with Cu2+ ions in aqueous solutions. These ions were converted into metallic copper nanoparticles (NPs) by radiation-induced reduction of copper ions in aqueous-alcohol solution by gamma rays in the dose range of 46-250 kGy. Copper ions chelating with -COOH groups of PAA chains grafted on PET TeMs form polymer-metal ion complex that prevent the formation of agglomerates during reduction of copper ions to metallic nanoparticles. The detailed analysis by X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed the deposition of copper nanoparticles with the average size of 70 nm on the inner surface of nanochannels of PET TeMs. Samples were also investigated by FTIR, ESR spectroscopies to follow copper ion reduction.

  14. Age constraints on the hydrothermal history of the Prominent Hill iron oxide copper-gold deposit, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Bryan; Fraser, Geoff; Davidson, Garry J.; Meffre, Sebastien; Skirrow, Roger; Bull, Stuart; Thompson, Jay

    2016-12-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Prominent Hill iron-oxide copper-gold deposit lies on the fault-bound southern edge of the Mt Woods Domain, Gawler Craton, South Australia. Chalcocite-bornite-chalcopyrite ores occur in a hematitic breccia complex that has similarities to the Olympic Dam deposit, but were emplaced in a shallow water clastic-carbonate package overlying a thick andesite-dacite pile. The sequence has been overturned against the major, steep, east-west, Hangingwall Fault, beyond which lies the clastic to potentially evaporitic Blue Duck Metasediments. Immediately north of the deposit, these metasediments have been intruded by dacite porphyry and granitoid and metasomatised to form magnetite-calc-silicate skarn ± pyrite-chalcopyrite. The hematitic breccia complex is strongly sericitised and silicified, has a large sericite ± chlorite halo, and was intruded by dykes during and after sericitisation. This paper evaluates the age of sericite formation in the mineralised breccias and provides constraints on the timing of granitoid intrusion and skarn formation in the terrain adjoining the mineralisation. The breccia complex contains fragments of granitoid and porphyry that are found here to be part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event at 1600-1570 Ma. This indicates that some breccia formation post-dated granitoid intrusion. Monazite and apatite in Fe-P-REE-albite metasomatised granitoid, paragenetically linked with magnetite skarn formation north of the Hangingwall Fault, grew soon after granitoid intrusion, although the apatite experienced U-Pb-LREE loss during later fluid-mineral interaction; this accounts for its calculated age of 1544 ± 39 Ma. To the south of the fault, within the breccia, 40Ar-39Ar ages yield a minimum age of sericitisation (+Cu+Fe+REE) of dykes and volcanics of ˜1575 Ma, firmly placing Prominent Hill ore formation as part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event within the Olympic Cu-Au province of the

  15. Age constraints on the hydrothermal history of the Prominent Hill iron oxide copper-gold deposit, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Bryan; Fraser, Geoff; Davidson, Garry J.; Meffre, Sebastien; Skirrow, Roger; Bull, Stuart; Thompson, Jay

    2017-08-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Prominent Hill iron-oxide copper-gold deposit lies on the fault-bound southern edge of the Mt Woods Domain, Gawler Craton, South Australia. Chalcocite-bornite-chalcopyrite ores occur in a hematitic breccia complex that has similarities to the Olympic Dam deposit, but were emplaced in a shallow water clastic-carbonate package overlying a thick andesite-dacite pile. The sequence has been overturned against the major, steep, east-west, Hangingwall Fault, beyond which lies the clastic to potentially evaporitic Blue Duck Metasediments. Immediately north of the deposit, these metasediments have been intruded by dacite porphyry and granitoid and metasomatised to form magnetite-calc-silicate skarn ± pyrite-chalcopyrite. The hematitic breccia complex is strongly sericitised and silicified, has a large sericite ± chlorite halo, and was intruded by dykes during and after sericitisation. This paper evaluates the age of sericite formation in the mineralised breccias and provides constraints on the timing of granitoid intrusion and skarn formation in the terrain adjoining the mineralisation. The breccia complex contains fragments of granitoid and porphyry that are found here to be part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event at 1600-1570 Ma. This indicates that some breccia formation post-dated granitoid intrusion. Monazite and apatite in Fe-P-REE-albite metasomatised granitoid, paragenetically linked with magnetite skarn formation north of the Hangingwall Fault, grew soon after granitoid intrusion, although the apatite experienced U-Pb-LREE loss during later fluid-mineral interaction; this accounts for its calculated age of 1544 ± 39 Ma. To the south of the fault, within the breccia, 40Ar-39Ar ages yield a minimum age of sericitisation (+Cu+Fe+REE) of dykes and volcanics of ˜1575 Ma, firmly placing Prominent Hill ore formation as part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event within the Olympic Cu-Au province of the

  16. Reconnaissance for radioactive deposits in the Nixon Fork mining district, Medfra Quadrangle, central Alaska, 1949

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Max G.; Stevens, John M.

    1953-01-01

    Reconnaissance for radioactive deposits in the Nixon Fork mining district, Medfra quadrangle, central Alaska, in 1949 disclosed the occurrence of allanite in sampled containing as much as 0.05 percent equivalent uranium from the dump of the Whalen mine; the presence of radioactive parisite (a rare-earth fluocarbonate) in a highly altered limestone containing about 0.025 percent equivalent uranium near the Whalen shaft; and radioactive idocrase in samples of altered garnet rock with about 0.025 percent equivalent uranium, form the Crystal shaft of the Nixon Fork mine. This radioactivity is due mostly to thorium rather than uranium. Placer concentrates

  17. Surface Characteristics and Catalytic Activity of Copper Deposited Porous Silicon Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusri Abdul Halim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous structured silicon or porous silicon (PS powder was prepared by chemical etching of silicon powder in an etchant solution of HF: HNO3: H2O (1:3:5 v/v. An immersion time of 4 min was sufficient for depositing Cu metal from an aqueous solution of CuSO4 in the presence of HF. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis revealed that the Cu particles aggregated upon an increase in metal content from 3.3 wt% to 9.8 wt%. H2-temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR profiles reveal that re-oxidation of the Cu particles occurs after deposition. Furthermore, the profiles denote the existence of various sizes of Cu metal on the PS. The Cu-PS powders show excellent catalytic reduction on the p-nitrophenol regardless of the Cu loadings.

  18. Pattern transfer during deposition and fixation of oligomeric bisphenol A on pre-structured copper surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szillat, Florian; Fechner, Renate; Mayr, Stefan G

    2013-09-01

    Pattern transfer during deposition of oligomeric bisphenol A (OBA) on pre-structured Cu surfaces is investigated by means of a combined experimental-computational approach. Aiming for quantitative prediction of experiments, as characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), we explore the capabilities of stochastic rate equations to quantitatively account for the spatio-temporal evolution of surface topography. While surface diffusion and deposition noise constitute the main mechanisms, pattern transfer is affected by the inclusion of retardation in the interface potential, which appears to be necessary beyond a critical initial surface slope. In addition, routes for successful surface fixation by cross-linking are also demonstrated, which may pave the way for further technological use.

  19. Two series of copper-gold deposits in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River area (MLYRA) and the hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur and lead isotopes of their ore-forming hydrothermal systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周涛发; 袁峰; 岳书仓; 赵勇

    2000-01-01

    Based on studies on the geological characteristics of the copper-gold deposits in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River area (MLYRA) and their hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur and lead isotope compositions, it is concluded that there existed two series of copper-gold deposits. They are evolutional products of two ore-forming hydrothermal systems in different geodynamic settings and geological era. Series I is stratiform or stratabound copper-gold deposits. These deposits were formed by submarine exhalation and sedimentation of hydrothermal solutions in Her-cynian tensional tectonic environment after bot brine ascending along contemporaneous faults and exhaled into the sea-floor. Series II consists of copper-gold deposits related to medium and acidic magmatic intrusions. Their mineralizations took place in Yanshanian in a tensional or a transitional period to the tensional tectonic environment from the composite of the tethys tectonic regime and the Paleo-Pacific ocean tectonic regime, as well as in

  20. Audiomagnetotelluric data to characterize the Revett-type copper-silver deposits at Rock Creek in the Cabinet Mountains Wilderness, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    The Revett-type deposits at Rock Creek are part of the concealed stratabound copper-silver deposits located in the Cabinet Mountains Wilderness of Montana. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources data are being evaluated with existing and new mineral deposit models to predict the possibility and probability of undiscovered deposits in covered terranes. To help characterize the size, resistivity, and depth of the mineral deposit concealed beneath thick overburden, a regional southwest-northeast audiomagnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. Further studies will attempt to determine if induced polarization parameters can be extracted from the magnetotelluric data to determine the size of the mineralized area. The purpose of this report is to release the audiomagnetotelluric sounding data collected along that southwest-northeast profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  1. Preliminary mineralogical data on epithermal ore veins associated with Rosia Poieni porphyry copper deposit, Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatan, E. L.; Popescu, Gh. C.

    2012-04-01

    Rosia Poieni is the largest porphyry copper (±Au±Mo) deposits associated with Neogene magmatic rocks from the South Apuseni Mountains, being located approximately 8 km northeast of the town of Abrud. During a recent examination of some epithermal mineralized veins, crosscutting the porphyry mineralization from the Roşia Poieni deposit, two species of tellurides and one tellurosulfide minerals were identified. The studied samples were collected from the + 1045 m level, SW side of the open pit and are represented by epithermal veins, crosscutting the porphyry copper mineralized body. The thickness of the veins is almost 4 cm. Following reflected-polarized light microscopy to identify the ore-mineral assemblages, the polished sections were studied with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with a back-scattered electron (BSE) detector to study fine-sized minerals. Quantitative compositional data were determined using a Cameca SX 50 electron microprobe (EMP). Based on optical microscopy, SEM and EMPA three mineral associations have been separated inside the epithermal vein, from the margins to the centre: 1. quartz+tennantite-tetrahedrite+goldfieldite+pyrite+sphalerite; 2. quartz+pyrite+tellurobismutite; 3. chalcopyrite+hessite+vivianite. Goldfieldite occurs in anhedral grains and it is associated with tennantite-tetrahedrite and quartz. The electron microprobe analysis gave a variable content in Te between 13.28-13.39 wt.%, 43.34 wt.% Cu, 0.1 wt. % Fe, 0.2 wt.% Zn, 14.68 wt.% As, 4.35 wt.% Sb and 24.84 wt.% S. The calculated formula for the goldfieldite is Cu11.8Te1.8(Sb,As)4S13.4. The EPM analyses on tetrahedrite-tennantite revealed a low content in Te (0.02-0.03 wt.%) and 42.23 wt.% Cu, 2.67 wt.% Fe, 7.34 wt.% Zn, 0.04 wt.% Sb, 19.28 wt.% As and 28.4 wt.% S. The calculated formula is Cu9.8(Fe,Zn)2.4(Sb,As,Te)3.8S13. The variable ratio of the Te content may reflect a variable content of Te in the hydrothermal fluids from which the tellurian tetrahedrite

  2. Growth kinetics of disk-shaped copper islands in electrochemical deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian; Zhang, Shouliang; Searson, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The ability to independently dictate the shape and crystal orientation of islands in electrocrystallization remains a significant challenge. The main reason for this is that the complex interplay between the substrate, nucleation, and surface chemistry is not fully understood. Here we report on the kinetics of island growth for copper on ruthenium oxide. The small nucleation overpotential leads to enhanced lateral growth and the formation of hexagonal disk-shaped islands. The amorphous substrate allows the nuclei to achieve the thermodynamically favorable orientation, i.e., a ⟨111⟩ surface normal. Island growth follows power law kinetics in both lateral and vertical directions. At shorter times, the two growth exponents are equal to (1)/(2) whereas at longer times lateral growth slows down while vertical growth speeds up. We propose a growth mechanism, wherein the lateral growth of disk-shaped islands is initiated by attachment of Cu adatoms on the ruthenium oxide surface onto the island periphery while vertical growth is initiated by two-dimensional nucleation on the top terrace and followed by lateral step propagation. These results indicate three criteria for enhanced lateral growth in electrodeposition: (i) a substrate that leads to a small nucleation overpotential, (ii) fast adatom surface diffusion on substrate to promote lateral growth, and (iii) preferential anion adsorption to stabilize the basal plane.

  3. REVIEW OF COASTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF IRON SAND DEPOSITS IN CILACAP CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananto Kurnio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mineable iron sand deposits in Cilacap – southern coastal area of Central Java have certain coastal characteristics that need to be studied in order to understand its depositional environment. With the knowledge of such environment, it can be applied to look for other places prospective of iron sand deposits that have the same characteristics especially recently when Cilacap’s deposits were almost depleted. Coastal characteristics of iron sand deposit in Cilacap is shown by successive sandy beach ridges separated by marshy valleys typical of prograded coasts and by dunes of sand elongated parallel to the shore line with elevation varies from 0 m to 15 m above sea level. The iron sand deposit was derived from denudation of andesite and “Old Andesite Formation” enriched in magnetite and ilmenite minerals in the steep elevated and deeply weathered rock hinterlands of Cilacap. High sediment loads of Serayu Basin in the hinterland (3,500-4,500 ton/km2/year; Citarum River basin only 800-1,200 ton/km2/year was causing extensive deposition of iron sand in the coastal zone. Key words: coast, characteristic, iron sand, Cilacap Endapan pasir besi yang dapat ditambang di Cilacap – pesisir selatan Jawa Tengah memiliki karakteristik pantai tertentu yang perlu dikaji agar dapat dipahami lingkungan pengendapannya. Dengan pengetahuan tentang lingkungan pengendapan tersebut, dapat diterapkan untuk mencari daerah-daerah lain prospek endapan pasir besi yang memiliki karakteristik yang sama terutama pada akhir-akhir ini ketika endapan Cilacap akan habis. Karakteristik pantai endapan pasir besi di Cilacap dicirikan oleh urutan pematang pantai berpasir yang dipisahkan oleh lembah-lembah berawa khas pantai maju dan oleh gumuk-gumuk pasir memanjang sejajar dengan garis pantai dengan ketinggian bervariasi dari 0 m hingga 15 m dari muka laut. Endapan pasir besi di daerah ini berasal dari proses denudasi andesit dan “Formasi Andesit

  4. Colour-Difference Measurement Method for Evaluation of Quality of Electrolessly Deposited Copper on Polymer after Laser-Induced Selective Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedvilas, Mindaugas; Ratautas, Karolis; Kacar, Elif; Stankevičienė, Ina; Jagminienė, Aldona; Norkus, Eugenijus; Li Pira, Nello; Račiukaitis, Gediminas

    2016-03-01

    In this work a novel colour-difference measurement method for the quality evaluation of copper deposited on a polymer is proposed. Laser-induced selective activation (LISA) was performed onto the surface of the polycarbonate/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (PC/ABS) polymer by using nanosecond laser irradiation. The laser activated PC/ABS polymer was copper plated by using the electroless copper plating (ECP) procedure. The sheet resistance measured by using a four-point probe technique was found to decrease by the power law with the colour-difference of the sample images after LISA and ECP procedures. The percolation theory of the electrical conductivity of the insulator conductor mixture has been adopted in order to explain the experimental results. The new proposed method was used to determine an optimal set of the laser processing parameters for best plating conditions.

  5. Lores, legends and lodes from lake superior - Mother of copper deposits

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.

    "), operated by the Quincy Mining Company from 1865 to 1945, was the first of the lower-grade, altered amygdaloidal basalt deposits. The Cu- bearing conglomerates, discovered in 1859, led to the opening of mines on the Calumet lode in 1864. The conglomerates... tonnes. JOUR.GEOL.SOC.INDIA, VOL.60, NOV. 2002 In 1864, the Calumet Conglomerate Lode was found by E.D. Hulbert. After some years, the Hecla Mining Company operated this mine (C&H). In 1867, Quincy the president of C&H, appointed his brother...

  6. In situ observations during chemical vapor deposition of hexagonal boron nitride on polycrystalline copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidambi, Piran R.; Blume, Raoul; Kling, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Using a combination of complementary in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, we study the fundamental mechanisms underlying the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) on polycrystalline Cu. The nucleation and growth of h-BN layers is found to occur...... processing, and that this negatively affects the stability of h-BN on the catalyst. For extended air exposure Cu oxidation is observed, and upon re-heating in vacuum an oxygen-mediated disintegration of the h-BN film via volatile boron oxides occurs. Importantly, this disintegration is catalyst mediated, i...

  7. Cenomanian-turonian stable isotope signatures and depositional sequences in northeast Egypt and central Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Sherif; Ahmad, Fayez; Powell, John H.

    2017-02-01

    Lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and microfacies studies of two Cenomanian-Turonian shallow-marine, siliciclastic-carbonate successions at Gebel Ekma plateau (southwestern Sinai, Egypt) and Wadi Karak section (central Jordan) are calibrated with δ13C-, profiles to reveal relative sea-level changes within a sequence stratigraphic framework. The study provides significantly enhanced stratigraphic resolution and key sections for regional correlation. Lithofacies are dominated by well-developed peritidal to subtidal facies associations indicating deposition in a rimmed carbonate shelf setting. Biostratigraphic analysis indicates the presence of 6 ammonite zones, 3 calcareous nannofossil zones and 3 planktonic foraminiferal zones within the Cenomanian to Turonian succession. Six, third-order depositional sequences, bounded by correlatable sequence boundaries can be traced across the African-Arabian platform. Comparison with δ13C records in deeper water pelagic sequences help to improve the resolution of the boundaries of each depositional sequence. Recognition of time gaps at the sequence boundaries on the platform, recorded in different parts of African-Arabian platform, is attributed to local tectonic activity, associated with the change from passive to active margins, which are overprinted by the global eustatic signature.

  8. Chemical and boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from the Mariinsky emerald deposit, Central Urals, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksheev, Ivan A.; Trumbull, Robert B.; Popov, Mikhail P.; Erokhin, Yuri V.; Kudryavtseva, Olesya E.; Yapaskurt, Vasily O.; Khiller, Vera V.; Vovna, Galina M.; Kiselev, Vladimir I.

    2017-07-01

    Tourmaline is abundant at the Mariinsky schist-hosted emerald deposit in the Central Urals, Russia, both in emerald-bearing phlogopite veins (type 1) and later, emerald-free pockets, lenses, and veinlets cutting the phlogopite veins (type 2). The Ca content in tourmaline is influenced by the host rocks (ultramafic and mafic rocks), associated minerals, and minerals crystallized before tourmaline (amphibole, fluorite, margarite). The Na concentration in tourmaline depends on the presence or absence of paragonite, and the association with micas also strongly influences the contents of Li, Zn, Ni, and Co in tourmaline. Type 1 tourmalines associated with phlogopite are relatively depleted in these elements, whereas type 2 tourmalines associated with margarite or paragonite are enriched. Some differences in isomorphic substitutions along with the trace element composition (Zn, V, Sr, Co, REE) may have value in exploration of emerald-bearing and emerald-free veins in schist-hosted emerald deposits. The δ11B values in tourmaline of all types fall in a narrow total range from -11.3 to -8.4‰. These values, combined with a mineralization temperature of 420-360 °C, yield an estimated δ11B fluid composition of -7.4 to -6.8‰ suggesting a mixed source of boron, likely dominated from the granitic rocks surrounding the emerald belt. The narrow range of B-isotope compositions in tourmaline from throughout the Mariinsky deposit suggests a well-mixed hydrothermal system.

  9. Multimillion year thermal history of a porphyry copper deposit: application of U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He chronometers, Bajo de la Alumbrera copper-gold deposit, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony C.; Dunlap, W. James; Reiners, Peter W.; Allen, Charlotte M.; Cooke, David R.; White, Noel C.; Campbell, Ian H.; Golding, Suzanne D.

    2008-03-01

    Application of multiple chronometers (including U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology) to porphyry intrusions at the Bajo de la Alumbrera porphyry copper-gold deposit, Argentina, reveals a complex history of reheating that spans millions of years. Previous U-Pb geochronology, combined with our new 40Ar/39Ar data, shows that the multiple porphyritic intrusions at Bajo de la Alumbrera were emplaced during two episodes, the first at about 8.0 Ma (P2 and associated porphyries) and the second about a million years later (Early and Late P3 porphyries). Complex overprinting alteration events have obscured the earliest hydrothermal history of the deposit. By contrast, 40Ar/39Ar data reveal the close temporal relationship of ore-bearing potassic alteration assemblages (7.12 ± 0.13 Ma; biotite) to the emplacement of the P3 intrusions. Consistent with low closure temperatures, younger ages have been determined for associated hydrothermal alkali feldspar (6.82 ± 0.05 Ma and 6.64 ± 0.09 Ma). The temperature-sensitive Ar data also record an unexpected prolonged cooling history (to below 200°C) extending to 5.9 Ma. Our data suggest that the Bajo de la Alumbrera system underwent protracted cooling, after the collapse of the main hydrothermal system, or that one or more low-temperature (~100-200°C) reheating events occurred after emplacement of the porphyritic intrusions at Bajo de la Alumbrera. These have been constrained in part by our new 40Ar/39Ar data (including multidomain diffusion modeling) and (U-Th)/He ages. Single-grain (U-Th)/He ages ( n = 5) for phenocrystic zircon from P2 and P3 intrusive phases bracket these thermal events to between 6.9 (youngest crystallization of intrusion) and 5.1 Ma. Multidomain modeling of alkali feldspar data (from both igneous and hydrothermal crystals) is consistent with the deposit cooling rapidly from magmatic temperatures to below about 300°C, with a more protracted history down to 150

  10. Fate of copper in intensive shrimp farms: bioaccumulation and deposition in pond sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LD. Lacerda

    Full Text Available We present the distribution of Cu in water, sediments and biomass from intensive shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 farming in northeastern Brazil. The results show no difference in dissolved Cu concentrations between waters entering and leaving the ponds. However, there was a large export of particulate Cu to adjacent environments, showed by extremely high particulate (112 µg.L-1 Cu concentrations in draining waters. Copper concentrations in the bottom sediments of the pond varied with depth from 10 to 20 µg.g-1, being 5 to 7 times higher than the local background. Pond management procedures result in a peculiar vertical distribution of Cu with peak values occurring at sub-surface depths in pond bottom sediments. Bioavailable Cu reaches about 20% of the total Cu content in sediments. Notwithstanding the relatively high Cu bioavailability, concentrations in shrimp muscle (23.2 to 63.4 µg.g-1 d.w. were similar to reported values for reared and natural L. vannamei populations, and much lower than acceptable maximum limits for human consumption. Concentrations in the exoskeleton were always higher than in muscle. Increasing Cu mass, and to a lesser extent Cu concentrations in muscle tissues, occurred simultaneously to a decrease in Cu mass and concentrations in the exoskeleton and vice versa, suggesting a dynamical exchange of Cu between the two compartments. Although Cu fate in intensive shrimp culture does not result in increasing Cu exposure to consumers, the activity is an important source of this metal to adjacent ecosystems, in particular in the pristine environments where most aquaculture activities in NE Brazil takes place.

  11. Storm deposits (tempestites) in Ordovician cratonic carbonates (Arbuckle Group, south-central Oklahoma)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldhammer, R.K.; Elmore, R.D.

    1983-03-01

    The Early Ordovician Kindblade Formation (Arbuckle Group), exposed in the Arbuckle Mountains of south-central Oklahoma, is a shallow marine epicontinental carbonate sequence that contains numerous storm deposits. The storm deposits (tempestites) are of two types, proximal and distal; the latter dominates in terms of both number and aggregate thickness. Distal tempestites consist of a fining upward sequence, 5 to 50 cm (2 to 20 in.) thick, that overlies an eroded hardground or firmground. The sequence consists of a lag lithoclastic grainstone that grades up into a laminated peloidal grainstone and then into mudstone. Primary sedimentary features such as laminations, burrows, and allochems are truncated at the surfaces, and borings are filled with unsorted lithoclasts. The lithoclasts at the base of the sequence are bored, generally well rounded, discoid in shape, and consist of mudstone, peloidal packstone, and oolitic grainstone. The overlying mudstone is sparsely fossiliferous and bioturbated with burrows either selectively dolomitized or infilled with lithoclastric grainstone. Proximal tempestites consist of coarse lithoclastic flat pebble conglomerate beds approximately 1 m (3.25 ft) thick that are interbedded with ooid grainstone and overlie mudstone. The contact between the units is sharp and erosional. The lithoclasts are of variable composition and may be up to 20 cm (7.75 in.) in diameter. The two types of tempestites occur in crude cycles, which consist of distal deposits overlain by proximal tempestites and ooid grainstones. The abundance of the storm deposits in the section, approximately one every 20 cm (7.75 in.), indicates that hundreds of storm-induced events are recorded in the Kindblade Formation.

  12. The geology, structure and mineralisation of the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposits, Mongolia:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.M. Mike Porter

    2016-01-01

    The Oyu Tolgoi cluster of seven porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposits in southern Mongolia, define a narrow, linear, 12 km long, almost continuously mineralised trend, which contains in excess of 42 Mt of Cu and 1850 t of Au, and is among the largest high grade porphyry Cu-Au deposits in the world. These deposits lie within the Gurvansayhan island-arc terrane, a fault bounded segment of the broader Silurian to Carboniferous Kazakh-Mongol arc, located towards the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, a collage of magmatic arcs that were periodically active from the late Neoproterozoic to Permo-Triassic, extending from the Urals Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. Mineralisation at Oyu Tolgoi is associated with multiple, overlapping, intrusions of late Devonian (w372 to 370 Ma) quartz-monzodiorite intruding Devonian (or older) juvenile, probably intra-oceanic arc-related, basaltic lavas and lesser volcaniclastic rocks, unconformably overlain by late Devonian (w370 Ma) basaltic to dacitic pyroclastic and volcano sedimentary rocks. These quartz-monzodiorite intrusions range from early-mineral porphyritic dykes, to larger, linear, syn-, late- and post-mineral dykes and stocks. Ore was deposited within syn-mineral quartz-monzodiorites, but is dominantly hosted by augite basalts and to a lesser degree by overlying dacitic pyroclastic rocks. Following ore deposition, an allochthonous plate of older Devonian (or pre-Devonian) rocks was overthrust and a post-ore biotite granodiorite intruded at w365 Ma. Mineralisation is characterised by varying, telescoped stages of intrusion and alteration. Early A-type quartz veined dykes were followed by Cu-Au mineralisation associated with potassic alteration, mainly K-feldspar in quartz-monzodiorite and biotite-magnetite in basaltic hosts. Downward reflux of cooled, late-magmatic hydrothermal fluid resulted in intense quartz-sericite retrograde alteration in the upper parts of the main syn-mineral intrusions, and an equivalent chlorite

  13. Comparative studies of spray pyrolysis deposited copper sulfide nanostructural thin films on glass and FTO coated glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehdi Adelifard; Hosein Eshghi; Mohamad Mehdi Bagheri Mohagheghi

    2012-10-01

    CuS thin films with different Cu to S molar ratios (0.33 and 0.43) have been deposited by spray pyrolysis method on glass and FTO coated glass substrates using an aqueous solution of copper (II) acetate and thiourea at a substrate temperature of 285°C. The structural, surface morphological, optical and electrical characterizations of the samples were carried out using XRD, FESEM, UV-Vis and PL spectrophotometer and four-probe apparatus, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that while the layer/glass sample has an individual CuS (covellite) crystalline phase, the layer/FTO sample includes two additional phases of Cu2S (chalcocite) and Cu1.8S (digenite) as well. Optical measurements showed that all these materials have a relatively high absorption coefficient (∼5 × 104–2.3 × 105 cm-1) in the visible region and direct bandgap of the layers was confirmed with the corresponding room temperature PL spectra. With the resistivity measurements at room and higher temperatures (up to 100°C) confirm that all samples are degenerate in nature with high electrical conductivities of ∼103 (.cm)-1.

  14. Growth of magnesium diboride films on 2 inch diameter copper discs by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withanage, Wenura K.; Xi, X. X.; Nassiri, Alireza; Lee, Namhoon; Wolak, Matthäus A.; Tan, Teng; Welander, Paul B.; Franzi, Matthew; Tantawi, Sami; Kustom, Robert L.

    2017-04-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) coating is a potential candidate to replace bulk niobium (Nb) for superconducting radio frequency cavities due to the appealing superconducting properties of MgB2. MgB2 coating on copper may allow cavity operation near 20–25 K as a result of the high transition temperature (T c) of MgB2 and excellent thermal conductivity of Cu. We have grown MgB2 films on 2 inch diameter Cu discs by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition for radio frequency characterization. Structural and elemental analyses showed a uniform MgB2 coating on top of a Mg–Cu alloy layer with occasional intrusion of Mg–Cu alloy regions. High T c values of around 37 K and high critical current density (J c) on the order of 107 A cm‑2 at zero field were observed. Radio frequency measurements at 11.4 GHz confirmed a high T c and showed a quality factor (Q 0) much higher than for Cu and close to that of Nb.

  15. Durability tests and up-scaling of selective absorbers based on copper-manganese oxide deposited by dip-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayon, Rocio; San Vicente, Gema; Morales, Angel [Unidad de Concentracion Solar, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Departamento de Energia, CIEMAT, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Selective absorbers based on copper-manganese oxide were prepared by dip-coating method. The optical properties of the 2-layer configuration (Al/CuMnO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}) were improved by introducing an additional absorber-protective layer directly in contact with the aluminium substrate (i.e. 3-layer absorber), for which solar absorptance up to 0.950 was achieved. Long-term durability of these absorbers was investigated by applying both thermal stability and humidity tests established by the IEA-SHC Task X. All the analyzed samples qualified for both tests leading to similar or even better results than some commercial absorbers. In order to prove the feasibility of the up-scaling process, 3-layer absorber samples of 30 x 30 cm{sup 2} size were prepared. It was observed that sintering process was determinant for obtaining fully homogenous films within the whole large-area surface. By using a sintering process with increasing temperature, 30 x 30 cm{sup 2} samples with {alpha}{sub s}=0.935{+-}0.005 (100 measurements) could be obtained. This study reveals that it is possible to deposit CuMn-oxide absorbers on large-area substrates and that they could be a good alternative to the materials present today in the market, not only in terms of optical properties but also in terms of long term durability. (author)

  16. Characteristics and origin of ore-forming fluids of Jinchangqing gold (copper) ore deposit (s) in Xiangyun, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Mingqin; SONG Huanbin; LIU Jiajun; LI Chaoyang

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of results of the studies of primary fluid inclusions, and the hydrogen and oxygen isotope data, the authors concluded that the early-stage ore-forming fluid from the Jinchangqing gold (copper) ore deposit is a kind of sulfate type hot brine characterized by medium temperature and salinity, genetically related to the late-stage ore-forming fluid derived from an acidic and more reductive environment. However, the late-stage ore-forming fluid is a sort of low temperature and low salinity chloride-type hot brine which originated from a lower pressure, acidic and more oxidative environment. In general, the ore fluids were derived from the late-stage, or largely from the early-stage groundwater-derived meteoric water, which has a 12‰-17‰ heavier oxygen isotopic composition than the original rain water (δ 18 O= -15.3‰ ), and were formed during gold mineralization as a product of oxygen isotope exchange during the reaction between ore-forming fluid and wall rocks under a lower water/rock ratio condition.

  17. Cyclic voltammetry deposition of copper nanostructure on MWCNTs modified pencil graphite electrode: An ultra-sensitive hydrazine sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Hamid; Gholivand, Mohammad B; Abdolmaleki, Abbas

    2016-09-01

    In this study, Copper (Cu) nanostructures (CuNS) were electrochemically deposited on a film of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified pencil graphite electrode (MWCNTs/PGE) by cyclic voltammetry method to fabricate a CuNS-MWCNTs composite sensor (CuNS-MWCNT/PGE) for hydrazine detection. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used for the characterization of CuNS on the MWCNTs matrix. The composite of CuNS-MWCNTs was characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The preliminary studies showed that the proposed sensor have a synergistic electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of hydrazine in phosphate buffer. The catalytic currents of square wave voltammetry had a linear correlation with the hydrazine concentration in the range of 0.1 to 800μM with a low detection limit of 70nM. Moreover, the amperometric oxidation current exhibited a linear correlation with hydrazine concentration in the concentration range of 50-800μM with the detection limit of 4.3μM. The proposed electrode was used for the determination of hydrazine in real samples and the results were promising. Empirical results also indicated that the sensor had good reproducibility, long-term stability, and the response of the sensor to hydrazine was free from interferences. Moreover, the proposed sensor benefits from simple preparation, low cost, outstanding sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility for hydrazine determination. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Copper Benzenetricarboxylate Metal-Organic Framework Nucleation Mechanisms on Metal Oxide Powders and Thin Films formed by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Paul C; Zhao, Junjie; Williams, Philip S; Walls, Howard J; Shepherd, Sarah D; Losego, Mark D; Peterson, Gregory W; Parsons, Gregory N

    2016-04-13

    Chemically functional microporous metal-organic framework (MOF) crystals are attractive for filtration and gas storage applications, and recent results show that they can be immobilized on high surface area substrates, such as fiber mats. However, fundamental knowledge is still lacking regarding initial key reaction steps in thin film MOF nucleation and growth. We find that thin inorganic nucleation layers formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) can promote solvothermal growth of copper benzenetricarboxylate MOF (Cu-BTC) on various substrate surfaces. The nature of the ALD material affects the MOF nucleation time, crystal size and morphology, and the resulting MOF surface area per unit mass. To understand MOF nucleation mechanisms, we investigate detailed Cu-BTC MOF nucleation behavior on metal oxide powders and Al2O3, ZnO, and TiO2 layers formed by ALD on polypropylene substrates. Studying both combined and sequential MOF reactant exposure conditions, we find that during solvothermal synthesis ALD metal oxides can react with the MOF metal precursor to form double hydroxy salts that can further convert to Cu-BTC MOF. The acidic organic linker can also etch or react with the surface to form MOF from an oxide metal source, which can also function as a nucleation agent for Cu-BTC in the mixed solvothermal solution. We discuss the implications of these results for better controlled thin film MOF nucleation and growth.

  19. The geological setting and style of copper mineralization at the Bushman group of deposits, northeastern Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. M.; Blaine, J. L.; Doig, R.; Byron, C. L.

    1994-02-01

    The Bushman group of CuPbZn deposits occur within the north-northeasterly trending Bushman shear zone in northeastern Botswana. The deposits are hosted by a sliver of sheared and altered, carbonate rocks and chloritic and graphitic schists that resemble and are presumed correlative with metasedimentary rocks of the Matsitama schist belt to the east. This sliver is surrounded by sheared and altered granitic gneisses. Within the sliver, the mineralized zones are a chalcopyrite and pyrite bearing quartz-calcite±alkali feldspar vein breccias near the sheared contact between the carbonate rocks and the chloritic and graphitic schists. Elsewhere within the granitic gneisses, those zones are marked by barren quartz breccias surrounded by a zone dominated by red, turbid orthoclase in turn surrounded by a zone dominated by green epidote. Initially hydrothermal alteration propylitized the host rocks and then porphyroblasts of orthoclase, albite and quartz grew with the introduction of calcite. Away from the mineralized zones, four generations of veins occur, the first two directly traceable to CuPbZn mineralization and the third carrying galena and sphalerite. Isotopic data suggest that the protolith of the granitic gneisses was emplaced sometime between about 2.57 Ga and 2.3 Ga ago. After this protolith was deformed and metamorphosed, CuPbZn mineralization occurred about 1926 Ma ago from fluids at a temperature of about 360°C. The Pb isotopic compositions of the sulfide minerals indicate that the fluids giving rise to the CuPbZn mineralization were possibly the same as those giving rise to Pb and Zn mineralization. In both instances, however, the Pb came from several sources. More recently, shear zones parallel to the Bushman shear zone may have controlled in part the emplacement of kimberlite pipes.

  20. Study of the crystallographic phase change on copper (I) selenide thin films prepared through chemical bath deposition by varying the pH of the solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Paz, M. G.; Rodríguez, C. A.; Porcile-Saavedra, P. F.; Trejo-Cruz, C.

    2016-07-01

    Copper (I) selenide thin films with orthorhombic and cubic structure were deposited on glass substrates by using the chemical bath deposition technique. The effects of the solution pH on the films growth and subsequently the structural, optical and electrical properties of the films were studied. Films with orthorhombic structure were obtained from baths wherein both metal complex and hydroxide coexist; while films with cubic structure were obtained from baths where the metal hydroxide there is no present. The structural modifications are accompanied by changes in bandgap energy, morphology and electrical resistivity of the films.

  1. 智利MARCIA铜矿地质特征及成矿机理%Geological characteristics and metallogenic mechanism of the Marcia copper deposit in Chile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠烈

    2012-01-01

    MARCIA铜矿位于智利海岸山脉成矿带,通过对矿区地层、地质特征、矿体特征与构造的关系等分析,对该矿区铜矿的形成机理进行了初步探讨,认为该矿区铜矿的形成与断裂关系密切,F2断裂是导矿和容矿断裂,该区找矿前景巨大.%The Marcia copper deposit is located in IOCG belt. Through analyzing the strata, geological characteristics, the orebody characteristics and tectonic features of the mining area, the metallogenic mechanism of the copper deposit was discussed. It has concluded that the formation of copper deposit in the mine are closely to the fault, the F2 fault is ore-transmitting and ore-containing fault and it has great prospecting potential in this area.

  2. 铜电化学沉积在微孔金属化中的应用%Application of Copper Electrochemical Deposition for the Metallization of Micropores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨防祖; 吴伟刚; 田中群; 周绍民

    2011-01-01

    以分布有微孔的印刷线路板(PCB)作为模板,按照PCB孔金属化工艺路线,研究乙醛酸化学镀铜和柠檬酸盐体系铜电沉积工艺在PCB微孔金属化中的应用.结果表明,乙醛酸化学镀铜和柠檬酸盐体系电沉积铜可以成功地应用于PCB微孔金属化加工工艺中.微孔化学镀铜金属化导电处理后,铜附着于微孔内壁,颗粒细小,但排列疏松且局部区域发生漏镀现象.微孔一经电镀铜加厚,镀层电阻显著下降;孔壁内外的铜沉积速率达到0.8∶1.0;铜颗粒具有一定的侧向生长能力,能够完全覆盖化学镀铜时产生的微小漏镀区域;微孔内壁铜镀层连续、结构致密并紧密附着于内壁,大大增强了PCB 上下层互连的导电性能.%According to established routes for the microporous metallization of printed circuit boards (PCB), electroless copper plating using glyoxylic acid as a reducing agent and copper electroplating in a citrate bath were used for microporous metallization with PCB distributing micropores as a template. The results show that electroless copper plating using glyoxylic acid as a reducing agent and copper electroplating in a citrate bath can be successfully applied to the microporous metallization of PCB. After an electric conducting treatment of the micropores by electroless copper plating the copper deposited as fine grains and attached to the inner walls of the micropores. The copper deposit was also found in the loose grain arrangement and the leak plating area. Immediately after thickening treatment by copper electroplating, the resistance toward the copper coating of the inner wall decreased notably. The ratio of the copper electroplating rates at the inner and outer micropores was found to be 0.8:1.0. The copper electrodeposit fully covered the surface of the inner wall including the leak plating area, which means that the electroplated copper grains have a certain sideway growing ability. The copper coating on the

  3. Studies on copper coating on carbon fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The weak interface bonding of metal matrix reinforced by carbon fibers is the central problem of fabricating such composites. Depositing copper coating on carbon fibers is regarded as a feasible method to solve the problem. In this paper, copper coating has been deposited on the fibers through both electroless deposition and electroplating methods. Two kinds of complexing agents and two stabilizing agents are taken during the electroless plating process. The solution is stable, and little extraneous component is absorbed on the surface. After adding additive agents and increasing the concentration of H2SO4 to the acid cupric sulfate electrolyte, the "black core" during usual electroplating process is avoided. The quality of copper coating is analyzed using SEM and XRD, etc.

  4. Direct-Liquid-Evaporation Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nanocrystalline Cobalt Metal for Nanoscale Copper Interconnect Encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Gong, Xian; Lou, Xiabing; Gordon, Roy G

    2017-03-29

    In advanced microelectronics, precise design of liner and capping layers become critical, especially when it comes to the fabrication of Cu interconnects with dimensions lower than its mean free path. Herein, we demonstrate that direct-liquid-evaporation chemical vapor deposition (DLE-CVD) of Co is a promising method to make liner and capping layers for nanoscale Cu interconnects. DLE-CVD makes pure, smooth, nanocrystalline, and highly conformal Co films with highly controllable growth characteristics. This process allows full Co encapsulation of nanoscale Cu interconnects, thus stabilizing Cu against diffusion and electromigration. Electrical measurements and high-resolution elemental imaging studies show that the DLE-CVD Co encapsulation layer can improve the reliability and thermal stability of Cu interconnects. Also, with the high conductivity of Co, the DLE-CVD Co encapsulation layer have the potential to further decrease the power consumption of nanoscale Cu interconnects, paving the way for Cu interconnects with higher efficiency in future high-end microelectronics.

  5. Ultra-deep oxidation and exotic copper formation at the late pliocene boyongan and bayugo porphyry copper-gold deposits, surigao, philippines: Geology, mineralogy, paleoaltimetry, and their implications for Geologic, physiographic, and tectonic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braxton, D.P.; Cooke, D.R.; Ignacio, A.M.; Rye, R.O.; Waters, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Boyongan and Bayugo porphyry copper-gold deposits are part of an emerging belt of intrusion-centered gold-rich deposits in the Surigao district of northeast Mindanao, Philippines. Exhumation and weathering of these Late Pliocene-age deposits has led to the development of the world's deepest known porphyry oxidation profile at Boyongan (600 m), and yet only a modest (30-70 m) oxidation profile at adjacent Bayugo. Debris flows, volcanic rocks, and fluviolacustrine sediments accumulating in the actively extending Mainit graben subsequently covered the deposits and preserved the supergene profiles. At Boyongan and Bayugo, there is a vertical transition from shallower supergene copper oxide minerals (malachite + azurite + cuprite) to deeper sulfide-stable assemblages (chalcocite ?? hypogene sulfides). This transition provides a time-integrated proxy for the position of the water table at the base of the saturated zone during supergene oxidation. Contours of the elevation of the paleopotentiometric surface based on this min- eralogical transition show that the thickest portions of the unsaturated zone coincided with a silt-sand matrix diatreme breccia complex at Boyongan. Within the breccia complex, the thickness of the unsaturated zone approached 600 in, whereas outside the breccia complex (e.g., at Bayugo), the thickness averaged 50 m. Contours of the paleopotentiometric surface suggest that during weathering, groundwater flowed into the breccia complex from the north, south, and east, and exited along a high permeability zone to the west. The high relief (>550 m) on the elevation of the paleopotentiometric surface is consistent with an environment of high topographic relief, and the outflow zone to the west of the breccia complex probably reflects proximity to a steep scarp intersecting the western breccia complex margin. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry has enabled estimation of the elevation of the land surface, which further constrains the physiographic setting

  6. Serum Copper and Haematological Values of Sheep of Different Physiological Stages in the Dry and Wet Seasons of Central Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, A.; Campbell, M.; Youssef, F. G.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine serum copper (Cu) concentrations and hematological values of 174 sheep from four medium sized farms, pertaining to physiological stage, in the late dry and late wet seasons of Central Trinidad. Serum Cu was significantly lower in the dry than in the wet season (P < 0.001) with a corresponding high percentage of samples with low Cu levels in the former. 31% of dry nonpregnant sheep exhibited a nonregenerative anaemia. Also, hemoglobin and packed cell volume values varied (P < 0.001) including lymphocyte (P < 0.01) counts, among growing animals compared with other physiological stages. Significant variations also occurred among neutrophil (P < 0.05) and eosinophil (P < 0.05) values in sheep. Highest haemoglobin and packed cell volume, white blood cell counts, and lymphocyte values in growing sheep compared with other stages were probably age related. PMID:24895542

  7. Serum Copper and Haematological Values of Sheep of Different Physiological Stages in the Dry and Wet Seasons of Central Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine serum copper (Cu concentrations and hematological values of 174 sheep from four medium sized farms, pertaining to physiological stage, in the late dry and late wet seasons of Central Trinidad. Serum Cu was significantly lower in the dry than in the wet season (P<0.001 with a corresponding high percentage of samples with low Cu levels in the former. 31% of dry nonpregnant sheep exhibited a nonregenerative anaemia. Also, hemoglobin and packed cell volume values varied (P<0.001 including lymphocyte (P<0.01 counts, among growing animals compared with other physiological stages. Significant variations also occurred among neutrophil (P<0.05 and eosinophil (P<0.05 values in sheep. Highest haemoglobin and packed cell volume, white blood cell counts, and lymphocyte values in growing sheep compared with other stages were probably age related.

  8. Examination of central body fat deposition as a risk factor for loss-of-control eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Laura A; Arigo, Danielle; Mayer, Laurel Es; Sarwer, David B; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Elevated body mass index (BMI), higher waist-to-hip ratio, and body dissatisfaction have been investigated as risk factors for the development of bulimic symptoms. Central fat deposition may be particularly relevant to eating disorders. To our knowledge, the longitudinal relations between fat distribution, body dissatisfaction, and loss-of-control (LOC) eating development and maintenance have not been studied. We examined body fat distribution, independent of BMI and depressive symptoms, as a unique correlate and predictor of body dissatisfaction and LOC eating cross-sectionally and over a 2-y follow-up. Body composition was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 294 adult women at risk of weight gain at baseline, 6 mo, and 24 mo. We assessed LOC eating, body dissatisfaction, and depressive symptoms at baseline, 6 wk, 6 mo, 12 mo, and 24 mo by using the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Interview, the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales Body Areas Satisfaction subscale, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, respectively. Independent of BMI, baseline total percentage body fat, percentage trunk fat, and percentage abdominal fat were related to greater body dissatisfaction. Total percentage body fat and trunk fat tended to be associated with greater body dissatisfaction at all subsequent time points. Women with a greater percentage trunk fat, specifically abdominal fat, were at highest risk of developing LOC eating. In the full sample, women with higher baseline percentage trunk and abdominal fat showed increases in LOC eating episode frequency over time, whereas LOC eating frequency remained stable among women with smaller percentages of fat in trunk and abdominal regions. These findings lend further support to the premise that increased central body fat deposition is associated with body image dissatisfaction and suggest that it may represent a risk and maintenance factor for LOC eating. This trial was

  9. Lonestones as indicators of tsunami deposits in deep-sea sedimentary rocks of the Miocene Morozaki Group, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Toru

    2013-05-01

    Lonestones are isolated larger clasts enclosed in muddy fine-grained deposits, and are usually interpreted as iceberg-rafted dropstones. This interpretation implies the existence of glaciers (continental ice sheets) and, consequently, a cool climate. However, alternative interpretations are possible, as lonestones may also be deposited by non-glacial processes. Therefore, clarification of the depositional processes associated with lonestones is fundamental for studies based on lonestone-bearing deposits. A field survey of lonestone-bearing deposits from Early Miocene deep-sea sedimentary rocks found around the Chita Peninsula of central Japan suggests that tsunami-induced flows on the sea bottom may also form lonestones. These lonestones are associated with sandy to gravelly deposits, and were deposited by high-energy episodic currents. The main features of these deposits are the multiple stacking of normally graded units, and the laterally discontinuous distribution of coarse-grained clastic material (sands and gravels). Such features are consistent with deposition by tsunamis and suggest that lonestone-bearing depositional successions must be carefully interpreted, especially where lonestones are used as glacial indicators, as some lonestones were probably put in place by ancient tsunami events.

  10. Influence of nonionic surfactant on electroless copper deposition%非离子型表面活性剂对化学沉铜的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余霞; 胡光辉; 潘湛昌; 庞文萍; 魏志钢; 肖楚民; 张晃初; 曾祥福

    2013-01-01

    Electroless copper plating was carried out with brass sheet as substrate. The basic bath composition and process conditions are as follows: CuSO4·5H2O 10 g/L, EDTA-2Na 40 g/L, NaOH 12 g/L, HCHO 10 mL/L, pH 13.0, temperature 35 ℃, and time 10 min. The effects of nonionic surfactants such as OP-10, Triton X-100, and Tween-80 on the starting time of copper deposition, deposition rate, ductility, and grain refinement of Cu coating were studied. The results showed that the three kinds of surfactant can reduce copper deposition rate. The ductility and grain refinement of copper coating are improved by Triton X-100 and OP-10 when their mass concentration is 1-9 mg/L, while the starting time of copper deposition is delayed. Tween-80 can reduce the deposition rate significantly but has little impact on the ductility of Cu coating. Compared to Triton X-100 and Tween-80, OP-10 is the favorable agent for ductility improvement of electroless Cu coating.%以黄铜片为基体进行化学镀铜,基础镀液组成和工艺条件为:CuSO4·5H2O 10 g/L,EDTA-2Na40 g/L,NaOH 12 g/L,HCHO 10 mL/L,pH 13.0,温度35℃,时间10 min.研究了非离子型表面活性剂OP-10、曲拉通X-100和吐温-80对起镀时间、沉积速率、铜镀层韧性和晶粒细化的影响.结果表明,3种表面活性剂都会降低铜的沉积速率.质量浓度为1 ~9 mg/L时,曲拉通X-100和OP-10都能使铜镀层的韧性改善和晶粒细化,同时延长起镀时间;吐温-80会显著降低铜的沉积速率,但对铜镀层韧性的影响不大.与曲拉通X-100和吐温-80相比,OP-10是较理想的沉铜韧性改善剂.

  11. Depositional setting and paleobotany of Permian and Triassic permineralized peat from the central Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, E.L.; Taylor, T.N.; Collinson, J.W. (Ohio State University, Columbus (USA). Byrd Polar Research Center)

    1989-06-01

    Silicified peat is known from two sites in the central Transantarctic Mountains. Both are within a 2-km-thick Permo-Triassic sandstone-shale sequence that was deposited by braided streams in a rapidly subsiding foreland basin along the paleo-Pacific margin of Antarctica. Upper Permian permineralized peat occurs as scattered boulders just above a channel-form sandstone in the upper part of the Buckley Formation on Skaar Ridge overlooking the Beardmore Glacier. These boulders are erosional remnants of fine-grained deposits that accumulated in shallow lakes or swamps on a flood plain. At Fremouw Peak, the peat occurs near the top of the Fremouw Formation in strata that are probably Middle to Late Triassic in age. The peat consists of large blocks that were rafted into a sandy braided stream channel during a flood and then stranded and buried as flood waters receded. Both sites are characterized by exceptionally well-preserved plant material, although the composition and diversity of the two floras are very different. Permineralization apparently took place rapidly and was enhanced by the dissolution of siliceous volcanic detritus that is abundant in both formations.

  12. Geophysical prospecting for iron ore deposit around Tajimi village, Lokoja, North-Central Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayowa, Oyelowo; Ogungbesan, Gbenga; Majolagbe, Razak; Oyeleke, Simeon

    2016-09-01

    Ground magnetic and electrical resistivity survey were undertaken to investigate the occurrence and geometry of iron ore deposit around Tajimi village, Lokoja, North-Central Nigeria. The generated residual map of the ground-magnetic data acquired at 250 stations along 15 traverses revealed numerous prominent anomalies, mostly trending in the N-S direction. The radial power spectrum revealed the depth to magnetic sources between 6 m to 20 m. The interpreted VES data characterized the area into three subsurface layers: top soil, presumably iron ore layer and weathered/fresh basement. The result of vertical electrical sounding curves showed a sudden drop in resistivity (42-241 Ωm) over high magnetic response. The geo-electric section revealed that the study area is generally characterized with thin overburden (0.5-1.7 m) and the thickness of the second layer (presumed to be the iron ore layer) ranged between 6.2-25.1 m. The study concluded that areas of high magnetic intensity showed a sudden drop in resistivity value for the VES points, which give an indication of the presence of an electrically conductive structure presumed to be iron ore deposits.

  13. Fabrication of copper decorated tungsten oxide–titanium oxide nanotubes by photochemical deposition technique and their photocatalytic application under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, Mohamad Mohsen, E-mail: mm.momeni@cc.iut.ac.ir

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic presentation of the pretreatment method of titanium sheets and producing process of WTNs and Cu/WTNs films on titanium foils. - Highlights: • WO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (WTNs) were synthesized by one-step electrochemical anodizing. • Copper decorated WO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (Cu/WTNs) were successfully prepared by photochemical deposition. • Photocatalytic activity of Cu/WTNs is higher than that of bare WTNs. • These photocatalysts showed good stability and it could be recycled several times without significant loss of its activity. - Abstract: Copper decorated WO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (Cu/WTNs) with a high photocatalytic activity were prepared by anodizing and photochemical deposition. Highly ordered WO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (WTNs) on pure titanium foils were successfully fabricated by electrochemical anodizing and copper deposited on these nanotubes (Cu/WTNs) by photoreduction method. The resulting samples were characterized by various methods. Only the anatase phase was detected by X-ray diffraction analysis. The presence of copper in the structure of thin films was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The extension of optical absorption into the visible region of as-prepared films was indicated by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The degradation of methylene blue was used as a model reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the obtained samples. Results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Cu/WTNs samples is higher than bare WTNs sample. Kinetic research showed that the reaction rate constant of Cu/WTNs is approximately 2.5 times higher than the apparent reaction rate constant of bare WTNs. These results not only offer an economical method for constructing Cu/WTNs photocatalysts, but also shed new insight on the rational design of a low cost and high-efficiency photocatalyst for environmental remediation.

  14. Iron oxide copper-gold deposits in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (phase V, deliverable 79): Chapter M in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernette, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Mauritania hosts one significant copper-gold deposit, Guelb Moghrein and several occurrences, which have been categorized as iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits but which are atypical in some important respects. Nonetheless, Guelb Moghrein is an economically significant mineral deposit and an attractive exploration target. The deposit is of Archean age and is hosted by a distinctive metacarbonate rock which is part of a greenstone-banded iron formation (BIF) package within a thrust stack in the northern part of the Mauritanide Belt. The surrounding area hosts a number of similar copper-gold occurrences. Based on the characteristics of the Guelb Moghrein deposit and its geologic environment, five tracts which are considered permissive for IOCG type mineralization similar to Guelb Moghrein have been delineated.

  15. Role of fast waves in the central deposition of lower hybrid power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, J. A.; Tala, T. J. J.; Pättikangas, T. J. H.; Piliya, A. D.; Saveliev, A. N.; Karttunen, S. J.

    1999-10-01

    In tokamaks, lower hybrid (LH) waves are routinely used for current drive and heating of plasmas. The LH waves have two modes of propagation that are called the slow and the fast wave. Usually, the lower hybrid waves are launched as slow waves into a tokamak, but during the propagation part of the wave power can be transformed to fast waves. General characteristics of the mode transformation of slow waves to fast waves are first investigated with a simple quasitoroidal ray-tracing model. Next, the effect of mode transformed LH power on the deposition profiles in a JET-like tokamak is analysed by using the fast ray-tracing code FRTC. When the launched spectrum is at small values of the toroidal refractive index (1.6 icons/Journals/Common/lesssim" ALT="lesssim" ALIGN="TOP"/> nicons/Journals/Common/phi" ALT="phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0 icons/Journals/Common/lesssim" ALT="lesssim" ALIGN="TOP"/> 2.0), the contribution of the fast wave to the deposited power is found to be significant and responsible for most of the absorption at the centre. When nicons/Journals/Common/phi" ALT="phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0 is large (nicons/Journals/Common/phi" ALT="phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0 icons/Journals/Common/gtrsim" ALT="gtrsim" ALIGN="TOP"/> 2.2), the effect of the mode transformed fast waves is small or negligible. At modest central densities (ne0 ~ 0.5 × 1020 m-3), the contribution of the fast wave to the power deposition can be more than 50% in the plasma centre. In consequence, the significant amount of wave energy absorbed in the fast mode must be carefully taken into account in modelling LH current drive experiments in the future. At low central densities (ne0 icons/Journals/Common/lesssim" ALT="lesssim" ALIGN="TOP"/> 0.3 × 1020 m-3), practically no absorption of fast waves occurs.

  16. Mineralogy and Trace Element Chemistry of Ferberite/Reinite from Tungsten Deposits in Central Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Muchez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten mineralization in hydrothermal quartz veins from the Nyakabingo,Gifurwe and Bugarama deposits in central Rwanda occurs as the iron-rich endmember ofthe wolframite solid solution series (ferberite and in the particular form of reinite, whichrepresents a pseudomorph of ferberite after scheelite. Primary ferberite, reinite and latesecondary ferberite are characterized by their trace element chemistry and rare earthelement patterns. The replacement of scheelite by ferberite is also documented in the traceelement composition. Primary ferberite shows high Mg, Zn, Sc, V, Nb, In and Snconcentrations, but very low Ca, Pb, Sr and Ba contents. Reinite and late secondaryferberite display an uncommon trace element composition containing high concentrationsof Ca, Pb, Sr, Ba, As and Ga, but very low levels in Sn, Zr, Hf, In, Ti, Sc, Nb, Ta, Mg andZn. Late secondary ferberite replacing primary ferberite is characterized by additionalenrichments in Bi, Pb, As and Sb. The rare earth element patterns of reinite and secondaryferberite are also similar to hydrothermal scheelite. The formation of the tungsten depositsin central Rwanda is interpreted to be epigenetic in origin, and the hydrothermalmineralizing fluids are related to the intrusion of the G4-granites.

  17. Abiogenic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of methane at the Baogutu reduced porphyry copper deposit, western Junggar, NW-China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, MingJian; Qin, KeZhang; Li, GuangMing; Evans, Noreen J.; Jin, LuYing

    2014-09-01

    Methane is widely developed in hydrothermal fluids from reduced porphyry copper deposits, but its origin remains enigmatic. The occurrence of methane in fluid inclusions at the Late Carboniferous Baogutu reduced porphyry copper deposit in western Junggar, Xinjiang, NW-China, presents an excellent opportunity to address this problem. A systematic study including fluid inclusion Laser-Raman and CO2-CH4 carbon isotope analyses, igneous and hydrothermal mineral H-O isotope analyses, and in situ major, trace element and Sr isotopic analyses of hydrothermal epidote was conducted to constrain the origin of CH4 and CH4-rich fluids. The δ2H and δ18O of water in equilibrium with igneous biotite ranges from -65.0‰ to -66.0‰ and +7.2‰ to +7.4‰, respectively, indicating notable degassing of probably supercritical fluids in the magma chamber. The wide range of δ2H (-58.0‰ to -107.0‰, n = 23) for water within quartz suggests the existence of significant hydrothermal fluid boiling. Water-rock interaction is the most likely mechanism leading to the wide range of δ18O values for water in vein quartz with water/rock ratios (wt.% in O) of 0.15 to 0.75 and 0.13 to 0.46 for a closed and open system, respectively. Detailed Laser-Raman analyses indicate CO2 in apatite included in granodiorite porphyry phenocrystic biotite that records the carbon species of the early stage magmatic stage, whereas later hydrothermal fluids containing CH4 with trace or without CO2 are found in inclusions of vein quartz. We propose that CH4 is probably transformed from CO2 by Fischer-Tropsch type reactions at 500 °C, assumed from CO2-CH4 C isotope equilibrium. The (87Sr/86Sr)i of hydrothermal epidote yields values of 0.70369-0.70404, consistent with that reported for the whole rocks. The δ13CCH4 (-28.6‰ to -22.6‰) and δ2HCH4 (-108.0‰ to -59.5‰) are characteristic of abiogenic methane. The measured δ13CCO2 shows a slightly depleted 13C (-13.5‰ to -7.2‰) relative to upper mantle

  18. The high-grade Las Cruces copper deposit, Spain: a product of secondary enrichment in an evolving basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornos, Fernando; Velasco, Francisco; Slack, John F.; Delgado, Antonio; Gomez-Miguelez, Nieves; Escobar, Juan Manuel; Gomez, Carmelo

    2017-01-01

    The Las Cruces deposit (Iberian Pyrite Belt) includes a large, high-grade cementation zone capped by unusual rocks that contain carbonates, galena, iron sulphides, and quartz. Between the Late Cretaceous(?) and Tortonian, the volcanogenic massive sulphides were exhumed and affected by subaerial oxidation that formed paired cementation and gossan zones. Onset of Alpine extension produced accelerated growth of the cementation zone along extensional faults, leading to formation of the high-grade copper ore at ca. 11 Ma. Later, replacement of the overlying gossan by sulphide- and carbonate-rich rocks beneath sealing marl sediments is thought to have involved microbial processes, occurring between the Messinian (ca. 7.2 Ma) and today. Isotope data show that the cementation zone formed by the mixing of descending acidic waters derived from oxidation of the massive sulphides, with upwelling geothermal waters flowing at temperatures above 100 °C. The C, O, and Sr isotope values of the mineralization (87Sr/86Sr 0.7101-0.7104) and of the local groundwater (0.7102-0.7104) reflect equilibration with basement rocks, and indicate that influence on the ore-forming process by marl-equilibrated water (0.7091-0.7093) or Miocene seawater (0.7086-0.7092) was negligible. The high sulphur isotope values of the sulphides in the biogenic zone (most +19 to +24 ‰) are well above those of the primary sulphides (δ34S ca. -6.8 to +10.3 ‰) and likely reflect formation of the biogenic sulphides by reduction of aqueous sulphate in the groundwaters. Sulphur isotope values of the cementation zone (δ34S ca. -2.4 to +21.7 ‰) are also consistent with some contribution of sulphur from the biogenic reduction of aqueous sulphate.

  19. Chronology, sedimentology, and microfauna of groundwater discharge deposits in the central Mojave Desert, Valley Wells, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Miller, David M.; Bright, Jordon E.; Mahan, Shannon; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Paces, James B.

    2011-01-01

    During the late Pleistocene, emergent groundwater supported persistent and long-lived desert wetlands in many broad valleys and basins in the American Southwest. When active, these systems provided important food and water sources for local fauna, supported hydrophilic and phreatophytic vegetation, and acted as catchments for eolian and alluvial sediments. Desert wetlands are represented in the geologic record by groundwater discharge deposits, which are also called spring or wetland deposits. Groundwater discharge deposits contain information on the timing and magnitude of past changes in water-table levels and, thus, are a source of paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic information. Here, we present the results of an investigation of extensive groundwater discharge deposits in the central Mojave Desert at Valley Wells, California. We used geologic mapping and stratigraphic relations to identify two distinct wetland sequences at Valley Wells, which we dated using radiocarbon, luminescence, and uranium-series techniques. We also analyzed the sediments and microfauna (ostracodes and gastropods) to reconstruct the specific environments in which they formed. Our results suggest that the earliest episode of high water-table conditions at Valley Wells began ca. 60 ka (thousands of calendar yr B.P.), and culminated in peak discharge between ca. 40 and 35 ka. During this time, cold (4–12 °C) emergent groundwater supported extensive wetlands that likely were composed of a wet, sedge-rush-tussock meadow mixed with mesic riparian forest. After ca. 35 ka, the water table dropped below the ground surface but was still shallow enough to support dense stands of phreatophytes through the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The water table dropped further after the LGM, and xeric conditions prevailed until modest wetlands returned briefly during the Younger Dryas cold event (13.0–11.6 ka). We did not observe any evidence of wet conditions during the Holocene at Valley Wells. The timing

  20. The relationship between stabilizer and copper deposition rate in the electroless copper plating solution%化学镀铜溶液中稳定剂与铜沉积速率的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦建芳; 姚陈忠; 孙鸿

    2012-01-01

    It was researched for stabilizer on the copper deposition rate in the electroless copper plating solution. It was fully consider for main complexing agent, side effects of inhibitors and formaldehyde capture agent which concentration of electroless copper plating. The base formula as copper sulfate 3 g/L, formaldehyde 8 g/L, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid 28 g/L, sodium hydroxide 7.5 g/L, the process parameters were temperature being 50℃, the pH value being 12.5 and plating time being 40 min. The a-mount of the three types of stabilizers were determined for methanol 8 mg/L, potassium ferrocyanide 6 mg/L bipyridyl. The coating obtained under the optimal technical conditions was Hongliang appearance, surface roughness, grain size and detailed electroless copper plating solution stability.%研究了化学镀铜溶液中稳定剂对铜沉积速率的影响,着重考虑主配位剂、副反应的抑制剂、甲醛捕获剂对化学镀铜的影响.结果表明,在基本配方8 g/L CuSO4·5H2O,3 g/L HCHO,28 g/L EDTA,7.5 g/L NaOH,工艺参数pH=12.5,温度50℃,时间40 min的基础上,各种稳定剂的适宜用量为6 mL/L CH3OH、8 mg/L K4Fe(CN)6、6 mg/L2,2’-bipy.在最佳工艺下得到的镀层外观红亮,表面平整,晶粒细致,化学镀铜液稳定.

  1. Fluctuating Eruption Style at Blue Lake Crater, Central Oregon Cascades: Insights from Deposit Granulometry and Componentry and Pyroclast Textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. R.

    2016-12-01

    Blue Lake crater in the central Oregon Cascades is one of the youngest Cascades volcanoes, erupting pyroclastic deposits to better understand changes in eruption style as the eruption progressed. Based on a new isopach map of the deposit thickness, the volume of erupted material is 4 x 107 m3. The deposits also suggest that the eruption was dominantly magmatic; phreatomagmatic surge deposits (pyroclasts from throughout the deposit reveal more subtle changes in the influence of external water over time. Granulometry from a complete deposit section (130 cm) reveals that the average grain size is finest immediately overlying the basal surge deposits and increases upsection. Componentry from this section shows that lithic and dense clasts are most abundant below and directly above the surges (near the deposit base) and decrease in abundance upsection, where vesicular scoria dominates. High magnification SEM BSE images of tephra clasts from throughout the deposit were obtained in order to better assess the changing role of external water during the eruption. Preliminary assessment of the images reveals that clasts from the eruption initiation have a glassier matrix compared to those upsection, which have a highly microcrystalline matrix, suggesting that early-erupted samples were likely quenched with external water. Taken together, these datasets suggest that the eruption initiated as dominantly phreatomagmatic but then rapidly transitioned to dominantly magmatic for the eruption duration. Further investigation of clast vesicularity and crystallinity will aid in understanding the changing influence of external water during the Blue Lake eruption.

  2. Superhydrophobic Cu2S@Cu2O film on copper surface fabricated by a facile chemical bath deposition method and its application in oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Pihui; Hou, Kun; Zhou, Cailong; Li, Guidong; Wen, Xiufang; Xu, Shouping; Cheng, Jiang; Wang, Shuangfeng

    2017-02-01

    Cu2S and Cu2O composite (Cu2S@Cu2O) film with micro/nano binary structure was created on copper surface using the mixing solution of sodium thiosulphate and copper sulfate by a facile chemical bath deposition method. After modification with low-cost polydimethylsioxane (PDMS), the superhydrophobic Cu2S@Cu2O film was obtained. The as-prepared film shows outstanding water repellency with a water contact angle larger than 150° and long-term storage stability. The geometric morphology and chemical composition of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), respectively. Moreover, the same method was used to fabricate superhydrophobic/superoleophilic copper mesh, and it could realize separation of various oily sewages with separation efficiency above 94%. This strategy has potential to fabricate the practical superhydrophobic Cu2S@Cu2O film on copper surface on a large scale due to its simplicity and low cost.

  3. Methods for accelerating nitrate reduction using zerovalent iron at near-neutral pH: effects of H2-reducing pretreatment and copper deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Y H; Lo, S L; Lin, C I; Hu, C Y; Kuan, W H; Weng, S C

    2005-12-15

    Both surface treatments, H2-reducing pretreatment at 400 degrees C and the deposition of copper as a catalyst, were attempted to enhance the removal of nitrate (40 (mg N) L(-1)) using zerovalent iron in a HEPES buffered solution at a pH of between 6.5 and 7.5. After the iron surface was pretreated with hydrogen gas, the removal of the passive oxide layers that covered the iron was indicated by the decline in the oxygen fraction (energy dispersive X-ray analysis) and the overlap of the cyclic polarization curves. The reaction rate was doubled, and the lag of the early period disappeared. Then, the deposition of copper onto freshly pretreated iron promoted nitrate degradation more effectively than that onto a nonpretreated iron surface, because of the high dispersion and small size of the copper particles. An optimum of 0.25-0.5% (w/w) Cu/Fe accelerated the rate by more than six times that of the nonpretreated iron. The aged 0.5% (w/w) Cu/Fe with continual dipping in nitrate solution for 20 days completely restored its reactivity by a regeneration process with H2 reduction. Hence, these two iron surface treatments considerably promoted the removal of nitrate from near-neutral water; the reactivity of Cu/Fe was effectively recovered.

  4. Ground-water quality in Quaternary deposits of the central High Plains aquifer, south-central Kansas, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Larry M.; Bruce, Breton W.; Hansen, Cristi V.

    2001-01-01

    Water samples from 20 randomly selected domestic water-supply wells completed in the Quaternary deposits of south-central Kansas were collected as part of the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The samples were analyzed for about 170 water-quality constituents that included physical properties, dissolved solids and major ions, nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and radon. The purpose of this study was to provide a broad overview of ground-water quality in a major geologic subunit of the High Plains aquifer. Water from five wells (25 percent) exceeded the 500-milligrams-per-liter of dissolved solids Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water. The Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels of 250 milligrams per liter for chloride and sulfate were exceeded in water from one well each. The source of these dissolved solids was probably natural processes. Concentrations of most nutrients in water from the sampled wells were small, with the exception of nitrate. Water from 15 percent of the sampled wells had concentrations of nitrate greater than the 10-milligram-per-liter Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water. Water from 80 percent of the sampled wells showed nitrate enrichment (concentrations greater than 2.0 milligrams per liter), which is more than what might be expected for natural background concentrations. This enrichment may be the result of synthetic fertilizer applications, the addition of soil amendment (manure) on cropland, or livestock production. Most trace elements in water from the sampled wells were detected only in small concentrations, and few exceeded respective water-quality standards. Only arsenic was detected in one well sample at a concentration (240 micrograms per liter) that exceeded its proposed Maximum Contaminant Level (5.0 micrograms per liter). Additionally, one concentration of

  5. Organic Complexation of Dissolved Copper and Iron from Shipboard Incubations in the Central California Current System: Investigating the Impacts of Light Conditions and Phytoplankton Growth on Iron- and Copper-Binding Ligand Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellett, T.; Parker, C.; Brown, M.; Coale, T.; Duckham, C.; Chappell, D.; Maldonado, M. T.; Bruland, K. W.; Buck, K. N.

    2016-02-01

    Two shipboard incubation experiments were carried out in July of 2014 to investigate potential sources and sinks of iron- and copper-binding organic ligands in the surface ocean. Seawater for the experiments was collected from the central California Current System (cCCS) and incubated under varying light conditions and in the presence and absence of natural phytoplankton communities. Incubation treatments were sampled over a period of up to 3 days for measurements of total dissolved copper and iron, and for the concentration and conditional stability constants of copper- and iron-binding organic ligands. Dissolved copper and iron were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) following preconcentration on a Nobias PA1 resin. Organic ligand characteristics for iron and copper were determined using a method of competitive ligand exchange-absorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-ACSV) with the added competing ligand salicylaldoxime. Trends in ligand concentrations and conditional stability constants across the different treatments and over the course of the incubation experiments will be presented.

  6. Insights into deposition and deformation of intra-caldera ignimbrites, central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, William D.; Palmer, H. Currie; Deino, Alan L.; Shen, Po-Yu

    2012-11-01

    Magnetic studies, together with structural and 40Ar/39Ar age analyses, were used to investigate the development and deformation of ignimbrites of the Caetano Tuff formation in central-north Nevada. Magnetic susceptibility, susceptibility anisotropy (AMS) and magnetic remanence approaches were used to decipher events accompanying emplacement and subsequent deformation of that tuff, for both intracaldera tuffs and outflow deposits. 40Ar/39Ar ages, both those presented here and previously published ages, indicate about 33.8 Ma for the age of Caetano ignimbrites, approximately at the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. Although extensive faulting associated with regional extension of the Great Basin region has dissected these deposits, the thickness of the intra-caldera ignimbrites has been estimated at 3.5 km or more. Thermal modeling for cooling of a caldera filling of 3.5 km thickness indicates acquisition of remanent magnetization can persist up to 25 ka, sufficient to average secular variation. This contrasts with rapid cooling and remanence acquisition in outflow ignimbrites typically only tens of meters thick. A 750 m thick reference section was selected for more detailed study about 10 km to the west of the type area. This reference section, fault-bounded at both base and top, represents the upper part of the formation. Its lower member includes the uppermost 250 m of the lower massive resistant unit of ignimbrites, a middle member of 375 m of well stratified pyroclastic deposits, vitrophyres and sediments, and an upper member of about 125 m of recessive ignimbrite and thin-bedded clastic and pyroclastic deposits. Structural and magnetic remanence measurements suggest 13° eastward tilting of the caldera floor occurred early during deposition of the middle member. Flow directions inferred from AMS Kmax axes in the middle member diverge about 45° relative to those in the underlying member and suggest a change in vent source accompanying the deposition of the middle

  7. The Sarikavak Tephra, Galatea, north central Turkey: a case study of a Miocene complex plinian eruption deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Rolf; Mues-Schumacher, Ulrike; Toprak, Vedat

    2001-12-01

    The Sarikavak Tephra from the central Galatean Volcanic Province (Turkey) represents the deposit of a complex multiple phase plinian eruption of Miocene age. The eruptive sequence is subdivided into the Lower-, Middle-, and Upper Sarikavak Tephra (LSKT, MSKT, USKT) which differ in type of deposits, lithology and eruptive mechanisms. The Lower Sarikavak Tephra is characterised by pumice fall deposits with minor interbedded fine-grained ash beds in the lower LSKT-A. Deposits are well stratified and enriched in lithic fragments up to >50 wt% in some layers. The upper LSKT-B is mainly reversely graded pumice fall with minor amounts of lithics. It represents the main plinian phase of the eruption. The LSKT-A and B units are separated from each other by a fine-grained ash fall deposit. The Middle Sarikavak Tephra is predominantly composed of cross-bedded ash-and-pumice surge deposits with minor pumice fall deposits in the lower MSKT-A and major pyroclastic flow deposits in the upper MSKT-B unit. The Upper Sarikavak Tephra shows subaerial laminated surge deposits in USKT-A and subaqueous tephra beds in USKT-B. Isopach maps of the LSKT pumice fall deposits as well as the fine ash at the LSKT-A/B boundary indicate NNE-SSW extending depositional fans with the source area in the western part of the Ovaçik caldera. The MSKT pyroclastic flow and surge deposits form a SW-extending main lobe related to paleotopography where the deposits are thickest. Internal bedding and lithic distribution of the LSKT-A result from intermittent activity due to significant vent wall instabilities. Reductions in eruption power from (partial) plugging of the vent produced fine ash deposits in near-vent locations and subsequent explosive expulsion of wall rock debris was responsible for the high lithic contents of the lapilli fall deposits. A period of vent closure promoted fine ash fall deposition at the end of LSKT-A. The subsequent main plinian phase of the LSKT-B evolved from stable vent

  8. Copper allergy from dental copper amalgam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardsson, Lars; Björkner, Bert; Karlsteen, Magnus; Schütz, Andrejs

    2002-05-06

    A 65-year-old female was investigated due to a gradually increasing greenish colour change of her plastic dental splint, which she used to prevent teeth grinding when sleeping. Furthermore, she had noted a greenish/bluish colour change on the back of her black gloves, which she used to wipe her tears away while walking outdoors. The investigation revealed that the patient had a contact allergy to copper, which is very rare. She had, however, had no occupational exposure to copper. The contact allergy may be caused by long-term exposure of the oral mucosa to copper from copper-rich amalgam fillings, which were frequently used in childhood dentistry up to the 1960s in Sweden. The deposition of a copper-containing coating on the dental splint may be caused by a raised copper intake from drinking water, increasing the copper excretion in saliva, in combination with release of copper due to electrochemical corrosion of dental amalgam. The greenish colour change of the surface of the splint is probably caused by deposition of a mixture of copper compounds, e.g. copper carbonates. Analysis by the X-ray diffraction technique indicates that the dominant component is copper oxide (Cu2O and CuO). The corresponding greenish/bluish discoloration observed on the back of the patient's gloves may be caused by increased copper excretion in tears.

  9. Synthesis, Deposition, and Microstructure Development of Thin Films Formed by Sulfidation and Selenization of Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomordik, Boris David

    Significant reduction in greenhouse gas emission and pollution associated with the global power demand can be accomplished by supplying tens-of-terawatts of power with solar cell technologies. No one solar cell material currently on the market is poised to meet this challenge due to issues such as manufacturing cost, material shortage, or material toxicity. For this reason, there is increasing interest in efficient light-absorbing materials that are comprised of abundant and non-toxic elements for thin film solar cell. Among these materials are copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4, or CZTS), copper zinc tin selenide (Cu2ZnSnSe4, or CZTSe), and copper zinc tin sulfoselenide alloys [Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x )4, or CZTSSe]. Laboratory power conversion efficiencies of CZTSSe-based solar cells have risen to almost 13% in less than three decades of research. Meeting the terawatt challenge will also require low cost fabrication. CZTSSe thin films from annealed colloidal nanocrystal coatings is an example of solution-based methods that can reduce manufacturing costs through advantages such as high throughput, high material utilization, and low capital expenses. The film microstructure and grain size affects the solar cell performance. To realize low cost commercial production and high efficiencies of CZTSSe-based solar cells, it is necessary to understand the fundamental factors that affect crystal growth and microstructure evolution during CZTSSe annealing. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals were synthesized via thermolysis of single-source cation and sulfur precursors copper, zinc and tin diethyldithiocarbamates. The average nanocrystal size could be tuned between 2 nm and 40 nm, by varying the synthesis temperature between 150 °C and 340 °C. The synthesis is rapid and is completed in less than 10 minutes. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirm that the nanocrystals are nominally

  10. The geology and chronology of the Acheulean deposits in the Mieso area (East-Central Ethiopia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Barfod, Dan N; McHenry, Lindsay J; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the Quaternary sequence of the Mieso area of Central-East Ethiopia, located in the piedmont between the SE Ethiopian Escarpment and the Main Ethiopian Rift-Afar Rift transition sector.In this region, a piedmont alluvial plain is terraced at þ25 m above the two main fluvial courses, the Mieso and Yabdo Rivers. The piedmont sedimentary sequence is divided into three stratigraphic units separated by unconformities. Mieso Units I and II contain late Acheulean assemblages and a weakly consolidated alluvial sequence, consisting mainly of fine sediments with buried soils and, to a lesser degree, conglomerates. Palaeo-wetland areas were common in the alluvial plain, represented by patches of tufas, stromatolites and clays. At present, the piedmont alluvial surface is preserved mainly on a dark brown soil formed at the top of Unit II. Unit III corresponds to a fluvial deposit overlying Unit II, and is defined by sands, silty clays and gravels, including several Later Stone Age (LSA) occurrences. Three fine-grained tephra levels are interbedded in Unit I (tuffs TBI and TA) and II (tuff CB), and are usually spatially-constrained and reworked. Argon/argon (40Ar/39Ar) dating from tuff TA, an ash deposit preserved in a palustrine environment, yielded an age of 0.212 ± 0.016 Ma (millions of years ago). This date places thetop of Unit I in the late Middle Pleistocene, with Acheulean sites below and above tuff TA. Regional correlations tentatively place the base of Unit I around the Early-Middle Pleistocene boundary, Unit II inthe late Middle Pleistocene and within the Late Pleistocene, and the LSA occurrences of Unit III in the LatePleistoceneeHolocene.

  11. Formation of the adakite-like granitoid complex and porphyry copper-gold deposit in Shaxi from southern Tancheng-Lujiang fault belt: A clue to the West Pacific plate subduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Xianghua; YANG Xiaoyong; YU Liangfan; ZHANG Qianming

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the geological and geochemical studies, including chemical analysis of bulk rocks, rare-earth and trace element studies, fluid inclusion, and S and O isotopic analyses, the authors described the geo-logical background of the deposit in detail and presented significant proofs for the conditions of formation of the Shaxi porphyry copper-gold deposit. Compared with other large and supper-large porphyry copper deposits in China and the adjacent Cu-Au mineralized areas, the ore-forming processes and conditions were analyzed; and the possibil-ity of forming large porphyry copper deposits in the Shaxi area was discussed. The present study indicated that the ore-forming fluid and material were mainly of magmatic origin, while meteoric water played a certain role in the ore-forming processes. Interactions between subducting and overriding plates provided a major driving force for the formation of igneous rocks and the deposition of metal elements in East China since Jurassic. Based on the geo-chemical data of the Shaxi intrusive, it is found that the copper (gold) mineralization is closely related to the genesis of adakite-like intrusive in the Shaxi area. This adakite-like intrusive was formed in the subduction environment as a result of the subduction of the West Pacific plate toward the East China continent, where there is a great potential-ity to form a large porphyry copper deposit.

  12. Microfracturing and fluid mixing in granites: W (Sn) ore deposition at Vaulry (NW French Massif Central)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Jean; Cathelineau, Michel; Marignac, Christian; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Fourcade, Serge; Martineau, François; Fabre, Cécile

    2001-07-01

    The Vaulry W-(Sn) mineralisation, located at the eastern boundary of the Blond rare metal leucogranite, is contained in a set of subvertical quartz veins, locally with muscovite and minor quartz selvages. The sequence of deposition was: (1) milky quartz, predominantly as fracture filling, generally affected by subsequent ductile deformation; (2) hyaline quartz-wolframite-cassiterite; (3) minor sulphides. Other sets of quartz veinlets, although generally barren are observed in the Blond massif. Fluid migration at the microscopic scale within the granite and in the vicinity of quartz fractures was constrained by studying the geometry of fluid-inclusion planes and fluid-inclusion chemistry in and outside the mineralised area. Three major sets of subvertical fluid-inclusion planes are recognised: a N050°-060°E set, mostly developed in the veins and in the immediate vicinity, a N110°-130°E set, regionally developed in the granite and a N140-160°E set of local extent. As a whole, the density of FIP decreases from the mineralised zones toward the barren part of the pluton, except for the N140°-160°E set. These are locally abundant around quartz veinlets with similar orientations that form a broad "N-S" band near the Blond locality. Mineralising fluids observed as primary inclusions in cassiterite and in undeformed hyaline quartz are mostly aqueous, with moderate salinity and a minor volatile component, at variance with many other W-(Sn) deposits in the Variscan belt. Ore deposition occurred around 315°C, at an estimated depth of 5.5 km, under hydrostatic to slightly suprahydrostatic pressures. It resulted from fluid mixing, in the central part of a large hydrothermal system, between two end-members: (i) a hot (425-430°C) moderately saline fluid, that contained a diluted volatile component and, although Na-dominated, minor amounts of Li and Ca. The estimated δ18O indicates that this fluid was completely equilibrated with the tectono-magmatic pile (pseudo

  13. Sedimentology, paleoclimatology, and diagenesis of Post-Hercynian continental deposits in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagtegaal, Peter J.C.

    1969-01-01

    The first chapter of the post-Hercynian geologic history of the South-Central Pyrenees is recorded in a sequence of fluvial and volcanic deposits which reach a total of added maximum thicknesses of more than 2300 m and date from the Westphalian D up to and including the Lower Triassic. The present s

  14. Depositional history and clay minerals of the Upper Cretaceous basin in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagtegaal, P.J.C.

    1972-01-01

    An ordered sequence of well-defined sedimentary environments reflects the deepening and shallowing stages in the depositional history of the Upper Cretaceous basin in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain. The sequence, which has a Santonian age at its base, starts with a calcarenite barrier system on w

  15. Depositional history and clay minerals of the Upper Cretaceous basin in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagtegaal, P.J.C.

    1972-01-01

    An ordered sequence of well-defined sedimentary environments reflects the deepening and shallowing stages in the depositional history of the Upper Cretaceous basin in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain. The sequence, which has a Santonian age at its base, starts with a calcarenite barrier system on w

  16. Electro-deposition metallic tungsten coatings in a Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}-WO{sub 3} melt on copper based alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.H., E-mail: dreamerhong77@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Y.C.; Liu, Q.Z.; Li, X.L.; Jiang, F. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tungsten coating (>1 mm) was obtained by electro-deposition method in molten salt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different thickness tungsten coatings were obtained by using different durations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good performance of coating was obtained when pulse parameters were modulated. - Abstract: The tungsten coating was prepared by electro-deposition technique on copper alloy substrate in a Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}-WO{sub 3} melt. The coating's surface and cross-section morphologies as well as its impurities were investigated by XPS, SEM and line analysis. Various plating durations were investigated in order to obtain an optimal coating's thickness. The results demonstrated that the electro-deposited coating was compact, voidless, crackless and free from impurities. The tungsten coating's maximum Vickers hardness was measured to be 520 HV. The tungsten coating's minimum oxygen content was determined to be 0.018 wt%. Its maximum thickness was measured to be 1043.67 {mu}m when the duration of electrolysis was set to 100 h. The result of this study has demonstrated the feasibility of having thicker tungsten coatings on copper alloy substrates. These electrodeposited tungsten coatings can be potentially implemented as reliable armour for the medium heat flux plasma facing component (PFC).

  17. Lead isotopic composition and lead source of the Tongchanghe basalt-type native copper-chalcocite deposit in Ninglang, western Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; ZHU Xiaoqing; ZHANG Zhengwei

    2006-01-01

    The Tongchanghe native copper-chalcocite deposit at Ninglang occurs in low-Ti basalts of western Yunnan, and the mode of fault-filling & metasomatism metallogenesis indicates that this deposit is of late-stage hydrothermal origin. This makes it more complicated to define the source of ore-forming materials. This paper introduces the Pb isotope data of Himalayan alkali-rich porphyries, regional Early-Middle Proterozoic metamorphic rock basement and various types of rocks of the mining district in western Yunnan with an attempt to constrain the origin of the Tongchanghe native copper-chalcocite deposit at Ninglang.The results showed that the ores are relatively homogeneous in Pb isotopic composition, implying a simple ore-forming material source. The three sets of Pb isotopic ratios in the Himalayan alkali-rich porphyries are all higher than those of the ores; the regional basement metamorphic rocks show a wide range of variations in Pb isotopic ratio, quite different from the isotopic composition of ore lead; the Pb isotopic composition of the Triassic sedimentary rocks and mudstone and siltstone interbeds in the Late Permian Heinishao Formation (corresponding to the forth cycle of basaltic eruption) in the mining district has the characteristics of radiogenic lead and is significantly different from the isotopic composition of ore lead; like the ores, the Emeishan basalts in the mining district and those regionally distributed possess the same Pb isotopic composition, showing a complete overlap with respect to their distribution range. From the above, the possibilities can be ruled out that the ore-forming materials of the Tongchanghe deposit were derived from the basement, a variety of Himalayan magmatic activities, etc. It is thereby defined that the ore-forming materials were derived largely from the Emeishan basalts. From the data available it is deduced that the native cupper-chalcocite-type metallogenesis that occurred in the Emeishan basalt-distributed area

  18. Intensity of quartz cathodoluminescence and trace-element content in quartz from the porphyry copper deposit at Butte, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, B.G.; Reed, M.H.; Dilles, J.H.; Kent, A.J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Textures of hydrothermal quartz revealed by cathodoluminescence using a scanning electron microscope (SEM-CL) reflect the physical and chemical environment of quartz formation. Variations in intensity of SEM-CL can be used to distinguish among quartz from superimposed mineralization events in a single vein. In this study, we present a technique to quantify the cathodoluminescent intensity of quartz within individual and among multiple samples to relate luminescence intensity to specific mineralizing events. This technique has been applied to plutonic quartz and three generations of hydrothermal veins at the porphyry copper deposit in Butte, Montana. Analyzed veins include early quartz-molybdenite veins with potassic alteration, pyrite-quartz veins with sericitic alteration, and Main Stage veins with intense sericitic alteration. CL intensity of quartz is diagnostic of each mineralizing event and can be used to fingerprint quartz and its fluid inclusions, isotopes, trace elements, etc., from specific mineralizing episodes. Furthermore, CL intensity increases proportional to temperature of quartz formation, such that plutonic quartz from the Butte quartz monzonite (BQM) that crystallized at temperatures near 750 ??C luminesces with the highest intensity, whereas quartz that precipitated at ???250 ??C in Main Stage veins luminesces with the least intensity. Trace-element analyses via electron microprobe and laser ablation-ICP-MS indicate that plutonic quartz and each generation of hydrothermal quartz from Butte is dominated by characteristic trace amounts of Al, P, Ti, and Fe. Thus, in addition to CL intensity, each generation of quartz can be distinguished based on its unique trace-element content. Aluminum is generally the most abundant element in all generations of quartz, typically between 50 and 200 ppm, but low-temperature, Main Stage quartz containing 400 to 3600 ppm Al is enriched by an order of magnitude relative to all other quartz generations. Phosphorous

  19. Upslope deposition of extremely distal turbidites: an example from the Tiburon Rise, west-central Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, J.; Beck, C.; Ogawa, Y.

    1989-01-01

    These terrigenous silt and sand turbidities represent an unprecedented example of upslope turbidite deposition in an extremely distral setting. Flow thickness was the dominant control on deposition of these beds, rather than true upslope flow. -from Authors

  20. Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Robert C.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Koehler, Richard D.; Randolph, Carolyn E.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Gans, Kathleen D.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the urban core of the San Francisco Bay region. It supercedes the equivalent area of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-444 (Knudsen and others, 2000), which covers the larger 9-county San Francisco Bay region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database, (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map and liquefaction interpretation (part 3), and (4) a text introducing the report and describing the database (part 1). All parts of the report are digital; part 1 describes the database and digital files and how to obtain them by downloading across the internet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a consistent detailed treatment of the central part of the 9-county region in which much of the mapping of Open-File Report 00-444 was either at smaller (less detailed) scale or represented only preliminary revision of earlier work. Like Open-File Report 00-444, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, inferred depositional environments, and geologic age to define and distinguish the map units. Further scrutiny of the factors controlling liquefaction susceptibility has led to some changes relative to Open-File Report 00-444: particularly the reclassification of San Francisco Bay mud (Qhbm) to have only MODERATE susceptibility and the rating of artificial fills according to the Quaternary map units inferred to underlie them (other than dams - adf). The two colored

  1. The nature of hydrothermal fluids in the Kahang porphyry copper deposit (Northeast of Isfahan based on mineralography, fluid inclusion and stable isotopic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimeh Sadat Komeili

    2017-02-01

    hypogene sulfide mineral and chalcopyrite is the predominant Cu- sulfide in the Kahang mineralized area. Primary magnetite grains having irregular boundaries formed in association with phyllic –potassic altered zones (Afshooni et al., 2014. Chalcocite and covellite as secondary copper minerals in the enriched supergene zone replaced the chalcopyrite. Thermometric studies on fluid inclusions conducted on quartz veins was related to the phyllic zone. Almost all studied fluid inclusions were homogenized to the liquid phase. Hydrothermal solutions with salinity over 26% wt equivalent NaCl, comparable with those of the other porphyry deposits (Morales Ruano et al., 2002; Hezarkhani, 2006; Hezarkhani, 2009 were responsible for the formation of the Kahang porphyry copper deposit. Homogenization temperatures of 200-450°C and 500-550°C were obtained from heating- cooling experiments on the two and multi phase fluid inclusions. The presence of gas riched fluid inclusions together with those of liquid riched and multiphase different salinities in the quartz veins as well as the occurrence of hydrothermal breccias are indicative of boiling fluids. Result In the Kahang porphyry Cu- deposit, the oxidation zone is characterized by hematite, goethite, jarosite, malachite, and azurite; the supergene zone is identified by chalcocite, chalcopyrite and coevllite; and chalcopyrite, pyrite and magnetite are the mineral assemblage of the hypogene zone. The volcanic as well as the plutonic rocks of the area have been hydrothermally altered which gave rise to the formation of propyllitic, intermediate argillic and mineralized phyllic zones. Fluid inclusion study on quartz veins revealed salinity over 26% wt equivalent NaCl and homogenization temperature of 200-450°C and 500-550°C. The presence of gas riched fluid inclusions together with those of liquid riched and multiphase different salinities in the quartz veins as well as the occurrence of hydrothermal breccias are indicative of boiling

  2. First report on the occurrence of CO2-bearing fluid inclusions in the Meiduk porphyry copper deposit, Iran: implications for mineralisation processes in a continental collision setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Sina; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Khosrojerdi, Majid

    2013-12-01

    Hydrothermal alteration of the Meiduk porphyry copper deposit, south of the Kerman Cenozoic magmatic arc and southeast of the central Iranian volcano-plutonic belt has resulted in three stages of mineralisation characterised by veins and veinlets. These are, from early to late: (1) quartz + K-feldspar + biotite + pyrite ± chalcopyrite ± pyrrhotite ± magnetite (early potassic alteration and type-A veins); (2) quartz + chalcopyrite + pyrite + bornite + pyrrhotite + K- -feldspar + biotite + magnetite (potassic-sericitic alteration and type-B veins); and (3) quartz + pyrite + chalcopyrite + sericite (sericitic alteration and type-C veins). Most ores were formed during stages 2 and 3. Three main types of fluid inclusions are distinguished based on petrographical, microthermometrical and laser Raman spectroscopy analyses, i.e. type I (three-phase aqueous inclusions), type II (three-phase liquid-carbonic inclusions) and type III (multi-phase solid inclusions). The fluid inclusions in quartz veins of the stages are mainly homogenised at 340-530°C (stage 1), 270-385°C (stage 2) and 214-350°C (stage 3), respectively, with salinities of 3.1-16 wt.% NaCl equivalent, 2.2-43 wt.% NaCl equivalent and 8.2-22.8 wt.% NaCl equivalent, respectively. The estimated trapping pressures are 97.9-123.6 MPa (3.7-4.6 km) in stage 1 and 62.5-86.1 MPa (2.3-3.1 km) in stage 2, respectively. These fluid inclusions are homogenised in different ways at similar temperatures, suggesting that fluid boiling took place in stages 2 and 3. The fluid system evolved from high-temperature, medium-salinity, high-pressure and CO2-rich to low-temperature, low-pressure, high-salinity and CO2-poor, with fluid boiling being the dominating mechanism, followed by input of meteoric water. CO2 escape may have been a factor in increasing activities of NaCl and S2- in the fluids, diminishing the oxidation of the fluids from stage 1 to 3. The result was precipitation of sulphides and trapping of multi-phase solid

  3. Discrimination between mineralized and unmineralized alteration zones using primary geochemical haloes in the Darreh-Zar porphyry copper deposit in Kerman, southeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsapoor, A.; Khalili, M.; Maghami, M.

    2017-08-01

    Primary geochemical haloes were studied at the Darreh-Zar porphyry Cu-deposit, southern Iran. In terms of geochemical signatures, high K2O/Na2O enrichment, HREEs and HFSE's depletion in the potassic alteration, high (La/Sm)cn, (La/Yb)cn and (Gd/Yb)cn ratios in mineralized sericitic and potassic zones and notable depletion in the REEs content in argillic alteration is recognized. Further, Mg, Li, Sc, P enrichment and W depletion can serve to separate potassic alteration from the other altered zones, while (Eu/Eu*)cn and (Ce/Ce*)cn don't show pronounced changes in different alteration zones. The coupled positive Tl, Se, S, Rb, Co, Cs, Mo, K and negative Te, Ta, Ti, Sr, Rb, As, Bi, Ga, Hf, In, Mn, Zn and Zr anomalies can be adequately used in discriminating between the mineralized zones (potassic, chlorite-sericite and sericite alterations) and the barren (propylitic zone). The behavior of the trace elements on isocon diagrams reveal that HFSEs are depleted in mineralized altered zones and display variations in the amounts in the barren facies. Zonality index in the axial direction from drill holes 146 to 124 estimates the zonality sequence as Pb-Zn-Ag-Cu-Pb-Zn in the surface horizons. The calculated zonality in five drill holes and six levels indicates that the level of 550 m at the DH 117 in the central part of the area has the highest value (0.76) for Cu. The zonality sequence from the surface to the depth is variable and can be demonstrated as follow: DH 146: Pb-Zn-Cu-Mo-Ag; DH 137: Zn-Cu-Mo-Pb-Ag; DH 117: Ag-Zn-Pb-Mo-Cu; DH: 121: Cu-Mo-Zn-Ag-Pb; DH 136: Pb-Ag-Zn-Cu-Mo; DH 124: Zn-Mo-Cu-Pb-Ag. Available data of the enrichment factors shows different enrichment for copper and molybdenum (i.e. EF > 10), selenium and silver (i.e. EF > 5), tin and LREEs (i.e. 1 < EF < 5).

  4. Depositional chronology and fabric of Siwalik group sediments in Central Nepal from magnetostratigraphy and magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Pitambar; Rösler, Wolfgang

    1999-12-01

    Magnetostratigraphic research, undertaken within the past 15 years in the Siwaliks distributed along 400 km of the Sub-Himalaya in central Nepal, has proved that the sediments possess highly reliable hematite-based primary detrital remanent magnetization suitable to determine depositional chronology. In order to bring out the polarity sequences in a common chronological frame, all available data are newly correlated to the latest global magnetic polarity time scale of Cande and Kent (S.C. Cande, D.V. Kent (1995) Revised calibration of the geomagnetic polarity timescale for the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, 6093-6095). Chronological data presented are referred, in relation to the diverse lithological nomenclature, to the formations whose ages are not constrained by isotopic or paleontologic ages. The age of the sections dated by magnetostratigraphy ranges between 14 and <2 Ma. Sediment accumulation rates average to 32-50 cm kyr -1. Rock-magnetic parameters, e.g. initial susceptibility and isothermal remanent magnetization ratios, allow correlation with an accuracy of up to a few hundred meters among several kilometers thick adjacent sections. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data reveal a well-defined fabric contributed to by paramagnetic ( k=10 -5 to 3×10 -4 SI) as well as ferromagnetic minerals ( k=3×10 -4 to 10 -2 SI). AMS ellipsoids are mainly oblate along with some prolate ones and the degree of anisotropy is mostly low ( P'<1.2). The magnetic fabric is of pre-folding origin with tilt-corrected sub-vertical magnetic foliation poles. The magnetic lineations do not show parallelism to the expected paleocurrent directions. Rather, sub-parallelism between the clusters of magnetic lineation and the fold axes/bedding strikes/thrust fronts is observed. A superimposed fabric consisting of a sedimentary-compactional and an overprint induced by a mild deformation process is suggested. The latter process was active during

  5. Cu-Doped ZnO Thin Films Deposited by a Sol-Gel Process Using Two Copper Precursors: Gas-Sensing Performance in a Propane Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heberto Gómez-Pozos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the propane gas-sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films is presented in this work. The films were deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel and dip coating methods, using zinc acetate as a zinc precursor, copper acetate and copper chloride as precursors for doping. For higher sensitivity values, two film thickness values are controlled by the six and eight dippings, whereas for doping, three dippings were used, irrespective of the Cu precursor. The film structure was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, and the analysis of the surface morphology and film composition was made through scanning electron microscopy (SEM and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS, respectively. The sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films were then characterized in a propane atmosphere, C3H8, at different concentration levels and different operation temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. Cu-doped ZnO films doped with copper chloride presented the highest sensitivity of approximately 6 × 104, confirming a strong dependence on the dopant precursor type. The results obtained in this work show that the use of Cu as a dopant in ZnO films processed by sol-gel produces excellent catalysts for sensing C3H8 gas.

  6. 西藏雄村铜金矿床经济评价%Economic Evaluation of Xiongcun Copper-gold Deposit in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丕蓉; 李志军; 郎兴海

    2014-01-01

    西藏雄村铜金矿是最近在西藏日喀则地区发现的一个超大型矿床在对矿床地质特征、经济技术条件进行分析的基础上,采用静态和动态评价方法对矿床经济价值进行评价,通过投资利润率、投资收益率、投资回收期等经济技术指标开展盈亏分析,选取处理成本、铜价作为不确定因素进行了单变量敏感性分析,同时在保证边界品位的基础上以处理成本和回收率作为不确定因素进行了双变量敏感性分析,认为该矿床具有较高的经济价值,矿山生产建设的条件在经济上是可行的。%Xiongcun copper-gold deposit is a super-large deposit recently discovered in Shigatse District,Tibet.On the basis of analyzing the geological characteristics and the economic and technical conditions and evaluating the economic value of the deposit with static and dynamic evaluation method,this paper analyzes the gain and loss in terms of profit ratio of investment, rate of return on investment and investment payoff period.Then a univariate sensitivity analysis is done selecting such factors as the treatment cost and copper price and a bivariate sensitivity analysis is done with the treatment cost and the rate of recovery.The results indicate that Xiongcun copper-gold deposit has a relatively high economic value and that the conditions of productive construction of the deposit are economically feasible.

  7. The Neogene molasse deposits of the Zagros Mountains in central Dezful Embayment: facies, sedimentary environments and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hossein Jalilian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper part of Neogene sequence of the Zagros Mountains consists of a clastic succession which is identified as Aghajari and Bakhtyari formations. The sequence is an excellent example of synorogenic sedimentation or molasse deposited in northern portion of the Zagros foreland basin. Sedimentological analysis of an outcrop section representing Miocene-Pliocene sediments in central Dezful Embayment resulted in recognizing 9 lithofacies and 4 architectural elements. These lithofacies include conglometate (Gt, Gh, Gmm, sandstone (Sp, Sh, Sr, St and mudstone (Fm, Fl that were deposited in meandering stream, braided river and alluvial fan environments. Paleocurrent analysis of cross-beds, channels and asymmetric ripple marks indicate that these Neogene clastics were mainly drived from Cretaceous to Paleogene highlands in the Zagros Mountains on the north. This stratigraphic record is coarsening-upward and formed by a regressive depositional megacycle under arid climate. Facies and depositional history analysis show that sedimentation of the Zagros molasse was primarily controlled by base-level changes rather than catchment lithology or climate. The sedimentary record of this regressive megacycle reveales the base-level was constantly falling down on one hand and the provenance was uplifting on the other hand. Tectonic activities and Zagros Mountains rising in the Late Miocene resulted in deposition of fining-upward point-bar and floodplain sequences of the Aghajari Formation in low-gradient meandering streams. The Lahbari Member of the Aghajari Formation represents deposition in braided rivers that composed predominantly of flood-plain deposits in the Early Pliocene. Finally, the sedimentary cycle of the Zagros molasse deposits terminated with massive conglomerates of the Bakhtyari Formation deposited in large alluvial fans near the source area.

  8. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  9. Sulfur isotope dynamics in two central european watersheds affected by high atmospheric deposition of SO x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Martin; Kirchner, James W.; Groscheová, Hana; Havel, Miroslav; Černý, Jiří; Krejčí, Radovan; Buzek, František

    2000-02-01

    Sulfur fluxes and δ34S values were determined in two acidified small watersheds located near the Czech-German border, Central Europe. Sulfur of sulfate aerosol in the broader region (mean δ 34S of 7.5‰ CDT) was isotopically heavier than sulfur of airborne SO 2 (mean δ 34S of 4.7‰). The annual atmospheric S deposition to the Jezeřı´ watershed decreased markedly in 1993, 1994, and 1995 (40, 33, and 29 kg/ ha · yr), reflecting reductions in industrial S emissions. Sulfur export from Jezeří via surface discharge was twice atmospheric inputs, and increased from 52 to 58 to 85 kg/ha · yr over the same three-year period. The δ 34S value of Jezeřı´ streamflow was 4.5 ± 0.3‰, intermediate between the average atmospheric deposition (5.4 ± 0.2‰) and soil S (4.0 ± 0.5‰), suggesting that the excess sulfate in runoff comes from release of S from the soil. Bedrock is not a plausible source of the excess S, because its S concentration is very low (release of soil S accounted for 64 ± 33% of sulfate S in Jezeřı´ discharge. Approximately 30% of total sulfate S in the discharge were organically cycled. At Načetı´n, the same sequence of δ34S IN > δ34S OUT > δ34S SOIL was observed. The seasonality found in atmospheric input (higher δ 34S in summer, lower δ 34S in winter) was preserved in shallow (10 cm) soil water (4.8 ± 0.2‰) were intermediate between those of atmospheric input (5.9 ± 0.3‰) and Nac̆etín soils (2.4 ± 0.1‰), again suggesting that remobilization of soil S accounts for a significant fraction (roughly 40 ± 10%) of the S in soil water at Načetı´n. The inventories of soil S at both of these sites are legacies of more intense atmospheric pollution during previous decades, and are large enough (740 and 1500 kg S/ha at Jezeřı´ and Načetı´n, respectively) to supply significant sulfur fluxes to runoff for several more decades. The ongoing release of this stored soil S may significantly delay the recovery of water quality

  10. Geochemistry and fluid characteristics of the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohsen; Raith, Johann; Lentz, David; Azimzadeh, Amir-Mortaza; Pourkaseb, Hooshang

    2015-11-01

    The Miocene Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit in the central part of Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc is the first reported Au-rich porphyry Cu deposit in the Zagros orogenic belt. The Cu-Au mineralization is mainly hosted in diorite and quartz diorite intrusions, presenting as numerous veinlets in the altered wall rocks, with potassic, phyllic, and propylitic alteration developed. Based on the mineral assemblages and crosscutting relations of veinlets, hydrothermal mineralization-alteration occurred in at least three stages, characterized by veinlets of (1) Qtz + Kfs + Mag ± Ccp, (2) Qtz + Py + Ccp ± Bn ± Cv ± Cc and, (3) Qtz + Chl + Bt. The ore-bearing intrusions exhibit typical geochemical characteristics of subduction zone magmas, including LREE fractionated pattern, strong enrichment in LILE (Cs, Rb, Ba, Pb, and U), and depletion of HFSE, with marked negative Ti and Nb anomalies. The adakite-like ore-hosting porphyry intrusions are characterized by a systematic gradual decreasing and increasing of Y and Eu/Eu∗ with increasing SiO2 content, respectively. Moreover, they exhibit a significant increasing trend of Sr/Y with decreasing of Y, which indicates progressive hornblende fractionation and suppression of plagioclase fractionation during the evolution toward high water content of parental magma. A relatively flat HREE pattern with low Dyn/Ybn and Nb/Ta values may represent that amphibole played a more important role than garnet in the generation of the adakitic melts in the thickened lower crust. Based on the phase assemblages confirmed by detailed laser Raman spectroscopy analyses and proportion of solid, liquid, and gaseous components, five types of fluid inclusions were recognized, which are categorized as; (1) liquid-rich two phase (liquidH2O + vaporH2O) (IIA), (2) vapor-rich two phase (vaporH2O/CO2 + liquidH2O) (IIB), (3) high saline simple fluids (IIIA; liquidH2O + vaporH2O + Hl), (4) high saline opaque mineral-bearing fluids (IIIB; liquidH2O + vaporH2O

  11. Upper Cenozoic deposits of the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, James Patrick; Denny, Charles Storrow

    1979-01-01

    The surface and shallow subsurface sediments of the lower Delmarva Peninsula include beds ranging in age from Miocene to Holocene. The oldest beds appear to be typical shelf deposits of the Chesapeake Group (Calvert-Choptank age). These marine units are overlain by deltaic deposits, which range from fluviatile facies in the north (Pensauken Formation) to marginal marine and marine beds in the south ('Yorktown(?) and Cohansey(?)' Formations as used by Rasmussen and Slaughter in 1955). This large deltaic mass underlies most of the Delmarva Peninsula. Fossil age determinations supplemented by some radiometric dates indicate the delta to be largely late Miocene in age. The nonmarine facies of the delta, the Pensauken Formation, previously was considered to be Pleistocene in age. The late Miocene delta and possibly the Yorktown Formation (lower to middle Pliocene) are overlain by a feldspathic sand, the Beaverdam, which is at least in part marginal marine. Microflora recovered from this formation include species no longer indigenous to the Delmarva region ('exotics'). On the basis of existing information, microfloral assemblages containing 'exotics' are pre-Pleistocene in age. The Beaverdam therefore is pre-Pleistocene in age, probably late Pliocene. A highly dissected and weathered unit, the Walston Silt, caps the uplands of the central Delmarva Peninsula, where it overlies the Beaverdam. The Walston has a microflora containing 'exotics' and therefore is considered to be the youngest Tertiary unit (uppermost Pliocene) in this area. Sediments forming a barrier-back-barrier sequence fringe most of the southern Maryland-Delaware part of the Delmarva Peninsula and are found at altitudes of as much as 15 m (50 ft) above sea level. This sequence, the Omar Formation, is Sangamon in age and has been dated radiometrically as 60,000 to about 100,000 years old. The microflora in these beds contains no 'exotics,' and the assemblage suggests a warm-temperate environment. The Omar

  12. Phosphorite-hosted zinc and lead mineralization in the Sekarna deposit (Central Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnit, Hechmi; Bouhel, Salah; Barca, Donatella; Johnson, Craig A.; Chtara, Chaker

    2012-01-01

    The Sekarna Zn–Pb deposit is located in Central Tunisia at the northeastern edge of the Cenozoic Rohia graben. Mineralization comprises two major ore types: (1) disseminated Zn–Pb sulfides that occur as lenses in sedimentary phosphorite layers and (2) cavity-filling zinc oxides (calamine-type ores) that crosscut Late Cretaceous and Early Eocene limestone. We studied Zn sulfide mineralization in the Saint Pierre ore body, which is hosted in a 5-m-thick sedimentary phosphorite unit of Early Eocene age. The sulfide mineralization occurs as replacements of carbonate cement in phosphorite. The ores comprise stratiform lenses rich in sphalerite with minor galena, Fe sulfides, and earlier diagenetic barite. Laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses of sphalerite and galena show a wide range of minor element contents with significant enrichment of cadmium in both sphalerite (6,000–20,000 ppm) and galena (12–189 ppm). The minor element enrichments likely reflect the influence of the immediate organic-rich host rocks. Fluid inclusions in sphalerite give homogenization temperatures of 80–130°C. The final ice melting temperatures range from −22°C to −11°C, which correspond to salinities of 15–24 wt.% NaCl eq. and suggest a basinal brine origin for the fluids. Sulfur isotope analyses show uniformly negative values for sphalerite (−11.2‰ to −9.3‰) and galena (−16‰ to −12.3‰). The δ34S of barite, which averages 25.1‰, is 4‰ higher than the value for Eocene seawater sulfate. The sulfur isotopic compositions are inferred to reflect sulfur derivation through bacterial reduction of contemporaneous seawater sulfate, possibly in restricted basins where organic matter was abundant. The Pb isotopes suggest an upper crustal lead source.

  13. Gold deposits in the late Archaean Nzega-Igunga greenstone belt, central plateau of tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiss, P.G.; Siyomana, S.

    1985-01-01

    2.2 m oz of gold have been produced, since 1935, from late Archaean (2480-2740 Ma) greenstone belts of the Central Plateau, Tanzania. North and east of Nzega (4/sup 0/12'S, 3/sup 0/11'E), 18% of the exposed basement, mainly Dodoman schists and granites, consists of metavolcanics and metasediments of the Nyanzian and Kavirondian Series. Four styles of mineralization are observed. 1. Stratabound quartz-gold veins with minor sulfides. Host rocks are quartz porphyry, banded iron formation (BIF), magnetite quartzite, and dense, cherty jasperite at the Sekenke and Canuck mines. The Canuck veins are on strike from BIF's in quartz-eye porphyry of the Igusule Hills. 2. Stratabound, disseminated gold in coarse-grained, crowded feldspar porphyry with lithic fragments and minor pyrite. At Bulangamilwa, the porphyry is conformable with Nyanzian-aged submarine (.) greenstone, volcanic sediment, felsic volcanics, and sericite phyllite. The deposits are on strike with BIF of the Wella Hills, which contains massive sulfide with up to 15% Pb+Zn. 3. Disseminated gold in quartz-albite metasomes in Nyanzian greenstones. At Kirondatal, alteration is associated with alaskites and feldspar porphyry dikes traceable several hundred meters into post-Dodoman diorite porphyry. Gold is with pyrite, arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, minor chalcopyrite, and sphalerite as well as tourmalinite and silica-cemented breccias. 4. Basal Kavirondian placers in metaconglomerates containing cobbles and boulders of Dodoman and Nyanzian rocks several hundred meters up-section from the stratabound, disseminated mineralization at Bulangamilwa.

  14. Effect of the polyacrylamide concentration on the quality of the copper deposit obtained by electrolytic refining; Efecto de la concentracion de poliacrilamida sobre la calidad del deposito de cobre obtenido por refino electrolitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, J.; Ipinza, J.; Camus, J.; Vargas, A.; Saavedra, R.

    2013-07-01

    The effect of the additive non ionic polyacrylamide (PAM), was studied at the laboratory level, as refining crystalline grain in the copper electrorefining. Experiments were performed 24 h of electrolysis, using an electrolyte of copper sulphate acid, with 0.5 to 10 mg{sup -}1 polyacrylamide at 55 degree centigrade and a current density of 260 Am{sup -}2. The effectiveness of these organic additives in copper electrorefining was determined by directly measuring the surface roughness of the copper deposit and contrasted with the results of other instrumental techniques (SEM and metallographic analysis). The results of the analysis SEM, metallographic analysis and measurement of the surface roughness of the copper deposit, show that to concentrations as low as 0.5 mg{sup -}1 of this additive is manifested its property of tuner of grain. However, in the range of 7 to 10 mg{sup -}1 of polyacrylamide, it reaches an optimum size of grain for the deposit of copper in the cathodes. (Author)

  15. Re-Os dating of mineralization in Siah Kamar porphyry Mo deposit (NW Iran) and investigating on its temporal relationship with porphyry Cu-Mo deposits in the southern Lesser Caucasus, NW and central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Vartan; Moazzen, Mohssen; Selby, David

    2017-04-01

    The Neo-Tethyan basin closure in Iran is characterized by the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (UDMA), formed by north-eastward subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust during the Alpine orogeny. This belt also coincides with the porphyry copper metallogenic belt of Iran, which hosts many porphyry Cu-Mo deposits (PCDs) and prospects, such as Sungun (NW Iran) and Sarcheshmeh (central Iran). The Siah Kamar porphyry Mo deposit (PMD) is the first discovered porphyry molybdenum deposit on this belt, which is located 10 km west of Mianeh (NW Iran), with 39.2 Mt proved reserves @ 539 ppm Mo and 66.4 Mt probable reserves @ 266 ppm Mo. The host porphyry stock has quartz-monzonitic composition, which intruded the volcanic and pyroclastic rocks of Eocene age. Re content of molybdenites is about 10.44-41.05 ppm which, considering the several tens of ppm concentration, is comparable with porphyry Mo deposits (e.g., Climax in USA), being clearly distinguished from porphyry Cu-Mo deposits. Re-Os dating of molybdenites from this PMD has given model ages between 28.1±0.15 to 29.06±0.2 Ma, and isochron age of 28.0±2.1 Ma, corresponding to the middle Oligocene (upper part of Rupelian). Comparing the ages determined for Siah Kamar PMD with porphyry Cu-Mo mineralizations in the Lesser Caucasus indicates that it is younger than most of the dated PCDs and prospects there, especially those of upper Eocene, while it is a little older than Paragachay and first-stage Kadjaran PCDs [1]. In a regional scale of NW Iran, it shows a narrow overlap with vein-type Cu-Mo-Au mineralizations in Qarachilar (Qaradagh batholith) and is nearly coeval with Haftcheshmeh PCD, indicating that mineralization in the Siah Kamar PMD corresponds to the second porphyry mineralization epoch in NW Iran, proposed by [2]. Meanwhile, mineralization in Siah Kamar is older than all the porphyry Cu-Mo mineralizations along the central and SE parts of the UDMA, except the Bondar Hanza PCD in Kerman zone, which nearly

  16. Late Pleistocene depositional cycles of the Lapis Tiburtinus travertine (Tivoli, Central Italy): Possible influence of climate and fault activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccenna, Claudio; Soligo, Michele; Billi, Andrea; De Filippis, Luigi; Funiciello, Renato; Rossetti, Claudio; Tuccimei, Paola

    2008-10-01

    The depositional and erosional history of the Lapis Tiburtinus endogenic travertine located circa 25 km to the east of Rome, Central Italy, near the Colli Albani quiescent volcano, is interpreted through three-dimensional stratigraphy and uranium-series geochronology. Analyses of large exposures located in active quarries and of cores obtained from 114 industrial wells reveal that the travertine deposit is about 20 km 2 wide and 60 m thick on average. The travertine thickness is over 85 m toward its western N-S-elongated side, where thermal springs and large sinkholes occur aligned over a seismically-active N-striking fault. The travertine age was calculated using the U/Th isochron method. Results constrain the onset and conclusion of travertine deposition at about 115 and 30 ka, respectively. The three-dimensional study of the travertine shows that this deposit is characterized by a succession of depositional benches grown in an aggradational fashion. The benches are separated by five main erosional surfaces, which are associated with paleosols, conglomerates, and karstic features. This evidence shows that the travertine evolution was mostly controlled by water table fluctuations. Chronological correlations between travertine evolution and paleoclimate indicators suggest that the travertine deposition was partly modulated by climate conditions. Other influencing factors may have been fault-related deformation and volcanic events.

  17. Investigation of thermal and hot-wire chemical vapor deposition copper thin films on TiN substrates using CupraSelect as precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitropoulos, G; Davazoglou, D

    2011-09-01

    Copper films were deposited on oxidized Si substrates covered with TiN using a novel chemical vapor deposition reactor in which reactions were assisted by a heated tungsten filament (hot-wire CVD, HWCVD). Liquid at room temperature hexafluoroacetylacetonate Cu(I) trimethylvinylsilane (CupraSelect) was directly injected into the reactor with the aid of a direct-liquid injection (DLI) system using N2 as carrier gas. The deposition rates of HWCVD Cu films obtained on TiN covered substrates were found to increase with filament temperature (65 and 170 degrees C were tested). The resistivities of HWCVD Cu films were found to be higher than for thermally grown films due to the possible presence of impurities into the Cu films from the incomplete dissociation of the precursor and W impurities caused by the presence of the filament. For HWCVD films grown at a filament temperature of 170 degrees C, smaller grains are formed than at 65 degrees C as shown from the taken SEM micrographs. XRD diffractograms taken on Cu films deposited on TiN could not reveal the presence of W compounds originating from the filament because the relative peak was masked by the TiN [112] peak.

  18. Atmospheric Ionic Deposition in Tropical Sites of Central Sulawesi Determined by Ion Exchange Resin Collectors and Bulk Water Collector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, S; Jungkunst, H F; Gutzler, C; Herrera, R; Gerold, G

    2012-09-01

    In the light of global change, the necessity to monitor atmospheric depositions that have relevant effects on ecosystems is ever increasing particularly for tropical sites. For this study, atmospheric ionic depositions were measured on tropical Central Sulawesi at remote sites with both a conventional bulk water collector system (BWS collector) and with a passive ion exchange resin collector system (IER collector). The principle of IER collector to fix all ionic depositions, i.e. anions and cations, has certain advantages referring to (1) post-deposition transformation processes, (2) low ionic concentrations and (3) low rainfall and associated particulate inputs, e.g. dust or sand. The ionic concentrations to be measured for BWS collectors may easily fall below detection limits under low deposition conditions which are common for tropical sites of low land use intensity. Additionally, BWS collections are not as independent from the amount of rain fallen as are IER collections. For this study, the significant differences between both collectors found for nearly all measured elements were partly correlated to the rainfall pattern, i.e. for calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium. However, the significant differences were, in most cases, not highly relevant. More relevant differences between the systems were found for aluminium and nitrate (434-484 %). Almost five times higher values for nitrate clarified the advantage of the IER system particularly for low deposition rate which is one particularity of atmospheric ionic deposition in tropical sites of extensive land use. The monthly resolution of the IER data offers new insights into the temporal distribution of annual ionic depositions. Here, it did not follow the tropical rain pattern of a drier season within generally wet conditions.

  19. Soft-sediment deformation structures in cores from lacustrine slurry deposits of the Late Triassic Yanchang Fm. (central China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Renchao; Loon, A. J. (Tom) van; Yin, Wei; Fan, Aiping; Han, Zuozhen

    2016-09-01

    The fine-grained autochthonous sedimentation in the deep part of a Late Triassic lake was frequently interrupted by gravity-induced mass flows. Some of these mass flows were so rich in water that they must have represented slurries. This can be deduced from the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in cores from these lacustrine deposits which constitute the Yanchang Fm., which is present in the Ordos Basin (central China). The flows and the resulting SSDS were probably triggered by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, shear stress of gravity flows, and/or the sudden release of overburden-induced excess pore-fluid pressure. The tectonically active setting, the depositional slope and the high sedimentation rate facilitated the development of soft-sediment deformations, which consist mainly of load casts and associated structures such as pseudonodules and flame structures. Sediments with such deformations were occasionally eroded by slurries and became embedded in their deposits.

  20. Soft-sediment deformation structures in cores from lacustrine slurry deposits of the Late Triassic Yanchang Fm. (central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Renchao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fine-grained autochthonous sedimentation in the deep part of a Late Triassic lake was frequently interrupted by gravity-induced mass flows. Some of these mass flows were so rich in water that they must have represented slurries. This can be deduced from the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in cores from these lacustrine deposits which constitute the Yanchang Fm., which is present in the Ordos Basin (central China.

  1. 内蒙古阿巴嘎旗必鲁甘干钼铜矿床成矿地质条件与成矿规律研究%Study on Superimposed Halo Characteristics of No .2 Primary Deposits in Hukousaile Copper Deposit in Abag Banner of Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏绪峰; 孙忠全; 李树统; 孙亮亮

    2015-01-01

    阿巴嘎旗必鲁甘干钼铜矿床位于二连东乌成矿带中部,为一大型斑岩型钼矿床。共探求钼金属量405971 t ,铜金属量16008 t。矿床受断裂带和晚二叠世林西组与花岗斑岩接触带控制。钼矿床紧紧围绕N E向断裂与接触带交会复合段集中分布。接触带及其附近发育的构造裂隙为铜钼矿容矿空间。NE向断裂下盘为玄武岩或硅质角岩,上盘为含铜钼矿化花岗斑岩及硅质角岩,控制了花岗斑岩及含矿带边界,断层在成矿期及成矿后均有活动,属控岩控矿断裂构造。通过成矿地质条件,找矿规律研究,为下一步区域找矿提供参考依据。%As a large porphyry type molybdenum deposit ,Bilugangan Cu Mo deposit of Abag Banner is located in the central part of Eren Dongwu metallogenic belt .The total detected molybdenum reserve is 405971 tons ,with copper metal reserve of 16008 tons .Controlled by both the fault zone and the contact zone between upper Permian Linxi Formation and the granite porphyry ,the molybdenum deposit shows a concentrated distribution firmly around the intersection and composite sites of the NE striking fracture with the contact zone .The contact zone and its surrounding developed structure fractures provide the host space for the copper molybdenum ore .The lithology of the NE striking fracture footwall is basalt or si‐liceous hornstone ,while the hanging wall rock is copper molybdenum bearing mineralized granite por‐phyry or siliceous hornstone ,which has controlled the boundary between the granite porphyry and the ore bearing belt .This fracture is belonged to the rock and ore controlling fault structure ,with fault movement happening both in the mineralization period and after mineralization .This study on the metallo‐genic conditions and metallogenic regularity has provided reference geological basis for the next regional prospecting work .

  2. Coastal plain and fluvial deposits in the tertiary of central and northern Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moechtar, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Ebro Basin represents purely fluvial deposition with a relatively high, but steady tectonic activity in relation to uplift of the Pyrenees and thrust fault activity. The cyclic pattern in the fluvial deposits can be attributed to Milankovitch related climatological changes. In the Loranca Basin

  3. 改进电解液中自催化沉淀铜及其特性%Autocatalytic deposition of copper from modified electrolytes and its characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. SEKAR; K. K. JAGADESH; G. N. K. RAMESH BAPU

    2015-01-01

    The electroless deposition process of copper plating consisting of TEA and EDTA as complexing agents, paraformaldehyde as reducing agent, and 2-mercaptobenzothiozole as stabilizer and gelatin and animal glue as additives was investigated. The stability of the electroless copper solution was monitored by measuring the absorbance of the solution with a UV-Visible spectrophotometer and the solution was quite stable up to 15 h. The adhesion of copper films on mild steel foil was assessed by standard bend test and exhibited good adhesion. The XRD results indicate that the copper films have a (111) texture. Moreover, the additives suppress the predominant (111) plane crystal growth and increase the rate of (220) texture crystal growth. The crystal size of the copper films was calculated using the Scherrer formula from the predominant peak. SEM and AFM studies reveal that these two additives modify the crystal structure, grain size and surface morphology of the copper films. The cyclic voltammetry studies reveal that the additives are adsorbed on the electrode surface and inhibit the rate of deposition. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance studies reveal that the deposits produced in the presence of additives display higher corrosion resistance.%研究了以TEA和 EDTA为络合剂、多聚甲醛为还原剂、二硫基苯并噻唑为稳定剂、凝胶和动物胶为添加剂的镀铜化学沉积过程。化学镀铜溶液的稳定性可通过紫外可见分光光度仪测量溶液的吸光度来监测,在15 h内溶液都相当稳定。采用标准弯曲试验评估在低碳钢箔上铜膜的附着力,显示了很好的吸附性。XRD结果表明,铜膜具有(111)织构,而且,添加剂能够抑制(111)面的优先晶体生长,提高(220)织构的晶体生长速度。利用Scherrer公式从主峰计算铜膜的晶粒尺寸。SEM和 AFM研究表明,这两种添加剂能够改善铜膜的晶体结构、晶粒尺寸和表面形貌。循环

  4. GEOLOGY AND METALLOGENY OF THE COPPER DEPOSITS IN THE SHANGSHAXIMAO FORMATION IN NORTHWEST GUIZHOU: A case study of the Tiaotai copper deposit in Xishui County%黔北上沙溪庙组铜矿地质特征及成矿作用——以习水县条台铜矿为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光龙; 崔登伟; 杨旭; 钟祖峰; 张辉

    2011-01-01

    黔北仁怀-习水地区含铜砂岩型铜矿产于四川台拗边缘大型内陆盆地红层组合中,含矿岩石主要为中侏罗统上沙溪庙组浅灰绿色富含硅(碳)化木的长石砂岩.以习水县条台铜矿为例,对上沙溪庙组铜矿床地质特征和成矿条件进行了总结和分析.其成矿作用过程经历了:①含铜砂岩层原生沉积;②表生氧化作用;③次生富集成矿3个阶段.该矿是一个含铜砂岩层原生沉积后经地下水渗滤再造的淋积矿床.%The cupreous sandstone type of copper deposit in Renhuai-Xishui area, Northern Guizhou Province occurs in the red beds in the large inland basin on the edge of Sichuan platform-depression. The ore-bearing rocks are mainly the arkose containing silicified or carbonized wood of Middle Jurassic Shangshaximiao Formation. Taking the Tiaotai copper deposit as an example, this paper summarizes and studies the geologic characters and metallogenic conditions of the copper deposits in Shangshaximiao Formation. The metallogenesis experienced three stages, I.e. 1) primary sedimentation of cupreous sandstone layer; 2) surface oxidation; and 3 ) secondary enrichment and mineralization. The deposit is formed by the groundwater leaching after the primary sedimentation of the cupreous sandstone layer.

  5. Magnetic and gravity gradiometry framework for Mesoproterozoic iron oxide-apatite and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits, southeast Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Phillips, Jeffrey; Driscoll, Rhonda L.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution airborne magnetic and gravity gradiometry data provide the geophysical framework for evaluating the exploration potential of hidden iron oxide deposits in Mesoproterozoic basement rocks of southeast Missouri. The data are used to calculate mineral prospectivity for iron oxide-apatite (IOA) ± rare earth element (REE) and iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits. Results delineate the geophysical footprints of all known iron oxide deposits and reveal several previously unrecognized prospective areas. The airborne data are also inverted to three-dimensional density and magnetic susceptibility models over four concealed deposits at Pea Ridge (IOA ± REE), Boss (IOCG), Kratz Spring (IOA), and Bourbon (IOCG). The Pea Ridge susceptibility model shows a magnetic source that is vertically extensive and traceable to a depth of greater than 2 km. A smaller density source, located within the shallow Precambrian basement, is partly coincident with the magnetic source at Pea Ridge. In contrast, the Boss models show a large (625-m-wide), vertically extensive, and coincident dense and magnetic stock with shallower adjacent lobes that extend more than 2,600 m across the shallow Precambrian paleosurface. The Kratz Spring deposit appears to be a smaller volume of iron oxides and is characterized by lower density and less magnetic rock compared to the other iron deposits. A prospective area identified south of the Kratz Spring deposit shows the largest volume of coincident dense and nonmagnetic rock in the subsurface, and is interpreted as prospective for a hematite-dominant lithology that extends from the top of the Precambrian to depths exceeding 2 km. The Bourbon deposit displays a large bowl-shaped volume of coincident high density and high-magnetic susceptibility rock, and a geometry that suggests the iron mineralization is vertically restricted to the upper parts of the Precambrian basement. In order to underpin the evaluation of the prospectivity and three

  6. Cerro de Pasco and other massive sulfide deposits of central Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    The famous Cerro de Pasco Pb-Zn-Ag deposit historically has been considered to be hydrothermally derived from an adjacent Tertiary volcanic vent. However, texturally massive pyrite-chert and pyrite-sphalerite-galena in the deposit have the same strike and cross folds as the adjacent pre-Tertiary strata. Both the deposit and the strata are cut by one of the large Longitudinal Faults. Both dikes and pyrite-enargite veins associated with the vent cut the massive sulfides; fragments of massive pyrite occur in the vent. A few examples of laminated pyrite and chert, banded pyrite and chert, banded pyrite and sphalerite, and banded pyrite, sphalerite, and galena are preserved in the massive sulfide portion of the deposit. The deposit has the composition and zoning patterns typical of shale-hosted massive sulfides. Cerro de Pasco probably in part of the pelitic Devonian Excelsior formation. The Colquijirca deposit 8 km to the south and the San Cristobal district 110 km to the south likewise have been considered to be Tertiary volcanic hydrothermal deposits. Colquijirca consists of stratigraphically controlled mantos of layered pyrite, chert and tuff in the Tertiary Calera formation. The mantos of the San Cristobal district are along the upper contact of the pyritic, Permian, Catalina felsic volcanic rocks; some ore consists of laminated pyrite and sphalerite. Tertiary plutons are conspicuously absent at San Cristobal, and the ores are brecciated by Tertiary folding.

  7. Early Carboniferous adakitic rocks in the area of the Tuwu deposit, eastern Tianshan, NW China: Slab melting and implications for porphyry copper mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Hong; Xue, Chun-Ji; Liu, Jia-Jun; Wang, Jian-Ping; Yang, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Zhao, Ze-Nan; Zhao, Yun-Jiang; Liu, Bin

    2015-05-01

    Existing geochronological and geochemical data for the Early Carboniferous magmatic rocks in the eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang, have been interpreted in a variety of theories regarding petrogenesis and geodynamic setting. The proposed settings include rift, back-arc basin, passive continental margin, island arc, ridge subduction, and post-collisional environment. To evaluate these possibilities, we present new SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemical data, whole-rock geochemical, Hf isotope, and S isotope data for tonalitic rocks and ores associated with the Tuwu porphyry copper deposit located in the center of the late Paleozoic Dananhu-Tousuquan arc, eastern Tianshan. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the magmatic activity and thus associated copper mineralization occurred ca.332 Ma. The tonalitic rocks are calc-alkaline granites with A/CNK values ranging from 1.16 to 1.58; are enriched in K, Rb, Sr, and Ba; and are markedly depleted in Nb, Ta, Ti, and Th. They show geochemical affinities similar to adakites, with high Sr, Al2O3, and Na2O contents and La/Yb ratios; low Y and Yb contents; and slight positive Eu anomalies. In situ Hf isotopic analyses of zircons yielded positive initial εHf(t) values ranging from 6.9 to 17.2. The δ34S values of the ore sulfides range from -3.0‰ to +1.7‰, reflecting a deep sulfur source. Our results indicate that the paleo-Tianshan oceanic slab was being simultaneously subducted northward beneath the Dananhu-Tousuquan arc, and southward beneath the Aqishan-Yamansu arc during the Early Carboniferous. The Tuwu adakitic tonalitic rocks were derived from the partial melting of the subducted paleo-Tianshan oceanic slab, which was subsequently hybridized by mantle wedge peridotites. The slab-derived magmas have considerably high copper contents and are highly oxidized, thus leading to porphyry copper mineralization. Such Early Carboniferous tonalitic rocks that are widespread in the eastern Tianshan define a province

  8. Monzonitoid magmatism of the copper-porphyritic Lazurnoe deposit (South Primor'e): U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology and peculiarities of ore-bearing magma genesis by the data of isotopic-geochemical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhno, V. G.; Kovalenko, S. V.; Alenicheva, A. A.

    2011-05-01

    Magmatic rocks from the copper-porphyritic Lazurnoe deposit (Central Primor'e) have been studied. It has been found that rocks from the Lazurnyi massif are referred to gabbro-monzodiorites, monzodiorites, and monzo-granodiorites formed during two magmatic phases of different ages. The earlier phase is represented by gabbro-monzodiorites and diorites of the North Stock, and the later one, by gabbro-monzodiorites and monzo-grano-diorites of the South Stock. On the basis of isotopic dating by the U-Pb (SHRIMP) method for zircon and by the K-Ar method for hornblendes and biotites, the age of magmatic rocks is determined at 110 ± 4 for the earlier phase and at 103.5 ± 1.5 for the later one. Examination of the isotopic composition for Nd, Sr, Pb, Hf, δ18O, and REE spectra has shown that melts of the first phase are contaminated with crustal rocks and they are typical for a high degree of secondary alterations. Potassiumfeldspar, biotite, propylitic alterations, and sulfidization are manifested in these rocks. The rocks of the later stage of magmatism are characteristic for a primitive composition of isotopes and the absence of secondary alterations. They carry the features of adakite specifics that allows us to consider them derivatives of mantle generation under high fluid pressure. The intrusion of fluid-saturated melts of the second phase into the magmatic source of the first phase caused both an alteration pattern of rocks and copper-porphyritic mineralization. Isotopes of sulfur and oxygen allow us to consider the ore component to be of magmatic origin.

  9. Atmospheric particle characterization, distribution, and deposition in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zongze; Yang, Yuhua; Lu, Julia; Zhang, Chengxiao

    2011-02-01

    Physical characterization and chemical analysis of settled dusts collected in Xi'an from November 2007 to December 2008 show that (1) dust deposition rates ranged from 14.6 to 350.4 g m(-2) yr(-1). The average deposition rate (76.7 g m(-2) yr(-1)) ranks the 11th out of 56 dust deposition rates observed throughout the world. The coal-burning power was the major particle source; (2) on average (except site 4), ∼10% of the settled dusts having size 70% having size deposition rates of dusts that contain elevated levels of toxic elements, actions should be taken to reduce emission and studies are needed to assess the potential impacts of settled particles on surface ecosystem, water resource, and human health in the area.

  10. Regional stratigraphy and subsurface geology of Cenozoic deposits, Gulf Coastal Plain, south-central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosman, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis includes all major aquifer systems in Cenozoic deposits in the Gulf Coastal Plain in the States of Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Texas, and small areas in Alabama and Florida (western panhandle area), an area of about 290,000 square miles. The Gulf Coast geosyncline and the Mississippi embayment were the major depocenters for the Tertiary and Quaternary deposits that form the framework for the aquifer systems.

  11. Application of fuzzy logic and fuzzy AHP to mineral prospectivity mapping of porphyry and hydrothermal vein copper deposits in the Dananhu-Tousuquan island arc, Xinjiang, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nannan; Zhou, Kefa; Du, Xishihui

    2017-04-01

    Mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM) is a multi-step process that ranks promising target areas for further exploration. Fuzzy logic and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) are knowledge-driven MPM approaches. In this study, both approaches were used for data processing, based on which MPM was performed for porphyry and hydrothermal vein copper deposits in the Dananhu-Tousuquan island arc, Xinjiang. The results of the two methods were then compared. The two methods combined expert experience and the Studentized contrast (S(C)) values of the weights-of-evidence approach to calculate the weights of 15 layers, and these layers were then integrated by the gamma operator (γ). Through prediction-area (P-A) plot analysis, the optimal γ for fuzzy logic and fuzzy AHP was determined as 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. The thresholds corresponding to different levels of metallogenic probability were defined via concentration-area (C-A) fractal analysis. The prediction performances of the two methods were compared on this basis. The results showed that in MPM based on fuzzy logic, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.806 and 81.48% of the known deposits were predicted, whereas in MPM based on fuzzy AHP, the area under the ROC curve was 0.862 and 92.59% of the known deposits were predicted. Therefore, prediction based on fuzzy AHP is more accurate and can provide directions for future prospecting.

  12. Isotope Geochemistry of the Dongchuan Copper Deposit,Yunnan,SW China: Stratigraphic Chronology and Application of Lead Isotopes in Geochemical Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常向阳; 朱炳泉

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the Pb-Pb isochron method was used to determine the isotopic ages of te Luoxue Formation dolomites(1716±56Ma),th Heishan Formation carbonaceous slated (1607±128Ma) of the middle sub-group of the Kunyang Group and the Dayingpan Formation carbonaceous slates(1258±Ma) of the upper sub-group of the Kunyang Group.The age of the middle sub-group of the Kunyang Group is about 1800-1600Ma,belonging to the Late Paleo-Proterozoic,and that of the Dayingpan Formation in the upper sub-group of the Kunyang Group is about 1200-1300Ma, belonging to the Middle Poroterozoic.In addition,the Pb isotope chemical exploration techniques were used to study systematically the Pb isotopic compositions of rocks and ores across the No.14 vein in the middle segment of the No.1 pit of the Tangdan copper deposit and the result showed that the Pb isotope V1 values are neatively correlated with the copper contents.In is the first trial to use the systematic section method to conduct Pb isotope chemical exploration.

  13. Isotope Geochemistry of the Dongchuan Copper Deposit, Yunnan, SW China:Stratigraphic Chronology and Application of Lead Isotopes in Geochemical Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常向阳; 朱炳泉

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the Pb-Pb isochron method was used to determine the isotopic ages of the Luoxue Formation dolomites (1716 ± 56 Ma), the Heishan Formation carbonaceous slates(1607 ± 128 Ma) of the middle sub-group of the Kunyang Group and the Dayingpan Formation carbonaceous slates ( 1258 ± 70Ma) of the upper sub-group of the Kunyang Group. The age of the middle sub-group of the Kunyang Group is about 1800 - 1600 Ma, belonging to the Late Paleo-Proterozoic, and that of the Dayingpan Formation in the upper sub-group of the Kunyang Group is about 1200 - 1300 Ma, belonging to the Middle Proterozoic. In addition, the Pb isotope chemical exploration techniques were used to study systematically the Pb isotopic compositions of rocks and ores across the No. 14 vein in the middle segment of the No. 1 pit of the Tangdan copper deposit and the result showed that the Pb isotope V1 values are negatively correlated with the copper contents. It is the first trial to use the systematic section method to conduct Pb isotope chemical exploration.

  14. Numerical simulations of energy deposition caused by 50 MeV—50 TeV proton beams in copper and graphite targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Y.; Schmidt, R.; Chetvertkova, V.; Rosell-Tarragó, G.; Burkart, F.; Wollmann, D.

    2017-08-01

    The conceptual design of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) is being carried out actively in an international collaboration hosted by CERN, for the post-Large Hadron Collider (LHC) era. The target center-of-mass energy of proton-proton collisions for the FCC is 100 TeV, nearly an order of magnitude higher than for LHC. The existing CERN accelerators will be used to prepare the beams for FCC. Concerning beam-related machine protection of the whole accelerator chain, it is critical to assess the consequences of beam impact on various accelerator components in the cases of controlled and uncontrolled beam losses. In this paper, we study the energy deposition of protons in solid copper and graphite targets, since the two materials are widely used in magnets, beam screens, collimators, and beam absorbers. Nominal injection and extraction energies in the hadron accelerator complex at CERN were selected in the range of 50 MeV-50 TeV. Three beam sizes were studied for each energy, corresponding to typical values of the betatron function. Specifically for thin targets, comparisons between fluka simulations and analytical Bethe equation calculations were carried out, which showed that the damage potential of a few-millimeter-thick graphite target and submillimeter-thick copper foil can be well estimated directly by the Bethe equation. The paper provides a valuable reference for the quick evaluation of potential damage to accelerator elements over a large range of beam parameters when beam loss occurs.

  15. Cooperative cathode electrode and in situ deposited copper for subsequent enhanced Cd(II) removal and hydrogen evolution in bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Huang, Liping; Pan, Yuzhen; Zhou, Peng; Quan, Xie; Logan, Bruce E; Chen, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) were first operated in microbial fuel cell mode for recovering Cu(II), and then shifted to microbial electrolysis cells for Cd(II) reduction on the same cathodes of titanium sheet (TS), nickel foam (NF) or carbon cloth (CC). Cu(II) reduction was similar to all materials (4.79-4.88mg/Lh) whereas CC exhibited the best Cd(II) reduction (5.86±0.25mg/Lh) and hydrogen evolution (0.35±0.07m(3)/m(3)d), followed by TS (5.27±0.43mg/Lh and 0.15±0.02m(3)/m(3)d) and NF (4.96±0.48mg/Lh and 0.80±0.07m(3)/m(3)d). These values were higher than no copper controls by factors of 2.0 and 5.0 (TS), 4.2 and 2.0 (NF), and 1.8 and 7.0 (CC). These results demonstrated cooperative cathode electrode and in situ deposited copper for subsequent enhanced Cd(II) reduction and hydrogen production in BESs, providing an alternative approach for efficiently remediating Cu(II) and Cd(II) co-contamination with simultaneous hydrogen production.

  16. The effect of spraying parameters on micro-structural properties of WC-12%Co coating deposited on copper substrate by HVOF process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathwara, Nishit, E-mail: nishit-25@live.in [Fusion Rector Material Development & Characterization Division, Institute for Plasma Research, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sec-25, Gandhinagar-382016 (India); Metallurgical & Materials Engineering Department, Indus University, Ahmedabad-382115 (India); Jariwala, C., E-mail: chetanjari@yahoo.com; Chauhan, N.; Raole, P. M. [Fusion Rector Material Development & Characterization Division, Institute for Plasma Research, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sec-25, Gandhinagar-382016 (India); Basa, D. K. [Metallurgical & Materials Engineering Department, Indus University, Ahmedabad-382115 (India)

    2015-08-28

    High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal sprayed coatingmade from Tungsten Carbide (WC) isconsidered as one of the most durable materials as wear resistance for industrial applications at room temperature. WC coating offers high wear resistance due to its high hardness and tough matrix imparts. The coating properties strongly depend on thermal spray processing parameters, surface preparation and surface finish. In this investigation, the effect of variousHVOF process parameters was studied on WC coating properties. The WC-12%Co coating was produced on Copper substrate. Prior to coating, theCopper substrate surface was prepared by grit blasting. WC-12%Co coatings were deposited on Coppersubstrates with varying process parameters such as Oxygen gas pressure, Air pressure, and spraying distance. Microstructure of coating was examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and characterization of phasespresentin the coating was examined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Microhardness of all coatingswas measured by VickerMicrohardness tester. At low Oxygen Pressure(10.00 bar), high Air pressure (7bar) and short nozzle to substrate distance of 170mm, best coating adhesion and porosity less structure isachieved on Coppersubstrate.

  17. Seven centuries of atmospheric Pb deposition recorded in a floating mire from Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Lobianco, Daniela; D'Orazio, Valeria; Miano, Teodoro M.; Shotyk, William

    2016-04-01

    Floating mires generally consist of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Generally speaking, the entire floating mass (mat) is divided into a mat root zone and an underlying mat peat zone. Floating mires are distributed world-wide; large areas of floating marsh occur along rivers and lakes in Africa, the Danube Delta in Romania, the Amazon River in South America, and in the Mississippi River delta in USA, whereas smaller areas occur also in The Netherlands, Australia and Canada. While peat cores from ombrotrophic bogs have been often (and successfully) used to reconstruct changes in the atmospheric deposition of several metals (including Pb), no studies are present in literature about the possibility to use peat profiles from floating mires. To test the hypothesis that peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, a complete, 4-m deep peat profile was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum palustre centre. The whole core was frozen cut each 1-to-2 cm (n =231), and Pb determined by quadrupole ICP-MS (at the ultraclean SWAMP lab, University of Alberta, Canada) in each sample throughout the first 100 cm, and in each odd-numbered slice for the remaining 300 cm. The 14C age dating of organic sediments (silty peat) isolated from the sample at 385 cm of depth revealed that the island probably formed ca. 700 yrs ago. Lead concentration trend shows at least two main zones of interest, i.e., a clear peak (ranging from 200 to 1600 ppm) between 110-115 cm of depth, probably corresponding to early 1960's - late 1970's, and a broad band (80-160 ppm) between 295-320 cm of depth, corresponding to approximately AD 1480

  18. Production of sulfur gases and carbon dioxide by synthetic weathering of crushed drill cores from the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit near Casa Grande, Pinal County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, M.E.; Ryder, J.L.; Sutley, S.J.; Botinelly, T.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of ground drill cores from the southern part of the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit, Casa Grande, Arizona, were oxidized in simulated weathering experiments. The samples were also separated into various mineral fractions and analyzed for contents of metals and sulfide minerals. The principal sulfide mineral present was pyrite. Gases produced in the weathering experiments were measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide were found in the gases; no hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides, or mercaptans were detected. Oxygen concentration was very important for production of the volatiles measured; in general, oxygen concentration was more important to gas production than were metallic element content, sulfide mineral content, or mineral fraction (oxide or sulfide) of the sample. The various volatile species also appeared to be interactive; some of the volatiles measured may have been formed through gas reactions. ?? 1990.

  19. 云南中旬岛弧带典型斑岩铜矿床围岩蚀变特征对比及其找矿意义%The comparison of the features of wall rock alteration and its prospecting significance in typical porphyry copper deposit in Zhongdian arc orogen, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜永果; 吴静; 李峰; 崔银亮; 张亚辉

    2011-01-01

    中甸岛弧带是斑岩型铜矿的矿集区,区内的斑岩铜矿床围岩蚀变强烈,蚀变分带明显,围岩蚀变与矿化关系密切.文章对分别位于中甸岛弧东、西部成矿带的春都和普朗斑岩铜矿床围岩蚀变及矿化特征进行了对比分析.研究结果表明,2个斑岩铜矿床的围岩蚀变类型主要表现形式以及蚀变分带模式基本相同,研究还得出中旬岛弧带斑岩铜矿床钾硅化带以及绢英岩化带的蚀变强度及其规模共同决定斑岩铜矿床的规模.中旬岛弧带斑岩铜矿床中,青磐岩化玢岩为找矿的间接标志,绢英岩化或钾硅化斑岩(玢岩)为找矿的直接标志.%Zhongdian arc orogen is an important centralized zone of porphyry copper, where the wall rock alteration strongly related with mineralization is fierce and alteration zones are obivious. The characteristics of the wall rock alteration and mineralization of Pulang in the eastern matollgenic belts and Chundu porphyry copper deposit in the western matollgenic belts of Zhongdian arc were compared and analysised in this article. The studies show that the wall rock alteration types and zonality of alteration are roughly the same between Pulang and Chunduin porphyry copper deposits, and that the scale of porphyry copper deposit are controlled by thestrength and scale of kali silicification zone and sericitolite zone as well. In the porphyry copper deposit of Zhongdian arc orgen belts, the propyliti-zation porphyrite is an indirect prospecting sign, while sericitolite porphyry and kali silicification are the direct prospecting signs.

  20. 陶瓷化学镀铜沉积速度及镀层外观的研究%Study on Deposition Rate and Coating Appearance of Electroless Copper Plating on Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 宣天鹏; 孙衍乐; 许少楠

    2011-01-01

    探讨了硫酸铜质量浓度、络合剂质量浓度比例、甲醛质量浓度、稀土质量浓度及温度变化对陶瓷表面化学镀铜的沉积速率和镀铜层微观形貌的影响.结果表明:随着硫酸铜质量浓度的增加、温度的升高和络合比的降低,化学镀铜的沉积速率提高,但镀液稳定性有所降低;增加甲醛或稀土含量,镀速先升高后下降,有一个最佳值.加入稀土Ce细化了铜颗粒,铜在基体表面的沉积变得均匀,当p(硫酸铈)为0.8g/L时,镀铜层平整细密、孔洞较少.%Effects of copper sulfate concentration, complexing agent concentration ratio, formaldehyde concentration, rare earth content and temperature on copper deposition rate, coating microstructure of elec-troless copper plating on ceramic were discussed. Results showed that with the increase in copper sulfate concentration and temperature and decrease in complexing agent ratio, the Cu deposition rate was increased but bath stability decreased; with increasing formaldehyde concentration and rare earth content, the Cu deposition rate was increased at first and then decreased. By adding rare earth Ce salt, copper particles got refined and copper depositon became even, especially when cerium sulfate content was 0. 8g/L, copper coating became more level,finer and less pores.

  1. [Atmospheric deposition fluxes and seasonal variations of elements in northeast of Sichuan, central China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiao-Ning; Zhou, Hou-Yun; You, Chen-Feng; Tang, Jing; Liu, Hou-Chun; Huang, Ying; He, Hai-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Monthly atmospheric deposition was collected in Northeast of Sichuan Province from August 2011 to July 2012. Contents of Na, Mg, Ca, K, Si, Sr, Ba and Zn in weak-acid leachable fraction (with pH values of ca. 2) of the deposition were determined using ICP-MS. The results indicated that the deposition fluxes of all these elements exhibited notable seasonal variations. For example, the deposition flux of Na increased with precipitation, suggesting a dominant derivation from wet deposition; whereas the fluxes of Ca, Ba, Si, Sr and Mg displayed higher values during winter or spring season, suggesting that these elements may be closely associated with atmospheric dust activity. The annual fluxes of these elements were remarkably different in value. Na had the highest flux of 30 497 microg x (10(2) cm2 x a)(-1), more than three orders of magnitude higher than the lowest flux of Ba of 27.4 microg x (10(2) cm2 x a)(-1).

  2. Peralkaline- and calc-alkaline-hosted volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of the Bonnifield District, East-Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Foley, Nora K.; Slack, John E.; Koenig, Alan E.; Oscarson, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag-Au deposits of the Bonnifield mining district formed during Late Devonian-Early Mississippian magmatism along the western edge of Laurentia. The largest deposits, Dry Creek and WTF, have a combined resource of 5.7 million tonnes at 10% Zn, 4% Pb, 0.3% Cu, 300 grams per tonne (g/t) Ag, and 1.6 g/t Au. These polymetallic deposits are hosted in high field strength element (HFSE)- and rare-earth element (REE)-rich peralkaline (pantelleritic) metarhyolite, and interlayered pyritic argillite and mudstone of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist Formation. Mystic Creek metarhyolite and alkali basalt (Chute Creek Member) constitute a bimodal pair that formed in an extensional environment. A synvolcanic peralkaline quartz porphyry containing veins of fluorite, sphalerite, pyrite, and quartz intrudes the central footwall at Dry Creek. The Anderson Mountain deposit, located ~32 km to the southwest, occurs within calc-alkaline felsic to intermediate-composition metavolcanic rocks and associated graphitic argillite of the Wood River assemblage. Felsic metavolcanic rocks there have only slightly elevated HFSEs and REEs. The association of abundant graphitic and siliceous argillite with the felsic volcanic rocks together with low Cu contents in the Bonnifield deposits suggests classification as a siliciclastic-felsic type of VMS deposit. Bonnifield massive sulfides and host rocks were metamorphosed and deformed under greenschist-facies conditions in the Mesozoic. Primary depositional textures, generally uncommon, consist of framboids, framboidal aggregates, and spongy masses of pyrite. Sphalerite, the predominant base metal sulfide, encloses early pyrite framboids. Galena and chalcopyrite accompanied early pyrite formation but primarily formed late in the paragenetic sequence. Silver-rich tetrahedrite is a minor late phase at the Dry Creek deposit. Gold and Ag are present in low to moderate amounts in pyrite from all of

  3. Effects of mercury deposition and coniferous forests on the mercury contamination of fish in the South Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenner, Ray W; Chumchal, Matthew M; Jones, Christina M; Lehmann, Christopher M B; Gay, David A; Donato, David I

    2013-02-05

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that is found in aquatic food webs and is hazardous to human and wildlife health. We examined the relationship between Hg deposition, land coverage by coniferous and deciduous forests, and average Hg concentrations in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)-equivalent fish (LMBE) in 14 ecoregions located within all or part of six states in the South Central U.S. In 11 ecoregions, the average Hg concentrations in 35.6-cm total length LMBE were above 300 ng/g, the threshold concentration of Hg recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the issuance of fish consumption advisories. Percent land coverage by coniferous forests within ecoregions had a significant linear relationship with average Hg concentrations in LMBE while percent land coverage by deciduous forests did not. Eighty percent of the variance in average Hg concentrations in LMBE between ecoregions could be accounted for by estimated Hg deposition after adjusting for the effects of coniferous forests. Here we show for the first time that fish from ecoregions with high atmospheric Hg pollution and coniferous forest coverage pose a significant hazard to human health. Our study suggests that models that use Hg deposition to predict Hg concentrations in fish could be improved by including the effects of coniferous forests on Hg deposition.

  4. Pressure-temperature condition and hydrothermal-magmatic fluid evolution of the Cu-Mo Senj deposit, Central Alborz: fluid inclusion evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Tale Fazel

    2017-02-01

    The Cu-Mo Senj deposit covering an area about 5 km2 is located in the central part of the Alborz Magmatic Arc (AMA. The Nb/Y versus Zr/TiO2 diagram (after Winchester and Floyd, 1977 illustrates a typical trend for the magmas in the Senj magmatic area–starting from basaltic and evolving to dacite/rhyodacitic compositions, with few data plotting in the alkali basalt field. Most of the igneous rocks plot within the medium- and high-K fields in the K2O versus SiO2 diagram. The igneous rocks from the Senj area define a typical high-K calc-alkaline on SiO2 versus K2O diagram (Le Maitre et al., 1989. All studied rocks show similar incompatible trace element patterns with an enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE: K, Rb, Ba, Th and depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE: Nb and Ti, which are typical features of magmas from convergent margin tectonic settings (Pearce and Can, 1973. At least three veining stages namely QBC, QM, and QP which are related to alteration and mineralization are distinguished at the Senj mineralized area. Three distinct alteration assemblages including K-feldspar-biotite-sericite-quartz, quartz-sericite-K-feldspar-pyrite, and K-feldspar-biotite-sericite-quartz, are distinguishable with these veins. About 80 % of the copper at Senj is associated with the early QBC-stage veins, with another 5 to 15 % in the QM-and QP-stage veins. About 70 % of the molybdenite occur in QM veins. Discussion Fluid inclusion distribution, fluid chemistry, and homogenization behavior document that S2-type fluids are samples of magma-derived aqueous-saline fluids characterized by high salinity and temperature, and high Cu content. Such parental fluids scavenged Cu and Mo from the melt below and transported them to the hydrothermal system above. The increased abundance of S- and LV-types inclusion coinciding with the highest grade Cu mineralization (early QBC-stage veins at the Senj deposit suggests that brine-vapor unmixing and phase separation plays an

  5. Regional framework and geology of iron oxide-apatite-rare earth element and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Mesoproterozoic St. Francois Mountains Terrane, southeast Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Slack, John F.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Seeger, Cheryl M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on the genesis of Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks and associated iron oxide ± apatite (IOA) ± rare earth element, iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG), and iron-rich sedimentary deposits in the St. Francois Mountains terrane of southeast Missouri, USA. The St. Francois Mountains terrane lies along the southeastern margin of Laurentia as part of the eastern granite-rhyolite province. The province formed during two major pulses of igneous activity: (1) an older early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.50–1.44 Ga) episode of volcanism and granite plutonism, and (2) a younger middle Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.33–1.30 Ga) episode of bimodal gabbro and granite plutonism. The volcanic rocks are predominantly high-silica rhyolite pyroclastic flows, volcanogenic breccias, and associated volcanogenic sediments with lesser amounts of basaltic to andesitic volcanic and associated subvolcanic intrusive rocks. The iron oxide deposits are all hosted in the early Mesoproterozoic volcanic and volcaniclastic sequences. Previous studies have characterized the St. Francois Mountains terrane as a classic, A-type within-plate granitic terrane. However, our new whole-rock geochemical data indicate that the felsic volcanic rocks are effusive derivatives from multicomponent source types, having compositional similarities to A-type within-plate granites as well as to S- and I-type granites generated in an arc setting. In addition, the volcanic-hosted IOA and IOCG deposits occur within bimodal volcanic sequences, some of which have volcanic arc geochemical affinities, suggesting an extensional tectonic setting during volcanism prior to emplacement of the ore-forming systems.The Missouri iron orebodies are magmatic-related hydrothermal deposits that, when considered in aggregate, display a vertical zonation from high-temperature, magmatic ± hydrothermal IOA deposits emplaced at moderate depths (~1–2 km), to magnetite-dominant IOA veins and IOCG deposits emplaced at shallow

  6. 篦子沟矿铜床2号矿体地质特征及成因探讨%On geological features of copper deposit at second mine of Bizigou deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛卫红

    2012-01-01

    According to the production survey of the second mine of Bizigou deposit,from the geological features,ore geological features and metallogenic mechanism at zhongtiao mountain region,the paper points out new opinions on the reasons for the formation of the Bizigou copper Mine by combining with relative documents,so as to provide the reference for discovering mines at surrounding areas.%通过篦子沟矿床2号矿体的生产勘探,结合有关资料,从中条山区域地质特征和矿体地质特征及成矿机理入手,对篦子沟铜矿的成因提出了新的看法,为外围找矿提供了依据。

  7. Chromite deposits of the north-central Zambales Range, Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, D.L.

    1970-01-01

    Peridotite and gabbro form an intrusive complex which is exposed over an area about 35 km wide and 150 km long in the center of the Zambales Range of western Luzon. The Zambales Complex is remarkable for its total known resources, mined and still remaining, of about 15 million metric tons of chromite ore. Twenty percent of Free World production was obtained from this area between 1950 and the end of 1964; in 1960 production reached a high of 606,103 metric tons of refractory-grade ore, mostly from the Coto mine near Masinloc, and 128,426 metric tons of metallurgical ore from the Acoje mine. The United States imports 80 to 90 percent of its refractory-grade chromite from the Philippines, and its basic refractory technology has been designed upon the chemical and physical characteristics of Coto high-alumina chromite ore. Continuation of this pattern will depend upon discovery of additional ore reserves to replace those depleted by mining. The Zambales Ultramafic Complex is of the alpine type in which lenticular or podiform deposits of chromite lie in peridotite or dunite, mostly near Contacts with gabbroic rocks. Layered structures, foliation, and lineation commonly are well developed and transect boundaries between major rock units, including chromite deposits, at any angle. Accordingly, these structures cannot be used as guides in exploration and mining as they are used in stratiform complexes such as the Bushveld, where chromite layers extend for many miles. Probably 90 percent of the known deposits in the Zambales Complex are located in two belts in its northern part. One zone containing high-aluminua refractory-grade deposits extends northeast from the Coto mine and Chromite Reservation No. I along a peridotite contact with olivine gabbro, and another of high-chromium metallurgical grade chromite extends south through the Zambales and Acoje properties, and swings westward around the south side of Mount Lanai along a peridotite contact with norite. The textures

  8. Remelting of Neoproterozoic relict volcanic arcs in the Middle Jurassic: Implication for the formation of the Dexing porphyry copper deposit, Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Fan, Hong-Rui; Santosh, M.; Hu, Fang-Fang; Yang, Kui-Feng; Li, Qiu-Li; Yang, Yue-Heng; Liu, Yongsheng

    2012-10-01

    The Dexing copper deposit in southeastern China is a typical non-arc porphyry deposit, the origin of which has been a topic of debate for several decades. Here we present new results from U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock chemistry and Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic investigations on the ore-forming granodioritic porphyry. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb data suggest that the granodioritic porphyry was formed in the Middle Jurassic (ca. 172.5 Ma) probably associated with lithospheric thinning driven by either sub-continental lithospheric mantle delamination or asthenospheric upwelling. The porphyry displays both arc-like and adakitic trace element signatures. The adakitic features suggest that HREE (heavy rare earth elements)-rich minerals such as garnet and hornblende, in the absence of plagioclase resided in the source region. The arc-like signatures are broadly comparable with those of the proximal Neoproterozoic island arc rocks including the keratophyre from Shuangxiwu Group and associated granitoids indicating a potential genetic relationship. The porphyry has chondritic ɛNd(t) of - 0.28 to 0.25 and radiogenic ɛHf(t) of 2 to 7, and correspondingly, uniform two stage depleted mantle Nd model ages of 940-980 Ma and Hf model ages of 800-1100 Ma (mean ~ 920 Ma). On Nd and Hf isotopic evolution diagrams, these values are markedly similar to those of the adjacent Neoproterozoic arc rocks when calculated forward to the Mid-Jurassic. Zircons of the porphyry show mantle-like oxygen isotope characters with δ18O values clustering in the range of 4.7-5.9‰, similar to the values for the Neoproterozoic arc rocks mentioned above. The geochemical and isotopic features recorded in our study suggest mantle-derived magmas with no significant supracrustal input for the source of the porphyry. With regard to the source of the Cu ore, we consider a model involving the remelting of sulfide-bearing arc-related lower crustal source. Furthermore, the occurrence of a Neoproterozoic VMS (volcanic massive

  9. Sedimentology, stratigraphy, and depositional environment of the Crystal Geyser Dinosaur Quarry, east-central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, M.B.; Suarez, C.A.; Kirkland, J.I.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Grandstaff, D.E.; Terry, D.O.

    2007-01-01

    The Crystal Geyser Dinosaur Quarry, near Green River, Utah, is located at the base of the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian) Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation. The quarry preserves a nearly monospecific accumulation of a new basal therizinosauroid, Falcarius utahensis. We used field descriptions and petrographic analysis to determine the depositional environment and development of the quarry strata. Results of these analyses suggest that the quarry represents multiple episodes of bone accumulation buried by spring and overbank flood deposits. Evidence for these previously undescribed spring deposits includes calcite macroscopic structures within the quarry strata - such as pisolites and travertine fragments - and calcite micromorphologies - including radial-fibrous, feather, and scandulitic dendrite morphologies and tufa clasts. At least two episodes of bone incorporation are preserved in the quarry based on their stratigraphic position and lithologic associations. The unique depositional setting in and around the Crystal Geyser Dinosaur Quarry appears to have been favorable for the preservation of vertebrate fossils and provides insight into early Cretaceous environments in North America. Copyright ?? 2007, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  10. Bioaccumulation and effects of different-shaped copper oxide nanoparticles in the deposit-feeding snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskov, Tina; Selck, Henriette; Banta, Gary; Misra, Superb K; Berhanu, Deborah; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Forbes, Valery E

    2014-09-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) are among the most widely used engineered NPs and are thus likely to end up in the environment, predominantly in sediments. Copper oxide NPs have been found to be toxic to a variety of (mainly pelagic) organisms, but to differing degrees. In the present study, the influence of CuO NP shape on bioavailability and toxicity in the sediment-dwelling freshwater gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum was examined. In 2 separate studies, snails were exposed to either clean sediment or sediment spiked with either aqueous Cu or CuO NPs of different shapes (rods, spheres, or platelets) at 240 µg Cu/g dry weight of sediment (nominal). In neither of the studies was survival found to be related to Cu form (i.e., free ion vs particle) or shape, whereas snail growth was severely influenced by both form and shape. Reproduction was affected (by CuO NP spheres and aqueous Cu) only when estimated as the total number (live plus dead) of juveniles produced per snail per week. Both the aqueous and particulate forms of Cu were available for uptake by snails when mixed into sediment. However, Cu body burden was not directly related to observed effects. The present study stresses the need for both a better understanding of uptake mechanisms and internal distribution pathways of NPs and an assessment of long-term consequences of NP exposure. © 2014 SETAC.

  11. Facile one-step electrochemical deposition of copper nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide as nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moozarm Nia, Pooria; Woi, Pei Meng; Alias, Yatimah

    2017-08-01

    For several decades, hydrogen peroxide has exhibited to be an extremely significant analyte as an intermediate in several biological devices as well as in many industrial systems. A straightforward and novel one-step technique was employed to develop a sensitive non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor by simultaneous electrodeposition of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The electroreduction performance of the CuNPs-rGO for hydrogen peroxide detection was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (AMP) methods The CuNPs-rGO showed a synergistic effect of reduced graphene oxide and copper nanoparticles towards the electroreduction of hydrogen peroxide, indicating high reduction current. At detection potential of -0.2 V, the CuNPs-rGO sensor demonstrated a wide linear range up to 18 mM with a detection limit of 0.601 mM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, with addition of hydrogen peroxide, the sensor responded very quickly (<3 s). The CuNPs-rGO presents high selectivity, sensitivity, stability and fast amperometric sensing towards hydrogen peroxide which makes it favorable for the development of non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor.

  12. Comparison of 19th Century and Present Concentrations and Depositions of Ozone in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEIDINGER, Tamás

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone, one of the most important trace gases in atmosphere was discovered byChristian Friedrich Schönbein (1799–1886, a chemistry professor at the University of Basel. Themethod developed by him was used from the middle of nineteenth century until the 1920’s inmuch of the world. The measurement method is based essentially on the color-change of anindicator test paper. We obtained records for ozone measured in the Habsburg Empire usingSchönbein’s method for analyze the long term environmental processes. According to recordskept in the Habsburg Empire, ozone was measured at more than twenty sites between 1853–1856.On the territory of the Kingdom of Hungary, ozone was measured at Szeged, Buda andSelmecbánya (Schemnitz, Banska Štiavnica among others. Long term datasets are available fromBuda (1871–1898 and Ó-Gyalla (Altdala, Hurbanovo, 1898–1905. Ozone was measured duringboth day- and nighttime. Additionally meteorological variables (like air temperature, relativehumidity, air pressure, wind speed, cloud cover, precipitation were also observed several times aday. The data reported in the yearbooks were collected and evaluated in this study to reconstructthe ozone dataset. Depending on concentrations and deposition velocity over different vegetatedsurfaces the ozone deposition can be estimated. The reliability of estimations and reconstructedozone deposition values are also discussed. Finally ozone datasets from the 19th and 21st centuryand the differences in ozone concentration and deposition between rural and urban areas arecompared. Ozone concentrations and deposition are found to be approximately three times highernow than in the 19th century.

  13. Outburst fan deposit from pyroclastic flows, Williamson River canyon, south-central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, M. L.; Eibert, D.

    2016-12-01

    Pyroclastic flows from the Holocene eruption of Mount Mazama in the Cascade volcanic arc of Oregon, blocked the narrow (210 to 225 m wide, 35 to 40 m deep), bedrock-lined canyon of the Williamson River. The estimated volume of the long, narrow blockage was 4.4 x 10^7 cubic meters. The blockage eventually failed releasing an impounded lake and depositing a debris fan at the mouth of the canyon. Remnants of the debris fan underlie a gently sloping surface dissected by various abandoned channels of the river. The modern Williamson River cut its channel across the upper part of the fan. Three bedrock units are present as boulders: hydrovolcanic tuff (Di = 2.75 m) derived from tuff cones in the lower reaches of the canyon, distinctly layered geochemically primitive olivine basalt (Di = 3.4 m) that crops out approximately 6 km upstream, and massive basaltic andesite that underlies the channel in the upper canyon and cliffs that define the right bank of the canyon near the mouth. Matrix between boulders and deposits that flank and overlie the boulder deposit are dominated by medium- to fine-grained sand (ASTM; 61-70 wt. % in matrix; 76-100 wt. % elsewhere). Sand grains are predominantly well-rounded phenocryst-bearing glass that vary from massive to moderately vesiculated and crystals of plagioclase and hornblende commonly with attached remnants of groundmass. Crystals are most abundant in the medium- and fine-grained size range (>20 and fragments (twigs and molds) are common in medium-sand and larger. Elongate bars of rounded pumice gravel provide local current directions during the waning stage of the outburst flood. The thickness of the boulder deposit near the mouth of the canyon is not known. Sand deposits are 1 to 1.5 m thick near the mouth of the canyon and thin to 70 cm at about 3.4 km from the mouth of the canyon.

  14. The Influence of Iodide Adsorption on Copper Underpotential Deposition on Polycrystalline Palladium Electrodes in Mildly Acidic Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinola; Castro Luna AM

    1999-01-15

    The effects of I- adsorption on the electrodeposition (under and overpotential deposition) of Cu on polycrystalline Pd electrodes were studied in dilute perchloric acid solutions at 18 degreesC. It had been found that Cu underpotential deposition on polycrystalline Pd exhibits different potentiodynamic features, which are characteristic of defined crystallographic planes of Pd. However, these features varied when the voltammograms were performed in the presence of strongly adsorbable anions, such as I-. In spite of having found a partial inhibition of the Cu voltammetric features in the presence of I-, we calculated integer numbers in the electron transfer to Cu2+ and I- ions. The change in the values of Cu massive deposition potential due to the presence of I- was caused by the appearence of a new electrode, that is, the Cu/CuI/I- interface. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Characterizations of chemical bath-deposited zinc oxysulfide films and the effects of their annealing on copper-indium-gallium-selenide solar cell efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tsung-Min; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie; Ao, Jianping; Sun, Yun; Feng, Wu-Shiung; Chang, Liann-Be

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxysulfide (Zn(S,O)) thin films are fabricated using a chemical bath deposition method onto glass substrates and the surface of copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) adsorption layers for solar cell fabrication. The light and electric properties of the Zn(S,O) layers are improved after rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The Zn(S,O) properties of samples annealed under various atmospheres are compared. The resulting annealed Zn(S,O) films are 80-100 nm thick. The band gap decreases from 3.8 eV to 3.3 eV and the light transmittance is improved by more than 95% after annealing under oxygen atmosphere. The oxygen-annealed sample has a S/(S + O) ratio of 0.28 and a S/Zn ratio of 0.72. The CIGS solar cell that consists of the annealed Zn(S,O) buffer layer is more efficient (6.15%) than that of the non-annealed Zn(S,O) (4.56%). The solar cell performance is correlated with the deposited Zn(S,O) characteristics. The significantly higher carrier concentration, increases light transmittance, and improves crystalline structure of the oxygen-annealed Zn(S,O) film contributes to the improved cell performance.

  16. Compositional variation recorded in deep-sea ferromanganese deposits of the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandnani, M.; Gupta, D.K.; Yashrakshita; Singh, R.; Singh, P.; Baidya, S.; Banakar, V.K.

    matter of continental origin (insoluble residue) is intimately intermixed with the hydroxide components (hydrolysate fraction precipitated from seawater or sediment pore-water)10. The silicate- fraction in these deposits may mask the actual relation... is determined for pure- oxide material (acid-leached hydrolysate fraction) of FMNs unlike the bulk nodule (hydrolysate + silicate resi- due) analyses in previous studies. Even though minor in proportion, silicate particles intermixed with Fe–Mn oxides...

  17. Sulphur Isotope Compositions of Shibaqinghao Gold Deposit in Central Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hongying; Liu Xiang

    2001-01-01

    Shibaqinghao gold deposit is situated in the western part of the northern margin of the North China Craton. It is controlled by an E - W trending tectonic zone that is located in the middle unit of Dongwufenzi group which consists of a sequence of greenschist - facies metamorphic rocks in an Archean greenstone belt.In Shibaqinghao gold deposit there are two types of gold ore, a mylonite ore and a quartz vein ore. Mylonite ore bodies were formed during ductile shearing stage in the Early Proterozoic, whereas quartz vein ore bodies might have been formed in the Mesozoic time.Pyrite accompanied with native gold in the mylonite ore has sulpfur of which δ34S values range from - 5.8 to + 0.8 per mil, similar to the values of mantle- derived sulphur. These data suggest that gold in the mylonite ore be derived from the country rocks which originated directly in the upper mantle.Pyrite in quartz vein ore has the δ34 S values between + 3.0 and + 11.0 per mil, similar to the values of some granitic rocks. These facts indicate that the gold in the quartz vein ore is related to some granitic magma generated in the crust.This study revealed that two different mineralization occurred at different geological times and in different environments but in the same place, resuling in the Shibaqinghao gold deposit.

  18. Depositional sequence evolution, Paleozoic and early Mesozoic of the central Saharan platform, North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprague, A.R.G. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1991-08-01

    Over 30 depositional sequences have been identified in the Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic of the Ghadames basin of eastern Algeria, southern Tunisia, and western Libya. Well logs and lithologic information from more than 500 wells were used to correlate the 30 sequences throughout the basin (total area more than 1 million km{sup 2}). Based on systematic change in the log response of strata in successively younger sequences, five groups of sequences with distinctive characteristics have been identified: Cambro-Ordivician, Upper Silurian-Middle Devonian, Upper Devonian, Carboniferous, and Middle Triassic-Middle Jurassic. Each sequence group is terminated by a major, tectonically enhanced sequence boundary that is immediately overlain (except for the Carboniferous) by a shale-prone interval deposited in response to basin-wide flooding. The four Paleozoic sequence groups were deposited on the Saharan platform, a north facing, clastic-dominated shelf that covered most of North Africa during the Paleozoic. The sequence boundary at the top of the Carboniferous sequence group is one of several Permian-Carboniferous angular unconformities in North Africa related to the Hercynian orogeny. The youngest sequence group (Middle Triassic to Middle Jurassic) is a clastic-evaporite package that onlaps southward onto the top of Paleozoic sequence boundary. The progressive changes from the Cambrian to the Jurassic, in the nature of the Ghadames basin sequences is a reflection of the interplay between basin morphology and tectonics, vegetation, eustasy, climate, and sediment supply.

  19. Textured tape substrates from binary copper alloys with vanadium and yttrium for the epitaxial deposition of buffer and superconducting layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Rodionov, D. P.; Egorova, L. Yu.; Suaridze, T. R.

    2016-05-01

    The structure of tapes of binary Cu-0.6 wt % V and Cu-1 wt % Y alloys and texturing process of them in the course of cold deformation by rolling to 99% and subsequent recrystallizing annealing have been studied. The possibility of achieving the perfect cube texture in thin tapes made from binary copper-based alloys with vanadium and yttrium additions has in principle been shown. This opens the prospect of using them as substrates when manufacturing tapes of second-generation high-temperature superconductors. Optimum annealing conditions for the studied alloys have been determined, which have made it possible to produce the perfect biaxial texture with a content of cube {001} ± 10° grains on the surfaces of textured tapes of more than 95%.

  20. Methods, quality assurance, and data for assessing atmospheric deposition of pesticides in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Celia; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey monitored atmospheric deposition of pesticides in the Central Valley of California during two studies in 2001 and 2002–04. The 2001 study sampled wet deposition (rain) and storm-drain runoff in the Modesto, California, area during the orchard dormant-spray season to examine the contribution of pesticide concentrations to storm runoff from rainfall. In the 2002–04 study, the number and extent of collection sites in the Central Valley were increased to determine the areal distribution of organophosphate insecticides and other pesticides, and also five more sample types were collected. These were dry deposition, bulk deposition, and three sample types collected from a soil box: aqueous phase in runoff, suspended sediment in runoff, and surficial-soil samples. This report provides concentration data and describes methods and quality assurance of sample collection and laboratory analysis for pesticide compounds in all samples collected from 16 sites. Each sample was analyzed for 41 currently used pesticides and 23 pesticide degradates, including oxygen analogs (oxons) of 9 organophosphate insecticides. Analytical results are presented by sample type and study period. The median concentrations of both chloryprifos and diazinon sampled at four urban (0.067 micrograms per liter [μg/L] and 0.515 μg/L, respectively) and four agricultural sites (0.079 μg/L and 0.583 μg/L, respectively) during a January 2001 storm event in and around Modesto, Calif., were nearly identical, indicating that the overall atmospheric burden in the region appeared to be fairly similar during the sampling event. Comparisons of median concentrations in the rainfall to those in the McHenry storm-drain runoff showed that, for some compounds, rainfall contributed a substantial percentage of the concentration in the runoff; for other compounds, the concentrations in rainfall were much greater than in the runoff. For example, diazinon concentrations in rainfall were about

  1. Element Geochemistry and Its Genetic Significance of Native Copper Mineralization in the Mayang Deposit,Hunan Province,China%湖南麻阳砂岩自然铜矿床元素地球化学及其成因意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大鹏; 张乾; 郭国林; 蔡伊

    2014-01-01

    The Mayang copper deposit located in the Central of Yuanma basin and near to Mount Xuefeng in the southern is a rarely sandstone type native copper deposit.The production of this deposit has a long history,and can be dated to Period of Spring and Autumn ,so far it has provided more than 2 million tons copper which about 90% from native copper.The ore bodies are multistory and mainly occur in the gray white or gray green sandstones of Jinjiang Formation of Cretaceous,and a single ore-body is stratified or lentoid.The native copper is important as cement in sandstones.In this paper,the content of major elements,trace elements and rare earth elements of the redbed rock,ores,native copper and chalcocite were calculated using the correlation analysis to discuss the relationship between the element character and copper mineralization.Kinds of elements,such as Fe,Ag,As,Ba,Sr,are positive correlated with Cu, which show these elements are closely related to the native copper formation.The native copper mineralization is due to the underground thermal water,and this type fluid may be low temperature and weak reduction environment.%麻阳铜矿床(又称九曲湾铜矿床)位于湖南省沅麻盆地中段南部,其南部靠近雪峰山,开采历史悠久,是一类十分罕见的产于砂岩中的自然铜矿床。含矿岩系主要为上白垩统锦江组,矿体呈层状或似层状产出,少数为短距离内尖灭的透镜体,严格受灰白灰绿色砂岩控制;矿化主要以胶结物产出,自然铜占总资源量的90%左右。测试了麻阳铜矿不同工作面的红色粉砂岩、自然铜砂岩(矿石)、辉铜矿砂岩(矿石)及自然铜、辉铜矿的常量元素和微量元素含量,应用 Spearman 秩相关分析对数据进行统计分析。结合矿物组合特点认为,与 Cu 有较强正相关的 Fe、Ag、As、Ba、Sr 等元素对矿化形成条件有指示意义。铜矿化的形成与成岩期热液活动有着密切联

  2. Lithostratigraphic subdivision of Post-Hercynian deposits in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mey, P.H.W.; Nagtegaal, P.J.C.; Roberti, K.J.; Hartevelt, J.J.A.

    1968-01-01

    On the existing geological maps of the South-Central Pyrenees such as those of Dalloni (1910, 1930), Misch (1934), Almela & Rios (1947) and Alastrue, Almela & Rios (1957) the units distinguished and the colours used represent stratigraphie time intervals. Many stage boundaries, however, fall at

  3. Depositional environments and sequence stratigraphy of the Bahram Formation (middleelate Devonian) in north of Kerman, south-central Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Afshin Hashmie; Ali Rostamnejad; Fariba Nikbakht; Mansour Ghorbanie; Peyman Rezaie; Hossien Gholamalian

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on sedimentary environments, facies distribution, and sequence stratigraphy. The facies and sequence stratigraphic analyses of the Bahram Formation (middleelate Devonian) in south-central Iran are based on two measured stratigraphic sections in the southern Tabas block. The Bah-ram Formation overlies red sandstones Padeha Formation in sections Hutk and Sardar and is overlain by Carboniferous carbonate deposits of Hutk Formation paraconformably, with a thickness of 354 and 386 m respectively. Mixed siliciclastic and carbonate sediments are present in this succession. The field observations and laboratory studies were used to identify 14 micro/petrofacies, which can be grouped into 5 depositional environments: shore, tidal flat, lagoon, shoal and shallow open marine. A mixed carbonate-detrital shallow shelf is suggested for the depositional environment of the Bahram Formation which deepens to the east (Sardar section) and thins in southern locations (Hutk section). Three 3rd-order cyclic siliciclastic and carbonate sequences in the Bahram Formation and one sequence shared with the overlying joint with Hutk Formation are identified, on the basis of shallowing upward patterns in the micro/pertofacies.

  4. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath late Miocene explosive volcanic products in NW central Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, M. [Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey). Dept. of Geology

    2007-04-15

    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ash (from 32 to 58%) and sulphur (from 1.43 to 3.03%) lignite which is petrographically characterised by a high humunite content. The mineral matter of the studied lignite samples is made up of mainly clay minerals (illite-smectite and kaolinite), plagioclase and quartz in Bolu coal field, clay minerals (illite-smectite, smectite and illite), quartz, calcite, plagioclase and gypsum in Seben coal field, quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) in Kibriscik, and dolomite, quartz, clinoptilolite, opal CT and gypsum in Camhdere coal field. The differences in these four types of lignite with specific mineralogical patterns may be due to the explosive volcanic events and depositional conditions which changed from one coal field to the others. There is a zonation from SW to SE in the studied area for zeolites. Carbonate minerals are commonly calcite in Seben and Kibriscik coal fields. In Bolu, coal samples are devoid of calcite and dolomite. These analyses show that there is an increase in the amount of Mg and a decrease in the amount of Na from the northwestern part to the southern part in the study area.

  5. The Occurrence State of Associated Silver in Red Bed Copper Deposit in Lanping-Simao Basin%兰坪-思茅盆地红层型铜矿中伴生银的赋存状态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张道红

    2011-01-01

    红层铜矿中普遍伴生银多金属,分布于铜的硫化物中,尤以黝铜矿中最高,呈微粒、超微粒自然银或类质同象存在,具有工业价值.%Red bed copper deposit commonly associates with silver polymetallic elements, such silver of industrial value occurs as micro particles and ultrafine particles of native silver or isomorphism in copper sulfide, and especially the highest contents of silver are found in tetrahedrite.

  6. 西天山乔霍特铜矿成矿背景与矿床成因探讨%Metallogenic background and metallogenesis of Qiaohuote copper deposit, Western Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜; 范俊佳; 高俊; 董连慧; 江拓; 钱青

    2012-01-01

    In this study,we research the major,trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics of volcanic host rocks,mineralized rocks, and ores of Qiaohuote copper deposit located in the Southeast of Yili block, Western Tianshan Mountains. We also conducted in situ zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating of the diabase .which intruded into the volcanic host rocks of Qiaohuote copper deposit. It is inferred that the volcanic rocks which are mostly composed of calc-alkaline andesitic volcanic rocks are interpreted as the derivatives of a mantle source modified by subductian zone fluids derived from the northward subducted Southern Tianshan oceanic slab in an island back-arc extensional environment. Laser ablation-ICPMS( LA-ICPMS) U-Pb zircon ages of 281. 0 ± 1. 9Ma were obtained for diabase. The data presented here in conjunction with previously published data suggest that it was an island arc environment as the northward subduction of Southern Tianshan Ocean during Ordovician or even earlier in Qiaohuote region, and I-type granodiorite formed during Late Ordovician(ca. 450Ma). The host rocks of Qiaohuote deposit formed by the persistent subduction of Southern Tianshan Ocean during Middle-Late Silurian ( ca. 430Ma),and meanwhile the volcanic exhalation-sedimentation, which was contemporaneous with the submarine volcanic rocks, produced the primary mineralization of the Qiaohuote copper deposit. Afterward, the ore bodies and host rocks were reworked and overprinted intensively by structures corresponding with the overall collisional orogenic process of the Western Tianshan during Late Carboniferous and Early Permian,the island arc crashed and fitted with the Central Tianshan block as then the diabase intruded into the host volcanic rocks(281 Ma). The Qiaohuote copper deposit is a volcanic exhalation and sedimentation-structural reworking and overprinting type deposit, which formed by complicated processes involving the subduction and closing of Southern Tianshan Ocean and the

  7. The geology, structure and mineralisation of the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposits, Mongolia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. (Mike Porter

    2016-05-01

    Mineralisation is characterised by varying, telescoped stages of intrusion and alteration. Early A-type quartz veined dykes were followed by Cu-Au mineralisation associated with potassic alteration, mainly K-feldspar in quartz-monzodiorite and biotite-magnetite in basaltic hosts. Downward reflux of cooled, late-magmatic hydrothermal fluid resulted in intense quartz-sericite retrograde alteration in the upper parts of the main syn-mineral intrusions, and an equivalent chlorite-muscovite/illite-hematite assemblage in basaltic host rocks. Uplift, facilitated by syn-mineral longitudinal faulting, brought sections of the porphyry deposit to shallower depths, to be overprinted and upgraded by late stage, shallower, advanced argillic alteration and high sulphidation mineralisation. Key controls on the location, size and grade of the deposit cluster include (i a long-lived, narrow faulted corridor; (ii multiple pulses of overlapping intrusion within the same structure; and (iii enclosing reactive, mafic dominated wall rocks, focussing ore.

  8. Influence of both the composition of impregnation solution and impregnation method on copper(II, chromium(VI and silver(I deposition on activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Slavica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of a solution for impregnating activated carbon (AC for use in a gas filter was investigated. The solution components were tetraaminocop-per(II complex, chromium(VI, silver(l and carbonate ions. Two methods of impregnation were investigated: ion adsorption from aqueous solution in excess and the incipient wetness method. Copper, chromium and silver con-tents on AC Were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The largest copper contents (4.38 and 5.00 % (w/w for two AC samples were achieved at: c([Cu(NH34]2+ = 1.0 mol/L; M(Cu i M(Cr = 3.75: 1; M(Cu i M(Ag = 62: 1 and M(Cu: M(CO3 = 2: 1, using two fold impregnation by the incipient wetness method with 2.4 mL of solution per 3 g AC. The contents of chromium and silver on the same AC samples Were 1.06 and 0.0098 % for the first and 1.14 and 0.009 % for the second AC. A larger Cr content (1.57 % was achieved from an impregnation solution in excess (c([Cu(NH34]2+ = 1.25 mol/L; M(Cu i M(Cr = 3: 1; without Ag. The largest Ag content (0.17 % was obtained using two fold impregnation by the incipient wetness method (c([Cu(NH34]2+ = 0.8 mol/L; M(Cu: M(Cr = 3.75: 1<; M(Cu i M(Ag ( 80: 1 and M(Cu i M(CO3 = 1 i 1.32. Larger metal contents were obtained using two fold impregnation by the incipient wetness method. Further work is needed on the determination of the influence of carbonate ions both on the solution stability and metal deposition on AC.

  9. Receptor-associated protein (RAP plays a central role in modulating Abeta deposition in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilian Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Receptor associated protein (RAP functions in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to assist in the maturation of several membrane receptor proteins, including low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP and lipoprotein receptor 11 (SorLA/LR11. Previous studies in cell and mouse model systems have demonstrated that these proteins play roles in the metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein (APP, including processes involved in the generation, catabolism and deposition of beta-amyloid (Abeta peptides. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice transgenic for mutant APPswe and mutant presenilin 1 (PS1dE9 were mated to mice with homozygous deletion of RAP. Unexpectedly, mice that were homozygous null for RAP and transgenic for APPswe/PS1dE9 showed high post-natal mortality, necessitating a shift in focus to examine the levels of amyloid deposition in APPswe/PS1dE9 that were hemizygous null for RAP. Immunoblot analysis confirmed 50% reductions in the levels of RAP with modest reductions in the levels of proteins dependent upon RAP for maturation [LRP trend towards a 20% reduction ; SorLA/LR11 statistically significant 15% reduction (p<0.05]. Changes in the levels of these proteins in the brains of [APPswe/PS1dE9](+/-/RAP(+/- mice correlated with 30-40% increases in amyloid deposition by 9 months of age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Partial reductions in the ER chaperone RAP enhance amyloid deposition in the APPswe/PS1dE9 model of Alzheimer amyloidosis. Partial reductions in RAP also affect the maturation of LRP and SorLA/LR11, which are each involved in several different aspects of APP processing and Abeta catabolism. Together, these findings suggest a central role for RAP in Alzheimer amyloidogenesis.

  10. Receptor-associated protein (RAP) plays a central role in modulating Abeta deposition in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guilian; Karch, Celeste; Li, Ning; Lin, Nianwei; Fromholt, David; Gonzales, Victoria; Borchelt, David R

    2008-09-08

    Receptor associated protein (RAP) functions in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to assist in the maturation of several membrane receptor proteins, including low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and lipoprotein receptor 11 (SorLA/LR11). Previous studies in cell and mouse model systems have demonstrated that these proteins play roles in the metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), including processes involved in the generation, catabolism and deposition of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides. Mice transgenic for mutant APPswe and mutant presenilin 1 (PS1dE9) were mated to mice with homozygous deletion of RAP. Unexpectedly, mice that were homozygous null for RAP and transgenic for APPswe/PS1dE9 showed high post-natal mortality, necessitating a shift in focus to examine the levels of amyloid deposition in APPswe/PS1dE9 that were hemizygous null for RAP. Immunoblot analysis confirmed 50% reductions in the levels of RAP with modest reductions in the levels of proteins dependent upon RAP for maturation [LRP trend towards a 20% reduction ; SorLA/LR11 statistically significant 15% reduction (pRAP(+/-) mice correlated with 30-40% increases in amyloid deposition by 9 months of age. Partial reductions in the ER chaperone RAP enhance amyloid deposition in the APPswe/PS1dE9 model of Alzheimer amyloidosis. Partial reductions in RAP also affect the maturation of LRP and SorLA/LR11, which are each involved in several different aspects of APP processing and Abeta catabolism. Together, these findings suggest a central role for RAP in Alzheimer amyloidogenesis.

  11. Stratigraphy, age, and depositional setting of the Miocene Barstow Formation at Harvard Hill, central Mojave Desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Shannon R.; Miller, David M.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Vazquez, Jorge A.

    2010-01-01

    New detailed geologic mapping and geochronology of the Barstow Formation at Harvard Hill, 30 km east of Barstow, CA, help to constrain Miocene paleogeography and tectonics of the central Mojave Desert. A northern strand of the Quaternary ENE-striking, sinistral Manix fault divides the Barstow Formation at Harvard Hill into two distinct lithologic assemblages. Strata north of the fault consist of: a green rhyolitic tuff, informally named the Shamrock tuff; lacustrine sandstone; partially silicified thin-bedded to massive limestone; and alluvial sandstone to pebble conglomerate. Strata south of the fault consist of: lacustrine siltstone and sandstone; a rhyolitic tuff dated at 19.1 Ma (U-Pb); rock-avalanche breccia deposits; partially silicified well-bedded to massive limestone; and alluvial sandstone and conglomerate. Our U-Pb zircon dating of the Shamrock tuff by SHRIMP-RG yields a peak probability age of 18.7 ± 0.1 Ma. Distinctive outcrop characteristics, mineralogy, remanent magnetization, and zircon geochemistry (Th/U) suggest that the Shamrock tuff represents a lacustrine facies of the regionally extensive Peach Spring Tuff (PST). Here we compare zircon age and geochemical analyses from the Shamrock tuff with those of the PST at Stoddard Wash and provide new insight into the age of zircon crystallization in the PST rhyolite. Results of our field studies show that Miocene strata at Harvard Hill mostly accumulated in a lacustrine environment, although depositional environments varied from a relatively deep lake to a very shallow lake or even onshore setting. Rock-avalanche breccias and alluvial deposits near the base of the exposed section indicate proximity to a steep basin margin and detrital studies suggest a southern source for coarse-grained deposits; therefore, we may infer a southern basin-margin setting at Harvard Hill during the early Miocene. Our geochronology demonstrates that deposition of the Barstow Formation at Harvard Hill extended from before

  12. Toxic gas emissions from the Kayseri peat deposit, central Anatolia, Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet Şener; Mustafa Korkanç; M Furkan Şener; Selma Yaşar Korkanç; F Zafer Özgür

    2012-10-01

    Toxic gases evolving from the soil in urbanized peatland regions constitute a serious hazard since buildings may be subject to the direct ingress of volatiles into the structures. Peat formed in swamp and rarely exposed to subaerial conditions has been associated with the development of the folded foreland of the Quaternary Kayseri pull-apart basin. The peat deposit is extensively urbanized but so far no studies have evaluated the extent of the ground gas hazard. In this paper, the geology, petrography and chemical variation of the Kayseri peat deposit have been studied in order to predict the public health risk from the land gases’ behaviour, especially in soil gases. The main volatile species detected are methane (CH4), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2), all of which are highly toxic. The primary means of gas entry is directly from the ground through the floors, walls, and especially subsurface telephone cable pipes. Indoor vents emit 1000–70,000 ppm CH4, 330–49,000 ppm CO2 and 3.8–6.5 ppm H2S in soil and subsurface pipes; concentrations high enough to present an acute respiratory hazard to persons close to the vents.

  13. Feed additive interactions in the chicken: reduction of tissue copper deposition by dietary roxarsone in healthy and in Eimeria acervulina-infected or Eimeria tenella-infected chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, G L; Baker, D H

    1984-07-01

    Interactions among roxarsone, copper, and coccidiosis were studied in growing crossbred chicks. Corn-soy or corn-soy-corn gluten meal diets were fed in all assays. In the absence of supplemental copper, 50 mg/kg roxarsone did not affect gain. However, in the presence of 250 mg/kg supplemental copper, there was a depression in gain due to feeding 50 mg/kg roxarsone. In contrast, at a toxic level of copper (1000 mg/kg), a growth response resulted from feeding roxarsone. In all instances, roxarsone markedly decreased liver copper concentration in birds fed high levels of copper. Multiple crop intubations of Eimeria acervulina or Eimeria tenella depressed performance and exacerbated copper toxicity symptoms. Copper supplementation as well as coccidial infection resulted in depressed plasma pigmentation.

  14. Zinc, copper, and lead in mid-ocean ridge basalts and the source rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    The contents of Zn, Cu, and Pb in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and the MORB source-rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits are examined. The values of Zn, Cu, and Pb for submarine mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are, respectively (in ppm): average MORB-75, 75, and 0.7; West Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR)-87, 64, and 0.5; southern JFR-120 and 0.5; and 21??N, East Pacific Rise (EPR)-73, 78, and 0.5. Values of Zn/Pb range from about 100-240 and Cu/ Pb from 100-156. In this study, Zn is found to correlate positively with TiO2 + FeO (mean square of weighted deviates, MSWD, of 1.6 for JFR basalt), and inversely with Mg number (MSWD of 3.5). Therefore, contrary to statements in the literature that Zn should be compatible in MORB, Zn is a mildly incompatible element and must be enriched in the glass phase relative to olivine as Zn does not fit into the other major phenocryst phase, plagioclase. In the source of MORB, Zn likely is most enriched in oxides: spinel, magnetite, and titanomagnetite. Copper generally does not correlate well with other elements in most MORB data examined. When differentiation is dominated by olivine, Cu has a tendency to behave incompatibly (e.g., at Mg numbers > 70), but, overall, Cu shows some tendency towards being a compatible element, particularly along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a behavior presumably due to separation of sulfides in which Cu (but not Zn) is markedly enriched. Copper thus may be in dispersed sulfides in the source of MORB. Ocean ridges provide important data on source-rock controls for sulfide deposits because, in sediment-starved ridges, much is known about the possible source rocks and mineralization is presently occurring. In contrast to Zn/Pb ~5 in continental hot Cl-rich brines, Zn/Pb in the hottest sediment-starved ridge black smoker hydrothermal fluids at 21 ??N, EPR is about 110, similar to local MORB (145), but Cu/Pb is closer to 30, possibly due to subsurface deposition of Cu. At the JFR, the best

  15. The ash deposits of the 4200 BP Cerro Blanco eruption: the largest Holocene eruption of the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Turiel, Jose-Luis; Saavedra, Julio; Perez-Torrado, Francisco-Jose; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Carracedo, Juan-Carlos; Lobo, Agustin; Rejas, Marta; Gallardo, Juan-Fernando; Osterrieth, Margarita; Carrizo, Julieta; Esteban, Graciela; Martinez, Luis-Dante; Gil, Raul-Andres; Ratto, Norma; Baez, Walter

    2015-04-01

    We present new data about a major eruption -spreading approx. 110 km3 ashes over 440.000 km2- long thought to have occurred around 4200 years ago in the Cerro Blanco Volcanic Complex (CBVC) in the Central Andes of NW Argentina (Southern Puna, 26°45' S, 67°45' W). This eruption may be the biggest during the past five millennia in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, and possibly one of the largest Holocene eruptions in the world. Discrimination and correlation of pyroclastic deposits of this eruption of Cerro Blanco was conducted comparing samples of proximal (domes, pyroclastic flow and fall deposits) with distal ash fall deposits (up to 400 km from de vent). They have been characterized using optical and electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, particle-size distribution by laser diffraction and electron microprobe and HR-ICP-MS with laser ablation for major and trace element composition of glass, feldspars and biotite. New and published 14C ages were calibrated using Bayesian statistics. An one-at-a-time inversion method was used to reconstruct the eruption conditions using the Tephra2 code (Bonadonna et al. 2010, https://vhub.org/resources/tephra2). This method allowed setting the main features of the eruption that explains the field observations in terms of thickness and grain size distributions of the ash fall deposit. The main arguments that justify the correlation are four: 1) Compositional coincidence for glass, feldspars, and biotite in proximal and distal materials; 2) Stratigraphic and geomorphological relationships, including structure and thickness variation of the distal deposits; 3) Geochronological consistency, matching proximal and distal ages; and 4) Geographical distribution of correlated outcrops in relation to the eruption centre at the coordinates of Cerro Blanco. With a magnitude of 7.0 and a volcanic explosivity index or VEI 7, this eruption of ~4200 BP at Cerro Blanco is the largest in the last five millennia known in the Central

  16. Atmospheric deposition and soil vertical distribution of {sup 7}Be in a semiarid region of central Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohaiza, Flavia A.; Velasco, Hugo; Ayub, Jimena Juri; Rizzotto, Marcos; Valladares, Diego L. [Grupo de Estudios Ambientales, Instituto de Matematica Aplicada San Luis, Universidad Nacional de San Luis - CONICET, Ejercito de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina)

    2014-07-01

    Beryllium-7 is a potentially powerful tracer of soil erosion but poor information on {sup 7}Be atmospheric deposition and associated soil inventories in a semiarid region of Central Argentina exists. We estimated the {sup 7}Be atmospheric wet deposition and {sup 7}Be inventory in undisturbed soils north of the City of San Luis (S 33 deg. 9'; W 66 deg. 16') and explored its seasonal variation. Rain and soil samples were collected during 2006-2008 and 2009-2012, respectively. The atmospheric wet deposition was estimated considering both the mean activity concentration in rainwater and the precipitation regime of the region. Using the assessed monthly wet deposition of {sup 7}Be, the expected {sup 7}Be areal activity in soil was estimated applying a simple model. These estimated values were confronted with the experimental measurements in soil. The {sup 7}Be rainwater activity concentration ranged from 0.7 to 3.2 Bq l{sup -1}, with a mean of 1.7 Bq l{sup -1} (sd = 0.53 Bq l{sup -1}). A good linear relationship between {sup 7}Be wet deposition and rain magnitude was obtained (R=0.92, p<0.0001). The wet deposition on soil ranged from 1.1 to 120 Bq m{sup -2} with a mean value of 32.7 Bq m-2 (sd = 29.9 Bq m-2). The annual depositional flux was estimated at 1140 ± 120 Bq m{sup -2} y{sup -1}. The {sup 7}Be mass activity (Bq kg{sup -1}) values in soil samples in the wet period (November-April) were higher than in the dry period (May-October). A typical decreasing exponential function of {sup 7}Be areal activity (Bq m{sup -2}) with soil mass depth (kg m{sup -2}) was found and the distribution parameters for each month were determined. The minimum value of areal activity was 51 Bq m{sup -2} in August, reaching the maximum of 438 Bq m{sup -2} in February. The relaxation mass depth ranged from 2.9 kg m{sup -2} in March to 1.3 kg m{sup -2} in August. The confrontation of experimental measurements in soil with the estimated values using the model showed a good agreement

  17. Geological significance of componential characteristics of pyrite from Shibaqinghao gold deposit in central Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yihong Liang; Hongying Zhang; Yanhua Ma

    2006-01-01

    There are two types of gold ore in Shibaqinghao gold deposit, mylonite ore and quartz vein ore. Pyrite accompanying with native gold in mylonite ore has Fe from 43.66 to 45.32 wt% and S from 52.64 to 53.55 wt%. It is clear that this kind of pyrite is poor in both sulphur and iron. That means that the mylonite ore may be related to metamorphic water. Pyrite in the quartz vein ore has Fe from 44.38 to 45.30 wt% and S from 53.08 to 54.00 wt%. It means that this kind of pyrite is poor in iron but rich in sulphur, while the quartz vein ore may be related to magma water.

  18. On Restoring Sedimentary Basins for Post-Depositional Deformation - Paleozoic Basins of the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlburg, H.

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction and interpretation of sedimentary basins incorporated into folded and thrusted mountain belts is strongly limited by the style and intensity of shortening. This problem is exacerbated if deformation is polyphasic as is the case for the Paleozoic basins in the central Andes. Some of these have been deformed by folding and thrusting during at least 3 events in the Late Ordovician, the Late Paleozoic and Cenozoic. A realistic reconstruction of the original basin dimensions and geometries from outcrops and maps appears to be almost impossible. We present results of a stepwise reconstruction of the Paleozoic basins of the central Andes by restoring basin areas and fills accounting for crustal shortening. The structurally most prominent feature of the central Andes is the Bolivian Orocline which accomodated shortening in the last 45 Ma on the order of between 300 and 500 km. In a first step basins were restored by accounting for Cenozoic rotation and shortening by deconvolving the basins using an enhanced version of the oroclinal bending model of Ariagada et al. (2008). Results were then restored stepwise for older deformation. Constraints on these subsequent steps are significantly poorer as values of shortening can be derived only from folds and thusts apparent in outcrops. The amount of shortening accomodated on unexposed and therefore unknown thrusts can not be quantified and is a significant source of error very likely leading to an underestimation of the amount of shortening. Accepting these limitations, basin restoration results in an increase in basin area by ≥100%. The volumes of stratigraphically controlled basin fills can now be redistributed over the wider, restored area, translating into smaller rates of accumulation and hence required subsidence. The restored rates conform to those of equivalent modern basin settings and permit a more realistic and actualistic analysis of subsidence drivers and the respective tectonic framework.

  19. Copper isotope fractionation during sulfide-magma differentiation in the Tulaergen magmatic Ni-Cu deposit, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Symons, David T. A.; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, Yongqiang; Ke, Junjun

    2017-08-01

    Although it has been recently demonstrated that Cu isotope fractionation during mantle melting and basaltic magma differentiation is limited, the behavior of Cu isotopes during magmatic differentiation involving significant sulfide segregation remains unclear. Magmatic Ni-Cu deposits, which formed via sulfide segregation from basaltic or picritic magmas, are appropriate targets to address this issue. Here we report Cu isotope data for sulfides (chalcopyrite) from the Tulaergen Ni-Cu sulfide deposit in Xinjiang, NW China. Sulfides, including sparsely disseminated (hosted by hornblende gabbro), moderately disseminated (hosted by hornblende olivine websterite), densely disseminated (hosted by hornblende lherzolite) and massive sulfides (sandwiched between country rocks and mafic-ultramafic rocks), were collected from adits at 1050 m, 1100 m and 1150 m levels. The sparsely and moderately disseminated sulfides on 1150 m and 1050 m levels have a restricted range of δ65Cu values from - 0.38‰ to 0.15‰, whereas disseminated and massive sulfides on 1100 m level have δ65Cu values ranging widely from - 1.98‰ to - 0.04‰ and from - 1.08‰ to - 0.52‰, respectively. The δ65Cu values of disseminated sulfides are negatively correlated with whole-rock S and Cu concentrations, and sulfides formed at later stages have heavier δ65Cu values. These observations suggest significant Cu isotope fractionation during sulfide-magma differentiation above 600 °C. During the formation of the Tulaergen magmatic Ni-Cu deposit, sulfide segregation and crystallization of olivine and pyroxene caused the increase of Fe3 + contents in the residual magmas, which would move the redox reaction Cu+ + Fe3 + = Fe2 + + Cu2 + toward larger amounts of Cu2 + in the melt. The presence of Cu2 + in melt allowed redox transformation to happen during sulfide segregation. The residual magmas are enriched in heavy Cu isotopes due to the removal of 65Cu-depleted sulfides, and sulfides formed at later

  20. Regional tectonics, geology, magma chamber processes and mineralisation of the Jinchuan nickel-copper-PGE deposit, Gansu Province, China:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.M. Mike Porter

    2016-01-01

    The Jinchuan Ni-Cu-PGE deposit (>500 Mt@1.2%Ni, 0.7%Cu, w0.4 g/t PGE), one of the largest magmatic sulphide deposits in the world, is located within the westernmost terrane of the North China Craton. It is hosted within the 6.5 km long, Neoproterozoic (w0.83 Ga) Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion, emplaced as a sill-like body into a Palaeoproterozoic suite of gneisses, migmatites, marbles and amphibolites, below an active intracratonic rift. The parental magma was high-Mg basalt, generated through melting of sub-crustal lithospheric mantle by a mantle plume during the initiation of Rodinia supercontinent breakup. The lower Palaeozoic collision of the exotic Qilian Block with the breakup-related southern margin of the craton accreted a subduction complex, and emplaced voluminous granitic intrusions and foreland basin sequences within the craton, to as far north as Jinchuan. During the Cainozoic, allochthonous lower Palaeozoic rocks were thrust up to 300 km to the northeast over cratonic basement, to within 25 km of the Jinchuan deposit. The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion was injected into three interconnected sub-chambers, each containing a separate orebody. It essentially comprises an olivine-orthopyroxene-chromite cumulate, with interstitial orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and phlogopite, and is predominantly composed of lherzolite (w80%), with an outer rim of olivine pyroxenite and cores of mineralised dunite. Mineralisation occurs as disseminated and net-textured sulphides, predominantly within the dunite, with lesser, PGE rich lenses, late massive sulphide accumulations, small copper rich pods and limited mineralised diopside skarn in wall rock marbles. The principal ore minerals are pyrrhotite (the dominant sulphide), pentlandite, chalcopyrite, cubanite, mackinawite and pyrite, with a variety of platinum group minerals and minor gold. The deposit underwent significant post-magmatic tremolite-actinolite, chlorite, serpentine and magnetite alteration. The

  1. Global assessment of undiscovered copper resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Deposits, prospects, and permissive tracts for porphyry and sediment-hosted copper resources worldwide, with estimates of undiscovered copper resources. pCu_tracts...

  2. Caldera complex, hosted rocks and alteration of the Yandong porphyry copper deposit in Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang%新疆延东斑岩铜矿床火山机构、容矿岩石及热液蚀变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申萍; 潘鸿迪; 董连慧; 杨俊弢; 沈远超; 代华五; 关维娜; 赵云江

    2012-01-01

    延东斑岩铜矿床位于新疆东天山晚古生代大南湖岛弧中.延东矿区出露地层是石炭纪企鹅山组火山-沉积岩,我们研究提出延东矿区出露的火山-沉积岩以及浅成侵入岩为石炭纪火山喷发-岩浆侵入产物,并将其划分成两个旋回五个岩相:第一旋回包括溢流相(玄武岩和安山岩)、爆发相(集块角砾熔岩)和爆发-沉积相(凝灰岩);第二旋回包括次火山相(闪长玢岩和闪长岩)和浅成侵入相(斜长花岗斑岩).容矿岩石是次火山相的闪长玢岩和闪长岩以及浅成侵入相的斜长花岗斑岩.闪长玢岩发育中性斑岩蚀变系统,包括内部的绢云母-绿泥石蚀变带和绿泥石-绢云母蚀变带和外围的青磐岩化带,其中绢云母-绿泥石蚀变带控制本区部分富矿体的形成和分布;斜长花岗斑岩发育酸性斑岩蚀变系统,从中心向外依次为黄铁绢英岩化带、强绢云母化带和弱绢云母化带,黄铁绢英岩化带控制本区部分富矿体的形成和分布.这两个蚀变系统以钾硅酸盐化蚀变不发育和绢云母化广泛发育为特点.%Yandong large-size porphyry copper deposit is located in the Late Paleozoic Dananhu island arc in Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang. Lower Carboniferous Qi'eshan Group occurred in the Yandong region. New results recognize a volcanic apparatus at Yandong that includes two cycles comprising five lithofacies. The first cycle consists of the effusive ( basalt and andesite), explosive (auto-brecciated lava) and pyroclasrie phases (tuff). The second cycle is characterized by the intermediate and felsic intrusions. The intrusions, including the diorite porphyry, aplite diorite and plagiogranite porphyry, are ore-bearing intrusions. Both diorite porphyry (including aplite diorite)and plagiogranite porphyry host the bulk of the copper mineralization at Yandong and have been overprinted by the two distinct alteration systems. Diorite porphyry has been overprinted by three

  3. Temporal evolution of bacterial communities associated with the in situ wetland-based remediation of a marine shore porphyry copper tailings deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaby, N; Dold, B; Rohrbach, E; Holliger, C; Rossi, P

    2015-11-15

    Mine tailings are a serious threat to the environment and public health. Remediation of these residues can be carried out effectively by the activation of specific microbial processes. This article presents detailed information about temporal changes in bacterial community composition during the remediation of a section of porphyry copper tailings deposited on the Bahía de Ite shoreline (Peru). An experimental remediation cell was flooded and transformed into a wetland in order to prevent oxidation processes, immobilizing metals. Initially, the top oxidation zone of the tailings deposit displayed a low pH (3.1) and high concentrations of metals, sulfate, and chloride, in a sandy grain size geological matrix. This habitat was dominated by sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria, such as Leptospirillum spp., Acidithiobacillus spp., and Sulfobacillus spp., in a microbial community which structure resembled acid mine drainage environments. After wetland implementation, the cell was water-saturated, the acidity was consumed and metals dropped to a fraction of their initial respective concentrations. Bacterial communities analyzed by massive sequencing showed time-dependent changes both in composition and cell numbers. The final remediation stage was characterized by the highest bacterial diversity and evenness. Aside from classical sulfate reducers from the phyla δ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, community structure comprised taxa derived from very diverse habitats. The community was also characterized by an elevated proportion of rare phyla and unaffiliated sequences. Numerical ecology analysis confirmed that the temporal population evolution was driven by pH, redox, and K. Results of this study demonstrated the usefulness of a detailed follow-up of the remediation process, not only for the elucidation of the communities gradually switching from autotrophic, oxidizing to heterotrophic and reducing living conditions, but also for the long term management of the remediation

  4. 青海纳日贡玛斑岩钼(铜)矿床:蚀变%THE NARIGONGMA PORPHYRY MOLYBDENUM (-COPPER) DEPOSIT IN QINGHAI PROVINCE: Alteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞雄飞

    2012-01-01

    The Narigongma porphyry molybdenum (-copper) deposit in Southern Qinghai Province is located in the northern part of Yulong metallogenic belt. Research on the deposit recognizes three types of alteration in the orefield, i.e. K-silicate alteration (biotite-K feldspar), propylitic alteration (chlorite-epidote ± calcite) and feldspar-destructive alteration (sericite ± kaolin ± calcite ± anhydrite). The metallogenesis is closely related to the quartz-molybdenite ± anhydrite ± chalcopyrite ± pyrite vein and molybdenite ± pyrite ± chalcopyrite vein.%通过对纳日贡玛斑岩钼(铜)矿床的蚀变类型的详细研究,识别了矿床蚀变的3种主要类型:钾硅酸盐化、青磐岩化和长石分解蚀变.前二者为矿区早期形成的蚀变,长石分解蚀变形成于晚期.钾硅酸盐化蚀变主要以黑云母化、钾长石化为特征,青磐岩化以脉状绿泥石、绿帘石、方解石等蚀变矿物的发育为基本特征,长石分解蚀变则发育绢云母、高岭土、方解石、硬石膏等矿物.研究认为矿化与石英-辉钼矿±硬石膏±黄铜矿±黄铁矿脉、辉钼矿±黄铁矿±黄铜矿脉有较为密切的联系.

  5. Gold deposit styles and placer gold characterisation in northern and east-central Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitfield, Peter E. J; Styles, Michael T.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Key, Roger M.; Bauer,; Ralison, A

    2009-01-01

    Microchemical characterisation of bedrock and placer gold grains from six gold districts within the Archaean domains and intervening Neoproterozoic Anaboriana-Manampotsy belt of northern and east-central Madagascar show few opaque inclusions (e.g pyrrhotite, Bi tellurides) but wide range of Ag contents (40wt%). Some districts exhibit multiple source populations of grains. The ‘greenstone belt’ terranes have an orogenic gold signature locally with an intrusion-related to epithermal overprint. Proterozoic metasediments with felsic to ultramafic bodies yield dominantly intrusion-related gold. A high proportion of secondary gold (<0.5wt% Ag) is related to recycling of paleoplacers and erosion of post-Gondwana planation surfaces and indicates that some mesothermal gold systems were already partially to wholly removed by erosion by the PermoTriassic.

  6. 沉积岩型层状铜矿床研究进展%Research Progresses on Sediment-hosted Stratiform Copper Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玄; 范宏瑞; 胡芳芳; 杨奎锋; 邱正杰

    2015-01-01

    沉积岩型层状铜矿床是全球第二重要的铜矿类型,重要性仅次于斑岩型铜矿床。并且,它们常伴生一定规模的钴、银、铅、锌、铀、金、铂族元素等其他金属资源。其矿体通常呈层状、似层状发育在沉积盆地的还原性岩石或地层中。大多数沉积岩型层状铜矿床形成于围岩的成岩作用或者成岩晚阶段,但也经常会受到成矿后变质作用、变形作用的改造,发生成矿物质的活化—再沉淀。原生成矿作用的发生通常要经历成矿流体(低温、中—高盐度、含硫)在矿体下盘的红层中持续、长期的循环,萃取铜等金属元素,随后沿着盆地边界断裂迁移至盆地还原性地层中或者被迁移的还原性物质(石油、天然气)还原而发生铜等成矿物质的沉淀。超大规模的层状铜矿化可能对应地球地质历史时期特殊的地质事件和地质条件,其中包括超大陆裂解、炎热干旱的古气候、大氧化事件以及冰期和富镁的海洋等。%Sediment-hosted Stratiform Copper Deposits (SSC ) are one of the most important copper suppliers around the world and are also significant sources for Co,Ag,Pb,Zn,U,Ag and PGE.They normally occur as sulfide disseminates in restricted layers within a sedimentary sequence but do not necessarily follow sedimentary bedding.Most SSCs are formed during or at the late stage of host rock lithification (diagenesis ) by low temperature,intermediate to high salinity and sulfur-rich basinal fluids which circulated in the footwall red bed sequences so as to acquire ore-forming elements such as Cu and S.Metal (copper)precipitation is primarily induced by chemical reduction of the upward-migrating basinal fluids by in-situ reductant in the hanging wall sediments or mobile hydrocarbon within the red beds.Some of them may have been altered and remobilized during regional deformation or metamorphism later on.Supergiant sediment-hosted copper

  7. Atmospheric deposition of beryllium in Central Europe: comparison of soluble and insoluble fractions in rime and snow across a pollution gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohdalkova, Leona; Novak, Martin; Voldrichova, Petra; Prechova, Eva; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Erbanova, Lucie; Krachler, Michael; Komarek, Arnost; Mikova, Jitka

    2012-11-15

    Little is known about atmospheric input of beryllium (Be) into ecosystems, despite its highly toxic behavior. For three consecutive winters (2009-2011), we measured Be concentrations in horizontal deposition (rime) and vertical deposition (snow) at 10 remote mountain-top locations in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Beryllium was determined both in filtered waters, and in HF digests of insoluble particles. Across the sites, soluble Be concentrations in rime were 7 times higher, compared to snow (6.1 vs. 0.9ng·L(-1)). Rime scavenged the pollution-rich lower segments of clouds. The lowest Be concentrations were detected in the soluble fraction of snow. Across the sites, 34% of total Be deposition occurred in the form of soluble (bioavailable) Be, the rest were insoluble particles. Beryllium fluxes decreased in the order: vertical dry deposition insoluble>vertical dry deposition soluble>horizontal deposition soluble>vertical wet deposition insoluble>vertical wet deposition soluble>horizontal deposition insoluble. The average contributions of these Be forms to total deposition were 56, 21, 8, 7, 5 and 3%, respectively. Sites in the northeast were more Be-polluted than the rest of the country with sources of pollution in industrial Silesia.

  8. [Environmental significance of wet deposition composition in the central Qilian Mountains, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zong-jie; Li, Zong-xing; Tian, Qing; Song, Ling-ling; Jia, Bing; Guo, Rui; Song, Yao-xuan; Su, Suo-nan; Han, Chun-tan

    2014-12-01

    A total of 90 precipitation samples were collected from individual precipitation events at the Qilian Alpine Ecology & Hydrology Research Station (Hulugou Station, 30 degrees 47'N, 90 degrees 58'E; 3 260 m a. s. l) located in the central Qilian Mountains from August 2012 to November 2013. All samples were analyzed for major cations (Na, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), anions (Cl- , NO3- and SO4(2-)) and conductivity. Precipitation EC values ranged from 2.26 to 482 μS x cm(-1) with an average value of 41.9 μS x cm(-1). The precipitation was of SO4(2-) -Mg(2+) -Ca2+ type, which contributed > 70% to the total ionic concentration. The same as the precipitation alkalinity, precipitation events occurred around summer showed lower concentrations, while it had higher concentrations in winter and spring with little precipitation and larger wind speed. Enrichment factor (EF), correlation and factor analysis indicated that regional crustal aerosols and species from central Asian and northwestern China arid regions brought by the westerly circulation were the major sources for these ions, some dust from human pollution were the secondary sources, and the contribution of sea salt was the least due to the long distance transport. These characteristics could be also confirmed by the correlation between ionic concentrations and metrological data in the study region. It is also interesting that the precipitation chemistry was different under the different atmospheric circulation: the monsoon precipitation, the interaction precipitation events ( influenced both by monsoon and westerly) and the westerly precipitation.

  9. Pb Isotope Compositions of Shibaqinghao Gold Deposit in Central Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongying; LIANG Yibo

    2002-01-01

    There are two types of gold ore in Shibaqinghao gold deposit, a mylonite ore and a quartz - vein ore. Pb isotope compositions for mylonite ore are characterized by lower Pb isotope ratios ranging from 16.63 to 17.45 (206Pb/204Pb), 15.31 to15.48 (207Pb/204pb), 36.52 to 38.85 (208Pb/204Pb). They are scattered very close to a model curve of the mantle evolution. These ratios suggest that gold in the mylonite ore might be derived from the country rocks, which originated directly in the upper mantle. Pb isotope compositions for quartz - vein ore are characterized by higher Pb isotope ratios ranging from 18.23 to 19.74 (206Pb/204Pb), 15.69 to 15.89 (207Pb/204Pb), 38.64 to 40. 13 (208Pb/204Pb). They are scattered very close to a model curve of the upper crustal evolution. These facts indicate that the gold in the quartz - vein ore might be related to some granitic magma generated in the crust.

  10. Paleoclimatic significance of Late Quaternary eolian deposition on the Piedmont and High Plains, Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Steven L.; Oglesby, Robert; Markgraf, Vera; Stafford, Thomas

    1995-06-01

    Presently stabilized dune systems on the piedmont of eastern Colorado and adjacent High Plains have been repeatedly re-activated during the past 20,000 years. Radiocarbon and thermoluminescence age estimates indicate eolian activity late in the last glacial cycle ca. 20,000-12,000 yr B.P. and subsequent episodes of dune reactivation at ca. 6000, 4500 and 1000 yr B.P. Pollen analysis from aggraded buried soil A horizons show a shift from grasses and shrubs to goosefoot, a disturbance indicator. The association of maximum goosefoot levels with the coarsest part of the buried A horizon immediately prior to burial by eolian sand indicates a substantial reduction in grass and dominance of shrubs with onset of eolian activity. The vegetation change and eolian depositional sequence indicates a reduction in plant coverage with regional drought, possibly augmented by bison grazing and surface heating effects. We infer an increase in summer monsoonal precipitation between 13,000 and 9000 yr B.P. reflecting a heightened land-to-sea temperature gradient associated with rising summer solar-insolation values and a meltwater cooled Gulf of Mexico. Dune reactivation in the middle and late Holocene appears to be independent of summer insolation values, but rather reflects a small (< 10°) easterly shift of the Bermuda High and western ridge aloft, difficult parameters to link to a cause and to resolve with climate models.

  11. Sedimentology and hydrocarbon habitat of the submarine-fan deposits of the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin (NE Slovakia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotak, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia). Geological Institute; Pereszlenyi, M. [VVNP Research Oil Company for Exploration and Production, Bratislava (Slovakia); Marschalko, R.; Starek, D. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Geological Institute; Milicka, J. [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Geochemistry

    2001-01-01

    The Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin accommodates a subsiding area of the destructive plate-margin. The basin history comprises marginal faulting and alluvial fan accumulation (E{sub 2}); transgressive onlap by shoreface sediments and carbonate platform deposits (E{sub 2}); glacio-eustatic regression induced by cooling (Terminal Eocene Event); forced regression, tectonic subsidence and growth-fault accumulation of basin-floor and slope fans (E{sub 3}); decelerating subsidence, aggradation and sea-level rising during the mud-rich deposition (O{sub 1}); high-magnitude drop in sea-level (Mid-Oligocene Event), retroarc backstep of depocenters and lowstand accumulation of sand-rich fans and suprafans (O{sub 2}-M{sub 1}); subduction-related shortening and basin inversion along the northern margins affected by backthrusting and transpressional deformation (O{sub 2}-M{sub 1}). The basin-fill sequence has poor (TOC {<=} 0.5%) to fair (TOC < 1.0%) quality of source rocks. Maturity of OM ranges from initial to relic stage of HC generation. Paleogene rock-extracts display a good correlation with scarce trapped oils. 'The presence of solid bitumens and HC-rich fluid inclusions indicates overpressure conditions during HC generation and migration. Potential HC reservoirs can be expected in porous lithologies (scarp breccias), in basement highs and traps related to backthrusting, fault-propagation folding and strike-slip tectonics. (author)

  12. Tropical/subtropical Upper Paleocene Lower Eocene fluvial deposits in eastern central Patagonia, Chile (46°45'S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, M.; de la Cruz, R.; Troncoso, A.

    2000-11-01

    A succession of quartz-rich fluvial sandstones and siltstones derived from a mainly rhyolitic source and minor metamorphic rocks, located to the west, represent the first Upper Paleocene-Early Eocene deposits described in Chilean eastern central Patagonian Cordillera (46°45'S). This unit, exposed 25 km south of Chile Chico, south of lago General Carrera, is here defined as the Ligorio Márquez Formation. It overlies with an angular unconformity Lower Cretaceous shallow marine sedimentary rocks (Cerro Colorado Formation) and subaerial tuffs that have yielded K-Ar dates of 128, 125 and 123 Ma (Flamencos Tuffs, of the Divisadero Group). The Ligorio Márquez Formation includes flora indicative of a tropical/subtropical climate, and its deposition took place during the initial part of the Late Paleocene-Early Eocene Cenozoic optimum. The underlying Lower Cretaceous units exhibit folding and faulting, implying a pre-Paleocene-Lower Eocene contractional tectonism. Overlying Oligocene-Miocene marine and continental facies in the same area exhibit thrusts and normal faults indicative of post-Lower Miocene contractional tectonism.

  13. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath Late Miocene explosive volcanic products in NW central Anatolia, Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet Şener

    2007-04-01

    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ash (from 32 to 58%) and sulphur (from 1.43 to 3.03%) lignite which is petrographically characterised by a high humunite content. The mineral matter of the studied lignite samples is made up of mainly clay minerals (illite–smectite and kaolinite), plagioclase and quartz in Bolu coal field, clay minerals (illite–smectite, smectite and illite), quartz, calcite, plagioclase and gypsum in Seben coal field, quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) in Kıbrıscık, and dolomite, quartz, clinoptilolite, opal CT and gypsum in C¸ amlıdere coal field. The differences in these four types of lignite with specific mineralogical patterns may be due to the explosive volcanic events and depositional conditions which changed from one coal field to the others. There is a zonation from SW to SE in the studied area for zeolites such as Opal CT+smectite-clinoptilolite-analcime-K-feldspar. Carbonate minerals are commonly calcite in Seben and Kıbrıscık coal fields. In Bolu, coal samples are devoid of calcite and dolomite. These analyses show that there is an increase in the amount of Mg and a decrease in the amount of Na from the northwestern part to the southern part in the study area.

  14. A 90 m-thick coal seam in the Lubstow lignite deposit (Central Poland): palynological analysis and sedimentary environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durska, E. [University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland). Faculty of Geology

    2008-07-01

    A 90 m-thick brown coal seam, the result of organic matter deposition in a fault-trough, is exploited in an open cast mine at Lubstow (Central Poland). Palynological analysis was conducted in order to determine which plants were the source of organic matter forming such a thick coal bed. The pollen spectrum is dominated by the gymnosperm pollen Inaperturopollenites, produced by trees closely related to the extant genera Taxodium and Glyptostrobus, the dominant constituents of swamp forests in SE North America and SE Asia today. However the lack of xylites and preserved tissues in the coal does not support the conception of a swamp forest as the peat-producing community. There is also significant percentage of angiosperm pollen in the coal, mainly from the groups: Castaneoideapollis, Tricolporopollenites exactus and T. pseudocingulum. The plants producing these pollen were probably the main constitutent of the peat-producing community. The community shows signs of a shrub swamp with local tree islands and a low water table. Evidence for this also includes the detrital type of coal, the lack of preserved plant tissues and the presence of fungal remains. The characteristics show the existence of aerobic zones at the time of peat production. The peat was probably derived from angiosperms. Dome-shaped forms in the upper part of the deposit are the remains of tree islands. As detritus accumulation is very on the surfaces of present-day tree islands, a similar rate of deposition may have taken place during peat production at Lubstow. This, combined with subsidence in the fault-through, explains the great thickness of the coal bed.

  15. Formation of Hierarchical CuO Nanostructures on Copper Foil by Chemical Bath Deposition for Applications in Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felizco Jenichi Clairvaux

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical CuO nanostructures (urchin-like and grassy island structure were successfully synthesized by a simple chemical bath deposition method at low temperature of 70°C in a short reaction time of 1h. XRD analysis revealed the presence of pure crystalline monoclinic CuO. Morphological analysis revealed the formation of spherical structures composed of numerous hair-like structures. The pH of the solution was also investigated to have a great effect on the morphology of the CuO nanostructures. At lower pH, the structures tend to form urchin-like structures; while at higher pH, the structures tend to form grass-like islands. A growth mechanism was also proposed in this paper. Lastly, wettability test proved the stable superhydrophobic property of the CuO nanostructured thin film surface.

  16. Characterization and Gas Sensing Properties of Copper-doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxia ZHAI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide-based thin films are deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technology, in which Cu addition is introduced to enhance the gas sensing performance by H2S detection. The thin films are porous and comprise nano-sized crystallites. One of the Cu-containing thin film sensors demonstrates a fast and significant response to H2S gas. The values of power law exponent n are calculated to discuss the sensitivity of the sensors, which is significantly promoted by Cu additive. The sensitivity of Cu-doped SnO2 gas sensors is determined by two mechanisms. One is the normal gas sensing mechanism of SnO2 grains, and the other is the promoted mechanism caused by the transformation between CuO and CuS in the H2S detection. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.12917

  17. A Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition Study Around the Lead and Copper-Zinc Smelters in Baia Mare, Romania, Employing the Moss Biomonitoring Technique, ENAA and FAAS

    CERN Document Server

    Culicov, O A; Steinnes, E; Okina, O S; Santa, Z; Todoran, R

    2001-01-01

    The mosses Pleurozium schreberi, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus were used as biomonitors to study the atmospheric deposition of metals around the lead and copper-zinc smelters in Baia Mare. Samples representing the last three years' growth of moss or its green part, collected on the ground at 28 sites located 2-20 km from the source area, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) and by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). A total of 30 elements were determined, including most of the heavy metals known to be released into the air from this kind of industry. Obtained concentrations for As and Cu are comparable with those observed in Karabash, South Ural Mountains, one of the most polluted regions in Europe. Besides, these two elements correlate very well with each other. The mean values for Zn (136 ppm) and Pb (41 ppm) are substantially higher than those normally found in the literature. The highest value for Pb (175 ppm) was obs...

  18. Effect of copper doping on structural, optical and electrical properties of Cd0.8Zn0.2S films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Hadasa; G Yellaiah; M Nagabhushanam

    2014-02-01

    Cd0.8Zn0.2S:Cu films of 1.3–6.1 mole percentage of copper have been grown on mica substrate by using chemical bath deposition technique. The films have been characterized by using XRD, SEM and UV spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the films are polycrystalline. The average crystallite size as measured from XRD data is in the range of 125–130 nm. The activation energies of Cd0.8Zn0.2S:Cu films, as observed from d.c. conductivity studies in the temperature range (77–300 K) studied, decreased with the increase in Cu concentration. The optical absorption studies have revealed that the energy gap increases gradually with an increase in Cu concentration, whereas conductivity studies have shown an anomalous increase in conductivity in films of 3.8 mole percentage of Cu. SEM pictures have revealed the presence of defects with spherical structure having fibre network. The variation of electrical conductivity is explained based on the defects present and by adopting tunneling mechanism.

  19. Numerical simulations of energy deposition caused by 50 MeV—50 TeV proton beams in copper and graphite targets

    CERN Document Server

    Nie, Y; Chetvertkova, V; Rosell-Tarrago, G; Burkart, F; Wollmann, D

    2017-01-01

    The conceptual design of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) is being carried out actively in an international collaboration hosted by CERN, for the post–Large Hadron Collider (LHC) era. The target center-of-mass energy of proton-proton collisions for the FCC is 100 TeV, nearly an order of magnitude higher than for LHC. The existing CERN accelerators will be used to prepare the beams for FCC. Concerning beam-related machine protection of the whole accelerator chain, it is critical to assess the consequences of beam impact on various accelerator components in the cases of controlled and uncontrolled beam losses. In this paper, we study the energy deposition of protons in solid copper and graphite targets, since the two materials are widely used in magnets, beam screens, collimators, and beam absorbers. Nominal injection and extraction energies in the hadron accelerator complex at CERN were selected in the range of 50 MeV–50 TeV. Three beam sizes were studied for each energy, corresponding to typical values ...

  20. Regional tectonics, geology, magma chamber processes and mineralisation of the Jinchuan nickel-copper-PGE deposit, Gansu Province, China: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. (Mike Porter

    2016-05-01

    The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion was injected into three interconnected sub-chambers, each containing a separate orebody. It essentially comprises an olivine-orthopyroxene-chromite cumulate, with interstitial orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and phlogopite, and is predominantly composed of lherzolite (∼80%, with an outer rim of olivine pyroxenite and cores of mineralised dunite. Mineralisation occurs as disseminated and net-textured sulphides, predominantly within the dunite, with lesser, PGE rich lenses, late massive sulphide accumulations, small copper rich pods and limited mineralised diopside skarn in wall rock marbles. The principal ore minerals are pyrrhotite (the dominant sulphide, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, cubanite, mackinawite and pyrite, with a variety of platinum group minerals and minor gold. The deposit underwent significant post-magmatic tremolite-actinolite, chlorite, serpentine and magnetite alteration. The volume of the Jinchuan intrusion accounts for <3% of the total parental magma required to generate the contained olivine and sulphide. It is postulated that mafic melt, intruded into the lower crust, hydraulically supported by density contrast buoyancy from below the Moho, ponded in a large staging chamber, where crystallisation and settling formed a lower sulphide rich mush. This mush was subsequently injected into nearby shallow dipping faults to form the Jinchuan intrusion.

  1. Synthesis of PVP stabilized Cu/Pd nanoparticles with citrate complexing agent and its application as an activator for electroless copper deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Sylvia H Y; Wang, Yung-Yun; Wan, Chi-Chao

    2007-06-01

    A simple method has been developed to synthesize Cu/Pd nanoparticles in aqueous solution in ambient condition with the addition of complexing agent, trisodium citrate. UV-vis spectra confirmed the complexing behavior of trisodium citrate and metal ions. The particles synthesized with trisodium citrate were well dispersed with particle size ranging between 3-4 nm while the particles without trisodium citrate were larger and aggregated, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) indicated the formation of bimetallic nanoparticles without impurities in the complexing agent-supplemented system. In contrast, large amounts of PdO and Cu(OH)(2) were precipitated along with the formation of particles in the complexing agent-free system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed small amounts of oxidized Pd on the surface of particles and the existence of zerovalent Cu and oxidized Cu in particles with trisodium citrate. With a simpler process for electroless copper deposition, the Cu/Pd nanoparticle activator with less Pd metal used exhibited comparable catalytic activity to conventional Pd/Sn colloidal activator. In summary, application of Cu/Pd nanoparticles synthesized with the complexing agent as an activator suggested a novel, simpler and inexpensive process in PCB industry.

  2. Systematic sulfur stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies on veinlet groups in the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit: based on new data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineralization occurred by intrusion of granodioritic stock of middle Miocene in volcano–sedimenrary rocks in Sarcheshmeh of early Tertiary age. This research is based on samples of new drilled boreholes and benches of 2500m elevation. Based on mineralogy and crosscutting relationships, at least four groups of veinlets pertaining to four stages of mineralization were recognized. Sulfur isotope studies in the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit were conducted on pyrite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite and anhydrites of four groups of veinlets. The δ34S values in the sulfides and sulfates range from -2.2 to 1.27‰ and from 10.2 to 14.5 ‰, respectively. The average δ34S value in the sulfides is 1‰ and that for the sulfates is about 13‰. Considering these results, it can be concluded that the sulfides made up of a fluid that its sulfur has a magmatic origin. Also, fluid inclusions of different veinlet groups were studied, showing high temperature, high salinity and the occurrence of boiling in the mineralizing fluids. Moreover, these studies indicate presence of three types of fluids including magmatic, meteoritic and mixture of these two fluids in alteration and mineralizion processes.

  3. A deposit scale mineral prospectivity analysis: A comparison of various knowledge-driven approaches for porphyry copper targeting in Seridune, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Maysam; Mostafavi Kashani, Seyed Bagher; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain; Yousefi, Mahyar

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an application of a knowledge-driven mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM) approach so-called ;the evidential belief functions (EBFs) using Dempster-Shafer's rule of combination; is proposed. This technique is used to weight and integrate a large scale exploration dataset in order to localize prospects for definition of further exploration drilling sites. In this study, exploration datasets of Seridune copper deposit in the Kerman province, SE Iran used for the methodology. In this regard, geophysical evidence layers extracted from interpretation of magnetic and electrical surveys, geological evidence layers derived via the geological datasets (i.e. lithology, fault and alteration), and geochemical evidence maps were generated and integrated for MPM. Furthermore, various MPM approaches including outranking, index overlay and fuzzy logic methods were examined for comparison with the introduced method. To evaluate and compare the efficiency of the methods, the productivity of the drilled boreholes (Cu concentration multiplied by its ore thickness along each drilled borehole) was used to validate the generated prospectivity models. The results showed higher efficiency of the Dempster-Shafer's model in comparison with the prospectivity models generated using other MPM approaches.

  4. Lead-isotopic, sulphur-isotopic, and trace-element studies of galena from the Silesian-Cracow Zn-Pb ores, polymetallic veins from the Gory Swietokrzyskie MTS, and the Myszkow porphyry copper deposit, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Vaughn, R.B.; Gent, C.A.; Hopkins, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    Lead-isotopic data on galena samples collected from a paragenetically constrained suite of samples from the Silesian-Cracow ore district show no regional or paragenetically controlled lead-isotopic trends within the analytical reproducibility of the measurements. Furthermore, the new lead-isotopic data agree with previously reported lead-isotopic results (R. E. Zartman et al., 1979). Sulfur-isotopic analyses of ores from the Silesian-Cracow district as well as from vein ore from the Gory Swietokrzyskie Mts. and the Myszkow porphyry copper deposit, when coupled with trace-element data from the galena samples, clearly discriminate different hydrothermal ore-forming events. Lead-isotopic data from the Permian and Miocene evaporite deposits in Poland indicate that neither of these evaporite deposits were a source of metals for the Silesian-Cracow district ores. Furthermore, lead-isotopic data from these evaporite deposits and the shale residues from the Miocene halite samples indicate that the crustal evolution of lead in the central and western European platform in southern Poland followed normal crustal lead-isotopic growth, and that the isotopic composition of crustal lead had progressed beyond the lead-isotopic composition of lead in the Silesian-Cracow ores by Permian time. Thus, Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary flysch rocks can be eliminated as viable source rocks for the metals in the Silesian-Cracow Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits. The uniformity of the isotopic composition of lead in the Silesian-Cracow ores, when coupled with the geologic evidence that mineralization must post-date Late Jurassic faulting (E. Gorecka, 1991), constrains the geochemical nature of the source region. The source of the metals is probably a well-mixed, multi-cycle molasse sequence of sedimentary rocks that contains little if any Precambrian metamorphic or granitic clasts (S. E. Church, R. B. Vaughn, 1992). If ore deposition was post Late Jurassic (about 150 m. y.) or later

  5. Mineralogical and isotopic characterization of graphite deposits from the Anatectic Complex of Toledo, central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Méndez, Iván; Boixereu, Ester; Villaseca, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Graphite is found dispersed in high-grade metapelitic rocks of the Anatectic Complex of Toledo (ACT) and was mined during the mid twentieth century in places where it has been concentrated (Guadamur and la Puebla de Montalbán mines). Some samples from these mines show variable but significant alteration intensity, reaching very low-T hydrothermal (supergene) conditions for some samples from the waste heap of the Guadamur site (<100 °C and 1 kbar). Micro-Raman and XRD data indicate that all the studied ACT graphite is of high crystallinity irrespective of the degree of hydrothermal alteration. Chemical differences were obtained for graphite δ13C composition. ACT granulitic graphite shows δ13CPDB values in the range of -20.5 to -27.8 ‰, indicating a biogenic origin. Interaction of graphite with hydrothermal fluids does not modify isotopic compositions even in the most transformed samples from mining sites. The different isotopic signatures of graphite from the mining sites reflect its contrasted primary carbon source. The high crystallinity of studied graphite makes this area of central Spain suitable for graphitic exploration and its potential exploitation, due to the low carbon content required for its viability and its strategic applications in advanced technologies, such as graphene synthesis.

  6. Monitoring deterioration of vegetation cover in the vicinity of smelting industry, using statistical methods and TM and ETM(+) imageries, Sarcheshmeh copper complex, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastmanesh, F; Moore, F; Kharrati-Kopaei, M; Behrouz, M

    2010-04-01

    Simple statistical methods on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and bands 3 and 4 data of relatively coarse resolution Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM(+)) imageries were used to investigate the impacts of air pollution on the deterioration of the vegetation cover in the Sarcheshmeh copper complex of central Iran. Descriptive statistics and k-means cluster analysis indicated that vegetation deterioration had already started in the prevailing wind directions. The results show that combination of simple statistical methods and satellite imageries can be used as effective monitoring tools to indicate vegetation stress even in regions of sparse vegetation. Despite various possible perturbing factors upon NDVI, this index remains to be a valuable quantitative vegetation monitoring tool.

  7. Fabrication and Characterization of Metallic Copper and Copper Oxide Nanoflowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *H. S. Virk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Copper nanoflowers have been fabricated using two different techniques; electro-deposition of copper in polymer and anodic alumina templates, and cytyltrimethal ammonium bromide (CTAB-assisted hydrothermal method. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM images record some interesting morphologies of metallic copper nanoflowers. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM has been used to determine morphology and composition of copper oxide nanoflowers. X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern reveals the monoclinic phase of CuO in the crystallographic structure of copper oxide nanoflowers. There is an element of random artistic design of nature, rather than science, in exotic patterns of nanoflowers fabricated in our laboratory.

  8. Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition of Methane to Carbon Nanotubes: Copper Promoted Effect of Ni/MgO Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ni/MgO and Ni-Cu/MgO catalysts were prepared by sol-gel method and used as the catalysts for synthesis of carbon nanotubes by thermal chemical vapor deposition. The effect of Cu on the carbon yield and structure was investigated, and the effects of calcination temperature and reaction temperature were also investigated. The catalysts and synthesized carbon materials were characterized by temperature programmed reduction (TPR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results showed that the addition of Cu promoted the reduction of nickel species, subsequently improving the growth and yield of CNTs. Meanwhile, CNTs were synthesized by the Ni/MgO and Ni-Cu/MgO catalysts with various calcination temperatures and reaction temperatures, and results suggested that the obtained CNTs on Ni-Cu/MgO catalyst with the calcination temperature of 500°C and the reaction temperature of 650°C were of the greatest yield and quantity of 927%.

  9. Plasma rotation and NTM onset driven by central EC deposition in TCV tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.; Lazzaro, E. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, Eurat