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Sample records for copper deficiency myelopathy

  1. Case of sensory ataxic ganglionopathy-myelopathy in copper deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Gabriella; Grassivaro, Francesca; Brocadello, Filippo; Manara, Renzo; Pesenti, Francesco Francini

    2009-02-15

    Spinal cord involvement associated with severe copper deficiency has been reported in the last 8 years. Copper deficiency may produce an ataxic myelopathy. Clinical and neuroimaging findings are similar to the subacute combined degeneration seen in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency. Macrocytic, normocytic and microcytic anemia, leukopenia and, in severe cases, pancytopenia are well known hematologic manifestations. The most patients with copper deficiency myelopathy had unrecognized carency. Some authors suggested that early recognition and copper supplementation may prevent neurologic deterioration but clinical findings do not improve. We present a patient with copper deficiency, dorsal root ganglions and cervical dorsal columns involvement. Clinical status and neuroimaging improved after copper replacement therapy. Sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia may be the most sensitive nervous pathway. In this case the early copper treatment allowed to improve neurologic lesions and to prevent further involvements.

  2. Subacute copper-deficiency myelopathy in a patient with occult celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallieri, Francesco; Fini, Nicola; Contardi, Sara; Fiorini, Massimo; Corradini, Elena; Valzania, Franco

    2017-07-01

    Acquired copper deficiency represents a rare cause of progressive myelopathy presenting with sensory ataxia and spastic gait. The time interval from neurological symptoms onset to diagnosis of myelopathy ranges from 2 months to several years in almost all cases, mimicking the clinical course of subacute combined degeneration due to vitamin B12 deficiency. A 60-year-old man, without any gastrointestinal symptoms, developed over the course of one week rapidly progressive gait imbalance, tingling and numbness in his feet and ascending lower limb weakness. Spine magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintensity involving cervical and dorsal posterior columns of spinal cord. Blood analysis revealed undetectable serum copper levels, low serum ceruloplasmin and positive serum Immunoglobulin A anti-tissue transglutaminase. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed revealing duodenal villous atrophy consistent with a malabsorption pattern. A gluten-free diet in association with intravenous then oral copper supplementation prompted sustained normalization of serum copper levels and progressive clinical improvement. We report a rare case of myelopathy induced by copper deficiency secondary to undiagnosed celiac disease, peculiarly presenting with a subacute onset. This case expands the neurological presentation and clinical course of myelopathy due to acquired copper deficiency. We suggest investigation of copper deficiency in patients presenting with subacute or even acute sensory ataxia and spastic gait. Detection of hypocupremia in patients without a previous history of gastric surgery should lead to diagnostic testing for celiac disease even in the absence of any obvious gastrointestinal symptoms.

  3. Clinical, physiological and pathological characterisation of the sensory predominant peripheral neuropathy in copper deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sean W; Laughlin, Ruple S; Kumar, Neeraj; Goodman, Brent; Klein, Christopher J; Dyck, Peter J; Dyck, P James B

    2017-10-01

    Myelopathy is considered the most common neurological complication of copper deficiency. Concurrent peripheral neuropathy has been recognised in association with copper deficiency but has not been well characterised. To characterise the clinical, physiological and pathological features of copper-deficient peripheral neuropathy. Patients with simultaneous copper deficiency (peripheral neuropathy seen at the Mayo Clinic from 1985 to 2005 were identified. 34 patients were identified (median age 55 years, range 36-78) including 24 women and 10 men. Myelopathy was found in 21 patients. Median serum copper level was 0.11 μg/mL (range 0-0.58). The most frequent clinical and electrophysiological pattern of neuropathy was a sensory predominant length-dependent peripheral neuropathy (71%). Somatosensory evoked potentials demonstrated central slowing supporting myelopathy (96%). Quantitative sensory testing demonstrated both small and large fibre involvement (100%). Autonomic reflex screens (77%) and thermoregulatory sweat test (67%) confirmed sudomotor dysfunction. 14 cutaneous nerve biopsies revealed loss of myelinated nerve fibres (86%), increased regenerative clusters (50%), increased rates of axonal degeneration (91%) and increased numbers of empty nerve strands (73%). 71% of biopsies demonstrated epineurial perivascular inflammation. An axonal, length-dependent sensory predominant peripheral neuropathy causing sensory ataxia is characteristic of copper deficiency usually co-occurring with myelopathy. Neurophysiological testing confirms involvement of large, greater than small fibres. The pathological findings suggest axonal degeneration and repair. Inflammatory infiltrates are common but are small and of doubtful pathological significance. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.J.; de Goeij, J.J.M.; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (<1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  5. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, G.J. van den; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendruiks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (< 1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  6. Normal macrophage function in copper deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukasewycz, O.A.; Kolquist, K.L.; Prohaska, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Copper deficiency (-Cu) was produced in C57 BL and C58 mice by feeding a low copper diet (modified AIN-76A) from birth. Mice given supplemental copper in the drinking water (+Cu) served as controls. Copper status was monitored by assay of ceruloplasmin (CP) activity. Macrophages (M0) were obtained from matched +Cu and -Cu male 7 week-old mice by peritoneal lavage 3 days after thioglycollate stimulation. M0 were assayed in terms of lipopolysaccharide-induced hexose monophosphate shunt activity by monitoring 14 CO 2 production from [1- 14 C]-glucose and by the determination of phagocytic index using fluorescein labelled latex bead ingestion. M0 from -Cu mice were equivalent to those of +Cu mice in both these parameters. However, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome oxidase activities were both significantly lower in -Cu M0, confirming a functional copper deficiency. Previous results from this laboratory have shown that -Cu mice have a decreased antibody response to sheep erythrocyte antigens and a diminished reactivity to B and T cell mitogens. These immunological insufficiencies appear to be proportional to the severity of copper depletion as determined by CP levels. Furthermore, -Cu lymphocytes exhibit depressed mixed lymphocyte reactivity consistent with alterations at the membrane surface. The present results suggest that M0/monocytes are less severely affected than lymphocytes in copper deficiency states

  7. Biotinidase deficiency presenting as recurrent myelopathy in a 7-year-old boy and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raha, Sarbani; Udani, Vrajesh

    2011-10-01

    Biotinidase deficiency may produce variable neurologic manifestations. Brainstem and spinal cord disease comprises an uncommon presentation of biotinidase deficiency. We describe a 7-year old boy with subacute progressive quadriplegia and "sighing" respirations. Severe biotinidase deficiency was established, and the patient demonstrated complete recovery with biotin supplementation. Genetic studies revealed presence of homozygous mutation in the BTD gene [c.133C>T (p.H447Y)]. Biotinidase deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis for subacute, long segment myelopathy, particularly with brainstem involvement. This entity is treatable; a high index of suspicion can be life-saving. We also review the literature on biotinidase deficiency presenting as spinal cord demyelinating disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinically distinct presentations of copper deficiency myeloneuropathy and cytopenias in a patient using excessive zinc-containing denture adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Sahara J; Sofronescu, Alina G

    2017-08-01

    While copper deficiency has long been known to cause cytopenias, copper deficiency myeloneuropathy is a more recently described entity. Here, we present the case of two clinically distinct presentations of acquired copper deficiency syndromes secondary to excessive use of zinc-containing denture adhesive over five years: myeloneuropathy and severe macrocytic anemia and neutropenia. Extensive laboratory testing and histologic evaluation of the liver and bone marrow, were necessary to rule out other disease processes and establish the diagnosis of copper deficiency. The initial presentation consisted of a myelopathy involving the posterior columns. Serum and urine copper were significantly decreased, and serum zinc was elevated. On second presentation (five years later), multiple hematological abnormalities were detected. Serum copper was again decreased, while serum zinc was elevated. Zinc overload is a preventable cause of copper deficiency syndromes. This rare entity presented herein highlights the importance of patient, as well as provider, education. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. MRI of the spinal cord in myelopathy complicating vitamin B12 deficiency: two additional cases and a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, S.S.; Bulundwe, K.K.; Gledhill, R.F.; Labuscagne, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Focal spinal cord lesions have been present in all previously reported cases of MRI appearances in myelopathy complicating vitamin B 12 deficiency. We describe two further cases showing mild atrophy only and review the salient features of the previous 11 publications. MRI findings reflect quite closely the known pathological changes in this condition. (orig.)

  10. Carbohydrate metabolism in erythrocytes of copper deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S P J; Cockell, K A; Dawson, B A; Ratnayake, W M N; Lampi, B J; Belonje, B; Black, D B; Plouffe, L J

    2003-11-01

    Dietary copper deficiency is known to adversely affect the circulatory system of fructose-fed rats. Part of the problem may lie in the effect of copper deficiency on intermediary metabolism. To test this, weanling male Long-Evans rats were fed for 4 or 8 weeks on sucrose-based diets containing low or adequate copper content. Copper deficient rats had significantly lower plasma and tissue copper as well as lower plasma copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase activity. Copper deficient rats also had a significantly higher heart:body weight ratio when compared to pair-fed controls. Direct measurement of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway flux in erythrocytes using (13)C NMR showed no differences in carbon flux from glucose or fructose to pyruvate but a significantly higher flux through the lactate dehydrogenase locus in copper deficient rats (approximately 1.3 times, average of glucose and glucose + fructose measurements). Copper-deficient animals had significantly higher erythrocyte concentrations of glucose, fructose, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and NAD(+). Liver metabolite levels were also affected by copper deficiency being elevated in glycogen and fructose 1-phosphate content. The results show small changes in carbohydrate metabolism of copper deficient rats.

  11. Radiation myelopathy; Myelopathie postradique

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    Rafai, M.A.; Boulaajaj, F.Z.; Amriss, O.; El Moutawakil, B.; Slassi, I. [Explorations Fonctionnelles, CHU Ibn Rochd, Service de Neurologie, Quartier des Hopitaux (Morocco); Rafai, M.A. [Faculte de Medecine et de Pharmacie, Lab. des Neurosciences Cliniques, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2009-12-15

    The post radiation induced myelopathy is a very serious complication, developing months or years after the irradiation of tumors localized near the marrow. It is rare if the radiation dose is inferior to 50 Gy. We report the case of a patients treated for a cavum cancer occurring one year after the radiotherapy with a stable evolution. (N.C.)

  12. A treatable cause of myelopathy and vision loss mimicking neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: late-onset biotinidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Sanem; Serin, Mine; Canda, Ebru; Eraslan, Cenk; Tekin, Hande; Ucar, Sema Kalkan; Gokben, Sarenur; Tekgul, Hasan; Serdaroglu, Gul

    2017-06-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is characterized by severe neurological manifestations as hypotonia, lethargy, ataxia, hearing loss, seizures and developmental retardation in its classical form. Late-onset biotinidase deficiency presents distinctly from the classical form such as limb weakness and vision problems. A 14-year-old boy presented with progressive vision loss and upper limb weakness. The patient was initiated steroid therapy with a preliminary diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder due to the craniospinal imaging findings demonstrating optic nerve, brainstem and longitudinally extensive spinal cord involvement. Although the patient exhibited partial clinical improvement after pulse steroid therapy, craniocervical imaging performed one month after the initiation of steroid therapy did not show any regression. The CSF IgG index was <0.8 (normal: <0.8), oligoclonal band and aquaporin-4 antibodies were negative. Metabolic investigations revealed a low biotinidase enzyme activity 8% (0.58 nmoL/min/mL; normal range: 4.4 to 12). Genetic testing showed c.98-104delinsTCC and p.V457 M mutations in biotinidase (BTD) gene. At the third month of biotin replacement therapy, control craniospinal MRI demonstrated a complete regression of the lesions. The muscle strength of the case returned to normal. His visual acuity was 7/10 in the left eye and 9/10 in the right. The late-onset form of the biotinidase deficiency should be kept in mind in all patients with myelopathy with or without vision loss, particularly in those with inadequate response to steroid therapy. The family screening is important to identify asymptomatic individuals and timely treatment.

  13. Radiation myelopathy

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    Howell, D A [Derbyshire Royal Infirmary, Derby (UK)

    1979-10-01

    Following high-dose radiotherapy treatment of tumours, there is a risk of destructive radiation myelopathy developing a few months later as a result of spinal cord irradiation. The emphasis of the present article is on the mechanism of the development of radiation myelopathy. It is suggested that, in the irradiated segments, the normal endothelial cells lining the penetrating arteries and capillaries are replaced by abnormal cells during the latent period. Radiation-induced mutations or chromosomal aberrations are contained in these cells, thus provoking an immunological response. During the attempted rejection of these cells, protein-rich plasma filtrate is leaked into the artery walls and nervous tissue, causing the destructive myelopathy. The signs of paralysis of spinal cord function may be caused either by infarcts or by oedema of the white matter. Since both diagnosis and treatment are difficult, it is necessary to concentrate on prevention by, whenever possible, reducing radiation doses to below tolerance limits during radiotherapy. As regards radiotherapy in children, it is currently believed that there is little or no difference in radiation tolerance between the child and the adult nervous system. Some early benign forms of radiation myelopathy are also briefly discussed.

  14. Radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Following high-dose radiotherapy treatment of tumours, there is a risk of destructive radiation myelopathy developing a few months later as a result of spinal cord irradiation. The emphasis of the present article is on the mechanism of the development of radiation myelopathy. It is suggested that, in the irradiated segments, the normal endothelial cells lining the penetrating arteries and capillaries are replaced by abnormal cells during the latent period. Radiation-induced mutations or chromosomal aberrations are contained in these cells, thus provoking an immunological response. During the attempted rejection of these cells, protein-rich plasma filtrate is leaked into the artery walls and nervous tissue, causing the destructive myelopathy. The signs of paralysis of spinal cord function may be caused either by infarcts or by oedema of the white matter. Since both diagnosis and treatment are difficult, it is necessary to concentrate on prevention by, whenever possible, reducing radiation doses to below tolerance limits during radiotherapy. As regards radiotherapy in children, it is currently believed that there is little or no difference in radiation tolerance between the child and the adult nervous system. Some early benign forms of radiation myelopathy are also briefly discussed. (UK)

  15. Radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlit, P.

    1987-01-01

    After a review of the world literature, the case histories of 43 patients with radiation myelopathy are analyzed. In 1 patient there was a radiation injury of the medulla oblongata, in 2, cervical, in 28, thoracic, and in 12, lumbosacral. In the medulla oblongata lesion an alternans syndrome resulted. The patients with cervical and thoracic radiation myelopathies presented with a Brown-Sequard syndrome, a spinalis anterior syndrome or a transversal syndrome with pyramidal and spinothalamic tract involvement as the most prominent signs. For this group the term 'pyramidal-spinothalamic radiation myelopathy' is proposed. In lumbosacral radiation lesions a pure anterior horn syndrome may lead to spinothalamic tract involvement and the development of a cauda conus syndrome. The clinical presentation of these cases suggests that the location of the radiation lesion is most likely the region of the conus medullaris. The most frequent initial symptom was dysesthesia; the patients complained of burning pain or a feeling of coldness. Usually the neurological deficits were progressive, in pyramidal-spinothalamic radiation myelopathy over 12 months in average, in lumbosacral radiation lesions up to 10 years. The latent period between the finish of radiation therapy and the first neurological signs was 8 months (median) in cervical and thoracic myelopathy and 33 months in lumbosacral lesions. For the entire group of 43 patients there was an inverse relationship between the radiation dose (ret) and the latent period. A positive relation could be demonstrated between the age of patients at the time of radiation therapy and the latent period. Patients simultaneously receiving cytostatic drugs presented after a longer latent period than the remaining group. (orig./MG)

  16. Refractory cytopenias secondary to copper deficiency in children receiving exclusive jejunal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Amanda E; Kahwash, Samir B; Chawla, Anjulika

    2017-11-01

    Copper deficiency is a known cause of anemia and neutropenia that is easily remedied with copper supplementation. Copper is primarily absorbed in the stomach and proximal duodenum, so patients receiving enteral nutrition via methods that bypass this critical region may be at increased risk for copper deficiency. In pediatrics, postpyloric enteral feeding is increasingly utilized to overcome problems related to aspiration, severe reflux, poor gastric motility, and gastric outlet obstruction. However, little is known about the prevalence of copper deficiency in this population. We describe three pediatric patients receiving exclusive jejunal feeds who developed cytopenias secondary to copper deficiency. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Induction of ceruloplasmin synthesis by interleukin-1 in copper deficient and copper sufficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, E.F.; Cousins, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is a copper-containing plasma protein important in the body's acute phase defense system. In copper sufficient rats given two injections of interleukin-1 (IL-1) at 0 and 8 h, ceruloplasmin activity began to significantly increase within 6 h, but did not peak until at least 24 h. The 24 h stimulated activity was 84 +/- 2 umole p-phenylene diamine (pPD) oxidized x min -1 x L -1 compared to a control of 43 +/- 5. These rats were injected with 100uCi 3 H-leucine (ip) 2 h before sacrifice to label newly synthesized proteins. When the 3 H immunoprecipitated by rabbit anti-rat Cp serum is expressed as a percent of the 3 H precipitated by trichloroacetic acid (TCA), the basal Cp synthesis rate was 3% of the total serum protein synthesis. The rate of Cp synthesis peaked 12 h after IL-1 injection at 7% of total serum protein synthesis and by 24 h was back to the basal rate. In copper deficient rats, IL-1 given with copper induced pPD oxidase activity, while IL-1 given alone did not stimulate activity. The basal Cp synthesis rate in these rats was 3%, the same as in the copper sufficient rats. In copper deficient rats, the Cp synthesis rate was induced by IL-1 with or without an injection of copper. Therefore, if dietary copper is in short supply, then although Cp synthesis is induced by this mediator of host defense mechanisms, Cp cannot carry out its functions

  18. Laryngeal Neuropathy in Adult Goats With Copper Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, R F A; Almeida, V M; Neto, J E; Nascimento, C W A; Medeiros, G X; Medeiros, R M T; Riet-Correa, F; Mendonça, F S

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the cause of a neurological syndrome characterized by stridor in adult goats with clinical signs of copper deficiency. The main clinical signs consisted of apathy, emaciation, pale mucous membranes, mucous nasal discharge, dyspnea, severe achromotrichia, diffuse alopecia, torpor, ataxia, and stridor. When the goats were forced to move, the stridor increased. In a herd of 194 Toggenburg goats, 10 adult goats with clinical signs of copper deficiency were removed from the herd and divided into 2 groups: group 1, which consisted of 4 nannies and 1 buck with stridor, and group 2, which consisted of 4 nannies and 1 buck without stridor. Group 3, used as a control, consisted of 5 adult goats from another flock without any clinical signs of disease. The mean serum copper concentrations were 1.3 ± 0.3 μmol/L in group 1, 8.1 ± 1.1 μmol/L in group 2, and 11.3 ± 2.2 μmol/L in group 3. The mean serum iron concentrations were 42.3 ± 14.2 μmol/L in group 1, 39.1 ± 8.2 μmol/L in group 2, and 20.6 ± 6.1 μmol/L in group 3. The main histological lesions in goats from group 1 were axonal degeneration of the recurrent laryngeal nerves and atrophy of the muscles of vocal folds and of the dorsal cricoarytenoid and right and left cricothyroid muscles. Goats with ataxia had neuronal degeneration and necrosis of cerebellar Purkinje cells and of the cranial cervical ganglion. We concluded that the stridor was caused by axonal degeneration of the recurrent laryngeal nerves due to the severe copper deficiency.

  19. Peripheral neuropathy in a copper-deficient goat

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    Valdir Morais de Almeida

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This report aimed to describe a case of peripheral neuropathy in a copper-deficient goat, and highlights the clinical, and pathological features of the disease. The goat had low body score, hyporexia, alopecia, achromotrichia, left hindlimb protraction, paralysis with dragging of digit and difficulty to stand up and microcytic normochromic anemia. Copper concentration in serum was markedly lower (2.0µmol L-1 whereas the iron serum content was significantly increased (51.0µmol L-1. The main gross alteration was the reduction of the quadriceps vastus laterallis muscle volume. Histologically, there was atrophy of the quadriceps vastus laterallis muscle and presence of satellite cells, infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages and replacement of the fibers by connective tissue. In the femoral nerve, there was axonal degeneration with myelin sheath expansion and presence of vacuoles, usually in chains and containing axonal debris or macrophages. Clinical, laboratorial and pathologic findings are consistent with peripheral neuropathy due to a severy copper deficiency.

  20. The effect of an induced copper deficiency on the total plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of a copper deficiency on certain aspects of reproduction in ewes was ... induced by using the copper antagonists cadmium, calcium and sulphate. .... sodium (Na), magnesium (MG), potassium (K), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and ...

  1. High fructose feeding induces copper deficiency in Sprague-Dawley rats: A novel mechanism for obesity related fatty liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary copper deficiency is associated with a variety of manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, including hyperlipidemia and fatty liver. Fructose feeding has been reported to exacerbate complications of copper deficiency. In this study, we investigated whether copper deficiency plays a role in ...

  2. Toxicity and deficiency of copper in Elsholtzia splendens affect photosynthesis biophysics, pigments and metal accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hongyun; Kroneck, Peter M H; Küpper, Hendrik

    2013-06-18

    Elsholtzia splendens is a copper-tolerant plant species growing on copper deposits in China. Spatially and spectrally resolved kinetics of in vivo absorbance and chlorophyll fluorescence in mesophyll of E. splendens were used to investigate the copper-induced stress from deficiency and toxicity as well as the acclimation to excess copper stress. The plants were cultivated in nutrient solutions containing either Fe(III)-EDTA or Fe(III)-EDDHA. Copper toxicity affected light-acclimated electron flow much stronger than nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) or dark-acclimated photochemical efficiency of PSIIRC (Fv/Fm). It also changed spectrally resolved Chl fluorescence kinetics, in particular by strengthening the short-wavelength (<700 nm) part of NPQ altering light harvesting complex II (LHCII) aggregation. Copper toxicity reduced iron accumulation, decreased Chls and carotenoids in leaves. During acclimation to copper toxicity, leaf copper decreased but leaf iron increased, with photosynthetic activity and pigments recovering to normal levels. Copper tolerance in E. splendens was inducible; acclimation seems be related to homeostasis of copper and iron in E. splendens. Copper deficiency appeared at 10 mg copper per kg leaf DW, leading to reduced growth and decreased photosynthetic parameters (F0, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII). The importance of these results for evaluating responses of phytoremediation plants to stress in their environment is discussed.

  3. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase is lower and copper chaperone CCS is higher in erythrocytes of copper-deficient rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Elizabeth C; Prohaska, Joseph R

    2004-09-01

    Discovery of a sensitive blood biochemical marker of copper status would be valuable for assessing marginal copper intakes. Rodent models were used to investigate whether erythrocyte concentrations of copper,zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the copper metallochaperone for SOD (CCS) were sensitive to dietary copper changes. Several models of copper deficiency were studied in postweanling male Holtzman rats, male Swiss Webster mice offspring, and both rat and mouse dams. Treatment resulted in variable but significantly altered copper status as evaluated by the presence of anemia, and lower liver copper and higher liver iron concentrations in copper-deficient compared with copper-adequate animals. Associated with this copper deficiency were consistent reductions in immunoreactive SOD and robust enhancements in CCS. In most cases, the ratio of CCS:SOD was several-fold higher in red blood cell extracts from copper-deficient compared with copper-adequate rodents. Determination of red cell CCS:SOD may be useful for assessing copper status of humans.

  4. In long-term bedridden elderly patients with dietary copper deficiency, biochemical markers of bone resorption are increased with copper supplementation during 12 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Etsuo; Moridaira, Kazuaki; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Hoshino, Ayami; Tamura, Jun'ichi; Morita, Toyoho

    2006-01-01

    Although the effect of copper on bone has been tested in animals and healthy subjects, no studies concerning the effect of copper supplementation on bone metabolism in patients with copper deficiency have been reported because of the rarity of these patients. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of copper supplementation on bone metabolism in copper-deficient patients. This study included 10 patients (83.7 +/- 8.3 years) with dietary copper deficiency under long-term bed rest for more than 12 months. They had their diets supplemented with copper sulfate (3 mg/day) over 12 weeks in addition to their diet of only one kind of enteral food with a low concentration of copper. Serum copper and ceruloplasmin, urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and collagen-type 1 N-telopeptide (NTX) (biomarkers of bone resorption), serum osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (Bone ALP) (biomarkers of bone formation) were analyzed at baseline, 4 and 12 weeks after copper supplementation. DPD and NTX excretion were significantly increased 4 weeks after copper supplementation (p = 0.009 and p = 0.013, respectively). Serum bone ALP and OC were not significantly changed 12 weeks after copper supplementation (p = 0.051 and p = 0.594). In patients with nutritional copper deficiency, bone resorption markers are increased with copper supplementation. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Colloidal silver ingestion with copper and caeruloplasmin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Karolina M; Taylor, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The copper concentration in serum can be affected by the presence of other trace elements such as silver. Low serum copper may result in decreased caeruloplasmin synthesis. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman, who was admitted to hospital with acute psychosis and who had been ingesting chronically, colloidal silver.

  6. The cardiac copper chaperone proteins Sco1 and CCS are up-regulated, but Cox 1 and Cox4 are down-regulated, by copper deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Jean; Lin, Dingbo; Medeiros, Denis M

    2011-10-01

    Copper is ferried in a cell complexed to chaperone proteins, and in the heart much copper is required for cytochrome c oxidase (Cox). It is not completely understood how copper status affects the levels of these proteins. Here we determined if dietary copper deficiency could up- or down-regulate select copper chaperone proteins and Cox subunits 1 and 4 in cardiac tissue of rats. Sixteen weanling male Long-Evans rats were randomized into treatment groups, one group receiving a copper-deficient diet (CCS, Sco1, Ctr1, Cox17, Cox1, and Cox4 by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. No changes were observed in the concentrations of CTR1 and Cox17 between copper-adequate and copper-deficient rats. CCS and Sco1 were up-regulated and Cox1 and Cox4 were both down-regulated as a result of copper deficiency. These data suggest that select chaperone proteins and may be up-regulated, and Cox1 and 4 down-regulated, by a dietary copper deficiency, whereas others appear not to be affected by copper status.

  7. Thoracic myelopathy with alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeda, Koji; Kasai, Yuichi; Kawakita, Eiji; Matsumura, Yoshihiro; Kono, Toshibumi; Murata, Tetsuya; Uchida, Atsumasa

    2008-01-15

    A case of thoracic myelopathy with alkaptonuria (ochronotic spondyloarthropathy) is presented. To present and review the first reported case of an alkaptonuric patient with concomitant thoracic myelopathy. Alkaptonuria, a rare hereditary metabolic disease, is characterized by accumulation of homogentistic acid, ochronosis, and destruction of connective tissue resulting in degenerative spondylosis and arthritis. Despite the high incidence of intervertebral disc diseases among patients with alkaptonuria, neurologic symptoms caused by spinal disease are rare. Thoracic myelopathy in a patient with alkaptonuria has not been previously reported. The clinical course, radiologic features, pathology, and treatment outcome of an alkaptonuria patient with thoracic myelopathy was documented. Myelopathy of the patient was caused by rupture of a thoracic intervertebral disc. The neurologic symptoms of the patient were markedly improved after surgery. We have reported for the first time, that an alkaptonuria patient showed thoracic myelopathy caused by rupture of a thoracic intervertebral disc. Decompression followed by the instrumented fusion of the thoracic spine was effective for improving the neurologic symptoms.

  8. CERVICAL SPONDYLOTIC MYELOPATHY WITH FUNCTIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CERVICAL SPONDYLOTIC MYELOPATHY WITH FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY. LONG TERM RESULTS CONCERNING 18 PATIENTS OPERATED ON BY ANTERIOR APPROACH IN GABON MYELOPATHIES CERVICARTHROSIQUES INVALIDANTES. RESULTATS A LONG TERME DE 18 PATIENTS OPERES PAR VOIE ...

  9. Pathophysiology of cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, Darryl C; Fehlings, Michael G

    2006-01-01

    Cervical myelopathy is a group of closely related disorders usually caused by spondylosis or by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and is characterized by compression of the cervical spinal cord or nerve roots by varying degrees and number of levels. The decrease in diameter of the vertebral canal secondary to disc degeneration and osteophytic spurs compresses the spinal cord and nerve roots at one or several levels, producing direct damage and often secondary ischemic changes. Clinicians who treat cervical myelopathy cord injuries should have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology and the processes that are initiated after the spinal cord has been injured. Literature review. Literature review of human cervical myelopathy and clinically relevant animal models to further our understanding of the pathological mechanisms involved. The pathophysiology of cervical myelopathy involves static factors, which result in acquired or developmental stenosis of the cervical canal and dynamic factors, which involve repetitive injury to the cervical cord. These mechanical factors in turn result in direct injury to neurons and glia as well as a secondary cascade of events including ischemia, excitotoxicity, and apoptosis; a pathobiology similar to that occurring in traumatic spinal cord injury. This review summarizes some of the significant pathophysiological processes involved in cervical myelopathy.

  10. Tissue levels of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium in iron deficient rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of iron deficiency on the levels of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium in the brain, liver, kidney, heart and lungs of albino rats (Rattus novergicus) was investigated. Forty rats were divided into two groups and the first group was fed a control diet containing 1.09g iron/kg diet while the test group was fed diet ...

  11. Oxidative Stress in Cardiac Mitochondria Caused by Copper Deficiency May Be Insufficient to Damage Mitochondrial Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper (Cu) deficiency may promote the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the mitochondrial electron transport chain through inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) and increased reduction of respiratory complexes upstream from CCO. In the present study, respiration, H2O2 production and...

  12. [Use of copper oxide wire particles (Copinox) for the prevention of congenital copper deficiency in a herd of German Improved Fawn breed of goat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, P; Hochsteiner, W; Chizzola, R

    2004-10-01

    In a herd of German Improved Fawn breed of goat in the year 2000 neonatal kid losses due to congenital copper deficiencies were observed. To clarify the problems and to prevent losses in the next breeding season serum copper levels of 10 dams and four control Boer goats were investigated at four time points during one year. Additionally ten kids of the following year were sampled and the serum copper levels were studied. Immediatly after parturition and 8 weeks later the dams showed low serum copper levels (10.4 +/- 11.1 micromol/l, 5.7 +/- 2.9 micromol/l resp.). At the end of the pasture season an increase of serum copper could be measured (19.3 +/- 16.0 micromol/l). To prevent enzootic ataxia due to congenital copper deficiency, the dams were treated with copper oxide wire particles in the next late gestation. At this time point serum copper concentrations started to decrease (18.5 +/- 8.4 micromol/l). The re-examination 3 month later demonstrated an increase of the serum mean copper concentrations up to 23.4 micromol/l in the dams and to 16.2 micromol/l in the kids. The serum copper levels were significantly higher compared to the levels the year before. Big variation of the serum copper levels in the control Boer goats occurred during the year, but no clinical symptoms of copper deficiency could be observed. The copper levels in the grass and soil samples were 6.8 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg dry substance, respectively. A secondary copper deficiency based on cadmium could be excluded through the low levels of soil samples. The contents of sulphur and molybdenum were not determined. The results indicate that the German Improved Fawn breed of goats suffered from a primary copper deficiency due to the inefficient mineral supplementation. The administration of Copinox in the last third of the gestation leads to a continious raising of the copper concentrations in the serum and is suited to prevent ataxia due to congential copper deficiency in neonatal kids.

  13. Copper deficiency induced emphysema is associated with focal adhesion kinase inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Mizuno

    Full Text Available Copper is an important regulator of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α dependent vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression, and is also required for the activity of lysyl oxidase (LOX to effect matrix protein cross-linking. Cell detachment from the extracellular matrix can induce apoptosis (anoikis via inactivation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK.To examine the molecular mechanisms whereby copper depletion causes the destruction of the normal alveolar architecture via anoikis, Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper deficient diet for 6 weeks while being treated with the copper chelator, tetrathiomolybdate. Other groups of rats were treated with the inhibitor of auto-phosphorylation of FAK, 1,2,4,5-benzenetetraamine tetrahydrochloride (1,2,4,5-BT or FAK small interfering RNA (siRNA.Copper depletion caused emphysematous changes, decreased HIF-1α activity, and downregulated VEGF expression in the rat lungs. Cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8 and Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim expression was increased, and the phosphorylation of FAK was decreased in copper depleted rat lungs. Administration of 1,2,4,5-BT and FAK siRNA caused emphysematous lung destruction associated with increased expression of cleaved capase-3, caspase-8 and Bim.These data indicate that copper-dependent mechanisms contribute to the pathogenesis of emphysema, which may be associated with decreased HIF-1α and FAK activity in the lung.

  14. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergaz, Zivanit, E-mail: zivanit@hadassah.org.il [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Shoshani-Dror, Dana [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Guillemin, Claire [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Weksler-Zangen, Sarah [Diabetes Research Unit, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, MN (United States); Ornoy, Asher [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2012-12-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  15. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergaz, Zivanit; Shoshani-Dror, Dana; Guillemin, Claire; Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza; Weksler-Zangen, Sarah; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K.; Ornoy, Asher

    2012-01-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  16. Arabidopsis copper transport protein COPT2 participates in the cross talk between iron deficiency responses and low-phosphate signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea-García, Ana; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Andrés-Colás, Nuria; Vera-Sirera, Francisco; Pérez-Amador, Miguel A; Puig, Sergi; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2013-05-01

    Copper and iron are essential micronutrients for most living organisms because they participate as cofactors in biological processes, including respiration, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress protection. In many eukaryotic organisms, including yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammals, copper and iron homeostases are highly interconnected; yet, such interdependence is not well established in higher plants. Here, we propose that COPT2, a high-affinity copper transport protein, functions under copper and iron deficiencies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). COPT2 is a plasma membrane protein that functions in copper acquisition and distribution. Characterization of the COPT2 expression pattern indicates a synergic response to copper and iron limitation in roots. We characterized a knockout of COPT2, copt2-1, that leads to increased resistance to simultaneous copper and iron deficiencies, measured as reduced leaf chlorosis and improved maintenance of the photosynthetic apparatus. We propose that COPT2 could play a dual role under iron deficiency. First, COPT2 participates in the attenuation of copper deficiency responses driven by iron limitation, possibly to minimize further iron consumption. Second, global expression analyses of copt2-1 versus wild-type Arabidopsis plants indicate that low-phosphate responses increase in the mutant. These results open up new biotechnological approaches to fight iron deficiency in crops.

  17. Radiation-induced myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaenshirt, H [Heidelberg Univ. (F.R. Germany). Neurologische Klinik

    1975-10-01

    12 cases of radiation-induced myelopathy after /sup 60/Co teletherapy are reported on. Among these were 10 thoracal lesions, one cerviothoracal lesion, and one lesion of the medulla oblongata. In 9 cases, Hodgkin's disease had been the primary disease, tow patients had been irradiated because of suspected vertebral metastases of cancer of the breast, and one patient had suffered from a glomus tumour of the petrous bone. The spinal doses had exceeded the tolerance doses recommended in the relevant literature. There was no close correlation between the radiation dose and the course of the disease. The latency periods between the end of the radiotherapy and the onset of the neurological symptons varied from 6 to 16 mouths and were very constant in 7 cases with 6 to 9 months. The segmental height of the lesion corresponded to the level of irradiation. The presenting symptons of radiation-induced myelopathy are buruing dysaesthesias and Brown-Sequard's paralysis which may develop into transverse lesion of the cord with paraplegia still accompanied by dissociated perception disorders. The disease developed intermittently. Disturbances of the bladder function are frequent. The fluid is normal in most cases. Myelographic examinations were made in 8 cases. 3 cases developed into stationary cases exhibiting. Brown-Sequard syndrome, while 9 patients developed transverse lesion of the cord with paraplegia. 3 patients have died; antopsy findings are given for two of these. In the pathogenesis of radiation-induced myelopathy, the vascular factor is assumed to be of decisive importance.

  18. Myelopathy hand in cervical radiculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Takenaka, Shota; Fuji, Takeshi; Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Makino, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    The so-called 'myelopathy hand', or characteristic finger paralysis, often recognized in cervical compression myelopathy, has been considered a unique manifestation of cervical myelopathy. We used our original grip and release test, a 15-second test in which finger motion is captured with a digital camera, to investigate whether cervical radiculopathy has the same characteristics as myelopathy hand. Thirty patients with pure radiculopathy, id est (i.e.), who had radiating arm pain and evidence of corresponding nerve root impingement on X-ray images or MRI scans, but did not have spinal cord compression, served as the subjects. In contrast to other radiculopathies, C7 radiculopathy was manifested by a significant reduction in the number of finger motion cycles on the affected side in comparison with the unaffected side, the same as in myelopathy hand. Uncoordinated finger motion was significantly more frequent on the affected side in C6 radiculopathy than on the unaffected side. These findings contradict the conventional notion that myelopathy hand is a unique manifestation of cervical myelopathy, but some radiculopathies manifested the same kinds of finger paralysis observed in myelopathy hand. (author)

  19. Beer improves copper metabolism and increases longevity in Cu-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.J.; Klevay, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages decreases risk of death from ischemic heart disease (IHD). Evidence suggests that Cu-deficiency is important in the etiology and pathophysiology of IHD. The effect of beer (25 ng Cu/ml) drinking on the severity of Cu-deficiency was examined in weanling, male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a low Cu diet (0.84 μg Cu/g). Beer drinking increased median longevity to 204 or 299 d from 62 or 42 d respectively in rats drinking water in two experiments (15 rats/group). In experiment 3, a single dose of 67 Cu (3.3 μCi as chloride) was added to 1 g of feed and given to 12-h fasted rats 30 d after the start of the experiment. Whole body counting over 13 d showed apparent Cu absorption and t 1/2 (biological) were greater in Cu-deficient rats drinking beer than in similar rats drinking water. Plasma cholesterol was lower but hematocrit and liver Cu were higher in surviving rats drinking beer than in rats drinking water. Body weight was not affected by beer in any experiment. In experiment 4, a 4% aqueous ethanol solution had no effect on longevity of copper deficient rats. A non-alcohol component of beer alters Cu metabolism and mitigates the severity of nutritional Cu-deficiency in rats

  20. Radiation myelopathy (case presentation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangheli, M.; Lisnic, V.; Plesca, S.; Odainic, O.; Chetrari, L.

    2009-01-01

    The radiotherapy is one of the most widely spread and commonly used method in treating tumors of different localization. A detailed analysis of benefits and possible side effects along with evaluation of the risk factors allows preventing one of the most difficult complication, and namely the radiation myelopathy. The delayed form of such a disease is distinguished by a pronounced unfavorable prognosis. The presented case provoked the discussion of difficulties in performing differential diagnosis, as well as the importance of determining the localization of vulnerable tissues as regards the target organ exposed to radiotherapy. (authors)

  1. Diagnostic Approach to Myelopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados Sanchez, Ana Maria; Garcia Posada, Lina Maria; Ortega Toscano, Cesar Andres; Lopez Lopez, Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Myelopathy is a broad term that refers to spinal cord involvement of multiple etiologies. Spinal cord diseases often have devastating consequences, ranging from quadriplegia and paraplegia to severe sensory deficits due to its confinement in a very small area. Many of these diseases are potentially reversible if they are recognized on time, hence the importance of recognizing the significance of magnetic resonance imaging when approaching a multifactorial disease considered as one of the most critical neurological emergencies, where prognosis depends on an early and accurate diagnosis.

  2. Copper Deficiency Leads to Anemia, Duodenal Hypoxia, Upregulation of HIF-2α and Altered Expression of Iron Absorption Genes in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matak, Pavle; Zumerle, Sara; Mastrogiannaki, Maria; El Balkhi, Souleiman; Delga, Stephanie; Mathieu, Jacques R. R.; Canonne-Hergaux, François; Poupon, Joel; Sharp, Paul A.; Vaulont, Sophie; Peyssonnaux, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron and copper are essential trace metals, actively absorbed from the proximal gut in a regulated fashion. Depletion of either metal can lead to anemia. In the gut, copper deficiency can affect iron absorption through modulating the activity of hephaestin - a multi-copper oxidase required for optimal iron export from enterocytes. How systemic copper status regulates iron absorption is unknown. Mice were subjected to a nutritional copper deficiency-induced anemia regime from birth and injected with copper sulphate intraperitoneally to correct the anemia. Copper deficiency resulted in anemia, increased duodenal hypoxia and Hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) levels, a regulator of iron absorption. HIF-2α upregulation in copper deficiency appeared to be independent of duodenal iron or copper levels and correlated with the expression of iron transporters (Ferroportin - Fpn, Divalent Metal transporter – Dmt1) and ferric reductase – Dcytb. Alleviation of copper-dependent anemia with intraperitoneal copper injection resulted in down regulation of HIF-2α-regulated iron absorption genes in the gut. Our work identifies HIF-2α as an important regulator of iron transport machinery in copper deficiency. PMID:23555700

  3. Response of copper deficient rats to inhibitors of renal sodium reabsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noordewier, B.; Saari, J.T. (Northwestern College, Orange City, IA (United States) USDA/ARS, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

    1991-03-11

    This study examined the effects of furosemide (Furo), a Loop diuretic, and amiloride (Am), a potassium (K)-sparing diuretic, on the excretion of sodium (Na) and K in copper-adequate (CuAdeq) and copper-deficient (CuDef) rats. Weanling male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a CuDef or CuAdeq diet ad libitum and given deionized water to drink. After 5 weeks on the diets, rats were assigned to one of four treatment regimens: Furo, Am or Furo + Am. Rats were anesthetized and electrolyte excretion was measured in 2 {times} 15 min control periods followed by 3 {times} 15 min treatment periods. Furo increased Na excretion in a dose dependent manner in both the CuAdeq and the CuDef rats. The response of the CuAdeq rats was slightly greater than that of the CuDef rats in each of the 3 treatment groups in which Furo was given. K excretion following Furo increased to the same extent in the CuAdeq and CuDef rats. The natriuretic response to Am alone was slightly greater in the CuDef than the CuAdeq rats. The antikaliuretic response of the CuDef rats was similar to that of the CuAdeq rats whether Am was given alone or in combination with Furo. These data show that CuDef rats respond to Furo and Am in a manner which is similar to that of CuAdeq rats, this indicates that the sensitivity of the Na reabsorption mechanisms to inhibition by diuretics is not markedly affected by copper deficiency.

  4. Proximal Limb Weakness in a Patient with Celiac Disease: Copper Deficiency, Gluten Sensitivity, or Both as the Underlying Cause?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. David Avila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease has been associated with several neurologic disorders which may result from micronutrient deficiencies, coexisting autoimmune conditions, or gluten sensitivity. Copper deficiency can produce multiple neurologic manifestations. Myeloneuropathy is the most common neurologic syndrome and it is often irreversible, despite copper replacement. We report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with progressive proximal limb weakness and weight loss in the setting of untreated celiac disease without gastrointestinal symptoms. He had anemia, neutropenia, and severe hypocupremia. The pattern of weakness raised the suspicion that there was an underlying myopathy, although this was not confirmed by electrodiagnostic studies. Weakness and hematologic abnormalities resolved completely within 1 month of total parenteral nutrition with copper supplementation and a gluten-free diet. Myopathy can rarely occur in patients with celiac disease, but the mechanism is unclear. Pure proximal limb weakness has not been previously reported in copper deficiency. We propose that this may represent a novel manifestation of hypocupremia and recommend considering copper deficiency and gluten sensitivity in patients presenting with proximal limb weakness.

  5. Zinc or copper deficiency-induced impaired inflammatory response to brain trauma may be caused by the concomitant metallothionein changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, M.; Thomsen, Pernille Sjølin

    2001-01-01

    , and this response was significantly blunted by zinc deficiency. The MT-III isoform was moderately increased by both TBI and zinc deficiency. TBI strongly increased oxidative stress levels, as demonstrated by malondialdehyde (MDA), protein tyrosine nitration (NITT), and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) levels irs......, all of which were potentiated by zinc deficiency. Further analysis revealed unbalanced expression of prooxidant and antioxidant proteins besides MT, since the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Cu,Zn-SOD were increased and decreased, respectively, by zinc deficiency. All......The role of zinc- and copper-deficient diets on the inflammatory response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been evaluated in adult rats. As expected, zinc deficiency decreased food intake and body weight gain, and the latter effect was higher than that observed in pair-fed rats. In noninjured...

  6. Anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiency in Mexican adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Gaona, Berenice; Villalpando, Salvador; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Robledo, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    To describe the frequency of anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiencies among Mexican adolescents in the probabilistic survey ENSANUT 2006. The sample included 2447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 y. Capillary hemoglobin and venous blood samples were collected to measure the concentrations of ferritin, sTFR, CRP, zinc, iron, copper and magnesium. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for mineral deficiencies. The overall prevalence of anemia was 11.8 and 4.6%, body iron deficiency 18.2 and 7.9% for females and males, respectively. Overall prevalence of tissue iron deficiency was 6.9%, low serum copper were 14.4 and 12.25%; zinc 28.4 and 24.5%, magnesium 40 and 35.3%; for females and males, respectively. There is a high prevalence of mineral deficiency in Mexican adolescents; females were more prone to have more mineral deficiencies. Nutritional interventions are necessaries in order to reduce and control them.

  7. A pyrazolyl-based thiolato single-source precursor for the selective synthesis of isotropic copper-deficient copper(I) sulfide nanocrystals: synthesis, optical and photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Gopinath; Santra, Ananyakumari; Bera, Pradip; Acharjya, Moumita [Vidyasagar University, Post Graduate Department of Chemistry, Panskura Banamali College (India); Jana, Sumanta [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Department of Chemistry (India); Chattopadhyay, Dipankar [University of Calcutta, Department of Polymer Science and Technology (India); Mondal, Anup [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Department of Chemistry (India); Seok, Sang Il [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, KRICT-EPFL Global Research Laboratory, Division of Advanced Materials (Korea, Republic of); Bera, Pulakesh, E-mail: pbera.pbc.chem@gmail.com [Vidyasagar University, Post Graduate Department of Chemistry, Panskura Banamali College (India)

    2016-10-15

    Hexagonal copper-deficient copper(I) sulfide (Cu{sub 2-x}S, x = 0.03, 0.2) nanocrystals (NCs) are synthesized from a newly prepared single-source precursor (SP), [Cu(bdpa){sub 2}][CuCl{sub 2}], where bdpa is benzyl 3,5-dimethyl-pyrazole-1-carbodithioate. The SP is crystallized with space group Pī and possesses a distorted tetrahedron structure with a CuN{sub 2}S{sub 2} chromophore where the central copper is in +1 oxidation state. Distortion in copper(I) structure and the low decomposition temperature of SP make it favorable for the low-temperature solvent-assisted selective growth of high-copper content sulfides. The nucleation and growth of Cu{sub 2-x}S (x = 0.03, 0.2) are effectively controlled by the SP and the solvent in the solvothermal decomposition process. During decomposition, fragment benzyl thiol (PhCH{sub 2}SH) from SP effectively passivates the nucleus leading to spherical nanocrystals. Further, solvent plays an important role in the selective thermochemical transformation of Cu{sup I}-complex to Cu{sub 2-x}S (x = 0.03, 0.2) NCs. The chelating binders (solvent) like ethylene diamine (EN) and ethylene glycol (EG) prefer to form spherical Cu{sub 1.97}S nanoparticles (djurleite), whereas nonchelating hydrazine hydrate (HH) shows the tendency to furnish hexagonal platelets of copper-deficient Cu{sub 1.8}S. The optical band gap values (2.25–2.50 eV) show quantum confinement effect in the structure. The synthesized NCs display excellent catalytic activity (~87 %) toward photodegradation of organic dyes like Congo Red (CR) and Methylene Blue (MB).Graphical abstractA pyrazolyl-based thiolato single-source precursor for the selective synthesis of isotropic copper-deficient copper(I) sulfide nanocrystals: Synthesis, optical and photocatalytic activity.Gopinath Mondal, Ananyakumari Santra, Pradip Bera, Moumita Acharjya, Sumanta Jana, Dipankar Chattopadhyay, Anup Mondal, Sang Il Seok, Pulakesh Bera.

  8. Cervical Myelopathy in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mukerji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of the cervical spine is common in rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical presentation can be variable, and symptoms may be due to neck pain or compressive myeloradiculopathy. We discuss the pathology, grading systems, clinical presentation, indications for surgery and surgical management of cervical myelopathy related to rheumatoid arthritis in this paper. We describe our surgical technique and results. We recommend early consultation for surgical management when involvement of the cervical spine is suspected in rheumatoid arthritis. Even patients with advanced cervical myelopathy should be discussed for surgical treatment, since in our experience improvement in function after surgery is common.

  9. The BiCu{sub 1−x}OS oxysulfide: Copper deficiency and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthebaud, D.; Guilmeau, E.; Lebedev, O.I. [Laboratoire CRISMAT, UMR 6508 CNRS/ENSICAEN/UCBN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, F-14050 CAEN Cedex 4 (France); Maignan, A., E-mail: antoine.maignan@ensicaen.fr [Laboratoire CRISMAT, UMR 6508 CNRS/ENSICAEN/UCBN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, F-14050 CAEN Cedex 4 (France); Gamon, J.; Barboux, P. [Institut de Recherche de Chimie de Paris, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 09 France (France)

    2016-05-15

    An oxysulfide series of nominal compositions BiCu{sub 1−x}OS with x<0.20 has been prepared and its structural properties characterized by combining powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques. It is found that this oxysulfide, crystallizing in the P4/nmm space group, tends to adopt a constant amount of copper vacancy corresponding to x=0.05 in the BiCu{sub 1−x}OS formula. The presence of Cu vacancies is confirmed by HAADF-STEM analysis showing, in the Cu atomic columns, alternating peaks of different intensities in some very localized regions. For larger Cu deficiencies (x>0.05 in the nominal composition), other types of structural nanodefects are evidenced such as bismuth oxysulfides of the “BiOS” ternary system which might explain the report of superconductivity for the BiCu{sub 1−x}OS oxysulfide. Local epitaxial growth of the BiCuOS oxysulfide on top of CuO is also observed. In marked contrast to the BiCu{sub 1−x}OSe oxyselenide, these results give an explanation to the limited impact of Cu deficiency on the Seebeck coefficient in BiCu{sub 1−x}OS compounds. - Graphical abstract: High resolution TEM image showing a Bi(Cu)OS/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}S interface and corresponding dislocation region. The Bi(Cu)OS structure adopts a rather constant Cu content (near 0.95); starting from BiCuOS leads to the formation of defects such as the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}S oxysulfide.

  10. Lipoprotein receptors in copper-deficient rats: in vitro binding of high-density lipoprotein subfractions to liver membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassel, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to determine whether the elevated plasma and HDL cholesterol levels observed in copper-deficient rats could be explained by the interaction of 125 I-HDL subfractions with liver membrane preparations in vitro. Rats from all studies were randomly divided into two dietary treatments, copper-deficient and adequate (0.7 mg and 8.0 mg Cukg diet, respectively). Total binding data and computer derived estimates (K/sub d/ and B/sub max/) were used to compare differences between treatments. Binding data from all experiments conformed to a one-site model. In all cases, binding was saturable and EDTA and pronase insensitive. Treatment differences were observed in Study I ( 125 I-apo E-free HDL binding to crude liver membranes). Significantly lower total binding and B/sub max/ were observed when lipoproteins and membranes from copper-deficient animals were used in the assay. Competition experiments from Studies II and III demonstrate that the different HDL subfractions competed effectively with one another for binding sites, indicating that apo E is not a determinant in binding of rat 125 I-HDL subfractions to purified liver plasma membranes

  11. Etiological profile of noncompressive myelopathies in a tertiary care hospital of Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Kayal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The discovery of antibodies against aquaporin-4 and evolving concepts of noncompressive myelopathies in the 21st century have made a major impact on the etiological profile of these diseases, with few cases turning out to be idiopathic. Objective: To find causes of noncompressive myelopathy in a tertiary care hospital of Northeast India. Materials and Methods: An observational study was carried out in the Neurology Department of Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, from September 2013 to February 2016. Patients of noncompressive myelopathies who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the spine were segregated into two categories: acute-to-subacute myelopathy (ASM and chronic myelopathy (CM. In addition to routine blood tests, chest X-ray, urinalysis, and visual evoked potentials, investigations included MRI of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and immunological, infectious, and metabolic profile based on the pattern of involvement. Results: The study had 151 patients (96 ASM and 55 CM with a median age of 35 years and male: female ratio 1.4:1. The causes of ASM were neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (23, multiple sclerosis (MS (8, systemic lupus erythematosus (1, Hashimoto's disease (1, postinfectious acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (6, postinfectious myelitis (8, infections (9, spinal cord infarct (5, and electrocution (1. The causes of CM were MS (1, probable or possible sarcoidosis (7, mixed connective tissue disease (1, Hashimoto's disease (2, infections (9, Vitamin B12deficiency (4, folate deficiency (2, hepatic myelopathy (2, radiation (11, and paraneoplastic (1. No etiology could be found in 48 (31.8% patients (34 ASM and 14 CM. In 21/96 (21.9% patients of ASM, acute transverse myelitis was idiopathic based on current diagnostic criteria. Conclusion: Underlying etiology (demyelinating, autoimmune, infectious, vascular, metabolic disorder, or physical agent was found in 68% patients of noncompressive

  12. Cervical myelopathy: magnetic imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholin, A.V.; Makarov, A.Yu.; Gurevich, D.V.

    1996-01-01

    69 patients with clinical signs of cervical myelopathy were examined using magnetic imaging (T1- and T2-suspended tomograms of the sagittal and transverse section using a device with 0.04 T field intensity). Vertebral disk hernias were revealed in 35 patients, compression of the spinal cord with metastases into vertebral body in 2, extramedullary tumor in 11, intramedullary tumor in 9, and syringomyelia in 12 patients. T2-suspended tomograms proved to be more informative due to their higher sensitivity to aqueous content. T1-suspended tomograms help assess the degree of spinal cord compression and the direction of the disk protrusion. Magnetic imaging is an informative method used for objective identification of the cases of myelopathy of cervical localization [ru

  13. Induction of respiratory deficiency in yeast by manganese, copper, cobalt and nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegren, C C; Nagai, S; Nagai, H

    1958-08-16

    Among the chemical agents which induce respiratory deficiency in yeasts, acriflavine, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride, p-nitrophenol, and propamidine isethionate are especially effective in producing the deficiency in a large fraction of the surviving population. The present work is a survey of the efficacy of various metallic salts in inducing respiratory deficiency.

  14. Radiation myelopathy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Tsukuda, Mamoru; Kono, Hidehiro; Omata, Toshiyuki; Mochimachi, Izumi; Hasegawa, Osamu

    1995-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman with nasopharyngeal carcinoma developed radiation myelopathy. She was treated with radiotherapy, a total dose of about 120 Gy to the cervical spinal cord at the C1 level, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Nine months after the final radiation therapy, she complained of a paresthesia in the distal area of the right leg. Neurological examination revealed incomplete left Brown-Sequard syndrome below the level of C5. Neurological symptoms had been progressive. The spinal MRI showed an abnormal intramedullary high intensity area enhanced by Gd-DTPA. (author)

  15. Radiation myelopathy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Tsukuda, Mamoru; Kono, Hidehiro; Omata, Toshiyuki; Mochimachi, Izumi; Hasegawa, Osamu [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-08-01

    A 36-year-old woman with nasopharyngeal carcinoma developed radiation myelopathy. She was treated with radiotherapy, a total dose of about 120 Gy to the cervical spinal cord at the C1 level, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Nine months after the final radiation therapy, she complained of a paresthesia in the distal area of the right leg. Neurological examination revealed incomplete left Brown-Sequard syndrome below the level of C5. Neurological symptoms had been progressive. The spinal MRI showed an abnormal intramedullary high intensity area enhanced by Gd-DTPA. (author).

  16. Copper deficiency can limit nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Florian Benedikt; Nielsen, Peter Borch; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Incomplete nitrification in biological filters during drinking water treatment is problematic, as it compromises drinking water quality. Nitrification problems can be caused by a lack of nutrients for the nitrifying microorganisms. Since copper is an important element in one of the essential...... enzymes in nitrification, we investigated the effect of copper dosing on nitrification in different biological rapid sand filters treating groundwater. A lab-scale column assay with filter material from a water works demonstrated that addition of a trace metal mixture, including copper, increased ammonium...... to the bulk phase. Overall, copper dosing to poorly performing biological rapid sand filters increased ammonium removal rates significantly, achieving effluent concentrations of below 0.01 mg NH4-N L-1, and had a long-term effect on nitrification performance....

  17. OXIDATIVE STRESS IN HUMAN THYROID GLAND UNDER IODINE DEFICIENCY NODULAR GOITER: FROM HARMLESSNESS TO HAZARD DEPENDING ON COPPER AND IODINE SUBCELLULAR DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Falfushynska

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions. Excess of copper unbound to metallothionein in goitrous-changed tissue and high level of inorganic iodine could be the reason for elevated DNA fragmentation and increased lysosomal membrane permeability and activation of antioxidant defense. The main criterions of goiter formation were represented by low level of organificated iodine and high level of DNA damage in thyroid gland. KEY WORDS: iodine deficiency nodular colloidal goiter, iodine, copper, metallothioneins, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity

  18. Copper and Zinc Deficiency in a Patient Receiving Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition During a Shortage of Parenteral Trace Element Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Eric; Dotson, Bryan

    2015-11-01

    Drug shortages in the United States, including parenteral nutrition (PN) components, have been common in recent years and can adversely affect patient care. Here we report a case of copper and zinc deficiency in a patient receiving PN during a shortage of parenteral trace element products. The management of the patient's deficiencies, including the use of an imported parenteral multi-trace element product, is described. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  19. A case of radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Noriyoshi; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Hagiwara, Akiyoshi; Sato, Yoshihito; Shimizu, Nobuya; Takagi, Yasushi

    1988-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman presented with right hemiparesthesia and left hemiparalysis. At the age of 63, the patient was treated with pre- and post-operative radiation with a total dose of 100 Gy for maxillary squamous cell carcinoma. Five years later, a dose of 50 Gy was delivered again to the head and neck because of the suspicion of recurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging showed flat and thinned cervical spine on the transverse section and markedly atrophied cervical spine at the C1 to C3 levels on the sagittal section. She was diangosed as having chronic progressive radiation myelopathy in view of a history of large doses of radiation to the head and neck. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Experimental Study on radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Itsuo; Matsushima, Hideno; Yamada, Teruyo

    1979-01-01

    Experimental radiation myelopathy was carried out useing rats. This studies were done refering the effect to skin, the body weight, the status of the paralysis and the capillary densities of the cervical cords. The quadriplegia was seen on the animals which were irradiated over 4000 rad. The vacuoal degeneration was observed on the cervical cords which were irradiated over 4000 rad. The capillary densities of gray matter and white matter decreased finally in proportions to the irradiation dose. The vacuoal degeneration was recognized on the cervical cord in which the capillary density decreased to under 70 per cent of normal density. Decrease of the capillary density is seemed to be the one of the cause of the paralysis. (author)

  1. Copper deficiency in Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep on pasture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... The Guizhou semi-fine sheep in the Weining County, Guizhou province, south west China karst mountain area were affected by an ailment characterized by pica, emaciation, dyskinesia, depressed appetites, unsteady gait and anemia. We found that concentrations of copper (Cu) in soil and forage.

  2. Optimal copper supply is required for normal plant iron deficiency responses

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, Brian M; Armbrust, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) homeostasis are tightly linked across biology. Understanding crosstalk between Fe and Cu nutrition could lead to strategies for improved growth on soils with low or excess metals, with implications for agriculture and phytoremediation. Here, we show that Cu and Fe nutrition interact to increase or decrease Fe and/or Cu accumulation in leaves and Fe uptake processes. Leaf Cu concentration increased under low Fe supply, while high Cu lowered leaf Fe concentration. Ferr...

  3. Copper deficiency alters cell bioenergetics and induces mitochondrial fusion through up-regulation of MFN2 and OPA1 in erythropoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos, Rodrigo I.; Jensen, Erik L.; Ruiz, Lina M.; Rivera, Salvador; Ruiz, Sebastián; Simon, Felipe; Riedel, Claudia; Ferrick, David; Elorza, Alvaro A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •In copper deficiency, cell proliferation is not affected. In turn, cell differentiation is impaired. •Enlarged mitochondria are due to up-regulation of MNF2 and OPA1. •Mitochondria turn off respiratory chain and ROS production. •Energy metabolism switch from mitochondria to glycolysis. -- Abstract: Copper is essential in cell physiology, participating in numerous enzyme reactions. In mitochondria, copper is a cofactor for respiratory complex IV, the cytochrome c oxidase. Low copper content is associated with anemia and the appearance of enlarged mitochondria in erythropoietic cells. These findings suggest a connection between copper metabolism and bioenergetics, mitochondrial dynamics and erythropoiesis, which has not been explored so far. Here, we describe that bathocuproine disulfonate-induced copper deficiency does not alter erythropoietic cell proliferation nor induce apoptosis. However it does impair erythroid differentiation, which is associated with a metabolic switch between the two main energy-generating pathways. That is, from mitochondrial function to glycolysis. Switching off mitochondria implies a reduction in oxygen consumption and ROS generation along with an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential. Mitochondrial fusion proteins MFN2 and OPA1 were up-regulated along with the ability of mitochondria to fuse. Morphometric analysis of mitochondria did not show changes in total mitochondrial biomass but rather bigger mitochondria because of increased fusion. Similar results were also obtained with human CD34+, which were induced to differentiate into red blood cells. In all, we have shown that adequate copper levels are important for maintaining proper mitochondrial function and for erythroid differentiation where the energy metabolic switch plus the up-regulation of fusion proteins define an adaptive response to copper deprivation to keep cells alive

  4. Copper deficiency alters cell bioenergetics and induces mitochondrial fusion through up-regulation of MFN2 and OPA1 in erythropoietic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, Rodrigo I.; Jensen, Erik L.; Ruiz, Lina M.; Rivera, Salvador; Ruiz, Sebastián [Center for Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Simon, Felipe; Riedel, Claudia [Center for Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Millennium Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Santiago (Chile); Ferrick, David [Seahorse Bioscience, Billerica, MA (United States); Elorza, Alvaro A., E-mail: aelorza@unab.cl [Center for Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Millennium Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •In copper deficiency, cell proliferation is not affected. In turn, cell differentiation is impaired. •Enlarged mitochondria are due to up-regulation of MNF2 and OPA1. •Mitochondria turn off respiratory chain and ROS production. •Energy metabolism switch from mitochondria to glycolysis. -- Abstract: Copper is essential in cell physiology, participating in numerous enzyme reactions. In mitochondria, copper is a cofactor for respiratory complex IV, the cytochrome c oxidase. Low copper content is associated with anemia and the appearance of enlarged mitochondria in erythropoietic cells. These findings suggest a connection between copper metabolism and bioenergetics, mitochondrial dynamics and erythropoiesis, which has not been explored so far. Here, we describe that bathocuproine disulfonate-induced copper deficiency does not alter erythropoietic cell proliferation nor induce apoptosis. However it does impair erythroid differentiation, which is associated with a metabolic switch between the two main energy-generating pathways. That is, from mitochondrial function to glycolysis. Switching off mitochondria implies a reduction in oxygen consumption and ROS generation along with an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential. Mitochondrial fusion proteins MFN2 and OPA1 were up-regulated along with the ability of mitochondria to fuse. Morphometric analysis of mitochondria did not show changes in total mitochondrial biomass but rather bigger mitochondria because of increased fusion. Similar results were also obtained with human CD34+, which were induced to differentiate into red blood cells. In all, we have shown that adequate copper levels are important for maintaining proper mitochondrial function and for erythroid differentiation where the energy metabolic switch plus the up-regulation of fusion proteins define an adaptive response to copper deprivation to keep cells alive.

  5. Optimal copper supply is required for normal plant iron deficiency responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Brian M; Armbrust, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) homeostasis are tightly linked across biology. Understanding crosstalk between Fe and Cu nutrition could lead to strategies for improved growth on soils with low or excess metals, with implications for agriculture and phytoremediation. Here, we show that Cu and Fe nutrition interact to increase or decrease Fe and/or Cu accumulation in leaves and Fe uptake processes. Leaf Cu concentration increased under low Fe supply, while high Cu lowered leaf Fe concentration. Ferric reductase activity, an indicator of Fe demand, was inhibited at insufficient or high Cu supply. Surprisingly, plants grown without Fe were more susceptible to Cu toxicity.

  6. Corrosion of copper in oxygen-deficient groundwater with and without deep bedrock micro-organisms: Characterisation of microbial communities and surface processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen-Saarivirta, E., E-mail: elina.huttunen-saarivirta@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Materials Performance, Kemistintie 3, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Rajala, P. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Materials Performance, Kemistintie 3, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Bomberg, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Geobiotechnology, Tietotie 2, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Carpén, L. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Materials Performance, Kemistintie 3, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Copper was exposed to groundwater with and without deep bedrock micro-organisms. • Biofilm composition was determined and correlated with the behaviour of copper. • Under biotic conditions, the film of Cu{sub 2}S formed on copper surfaces. • Bacterial pool was in a key role for the morphology and properties of Cu{sub 2}S film. • Under abiotic conditions, Cu{sub 2}O systematically developed on copper surfaces. - Abstract: Copper specimens were exposed to oxygen-deficient artificial groundwater in the presence and absence of micro-organisms enriched from the deep bedrock of the planned nuclear waste repository site at Olkiluoto island on the western coast of Finland. During the exposure periods of 4 and 10 months, the copper specimens were subjected to electrochemical measurements. The biofilm developed on the specimens and the water used in the exposures were subjected to microbiological analyses. Changes in the water chemistry were also determined and surfaces of the copper specimens were characterized with respect to the morphology and composition of the formed corrosion products. The results showed that under biotic conditions, redox of the water and open circuit potential (OCP) of the copper specimens were generally negative and resulted in the build-up of a copper sulphide, Cu{sub 2}S, layer due to the activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) that were included in the system. In the 4-month test, the electrochemical behaviour of the specimens changed during the exposure and alphaproteobactria Rhizobiales were the dominant bacterial group in the biofilm where the highest corrosion rate was observed. In the 10-month test, however, deltaproteobacteria SRB flourished and the initial electrochemical behaviour and the low corrosion rate of the copper were retained until the end of the test period. Under abiotic conditions, the positive water redox potential and specimen OCP correlated with the formation of copper oxide, Cu{sub 2}O

  7. Corrosion of copper in oxygen-deficient groundwater with and without deep bedrock micro-organisms: Characterisation of microbial communities and surface processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttunen-Saarivirta, E.; Rajala, P.; Bomberg, M.; Carpén, L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Copper was exposed to groundwater with and without deep bedrock micro-organisms. • Biofilm composition was determined and correlated with the behaviour of copper. • Under biotic conditions, the film of Cu_2S formed on copper surfaces. • Bacterial pool was in a key role for the morphology and properties of Cu_2S film. • Under abiotic conditions, Cu_2O systematically developed on copper surfaces. - Abstract: Copper specimens were exposed to oxygen-deficient artificial groundwater in the presence and absence of micro-organisms enriched from the deep bedrock of the planned nuclear waste repository site at Olkiluoto island on the western coast of Finland. During the exposure periods of 4 and 10 months, the copper specimens were subjected to electrochemical measurements. The biofilm developed on the specimens and the water used in the exposures were subjected to microbiological analyses. Changes in the water chemistry were also determined and surfaces of the copper specimens were characterized with respect to the morphology and composition of the formed corrosion products. The results showed that under biotic conditions, redox of the water and open circuit potential (OCP) of the copper specimens were generally negative and resulted in the build-up of a copper sulphide, Cu_2S, layer due to the activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) that were included in the system. In the 4-month test, the electrochemical behaviour of the specimens changed during the exposure and alphaproteobactria Rhizobiales were the dominant bacterial group in the biofilm where the highest corrosion rate was observed. In the 10-month test, however, deltaproteobacteria SRB flourished and the initial electrochemical behaviour and the low corrosion rate of the copper were retained until the end of the test period. Under abiotic conditions, the positive water redox potential and specimen OCP correlated with the formation of copper oxide, Cu_2O. Furthermore, in the absence of

  8. Tyrosinase inhibition due to interaction of homocyst(e)ine with copper: the mechanism for reversible hypopigmentation in homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reish, O; Townsend, D; Berry, S A; Tsai, M Y; King, R A

    1995-01-01

    Deficiency of cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) is a genetic disorder of transsulfuration resulting in elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine and methionine and decreased cysteine. Affected patients have multisystem involvement, which may include light skin and hair. Reversible hypopigmentation in treated homocystinuric patients has been infrequently reported, and the mechanism is undefined. Two CBS-deficient homocystinuric patients manifested darkening of their hypopigmented hair following treatment that decreased plasma homocyst(e)ine. We hypothesized that homocyst(e)ine inhibits tyrosinase, the major pigment enzyme. The activity of tyrosinase extracted from pigmented human melanoma cells (MNT-1) that were grown in the presence of homocysteine was reduced in comparison to that extracted from cells grown without homocysteine. Copper sulfate restored homocyst(e)ine-inhibited tyrosinase activity when added to the culture cell media at a proportion of 1.25 mol of copper sulfate per 1 mol of DL-homocysteine. Holo-tyrosinase activity was inhibited by adding DL-homocysteine to the assay reaction mixture, and the addition of copper sulfate to the reaction mixture prevented this inhibition. Other tested compounds, L-cystine and betaine did not affect tyrosinase activity. Our data suggest that reversible hypopigmentation in homocystinuria is the result of tyrosinase inhibition by homocyst(e)ine and that the probable mechanism of this inhibition is the interaction of homocyst(e)ine with copper at the active site of tyrosinase. Images Figure 1 PMID:7611281

  9. Effects of nanomolar copper on water plants—Comparison of biochemical and biophysical mechanisms of deficiency and sublethal toxicity under environmentally relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, George, E-mail: george.thomas@uni.kn [Universität Konstanz, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Sektion, Fachbereich Biologie, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Stärk, Hans-Joachim, E-mail: ha-jo.staerk@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Wellenreuther, Gerd, E-mail: Gerd.wellenreuther@desy.de [HASYLAB at DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Dickinson, Bryan C., E-mail: bryan.dickinson@gmail.com [Harvard University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Küpper, Hendrik, E-mail: hendrik.kuepper@uni-konstanz.de [Universität Konstanz, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Sektion, Fachbereich Biologie, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Institute of Physical Biology, Branišovská 31, CZ-370 05 České Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •We found different optimal Cu requirement for different physiological mechanisms. •Kinetics and concentration thresholds of damage mechanisms were established. •Cu toxicity caused internal Cu re-distribution and inhibition of Zn uptake. •Cu deficient plants released Cu, indicating lack of high-affinity Cu transporters. •Cu deficiency caused re-distribution of zinc in the plant. -- Abstract: Toxicity and deficiency of essential trace elements like Cu are major global problems. Here, environmentally relevant sub-micromolar concentrations of Cu (supplied as CuSO{sub 4}) and simulations of natural light- and temperature cycles were applied to the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum. Growth was optimal at 10 nM Cu, while PSII activity (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) was maximal around 2 nM Cu. Damage to the PSII reaction centre was the first target of Cu toxicity, followed by disturbed regulation of heat dissipation (NPQ). Only after that, electron transport through PSII (Φ{sub PSII}) was inhibited, and finally chlorophylls decreased. Copper accumulation in the plants was stable until 10 nM Cu in solution, but strongly increased at higher concentrations. The vein was the main storage site for Cu up to physiological concentrations (10 nM). At toxic levels it was also sequestered to the epidermis and mesophyll until export from the vein became inhibited, accompanied by inhibition of Zn uptake. Copper deficiency led to a complete stop of growth at “0” nM Cu after 6 weeks. This was accompanied by high starch accumulation although electron flow through PSII (Φ{sub PSII}) decreased from 2 weeks, followed by decrease in pigments and increase of non photochemical quenching (NPQ). Release of Cu from the plants below 10 nM Cu supply in the nutrient solution indicated lack of high-affinity Cu transporters, and on the tissue level copper deficiency led to a re-distribution of zinc.

  10. Metallochaperone for Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (CCS) protein but not mRNA is higher in organs from copper-deficient mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaska, Joseph R; Broderius, Margaret; Brokate, Bruce

    2003-09-15

    Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is an abundant metalloenzyme important in scavenging superoxide ions. Cu-deficient rats and mice have lower SOD1 activity and protein, possibly because apo-SOD1 is degraded faster than holo-SOD1. SOD1 interacts with and requires its metallochaperone CCS for donating copper. We produced dietary Cu deficiency in rodents to determine if the reduction in SOD1 was related to the level of its specific metallochaperone CCS. CCS levels determined by immunoblot were 2- to 3-fold higher in liver, heart, kidney, and brain from male Cu-deficient rats and mice under a variety of conditions. CCS was also higher in livers of Cu-deficient dams. Interestingly, CCS levels in brain of Cu-deficient mice were also higher even though SOD1 activity and protein were not altered, suggesting that the rise in CCS is correlated with altered Cu status rather than a direct result of lower SOD1. A DNA probe specific for rat CCS detected a single transcript by Northern blot hybridization with liver RNA. CCS mRNA levels in mouse and rat liver were not altered by dietary treatment. These results suggest a posttranscriptional mechanism for higher CCS protein when Cu is limiting in the cell, perhaps due to slower protein turnover. Elevation in CCS level is one of the most dramatic alterations in Cu binding proteins accompanying Cu deficiency and may be useful to assess Cu status.

  11. The role of subcutaneous adipose tissue in supporting the copper balance in rats with a chronic deficiency in holo-ceruloplasmin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Y Ilyechova

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that (1 an acute deficiency in blood serum holo-ceruloplasmin (Cp developed in rats that were fed fodder containing silver ions (Ag-fodder for one month and (2 the deficiency in holo-Cp was compensated by non-hepatic holo-Cp synthesis in rats that were chronically fed Ag-fodder for 6 months (Ag-rats. The purpose of the present study is to identify the organ(s that compensate for the hepatic holo-Cp deficiency in the circulation. This study was performed on rats that were fed Ag-fodder (40 mg Ag·kg-1 body mass daily for 6 months. The relative expression levels of the genes responsible for copper status were measured by RT-PCR. The in vitro synthesis and secretion of [14C]Cp were analyzed using a metabolic labeling approach. Oxidase activity was determined using a gel assay with o-dianisidine. Copper status and some hematological indexes were measured. Differential centrifugation, immunoblotting, immunoelectrophoresis, and atomic absorption spectrometry were included in the investigation. In the Ag-rats, silver accumulation was tissue-specific. Skeletal muscles and internal (IAT and subcutaneous (SAT adipose tissues did not accumulate silver significantly. In SAT, the mRNAs for the soluble and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ceruloplasmin isoforms were expressed, and their relative levels were increased two-fold in the Ag-rats. In parallel, the levels of the genes responsible for Cp metallation (Ctr1 and Atp7a/b increased correspondingly. In the SAT of the Ag-rats, Cp oxidase activity was observed in the Golgi complex and plasma membrane. Moreover, full-length [14C]Cp polypeptides were released into the medium by slices of SAT. The possibilities that SAT is part of a system that controls the copper balance in mammals, and it plays a significant role in supporting copper homeostasis throughout the body are discussed.

  12. Acute progressive paraplegia in heroin-associated myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Kyle W; Romba, Meghan; Gailloud, Philippe; Izbudak, Izlem; Saylor, Deanna

    2018-05-01

    As the opioid epidemic continues, understanding manifestations of abuse, including heroin-associated myelopathy remains essential. Here we describe a young man with a past medical history significant for polysubstance abuse who developed acute-onset, rapidly progressive myelopathy after resumption of intravenous heroin use. He had significant spinal cord involvement with findings suggestive of heroin-associated myelopathy. The salient features of this case include diffusion imaging of the spine and spinal angiography supporting a possible vasculopathy as the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying heroin-associated myelopathy. Additionally, CSF studies showed the transition from a neutrophilic pleocytosis to a lymphocytic pleocytosis suggesting an inflammatory component. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Operative Outcomes for Cervical Myelopathy and Radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Galbraith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy are common disorders which can lead to significant clinical morbidity. Conservative management, such as physical therapy, cervical immobilisation, or anti-inflammatory medications, is the preferred and often only required intervention. Surgical intervention is reserved for those patients who have intractable pain or progressive neurological symptoms. The goals of surgical treatment are decompression of the spinal cord and nerve roots and deformity prevention by maintaining or supplementing spinal stability and alleviating pain. Numerous surgical techniques exist to alleviate symptoms, which are achieved through anterior, posterior, or circumferential approaches. Under most circumstances, one approach will produce optimal results. It is important that the surgical plan is tailored to address each individual's unique clinical circumstance. The objective of this paper is to analyse the major surgical treatment options for cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy focusing on outcomes and complications.

  14. Asymptomatic HIV positive patient presenting with myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin Agrawal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of disorders of diverse pathogenic mechanisms can trigger spinal cord dysfunction in HIV-1-infected patients. The most common such condition is HIV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM which characteristically seen during advanced HIV infection in patients with low CD4 cell counts and previous AIDS-defining diagnoses. Histologically seen in approximately 30% of AIDS patients, but only 10% have clinical symptoms related to the disease. We describe an unusual case of HAM in previously asymptomatic patient with relatively low CD4 cell count (78 cells/mm3. The patient unaware of her seropositive status presented with a clinically slowly progressive myelopathy with difficulty in walking without assistance. We discharged a patient on antiretroviral therapy. We also review the disorders reported to derange spinal cord function in previously asymptomatic HIV-1 infected patients with preserved counts.

  15. Research progress of HIV-associated myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun HONG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The wide usage of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART leads to reduction of the occurence rate of focal or diffuse neurological damage caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, which prominently improves the living quality of HIV-infected patients. Despite this progress, about 70% of HIV-infected patients develop neurological complications. Although neurological disease typically occurs in the advanced stage of the disease or after severe damage of immune functions, it may also occur during early stage of the infection. HIV-associated myelopathy is a common complication of immunodeficiency syndrome and its typical pathological appearence is vacuolar degeneration. In many patients the clinical manifestations of vacuolar myelopathy are in fact limited to non-specific sphincter or sexual dysfunction, and may remain completely asymptomatic. Even when motor and sensory symptoms become evident, the diagnosis is often complicated by a concomitant peripheral neuropathy. The purpose of this study is to summarize pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, pathological features, diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated myelopathy. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.08.004

  16. Imaging of Spinal Cord Injury: Acute Cervical Spinal Cord Injury, Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy, and Cord Herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talekar, Kiran; Poplawski, Michael; Hegde, Rahul; Cox, Mougnyan; Flanders, Adam

    2016-10-01

    We review the pathophysiology and imaging findings of acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), cervical spondylotic myelopathy, and briefly review the much less common cord herniation as a unique cause of myelopathy. Acute traumatic SCI is devastating to the patient and the costs to society are staggering. There are currently no "cures" for SCI and the only accepted pharmacologic treatment regimen for traumatic SCI is currently being questioned. Evaluation and prognostication of SCI is a demanding area with significant deficiencies, including lack of biomarkers. Accurate classification of SCI is heavily dependent on a good clinical examination, the results of which can vary substantially based upon the patient׳s condition or comorbidities and the skills of the examiner. Moreover, the full extent of a patients׳ neurologic injury may not become apparent for days after injury; by then, therapeutic response may be limited. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best imaging modality for the evaluation of spinal cord parenchyma, conventional MR techniques do not appear to differentiate edema from axonal injury. Recently, it is proposed that in addition to characterizing the anatomic extent of injury, metrics derived from conventional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging, in conjunction with the neurological examination, can serve as a reliable objective biomarker for determination of the extent of neurologic injury and early identification of patients who would benefit from treatment. Cervical spondylosis is a common disorder affecting predominantly the elderly with a potential to narrow the spinal canal and thereby impinge or compress upon the neural elements leading to cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy. It is the commonest nontraumatic cause of spinal cord disorder in adults. Imaging plays an important role in grading the severity of spondylosis and detecting cord abnormalities suggesting myelopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. STUDY OF CLINICO- EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS ADMITTED WITH INFANTILE TREMOR SYNDROME (ITS AND STATUS OF TRACE ELEMENTS (ZINC, COPPER DEFICIENCY IN THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Makwana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Under nutrition is one of the major problems in the field of Paediatrics. The greatest risk of malnutrition is in the first two years of life. The effects of this early damage on health, brain development, intelligence, educability and productivity are potentially reversible. The current study was an attempt to find out the clinico epidemiological profile, evaluate them for trace elements deficiency and most appropriate management options in those who are admitted with infantile tremor syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS The current study was a hospital based cross sectional study that was conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Dr. S. N. Medical College Jodhpur. Duration of study was One Year. Any child up to the age of three years of age admitted in the paediatric wards with typical features of infantile tremor syndrome. RESULTS Maximum numbers of patients were found between 6 months to 12 months of age, there was slight male predominance. The majority of infants in our study (85% were exclusively breast fed, 66% of cases were having low serum Copper level. 9% of cases were having low serum zinc level. 8% of cases were having low serum copper level with tremors. CONCLUSION In our study the fact that NTS is mainly seen in children who are exclusively breast feed for a longer period with delayed introduction of weaning foods. The main presenting features remain developmental delay, hyper pigmentation and anemia. Among nutritional factors, deficiency of copper and zinc in children plays a big role in development of disease. Thus to prevent the development of nutritional tremor syndrome stress should be on early timely introduction of weaning foods, especially rich in copper and zinc. What is already known about this Study- low levels of trace elements like copper and zinc may be responsible for typical clinical manifestations in patients of infantile tremor syndrome. Pronged and Exclusive breast feeding further aggravate these features

  18. Imaging Modalities for Cervical Spondylotic Stenosis and Myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Green

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylosis is a spectrum of pathology presenting as neck pain, radiculopathy, and myelopathy or all in combination. Diagnostic imaging is essential to diagnosis and preoperative planning. We discuss the modalities of imaging in common practice. We examine the use of imaging to differentiate among central, subarticular, and lateral stenosis and in the assessment of myelopathy.

  19. Mise au point myelopathie cervicarthrosique revelee par un ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy is a progressive spinal cord disease caused by mecanical compression from different structure of a spinal stenosis in pathologics conditions which brings histological damade. In addition acut myelopathy is frequently revealed by cervical spine injury with dynamic injury mechanism.

  20. Is brain copper deficiency in Alzheimer's, Lewy body, and Creutzfeldt Jakob diseases the common key for a free radical mechanism and oxidative stress-induced damage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloncle, Roger; Guillard, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    In Alzheimer's (AD), Lewy body (LBD), and Creutzfeldt Jakob (CJD) diseases, similar pathological hallmarks have been described, one of which is brain deposition of abnormal protease-resistant proteins. For these pathologies, copper bound to proteins is able to protect against free radicals by reduction from cupric Cu++ to cupreous Cu+. We have previously demonstrated in bovine brain homogenate that free radicals produce proteinase K-resistant prion after manganese is substituted for copper. Since low brain copper levels have been described in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, in substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease, and in various brain regions in AD, LBD, and CJD, a mechanism has been proposed that may underlie the neurodegenerative processes that occur when copper protection against free radicals is impaired. In peptide sequences, the alpha acid proton near the peptide bond is highly mobile and can be pulled out by free radicals. It will produce a trivalent α-carbon radical and induce a free radical chain process that will generate a D-amino acid configuration in the peptide sequence. Since only L-amino acids are physiologically present in mammalian (human) proteins, it may be supposed that only physiological L-peptides can be recycled by physiological enzymes such as proteases. If a D-amino acid is found in the peptide sequence subsequent to deficient copper protection against free radicals, it will not be recognized and might alter the proteasome L-amino acid recycling from brain peptides. In the brain, there will result an accumulation of abnormal protease-resistant proteins such as those observed in AD, LBD, and CJD.

  1. Surfer's myelopathy: case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabegovic, Amna; Strachan-Jackman, Shirley; Carr, David

    2011-09-01

    Nontraumatic spinal cord injury from surfing is a new entity first described in 2004 and likely of ischemic etiology. We report the case of a 25-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with a 2-week history of lower extremity weakness after surfing in Indonesia. The patient reported developing low back pain, lower extremity weakness, sensory changes, and urinary retention shortly after his first surfing lesson. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with surfer's myelopathy. The purpose of this report is to review the clinical presentation, etiology, risk factors, and management of this increasingly described entity.

  2. Maple Syrup Urine Disease Complicated with Kyphoscoliosis and Myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Woei Hou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD is an autosomal recessive aminoacidopathy secondary to an enzyme defect in the catabolic pathway of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Accumulation of their corresponding keto-acids leads to encephalopathy if not treated in time. A newborn male patient was suspected to have MSUD after tandem mass study when he presented symptoms and signs suggestive neonatal sepsis, anemia, and diarrhea. Food restriction of BCAAs was started; however, acrodermatitis enteropathica-like skin eruptions occurred at age 2 months. The skin rashes resolved after adding BCAAs and adjusting the infant formula. At age 7 months, he suffered from recurrent skin lesions, zinc deficiency, osteoporosis, and kyphosis of the thoracic spine with acute angulation over the T11-T12 level associated with spinal compression and myelopathy. After supplementation of zinc products and pamidronate, skin lesions and osteopenia improved gradually. Direct sequencing of the DBT gene showed a compound heterozygous mutation [4.7 kb deletion and c.650-651insT (L217F or L217fsX223]. It is unusual that neurodegeneration still developed in this patient despite diet restriction. Additionally, brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging, bone mineral density study, and monitoring of zinc status are suggested in MSUD patients.

  3. Evaluation of idiopathic transverse myelitis revealing specific myelopathy diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Nicholas L; Flanagan, Eoin P; Keegan, B Mark

    2018-01-09

    To evaluate specific myelopathy diagnoses made in patients with suspected idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM). A total of 226 patients 18 years and older were referred to Mayo Clinic Neurology for suspected ITM from December 1, 2010, to December 31, 2015. Electronic medical records were reviewed for detailed clinical presentation and course, laboratory and electrophysiologic investigations, and neuroimaging to determine the etiology. Current diagnostic criteria for ITM and alternative myelopathy diagnoses were applied. All cases where any discrepancy was suspected from the final reported clinical diagnosis were reviewed by each author and a consensus final diagnosis was made. The diagnostic criteria for ITM were met in 41 of 226 patients (18.1%). In 158 patients (69.9%), an alternative specific myelopathy diagnosis was made: multiple sclerosis or clinically isolated syndrome, 75; vascular myelopathy, 41; neurosarcoidosis, 12; neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, 12; myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein myelopathy, 5; neoplastic, 4; compressive, 3; nutritional, 3; infectious, 2; and other, 2. A myelopathy was not confirmed in 27 patients. Time from symptom onset to final clinical diagnosis in patients without ITM was a median of 9 months (range 0-288). Fifty-five patients (24%) required treatment changes according to their final clinical diagnosis. The majority of patients with suspected ITM have an alternative specific myelopathy diagnosis. A presumptive diagnosis of ITM can lead to premature diagnostic conclusions affecting patient treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Dose effect relationships in cervical and thoracic radiation myelopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdorff, B.

    1980-01-01

    The course and prognosis of radiation myelopathies are determined by 3 factors: the segmental (vertical) location of the lesion, the extent of the transverse syndrome (complete or incomplete) and the radiation dose. The median spinal dose in cervical radiation myelopathies with fatal outcome was higher than in survivals with an incomplete transverse syndrome. In thoracic radiation myelopathies a dose difference between complete and incomplete transverse syndromes could be found as well. Incomplete transverse syndromes as submaximum radiation injuries are more suitable for the determination of the spinal tolerance dose than complete transverse syndromes. The lowest threshold could be stated for cases following high-volume irradiation of the lymphatic system. (Auth.)

  5. Venous hypertensive myelopathy associated with cervical spondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Seiji; Chang, Charles; Chang, Geraldine; Yue, James J

    2016-11-01

    Venous hypertensive myelopathy (VHM) results from spinal vascular malformations of arteriovenous shunting that increases spinal venous pressure, leading to congestive edema and neurologic dysfunction. There has been no report of VHM associated with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The aim of this study was to report an extremely rare case of VHM likely due to CSM. This study is a case report and review of the literature. The patient was a 51-year-old man with CSM exhibiting relatively rapid neurologic deterioration with an abnormal expansion of a centromedullary hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the absence of traumatic injury. Neurologic examination and radiologic imaging were taken by various means. The patient developed a cervical radiculopathy, followed by gait disturbance and motor weakness. The MRI of the cervical spine demonstrated spinal canal stenosis due to disc bulging and flavum hypertrophy at the C5/C6 and C6/C7 levels as well as hyperintense area over the C5-C7 levels on T2-weighted images. Although decompression surgery was planned, an acute inflammatory process such as transverse myelitis or demyelinating disease other than cord compression was also considered, and the patient received intravenous steroids. His walking improved for several days. However, his symptoms then became significantly worse, and he had difficulty walking. Subsequent MRI demonstrated marked progression of the T2 hyperintense lesion over the C4-T1 vertebral levels. Flow voids were also noted on the dorsal surface of the upper cervical cord on T2-weighted MRI. His lab work, medical history, and the local enhancement on contrast-enhanced MRI indicated low probability of spinal inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the decision was made to perform anterior cervical discectomy and fusion surgery on two levels. Following surgery, his symptoms improved promptly. Our case indicates that VHM could be caused by spondylotic cord compression in the

  6. Laminoplasty and laminectomy for cervical sponydylotic myelopathy: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, R.H.M.A.; van Tulder, M.W.; Moojen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is frequently encountered in neurosurgical practice. The posterior surgical approach includes laminectomy and laminoplasty.OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review evaluating the effectiveness of posterior laminectomy compared with posterior laminoplasty...

  7. Operative techniques for cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, C

    2012-02-01

    The surgical treatment of cervical spondylosis and resulting cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy has evolved over the past century. Surgical options for dorsal decompression of the cervical spine includes the traditional laminectomy and laminoplasty, first described in Asia in the 1970\\'s. More recently the dorsal approch has been explored in terms of minimally invasive options including foraminotomies for nerve root descompression. Ventral decompression and fusion techniques are also described in the article, including traditional anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, strut grafting and cervical disc arthroplasty. Overall, the outcome from surgery is determined by choosing the correct surgery for the correct patient and pathology and this is what we hope to explain in this brief review.

  8. Micronutrient problems of crops in Pakistan with special reference to zinc and copper deficiency in rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, F.M.; Sharif, M.

    1975-01-01

    Studies on the mechanisms of zinc-65 adsorption by various types of soil are being conducted. The soils of the Hyderabad region of the Sind province appear to de deficient in Zn for maize and in B for cotton, sweet clover, wheat and millets. Zinc, Cu and B deficiency seems to be widespread for wheat on many non-rice growing soils of the Punjab. In the North Frontier Province, sugarbeet and citrus orchards respond markedly to the application of Zn, Cu and Fe. Lowland rice responds to the addition of Zn in all the provinces of Pakistan. In rice tracts of the Punjab, Zn and Cu deficiency is quite prevalent for rice. The scope of necessary future research is discussed

  9. Copper carrier protein in copper toxic sheep liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, A L; Dean, P D.G.

    1973-01-01

    The livers of copper-toxic sheep have been analyzed by gel electrophoresis followed by staining the gels for copper with diethyldithiocarbamate and for protein with amido schwartz. These gels were compared with similar gels obtained from the livers of normal and copper-deficient animals. The copper-toxic livers contained an extra protein band which possessed relatively weakly bound copper. Possible origins of this protein are discussed. 8 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  10. Cine MRI of patients with cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukita, Yasutaka

    1993-01-01

    Forty-six patients with cervical myelopathy were examined before and after surgery by cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). According to the occurrence site and degree of flow void, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow void was classified into five: anterior type (flow void mainly in the anterior part of subarachnoid space), posterior type (mainly in the posteiror part), anteroposterior type (in the anterior and posterior parts), incomplete block type (flow void limited to the upper and lower parts of the block), and complete block type (no flow void). None of the 46 patients had normal CSF flow void on cine MRI before surgery. CSF flow void was seen in systolic phase on ECG (from 150 to 300 msec from R's wave) in all patients after spinal cord decompression. Postoperative CBF flow void types correlated well with surgical method, disease, and postoperative vertebral alignment. Postoperative outcome was the most excellent in the group of posterior type and the poorest in the group of anteroposterior type, showing a significant difference between the groups. Cine MRI is a useful noninvasive, dynamic method for assessing postoperative decompression effect. (N.K.)

  11. Clinical utility of MR imaging in chronic progressive radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melki, P.S.; Halimi, P.; Wibault, P.; Doyon, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper defines the diagnostic and prognostic value of MR imaging in chronic progressive radiation myelopathy 9CPRM). In this series, MR imaging showed excellent sensitivity (199%) for the demonstration of radiation-induced lesions of the spinal cord. Fifty percent of the cases showed spinal cord hypertrophy (pseudotumoral, 33%; cystic, 17%) occurring within 8 months of the clinical onset of myelopathy. The remaining 50% showed spinal cord atrophy, which occurred more than 8 months following the onset of myelopathy. These medullary lesions were located at least partially in the radiation field but extended beyond its boundaries in 73% of the cases. MR imaging helped to establish disease prognosis: spinal cord hypertrophy was usually associated with neurologic deterioration and fatal outcome within a mean of 11.5 months; in spinal atrophy, neurologic deficit was often static and survival rates were better

  12. Surgical Management in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Due to Alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Ali; Sandal, Evren; Middlebrooks, Erik H; Senoglu, Mehmet

    2018-05-01

    Ochronotic arthropathy related to alkaptonuria is a rare condition. Cervical spine involvement with myelopathic features has been even more rarely described, particularly related to atlantoaxial instability. As such, little is known about the optimal surgical management in these patients. We described the first case, to our knowledge, of a patient with alkaptonuria and related cervical spondylotic myelopathy from pannus formation at the atlantoaxial joint. We describe our choices in surgical management of this rare condition in a patient with an excellent outcome. Ochronotic cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a rare condition and may require additional considerations in surgical treatment compared to more common causes of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. In our case, we elected for decompression with posterior occipitocervical screw fixation and were able to achieve neurologic recovery with no complications, currently at 2-year follow-up. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Deficiency and toxicity of nanomolar copper in low irradiance—A physiological and metalloproteomic study in the aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demersum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, George [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Andresen, Elisa [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Department Plant Biophysics and Biochemistry, Biology Centre of the ASCR, Branišovská 31/1160, CZ-37005 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Mattusch, Jürgen [UFZ − Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Hubáček, Tomáš [Institute of Hydrobiology, Department of Hydrochemistry and Ecosystem Modelling, Biology Centre of the ASCR, Na Sádkách 7, 37005 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); SoWa National Research Infrastructure, Biology Centre of the ASCR, Na Sádkách 7, 37005 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); and others

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Environmentally relevant toxicity and limitation of Cu were investigated. • Copper > 50nM replaces Mg in the LHCII‐trimers. • Deficiency causes decreased electron flow through PSII via lack of plastocyanin. • Of all metabolic pathways, photosynthesis was most affected by Cu toxicity. • Detection of Cu in the Chl peaks of LHCII suggests the generation of [Cu]‐Chl. - Abstract: Essential trace elements (Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, etc) lead to toxic effects above a certain threshold, which is a major environmental problem in many areas of the world. Here, environmentally relevant sub-micromolar concentrations of Cu{sup 2+} and simulations of natural light and temperature cycles were applied to the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum a s a model for plant shoots. In this low irradiance study resembling non‐summer conditions, growth was optimal in the range 7.5–35 nM Cu, while PSII activity (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) was maximal around 7.5 nM Cu. Damage to the light harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCII) was the first target of Cu toxicity (>50 nM Cu) where Cu replaced Mg in the LHCII-trimers. This was associated with a subsequent decrease of Chl a as well as heat dissipation (NPQ). The growth rate was decreased from the first week of Cu deficiency. Plastocyanin malfunction due to the lack of Cu that is needed for its active centre was the likely cause of diminished electron flow through PSII (Φ{sub PSII}). The pigment decrease added to the damage in the photosynthetic light reactions. These mechanisms ultimately resulted in decrease of starch and oxygen production.

  14. Heterotopic ossification associated with myelopathy following cervical disc prosthesis implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Markus; Markwalder, Thomas-Marc

    2016-04-01

    This case report presents a 37-year-old man with clinical signs of myelopathy almost 9 years after implantation of a Bryan disc prosthesis (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA) for C5/C6 soft disc herniation. As demonstrated on MRI and CT scan, spinal cord compression was caused by bony spurs due to heterotopic ossification posterior to the still moving prosthesis. The device, as well as the ectopic bone deposits, had to be removed because of myelopathy and its imminent aggravation. Conversion to anterior spondylodesis was performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Two children with chronic progressive radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Hideaki; Takai, Kenji; Hosoi, Gaku; Okamura, Takayuki; Osugi, Yuko; Ishihara, Shigehiko; Hara, Junichi; Tawa, Akio; Okada, Shintaro

    1995-01-01

    We report two patients who developed chronic progressive radiation myelopathy (CPRM). Patient 1 was a 16-year-old boy with group IV rhabdomyosarcoma of cervical soft tissue. He underwent partial excision of the tumor and received systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy and 44 Gy of local radiotherapy (C4 through Th3). These therapies were followed by high-dose chemotherapy including thio-TEPA and busulfan with autologous bone marrow rescue. One year after the completion of the therapies, he developed CPRM. Patient 2 was a 15-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia on the 3rd complete remission. She received 18 Gy of irradiation to whole brain during the 1st remission and another 18 Gy to whole brain and 9 Gy to spinal cord after her 1st CNS relapse. After successful reinduction therapy for the 2nd relapse in CNS and bone marrow, she underwent an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The preconditioning regimen consisted of 12 Gy total body irradiation, thio-TEPA and cyclophosphamide. Seven months after BMT, she developed CPRM at C0-C1 level, which was included in the area of whole-brain irradiation. In both patients, MR images showed a swelling of the cervical cord and ring-like images by gadolinium enhancement. Their neurological disability transiently responded to the administration of corticosteroid, but they developed progressive quadriplegia. Although it is reported that a dose of 45-50 Gy may be safe, these cases suggest that administration of high-dose chemotherapy combined with intrathecal chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the cord might increase the rink of developing CPRM. (author)

  16. Two children with chronic progressive radiation myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Hideaki; Takai, Kenji; Hosoi, Gaku; Okamura, Takayuki; Osugi, Yuko; Ishihara, Shigehiko; Hara, Junichi; Tawa, Akio; Okada, Shintaro [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-06-01

    We report two patients who developed chronic progressive radiation myelopathy (CPRM). Patient 1 was a 16-year-old boy with group IV rhabdomyosarcoma of cervical soft tissue. He underwent partial excision of the tumor and received systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy and 44 Gy of local radiotherapy (C4 through Th3). These therapies were followed by high-dose chemotherapy including thio-TEPA and busulfan with autologous bone marrow rescue. One year after the completion of the therapies, he developed CPRM. Patient 2 was a 15-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia on the 3rd complete remission. She received 18 Gy of irradiation to whole brain during the 1st remission and another 18 Gy to whole brain and 9 Gy to spinal cord after her 1st CNS relapse. After successful reinduction therapy for the 2nd relapse in CNS and bone marrow, she underwent an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The preconditioning regimen consisted of 12 Gy total body irradiation, thio-TEPA and cyclophosphamide. Seven months after BMT, she developed CPRM at C0-C1 level, which was included in the area of whole-brain irradiation. In both patients, MR images showed a swelling of the cervical cord and ring-like images by gadolinium enhancement. Their neurological disability transiently responded to the administration of corticosteroid, but they developed progressive quadriplegia. Although it is reported that a dose of 45-50 Gy may be safe, these cases suggest that administration of high-dose chemotherapy combined with intrathecal chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the cord might increase the rink of developing CPRM. (author).

  17. Regulation of brain copper homeostasis by the brain barrier systems: Effects of Fe-overload and Fe-deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnot, Andrew D.; Behl, Mamta; Ho, Sanna; Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu

    2011-11-15

    Maintaining brain Cu homeostasis is vital for normal brain function. The role of systemic Fe deficiency (FeD) or overload (FeO) due to metabolic diseases or environmental insults in Cu homeostasis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissues remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate how blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-SCF barrier (BCB) regulated Cu transport and how FeO or FeD altered brain Cu homeostasis. Rats received an Fe-enriched or Fe-depleted diet for 4 weeks. FeD and FeO treatment resulted in a significant increase (+ 55%) and decrease (- 56%) in CSF Cu levels (p < 0.05), respectively; however, neither treatment had any effect on CSF Fe levels. The FeD, but not FeO, led to significant increases in Cu levels in brain parenchyma and the choroid plexus. In situ brain perfusion studies demonstrated that the rate of Cu transport into the brain parenchyma was significantly faster in FeD rats (+ 92%) and significantly slower (- 53%) in FeO rats than in controls. In vitro two chamber Transwell transepithelial transport studies using primary choroidal epithelial cells revealed a predominant efflux of Cu from the CSF to blood compartment by the BCB. Further ventriculo-cisternal perfusion studies showed that Cu clearance by the choroid plexus in FeD animals was significantly greater than control (p < 0.05). Taken together, our results demonstrate that both the BBB and BCB contribute to maintain a stable Cu homeostasis in the brain and CSF. Cu appears to enter the brain primarily via the BBB and is subsequently removed from the CSF by the BCB. FeD has a more profound effect on brain Cu levels than FeO. FeD increases Cu transport at the brain barriers and prompts Cu overload in the CNS. The BCB plays a key role in removing the excess Cu from the CSF.

  18. Myelopathy: Retrospective Evaluation of Twenty-Eight Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Erdal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Myelopathy is used to describe any neurologic deficit related to the spinal cord. Determining the etiology is important for detecting emergency situations and treating the cause. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 28 patients who were diagnosed as having and treated for myelopathy between January 2014 and January 2015 in our hospital. The clinical and laboratory findings of the patients and their response to treatment were assessed. Results: Of the 28 patients, 16 were male and 12 were female, the mean age was 48 years (range, 22-77 years. The most common initial symptoms were sensorial deficits and motor weakness. Demyelinating diseases were the most common diseases and multiple sclerosis was the most frequent etiology among demiyelinating diseases. Cervical spinal cord was the most frequent region involved in myelopathy episodes which was detected by magnetic resonance imaging on T2W images. We observed clinical improvement in 15 of the 20 patients who were treated with corticosteroids. In addition, vitamin B12 treatment led to clinical improvement in two patients who were diagnosed as having subacute combined degeneration. Conclusion: The diagnosis and etiology of myelopathy and identification of rare conditions that require emergency surgery or interventional treatments are of utmost importance

  19. Radiation myelopathy after irradiation of a larynx carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, A.; Daehn, I.

    1980-01-01

    The morphological characteristics and clinical phenomena of radiation myelopathy after X-irradiation of larynx carcinoma are demonstrated. In spite of constant improvement of radiotherapy the occurrence of a radiation damage of the central nervous system must be expected and included into considerations concerning differential diagnosis

  20. Regulation of brain copper homeostasis by the brain barrier systems: Effects of Fe-overload and Fe-deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnot, Andrew D.; Behl, Mamta; Ho, Sanna; Zheng, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining brain Cu homeostasis is vital for normal brain function. The role of systemic Fe deficiency (FeD) or overload (FeO) due to metabolic diseases or environmental insults in Cu homeostasis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissues remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate how blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-SCF barrier (BCB) regulated Cu transport and how FeO or FeD altered brain Cu homeostasis. Rats received an Fe-enriched or Fe-depleted diet for 4 weeks. FeD and FeO treatment resulted in a significant increase (+ 55%) and decrease (− 56%) in CSF Cu levels (p < 0.05), respectively; however, neither treatment had any effect on CSF Fe levels. The FeD, but not FeO, led to significant increases in Cu levels in brain parenchyma and the choroid plexus. In situ brain perfusion studies demonstrated that the rate of Cu transport into the brain parenchyma was significantly faster in FeD rats (+ 92%) and significantly slower (− 53%) in FeO rats than in controls. In vitro two chamber Transwell transepithelial transport studies using primary choroidal epithelial cells revealed a predominant efflux of Cu from the CSF to blood compartment by the BCB. Further ventriculo-cisternal perfusion studies showed that Cu clearance by the choroid plexus in FeD animals was significantly greater than control (p < 0.05). Taken together, our results demonstrate that both the BBB and BCB contribute to maintain a stable Cu homeostasis in the brain and CSF. Cu appears to enter the brain primarily via the BBB and is subsequently removed from the CSF by the BCB. FeD has a more profound effect on brain Cu levels than FeO. FeD increases Cu transport at the brain barriers and prompts Cu overload in the CNS. The BCB plays a key role in removing the excess Cu from the CSF.

  1. Treatment of Portosystemic Shunt Myelopathy with a Stent Graft Deployed through a Transjugular Intrahepatic Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Deepak; Arora, Ankur; Deka, Pranjal; Mukund, Amar; Bhatnagar, Shorav; Jindal, Deepti; Kumar, Niteen; Pamecha, Viniyendra

    2013-01-01

    A case of surgically created splenorenal shunt complicated with shunt myelopathy was successfully managed by placement of a stent graft within the splenic vein to close the portosystemic shunt and alleviate myelopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of shunt myelopathy in a patient with noncirrhotic portal fibrosis without cirrhosis treated by a novel technique wherein a transjugular intrahepatic route was adopted to deploy the stent graft

  2. Anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiency in Mexican adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Anemia y deficiencia de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en adolescentes mexicanos: resultados de la ENSANUT 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: To describe the frequency of anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiencies among Mexican adolescents in the probabilistic survey ENSANUT 2006. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample included 2447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 y. Capillary hemoglobin and venous blood samples were collected to measure the concentrations of ferritin, sTFR, CRP, zinc, iron, copper and magnesium. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for mineral deficiencies. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anemia was 11.8 and 4.6%, body iron deficiency 18.2 and 7.9% for females and males, respectively. Overall prevalence of tissue iron deficiency was 6.9%, low serum copper were14.4 and 12.25%; zinc 28.4 and 24.5%, magnesium 40 and 35.3%; for females and males, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of mineral deficiency in Mexican adolescents; females were more prone to have more mineral deficiencies. Nutritional interventions are necessaries in order to reduce and control them.OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de anemia y deficiencia de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en adolescentes mexicanos en la encuesta probabilística ENSANUT 2006. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La muestra incluyó 2447 adolescentes de 12 a 19 años de edad. Se tomó hemoglobina capilar y muestras de sangre venosa para medir las concentraciones séricas de ferritina, sTFR, CRP, zinc, hierro, cobre y magnesio. Se construyeron modelos de regresión logística para evaluar el riesgo de deficiencia de minerales. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de anemia fue de 11.8% en mujeres y 4.6% en hombres. Las deficiencias de hierro fueron de 18.2 y 7.9% La deficiencia tisular de hierro fue 6.9%; la baja concentración de cobre fue de 14.4 y 12.25% la de zinc de 28.4 y 24.5%, la de magnesio fue 40 y 35.3% en mujeres y hombres, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Existe una alta prevalencia de deficiencia de minerales en los adolescentes; las mujeres tuvieron mayor riesgo. Son necesarias

  3. Vascular myelopathy: causes and mechanisms, possibilities of diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Ponomarev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular myelopathy is a rare severe disease caused by a broad spectrum of causes, among which pathology of the aorta and its branches, aortic surgery, spinal diseases, and spinal trauma occupy the main place. The processes of neuroinflammation and glutamate neurotoxicity play a leading role in the pathogenesis of myeloischemia. The clinical picture of the disease is nonspecific and depends on the location and volume of an ischemic focus. Magnetic resonance imaging is a gold standard for diagnosis. However, this method remains insensitive in the acute period and fails to detect spinal cord ischemia at preclinical stages. The investigation and introduction of specific biochemical markers (glutamate receptors and their antibodies for neurotoxicity, which can identify ischemia in the advanced stage and predetermine its development, are promising. The treatment of vascular myelopathy has not currently been standardized and it is mainly pathogenetic and symptomatic.

  4. [Cervical myelopathy from an aspect of a neurological surgeon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, T

    1994-12-01

    More than 65 per cent of intramedurally tumors and intradural extramedurally tumors were located in cervical region. They enact a cause of cervical myelopathy. A special attention should be paid to solitaly intramedurally vascular malformations, when the patients show an acute progressive myelopathy. In very rare cases of syringomyelia, intramedurally tumors such as hemangioblastoma or ependymoma could be found, so that enhanced MRI or angiography should be done if necessary. In cases of a herniated disc, cervical spondylosis and OPLL, the distance between articulo-pillar line and spinolaminal line must be measured. If the distance of both lines is near or the same, that means narrow cervical canal. In rare cases the form of the vertebral body is round. This is a rare cause of a type of narrow canal.

  5. Myelopathy and peripheral neuropathy after X-ray therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berstad, J.

    1986-03-01

    Three patients with injury to the spinal cord after X-ray therapy are reported. One patient suffered from a chronic progressive myelopathy, whereas two others were considered to have a peripheral motor neuropathy due to selective damage to the motoneurons. The prognosis of patients with peripheral motor neuropathy is good, in contrast to chronic progressive myelopathy which most often leads to severe disability and death. Characteristically there is a latent interval from months to years between completed radiation therapy and the appearance of neurological symptoms. The mechanism for delayed radiation injury to the cord is at present unknown, but the possibilities of fibrosis, injury to the microcirculation, or direct injury to the nervous tissue are discussed. The importance of a correct diagnosis before further treatment is decided upon is stressed. The most difficult differential diagnosis is intraspinal metastases.

  6. Myelopathy and peripheral neuropathy after X-ray therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berstad, J.

    1986-01-01

    Three patients with injury to the spinal cord after X-ray therapy are reported. One patient suffered from a chronic progressive myelopathy, whereas two others were considered to have a peripheral motor neuropathy due to selective damage to the motoneurons. The prognosis of patients with peripheral motor neuropathy is good, in contrast to chronic progressive myelopathy which most often leads to severe disability and death. Characteristically there is a latent interval from months to years between completed radiation therapy and the appearance of neurological symptoms. The mechanism for delayed radiation injury to the cord is at present unknown, but the possibilities of fibrosis, injury to the microcirculation, or direct injury to the nervous tissue are discussed. The importance of a correct diagnosis before further treatment is decided upon is stressed. The most difficult differential diagnosis is intraspinal metastases

  7. MRI findings in acute idiopathic transverse myelopathy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Albuquerque-Jonathan, Glenda; Hewlett, Richard; Wilmshurst, Jo

    2003-01-01

    To describe the clinical and MRI findings in three children with acute idiopathic myelopathy (AIM). Retrospective review of the clinical presentation, MRI findings and outcome of three patients diagnosed with acute idiopathic transverse myelitis. Of note was the swift onset of symptoms in all patients, without any preceding illness or history of vaccination in two of the patients, and the rapid resolution of symptoms on steroid therapy in all the patients. MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensity and patchy enhancement with gadolinium, but the extensive cord involvement did not correlate with the severity of presentation or outcome. Our findings do not support that MRI evidence alone of diffuse myelopathy is a predictor of poor outcome in childhood AIM. (orig.)

  8. Recurrent acute transverse myelopathy: association with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharao, Vijaya; Bartakke, Sandip; Muranjan, Mamta N; Bavdekar, Manisha S; Bavdekar, Sandeep B; Udani, Vrajesh P

    2004-06-01

    A seven-year-old boy presented with a second episode of acute transverse myelopathy. The first episode had responded dramatically to methylprednisolone. The manifestations of the second episode did not respond to methylprednisolone or IVIG. He showed persistently raised levels of antiphospholipid antibodies in the serum. Primary conditions like collagen vascular diseases, malignancy, exposure to drugs and HIV infection, which are known to be associated with the raised titers of these antibodies were ruled out clinically and by investigations. Recurrent transverse myelopathy is a rare event in childhood and reports of its association with Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome (APLAS) are scanty. The etiological role for these antibodies remains to be established. However, once the diagnosis is established, it may be prudent to treat the condition with agents and procedures to bring about a decrease in their titers. Long-term therapy to prevent thromboembolic complications of APLAS may also be instituted.

  9. 78 FR 78727 - Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... establishes recommended daily allowances (RDAs) of vitamins and minerals for the diet. The RDA for copper... with the deficiency rather than the excess of copper. Oral ingestion of excessive amounts of the copper... deficiency of copper intake than from excess intake. Copper also occurs naturally in a number of food items...

  10. Reevaluation of the Pavlov ratio in patients with cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Ki-Tack; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jin-Young

    2009-03-01

    This study was designed to reevaluate the effectiveness of the Pavlov ratio in patients with cervical myelopathy. We studied 107 patients who underwent open door laminoplasty for the treatment of cervical myelopathy between the C3 to C7 levels. We determined the Pavlov ratio on preoperative and postoperative cervical spine lateral radiographs, the vertebral body-to-canal ratio on sagittal reconstruction CT scans, and the vertebral body-to-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) column ratio on T2-weighted sagittal MR images from C3 to C6. The severity of myelopathy was determined using the JOA score on both preoperative and postoperative images. The recovery rate was also calculated. The Pavlov ratio in plain radiographs from patients with myelopathy was compared with the ratio of the vertebral body to the spinal canal on CT and MRI. The average Pavlov ratio between C3 and C6 ranged from 0.71 to 0.76. On CT scan, the average vertebral body-to-canal ratio between C3 and C6 ranged from 0.62 to 0.66. On MRI, the vertebral body-to-CSF column ratio between C3 and C6 ranged between 0.53 and 0.57. A positive correlation was noted between the Pavlov ratio and the vertebral body-to-canal ratio on sagittal-reconstruction CT (correlation coefficient = 0.497-0.627, p = 0.000) and between the Pavlov ratio and the vertebral body-to-CSF column ratio on MRI (correlation coefficient = 0.511-0.649, p = 0.000). We demonstrated a good correlation between the Pavlov ratio and both the vertebral body-to-canal ratio on CT and the vertebral body-to-CSF column ratio on MRI. Therefore, the Pavlov ratio can be relied upon to predict narrowing of the cervical spinal canal in the sagittal plane.

  11. ROLE OF MRI IN EVALUATION OF COMPRESSIVE MYELOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raseshkumar Rasiklal Vyas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Aim of the study was to find out various causes of compressive myelopathy and to characterise them. MATERIALS AND METHODS Total of 48 cases were analysed over a period of January 2016 to January 2017 and were evaluated using MRI spine studies. RESULTS MRI, because of its exemplary tissue characterisation and high contrast resolution, excellently demonstrates the anatomical details and pathological process. Thus, is a superior modality in diagnosing Spinal cord lesions as well as associated soft tissue injuries, inter-vertebral discs and ligaments. In our study, traumatic injuries (43% were found to be the most common cause of Compressive myelopathy, other were Infections (23%, primary malignancies (17%, and Metastasis (17%. Thoracic spine was found to be the most frequent site in cases of Traumatic injuries. 40 out of total 48 cases had extradural, and the rest 8 had intra-dural compressive lesions. CONCLUSION The study concludes that patients with suspected Compressive myelopathies benefit from evaluation with MRI, which is highly accurate for characterising and identifying the underlying aetiology, as well as associated features. Thus, explicitly helps in stating the long-term prognosis of the patient.

  12. Two cases of radiation myelopathy with best visualization in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toribatake, Yasumitsu; Yamada, Yoshio; Chujo, Masahiro; Kadoya, Masumi.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation myelopathy is considered difficult to diagnose. Two patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for clinically suspected radiation myelopathy. Both of them had previously received intraoperative irradiation of 30 Gy for Borrmann IV type gastric cancer to the lymph nodes surrounding the celiac artery. Several years later, they presented with neurologic symptoms associated with disturbance of the bladder and rectum. T1-weighted imaging revealed high signal intensities in verbetrae at the levels of Th 10 -L 1 for one patient and at the levels of Th 11 -L 1 for the other patient, respectively, which corresponded to the irradiation field. These MRI signs were considered to be fatty degeneration of the bone marrow resulting from irradiation. In one patient, there are ellipsoid areas with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the spinal cord, which seemed to be edematous degeneration of the spinal cord attributable to irradiation. MRI appeared promising for the diagnosis of radiation myelopathy. (N.K.)

  13. Cytokine expression of macrophages in HIV-1-associated vacuolar myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyor, W R; Glass, J D; Baumrind, N; McArthur, J C; Griffin, J W; Becker, P S; Griffin, D E

    1993-05-01

    Macrophages are frequently present within the periaxonal and intramyelinic vacuoles that are located primarily in the posterior and lateral funiculi of the thoracic spinal cord in HIV-associated vacuolar myelopathy. But the role of these macrophages in the formation of the vacuoles is unclear. One hypothesis is that cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, are produced locally by macrophages and have toxic effects on myelin or oligodendrocytes. The resulting myelin damage eventually culminates in the removal of myelin by macrophages and vacuole formation. We studied thoracic spinal cord specimens taken at autopsy from HIV-positive (+) and HIV-negative individuals. The predominant mononuclear cells present in HIV+ spinal cords are macrophages. They are located primarily in the posterior and lateral funiculi regardless of the presence or absence of vacuolar myelopathy. Macrophages and microglia are more frequent in HIV+ than HIV-negative individuals and these cells frequently stain for class I and class II antigens, IL-1, and TNF-alpha. Activated macrophages positive for IL-1 and TNF-alpha are great increased in the posterior and lateral funiculi of HIV+ individuals with and without vacuolar myelopathy, suggesting they are present prior to the development of vacuoles. Cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, may be toxic for myelin or oligodendrocytes, leading to myelin damage and removal by macrophages and vacuole formation.

  14. Association of myelopathy scores with cervical sagittal balance and normalized spinal cord volume: analysis of 56 preoperative cases from the AOSpine North America Myelopathy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin S; Lafage, Virginie; Ryan, Devon J; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Schwab, Frank J; Patel, Alpesh A; Brodke, Darrel S; Arnold, Paul M; Riew, K Daniel; Traynelis, Vincent C; Radcliff, Kris; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Fehlings, Michael G; Ames, Christopher P

    2013-10-15

    Post hoc analysis of prospectively collected data. Development of methods to determine in vivo spinal cord dimensions and application to correlate preoperative alignment, myelopathy, and health-related quality-of-life scores in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). CSM is the leading cause of spinal cord dysfunction. The association between cervical alignment, sagittal balance, and myelopathy has not been well characterized. This was a post hoc analysis of the prospective, multicenter AOSpine North America CSM study. Inclusion criteria for this study required preoperative cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neutral sagittal cervical radiography. Techniques for MRI assessment of spinal cord dimensions were developed. Correlations between imaging and health-related quality-of-life scores were assessed. Fifty-six patients met inclusion criteria (mean age = 55.4 yr). The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) scores correlated with C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA) (r = -0.282, P = 0.035). Spinal cord volume correlated with cord length (r = 0.472, P balance (C2-C7 SVA) to myelopathy severity. We found a moderate negative correlation in kyphotic patients of cord volume and cross-sectional area to mJOA scores. The opposite (positive correlation) was found for lordotic patients, suggesting a relationship of cord volume to myelopathy that differs on the basis of sagittal alignment. It is interesting to note that sagittal balance but not kyphosis is tied to myelopathy score. Future work will correlate alignment changes to cord morphology changes and myelopathy outcomes. SUMMARY STATEMENTS: This is the first study to correlate sagittal balance (C2-C7 SVA) to myelopathy severity. We found a moderate negative correlation in kyphotic patients of cord volume and cross-sectional area to mJOA scores. The opposite (positive correlation) was found for lordotic patients, suggesting a relationship of cord volume to myelopathy that differs on the

  15. Development of a self-administered questionnaire to screen patients for cervical myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekiguchi Yasufumi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primary care, it is often difficult to diagnose cervical myelopathy. However, a delay in treatment could cause irreversible aftereffects. With a brief and effective self-administered questionnaire for cervical myelopathy, cervical myelopathy may be screened more easily and oversight may be avoided. As there is presently no screening tool for cervical myelopathy, the aim of this study was to develop a self-administered questionnaire for the screening of cervical myelopathy. Methods A case-control study was performed with the following two groups at our university hospital from February 2006 to September 2008. Sixty-two patients (48 men, 14 women with cervical myelopathy who underwent operative treatment were included in the myelopathy group. In the control group, 49 patients (20 men, 29 women with symptoms that could be distinguished from those of cervical myelopathy, such as numbness, pain in the upper extremities, and manual clumsiness, were included. The underlying conditions were diagnosed as carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome, diabetes mellitus neuropathy, cervical radiculopathy, and neuralgic amyotrophy. Twenty items for a questionnaire in this study were chosen from the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire, which is a new self-administered questionnaire, as an outcome measure for patients with cervical myelopathy. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis using the chi-square test and by multiple logistic regression analysis. According to the resulting odds ratio, β-coefficients, and p value, items were chosen and assigned a score. Results Eight items were chosen by univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses and assigned a score. The Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic showed p = 0.805. The area under the receiver operation characteristic curve was 0.86. The developed questionnaire had a sensitivity of 93.5% and a

  16. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Correlates with Short-Term Myelopathy Outcome in Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantam, Aditya; Rao, Avinash; Kurpad, Shekar N; Jirjis, Michael B; Eckardt, Gerald; Schmit, Brian D; Wang, Marjorie C

    2017-01-01

    To determine if spinal cord diffusion tensor imaging indexes correlate with short-term clinical outcome in patients undergoing elective cervical spine surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). A prospective consecutive cohort study was performed in patients undergoing elective cervical spine surgery for CSM. After obtaining informed consent, patients with CSM underwent preoperative T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging of the cervical spine. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values at the level of maximum cord compression and at the noncompressed C1-2 level were calculated on axial images. We recorded the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale, Neck Disability Index, and Short Form-36 physical functioning subscale scores for all patients preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Statistical analysis was performed to identify correlations between FA and clinical outcome scores. The study included 27 patients (mean age 54.5 years ± 1.9, 12 men). The mean postoperative changes in mJOA scale, Neck Disability Index, and Short Form-36 physical functioning subscale scores were 0.9 ± 0.3, -6.0 ± 1.9, and 3.4 ± 1.9. The mean FA at the level of maximum compression was significantly lower than the mean FA at the C1-2 level (0.5 vs. 0.55, P = 0.01). FA was significantly correlated with change in mJOA scale score (Pearson r = -0.42, P = 0.02). FA was significantly correlated with the preoperative mJOA scale score (Pearson r = 0.65, P < 0.001). Preoperative FA at the level of maximum cord compression significantly correlates with the 3-month change in mJOA scale score among patients with CSM. FA was also significantly associated with preoperative mJOA scale score and is a potential biomarker for spinal cord dysfunction in CSM. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Intracranial dural arterio-venous fistula presenting with progressive myelopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ogbonnaya, Ebere Sunny

    2011-01-01

    Spinal dural arterio-venous fistula (DAVF) is rare and usually involves the thoracic segments. The classical presentation is a slowly progressive ataxia. Clinical presentation of intracranial DAVF depends on the site of the DAVF, as well as the vessels involved. Patients may present with pulsatile tinnitus, occipital bruit, headache, dementia, visual impairment as well as neurological deterioration distant from the DAVF as a result of venous hypertension and cortical haemorrhage. The authors present a rare case of progressive myelopathy secondary to an intracranial DAVF.

  18. Atlantoaxial subluxation. Radiography and magnetic resonance imaging correlated to myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kojima, R.

    Twenty-nine patients with atlantoaxial subluxation (18 with rheumatoid arthritis, 2 due to trauma, 4 with os odontoideum, and one each with polyarteritis nodosa, rheumatic fever, Klippel-Feil syndrome, achondroplasia, and cause unknown) were evaluated using a 0.22 tesla resistive MRI unit. Cord compression was classified into four grades according to the degree on magnetic resonance imaging. There were 7 patients with no thecal sac compression (grade 0), 10 with a minimal degree of subarachnoid space compression without cord compression (grade 1), 7 with mild cord compression (grade 2), and 5 with severe cord compression or cord atrophy (grade 3). Although the severity of myelopathy showed poor correlation with the atlantodental interval on conventional radiography, high correlation was observed between MR grading and the degree of myelopathy. The high signal intensity foci were observed in 7 or 12 patients with cord compression (grades 2 and 3) on T2 weighted images. Other frequently observed findings in rheumatoid arthritis included soft tissue masses of low to intermediate signal intensity in the paraodontoid space, erosions of the odontoid processes, and atlanto-axial impaction on T1 and T2 weighted images.

  19. Fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy: demographics, clinical presentation, and functional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brittany J; Batterson, Anna M; Luetmer, Marianne T; Reeves, Ronald K

    2018-05-25

    Retrospective cohort study. To describe the demographics, clinical presentation, and functional outcomes of fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy (FCEM). Academic inpatient rehabilitation unit in the midwestern United States. We retrospectively searched our database to identify patients admitted between January 1, 1995 and March 31, 2016, with a high probability of FCEM. Demographic, clinical, and functional outcome measures, including Functional Independence Measure (FIM) information was obtained by chart review. We identified 31 patients with findings suggestive of FCEM (52% male), which was 2% of the nontraumatic spinal cord injury population admitted to inpatient rehabilitation. The age distribution was bimodal, with peaks in the second and sixth-to-seventh decades. The most common clinical presentation was acute pain and rapid progression of neurologic deficits consistent with a vascular myelopathy. Only three patients (10%) had FCEM documented as a diagnostic possibility. Most patients had paraplegia and neurologically incomplete injuries and were discharged to home. Nearly half of the patients required no assistive device for bladder management at discharge, but most were discharged with medications for bowel management. Median FIM walking locomotion score for all patients was 5, but most patients were discharged using a wheelchair for primary mobility. Median motor FIM subscale score was 36 at admission and 69 at discharge, with a median motor efficiency of 1.41. FCEM may be underdiagnosed and should be considered in those with the appropriate clinical presentation, because their functional outcomes may be more favorable than those with other causes of spinal cord infarction.

  20. MR findings of subacute necrotizing myelopathy: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Dong Gyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Hyun Jip; Kim, Chong Jai; Chi, Je G.

    1994-01-01

    Subacute necrotizing myelopathy(SNM) is a rare non-tumorous disease of spinal cord characterized by subacute clinical course of progressive neurological deterioration. We report MR findings of a patient with pathologically proved SNM. 1 case of pathologically proved subacute necrotizing myelopathy. The patients was a 56-year-old man with progressive motor weakness and sensory loss of the lower extremities, and urinary and fecal incontinence for 11 months. Spine MRI revealed diffuse enlargement of the thoracic spinal cord from T2 to T7 level. Signal intensity of the expanded spinal cord was isointense relative to normal cord on T1-weighted image and hyperintense on proton-density and T2-weighted images. On contrast enhanced T1-weighted image, there was diffuse homogeneous enhancement in the expanded cord lesion. MR demonstration of stable persistence of spinal cord lesion or atrophy over months or years with clinical findings of gradual progressive neurologic deterioration may be helpful in the diagnosis of SNM

  1. Cervical Fusion for Absent Pedicle Syndrome Manifesting with Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, C Rory; Desai, Atman; Khattab, Mohamed H; Elder, Benjamin D; Bydon, Ali; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul

    2016-02-01

    Absent congenital pedicle syndrome is a posterior arch defect characterized by numerous congenital and mechanical abnormalities that result from disconnection of the anterior and posterior columns of the spinal canal. Absent congenital pedicle syndrome is a rare anomaly that is most commonly diagnosed incidentally, after evaluation of minor trauma, or after complaints of chronic neck pain. We report a case of absent congenital pedicle syndrome in a patient who presented with myelopathy and lower extremity weakness and review the literature on the surgical management of this entity. A 32-year-old woman with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus presented to the Neurosurgery Service with progressive weakness in her upper and lower extremities, clonus, and hyperreflexia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed congenital absence of the pedicles of C2, C3, C4, C5, and C6 with a congenitally narrow canal at C4-5. The patient underwent a staged anterior and posterior cervical decompression and fusion. She was placed in a halo after surgery; at the 1-year follow-up, she was ambulatory with demonstrated improvement in weakness and fusion of her cervical spine. Absent congenital pedicle syndrome is rare, and most reported cases were treated conservatively. Surgical management is reserved for patients with myelopathy or instability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation of clinical symptoms of cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tomokazu; Oshima, Yoshihiko; Ota, Yoshio

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of signal changes on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images in myelopathy, the relationship between characteristics of clinical symptoms and postoperative recovery was examined. The subjects were a total of 52 patients (37 men and 15 women) with cervical myelopathy (n=44) or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (n=8), who underwent extended surgery of Yamagata University's style. They ranged in age from 33 to 81 years (mean, 60.8). The degree of spinal compression and signal changes in the spinal cord were classified on T1-weighted and T2-weighted sagittal images, respecstively. Hyperintense on T2-weighted images tended to be associated with lower preoperative JOA's scores especially for exercise, legs and bladder or rectum function, as compared with isointense. T2-weighted images seemed to reflect, to some degree, the severity of preoperative clinical symptoms. For the rate of postoperative improvement, however, there was no significant difference between the hyperintense and isointense groups on T2-weighted images. (N.K.)

  3. Neurorestoratology evidence in an animal model with cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiang Li,1,2 Guangsheng Li,1,3 Keith Dip-Kei Luk,1 Yong Hu1–3 1Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, 2Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Innovative Technology in Orthopaedic Trauma, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, 3Spinal Division, Department of Orthopaedics, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China Background: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM is a chronic compression injury of the spinal cord, with potentially reversible conditions after surgical decompression, and a unique model of incomplete spinal cord injury. Several animal studies showed pathological changes of demyelination, axon loss and neuron apoptosis in rats with chronic spinal cord compression. However, there is a limited understanding of the neurological change in the spinal cord after surgical decompression. The aim of this study was to validate the neurorestoratology of myelopathic lesions in the spinal cord in a rat model. Materials and methods: A total of 16 adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham control (group 1; CSM model with 4-week chronic compression (group 2, 2 weeks (group 3 and 4 weeks (group 4 after surgical decompression of CSM model. The compression and decompression were verified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI test. Neurological function was evaluated by Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB locomotor rating scale, ladder rung walking test and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs. Neuropathological change was evaluated by histological examinations. Results: MRI confirmed the compression of the cervical spinal cord as well as the reshaping of cord morphology after decompression. After decompression, significant changes of neurological function were observed in BBB scores (p < 0.01, F = 10.52, ladder rung walking test (p < 0.05, F = 14.21 and latencies (p < 0.05, F = 5.76 and amplitudes (p < 0.05, F = 3.8 of

  4. Surgical results and MRI findings of cervical myelopathy treated with anterior decompression and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazato, Takenari; Teruya, Yoshimitsu; Kinjo, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed 19 patients with cervical myelopathy treated with anterior decompression and fusion. Etiology of cervical myelopathy was cervical disc herniation (CDH) in 13 patients and cervical spondylosis (CSM) in 6. Clinical recovery rate (%) was calculated from preoperative cervical myelopathy score (JOA) and the score at follow-up. Correlation between the clinical recovery rate and MRI findings (area and flatness at the narrowest part of the spinal cord), age at surgery, duration of myelopathy and pre-operative clinical score were analyzed separately in the CDH and CSM groups. Clinical recovery rate averaged 69% in the CDH group and 75% in the CSM group. In the CDH group, average clinical recovery rate in patients younger than 60 years was 80 and in patients over 60 years was 60. There was a significant negative correlation between the clinical recovery rate and age at surgery (p<0.05). No significant correlation was found between the clinical recovery rate and other factors investigated. (author)

  5. Quadriplegia secondary to cervical spondylotic myelopathy-a rare complication of head and neck surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Fan; Kang, Chung-Jan; Lee, Sai-Cheung; Tsao, Chung-Kan

    2013-02-01

    Free tissue reconstruction after ablation of head and neck malignancy often requires extensive cervical manipulation, which may exacerbate preexisting cervical spondylosis and result in progression to cervical myelopathy. We present a rare case of postoperative quadriplegia caused by cervical spondylotic myelopathy after head and neck reconstruction. A 63-year-old man without a history of cervical spondylosis underwent resection of a gingivo-buccal squamous cell carcinoma with immediate reconstruction with free fibula osteocutaneous flap. On postoperative day 4, the patient was found to have quadriplegia. MRI demonstrated severe cervical myelopathy. Decompressive laminectomy was performed. The patient underwent an extensive rehabilitation program but only realized moderate improvement. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a rare but disastrous complication of head and neck surgery. We hypothesize that it is potentially avoidable with heightened awareness of this disease entity, preoperative identification of patients at risk, and prophylactic interventions Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Morphology of the cervical spinal cord with myelopathy on computed myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Hiroaki; Asano, Masafumi; Yokota, Hidemaro

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between morphological changes in the spinal cord shown on computer-assisted myelography and symptoms was investigated in 73 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Flatness of the spinal cord was seen in many of the patients. Symptoms were likely to be severer with increasing the degree of flatness of the spinal cord. The length of the flat spinal cord will help to select the operative method for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Health Economics and the Management of Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witiw, Christopher D; Smieliauskas, Fabrice; Fehlings, Michael G

    2018-01-01

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is the leading cause of spinal cord impairment worldwide. Surgical intervention has been demonstrated to be effective and is becoming standard of care. Spine surgery, however, is costly and value needs to be demonstrated. This review serves to summarize the key health economic concepts as they relate to the assessment of the value of surgery for DCM. This is followed by a discussion of current health economic research on DCM, which suggests that surgery is likely to be cost effective. The review concludes with a summary of future questions that remain unanswered, such as which patient subgroups derive the most value from surgery and which surgical approaches are the most cost effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Finger-tapping motion analysis in cervical myelopathy by magnetic-sensor tapping device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Toshitada; Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Makino, Takahiro; Kandori, Akihiko; Fuji, Takeshi

    2013-08-01

    Case-control study. The purpose of this study is to determine finger motion of patients with cervical myelopathy during finger-tapping cycles. A major symptom of patients with compressive cervical myelopathy is finger clumsiness. Therefore, understanding finger motion is prerequisite in assessing the severity of myelopathy. The popular grip-and-release test evaluates only the number of motion cycles, which is insufficient to fully describe complex finger motion. Forty-three patients with cervical myelopathy and 41 healthy controls tapped their index fingers against their thumbs as rapidly as possible for 30 seconds and the motion was recorded by a magnetic-sensor coil attached to the nail surface. Output signals were stored in a computer, which automatically calculated tapping frequency, distance moved, ratio of opening/closing velocity and the SD of the tapping interval. The SD of the tapping interval was significantly greater and all other measures were significantly smaller in patients with cervical myelopathy, than in healthy controls. All indices significantly improved after surgical decompression of the cervical spine. Distance moved (Pearson correlation coefficient: r=0.590, Ptapping interval (r=-0.451; P=0.002) were significantly correlated with the Japanese Orthopedic Association score (neurological scale). The quantitative evaluation of finger paralysis was performed by this tapping device. Speed and regularity in repetitive motion of fingers were correlated with the severity of cervical myelopathy.

  9. The efficacy of dynamic MRI in assessing a cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Tetsuya; Yamada, Tomonori; Okumura, Yoshiya; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Hiramatsu, Kenichiro; Tsunoda, Shigeru; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Iwasaki, Satoru

    1994-01-01

    There are problems that are unresolved with regard to the treatment of cases presenting a post-taumatic cervical myelopathy, such as when the surgical indications are not clearly evidence and the proper timing of this surgery. In this regard, the authors have used dynamic MRI to retrospectively analyze the cervical spine of 24 previously treated dynamic MRI cases presenting a subacute myelopathy to determine the efficacy of dynamic MRI as a method of treatment. Dynamic MRI analysis protocol was as follows. For the MR imagings, each patient was placed supine with the neck in the neutral position, after which the neck was set in the extended position. Dynamic changes between the neutral position and extended position images were analyzed by focusing on the following two point: (1) the narrowing of the subarachnoid space in the T2-weighted images and (2) evidence of cord compression in the T1-weighted images. Twelve cases out of 24 were treated conservatively because of a gradual improvement in their myelopathic symptoms. The other 12 cases were treated surgically, because of no improvement in their residual myelopathic symptoms at the time when the dynamic MRI had been performed. In the majority of cases in the surgical group, the narrowing of the subarachnoid space and spinal cord compression were hightened on neck extension, whereas in the conservative group, such findings were minimal. Dynamic MRI also more clearly visualized multiple lesions and the direction of the cord compression. These findings thus provided more detailed information to plan the surgical approach and to estimate the amount of surgical decompression needed. Based on the results of this retrospective study, we thus concluded that surgical treatment appears to benefit subacute cases who show no improvement in their residual myelopathic symptoms and whose dynamic MRI results also demonstrate an increased narrowing of subarachnoid space and a heightened spinal cord compression. (author)

  10. Storage Pool Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ...

  11. An iron-deficient diet stimulates the onset of the hepatitis due to hepatic copper deposition in the Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Naoki; Sugawara, Chieko [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Public Health

    1999-09-01

    To study effects of dietary Cu and Fe levels on the onset of hepatitis in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, female rats (40 days old) were fed a semipurified diet containing 0.1 or 10 mg Cu/kg and 1.5 or 150 mg Fe/kg in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement for 35 days. At 75 days after birth, LEC rats (+Cu-Fe) fed a Cu-sufficient but Fe-deficient diet (Cu, 10 mg/kg; Fe, 1.5 mg/kg) showed jaundice, with lethargy, anorexia, and malaise. The biochemical variables relating to liver function were significantly increased compared to three other groups, a Cu- and Fe-deficient (-Cu-Fe) group, a Cu-deficient but Fe-sufficient (-Cu+Fe) group, and a Cu and Fe sufficient (+Cu+Fe) group. Furthermore, the +Cu-Fe rat liver showed massive necrosis with huge nuclei. The other three groups presented no biochemical and histological findings of hepatitis. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations were 289 {+-} 87 (mean {+-} SD) {mu}g/g liver and 8.7 {+-} 1.8 mg/g liver, respectively, in the +Cu-Fe rats. However, in the +Cu+Fe group the values were 196 {+-} 28 {mu}g Cu/g liver and 10.8 {+-} 1.0 mg/g liver. Hepatic Fe deposition was not influenced significantly by the dietary Cu level. The +Cu-Fe group with jaundice showed the highest free Cu concentration in the liver among the four groups, but the hepatic free Fe concentration was similar to those in the -Cu+Fe and +Cu+Fe groups. Our results indicate that an Fe-deficient diet enhances the deposition of hepatic Cu due to increased absorption of Cu from the gastrointestinal tract. This deposition stimulated the onset of hepatitis. (orig.)

  12. Preoperative cervical sagittal alignment parameters and their impacts on myelopathy in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yuan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical sagittal alignment plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM, but there are limited studies on the cervical sagittal parameters in CSM patients and their correlations with myelopathy. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlations among the preoperative cervical sagittal alignment parameters and their correlations with the development of myelopathy in patients with CSM. Methods We retrospectively collected 212 patients with CSM who underwent surgical interventions. Gender, age, modified Japanese Orthopedic Association score (mJOA, cervical lordosis (CL, C2–C7 sagittal vertical axis (C2–C7 SVA, T1 slope (T1S, neck tilt (NT and thoracic inlet angle (TIA were collected before operation. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were calculated for all measurements (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC. Data were analyzed with Pearson and Spearman correlation tests and multiple linear regression analysis. Results A total of 212 patients with CSM were included in this study (male: 136, female: 76 with an average age of 54.5 ± 10.1 years old. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability for all included radiographic parameters presented good to excellent agreement (ICC > 0.7. No significant differences in demographic and radiological parameters have been observed between males and females (P > 0.05. We found statistically significant correlations among the following parameters: age with CL (r = 0.135, P = 0.049, age with T1S (r = 0.222, P = 0.001, CL with T1S (r = 0.291, P < 0.001, CL with C2-C7 SVA (r =  − 0.395, P < 0.001, mJOA with age (r =  − 0.274, P < 0.001, mJOA with C2–C7 SVA (r =  − 0.219, P < 0.001 and mJOA with T1S(r =  − 0.171, p = 0.013. Linear regression analysis showed that C2–C7 SVA was the predictor of CL (adjusted R2 = 0.152, P < 0.001 and multiple linear regression showed that age combined with C

  13. Effect of Dietary Phytase Supplementation on Bone and Hyaline Cartilage Development of Broilers Fed with Organically Complexed Copper in a Cu-Deficient Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyński, Siemowit; Tomaszewska, Ewa; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Tomczyk, Agnieszka

    2018-04-01

    Tibial mechanical, chemical, and histomorphometrical traits were investigated for growing male Ross 308 broiler chickens fed diets that had copper (Cu) from organic source at a lowered level of 25% of the daily requirement (4 mg kg -1 of a premix) with or without phytase. Dietary treatments were control non-copper, non-phytase group (0 Suppl); 4 mg kg -1 Cu non-phytase group (25%Cu); and 4 mg kg -1 Cu + 500 FTU kg -1 phytase group (25%Cu + phyt). The results show that birds fed with the addition of phytase exhibited improved weight gain and final body weight and had increased serum IGF-1 and osteocalcin concentrations. The serum concentration of Cu and P did not differ between groups; however, Ca concentration decreased in the 25%Cu + phyt group when compared to the 25%Cu group. Added Cu increased bone Ca, P, Cu, and ash content in Cu-supplemented groups, but bone weight and length increased only by the addition of phytase. Bone geometry, yield, and ultimate strengths were affected by Cu and phytase addition. A decrease of the elastic stress and ultimate stress of the tibia in Cu-supplemented groups was observed. The histomorphometric analysis showed a positive effect of Cu supplementation on real bone volume and trabecular thickness in the tibia metaphyseal trabeculae; additionally, phytase increased the trabeculea number. The supplementation with Cu significantly increased the total articular cartilage and growth plate cartilage thickness; however, the changes in thickness of particular zones were dependent upon phytase addition. In summary, dietary Cu supplements given to growing broilers with Cu in their diet restricted to 25% of the daily requirement had a positive effect on bone metabolism, and phytase supplementation additionally improved cartilage development.

  14. Copper hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common...

  15. Canine degenerative myelopathy: a model of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Taylor, Alexandra C; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-02-01

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (CDM) represents a unique naturally occurring animal model for human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) because of similar clinical signs, neuropathologic findings, and involvement of the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutation. A definitive diagnosis can only be made postmortem through microscopic detection of axonal degeneration, demyelination and astroglial proliferation, which is more severe in the dorsal columns of the thoracic spinal cord and in the dorsal portion of the lateral funiculus. Interestingly, the muscle acetylcholine receptor complexes are intact in CDM prior to functional impairment, thus suggesting that muscle atrophy in CDM does not result from physical denervation. Moreover, since sensory involvement seems to play an important role in CDM progression, a more careful investigation of the sensory pathology in ALS is also warranted. The importance of SOD1 expression remains unclear, while oxidative stress and denatured ubiquinated proteins appear to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of CDM. In this updated narrative review we performed a systematic search of the published studies on CDM that may shed light on the pathophysiological mechanisms of human ALS. A better understanding of the factors that determine the disease progression in CDM may be beneficial for the development of effective treatments for ALS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiation myelopathy in over-irradiated patients: MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso, E.R.; Gregorio, M.A. de; Mateo, P.; Esco, R.; Bascon, N.; Morales, F.; Bellosta, R.; Lopez, P.; Gimeno, M.; Roca, M.; Villavieja, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this work is to report the MRI findings in patients with radiation myelopathy due to accidental local over-irradiation syndrome. Eight patients (seven males and one female) were suffering from over-irradiation syndrome as a result of treatments from a malfunctioning linear electron accelerator. The mean accidental estimated dose was 136 Gy delivered to the ''open-neck'' (seven cases) and to the thoracic wall (one case), during a mean of 5.4 sessions (range 1-9 sessions). Paresthesia and weakness in the upper extremities were the earliest symptoms (87.5 %), with evolution to paralysis in all patients. No patient is alive (mean survival time 64 days). In all cases MRI was negative for neurologic lesions in the acute phase (< 90 days from irradiation; Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system). Late signs of radiation myelitis manifested as high-intensity signals on T2-weighted images in three patients, and as Gd-DTPA enhancement of T1-weighted images in one case. Autopsies performed on four patients who died in acute phase showed morphologic alterations in white matter: edema in 75 %, and necrosis and glial reaction as well as obliterative vasculitis in all cases. In cases of over-irradiation, MRI may be normal in acute phase even if the patients have severe neurologic deficit, as positive MRI findings appear only in delayed radiation myelitis. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Radiation myelopathy in over-irradiated patients: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonso, E.R. [Radiology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Gregorio, M.A. de [Radiology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Mateo, P. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Esco, R. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Bascon, N. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Morales, F. [Neurology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Bellosta, R. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Lopez, P. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Gimeno, M. [Hospital Miguel Servet, Zaragoza (Spain); Roca, M. [Radiology Service, Hospital Miguel Servet, E-50 009 Zaragoza (Spain); Villavieja, J.L. [Radiology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain)

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this work is to report the MRI findings in patients with radiation myelopathy due to accidental local over-irradiation syndrome. Eight patients (seven males and one female) were suffering from over-irradiation syndrome as a result of treatments from a malfunctioning linear electron accelerator. The mean accidental estimated dose was 136 Gy delivered to the ``open-neck`` (seven cases) and to the thoracic wall (one case), during a mean of 5.4 sessions (range 1-9 sessions). Paresthesia and weakness in the upper extremities were the earliest symptoms (87.5 %), with evolution to paralysis in all patients. No patient is alive (mean survival time 64 days). In all cases MRI was negative for neurologic lesions in the acute phase (< 90 days from irradiation; Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system). Late signs of radiation myelitis manifested as high-intensity signals on T2-weighted images in three patients, and as Gd-DTPA enhancement of T1-weighted images in one case. Autopsies performed on four patients who died in acute phase showed morphologic alterations in white matter: edema in 75 %, and necrosis and glial reaction as well as obliterative vasculitis in all cases. In cases of over-irradiation, MRI may be normal in acute phase even if the patients have severe neurologic deficit, as positive MRI findings appear only in delayed radiation myelitis. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Surfer's myelopathy: a rare presentation in a non-surfing setting and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Monish M; Phan, Kevin; Hariswamy, Soumya; Rao, Prashanth J

    2016-09-01

    Surfers myelopathy can be a rapidly devastating disease and little is known surrounding the pathophysiology of the condition. Although the classical pattern of illness has been well reported, it has never been observed in a non-surfing setting. A 51-year-old demolition worker presented with acute non-traumatic myelopathy. Clinical examination revealed sensory loss to the level of L2. T2-MRI and MRI-DWI revealed a hyperintense signal suggestive of an ischaemic event. A diagnosis of surfer's myelopathy was made and he was commenced on steroid therapy. Following steroid therapy and fluid management the patient was discharged after 6 days with minor anaethesia but significant overall neurological improvement. Diagnosis of SM requires a thorough history, clinical examination and imaging (MRI, MRI-DWI). The patient should be admitted early and investigated. The use of rehabilitation services may be useful if available.

  19. Radiation myelopathy following transplantation and radiotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Michael W.T.; Wirth, Andrew; Ryan, Gail; MacManus, Michael; Liew, K.H.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Combined modality therapy with chemotherapy and radiotherapy has become increasingly popular in the management of solid malignancies. However, unexpected toxicities may arise from their interactions. Methods and Materials: We report the case of a young woman with a large mediastinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who underwent high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation and involved field radiotherapy, and who developed radiation myelopathy after a latent period of only 3 months. The spinal cord dose did not exceed 40.3 Gy in 22 fractions over 4.5 weeks, which is well within accepted tolerance limits. She had no other identifiable risk factors for radiation myelopathy, suggesting an adverse drug-radiation interaction as the most likely cause of her injury. Results and Conclusions: This represents the first report of radiation myelopathy at accepted safe radiation doses following high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation, and we recommend caution in the choice of radiotherapeutic dose in this setting

  20. Trends analysis of surgical procedures for cervical degenerative disc disease and myelopathy in patients with tobacco use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisdela, Phillip; Buser, Zorica; D'Oro, Anthony; Paholpak, Permsak; Liu, John C; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2017-09-01

    This study defined the incidence and trends of surgeries performed for patients with cervical disc degeneration with and without tobacco use disorder (TUD). This study utilized the Humana Inc. database between 2007 and 2013 to identify patients with cervical disc degeneration with or without myelopathy. International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9) and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes determined the initial diagnosis of disc degeneration, myelopathy status and TUD, whether patients received surgery, and TUD status at surgery. The prevalence of disc degeneration with myelopathy increased by 32.8% between 2007 and 2013, while disc disease with myelopathy and TUD increased by 91.6%. For patients without myelopathy, the prevalence of disc degeneration alone increased by 65.4%, and disc degeneration with myelopathy increased by 148.7%. Of myelopathy patients, 1717 (6.4%) had TUD and 1024 (59.6%) received surgery, compared to 6508 patients without TUD (26.1%). For patients without myelopathy, 11,337 (3.5%) had TUD and 787 (6.9%) underwent surgery, compared to 9716 patients (3%) without TUD. Of surgical patients, 781 (76.3%) with myelopathy and TUD still had a TUD diagnosis at surgery, and 542 (68.9%) of patients without myelopathy still had a TUD diagnosis at surgery. The prevalence of degenerative disc disease and TUD has increased more than disc disease alone. Patients with TUD were more likely to get surgery, and to have surgeries earlier than patients without TUD. Patients with TUD at the time of the diagnosis of their disc degeneration likely still had a TUD diagnosis at the time of surgery.

  1. Treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome: outcomes and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ruth E.; Shade-Zeldow, Yvonne; Kostas, Konstantinos; Morrissey, Mary; Elias, Dean A.; Shepard, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Some patients with fibromyalgia also exhibit the neurological signs of cervical myelopathy. We sought to determine if treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients with fibromyalgia improves the symptoms of fibromyalgia and the patients’ quality of life. A non-randomized, prospective, case control study comparing the outcome of surgical (n = 40) versus non-surgical (n = 31) treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients with fibromyalgia was conducted. Outcomes were compared using SF-36, screening test for somatization, HADS, MMPI-2 scale 1 (Hypochondriasis), and self reported severity of symptoms 1 year after treatment. There was no significant difference in initial clinical presentation or demographic characteristics between the patients treated by surgical decompression and those treated by non-surgical means. There was a striking and statistically significant improvement in all symptoms attributed to the fibromyalgia syndrome in the surgical patients but not in the non-surgical patients at 1 year following the treatment of cervical myelopathy (P ≤ 0.018–0.001, Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test). At the 1 year follow-up, there was a statistically significant improvement in both physical and mental quality of life as measured by the SF-36 score for the surgical group as compared to the non-surgical group (Repeated Measures ANOVA P somatization disorder, and the anxiety and depression scores exclusively in the surgical patients (Wilcoxon signed rank, P < 0.001). The surgical treatment of cervical myelopathy due to spinal cord or caudal brainstem compression in patients carrying the diagnosis of fibromyalgia can result in a significant improvement in a wide array of symptoms usually attributed to fibromyalgia with attendant measurable improvements in the quality of life. We recommend detailed neurological and neuroradiological evaluation of patients with fibromyalgia in order to exclude compressive cervical myelopathy, a potentially treatable

  2. Diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography in cervical compressive myelopathy: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Park, Jong Bin; Lee, Guen Young; Kang, Heung Sik; Park, Kun Woo; Yeom, Jin S.

    2011-01-01

    To assess diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters in cervical compressive myelopathy (CCM) patients compared to normal volunteers, to relate them with myelopathy severity, and to relate tractography patterns with postoperative neurologic improvement. Twenty patients suffering from CCM were prospectively enrolled (M:F = 13:7, mean age, 49.6 years; range 22-67 years) from September 2009 to March 2010. Sensitivity encoding (SENSE) single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) was used for the sagittal DTI. Twenty sex- and age-matched normal volunteers underwent the same scanning procedure. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the spinal cord were compared between the patients and normal volunteers and were related to myelopathy severity based on Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores. Tractography patterns were related to myelopathy severity and postoperative improvement. There were significant differences between patients and normal volunteers in terms of FA (0.498 ± 0.114 vs. 0.604 ± 0.057; p = 0.001) and ADC (1.442 ± 0.389 vs. 1.169 ± 0.098; p = 0.001). DTI parameters and tractography patterns were not related to myelopathy severity. In ten patients in the neurologically worse group, postoperative neurologic improvement was seen in four of five patients with intact fiber tracts, but only one of five patients with interrupted fiber tracts exhibited neurologic improvement. DTI parameters in CCM patients were significantly different from those in normal volunteers but were not significantly related to myelopathy severity. The patterns of tractography appear to correlate with postoperative neurologic improvement. (orig.)

  3. Effects of copper excess and copper deficiency on the structural and electrical properties of bulk Cu{sub x}SnSe{sub 3} with x=1.6–2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wubet, Walelign; Kuo, Dong-Hau, E-mail: dhkuo@mail.ntust.edu.tw

    2015-03-15

    Effects of the Cu variation on the morphological, structural, and electrical properties of bulk Cu{sub x}SnSe{sub 3} (CTSe) with x=1.6–2.2 have been investigated. Dense CTSe pellets with grains of 3–4 µm were obtained after sintering at 550 °C. All CTSe pellets showed a dominant p-type behavior. CTSe at x=2.0 with a hole concentration (n{sub p}) of 1.02×10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} and Hall mobility (μ) of 225 cm{sup 2}/V/s had a highest conductivity (σ) of 39 S/cm. CTSe at x=1.6 with n{sub p} of 5.0×10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} and of 11 cm{sup 2}/V/s had a lowest of 0.90 S/cm. The explanation, based upon vacancies and antisite defects, for the changes in electrical property with the Cu content is supported by the data from lattice parameter. The study in bulk properties of CTSe and its defects is helpful for selecting the suitable absorber composition to fabricate thin film solar cells. - Graphical abstract: Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} is an absorber candidate for solar cells. The Cu stoichiometry on electrical properties, which is important for CIGS and CZTS, is investigated and the Cu-deficiency composition is recommended. - Highlights: • Cu{sub x}SnSe{sub 3} (CTSe) bulks with 1.6≤x≤2.2 were prepared by reactive sintering. • Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} with n{sub p} of 1.02×10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} and μ of 225 cm{sup 2}/V/s had highest σ of 39 S/cm. • Cu{sub 1.6}SnSe{sub 3} with n{sub p}=5.0×10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} and μ=11 cm{sup 2}/V/s had lowest σ=0.90 S/cm. • Lower n{sub p} at CTSe at x=1.6 is related to the formation of the Sn-to-Cu defect. • The drop in n{sub p} for CTSe at x=2.2 indicates V{sub Sn}{sup 4−} dominates over Cu{sub Sn}{sup 3−} defect.

  4. Remission of HIV-associated myelopathy after highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Fernandez F

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV-associated myelopathy is the leading cause of spinal cord disease in HIV-infected patients. Typically, it affects individuals with low CD4 T cell counts, presenting with slowly progressive spastic paraparesis associated with dorsal column sensory loss as well as urinary disturbances. Other aetiologies must be first ruled out before establishing the diagnosis. We report here the case of a 37-year-old woman with advanced HIV disease, who developed HIV-associated myelopathy. The patient showed a gradual improvement after beginning with highly active antiretroviral therapy and, finally, she achieved a complete functional recovery. In addition, neuroimaging and neurophysiological tests normalized.

  5. Copper economy in Chlamydomonas: Prioritized allocation and reallocation of copper to respiration vs. photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropat, Janette; Gallaher, Sean D.; Urzica, Eugen I.; Nakamoto, Stacie S.; Strenkert, Daniela; Tottey, Stephen; Mason, Andrew Z.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic elements, although required only in trace amounts, permit life and primary productivity because of their functions in catalysis. Every organism has a minimal requirement of each metal based on the intracellular abundance of proteins that use inorganic cofactors, but elemental sparing mechanisms can reduce this quota. A well-studied copper-sparing mechanism that operates in microalgae faced with copper deficiency is the replacement of the abundant copper protein plastocyanin with a heme-containing substitute, cytochrome (Cyt) c6. This switch, which is dependent on a copper-sensing transcription factor, copper response regulator 1 (CRR1), dramatically reduces the copper quota. We show here that in a situation of marginal copper availability, copper is preferentially allocated from plastocyanin, whose function is dispensable, to other more critical copper-dependent enzymes like Cyt oxidase and a ferroxidase. In the absence of an extracellular source, copper allocation to Cyt oxidase includes CRR1-dependent proteolysis of plastocyanin and quantitative recycling of the copper cofactor from plastocyanin to Cyt oxidase. Transcriptome profiling identifies a gene encoding a Zn-metalloprotease, as a candidate effecting copper recycling. One reason for the retention of genes encoding both plastocyanin and Cyt c6 in algal and cyanobacterial genomes might be because plastocyanin provides a competitive advantage in copper-depleted environments as a ready source of copper. PMID:25646490

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Yoshitaka; Une, Humiho; Osame, Mitsuhiro

    1989-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was evaluated in 12 HAM (HTLV-I-associated myelopathy) patients (4 males and 8 females, mean age of 54 yrs) and compaired with 36 non-HAM controls (16 males and 20 females mean age of 52yrs). MRI of the brain was performed using a 0.5 Tesla superconducting unit. Imaging in all patients was done with the long spin echo (TR=2,000msec, TE=100msec) sequences, and 10mm contiguous axial slices of the entire brain were obtained in all cases. Except for two cases, MRI of the brain was abnormal in 10 (83%) HAM patients, while in controls, 18 (50%) cases were abnormal. The abnormalities were high intensity lesions through SE 2000/100 sequences (T/sub 2/ weighted image), and consisted of small isolated hemisphere lesions in 9 patients, periventricular changes in 9 patients, bilateral thalamic lesions in 2 patients and pontine lesions in 3 patients. We found that the factor of age was very important. In patients with ages below 59 yrs, 6 of 8 HAM patients (75%) had abnormalities, while in control cases, 6 of 23 (23%) had abnormalities in periventricular area. And in isolated hemisphere, 6 of 8 HAM patients (75%) had abnormalities, while in control cases, 3 of 23 (13%) had abnormalities. On the other hand, in patients with ages over 60 yrs, 3 of 4 (75%) HAM patients had abnormalities in periventricular area, while in controls, 10 of 13 cases (77%) had abnormalities, and in isolated hemisphere, 3 of 4 (75%) HAM patients had abnormalities, and in controls, 10 of 13 cases (77%) had abnormalities. Our data suggest that HAM patients with ages below 59 years will show a greater percentage of abnormalities than controls. (author).

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Yoshitaka; Une, Humiho; Osame, Mitsuhiro

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was evaluated in 12 HAM (HTLV-I-associated myelopathy) patients (4 males and 8 females, mean age of 54 yrs) and compaired with 36 non-HAM controls (16 males and 20 females mean age of 52yrs). MRI of the brain was performed using a 0.5 Tesla superconducting unit. Imaging in all patients was done with the long spin echo (TR=2,000msec, TE=100msec) sequences, and 10mm contiguous axial slices of the entire brain were obtained in all cases. Except for two cases, MRI of the brain was abnormal in 10 (83%) HAM patients, while in controls, 18 (50%) cases were abnormal. The abnormalities were high intensity lesions through SE 2000/100 sequences (T 2 weighted image), and consisted of small isolated hemisphere lesions in 9 patients, periventricular changes in 9 patients, bilateral thalamic lesions in 2 patients and pontine lesions in 3 patients. We found that the factor of age was very important. In patients with ages below 59 yrs, 6 of 8 HAM patients (75%) had abnormalities, while in control cases, 6 of 23 (23%) had abnormalities in periventricular area. And in isolated hemisphere, 6 of 8 HAM patients (75%) had abnormalities, while in control cases, 3 of 23 (13%) had abnormalities. On the other hand, in patients with ages over 60 yrs, 3 of 4 (75%) HAM patients had abnormalities in periventricular area, while in controls, 10 of 13 cases (77%) had abnormalities, and in isolated hemisphere, 3 of 4 (75%) HAM patients had abnormalities, and in controls, 10 of 13 cases (77%) had abnormalities. Our data suggest that HAM patients with ages below 59 years will show a greater percentage of abnormalities than controls. (author)

  8. A case of acutely developed delayed radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Shintaro; Amari, Masakuni; Fukuda, Toshio; Okamoto, Koichi

    2002-01-01

    A 66-year-old man with a history of hypertension received radiation therapy on his neck at age 61 because of laryngeal cancer (T1bN0M0). Five years after the radiation, he acutely developed dysuria, tetraparesis and dissociated sensory disturbances below bilateral Th4 level. T2 weighted MRI showed a high signal lesion affecting the central area of the spinal cord extending from C1 to C7. On the second clinical day, he developed respiratory arrest and was ventilated. The cerebrospinal fluid contained 20/mm 3 (monocyte 15, neutorophil 5) white cells; protein was 52.5 mg/dl; IgG index 0.54; Q albumin was 9.6; tests for oligoclonal band and myelin basic protein were negative; a culture yielded no microorganism. He was treated with steroids and supportive measures without improvement, and died of a sudden cardiac arrest on the 8th clinical day. postmortem examination confirmed conspicuous focal spongy changes with many axonal swellings, especially in the posterior and lateral columns at cervical and Th1 levels. The pathological findings were considered to be compatible with those of delayed radiation myelopathy (DRM). In the anterior horn of the cervical cord there were lesions of diffuse racification and the proliferation of small vessels. There were no findings of hyaline vascular changes, infarction or metastasis of laryngeal cancer at the spinal cord. It is considered that hyperintensity of signals on T2-weighted may originate from racification and proliferation of small vessels in the gray matter, and these pathological changes would be intimately associated with the severe neurologic morbidity of this patient. Acute development of neurological findings and the pathological changes in the gray matter of the spinal cord are rare manifestations of DRM. (author)

  9. Psychiatric comorbidities in a young man with subacute myelopathy induced by abusive nitrous oxide consumption: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancke F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Falk Mancke,1,2,* Gintare Kaklauskaite,1,* Jennifer Kollmer,3 Markus Weiler1 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of General Psychiatry, Center for Psychosocial Medicine, 3Department of Neuroradiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Nitrous oxide (N2O, a long-standing anesthetic, is known for its recreational use, and its consumption is on the rise. Several case studies have reported neurological and psychiatric complications of N2O use. To date, however, there has not been a study using standardized diagnostic procedures to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a patient consuming N2O. Here, we report about a 35-year-old male with magnetic resonance imaging confirmed subacute myelopathy induced by N2O consumption, who suffered from comorbid cannabinoid and nicotine dependence as well as abuse of amphetamines, cocaine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and ketamine. Additionally, there was evidence of a preceding transient psychotic and depressive episode induced by synthetic cannabinoid abuse. In summary, this case raises awareness of an important mechanism of neural toxicity, with which physicians working in the field of ­substance-related disorders should be familiar. In fact, excluding N2O toxicity in patients with recognized substance-related disorders and new neurological deficits is compulsory, as untreated for months the damage to the nervous system is at risk of becoming irreversible. Keywords: addictive disorders, laughing gas, subacute combined degeneration, substance use disorder, vitamin B12 deficiency

  10. Use of copper radioisotopes in investigating disorders of copper metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camakaris, J.; Voskoboinik, I.; Brooks, H.; Greenough, M.; Smith, S.; Mercer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Copper is an essential trace element for life as a number of vital enzymes require it. Copper deficiency can lead to neurological disorders, osteoporosis and weakening of arteries. However Cu is also highly toxic and homeostatic mechanisms have evolved to maintain Cu at levels which satisfy requirements but do not cause toxicity. Toxicity is mediated by the oxidative capacity of Cu and its ability to generate toxic free radicals. There are several acquired and inherited diseases due to either Cu toxicity or Cu deficiency. The study of these diseases facilitates identification of genes and proteins involved in copper homeostasis, and this in turn will provide rational therapeutic approaches. Our studies have focused on Menkes disease in humans which is an inherited and usually lethal copper deficiency. Using copper radioisotopes 64 Cu (t 1/2 = 12.8 hr) and 67 Cu (t 1/2 = 61 hr) we have studied the protein which is mutated in Menkes disease. This is a transmembrane copper pump which is responsible for absorption of copper into the body and also functions to pump out excess Cu from cells when Cu is elevated. It is therefore a vital component of normal Cu homeostasis. We have provided the first biochemical evidence that the Menkes protein functions as a P-type ATPase Cu pump (Voskoboinik et al., FEBS Letters, in press) and these data will be discussed. The assay involved pumping of radiocopper into purified membrane vesicles. Furthermore we have transfected normal and mutant Menkes genes into cells and are carrying out structure-function studies. We are also studying the role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) as a Cu transport protein in order to determine how Cu regulates this protein and its cleavage products. These studies will provide vital information on the relationship between Cu and APP and processes which lead to Alzheimers disease

  11. Gait impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: comparison with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, Ailish

    2012-12-01

    Gait impairment is a primary symptom of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM); however, little is known about specific kinetic and kinematic gait parameters. The objectives of the study were: (1) to compare gait patterns of people with untreated CSM to those of age- and gender-matched healthy controls; (2) to examine the effect of gait speed on kinematic and kinetic parameters.

  12. Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula Presenting as Cervical Myelopathy: A Rapid Recovery with Balloon Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modi, Manish; Bapuraj, J. Rajiv; Lal, Anupam; Prabhakar, S.; Khandelwal, N.

    2010-01-01

    A 24-year-old male presented with progressive cervical myelopathy of 2 months' duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine and angiography revealed a large arteriovenous fistula arising from the left vertebral artery. The present case highlights the clinical features and dramatic recovery following endovascular balloon occlusion of a giant cervical arteriovenous fistula.

  13. Reliability of three-dimensional gait analysis in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Ailish

    2010-10-01

    Gait impairment is one of the primary symptoms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Detailed assessment is possible using three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA), however the reliability of 3DGA for this population has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of temporal-spatial, kinematic and kinetic parameters in a CSM population.

  14. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fax/Phone Home » Iodine Deficiency Leer en Español Iodine Deficiency Iodine is an element that is needed ... world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. Iodine Deficiency FAQs WHAT IS THE THYROID GLAND? The ...

  15. Severity score system for progressive myelopathy: development and validation of a new clinical scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Castilhos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive myelopathies can be secondary to inborn errors of metabolism (IEM such as mucopolysaccharidosis, mucolipidosis, and adrenomyeloneuropathy. The available scale, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA score, was validated only for degenerative vertebral diseases. Our objective is to propose and validate a new scale addressing progressive myelopathies and to present validating data for JOA in these diseases. A new scale, Severity Score System for Progressive Myelopathy (SSPROM, covering motor disability, sphincter dysfunction, spasticity, and sensory losses. Inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were measured. External validation was tested by applying JOA, the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS, the Barthel index, and the Osame Motor Disability Score. Thirty-eight patients, 17 with adrenomyeloneuropathy, 3 with mucopolysaccharidosis I, 3 with mucopolysaccharidosis IV, 2 with mucopolysaccharidosis VI, 2 with mucolipidosis, and 11 with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1-associated myelopathy participated in the study. The mean ± SD SSPROM and JOA scores were 74.6 ± 11.4 and 12.4 ± 2.3, respectively. Construct validity for SSPROM (JOA: r = 0.84, P < 0.0001; EDSS: r = -0.83, P < 0.0001; Barthel: r = 0.56, P < 0.002; Osame: r = -0.94, P < 0.0001 and reliability (intra-rater: r = 0.83, P < 0.0001; inter-rater: r = 0.94, P < 0.0001 were demonstrated. The metric properties of JOA were similar to those found in SSPROM. Several clinimetric requirements were met for both SSPROM and JOA scales. Since SSPROM has a wider range, it should be useful for follow-up studies on IEM myelopathies.

  16. Radiation myelopathy. Analysis of the clinical picture. Die Strahlenmyelopathie. Klinische Analyse des Krankheitsbildes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlit, P

    1987-01-01

    After a review of the world literature, the case histories of 43 patients with radiation myelopathy are analyzed. In 1 patient there was a radiation injury of the medulla oblongata, in 2, cervical, in 28, thoracic, and in 12, lumbosacral. In the medulla oblongata lesion an alternans syndrome resulted. The patients with cervical and thoracic radiation myelopathies presented with a Brown-Sequard syndrome, a spinalis anterior syndrome or a transversal syndrome with pyramidal and spinothalamic tract involvement as the most prominent signs. For this group the term 'pyramidal-spinothalamic radiation myelopathy' is proposed. In lumbosacral radiation lesions a pure anterior horn syndrome may lead to spinothalamic tract involvement and the development of a cauda conus syndrome. The clinical presentation of these cases suggests that the location of the radiation lesion is most likely the region of the conus medullaris. The most frequent initial symptom was dysesthesia; the patients complained of burning pain or a feeling of coldness. Usually the neurological deficits were progressive, in pyramidal-spinothalamic radiation myelopathy over 12 months in average, in lumbosacral radiation lesions up to 10 years. The latent period between the finish of radiation therapy and the first neurological signs was 8 months (median) in cervical and thoracic myelopathy and 33 months in lumbosacral lesions. For the entire group of 43 patients there was an inverse relationship between the radiation dose (ret) and the latent period. A positive relation could be demonstrated between the age of patients at the time of radiation therapy and the latent period. Patients simultaneously receiving cytostatic drugs presented after a longer latent period than the remaining group. With 17 figs.

  17. The characteristics of chronic pain after non-traumatic, non-compressive myelopathy: Focus on neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young In; Kim, Min; Joo, In Soo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of neuropathic pain after non-traumatic, non-compressive (NTNC) myelopathy and find potential predictors for neuropathic pain. We analyzed 54 patients with NTNC myelopathy. The Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) were used to assess pain. Health-related QOL was evaluated by the Short Form 36-item (SF-36) health survey. Out of 48 patients with pain, 16 (33.3%) patients experienced neuropathic pain. Mean age was significantly lower in patients with neuropathic pain than in patients with non-neuropathic pain (39.1 ± 12.5 vs. 49.8 ± 9.3, P = 0.002). There were no statistically significant differences in the other variables including sex, etiology of myelopathy, pain and QOL scores between the two groups. A binary logistic regression revealed that onset age under 40, and non-idiopathic etiology were independent predictors of the occurrence of neuropathic pain. Both SF-MPQ and LANSS scores were significantly correlated with SF-36 scores, adjusted by age, sex, presence of diabetes mellitus, and current EDSS scores (r = -0.624, P Neuropathic pain must be one of serious complications in patients with NTNC myelopathy and also affects their quality of life. Onset age and etiology of myelopathy are important factors in the development of neuropathic pain in NTNC myelopathy.

  18. Copper Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the arm and/or a 24-hour urine sample is collected. Sometimes a health practitioner performs a liver ... disease , a rare inherited disorder that can lead to excess storage of copper in the liver, brain, and other ...

  19. Copper imbalances in ruminants and humans: unexpected common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, Neville F

    2012-09-01

    Ruminants are more vulnerable to copper deficiency than humans because rumen sulfide generation lowers copper availability from forage, increasing the risk of conditions such as swayback in lambs. Molybdenum-rich pastures promote thiomolybdate (TM) synthesis and formation of unabsorbable Cu-TM complexes, turning risk to clinical reality (hypocuprosis). Selection pressures created ruminant species with tolerance of deficiency but vulnerability to copper toxicity in alien environments, such as specific pathogen-free units. By contrast, cases of copper imbalance in humans seemed confined to rare genetic aberrations of copper metabolism. Recent descriptions of human swayback and the exploratory use of TM for the treatment of Wilson's disease, tumor growth, inflammatory diseases, and Alzheimer's disease have created unexpected common ground. The incidence of pre-hemolytic copper poisoning in specific pathogen-free lambs was reduced by an infection with Mycobacterium avium that left them more responsive to treatment with TM but vulnerable to long-term copper depletion. Copper requirements in ruminants and humans may need an extra allowance for the "copper cost" of immunity to infection. Residual cuproenzyme inhibition in TM-treated lambs and anomalies in plasma copper composition that appeared to depend on liver copper status raise this question "can chelating capacity be harnessed without inducing copper-deficiency in ruminants or humans?" A model of equilibria between exogenous (TM) and endogenous chelators (e.g., albumin, metallothionein) is used to predict risk of exposure and hypocuprosis; although risk of natural exposure in humans is remote, vulnerability to TM-induced copper deficiency may be high. Biomarkers of TM impact are needed, and copper chaperones for inhibited cuproenzymes are prime candidates.

  20. Health Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all health deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection date,...

  1. Cobalamin Deficiency: Clinical Picture and Radiological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Briani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency causes a wide range of hematological, gastrointestinal, psychiatric and neurological disorders. Hematological presentation of cobalamin deficiency ranges from the incidental increase of mean corpuscular volume and neutrophil hypersegmentation to symptoms due to severe anemia, such as angor, dyspnea on exertion, fatigue or symptoms related to congestive heart failure, such as ankle edema, orthopnea and nocturia. Neuropsychiatric symptoms may precede hematologic signs and are represented by myelopathy, neuropathy, dementia and, less often, optic nerve atrophy. The spinal cord manifestation, subacute combined degeneration (SCD, is characterized by symmetric dysesthesia, disturbance of position sense and spastic paraparesis or tetraparesis. The most consistent MRI finding is a symmetrical abnormally increased T2 signal intensity confined to posterior or posterior and lateral columns in the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. Isolated peripheral neuropathy is less frequent, but likely overlooked. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been correlated negatively with cognitive functioning in healthy elderly subjects. Symptoms include slow mentation, memory impairment, attention deficits and dementia. Optic neuropathy occurs occasionally in adult patient. It is characterized by symmetric, painless and progressive visual loss. Parenteral replacement therapy should be started soon after the vitamin deficiency has been established.

  2. Myelopathy and sciatica induced by an extradural S1 root haemangioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermier, M.; Cotton, F.; Froment, J.C. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Neurologique et Neurochirurgical, Lyon (France); Saint-Pierre, G.; Jouvet, A. [Department of Neuropathology, Hopital Neurologique et Neurochirurgical, Lyon (France); Ongolo-Zogo, P. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Neurologique et Neurochirurgical, Lyon (France); Department of Radiology, Hopital Central, Yaounde (Cameroon); Fischer, G. [Department of Neurosurgery, Hopital Neurologique et Neurochirurgical, Lyon (France)

    2002-06-01

    Haemangioblastomas are vascular tumours which mainly involve the central nervous system and retina, often in the setting of von Hippel-Lindau disease. Haemangioblastomas occurring outside the central nervous system are uncommon. Wherever it is, recognising this tumour prior to surgery is desirable, as preoperative embolisation may be considered. We report the clinical, imaging and pathological features of a sporadic sacral root haemangioblastoma in a 58-year-old man with chronic sciatica and myelopathy. The diagnosis was questioned preoperatively because an enlarged sacral foramen, seen to be filled by a highly vascular, enhancing mass and dilated vessels. Myelopathy was attributed to the presumed high venous pressure resulting from increased flow in veins draining the vascular tumour. Microneurosurgical excision was performed after endovascular embolisation and led to persistent clinical improvement. (orig.)

  3. Myelopathy and sciatica induced by an extradural S1 root haemangioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermier, M.; Cotton, F.; Froment, J.C.; Saint-Pierre, G.; Jouvet, A.; Ongolo-Zogo, P.; Fischer, G.

    2002-01-01

    Haemangioblastomas are vascular tumours which mainly involve the central nervous system and retina, often in the setting of von Hippel-Lindau disease. Haemangioblastomas occurring outside the central nervous system are uncommon. Wherever it is, recognising this tumour prior to surgery is desirable, as preoperative embolisation may be considered. We report the clinical, imaging and pathological features of a sporadic sacral root haemangioblastoma in a 58-year-old man with chronic sciatica and myelopathy. The diagnosis was questioned preoperatively because an enlarged sacral foramen, seen to be filled by a highly vascular, enhancing mass and dilated vessels. Myelopathy was attributed to the presumed high venous pressure resulting from increased flow in veins draining the vascular tumour. Microneurosurgical excision was performed after endovascular embolisation and led to persistent clinical improvement. (orig.)

  4. EFFICACY OF CAGE PLACEMENT WITHOUT PLATE IN PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL MYELOPATHY WITH SINGLE-LEVEL AFFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ALBERTO ZUÑIGA-MAZÓN

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the efficacy of PEEK (Poly-ether-ether-ketone cage without plate for the treatment of single-level cervical spondylosis. Methods: Ten patients with cervical myelopathy data, with a single-level root condition, seen at the outpatient clinic of the Neurosurgery Service, operated in 2016, mean age 53 years, 6 (60% female, 4 (40% obese, 3 (30% smokers. The Cloward technique was used by anterior approach, discectomy, and PEEK cage placement. Results: At six months of surgery, 100% of the patients had increased intervertebral space, with a 100% reduction in osteophytes; only one patient had dysphagia, no patient had lesion of the adjacent segment and 10% had persistent root pathology. Cervical lordosis was observed in 90% of the patients and arthrodesis in 100% of the cases. Conclusions: Anterior approach arthrodesis using PEEK cage without cervical plate is effective as a treatment of cervical myelopathy in a single level.

  5. Relationship between magnetic resonance imaging and clinical results of decompression surgery for cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    MR imaging was investigated before and after surgery in 60 cases of cervical myelopathy. A preoperative high-signal-intensity area in the spinal cord was thought to be an important indicator of poor prognosis, because the recovery ratio of the preoperative high-signal group was 32±24%, while that of the normal-signal group was 86±15%. But, a high-signal-intensity area had no significant correlation with the morbidity period, preoperative clinical severity and degree of cord compression. There was a significant correlation between postoperative MR imaging and the neurological prognosis. And, atrophy and high-signal-intensity area in the spinal cord were frequently seen in cases of poor neurological postoperative recovery, corresponding to the morbidity period, preoperative clinical severity and degree of cord compression. MR imaging can serve as a useful tool to assess cervical myelopathy and to forecast the postoperative prognosis. (author)

  6. Predicting surgical outcome in cases of cervical myelopathy with magnetic resonance imaging. Critical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    In this study, the author attempted to correlate clinical factors significant in cases of cervical myelopathy with postoperative recovery. It is hoped that the results will aid in the preoperative prediction of surgical outcomes. The factors considered were the transverse area of the spinal cord, the cord compression rate, the presence of a high intensity area in T2-weighted MRI, the duration of symptoms before surgery, and age at surgery. Because there are variations in the transverse area of the spinal cord, 100 normal individuals were selected and the standard transverse area was calculated. The transverse area of the spinal cord and the cord constriction rate in the myelopathy cases was then measured and compared to the standard. The data indicated that the constriction rate was most relevant to recovery rate. Clinical thresholds found to correlate with a better than average rate of recovery in cases of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) were: a cord constriction rate; under 28.7%, cord compression rate; over 0.38, duration of symptoms before surgery; less than 9.2 months, and age at surgery; under 59.2 yrs. In patients with ossification of the longitudinal ligament (OPLL), cord constriction rate; under 36.2%, cord compression rate; over 0.30, duration of symptoms before surgery; less than 14.2 months, and age at surgery; under 57.6 yrs., all correlated with superior recovery, as did cord constriction rate; under 22.3%, and duration of symptoms before surgery; less than 3.7 months with patients suffering from cervical disc herniation (CDH). Furthermore, the absence of a T2-weighted high intensity area in CSM and OPLL patients also correlated with improved recovery. These results suggest that a favorable postoperative recovery rate can be expected in cases of cervical myelopathy that conform to the above criteria. (author)

  7. Myelopathy due to Spinal Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in a Patient with Polycythemia Vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shuhei; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hosogane, Naobumi; Nagoshi, Narihito; Yagi, Mitsuru; Iwanami, Akio; Watanabe, Kota; Tsuji, Takashi; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Ishii, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) occasionally occurs in patients exhibiting hematological disorders with decreased hematopoietic efficacy. EMH is rarely observed in the spinal epidural space and patients are usually asymptomatic. In particular, in the patients with polycythemia vera, spinal cord compression due to EMH is extremely rare. We report a case of polycythemia vera, in which operative therapy proved to be an effective treatment for myelopathy caused by spinal EMH.

  8. Myelopathy due to Spinal Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in a Patient with Polycythemia Vera

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Shuhei; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hosogane, Naobumi; Nagoshi, Narihito; Yagi, Mitsuru; Iwanami, Akio; Watanabe, Kota; Tsuji, Takashi; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Ishii, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) occasionally occurs in patients exhibiting hematological disorders with decreased hematopoietic efficacy. EMH is rarely observed in the spinal epidural space and patients are usually asymptomatic. In particular, in the patients with polycythemia vera, spinal cord compression due to EMH is extremely rare. We report a case of polycythemia vera, in which operative therapy proved to be an effective treatment for myelopathy caused by spinal EMH.

  9. Hepatic Myelopathy in a Patient with Decompensated Alcoholic Cirrhosis and Portal Colopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Premkumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrhotic or hepatic myelopathy is a rare neurological complication of chronic liver disease usually seen in adults and presents as a progressive pure motor spastic paraparesis which is usually associated with overt liver failure and a surgical or spontaneous systemic portocaval shunt. We describe the development of progressive spastic paraparesis, in a patient with alcoholic cirrhosis with portal hypertension and portal colopathy who presented with the first episode of hepatic encephalopathy. The patient had not undergone any shunt procedure.

  10. Prediction of surgical outcome in compressive cervical myelopathy: A novel clinicoradiological prognostic score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Anil Aggarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Preoperative severity of myelopathy, age, and duration of symptoms have been shown to be highly predictive of the outcome in compressive cervical myelopathy (CCM. The role of radiological parameters is still controversial. Aims: Define the prognostic factors in CCM and formulate a prognostic score to predict the outcome following surgery in CCM. Settings and Design: Retrospective. Materials and Methods: This study included 78 consecutive patients with CCM treated surgically. The modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA scale was used to quantify severity of myelopathy at admission and at 12-month follow-up. The outcome was defined as "good" if the patient had mJOA score ≥16 and "poor" if the score was <16. Age, sex, duration of symptoms, comorbidities, intrinsic hand muscle wasting (IHMW, diagnosis, surgical technique, Torg ratio, instability on dynamic radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI signal intensity changes were assessed. Statistics: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS (version 20.0 was used for statistical analysis. The association was assessed amongst variables using logistic regression analysis. Parameters having a statistically significant correlation with the outcome were included in formulating a prognostic score. Results: Severity of myelopathy, IHMW, age, duration, diabetes, and instability on radiographs were predictive of the outcome with a P value <0.01. Genders, diagnosis, surgical procedure, Torg ratio, and intensity changes on MRI were not significantly related to the outcome. A 8-point scoring system was devised incorporating the significant clinicoradiological parameters, and it was found that nearly all patients (97.82% with a score below 5 had good outcome and all patients (100% with a score above 5 had poor outcome. The outcome is difficult to predict with a score of 5. Conclusions: Clinical parameters are better predictors of the outcome as compared to radiological findings

  11. Myelopathy due to Spinal Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in a Patient with Polycythemia Vera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Ito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH occasionally occurs in patients exhibiting hematological disorders with decreased hematopoietic efficacy. EMH is rarely observed in the spinal epidural space and patients are usually asymptomatic. In particular, in the patients with polycythemia vera, spinal cord compression due to EMH is extremely rare. We report a case of polycythemia vera, in which operative therapy proved to be an effective treatment for myelopathy caused by spinal EMH.

  12. Negative MRI findings in a case of degenerative myelopathy in a dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Okada

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old male Rough collie was submitted with paraparesis, but did not respond to medical treatment. Clinical signs worsened and the dog displayed paralysis, inability to stand and loss of voluntary bladder control, whereupon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed. No significant abnormalities were identified from MRI, blood tests, cerebrospinal fluid tests or radiography. After MRI, the dog developed dyspnoea and died. Autopsy and subsequent histopathological examination led to a diagnosis of degenerative myelopathy.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with progressive myelopathy following spinal surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Avrahami, E; Tadmor, R; Cohn, D F

    1989-01-01

    Thirty one patients with insidious progressive myelopathy 2 to 8 years following surgery of the cervical spine were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 15 patients operated on for vascular malformations or intramedullary tumours, syringomyelia and cystic lesions of the spinal cord were shown. Seven of these patients also showed a combination of a recurrent tumour and spinal atrophy. Out of 16 patients who had surgery for herniated disc or spinal stenosis of the cervical spine, f...

  14. Copper hazards to fish, wildlife and invertebrates: a synoptic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Selective review and synthesis of the technical literature on copper and copper salts in the environment and their effects primarily on fishes, birds, mammals, terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates, and other natural resources. The subtopics include copper sources and uses; chemical and biochemical properties; concentrations of copper in field collections of abiotic materials and living organisms; effects of copper deficiency; lethal and sublethal effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic organisms, birds and mammals, including effects on survival, growth, reproduction, behavior, metabolism, carcinogenicity, matagenicity, and teratogenicity; proposed criteria for the protection of human health and sensitive natural resources; and recommendations for additional research.

  15. Some aspects of copper metabolism in Brindled mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    The semi-dominant X-linked mutation in Brindled mice causes a severe copper deficiency of which the hemizygous Brindled mice die between 14 and 21 days post partum. Previously, in analogy to Menkes' disease in man, the primary defect in mutated Brindled mice has been described as a block in the resorption of alimentary copper, i.e., the transport of copper from the intestinal lumen into the portal blood circulation. During this research it became clear that the impaired resorption of alimentary copper is only a part of a more general aberration of copper metabolism in epithelioid cells. Tracer techniques using 64 Cu are used for metabolism studies. (Auth.)

  16. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J.; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Martens, Ellen C. C. P.; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; van de Sluis, Bart; Houwen, Roderick H. J. H.; Watson, Adrian L.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Hodgkinson, Victoria L.; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J.; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to

  17. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers : a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J.; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Martens, Ellen C. C. P.; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; Sluis, van de Bart; Houwen, Roderick H. J. H.; Watson, Adrian L.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Hodgkinson, Victoria L.; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J.; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to

  18. Copper Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    recognized (National Academy of Sciences [NAS] 1977; Gallagher 1979). Copper deficiency in verte- brates, for example, is associated with anemia ...0.9 million metric tons of copper. Also in 1986,1.1 million tons of copper were imported into the United States, mostly from Canada, Chile, Peru ...ease are hepatic and renal lesions and hemolytic anemia (Schroeder et al. 1966; Goresky et al. 1968; Baker 1969; USEPA 1980; Aaseth and Norseth 1986

  19. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected.

  20. Surfer’s myelopathy: a rare presentation in a non-surfing setting and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kevin; Hariswamy, Soumya; Rao, Prashanth J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Surfers myelopathy can be a rapidly devastating disease and little is known surrounding the pathophysiology of the condition. Although the classical pattern of illness has been well reported, it has never been observed in a non-surfing setting. Methods A 51-year-old demolition worker presented with acute non-traumatic myelopathy. Clinical examination revealed sensory loss to the level of L2. T2-MRI and MRI-DWI revealed a hyperintense signal suggestive of an ischaemic event. A diagnosis of surfer’s myelopathy was made and he was commenced on steroid therapy. Results Following steroid therapy and fluid management the patient was discharged after 6 days with minor anaethesia but significant overall neurological improvement. Conclusions Diagnosis of SM requires a thorough history, clinical examination and imaging (MRI, MRI-DWI). The patient should be admitted early and investigated. The use of rehabilitation services may be useful if available. PMID:27757436

  1. PROMIS Physical Function Correlation With NDI and mJOA in the Surgical Cervical Myelopathy Patient Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Robert J; Zebala, Lukas P; Peters, Colleen; McAnany, Steven

    2018-04-15

    Retrospective review. To determine the correlation of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) physical function with Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) scores in the surgical cervical myelopathy patient population. Outcome measures such as NDI and mJOA are essential for analyzing treatments for cervical myelopathy. Administrative burdens impose limits on completion of these measures. The PROMIS group developed an outcome measure to improve reporting of patient symptoms and function and to reduce administrative burden. Despite early success, NDI and mJOA have not been compared with PROMIS in patients with cervical myelopathy. This study determines the correlation of NDI and mJOA with PROMIS in surgical patients with cervical myelopathy. A total of 60 patients with cervical myelopathy undergoing surgery were included. PROMIS, NDI, and mJOA were collected preoperatively, and in the first 6 months postoperatively. Correlations between NDI, mJOA, and PROMIS were quantified using Pearson correlation coefficients. Students t tests were used to test significance. All 60 (100%) of patients completed preoperative questionnaires. Fifty-five (92%) of patients completed initial follow-up questionnaires within the first 6 months. PROMIS physical function and NDI demonstrated a strong negative correlation at baseline and in initial follow-up (R = -0.69, -0.76). PROMIS and mJOA demonstrated a strong positive correlation at baseline and in initial follow-up (R = 0.61, 0.72). PROMIS physical function has a strong negative correlation with NDI and a strong positive correlation with mJOA at baseline and in the early postoperative course in patients undergoing surgery for cervical myelopathy. Surgeons may factor these outcomes into the delivery and interpretation of patient-reported outcome measures in this population. Use of PROMIS may improve completion of outcome measures in the office and reduce

  2. Ancillary outcome measures for assessment of individuals with cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Singh, Anoushka; Massicotte, Eric M; Arnold, Paul M; Brodke, Darrel S; Norvell, Daniel C; Hermsmeyer, Jeffrey T; Fehlings, Michael G

    2013-10-15

    Narrative review. To identify suitable outcome measures that can be used to quantify neurological and functional impairment in the management of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). CSM is the leading cause of acquired spinal cord disability, causing varying degrees of neurological impairment which impact on independence and quality of life. Because this impairment can have a heterogeneous presentation, a single outcome measure cannot define the broad range of deficits seen in this population. Therefore, it is necessary to define outcome measures that characterize the deficits with greater validity and sensitivity. This review was conducted in 3 stages. Stage I: To evaluate the current use of outcome measures in CSM, PubMed was searched using the name of the outcome measure and the common abbreviation combined with "CSM" or "myelopathy." Stage II: Having identified a lack of appropriate outcome measures, we constructed criteria by which measures appropriate for assessing the various aspects of CSM could be identified. Stage III: A second literature search was then conducted looking at specified outcomes that met these criteria. All literature was reviewed to determine specificity and psychometric properties of outcomes for CSM. Nurick grade, modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scale, visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36), and Neck Disability Index were the most commonly cited measures. The Short-Form 36 Health Survey and Myelopathy Disability Index have been validated in the CSM population with multiple studies, whereas the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scale score, Nurick grade, and European Myelopathy Scale each had only one study assessing psychometric characteristics. No validity, reliability, or responsiveness studies were found for the VAS or Neck Disability Index in the CSM population. We recommend that the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scale, Nurick grade, Myelopathy Disability Index

  3. Quality of life in symptomatic cervical myelopathy after open-door laminoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Yuiti Nakao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results obtained by open-door laminoplasty using the Newbridge(r/Blackstone plate, in cases of myelopathy associated with cervical lordosis.METHODS: From December 2010 to October 2012, eight patients between the ages of 49 and 68 underwent open-door laminoplasty with the use of the Newbridge(r fixation system for maintenance and stabilization of the cervical laminoplasty. Minimum follow-up was four months. For the evaluation of quality of life the questionnaire SF-36 was applied at the following times: preoperative, one month and three months after surgery associated with the subjective assessment of the patient regarding satisfaction with the procedure and with the Nurick neurological scale applied prior to surgery and three months later.RESULTS: According to the SF-36, there was significant improvement in the domains functional ability, general health perceptions and emotional aspects over time; regarding physical limitations and social aspects there was no improvement in the first postoperative month, only in the third month. There were no statistically significant changes observed during the period covered by this study related to pain, vitality and mental health. According to Nurick scale, there was evidence of improvement in symptoms of cervical myelopathy. Based on the subjective evaluation of the patients, surprisingly, all patients were satisfied with the surgical procedure and the results.CONCLUSION: The open-door laminoplasty technique with rigid fixation to maintain the opening is useful in improving the symptoms of cervical myelopathy associated with lordosis, leading to improved quality of life and with a high degree of patient satisfaction and fewer complications.

  4. 3 T magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging and fibre tracking in cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiangshui, M.; Xiangjun, C.; Xiaoming, Z.; Qingshi, Z.; Yi, C.; Chuanqiang, Q.; Xiangxing, M.; Chuanfu, L.; Jinwen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the characterization of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in cervical myelopathy. Methods: A total of 21 healthy controls and 84 patients with cervical myelopathy underwent T2-weighted imaging and DTI. The patients were divided into four groups based on the degree of cord compression and MRI signal intensity of the compressed cord as seen on T2-weighted images. The values of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), and eigenvalues (λ i ) were analysed, and fibre tracking (FT) was performed. Results: For healthy controls, the mean values from the DTI of the cervical spinal cord were ADC = 0.784 ± 0.083 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, FA = 0.721 ± 0.027, λ 1 , λ 2 , and λ 3 = 1.509 ± 0.145 x 10 -3 , 0.416 ± 0.094 x 10 -3 , and 0.411 ± 0.102 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively. Only values for λ 2 and λ 3 differed significantly between the control and A groups (p 2 and λ 3 of group A were 0.516 ± 0.105 x 10 -3 and 0.525 ± 0.129 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively. ADC, FA, λ 1 , λ 2 and λ 3 differed significantly between the control and B, C, D groups (p i obtained with DTI could assess subtle structural damage and changes of anisotropy in the cord of cervical myelopathy. Fibre tracking was useful in verifying changes in the compressed cord.

  5. MRI in the investigation of patients with myelopathy thought to be due to multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, A.; Gouliamos, A.; Trakadas, S.; Kalovidouris, A.; Sgouropoulos, P.; Gatzonis, S.; Vlahos, L.

    1995-01-01

    The role of cerebral and spinal cord MRI was investigated in 65 patients with myelopathy suspected of having demyelinating disease. Cerebral MRI demonstrated lesions compatible with demyelination in 80% and spinal cord MRI in 68.6%. In 28.5% of our patients brain lesions were present with normal spinal cord images, but in 17% spinal cord lesions were depicted with a normal brain MRI. The combination of the two examinations demonstrated lesions in 97% of the patients. The frequency of coexistent cerebral lesions in patients with spinal cord lesions was over 85% in patients with chronic disease but only 28.5% in patients with acute myelitis. (orig.)

  6. MRI in the investigation of patients with myelopathy thought to be due to multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, A. [CT and MRI Unit, X-Ray Dept., `Areteion` Hospital, Univ. Athens (Greece); Gouliamos, A. [CT and MRI Unit, X-Ray Dept., `Areteion` Hospital, Univ. Athens (Greece); Trakadas, S. [CT and MRI Unit, X-Ray Dept., `Areteion` Hospital, Univ. Athens (Greece); Kalovidouris, A. [CT and MRI Unit, X-Ray Dept., `Areteion` Hospital, Univ. Athens (Greece); Sgouropoulos, P. [Neurology Dept., `Eginition` Hospital, Univ. Athens Medical School (Greece); Gatzonis, S. [Neurology Dept., `Eginition` Hospital, Univ. Athens Medical School (Greece); Vlahos, L. [CT and MRI Unit, X-Ray Dept., `Areteion` Hospital, Univ. Athens (Greece)

    1995-07-01

    The role of cerebral and spinal cord MRI was investigated in 65 patients with myelopathy suspected of having demyelinating disease. Cerebral MRI demonstrated lesions compatible with demyelination in 80% and spinal cord MRI in 68.6%. In 28.5% of our patients brain lesions were present with normal spinal cord images, but in 17% spinal cord lesions were depicted with a normal brain MRI. The combination of the two examinations demonstrated lesions in 97% of the patients. The frequency of coexistent cerebral lesions in patients with spinal cord lesions was over 85% in patients with chronic disease but only 28.5% in patients with acute myelitis. (orig.)

  7. Thoracic Synovial Cyst at the Th2-3 Level Causing Myelopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundskarð, Martin M; Gaini, Shahin

    2017-01-01

    Intraspinal synovial cyst is a rare cause of myelopathy. These cysts present most often in the lumbar and cervical parts of the spine but are more infrequent in the thoracic spine. We present a case of a 73-year-old man with an intraspinal, extradural synovial cyst at the Th2-3 level causing...... paraesthesia and weakness in the legs. A laminectomy and excision of the cyst were performed and the patient recovered fully. In the thoracic spine, synovial cysts are almost exclusively found in the lower part. Laminectomy, with excision, is the treatment of choice, although steroid injections have been...

  8. Effect of fructose or starch on copper-67 absorption and excretion by the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, M.; Holbrook, J.; Scholfield, D.; Smith, J.C. Jr.; Reiser, S.

    1986-01-01

    Studies with 67 Cu were conducted with copper-deficient or supplemented rats fed fructose or starch in an effort to investigate the effects of different dietary carbohydrates and inadequate copper intake on the absorption, tissue distribution and excretion of copper. After being fed their diets for 5 wk, they were killed at 8, 24, 48 and 96 h following the intubation of their respective copper-supplemented diets extrinsically labeled with 67 Cu. Only at 48 and 96 h following the intubation of 67 Cu, the gastrointestinal (GI) contents of rats fed the copper-deficient fructose diet exhibited higher radioactivity than rats fed the copper-deficient starch diet. Although not always significant, this apparent retention of copper in GI contents was accompanied by decreased whole-body radioactivity and depressed urinary excretion. The cumulative excretion of 67 Cu via feces over the 96-h period of collection was similar for both groups of copper-deficient rats, regardless of whether the dietary carbohydrate was fructose or starch. The data suggest that the more severe copper deficiency is related to the sustained higher level of radioactivity in the GI contents. This increased retention of 67 Cu in GI contents suggests impaired absorption of copper

  9. Exogenous addition of histidine reduces copper availability in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Watanabe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic amino acid histidine inhibited yeast cell growth more severely than lysine and arginine. Overexpression of CTR1, which encodes a high-affinity copper transporter on the plasma membrane, or addition of copper to the medium alleviated this cytotoxicity. However, the intracellular level of copper ions was not decreased in the presence of excess histidine. These results indicate that histidine cytotoxicity is associated with low copper availability inside cells, not with impaired copper uptake. Furthermore, histidine did not affect cell growth under limited respiration conditions, suggesting that histidine cytotoxicity is involved in deficiency of mitochondrial copper.

  10. Exogenous addition of histidine reduces copper availability in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Daisuke; Kikushima, Rie; Aitoku, Miho; Nishimura, Akira; Ohtsu, Iwao; Nasuno, Ryo; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2014-07-07

    The basic amino acid histidine inhibited yeast cell growth more severely than lysine and arginine. Overexpression of CTR1 , which encodes a high-affinity copper transporter on the plasma membrane, or addition of copper to the medium alleviated this cytotoxicity. However, the intracellular level of copper ions was not decreased in the presence of excess histidine. These results indicate that histidine cytotoxicity is associated with low copper availability inside cells, not with impaired copper uptake. Furthermore, histidine did not affect cell growth under limited respiration conditions, suggesting that histidine cytotoxicity is involved in deficiency of mitochondrial copper.

  11. Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: A Spectrum of Related Disorders Affecting the Aging Spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Lindsay; Goldstein, Christina L; Arnold, Paul; Harrop, James; Hilibrand, Alan; Nouri, Aria; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-10-01

    Cervical spinal cord dysfunction can result from either traumatic or nontraumatic causes, including tumors, infections, and degenerative changes. In this article, we review the range of degenerative spinal disorders resulting in progressive cervical spinal cord compression and propose the adoption of a new term, degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). DCM comprises both osteoarthritic changes to the spine, including spondylosis, disk herniation, and facet arthropathy (collectively referred to as cervical spondylotic myelopathy), and ligamentous aberrations such as ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum. This review summarizes current knowledge of the pathophysiology of DCM and describes the cascade of events that occur after compression of the spinal cord, including ischemia, destruction of the blood-spinal cord barrier, demyelination, and neuronal apoptosis. Important features of the diagnosis of DCM are discussed in detail, and relevant clinical and imaging findings are highlighted. Furthermore, this review outlines valuable assessment tools for evaluating functional status and quality of life in these patients and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each. Other topics of this review include epidemiology, the prevalence of degenerative changes in the asymptomatic population, the natural history and rates of progression, risk factors of diagnosis (clinical, imaging and genetic), and management strategies.

  12. Sudden onset of cervical spondylotic myelopathy during sleep: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Irene A; Burns, Stephen P; Little, James W

    2002-03-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a common cause of compressive spinal cord dysfunction. The typical course involves either a gradual or an episodic increase in symptoms and neurologic deficits, with impairment evolving over a period of months to years. Acute neurologic deterioration in conjunction with cervical spondylosis has been described almost exclusively in traumatic situations such as disk herniation. We report a case of an acute, nontraumatic onset of tetraplegia in association with cervical spondylosis. A 56-year-old man developed tetraplegia during a 1-hour nap, with loss of volitional control of his extremities, impaired sensation below the C3 dermatome, and increased muscle tone. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed canal stenosis and increased T2 signal within the cord. This case report describes the rehabilitation course for this patient and reviews the clinical spectrum of onset and progression of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  13. Neuropsychological improvement in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy after posterior decompression surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshimaru, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    Patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy sometimes complain of cognitive dysfunction, which may be coincidence. However, cognitive dysfunction may be related to disorders of the cervical spine and/or spinal cord. This study investigated cognitive dysfunction in patients with cervical spinal disorders. A total of 79 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (40 women and 39 men, mean age 61.2 years) underwent cervical laminoplasty between January 2006 and July 2007. Ten of these 79 patients (7 women and 3 men, mean age 65.2 years) complained of moderate to severe memory disturbances. These 10 patients underwent neuroimaging studies and a battery of neuropsychological tests consisting of the mini-mental state examination, Kohs Block Design Test, Miyake Memory Test, Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and 'kana-hiroi' test before and 3 months after surgery. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no organic brain lesions in the 10 patients, but single photon emission computed tomography demonstrated reduced regional cerebral blood flow in the posterior cortical areas in eight patients before surgery. Neuropsychological test scores showed statistically significant improvement after surgery in the Kohs Block Design Test and the BVRT, which measure visuospatial perception and reflect the function of the parietal and/or occipital lobes (p<0.05). The practice effect may have contributed to the neuropsychological improvements, but this study suggests that cervical spinal disorders may affect cognitive functions and that surgical treatment can ameliorate such effects. (author)

  14. The reporting of study and population characteristics in degenerative cervical myelopathy: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Davies

    Full Text Available Degenerative cervical myelopathy [DCM] is a disabling and increasingly prevalent condition. Variable reporting in interventional trials of study design and sample characteristics limits the interpretation of pooled outcomes. This is pertinent in DCM where baseline characteristics are known to influence outcome. The present study aims to assess the reporting of the study design and baseline characteristics in DCM as the premise for the development of a standardised reporting set.A systematic review of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015025497 was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Full text articles in English, with >50 patients (prospective or >200 patients (retrospective, reporting outcomes of DCM were deemed to be eligible.A total of 108 studies involving 23,876 patients, conducted world-wide, were identified. 33 (31% specified a clear primary objective. Study populations often included radiculopathy (51, 47% but excluded patients who had undergone previous surgery (42, 39%. Diagnositic criteria for myelopathy were often uncertain; MRI assessment was specified in only 67 (62% of studies. Patient comorbidities were referenced by 37 (34% studies. Symptom duration was reported by 46 (43% studies. Multivariate analysis was used to control for baseline characteristics in 33 (31% of studies.The reporting of study design and sample characteristics is variable. The development of a consensus minimum dataset for (CODE-DCM will facilitate future research synthesis in the future.

  15. Biological prevention and/or treatment strategies for radiation myelopathy. Discussion of a new perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, C.; Ataman, F.; Price, R.E.; Kian Ang, K.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Radiosensitivity of the spinal cord makes both curative first-line treatment of numerous malignancies and re-irradiation of recurrent or second tumors more difficult. This review discusses recent advances in basic research that alter the view on the pathogenesis of radiation myelopathy, possibly offering strategies for prevention and/or therapy. Results: Available data of developmental neurobiology and preclinical studies of demyelinating diseases revealed interesting insights into oligodendrocyte development, intercellular signaling pathways, and myelination processes. Current findings suggest that administration of cytokines could increase proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, enhance their differentiation, upregulate synthesis of myelin constituents, and promote myelin regeneration in the adult central nervous system. Other compounds might also be able to modulate progression of pathogenic processes that eventually lead to radiation myelopathy. This offers several possible biological prevention and/or treatment strategies, which currently are being investigated in animal studies. Conclusions: Technical options as well as optimization of fractionation parameters should be given priority in the attempt to reduce iatrogenic neurotoxicity. However, rational biological strategies could offer a new perspective for many patients. (orig.) [de

  16. Surgical Treatment of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Associated Hypertension--A Retrospective Study of 309 Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-qun Li

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease, and various risk factors are known to be involved in it. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM is the most common non-traumatic cause of myelopathy, which displays neurological symptoms and may induce systemic symptoms. To date, it is still unknown whether CSM is associated with hypertension, and if so, whether the decompression operations can attenuate CSM associated hypertension. Here, a total of 309 patients with CSM who received anterior or posterior decompression surgery were enrolled as subjects. Blood pressure measurements were performed before and within one week after the surgery. Among the 309 subjects, 144 (46.6% of them exhibited hypertension before surgery, a significantly higher ratio than that of the whole population. One week after surgery, blood pressure of 106 (73.6% patients turned back to normal. Blood pressure of another 37(25.7% patients decreased with different degrees, although still higher than normal. Moreover, it appears that both approaches were effective in improving blood pressure, while the posterior approach was more effective in decreasing systolic blood pressure. We speculate this type of hypertension might result from hyperactivity of sympathetic nervous system as the heart rate of these patients decreased after surgery as well. Collectively, compression of spinal cord in CSM patients might be associated with hypertension, and decompression surgery largely attenuated this type of hypertension. These findings prove CSM to be a potential associated factor of high blood pressure and may shed light on therapies of hypertension in clinics.

  17. What Are Rare Clotting Factor Deficiencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ...

  18. Antwerp Copper Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes.......In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes....

  19. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology. PMID:24672633

  20. Separation of copper-64 from copper phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglin, R.I.M.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of copper-64 from irradiated copper phthalocyanine by Szilard-Chalmers effect is studied. Two methods of separation are used: one of them is based on the dissolution of the irradiated dry compound in concentrated sulfuric acid following its precipitation in water. In the other one the compound is irradiated with water in paste form following treatment with water and hydrochloric acid. The influence of the crystal form of the copper phthalocyanine on the separation yield of copper-64 is shown. Preliminary tests using the ionic exchange technique for purification and changing of copper-64 sulfate to chloride form are carried out. The specific activity using the spectrophotometric technique, after the determination of the copper concentration in solution of copper-64, is calculated. (Author) [pt

  1. Noninferiority of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency diagnosis by a point-of-care rapid test vs the laboratory fluorescent spot test demonstrated by copper inhibition in normal human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J Kevin; Dewi, Mewahyu; Subekti, Decy; Elyazar, Iqbal; Satyagraha, Ari W

    2015-06-01

    Tens of millions of patients diagnosed with vivax malaria cannot safely receive primaquine therapy against repeated attacks caused by activation of dormant liver stages called hypnozoites. Most of these patients lack access to screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, a highly prevalent disorder causing serious acute hemolytic anemia with primaquine therapy. We optimized CuCl inhibition of G6PD in normal red blood cells (RBCs) to assess G6PD diagnostic technologies suited to point of care in the impoverished rural tropics. The most widely applied technology for G6PD screening-the fluorescent spot test (FST)-is impractical in that setting. We evaluated a new point-of-care G6PD screening kit (CareStart G6PD, CSG) against FST using graded CuCl treatments to simulate variable hemizygous states, and varying proportions of CuCl-treated RBC suspensions to simulate variable heterozygous states of G6PD deficiency. In experiments double-blinded to CuCl treatment, technicians reading FST and CSG test (n = 269) classified results as positive or negative for deficiency. At G6PD activity ≤40% of normal (n = 112), CSG test was not inferior to FST in detecting G6PD deficiency (P = 0.003), with 96% vs 90% (P = 0.19) sensitivity and 75% and 87% (P = 0.01) specificity, respectively. The CSG test costs less, requires no specialized equipment, laboratory skills, or cold chain for successful application, and performs as well as the FST standard of care for G6PD screening. Such a device may vastly expand access to primaquine therapy and aid in mitigating the very substantial burden of morbidity and mortality imposed by the hypnozoite reservoir of vivax malaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Outcomes of conservative treatment for cervical myelopathy caused by soft disc herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Morio; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Ken; Ogawa, Yuto; Takaishi, Hironari; Nakamura, Masaya; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to delineate the clinical course and MRI findings of patients with disc hernias which regressed spontaneously and to determine who is eligible for conservative treatment. Twenty-three patients with mild cervical myelopathy (initial Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores >10) caused by soft disc herniation were treated conservatively for more than two years (13 males, 10 females, mean age 50, mean follow-up 3.6 years). The investigated items included JOA scores and MRI findings (morphology of disc herniation). Morphology of disc herniation was classified into focal type (herniated mass persisting at the intervertebral level) and diffuse type (herniated mass migrating rostrally or caudally) in the sagittal plane and median type or paramedian type in the axial plane. The mean JOA scores were 13.4±1.5 before treatment, and 16.0±1.0 at follow-up. Regression of herniation was observed in 14 patients (Group A), while no regression was seen in 9 patients (Group B). The JOA scores were 13.7±1.5 (Group A) and 14.0±1.6 (Group B) before treatment, and 16.3±1.6 and 15.7±1.2 at follow-up, respectively. On sagittal MR images, diffuse-type herniation was observed in 9 patients (64%) and focal-type in 5 (36%) in Group A, and 3 (33%) and 6 (67%) in Group B, respectively. On axial images, median-type herniation was observed in 10 patients (71%), and paramedian-type in 4 (29%) in Group A, and 6 (67%) and 3 (33%) in Group B, respectively. Spontaneous soft disc regression in patients with cervical myelopathy was observed in more than half of those treated conservatively for longer than 2 years. Conservative treatment can be recommended for patients with mild cervical myelopathy, especially when caused by median-and/or diffuse-type disc hernia, although close observation is mandatory. (author)

  3. Solitary Osteochondroma of the Thoracic Spine with Compressive Myelopathy; A Rare Presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrian, Payam; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Kahkuee, Shahram; Bakhshayeshkaram, Mehrdad; Ghasemikhah, Reza

    2013-01-01

    A 19-year-old man presented with a 5-year history of back pain radiating to the lower extremities and paresthesis of the toes during the last year. Plain X-ray revealed a large cauliflower shaped exophytic mass at the level of T8, T9 and T10 vertebrae. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an abnormal bony mass arising from the posterior arch of T9 with protrusion to the spinal canal and marked cord compression. The cortex and medulla of the lesion had continuity with those of the T9 vertebra. Surgical en bloc resection was performed and the patient’s symptoms resolved. The histopathologic diagnosis was osteochondroma. In patients with symptoms of myelopathy, in addition to more common etiologies, one should also be aware of rare entities such as osteochondroma

  4. Compressive myelopathy of the cervical spine in Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Dawn M; Douglass, Michael; Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Aguilar, Roberto; Schaftenaar, Willem; Shores, Andy

    2009-03-01

    Cervical subluxation and compressive myelopathy appears to be a cause of morbidity and mortality in captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Four cases of cervical subluxation resulting in nerve root compression or spinal cord compression were identified. Three were presumptively induced by trauma, and one had an unknown inciting cause. Two dragons exhibited signs of chronic instability. Cervical vertebrae affected included C1-C4. Clinical signs on presentation included ataxia, ambulatory paraparesis or tetraparesis to tetraplegia, depression to stupor, cervical scoliosis, and anorexia. Antemortem diagnosis of compression was only confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. Treatment ranged from supportive care to attempted surgical decompression. All dragons died or were euthanatized, at 4 days to 12 mo postpresentation. Studies to define normal vertebral anatomy in the species are necessary to determine whether the pathology is linked to cervical malformation, resulting in ligament laxity, subsequent instability, and subluxation.

  5. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy caused by violent motor tics in a child with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Da-Young; Kim, Seung-Ki; Chae, Jong-Hee; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon

    2013-02-01

    We report a case of a 9-year-old boy with Tourette syndrome (TS) who developed progressive quadriparesis that was more severe in the upper extremities. He had experienced frequent and violent motor tics consisting of hyperflexion and hyperextension for years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a focal high-signal intensity cord lesion and adjacent cervical spondylotic changes. Initially, the patient was observed for several months because of diagnostic uncertainty; his neurological status had improved and later worsened again. Anterior cervical discectomy of C3-4 and fusion immediately followed by posterior fixation were performed. After surgery, the neck collar was applied for 6 months. His neurological signs and symptoms improved dramatically. TS with violent neck motion may cause cervical spondylotic myelopathy at an early age. The optimal management is still unclear and attempts to control tics should be paramount. Circumferential fusion with neck bracing represents a viable treatment option.

  6. Wall-eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (webino syndrome and myelopathy in pyoderma gangrenosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Lana

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old female with pyoderma gangrenosum developed paraparesis with a sensory level at L1. Three months later she complained of diplopia and was found to have bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia with exotropia and no ocular convergence. The term Webino syndrome has been coined to design this set of neuro-opthalmologic findings. Although it was initially attributed to lesions affecting the medial longitudinal fasciculus and the medial rectus subnuclei of the oculomotor complex in the midbrain the exact location of the lesion is still disputed. In the present case both myelopathy and Webino syndrome were probably due to vascular occlusive disease resulting from central nervous system vasculitis occurring in concomitance to pyoderma gangrenosum.

  7. Electrophysiological and MRI study on poor outcome after surgery for cervical myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameyama, Osamu; Kawakita, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Ryokei [Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    Occasionally, the outcome from laminoplasty for cervical spondylosis is disappointing despite an adequate operation. Before surgery, it is difficult to diagnose the pathological extent of the involvement of the spinal cord. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and of the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) for the indication of the surgery and prognosis. Retrospectively, we investigated the MEPs and the MRI of 31 patients in surgery for cervical myelopathy, involving 21 with cervical spondylosis and 10 with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligamentum, and compared the findings from those with a poor outcome (n=3l) with the findings from those with a good outcome (n=32). The MEPs from the thenar muscle and the tibialis anterior were evoked by transcranial magnetic brain stimulation. In the poor-outcome patients, the spinal canal was narrow and lumbar spinal canal stenosis was seen in 5 cases which required lumbar laminectomy. Before operation, the MEPs from the thenar muscle could not be evoked in 5 cases while there was a remarkably prolonged central motor conduction time in the other 26 cases. MRI revealed the deformed spinal cord in the involved area, and the signal intensity of the involved spinal cord in the T2 weighted image was remarkably high. The signal intensity ratio was significantly higher in the poor-outcome patients than in the good-outcome patients. This study suggested that a high signal intensity in the T2 weighted image and a prolonged conduction time or absence of MEPs largely corresponded to the clinical and other investigative features of myelopathy responsible for a poor outcome. (author).

  8. Electrophysiological and MRI study on poor outcome after surgery for cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Osamu; Kawakita, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Ryokei

    1995-01-01

    Occasionally, the outcome from laminoplasty for cervical spondylosis is disappointing despite an adequate operation. Before surgery, it is difficult to diagnose the pathological extent of the involvement of the spinal cord. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and of the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) for the indication of the surgery and prognosis. Retrospectively, we investigated the MEPs and the MRI of 31 patients in surgery for cervical myelopathy, involving 21 with cervical spondylosis and 10 with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligamentum, and compared the findings from those with a poor outcome (n=3l) with the findings from those with a good outcome (n=32). The MEPs from the thenar muscle and the tibialis anterior were evoked by transcranial magnetic brain stimulation. In the poor-outcome patients, the spinal canal was narrow and lumbar spinal canal stenosis was seen in 5 cases which required lumbar laminectomy. Before operation, the MEPs from the thenar muscle could not be evoked in 5 cases while there was a remarkably prolonged central motor conduction time in the other 26 cases. MRI revealed the deformed spinal cord in the involved area, and the signal intensity of the involved spinal cord in the T2 weighted image was remarkably high. The signal intensity ratio was significantly higher in the poor-outcome patients than in the good-outcome patients. This study suggested that a high signal intensity in the T2 weighted image and a prolonged conduction time or absence of MEPs largely corresponded to the clinical and other investigative features of myelopathy responsible for a poor outcome. (author)

  9. Analysis of spastic gait in cervical myelopathy: Linking compression ratio to spatiotemporal and pedobarographic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Taro; Takahashi, Yasuhito; Endo, Kenji; Ikegami, Ryo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2018-01-01

    Gait dysfunction associated with spasticity and hyperreflexia is a primary symptom in patients with compression of cervical spinal cord. The objective of this study was to link maximum compression ratio (CR) to spatiotemporal/pedobarographic parameters. Quantitative gait analysis was performed by using a pedobarograph in 75 elderly males with a wide range of cervical compression severity. CR values were characterized on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Statistical significances in gait analysis parameters (speed, cadence, stride length, step with, and toe-out angle) were evaluated among different CR groups by the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Mann-Whitney U test using Bonferroni correction. The Spearman test was performed to verify correlations between CR and gait parameters. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant decline in gait speed and stride length and significant increase in toe-out angle with progression of cervical compression myelopathy. The post-hoc Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences in these parameters between the control group (0.45test revealed that CR was significantly correlated with speed, cadence, stride length, and toe-out angle. Gait speed, stride length, and toe-out angle can serve as useful indexes for evaluating progressive gait abnormality in cervical myelopathy. Our findings suggest that CR≤0.25 is associated with significantly poorer gait performance. Nevertheless, future prospective studies are needed to determine a potential benefit from decompressive surgery in such severe compression patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The efficacy of dynamic MRI in assessing a cervical myelopathy; A retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Tetsuya; Yamada, Tomonori; Okumura, Yoshiya; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Hiramatsu, Kenichiro; Tsunoda, Shigeru; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Iwasaki, Satoru (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    There are problems that are unresolved with regard to the treatment of cases presenting a post-taumatic cervical myelopathy, such as when the surgical indications are not clearly evidence and the proper timing of this surgery. In this regard, the authors have used dynamic MRI to retrospectively analyze the cervical spine of 24 previously treated dynamic MRI cases presenting a subacute myelopathy to determine the efficacy of dynamic MRI as a method of treatment. Dynamic MRI analysis protocol was as follows. For the MR imagings, each patient was placed supine with the neck in the neutral position, after which the neck was set in the extended position. Dynamic changes between the neutral position and extended position images were analyzed by focusing on the following two point: (1) the narrowing of the subarachnoid space in the T2-weighted images and (2) evidence of cord compression in the T1-weighted images. Twelve cases out of 24 were treated conservatively because of a gradual improvement in their myelopathic symptoms. The other 12 cases were treated surgically, because of no improvement in their residual myelopathic symptoms at the time when the dynamic MRI had been performed. In the majority of cases in the surgical group, the narrowing of the subarachnoid space and spinal cord compression were hightened on neck extension, whereas in the conservative group, such findings were minimal. Dynamic MRI also more clearly visualized multiple lesions and the direction of the cord compression. These findings thus provided more detailed information to plan the surgical approach and to estimate the amount of surgical decompression needed. Based on the results of this retrospective study, we thus concluded that surgical treatment appears to benefit subacute cases who show no improvement in their residual myelopathic symptoms and whose dynamic MRI results also demonstrate an increased narrowing of subarachnoid space and a heightened spinal cord compression. (author).

  11. A case of chronic progressive radiation myelopathy with a CT myelogram simulating intramedullary tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemaru, Kazutomi; Kamo, Hisaki; Yamao, Satoshi; Akiguchi, Ichiro; Kameyama, Masakuni

    1985-01-01

    A 58-year-old man underwent a right middle lobectomy in June, 1975, for poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung. Postoperative irradiation was given to the hilus (6100 rads), and to the right supraclavicular area (6000 rads). In 1980, 60 months after completion of irradiation, the patient noticed weakness of his legs particularly on the left side. In 1982, he noticed the girdle sensation in the upper thoracic region, and paresthesia in the lateral side of the right thigh. In Dec 1983, micturition disturbance appeared, and gait disturbance progressed, he was admitted to the Kyoto University Hospital. Neurological examination revealed an incomplete left Brown-Sequard syndrome with diminution of pain and thermal sensation on the right lower limb, and weakness and spasticity particularly on the left lower limb. Conventional myelogram with CT myelogram showed spinal cord swelling from T-2 through T-5. No extramedullary lesion was found. Laminectomy was performed through T-1 to T-6. When the dura was opened, the cord was swollen and necrotic with a cyst formation. Microscopic examination of the thickened part of the cord showed necrosis and gliosis. The lesion was correspond to the cord segments exposed to the radiation, and a diagnosis of radiation myelopathy was made. Several cases of radiation myelopathy with definite swelling of the cord at myelography were reported, but myelography in these cases was performed at most within 11 months after the onset. In this case, myelography was performed three years after the onset, and revealed difinite swelling of the cord due to a cyst formation. (author)

  12. Case of chronic progressive radiation myelopathy with a CT myelogram simulating intramedullary tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemaru, Kazutomi; Kamo, Hisaki; Yamao, Satoshi; Akiguchi, Ichiro; Kameyama, Masakuni

    1985-05-01

    A 58-year-old man underwent a right middle lobectomy in June, 1975, for poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung. Postoperative irradiation was given to the hilus (6100 rads), and to the right supraclavicular area (6000 rads). In 1980, 60 months after completion of irradiation, the patient noticed weakness of his legs particularly on the left side. In 1982, he noticed the girdle sensation in the upper thoracic region, and paresthesia in the lateral side of the right thigh. In Dec 1983, micturition disturbance appeared, and gait disturbance progressed, he was admitted to the Kyoto University Hospital. Neurological examination revealed an incomplete left Brown-Sequard syndrome with diminution of pain and thermal sensation on the right lower limb, and weakness and spasticity particularly on the left lower limb. Conventional myelogram with CT myelogram showed spinal cord swelling from T-2 through T-5. No extramedullary lesion was found. Laminectomy was performed through T-1 to T-6. When the dura was opened, the cord was swollen and necrotic with a cyst formation. Microscopic examination of the thickened part of the cord showed necrosis and gliosis. The lesion was correspond to the cord segments exposed to the radiation, and a diagnosis of radiation myelopathy was made. Several cases of radiation myelopathy with definite swelling of the cord at myelography were reported, but myelography in these cases was performed at most within 11 months after the onset. In this case, myelography was performed three years after the onset, and revealed difinite swelling of the cord due to a cyst formation. (author).

  13. Pathological investigation of radiation necrosis. A case report and histo-pathological analysis of radiation myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, N; Yoshimura, N; Ikuta, F [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-05-01

    The brain and spinal cord of an 18-year-old male, who suffered from cerebellar medulloblastoma with subarachnoid spread, had been irradiated by a large amount of Linac X-ray: 14,450 rads to the lower thoracic segments and 7,400 rads to the lumbar segments. The tumor at the roof of the 4th ventricle had disseminated along the ventricular system but was limited to the subarachnoid space of the cervical spinal cord. No remarkable changes were found in the volume or consistency of the thoracic and lumbar cord. Elasticity of the lower thoracic segment was greatly diminished and the cut surfaces were yellowish white and fragile. Microscopically extensive coagulation necrosis was observed with complete disintegration of myelin and axon. Vascular changes were most prominent in the smaller vessels, eg. hyalinous thickening, concentric cleavage, adventitial fibrosis and edema of small artery perivascular spaces, fibrin thrombi occulusion of arterioles and capillaries, and telangiectasia. In the lumbar spinal cord, moderate neuronal degeneration and protoplasmic astrocytosis were observed. Changes in the lumbar posterior white column were considered to be not only secondary degeneration but also a primary lesion caused by irradiation. Liquefactive necrosis in the gray matter of the cervical cord was thought to be a nonspecific circulatory disturbance because of the absence of vascular changes. Vascular changes were thought to be very important in the histological diagnosis of radiation myelopathy and it was supposed that increased permeability of the vessel walls was a factor in coagulation necrosis. They considered this case to have typical histology of radiation myelopathy.

  14. Tissue distribution and excretion of copper-67 intraperitoneally administered to rats fed fructose or starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holbrook, J.; Fields, M.; Smith, J.C. Jr.; Reiser, S.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that impaired gut absorption of copper is the cause of the exacerbated copper deficiency signs in rats fed fructose when compared to rats fed starch. The present study was designed to examine how rats fed fructose or starch diets, either copper-deficient or supplemented, distributed and excreted 67 Cu when the isotope was administered i.p. Intraperitoneal administration was chosen in an effort to circumvent primary gut absorption as a factor in the metabolism of 67 Cu. After 7 wk of dietary treatment, rats received an i.p. injection of 67 Cu and were placed in metabolic cages for 4 d. Regardless of dietary carbohydrate, copper-deficient rats retained similar levels of radioactivity in various tissues and excreted similar amounts of 67 Cu in feces and urine. This similarity in copper metabolism in copper-deficient rats fed either fructose or starch when the gut was circumvented for isotope administration suggests that the gut could be responsible, at least in part, for the exacerbated signs associated with the copper deficiency in rats fed fructose. The possibility is discussed that alterations in metabolism may increase the requirement for copper when fructose is the main dietary carbohydrate

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  16. Neuronal differentiation is associated with a redox-regulated increase of copper flow to the secretory pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Hatori, Yuta; Yan, Ye; Schmidt, Katharina; Furukawa, Eri; Hasan, Nesrin M.; Yang, Nan; Liu, Chin-Nung; Sockanathan, Shanthini; Lutsenko, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Brain development requires a fine-tuned copper homoeostasis. Copper deficiency or excess results in severe neuro-pathologies. We demonstrate that upon neuronal differentiation, cellular demand for copper increases, especially within the secretory pathway. Copper flow to this compartment is facilitated through transcriptional and metabolic regulation. Quantitative real-time imaging revealed a gradual change in the oxidation state of cytosolic glutathione upon neuronal differentiation. Transiti...

  17. INTERFERON BETA-1A TREATMENT IN HTLV-1-ASSOCIATED MYELOPATHY/TROPICAL SPASTIC PARAPARESIS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Maria de Castro Viana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Here a young patient (< 21 years of age with a history of infective dermatitis is described. The patient was diagnosed with myelopathy associated with HTLV-1/tropical spastic paraparesis and treated with interferon beta-1a. The disease was clinically established as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP, and laboratory tests confirmed the presence of antibodies to HTLV-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Mumps, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, schistosomiasis, herpes virus 1 and 2, rubella, measles, varicella-zoster toxoplasmosis, hepatitis, HIV, and syphilis were excluded by serology. The patient was diagnosed with neurogenic bladder and presented with nocturia, urinary urgency, paresthesia of the lower left limb, a marked reduction of muscle strength in the lower limbs, and a slight reduction in upper limb strength. During the fourth week of treatment with interferon beta-1a, urinary urgency and paresthesia disappeared and clinical motor skills improved.

  18. Contrasting effects of the stomach and small intestine of rats on copper absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, M.; Craft, N.; Lewis, C.; Holbrook, J.; Rose, A.; Reiser, S.; Smith, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Since the severity of copper deficiency has been shown to be enhanced by feeding diets containing fructose but ameliorated by diets containing starch, we decided to investigate the effect of fructose or starch on copper absorption. As copper transport has been reported to occur also from the stomach, it was possible that copper absorption is inhibited by fructose already from that tissue. Under anesthesia, stomachs of 72 rats fed copper-deficient or supplemented diets containing fructose or starch were ligated prior to the oral administration of 64 Cu. Gastric absorption of 64 Cu was studied when the isotope was administered by gastric tube either in diet containing fructose or starch or in water. 64 Cu was not absorbed from the stomach regardless of the type of dietary treatment, copper status or whether the copper was administered either in diet or in water. In addition, the absorption of 64 Cu from a diet containing either fructose or starch or from a saline solution was studied using the isolated ligated duodenal loop. When 64 Cu was administered with dietary fructose 64 Cu retention and absorption were impaired when compared to starch. When 64 Cu was administered in saline solution, differences in retention and absorption between the four dietary groups disappeared. It is suggested that the requirements for copper rather than the decreased absorption of copper are responsible at least in part for the more pronounced severity of copper deficiency in rats fed fructose compared to those fed starch

  19. Restoration of Upper Limb Function in an Individual with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy using Functional Electrical Stimulation Therapy: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Popovic, Milos R.; Zivanovic, Vera; Valiante, Taufik A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-traumatic spinal cord pathology is responsible for 25–52% of all spinal cord lesions. Studies have revealed that spinal stenosis accounts for 16–21% of spinal cord injury (SCI) admissions. Impaired grips as well as slow unskilled hand and finger movements are the most common complaints in patients with spinal cord disorders, such as myelopathy secondary to cervical spondylosis. In the past, our team carried out couple of successful clinical trials, including two randomized control trials,...

  20. Restoration of Upper Limb Function in an Individual with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy using Functional Electrical Stimulation Therapy: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Milos R; Zivanovic, Vera; Valiante, Taufik A

    2016-01-01

    Non-traumatic spinal cord pathology is responsible for 25-52% of all spinal cord lesions. Studies have revealed that spinal stenosis accounts for 16-21% of spinal cord injury (SCI) admissions. Impaired grips as well as slow unskilled hand and finger movements are the most common complaints in patients with spinal cord disorders, such as myelopathy secondary to cervical spondylosis. In the past, our team carried out couple of successful clinical trials, including two randomized control trials, showing that functional electrical stimulation therapy (FEST) can restore voluntary reaching and/or grasping function, in people with stroke and traumatic SCI. Motivated by this success, we decided to examine changes in the upper limb function following FEST in a patient who suffered loss of hand function due to myelopathy secondary to cervical spondylosis. The participant was a 61-year-old male who had C3-C7 posterior laminectomy and instrumented fusion for cervical myelopathy. The participant presented with progressive right hand weakness that resulted in his inability to voluntarily open and close the hand and to manipulate objects unilaterally with his right hand. The participant was enrolled in the study ~22 months following initial surgical intervention. Participant was assessed using Toronto Rehabilitation Institute's Hand Function Test (TRI-HFT), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM). The pre-post differences in scores on all measures clearly demonstrated improvement in voluntary hand function following 15 1-h FEST sessions. The changes observed were meaningful and have resulted in substantial improvement in performance of activities of daily living. These results provide preliminary evidence that FEST has a potential to improve upper limb function in patients with non-traumatic SCI, such as myelopathy secondary to cervical spondylosis.

  1. Synovial chondromatosis of the lumbar spine with compressive myelopathy: a case report with review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry; Contractor, Daniel; Bianchi, Stefano; Hermann, George; Hoch, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis has been rarely reported to occur in the spine with only one case found in the lumbar spine. We describe another case of synovial chondromatosis in the lumbar spine in a 41-year-old man who presented with compressive myelopathy. The tumor was located in the left ventrolateral corner of the epidural space just below the L 4 -L 5 intervertebral space. Besides being extremely rare, our case was unusual in that the juxtaposed facet joint was radiologically normal. (orig.)

  2. Cervical spine abnormalities and instability with myelopathy in warfarin-related chondrodysplasia: 17-year follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hideyuki; Smith, W.L.; Sato, Yutaka; Kao, S.C.S.

    1998-01-01

    A patient with warfarin embryopathy developed progressive cervical spinal myelopathy owing to bony cervical spinal damage. While there are several descriptions of warfarin embryopathy, the long-term complication of cervical spinal instability has not been reported. This cervical instability may, as in our patient, cause severe neurological dysfunction or even sudden death; therefore, it is important that pediatric radiologists should be alert to this condition. (orig.)

  3. Cervical spine abnormalities and instability with myelopathy in warfarin-related chondrodysplasia: 17-year follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Hideyuki; Smith, W.L.; Sato, Yutaka; Kao, S.C.S. [Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa Clinics and Hospitals, 200 Hawkins Dr., F3966 JPP, Iowa City, IA 52242-1077 (United States)

    1998-07-01

    A patient with warfarin embryopathy developed progressive cervical spinal myelopathy owing to bony cervical spinal damage. While there are several descriptions of warfarin embryopathy, the long-term complication of cervical spinal instability has not been reported. This cervical instability may, as in our patient, cause severe neurological dysfunction or even sudden death; therefore, it is important that pediatric radiologists should be alert to this condition. (orig.) With 5 figs., 9 refs.

  4. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  5. Magnesium, zinc and copper estimation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Elbaz

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Children with ADHD have lower levels of zinc, copper and magnesium compared to both laboratory reference ranges and to normal controls in both hair and serum. These deficiencies are correlated with the core symptoms of ADHD.

  6. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  7. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Gentina; Fernando Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first...

  8. Demystifying Controlling Copper Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The LCR systematically misses the highest health and corrosion risk sites for copper. Additionally, there are growing concerns for WWTP copper in sludges and discharge levels. There are many corrosion control differences between copper and lead. This talk explains the sometimes c...

  9. Trace element deficiency and its diagnosis by biochemical criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, M.; Grassmann, E.; Roth, H.P.; Spoerl, R.; Schnegg, A.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of trace element deficiency on growth of rats and dairy cows is demonstrated using zinc and nickel. The effect of copper deficiency on reproductive performance is shown to be associated with increased death rates of pregnant animals and their foetuses. For the diagnosis of suboptimum states of trace element supply, biochemical criteria are needed. The mere analysis of the trace element content of various body tissues may lead to falase diagnoses because of the often slow response to varying intake and because of interactions with other dietary ingredients affecting absorption and metabolic efficiency of utilization. Thus copper deficiency is associated with a decrease in the serum level of both copper and iron, despite adequate iron intake, and simultaneously with an accumulation of iron in the liver of the animal. Enzymes and hormones containing the essential trace element as an integral constituent may serve as biochemical criteria. A sensitive response to zinc intake is exhibited by the activity of the alkaline phosphatase of serum or bones, and by the activity of the pancreatic carboxypeptidase A, all of which show a significant reaction to deficient intake within two to four days, and perhaps by the biopotency of insulin. Ceruloplasmin responds to the supply of copper. Its biosynthesis in the liver is possible only from copper available for this purpose. Thus, the determination of ceruloplasmin may take account of at least part of the copper available to the body for metabolic functions. Among various criteria, the catalase activity in blood may provide additional information on the state of iron supply. Malate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase respond to nickel-deficient intake. Nickel deficiency also involves anaemia due to disorders in iron absorption

  10. Facetal distraction as treatment for single- and multilevel cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Atul; Shah, Abhidha

    2011-06-01

    The authors discuss their successful preliminary experience with 36 cases of cervical spondylotic disease by performing facetal distraction using specially designed Goel cervical facet spacers. The clinical and radiological results of treatment are analyzed. The mechanism of action of the proposed spacers and the rationale for their use are evaluated. Between 2006 and February 2010, 36 patients were treated using the proposed technique. Of these patients, 18 had multilevel and 18 had single-level cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and/or myelopathy. The average follow-up period was 17 months with a minimum of 6 months. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association classification system, visual analog scale (neck pain and radiculopathy), and Odom criteria were used to monitor the clinical status of the patient. The patients were prospectively analyzed. The technique of surgery involved wide opening of the facet joints, denuding of articular cartilage, distraction of facets, and forced impaction of Goel cervical facet spacers into the articular cavity. Additionally, the interspinous process ligaments were resected, and corticocancellous bone graft from the iliac crest was placed and was stabilized over the adjoining laminae and facets after adequately preparing the host bone. Eighteen patients underwent single-level, 6 patients underwent 2-level, and 12 patients underwent 3-level treatment. The alterations in the physical architecture of spine and canal dimensions were evaluated before and after the placement of intrafacet joint spacers and after at least 6 months of follow-up. All patients had varying degrees of relief from symptoms of pain, radiculopathy, and myelopathy. Analysis of radiological features suggested that the distraction of facets with the spacers resulted in an increase in the intervertebral foraminal dimension (mean 2.2 mm), an increase in the height of the intervertebral disc space (range 0.4-1.2 mm), and an increase in the interspinous distance (mean 2

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  13. Prediction of myelopathic level in cervical spondylotic myelopathy using diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Qiang; Li, Xiang; Cui, Jiao-Long; Li, Han-Xiong; Luk, Keith D K; Hu, Yong

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the use of a newly designed machine learning-based classifier in the automatic identification of myelopathic levels in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). In all, 58 normal volunteers and 16 subjects with CSM were recruited for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) acquisition. The eigenvalues were extracted as the selected features from DTI images. Three classifiers, naive Bayesian, support vector machine, and support tensor machine, and fractional anisotropy (FA) were employed to identify myelopathic levels. The results were compared with clinical level diagnosis results and accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated to evaluate the performance of the developed classifiers. The accuracy by support tensor machine was the highest (93.62%) among the three classifiers. The support tensor machine also showed excellent capacity to identify true positives (sensitivity: 84.62%) and true negatives (specificity: 97.06%). The accuracy by FA value was the lowest (76%) in all the methods. The classifiers-based method using eigenvalues had a better performance in identifying the levels of CSM than the diagnosis using FA values. The support tensor machine was the best among three classifiers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Brazilian Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation of the modified JOA scale for myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael R. Pratali

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To develop a version of the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population. METHODS: The well-established process of forward-backward translation was employed along with cross-cultural adaptation. RESULTS: Three bilingual translators (English and native Portuguese performed the forward translation of the mJOA scale from English to Portuguese based on iterative discussions used to reach a consensus translation. The translated version of the mJOA scale was then back-translated into English by a native English-speaking translator unaware of the concepts involved with the mJOA scale. The original mJOA scale and the back-translated version were compared by a native North American neurosurgeon, and as they were considered equivalent, the final version of the mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted was defined. CONCLUSION: To facilitate global and cross-cultural comparisons of the severity of cervical myelopathy, this study presents a version of the mJOA scale that was translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population.

  15. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Santos de Britto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP can impact the independence and motricity of patients. The aims of this study were to estimate the effects of physiotherapy on the functionality of patients with HAM/TSP during the stable phase of the disease using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF and to compare two methods of treatment delivery. Methods: Fourteen patients with human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I were randomly allocated into two groups. In group I (seven patients, PNF was applied by the therapist, facilitating the functional activities of rolling, sitting and standing, walking and climbing and descending stairs. In group II (seven patients, PNF was self-administered using an elastic tube, and the same activities were facilitated. Experiments were conducted for 1h twice per week for 12 weeks. Low-back pain, a modified Ashworth scale, the functional independence measure (FIM and the timed up and go test (TUG were assessed before and after the interventions. Results: In the within-group evaluation, low-back pain was significantly reduced in both groups, the FIM improved in group II, and the results of the TUG improved in group I. In the inter-group analysis, only the tone was lower in group II than in group I. Conclusions: Both PNF protocols were effective in treating patients with HAM/TSP.

  16. Reshaping of Gait Coordination by Robotic Intervention in Myelopathy Patients After Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Sandra; Kadone, Hideki; Kubota, Shigeki; Abe, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Yukiyo; Marushima, Aiki; Sankai, Yoshiyuki; Yamazaki, Masashi; Suzuki, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    The Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (OPLL) is an idiopathic degenerative spinal disease which may cause motor deficit. For patients presenting myelopathy or severe stenosis, surgical decompression is the treatment of choice; however, despite adequate decompression residual motor impairment is found in some cases. After surgery, there is no therapeutic approach available for this population. The Hybrid Assistive Limb® (HAL) robot suit is a unique powered exoskeleton designed to predict, support, and enhance the lower extremities performance of patients using their own bioelectric signals. This approach has been used for spinal cord injury and stroke patients where the walking performance improved. However, there is no available data about gait kinematics evaluation after HAL therapy. Here we analyze the effect of HAL therapy in OPLL patients in acute and chronic stages after decompression surgery. We found that HAL therapy improved the walking performance for both groups. Interestingly, kinematics evaluation by the analysis of the elevation angles of the thigh, shank, and foot by using a principal component analysis showed that planar covariation, plane orientation, and movement range evaluation improved for acute patients suggesting an improvement in gait coordination. Being the first study performing kinematics analysis after HAL therapy, our results suggest that HAL improved the gait coordination of acute patients by supporting the relearning process and therefore reshaping their gait pattern. PMID:29551960

  17. Possible etiologies for tropical spastic paraparesis and human T lymphotropic virus I-associated myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zaninovic'

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of tropical spastic paraparesis/human T lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM is frequently inconsistent and suggests environmental factors in the etiology of these syndromes. The neuropathology corresponds to a toxometabolic or autoimmune process and possibly not to a viral disease. Some logical hypotheses about the etiology and physiopathology of TSP and HAM are proposed. Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, central distal axonopathies, cassava, lathyrism and cycad toxicity may explain most cases of TSP. The damage caused to astrocytes and to the blood-brain barrier by HTLV-I plus xenobiotics may explain most cases of HAM. Analysis of the HTLV-I/xenobiotic ratio clarifies most of the paradoxical epidemiology of TSP and HAM. Modern neurotoxicology, neuroimmunology and molecular biology may explain the neuropathology of TSP and HAM. It is quite possible that there are other xenobiotics implicated in the etiology of some TSP/HAMs. The prevention of these syndromes appears to be possible today.

  18. Predictors of cervical lordosis loss after laminoplasty in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing Tao; Li, Jia Qi; Niu, Rui Jie; Liu, Zhao; Tong, Tong; Shen, Yong

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether radiological, clinical, and demographic findings in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) were independently associated with loss of cervical lordosis (LCL) after laminoplasty. The prospective study included 41 consecutive patients who underwent laminoplasty for CSM. The difference in C2-7 Cobb angle between the postoperative and preoperative films was used to evaluate change in cervical alignment. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking history, preoperative C2-7 Cobb angle, T1 slope, C2-7 range of motion (C2-7 ROM), C2-7 sagittal vertical axis (C2-7 SVA), and cephalad vertebral level undergoing laminoplasty (CVLL) were assessed. Data were analyzed using Pearson and Spearman correlation test, and univariate and stepwise multivariate linear regression. T1 slope, C2-7 SVA, and CVLL significantly correlated with LCL (P < 0.001), whereas age, BMI, and preoperative C2-7 Cobb angle did not. In multiple linear regression analysis, higher T1 slope (B = 0.351, P = 0.037), greater C2-7 SVA (B = 0.393, P < 0.001), and starting laminoplasty at C4 level (B = - 7.038, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with higher postoperative LCL. Cervical alignment was compromised after laminoplasty in patients with CSM, and the degree of LCL was associated with preoperative T1 slope, C2-7 SVA, and CVLL.

  19. Motor conduction velocity in the human spinal cord: slowed conduction in multiple sclerosis and radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snooks, S.J.; Swash, M.

    1985-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the central nervous system was used to measure motor conduction velocity in the human spinal cord in 21 subjects aged 22 to 75 years (mean 55 years), none of whom had neurological disease. The motor conduction velocity between the sixth cervical (C6) and first lumbar (L1) vertebral levels was 67.4+-9.1 m/s. This probably represents conduction velocity in the corticospinal tracts. In these subjects the motor conduction velocity in the cauda equina, between the first lumbar (L1) and fourth lumbar (L4) vertebral levels, was 57.9+-10.3 m/s. In four of five patients with multiple sclerosis, all with corticospinal signs in the legs, motor conduction velocity between C6 and L1 was slowed (41.8+-16.8 m/s), but cauda equina conduction was normal (55.8+-7.8 m/s). Similar slowing of spinal cord motor conduction was found in a patient with radiation myelopathy. This method should provide a relevant, simple clinical test in patients with spinal cord disease. (author)

  20. A Brazilian Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation of the modified JOA scale for myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratali, Raphael R; Smith, Justin S; Motta, Rodrigo L N; Martins, Samuel M; Motta, Marcel M; Rocha, Ricardo D; Herrero, Carlos Fernando P S

    2017-02-01

    To develop a version of the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population. The well-established process of forward-backward translation was employed along with cross-cultural adaptation. Three bilingual translators (English and native Portuguese) performed the forward translation of the mJOA scale from English to Portuguese based on iterative discussions used to reach a consensus translation. The translated version of the mJOA scale was then back-translated into English by a native English-speaking translator unaware of the concepts involved with the mJOA scale. The original mJOA scale and the back-translated version were compared by a native North American neurosurgeon, and as they were considered equivalent, the final version of the mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted was defined. To facilitate global and cross-cultural comparisons of the severity of cervical myelopathy, this study presents a version of the mJOA scale that was translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population.

  1. Reliability of surface electromyography timing parameters in gait in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, Ailish

    2012-02-01

    The aims of this study were to validate a computerised method to detect muscle activity from surface electromyography (SEMG) signals in gait in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), and to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the activation times designated by this method. SEMG signals were recorded from rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (MG), during gait in 12 participants with CSM on two separate test days. Four computerised activity detection methods, based on the Teager-Kaiser Energy Operator (TKEO), were applied to a subset of signals and compared to visual interpretation of muscle activation. The most accurate method was then applied to all signals for evaluation of test-retest reliability. A detection method based on a combined slope and amplitude threshold showed the highest agreement (87.5%) with visual interpretation. With respect to reliability, the standard error of measurement (SEM) of the timing of RF, TA and MG between test days was 5.5% stride duration or less, while the SEM of BF was 9.4%. The timing parameters of RF, TA and MG designated by this method were considered sufficiently reliable for use in clinical practice, however the reliability of BF was questionable.

  2. Neurological manifestations in individuals with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, G A S; Yoshikawa, G T; Koyama, R V L; Fujihara, S; Martins, L C S; Medeiros, R; Quaresma, J A S; Fuzii, H T

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional observational study was conducted. The aim was to analyze the clinical-functional profile of patients diagnosed with HTLV-1 (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in the Amazon region. Reference center for HTLV in the city of Belém, state of Pará, Brazil. Muscle strength, muscle tone, balance and the need for gait assistance among patients with HAM/TSP were evaluated. Among the 82 patients infected with HTLV-1, 27 (10 men and 17 women) were diagnosed with HAM/TSP. No statistically significant difference in muscle tone or strength was found between the lower limbs. Muscle weakness and spasticity were predominant in the proximal lower limbs. Patients with HAM/TSP are at a high risk of falls (P=0.03), and predominantly use either a cane or a crutch on one side as a gait-assistance device (P=0.02). Patients with HAM/TSP exhibit a similar clinical pattern of muscle weakness and spasticity, with a high risk of falls, requiring gait-assistance devices.

  3. A case of lymphosarcoma complicated with radiation-induced myelopathy and pericarditis, who died of leukoencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuno, Yoshiko; Okamura, Jun; Tasaka, Hideko; Kotoo, Yasunori

    1978-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl was diagnosed to have lymphosarcoma (Stage I) after needle biopsy of the huge mediastinal mass. By radiation therapy to the mediastinum (5,400 rads) and combination chemotherapy (according to St. Jude protocol by Aur), complete remission was obtained. During the maintenance therapy, she started to complain of weakness and decreased sensation on her lower extremities 8 months after the diagnosis. Central nervous system (CNS) relapse was diagnosed one week later, which was successfully treated with intrathecally administered methotrexate (MTX) and hydrocortisone (HDC) and then, she received cranial radiation (2,000 rads). However, neurological symptoms progressed gradually and she developed loss of pain sensation, absence of deep tendon reflex of the lower extremities, and neulogenic bladder symptoms, which were finally diagnosed as radiation-induced myelopathy. She also developed asymptomatic radiation pericarditis 18 months after diagnosis. She experienced 3 more episodes of CNS relapse which were successfully treated with MTX and HDC. At 26 months after diagnosis, she developed headache, loss of taste and bilateral facial palsy. She had generalized convulsion one hour after intrathecal medication with MTX, HDC and cytosine arabinoside, then became comatous and died 3 days later. Autopsy revealed performation of duodenal ulcers and demyelinisation of the pons, medulla and thoracic spine (leukoencephalopathy). No tumor cell was seen at any place examined. The possible relations between complications, cause of death and treatment were discussed. (author)

  4. Indication for the operative methods in surgical treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Akira; Inoue, Shunichi; Watabe, Tsuneo; Nagase, Joji; Harada, Yoshitada

    1984-01-01

    Indication for the operative methods for cervical spondylotic myelopathy was examined in 16 patients undergoing CT-myelography before and after operation. There was a highly significant correlation between the anteroposterior (A-P) diameter of the spinal cord and clinical symptoms. Patients with shorter A-P diameter of the spinal cord tended to have severer preoperative clinical symptoms. Clinical symptoms improved as the post operative A-P diameter of the spinal cord increased. Fixation with decompression of the anterior spinal cord should be indicated when constriction of 5 mm or less of the spinal cord is seen segmentally at the level of the intervertebral disc. Dilation of the spinal cavity should be indicated when the constriction of the spinal cord is 5 mm or less at all levels of the cervical spinal cord. In performing fixation with anterior decompression, 15 mm is considered to be the most suitable width for complete and safe decompression of the flattened spinal cord with a wide transverse diameter. (Namekawa, K)

  5. MR imaging of spinal factors and compression of the spinal cord in cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubun, Shoichi; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Minoru; Ishii, Sukenobu; Tani, Shotaro; Sato, Tetsuaki.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of surgical 109 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy were retrospectively reviewed to examine whether MR imaging would replace conventional radiological procedures in determining spinal factors and spinal cord compression in this disease. MR imaging was useful in determining spondylotic herniation, continuous type of ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, and calcification of yellow ligament, probably replacing CT myelography, discography, and CT discography. When total defect of the subarachnoid space on T2-weighted images and block on myelograms were compared in determining spinal cord compression, the spinal cord was affected more extensively by 1.3 intervertebral distance (IVD) on T2-weighted images. When indentation of one third or more in anterior and posterior diameter of the spinal cord was used as spinal cord compression, the difference in the affected extension between myelography and MR imaging was 0.2 IVD on T1-weighted images and 0.6 IVD on T2-weighted images. However, when block was seen in 3 or more IVD on myelograms, the range of spinal cord compression tended to be larger on T1-weighted images. For a small range of spinal cord compression, T1-weighted imaging seems to be helpful in determining the range of decompression. When using T2-weighted imaging, the range of decompression becomes large, frequently including posterior decompression. (N.K.)

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  8. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are unique to specific vitamin deficiencies. Folate-deficiency anemia risk factors include: Undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure. ... the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most ...

  9. Manganese, iron and copper contents in leaves of maize plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micronutrients such as boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) play important physiological roles in humans and animals. Zn and B are the micronutrients most often deficient in maize, in Iran. A completely randomized factorial block design experiment was carried out at Fars province of Iran during ...

  10. A study on the clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyooka, Satoshi

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) images of the cervical compressive myelopathy. It was also meant to serve as a review of clinical symptoms and an investigation of the usefulness of MRI. Comparative studies were carried out on 110 cases concerning the shape and signal intensity of the spinal cord, anterior epidural venous plexus MR images and clinical symptoms. The shape of the spinal cord and pre- and post-surgical conditions revealed by MRI correlated with clinical symptoms. As for the signal intensity of the spinal cord, in cases in which both high (T2-weighted image) and low (T1-weighted image) signals detected prior to surgery continued after surgery, as well as cases with high and low signals appearing after surgery, had the lower improvement than average. Low signal intensity on T1-weighted images are assumed to indicate irreversible changes of the spinal cord. High signal intensity on T2-weighted images is assumed to indicate both reversible and irreversible changes of the spinal cord. Epidural venous plexus can also be observed in healthy people and is not directly bound to clinical manifestations. Nevertheless, changes in the shape of the epidural venous plexus and signal intensity can reflect venous plexus compression and circulatory changes caused by compression. In the application of MRI to cervical compressive myelopathies, images of changes in the shape and signal intensity of the spinal cord and anterior epidural venous plexus images were considered important observations linked to clinical symptoms. MRI is an essential non-invasive imaging technique for the diagnosis of cervical compressive myelopathy, estimation of prognosis and postoperative follow-up. More investigations of compressive factors, circulatory dynamics of the spinal cord and high quality image are necessary. (author)

  11. Cervical Klippel-Feil syndrome predisposing an elderly African man to central cord myelopathy following minor trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Olufemi Adeleye, A; Olusola Akinyemi, R

    2010-01-01

    An otherwise-healthy, active 83-year-old Nigerian man developed reversible central cord myelopathy from a mild fall on a level surface. Cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed C5, 6, and 7 block vertebrae and marked disc extrusions only at the immediately adjoining upper and lower non-fused segments of the cervical spine. There was no spinal canal stenosis otherwise. We think that the unique presentation of this case of Klippel-Feil syndrome further supports the impression th...

  12. Tropical spastic paraparesis and HTLV-1 associated myelopathy: clinical, epidemiological, virological and therapeutic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessain, A; Mahieux, R

    2012-03-01

    In 1980, Human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first oncogenic human retrovirus to be discovered. HTLV-1 belongs to the Retroviridae family, the Orthoretrovirinae subfamily and to the deltaretrovirus genus. HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4(+) lymphoid cells in vivo. Three molecules have been identified for binding and/or entry of HTLV-1: heparan sulfate proteoglycans, neuropilin-1, and glucose transporter 1. An efficient transfer of the virus from an infected cell to a target cell can occur through the formation of a viral synapse and/or by virofilm structure. As for all retroviruses, HTLV-1 genome possesses three major ORFs (gag, pol and env) encoding the structural and enzymatic proteins. HTLV-1 encodes also some regulatory and auxillary proteins including the tax protein with transforming activities and the HBZ protein which plays a role in the proliferation and maintenance of the leukemic cells. HTLV-1 is present throughout the world with clusters of high endemicity including mainly Southern Japan, the Caribbean region, areas in South America and in intertropical Africa. The worldwide HTLV-1 infected population is estimated to be around 10-20 million. HTLV-1 has three modes of transmission: (1): mother to child, mainly linked to prolonged breast-feeding; (2): sexual, mainly occurring from male to female and (3): contaminated blood products. HTLV-1 possesses a remarkable genetic stability. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of mainly two severe diseases: a malignant T CD4(+) cell lymphoproliferation, of very poor prognosis, named Adult T cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL), and a chronic neuro-myelopathy named Tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy (TSP/HAM). The lifetime risk among HTLV-1 carriers is estimated to be around 0.25 to 3%. TSP/HAM mainly occurs in adults, with a mean age at onset of 40-50 years and it is more common in women than in men. Blood transfusion is a major risk factor for TSP/HAM development. Clinically

  13. C3-6 laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy maintains satisfactory long-term surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2014-08-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Objective To clarify long-term surgical outcomes of C3-6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods Twenty patients who underwent C3-6 open-door laminoplasty for CSM and who were followed for 8 to 10 years were included in this study. Myelopathic symptoms were assessed using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Axial neck pain was graded as severe, moderate, or mild. C2-7 angle was measured using lateral radiographs of the cervical spine before surgery and at final follow-up. Results Mean JOA score before surgery (11.7) was significantly improved to 15.2 at the time of maximum recovery (1 year after surgery), declining slightly to 14.9 by the latest follow-up. Late deterioration of JOA score developed in eight patients, but was unrelated to the cervical spine lesions in each case. No patient suffered from prolonged postoperative axial neck pain at final follow-up. The mean C2-7 angle before surgery (13.8 degrees) significantly increased to 19.2 degrees at final follow-up. Conclusions C3-6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with CSM maintained satisfactory long-term neurologic improvement with significantly reduced frequencies of prolonged postoperative axial neck pain and loss of C2-7 angle after surgery.

  14. C3–6 Laminoplasty for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Maintains Satisfactory Long-Term Surgical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Objective To clarify long-term surgical outcomes of C3–6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods Twenty patients who underwent C3–6 open-door laminoplasty for CSM and who were followed for 8 to 10 years were included in this study. Myelopathic symptoms were assessed using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Axial neck pain was graded as severe, moderate, or mild. C2–7 angle was measured using lateral radiographs of the cervical spine before surgery and at final follow-up. Results Mean JOA score before surgery (11.7) was significantly improved to 15.2 at the time of maximum recovery (1 year after surgery), declining slightly to 14.9 by the latest follow-up. Late deterioration of JOA score developed in eight patients, but was unrelated to the cervical spine lesions in each case. No patient suffered from prolonged postoperative axial neck pain at final follow-up. The mean C2–7 angle before surgery (13.8 degrees) significantly increased to 19.2 degrees at final follow-up. Conclusions C3–6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with CSM maintained satisfactory long-term neurologic improvement with significantly reduced frequencies of prolonged postoperative axial neck pain and loss of C2–7 angle after surgery. PMID:25083358

  15. Cardiovascular risk profile in patients with myelopathy associated with HTLV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Fabio Luís Silva do; Prado, Renata; Ladeia, Ana Marice Teixeira

    HAM/TSP (HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis) is a slowly progressive disease, characterized by a chronic spastic paraparesis. It is not known if the disease carries an independent risk for cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk profile related to HAM/TSP and compare it with the general population. This was a cross-sectional study, with a control group. HAM/TSP patients were evaluated using cardiovascular risk scores (ASCVD RISK, SCORE and Framingham) and inflammatory markers (ultrasensitive CRP and IL-6), and compared with a control group of healthy individuals. We also evaluated the correlation between cardiovascular risk and the functional status of patients with HAM/TSP evaluated by the FIM scale. Eighty percent of patients in this study were females, mean age of 51 years (11.3). The control group showed an increased cardiovascular event risk in 10 years when ASCVD was analyzed (cardiovascular risk ≥7.5% in 10 years seen in 43% of patients in the control group vs. 23% of patients with HAM/TSP; p=0.037). There was no difference in ultrasensitive CRP or IL-6 values between the groups, even when groups were stratified into low and high risk. There was no correlation between the functional status of HAM/TSP patients and the cardiovascular risk. In this study, the cardiovascular risk profile of patients with HAM/TSP was better than the risk of the control group. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic testing of canine degenerative myelopathy in the South African Boxer dog population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth E. Zeiler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM is a progressive disease process that is diagnosed late in life and mainly affects the pelvic limbs. Factors that make an ante-mortem definitive diagnosis of DM include: an insidious onset and clinical manifestation that mimics other disease processes of the pelvic limbs (hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament rupture, etc. or there may even be concurrent disease processes, old-age onset and lack of reliable diagnostic methods. Until recently, South African dog owners had to submit samples to laboratories overseas for genetic testing in order to confirm an affected dog (homozygous A/A and to aid in the ante-mortem diagnosis of DM. Only affected dogs have been confirmed to manifest the clinical signs of DM. This study aimed to verify whether genetic testing by a local genetic laboratory was possible in order to detect a missense mutation of the superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1 that is implicated in causing the clinical signs of DM. The study also aimed to detect and map the inheritance of this disease process in a local Boxer dog population where the pedigree of the sampled population was known. Venous blood collected from Boxer dogs using a simple random sampling technique. The samples were genotyped for the SOD1:c.118G>A polymorphism. Carrier and affected Boxer dogs were detected. A pedigree that demonstrated the significance of inheriting a carrier or affected state in the population was mapped. The present study concludes that genotyping of the missense mutation in Boxer dogs is possible in South Africa. There are carrier and affected Boxer dogs in the local population, making DM a plausible diagnosis in aged dogs presenting with pelvic limb pathology.

  17. A case of recurrent delayed radiation myelopathy with 5-year remission interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukagoshi, Setsuki; Ikeda, Masaki; Tano, Shinobu; Obayashi, Kai; Fujita, Yukio; Okamoto, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    We report a 47-year-old woman with relapsed delayed radiation myelopathy (DRM), occurring 5 years and 10 years after radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma at 37 years old. Sensations of pain and temperature had been disturbed in the right leg since 42 years old. MRI showed Gadolinium-enhanced lesion as a ring-like-enhancement of the spinal cord at C1-2 on T 1 -weighted image (T 1 WI), with high signal area and swelling of the spinal cord at the upper C1 to C6 areas on T 2 -weighted image. We diagnosed her as having DRM after considering the differential diagnosis, e.g., multiple sclerosis, spinal tumor and other neurological diseases. Her sensory symptoms quickly improved following therapy with prednisolone and warfarin. Although she remained healthy for a few years, dysesthesia of the neck on the right side appeared 5 years later after the first clinical occurrence. At this time, MRI demonstrated Gadolinium-enhanced lesion as a ring-like enhancement of the spinal cord at C2 on T 1 WI, but the area also differed from that of previous lesion; a high signal area and swelling of the spinal cord was also seen on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) image of the medulla and upper C1 to C6. For recurrence of DRM, we administered prednisolone and warfarin. Thereafter, the patient recovered and the spinal cord lesion on MRI decreased markedly. The clinical course demonstrated that administration of prednisolone and warfarin might be effective for relapsed DRM. (author)

  18. Clinical report of cervical arthroplasty in management of spondylotic myelopathy in Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ning

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate clinical effects and manual operational point of Bryan cervical disc prosthesis in Chinese, to observe the stability and range of movement (ROM post-operatively. Methods and materials From 2003,12 to 2005,12, Bryan disc prosthesis replacement applied in 83 cases (102 levels of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM after anterior decompression in our hospital. Clinical (JOA grade and Odom's scale and radiological (X-ray of flexion, extension; left and right bending position follow-up was performed. Systemic radiographic study about stability and ROM of replaced level post operationally were measured. CT or MRI scans were applied in all cases to evaluate the signs of the prosthesis deflexion and hetero-ossification in the replaced levels. Results At least 12 months follow-up were done in 65/83 of these paients. All of 83 patients were improved according to Odsm's scale. JOA score increased from average 8.7 to 15.5. There was no prosthesis subsidence. Replaced segment achieved stability and restored partial of normal ROM 4.73°(3.7°–5.9° early postoperation and 8.12°(5.8°–13.6° more than 12 months postoperation in flex and extension position. No obvious loss of lordosis was found. CT or MRI follow-up shows position deflexion of the prosthesis metal endplates ( Conclusion Byran cervical disc prosthesis restored motion to the level of the intact segment in flexion-extension and lateral bending in post-operative images. At the same time, it can achieve good anterior decompression treatment effect and immediate stability in replaced 1 or 2 levels, and which is a new choice for the treatment of CSM.

  19. Long term results of anterior corpectomy and fusion for cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results showed good clinical outcomes of anterior corpectomy and fusion (ACCF for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM during a short term follow-up; however, studies assessing long term results are relatively scarce. In this study we intended to assess the long term clinical and radiographic outcomes, find out the factors that may affect the long term clinical outcome and evaluate the incidence of adjacent segment disease (ASD. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 145 consecutive CSM patients on ACCF treatment with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. Clinical data were collected from medical and operative records. Patients were evaluated by using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA scoring system preoperatively and during the follow-up. X-rays results of cervical spine were obtained from all patients. Correlations between the long term clinical outcome and various factors were also analyzed. FINDINGS: Ninety-three males and fifty-two females completed the follow-up. The mean age at operation was 51.0 years, and the mean follow-up period was 102.1 months. Both postoperative sagittal segmental alignment (SSA and the sagittal alignment of the whole cervical spine (SACS increased significantly in terms of cervical lordosis. The mean increase of JOA was 3.8 ± 1.3 postoperatively, and the overall recovery rate was 62.5%. Logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative duration of symptoms >12 months, high-intensity signal in spinal cord and preoperative JOA score ≤ 9 were important predictors of the fair recovery rate (≤ 50%. Repeated surgery due to ASD was performed in 7 (4.8% cases. CONCLUSIONS: ACCF with anterior plate fixation is a reliable and effective method for treating CSM in terms of JOA score and the recovery rate. The correction of cervical alignment and the repeated surgery rate for ASD are also considered to be satisfactory.

  20. Cortical Reorganization Is Associated with Surgical Decompression of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Green

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM results in sensorimotor limb deficits, bladder, and bowel dysfunction, but mechanisms underlying motor plasticity changes before and after surgery are unclear. Methods. We studied 24 patients who underwent decompression surgery and 15 healthy controls. Patients with mixed upper and lower limb dysfunction (Group A and only lower limb dysfunction (Group B were then analysed separately. Results. The sum amplitude of motor evoked potentials sMEP (p<0.01 and number of focal points where MEPs were elicited (N (p<0.001 were significantly larger in CSM patients compared with controls. For Group A (16 patients, sMEP (p<0.01 and N (p<0.001 showed similar findings. However, for Group B (8 patients, only N (p=0.03 was significantly larger in patients than controls. Group A had significantly increased grip strength (p=0.02 and reduced sMEP (p=0.001 and N (p=0.003 after surgery. Changes in sMEP (cMEP significantly correlated inversely with improved feeding (p=0.03 and stacking (p=0.04 times as was the change in number of focal points (NDiff with improved writing times (p=0.03. Group B did not show significant reduction in sMEP or N after surgery, or significant correlation of cMEP or NDiff with all hand function tests. No significant differences in H reflex parameters obtained from the flexor carpi radialis, or central motor conduction time changes, were noted after surgery. Discussion. Compensatory expansion of motor cortical representation occurs largely at cortical rather than spinal levels, with a tendency to normalization after surgery. These mirrored improvements in relevant tasks requiring utilization of intrinsic hand muscles.

  1. Anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis of the cervical spine in cervical spondylotic myelopathy in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Motohiro; Tani, Toshikazu; Ushida, Takahiro; Ishida, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Degenerative spondylolisthesis of the cervical spine has received insufficient attention in contrast to that of the lumbar spine. The authors analyzed the functional significance of anterior and posterior degenerative spondylolisthesis (anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis) of the cervical spine to elucidate its role in the development of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) in the elderly. A total of 79 patients aged 65 or older who eventually had surgical treatment for CSM were evaluated radiographically. Altogether, 24 patients (30%) had displacement of 3.5 mm or more (severe spondylolisthesis group), 31 had displacement of 2.0-3.4 mm (moderate spondylolisthesis group), and 24 had less than 2.0 mm displacement (mild spondylolisthesis group). The severe spondylolisthesis group consisted of 14 patients with anterolisthesis (anterolisthesis group) and 10 patients with retrolisthesis (retrolisthesis group). Patients with severe spondylolisthesis had a high incidence (93%) of degenerative spondylolisthesis at C3/4 or C4/5 and significantly greater cervical mobility than those with mild spondylolisthesis. The anterolisthesis group, but not the retrolisthesis group, had a significantly wider spinal canal than the mild spondylolisthesis group, although the degree of horizontal displacement and cervical mobility did not differ significantly between the anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis groups. Severe cord compression seen on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and high-intensity spinal cord signals seen on T2-weighted MRI scans corresponded significantly to the levels of the spondylolisthesis. Degenerative spondylolisthesis is not a rare radiographic finding in elderly patients with CSM, which tends to cause intense cord compression that is seen on MRI scans. Greater mobility of the upper cervical segments may be a compensatory reaction for advanced disc degeneration of the lower cervical segments, leading to the development of degenerative

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a ... address the cause of your iron deficiency, such as any underlying bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron- ...

  3. Neutron-activation analysis of copper in food-stuffs and biomedium of organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulov, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Our investigation has been carried out in the area with different ecologic characteristics of Samarkand region in Zarafshon valley (Urgut, Samarkand, Djambay and Nurabad). Tests for food-stuffs and hairs of children were carried out by neutron-activation analysis as per method worked out in the Nuclear Physics institute of academy of Sciences Republic of Uzbekistan. We have studied 37 varieties of food-stuffs, mainly of vegetable and animal origin. 245 healthy school children were investigated for copper deficiency, aged 7-14. The results of the study showed high concentration of copper in the bread of coarse grist, black raisin, dried apricots, sumalak (national Uzbek food), pea, broth from vinery stalk (100, 51, 24, 36, 21, 33 mg/kg respectively). As for animal products high concentration of copper was in white of egg and beef (480 and 25 mg/kg respectively). Copper concentration was insignificant in many other investigated products of vegetable origin, but in 15 of them Neutron-activation analysis showed the absence of copper at all. Concentration of microelements in hairs is an important index of micro element status assessment. Copper concentration in hairs of practically healthy school children of Zarafshon valley made up 9,24 ± 0,84 mkg/g. Our data of copper in hairs of healthy school children in Zarafshon valley was lower compared the data stated by other investigators (A.A. Kist, 1987) and concerning other regions too. Lore copper content in hairs, probably depends on the structure of nutritional products consumed and peculiarities of natural condition of biogeochemical area. Os per sexual characters copper content in hairs was lore - 7,97±1,38 mkg/g in girls under investigation (n=33), compared myth boys (n=131) -9,67±0,71 mkg/g; as per place of residence, copper concentration indices in hairs was nearly the some as in urban (n=66) and rural (n=98) children (7,62 ± 0,96 and 8,38 ± 0,77 mg/kg, respectively). Thus, determination of

  4. Copper and silver halates

    CERN Document Server

    Woolley, EM; Salomon, M

    2013-01-01

    Copper and Silver Halates is the third in a series of four volumes on inorganic metal halates. This volume presents critical evaluations and compilations for halate solubilities of the Group II metals. The solubility data included in this volume are those for the five compounds, copper chlorate and iodate, and silver chlorate, bromate and iodate.

  5. Copper and ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis transport protein COPT1 alter iron homeostasis in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Bordería, Amparo; Andrés, Fernando; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Perea-García, Ana; Domingo, Concha; Puig, Sergi; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2017-09-01

    Copper deficiency and excess differentially affect iron homeostasis in rice and overexpression of the Arabidopsis high-affinity copper transporter COPT1 slightly increases endogenous iron concentration in rice grains. Higher plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to efficiently acquire and use micronutrients such as copper and iron. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between both metals remain poorly understood. In the present work, we study the effects produced on iron homeostasis by a wide range of copper concentrations in the growth media and by altered copper transport in Oryza sativa plants. Gene expression profiles in rice seedlings grown under copper excess show an altered expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis compared to standard control conditions. Thus, ferritin OsFER2 and ferredoxin OsFd1 mRNAs are down-regulated whereas the transcriptional iron regulator OsIRO2 and the nicotianamine synthase OsNAS2 mRNAs rise under copper excess. As expected, the expression of OsCOPT1, which encodes a high-affinity copper transport protein, as well as other copper-deficiency markers are down-regulated by copper. Furthermore, we show that Arabidopsis COPT1 overexpression (C1 OE ) in rice causes root shortening in high copper conditions and under iron deficiency. C1 OE rice plants modify the expression of the putative iron-sensing factors OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 and enhance the expression of OsIRO2 under copper excess, which suggests a role of copper transport in iron signaling. Importantly, the C1 OE rice plants grown on soil contain higher endogenous iron concentration than wild-type plants in both brown and white grains. Collectively, these results highlight the effects of rice copper status on iron homeostasis, which should be considered to obtain crops with optimized nutrient concentrations in edible parts.

  6. Combining -Omics to Unravel the Impact of Copper Nutrition on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Stem Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printz, Bruno; Guerriero, Gea; Sergeant, Kjell; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Guignard, Cédric; Renaut, Jenny; Lutts, Stanley; Hausman, Jean-Francois

    2016-02-01

    Copper can be found in the environment at concentrations ranging from a shortage up to the threshold of toxicity for plants, with optimal growth conditions situated in between. The plant stem plays a central role in transferring and distributing minerals, water and other solutes throughout the plant. In this study, alfalfa is exposed to different levels of copper availability, from deficiency to slight excess, and the impact on the metabolism of the stem is assessed by a non-targeted proteomics study and by the expression analysis of key genes controlling plant stem development. Under copper deficiency, the plant stem accumulates specific copper chaperones, the expression of genes involved in stem development is decreased and the concentrations of zinc and molybdenum are increased in comparison with the optimum copper level. At the optimal copper level, the expression of cell wall-related genes increases and proteins playing a role in cell wall deposition and in methionine metabolism accumulate, whereas copper excess imposes a reduction in the concentration of iron in the stem and a reduced abundance of ferritins. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis suggests a role for the apoplasm as a copper storage site in the case of copper toxicity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  7. Clinical characteristics of canine fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy (FCE): a systematic review of 393 cases (1973-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, K A; Stover, K E; Olby, N J; Moore, S A

    2016-12-24

    Fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy (FCE) is common in dogs; however, there is conflicting information in the veterinary literature regarding clinical characteristics and data on recovery in severe cases is sparse. A systematic review of canine FCE was performed to delineate the natural history of this disease. 322 previously reported cases and 71 previously unreported cases were identified for inclusion. Source publications were identified via PubMed central search and by references from review articles. Previously unreported cases were identified via computerised medical records search at two veterinary institutions. FCE was most common in middle-aged large breed dogs (30 per cent); however, the miniature schnauzer was the most frequently reported individual breed and small breeds comprised 24 per cent of all reported cases. The most common neuroanatomical localisation was a T3-L3 myelopathy (33.1 per cent). Prognosis for recovery of ambulation was good to excellent with 85 per cent of cases regaining the ability to walk unassisted, most within 3 weeks. Persistent neurological deficits were common in patients that recovered ambulation (49.1 per cent). When nociception was absent in the affected limbs at initial presentation, rate of recovery was lower (10 per cent); however, this data is likely biased by limited follow-up in more severe cases. Future prospective studies should evaluate prognosis for more severely affected patients. British Veterinary Association.

  8. The relationship between central motor conduction time and spinal cord compression in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikita, T; Tanaka, N; Nakanishi, K; Kamei, N; Sumiyoshi, N; Kotaka, S; Adachi, N; Ochi, M

    2017-04-01

    Retrospective study. Few studies have reported a relationship between central motor conduction time (CMCT), which evaluates corticospinal function, and degree of spinal cord compression in patients with myelopathy. Thus, there is no consensus on predicting the degree of prolonged CMCT on the basis of the degree of spinal cord compression. If a correlation exists between CMCT and spinal cord compression, then spinal cord compression may be a useful noninvasive clinical indicator of corticospinal function. Therefore, this study evaluated the relationship between CMCT and cervical spinal cord compression measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Hiroshima University Hospital in Japan. We studied 33 patients undergoing laminoplasty. Patients exhibited significant cervical spinal cord compression on both MRI and intraoperative electrophysiological examination. We assessed transcranial magnetic stimulation measurement of CMCT; spinal cord compression parameters such as area, lateral diameter, anteroposterior diameter and flattening of the spinal cord at the lesion site and C2/3 levels on MRI; and pre- versus postoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores. Correlations between CMCT and flattening as well as anteroposterior diameter of the spinal cord at the lesion level were observed. Strong correlations between CMCT and the ratio of the flattening and anteroposterior diameter parameters at the lesion level to that at the C2/3 level were also observed. Measurement of spinal cord compression may be useful for the evaluation of corticospinal function as a proxy for CMCT in patients with CSM.

  9. Prediction of the recovery rate after surgery for cervical myelopathy from the view of CT-myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Takahiro; Satomi, Kazuhiko; Asazuma, Takahito; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Fujimura, Shoichi; Hirabayashi, Kiyoshi; Hamano, Yasuyuki; Shiraishi, Takeshi.

    1991-01-01

    This study was designed to prepare a formula for predicting postoperative recovery in cervical myelopathy. Preoperative CT-myelography (CT-M) was performed in a total of 103 patients, consisting of 44 with cervical spinal myelopathy (CSM), 39 with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), and 20 with cervical disk herniation (CDH). Multivariate analyses were used to obtain correlations between CT-M findings (spinal cord area and the rate of spinal cord flatness) and clinical items (age, disease duration, preoperative JOA score, and postoperative recovery rate). There was a strong positive correlation between spinal cord area and postoperative recovery rate. Because both spinal cord area and disease duration for the CSM and OPLL groups had a strong positive correlation with the recovery rate, they were found to predict postoperative recovery. In the CDH group, there was no predictive index. Spinal cord area was more potential index than preoperative severity. Disease duration may also serve as an index complementing spinal cord area in the evaluation of postoperative recovery. (N.K.)

  10. Analysis of Patients with Myelopathy due to Benign Intradural Spinal Tumors with Concomitant Lumbar Degenerative Diseases Misdiagnosed and Erroneously Treated with Lumbar Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kang; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Liliang, Po-Chou; Yang, Chih-Hui; Yen, Cheng-Yo; Tsai, Yu-Duan; Chen, Po-Yuan; Chye, Cien-Leong; Wang, Kuo-Wei; Liang, Cheng-Loong; Chen, Han-Jung

    2017-09-01

    When a cervical or thoracic benign intradural spinal tumor (BIST) coexists with lumbar degenerative diseases (LDD), diagnosis can be difficult. Symptoms of BIST-myelopathy can be mistaken as being related to LDD. Worse, an unnecessary lumbar surgery could be performed. This study was conducted to analyze cases in which an erroneous lumbar surgery was undertaken in the wake of failure to identify BIST-associated myelopathy. Cases were found in a hospital database. Patients who underwent surgery for LDD first and then another surgery for BIST removal within a short interval were studied. Issues investigated included why the BISTs were missed, how they were found later, and how the patients reacted to the unnecessary lumbar procedures. Over 10 years, 167 patients received both surgeries for LDD and a cervical or thoracic BIST. In 7 patients, lumbar surgery preceded tumor removal by a short interval. Mistakes shared by the physicians included failure to detect myelopathy and a BIST, and a hasty decision for lumbar surgery, which soon turned out to be futile. Although the BISTs were subsequently found and removed, 5 patients believed that the lumbar surgery was unnecessary, with 4 patients expressing regrets and 1 patient threatening to take legal action against the initial surgeon. Concomitant symptomatic LDD and BIST-associated myelopathy pose a diagnostic challenge. Spine specialists should refrain from reflexively linking leg symptoms and impaired ability to walk to LDD. Comprehensive patient evaluation is fundamental to avoid misdiagnosis and wrong lumbar surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Primary biochemical defect in copper metabolism in mice with a recessive X-linked mutation analogous to Menkes' disease in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, H.W.; Hamer, C.J.A. van den.

    1979-01-01

    The defect in Menkes' disease in man is identical to that in Brindled mice. The defect manifests itself in a accumulation of copper in some tissues, such as renal, intestinal (mucosa and muscle), pancreatic, osseous, muscular, and dermal. Hence a fatal copper deficiency results in other tissues (e.g., hepatic). The copper transport through the intestine is impaired and copper, which circumvents the block in the copper resorption, is irreversibly trapped in the above-mentioned, copper accumulating tissues where it is bound to a cytoplasmatic protein with molecular weight 10,000 daltons, probably the primary cytoplasmatic copper transporting protein. This protein shows a Cu-S absorption band at 250 nm, and the copper:protein ratio is increased. Such copper rich protein was found neither in the kidneys of the unaffected mica nor in the liver of the mice that do have the defect. Three models of the primary defect in Menkes' disease are proposed

  12. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D and D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness

  13. Canine Copper-Associated Hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, Karen; Fieten, Hille

    2017-01-01

    Copper-associated hepatitis is recognized with increasing frequency in dogs. The disease is characterized by centrolobular hepatic copper accumulation, leading to hepatitis and eventually cirrhosis. The only way to establish the diagnosis is by histologic assessment of copper distribution and copper

  14. Posttranslational regulation of copper transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berghe, P.V.E.

    2009-01-01

    The transition metal copper is an essential cofactor for many redox-active enzymes, but excessive copper can generate toxic reactive oxygen species. Copper homeostasis is maintained by highly conserved proteins, to balance copper uptake, distribution and export on the systemic and cellular level.

  15. Fabricating Copper Nanotubes by Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E. H.; Ramsey, Christopher; Bae, Youngsam; Choi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Copper tubes having diameters between about 100 and about 200 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into the pores of alumina nanopore membranes. Copper nanotubes are under consideration as alternatives to copper nanorods and nanowires for applications involving thermal and/or electrical contacts, wherein the greater specific areas of nanotubes could afford lower effective thermal and/or electrical resistivities. Heretofore, copper nanorods and nanowires have been fabricated by a combination of electrodeposition and a conventional expensive lithographic process. The present electrodeposition-based process for fabricating copper nanotubes costs less and enables production of copper nanotubes at greater rate.

  16. Determination of copper oxidizing power in superconducting yttrium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontaler, R.P.; Lebed', N.B.

    1989-01-01

    A new photometric method for determining the formal copper degree of oxidation and oxygen deficiency in superconducting high-temperature oxides containing yttrium, barium and copper is developed. The method is based on oxidation of Co(2) complex with EDTA by Cu(3) ions in acetrate buffer solution with pH 4.2-4.7 and allows one to determine 1-10% of Cu(3). Relative standard deviation when determining Cu(3) makes up 0.03-0.05. Using a qualitative reaction with the application of sodium vanadate hydrochloride solution the absence of peroxide compound in superconducting yttrium ceramics is ascertained

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fatigue or tiredness, shortness of breath, or chest pain. If your doctor diagnoses you with iron-deficiency ... Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that NHLBI is exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  19. Factor VII deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000548.htm Factor VII deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Factor VII (seven) deficiency is a disorder caused by a ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. People ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... view the colon directly. What if my doctor thinks something else is causing my iron-deficiency anemia? ... deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mg and women need 18 mg. After age 51, both men and women need 8 mg. Pregnant ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that NHLBI is exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. These conditions include: Intestinal and digestive conditions, such as celiac disease; inflammatory bowel diseases, ... iron-deficiency anemia , such as bleeding in the digestive or urinary tract or heavy menstrual bleeding, your ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, ... signs of iron-deficiency anemia include: Brittle nails ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ...

  9. Fire Safety Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all fire safety deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... leaving cells where it is stored or from being absorbed in the duodenum, the first part of ... treatments for iron-deficiency anemia. Living With After being diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia, it is important ...

  13. Micromachining with copper lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Martyn R. H.; Bell, Andy; Foster-Turner, Gideon; Rutterford, Graham; Chudzicki, J.; Kearsley, Andrew J.

    1997-04-01

    In recent years the copper laser has undergone extensive development and has emerged as a leading and unique laser for micromachining. The copper laser is a high average power (10 - 250 W), high pulse repetition rate (2 - 32 kHz), visible laser (511 nm and 578 nm) that produces high peak power (typically 200 kW), short pulses (30 ns) and very good beam quality (diffraction limited). This unique set of laser parameters results in exceptional micro-machining in a wide variety of materials. Typical examples of the capabilities of the copper laser include the drilling of small holes (10 - 200 micrometer diameter) in materials as diverse as steel, ceramic, diamond and polyimide with micron precision and low taper (less than 1 degree) cutting and profiling of diamond. Application of the copper laser covers the electronic, aerospace, automotive, nuclear, medical and precision engineering industries.

  14. Homogeneous weldings of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campurri, C.; Lopez, M.; Fernandez, R.; Osorio, V.

    1995-01-01

    This research explored the metallurgical and mechanical properties of arc welding of copper related with influence of Argon, Helium and mixtures of them. Copper plates of 6 mm thickness were welded with different mixtures of the mentioned gases. The radiography of welded specimens with 100% He and 100% Ar does not show show any porosity. On the other hand, the copper plates welded different gas mixtures presented uniform porosity in the welded zone. The metallographies show recrystallized grain in the heat affected zone, while the welding zone showed a dendritic structure. The results of the tensile strength vary between a maximum of 227 MPa for 100% He and a minimum of 174 MOa for the mixture of 60% He and 40% Ar. For the elongation after fracture the best values, about 36%, were obtained for pure gases. As a main conclusion, we can say that arc welding of copper is possible without loosing the mechanical and metallurgical properties of base metal. 6 refs

  15. copper(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptadionato)copper(II) ... Abstract. Equilibrium concentrations of various condensed and gaseous phases have been thermodyna- ... phere, over a wide range of substrate temperatures and total reactor pressures.

  16. Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces▿

    OpenAIRE

    Santo, Christophe Espírito; Lam, Ee Wen; Elowsky, Christian G.; Quaranta, Davide; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Further, cells removed from copper showed loss of cell integrity. Acute contact with metallic copper surfaces did not result in increased mutation rates or DNA lesions. These findings are important fir...

  17. The 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale predicts the risk of recurrent falls in postoperative patients with cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Takeshita, Katsushi; Inoue, Hirokazu; Seichi, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Yosuke; Yoshii, Toshitaka; Inose, Hiroyuki; Furuya, Takeo; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro; Matsunaga, Shunji; Seki, Shoji; Tsushima, Mikito; Imagama, Shiro; Koda, Masao; Yamazaki, Masashi; Mori, Kanji; Nishimura, Hirosuke; Endo, Kenji; Yamada, Kei; Sato, Kimiaki; Okawa, Atsushi

    2018-01-01

    Fall-induced injuries represent a major public health concern for older individuals. The relationship between risk of falling and the severity of locomotive syndrome (LS) remains largely unknown. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients who had undergone surgery from January 2012 to December 2013 and completed at least 1 year of follow-up at 12 participating institutes. Patients completed a questionnaire survey regarding their fall experience during a routine postoperative follow-up. Questionnaire items included the number of falls during the prior postoperative year and the 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-25). The severity of cervical myelopathy was assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. We analyzed the association between the incidence of falling and the severity of LS measured by the GLFS-25. Of 360 patients, 61 (16.9%) experienced 1 fall; 31 (8.6%), 2-3 falls; 4 (1.1%), 4-5 falls; and 6 (1.7%), ≥6 falls during the first postoperative year. Thus, 102 (28%) patients experienced at least 1 fall, and 41 (11%) experienced recurrent falls (2 or more falls) during the time period. The mean GLFS-25 score was 30.2 ± 22.7, and 242 (62%) patients had GLFS-25 scores of 16 or higher, which fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for LS. When subjects were categorized into recurrent fallers and non-recurrent fallers, recurrent fallers had a significantly higher GLFS-25 score and a significantly lower extremity motor function score of the JOA score than non-recurrent fallers. The GLFS-25 and lower extremity motor function score of the JOA score yielded the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.674 and 0.607, respectively, to differentiate recurrent fallers from non-recurrent fallers. Postoperative patients with cervical myelopathy had a 62% prevalence of LS. The GLFS-25 may be useful to predict the risk of recurrent falls in patients with cervical myelopathy. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of your age, ... or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron deficiency at certain ages: Infants between ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer ... and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency anemia. Research for Your Health The NHLBI is part of the U.S. Department ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia, your doctor may order the following blood tests to diagnose iron-deficiency anemia: Complete blood count (CBC) to ... than normal when viewed under a microscope. Different tests help your doctor diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, blood ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  3. LEP copper accelerating cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    These copper cavities were used to generate the radio frequency electric field that was used to accelerate electrons and positrons around the 27-km Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN, which ran from 1989 to 2000. The copper cavities were gradually replaced from 1996 with new superconducting cavities allowing the collision energy to rise from 90 GeV to 200 GeV by mid-1999.

  4. Copper intoxication in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazaryan, V.S.; Sogoyan, I.S.; Agabalov, G.A.; Mesropyan, V.V.

    1966-01-01

    Of 950 sheep fed hay from a vineyard sprayed regularly with copper sulfate, 143 developed clinical copper poisoning and 103 died. The Cu content of the hay was 10.23 mg%, of the liver of dead sheep 17-52 mg%, and of the blood serum of affected sheep 0.86 mg%. The symptoms and the histological findings in kidneys and liver are described.

  5. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  6. Influence of copper on morphologic properties of roots of Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostal, L

    1973-01-01

    Relatively few papers deal with anatomic-morphological changes taking place due to deficiency or toxical influence of copper. There are few papers relating to the influence of higher copper concentrations on morphological properties. Comparative studies investigating copper toxicity have not been worked out in detail. Experiments determining toxicity have been carried out on different substrates. This substrate is very important since there is the question of the bond of copper with various substances, which are found in substrate and which reduce, to a certain extent, the toxicity of copper. Maximum toxicity can be found out in aqueous and sand cultures. High toxicity of copper ions depends, to a large extent, on the stability of its complex compounds, which results in the stability of copper to separate other metals from different compounds. In this way copper inactivates enzymes and various biologically active substances. The problem of toxicity has been widely studied. The author considers the concentration of 0.5 mg Cu/l is a limit of copper toxicity with oat, whereas the concentration of 0.25 mg is toxical for the sprouts of citruses. It is obvious that the limit of toxicity cannot be exactly determined since there are several factors involved (sort of plant, use of cultivation method etc.) This paper was aimed at finding out the influence of higher copper concentrations on morphological changes of roots, stem and leaves of bean Vicia faba.

  7. Copper regulation and homeostasis of Daphnia magna and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata: influence of acclimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossuyt, Bart T.A.; Janssen, Colin R.

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate (1) the capacity of the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the waterflea Daphnia magna to regulate copper when exposed to environmentally realistic copper concentrations and (2) the influence of multi-generation acclimation to these copper concentrations on copper bioaccumulation and homeostasis. Based on bioconcentration factors, active copper regulation was observed in algae up to 5 μg Cu L -1 and in daphnids up to 35 μg Cu L -1 . Constant body copper concentrations (13 ± 4 μg Cu g DW -1 ) were observed in algae exposed to 1 through 5 μg Cu L -1 and in daphnids exposed to 1 through 12 μg Cu L -1 . At higher exposure concentrations, there was an increase in internal body copper concentration, while no increase was observed in bioconcentration factors, suggesting the presence of a storage mechanism. At copper concentrations of 100 μg Cu L -1 (P. subcapitata) and 150 μg Cu L -1 (D. magna), the significant increases observed in body copper concentrations and in bioconcentration factors may be related to a failure of this regulation mechanism. For both organisms, internal body copper concentrations lower than 13 μg Cu g DW -1 may result in copper deficiency. For P. subcapitata acclimated to 0.5 and 100 μg Cu L -1 , body copper concentrations ranged (mean ± standard deviation) between 5 ± 2 μg Cu g DW -1 and 1300 ± 197 μg Cu g DW -1 , respectively. For D. magna, this value ranged between 9 ± 2 μg Cu g DW -1 and 175 ± 17 μg Cu g DW -1 for daphnids acclimated to 0.5 and 150 μg Cu L -1 . Multi-generation acclimation to copper concentrations ≥12 μg Cu L -1 resulted in a decrease (up to 40%) in body copper concentrations for both organisms compared to the body copper concentration of the first generation. It can be concluded that there is an indication that P. subcapitata and D. magna can regulate their whole body copper concentration to maintain copper homeostasis within their optimal copper range and

  8. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk de Bruyn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. This supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy according to plasma concentrations.

  9. Wilson’s Disease: An Inherited, Silent, Copper Intoxication Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Merle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wilson’s disease is a rare, autosomal recessive, genetic, copper overload disease, which evokes multiple motor or neuropsychiatric symptoms and liver disease. It is the consequence of a variety of different mutations affecting the ATP7B gene. This gene encodes for a class IB, P-type, copper-transporting ATPase, which is located in the trans-Golgi network of the liver and brain, and mediates the excretion of excess copper into the bile. When functionally inactive, the excess copper is deposited in the liver, brain, and other tissues. Free copper induces oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and lowers the apoptotic threshold of the cell. The symptoms in affected persons can vary widely and usually appear between the ages of 6 years and 20 years, but there are also cases in which the disease manifests in advanced age. In this review, we discuss the considerations in diagnosis, clinical management, and treatment of Wilson’s disease. In addition, we highlight experimental efforts that address the pathogenesis of Wilson’s disease in ATP7B deficient mice, novel analytical techniques that will improve the diagnosis at an early stage of disease onset, and treatment results with copper-chelating agents.

  10. The correlation between evoked spinal cord potentials and magnetic resonance imaging before Surgery in cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Kosuke; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Taguchi, Toshihiko; Kato, Yoshihiko; Imajo, Yasuaki; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the correlation between electrophysiological examination and MRI diagnosis. Twenty-four patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy were examined with magnetic resonance imaging and evoked spinal cord potentials (ESCPs) before surgery. In all the patients, only the intervertebral level was symptomatic, as shown by ESCPs. ESCPs following median nerve stimulation (MN-ESCPs), transcranial electric stimulation (TCE-ESCPs), and spinal cord stimulation (Spinal-ECSPs) were recorded. The patients were grouped into two groups as follows: group A, all ESCPs were abnormal; group B, normal spinal cord stimulation. Spinal cord transverse area and compression ratio (central and 1/4-lateral anteroposterior diameter divided by transverse diameter) were measured on T1-weighted axial imaging, with abnormal ESCPs as indicators of spinal cord morphology. Central and 1/4-lateral compression ratio was significantly lower in group A. Spinal cord morphology of magnetic resonance imaging is useful for functional diagnosis. (author)

  11. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for the management of axial neck pain in the absence of radiculopathy or myelopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riew, K Daniel; Ecker, Erika; Dettori, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    Study design: Systematic review Study rationale: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a proven, effective treatment for relieving neck pain due to degenerative conditions of the cervical spine. Since most patients also present with radiculopathy or myelopathy, little is known as to the effectiveness of ACDF to relieve pain and improve function in patients without radicular or myelopathic symptoms. Objective: To examine the clinical outcome in patients undergoing (ACDF) for axial neck pain without radicular or myelopathic symptoms. Methods: A systematic review was undertaken for articles published up to March 2010. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating ACDF for the treatment of axial neck pain only. Radiculopathy and myelopathy, patients who suffered severe trauma, or with tumor/metastatic disease or infection were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the strength of evidence using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results: No comparative studies were identified. Three case series met our inclusion criteria and were evaluated. All studies showed a mean improvement of pain of at least 50% approximately 4-years following surgery. Functional outcomes improved between 32% and 52% from baseline. Most patients reported satisfaction with surgery, 56% in one study and 79% in another. Complications varied among studies ranging from 1% to 10% and included pseudoarthrosis (9%), nonunion and revision (3%) and screw removal (1%). Conclusion: There is low evidence suggesting that patients with axial neck pain without radicular or myelopathic symptoms may receive some improvement in pain and function following ACDF. However, whether this benefit is greater than nontreatment or other treatments cannot be determined with the present literature. PMID:22956927

  12. Clinical evidence for cervical myelopathy due to Chiari malformation and spinal stenosis in a non-randomized group of patients with the diagnosis of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffez, Dan S; Ross, Ruth E; Shade-Zeldow, Yvonne; Kostas, Konstantinos; Shah, Sagar; Gottschalk, Robert; Elias, Dean A; Shepard, Alan; Leurgans, Sue E; Moore, Charity G

    2004-10-01

    While patients with fibromyalgia report symptoms consistent with cervical myelopathy, a detailed neurological evaluation is not routine. We sought to determine if patients with fibromyalgia manifest objective neurological signs of cervical myelopathy. Two hundred and seventy patients, 18 years and older, who carried the diagnosis of fibromyalgia but who had no previously recognized neurological disease underwent detailed clinical neurological and neuroradiological evaluation for the prevalence of objective evidence of cervical myelopathy and radiological evidence of cerebellar tonsillar herniation (Chiari 1 malformation) or cervical spinal canal stenosis. Patients were primarily women (87%), of mean age 44 years, who had been symptomatic for 8 years (standard deviation, 6.3 years). The predominant complaints were neck/back pain (95%), fatigue (95%), exertional fatigue (96%), cognitive impairment (92%), instability of gait (85%), grip weakness (83%), paresthesiae (80%), dizziness (71%) and numbness (69%). Eighty-eight percent of patients reported worsening symptoms with neck extension. The neurological examination was consistent with cervical myelopathy: upper thoracic spinothalamic sensory level (83%), hyperreflexia (64%), inversion of the radial periosteal reflex (57%), positive Romberg sign (28%), ankle clonus (25%), positive Hoffman sign (26%), impaired tandem walk (23%), dysmetria (15%) and dysdiadochokinesia (13%). MRI and contrast-enhanced CT imaging of the cervical spine revealed stenosis. The mean antero-posterior (AP) spinal canal diameter at C2/3, C3/4, C4/5, C5/6, C6/7 and C7/T1 was 13.5 mm, 11.8 mm, 11.5 mm, 10.4 mm, 11.3 mm and 14.5 mm respectively, (CT images). In 46% of patients, the AP spinal diameter at C5/6 measured 10 mm, or less, with the neck positioned in mild extension, i.e., clinically significant spinal canal stenosis. MRI of the brain revealed tonsillar ectopia >5 mm in 20% of patients (mean=7.1+/-1.8 mm), i.e., Chiari 1 malformation

  13. Copper : recession and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick-Ching, T.

    2002-01-01

    In 2002, the world output for copper will fall for the first time in nearly a decade because of financial pressure and voluntary constraints. Cutbacks at copper mines amount to 760,000 tonnes per year. These cutbacks have occurred mostly in the United States which holds the largest share of high cost mines. This paper discussed recent developments in both copper supply and demand. The United States is unique as both a large consumer and producer of copper. At 1.35 million tonnes, US mine output in 2001 was at its lowest since 1987. The cutbacks in mining in general were described in this paper with particular reference to the huge loss of mining and metallurgical activity in the United States during a prolonged period of low prices in the mid 1980s. The author noted that this period was followed by an exceptional decade when much of the industry rebounded. Only 8 mines closed outright in the United States and a handful in Canada since the recession of the 1980s, but that is partly because mines got bigger and there are fewer small mines in North America. There are only 4 electrolytic refineries and 3 smelters still active in the entire United States, of which 2 are operating at a fraction of capacity. It was noted that only the buoyancy of China prevented a much bigger decline in copper demand on a global scale

  14. Evaluation of dose response effects related to nutritional diseases (mineral deficiencies) in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goksoy, K.; Gucus, A.I.; Morcol, T.

    1986-01-01

    Nutritional diseases (mineral deficiencies) of farm animals are one of the limiting factors in animal production in Turkey. Present knowledge of mineral deficiencies of farm animals is derived from the study of severe deficiency conditions. Examples in sheep are deficiencies of copper in the central area of the Black Sea region and of selenium in the interior of Anatolia. Phosphorus deficiency is becoming the most serious problem in cattle. Outbreaks of wool shedding in sheep in central Anatolia are also becoming more severe. It is also likely that moderate (borderline) mineral deficiencies exist on a large scale. A general overview of trace mineral deficiencies and recent studies carried out to diagnose and correct them with the aid of biochemical and radioisotopic parameters is presented and discussed. (author)

  15. Copper and copper-nickel alloys as zebra mussel antifoulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormon, J.M.; Cottrell, C.M.; Allen, D.G.; Ackerman, J.D.; Spelt, J.K. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    Copper has been used in the marine environment for decades as cladding on ships and pipes to prevent biofouling by marine mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). This motivated the present investigation into the possibility of using copper to prevent biofouling in freshwater by both zebra mussels and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis collectively referred to as zebra mussels). Copper and copper alloy sheet proved to be highly effective in preventing biofouling by zebra mussels over a three-year period. Further studies were conducted with copper and copper-nickel mesh (lattice of expanded metal) and screen (woven wire with a smaller hole size), which reduced the amount of copper used. Copper screen was also found to be strongly biofouling-resistant with respect to zebra mussels, while copper mesh reduced zebra mussel biofouling in comparison to controls, but did not prevent it entirely. Preliminary investigations into the mechanism of copper antifouling, using galvanic couples, indicated that the release of copper ions from the surface of the exposed metal into the surrounding water is directly or indirectly responsible for the biofouling resistance of copper.

  16. Electrical conduction in composites containing copper core-copper

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Composites of nanometre-sized copper core-copper oxide shell with diameters in the range 6.1 to 7.3 nm dispersed in a silica gel were synthesised by a technique comprising reduction followed by oxidation of a suitably chosen precursor gel. The hot pressed gel powders mixed with nanometre-sized copper particles ...

  17. Large armored bridging over fractured vertebra with intraspinal tumor mimicking bony mass caused by migrated fragments of burst cervical vertebra presenting with severe cervical myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyarthee Guru Dutta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral body may get displaced anterior or posteror with elements of rotation. However, burst cervical spine vertebral fracture may migrate anteriorly and posteriorly simultaneously. However anterior displaced fragment forming armor like mass is very rare. Similarly, the posteriorly propelled fragments migrating caudally and posterolaterally producing a large osseous mass inside spinal canal mimicking bony tumour causing severe cervical canal stenosis and presenting with marked myelopathy is extremely rare. To the best knowledge of authors, association of such traumatic dual pathology represents first of its kind in western literature, who was neglected early medical advice and presenting with marked compressive cervical myelopathy. She underwent successful surgical decompression with gradual recovery of spastic limb weakness and recovery of sensation. Authors also highlights the importance of early resuscitation and adequate maintainace of mean arterial pressure following acute spinal cord injury. Pertinent literature is briefly reviewed.

  18. Study of copper fluorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillardeau, J.

    1967-02-01

    This report deals with the action of fluorine on copper. Comprehensive descriptions are given of the particular technological methods and of the preparation of the reactants. This fluorination reaction has been studied at medium and low fluorine pressures. A nucleation and growth phenomenon is described. The influence of a pollution of the gas phase on the fluorination process is described. The solid-state reaction between cupric fluoride and cooper has also been studied. A special study has been made of the growth of copper deposits by thermal decomposition of gaseous fluorides. (author) [fr

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging for Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV1- associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Zemorshidi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis is a chronic progressive neurologic disease which might be associated by brain and spinal cord atrophy and lesions. Here we systematically reviewed the brain and spinal cord abnormalities reported by using magnetic resonance imaging modality on HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients. Methods: PubMed was searched for all the relevant articles which used magnetic resonance imaging for patients with human HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis disease. Included criteria were all the cohort and case series on with at least 10 patients. We had no time limitation for searched articles, but only English language articles were included in our systematic review. Exclusion criteria were none-English articles, case reports, articles with less than 10 patients, spastic paraparesis patients with unknown etiology, and patients with HTLVII. Results: Total of 14 relevant articles were extracted after studying title, abstracts, and full text of the irrelevant articles. Only 2/14 articles, reported brain atrophy incidence. 5/14 articles studied the brain lesions prevalence. Spinal cord atrophy and lesions, each were studied in 6/14 articles.Discussion: According to the extracted data, brain atrophy does not seem to happen frequently in patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. None-specific brain lesions identified in articles are indicative of low specificity of magnetic resonance imaging technique despite its high sensitivity. Conclusion: Prevalence of spinal cord lesions and atrophy in these patients might be due to the degenerative processes associated with aging phenomenon. Further larger studies in endemic areas can more accurately reveal the specificity of magnetic resonance imaging for these patients.

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age ... athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance ...

  1. Iodine deficiency disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S M [Pakistan Council for Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1994-12-31

    Iodine deficiency (IDD) is one of the common problem in the diet. Iodine deficiency as prevalence of goiter in population occurs in the mountainous areas. There is consensus that 800 million people are at risk of IDD from living in iodine deficient area and 190 million from goiter. Very high prevalence of IDD in different parts of the world are striking. It has generally observed that in iodine-deficient areas about 50% are affected with goiter, 1-5% from cretinsim and 20% from impaired mental and/or mortor function. (A.B.).

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  3. Brazing copper to dispersion-strengthened copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryding, David G.; Allen, Douglas; Lee, Richard H.

    1996-11-01

    The advanced photon source is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source that will produce intense x-ray beams, which will allow the study of smaller samples and faster reactions and processes at a greater level of detail than has ben possible to date. The beam is produced by using third- generation insertion devices in a 7-GeV electron/positron storage ring that is 1,104 meters in circumference. The heat load from these intense high-power devices is very high, and certain components must sustain total heat loads of 3 to 15 kW and heat fluxes of 30 W/mm$_2). Because the beams will cycle on and off many times, thermal shock and fatigue will be a problem. High heat flux impinging on a small area causes a large thermal gradient that results in high stress. GlidCop, a dispersion-strengthened copper, is the desired design material because of its high thermal conductivity and superior mechanical properties as compared to copper and its alloys. GlidCop is not amenable to joining by fusion welding, and brazing requires diligence because of high diffusivity. Brazing procedures were developed using optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  4. [The modified method registration of kinesthetic evoked potentials and its application for research of proprioceptive sensitivity disorders at spondylogenic cervical myelopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, S A; Voronin, S G

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the efficacy of modified (passive radiocarpal articulation flexion/extension) and «standard» (passive radiocarpal articulation flexion) methods of kinesthetic evoked potentials for proprioceptive sensitivity assessment in healthy subjects and patients with spondylotic cervical myelopathy. The study included 14 healthy subjects (4 women and 10 men, mean age 54.1±10.5 years) and 8 patients (2 women and 6 men, mean age 55.8±10.9 years) with spondylotic cervical myelopathy. Muscle-joint sensation was examined during the clinical study. A modified method of kinesthetic evoked potentials was developed. This method differed from the "standard" one by the organization of a cycle including several passive movements,where each new movement differed from the preceding one by the direction. The modified method of kinesthetic evoked potentials ensures more reliable kinesthetic sensitivity assessment due to movement variability. Asignificant increaseof the latent periods of the early components of the response was found in patients compared to healthy subjects. The modified method of kinesthetic evoked potentials can be used for objective diagnosis of proprioceptive sensitivity disorders in patients with spondylotic cervical myelopathy.

  5. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hille Fieten

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to Wilson disease, which is characterized by a predominantly hepatic copper accumulation. The low incidence and the phenotypic variability of human copper toxicosis hamper identification of causal genes or modifier genes involved in the disease pathogenesis. The Labrador retriever was recently characterized as a new canine model for copper toxicosis. Purebred dogs have reduced genetic variability, which facilitates identification of genes involved in complex heritable traits that might influence phenotype in both humans and dogs. We performed a genome-wide association study in 235 Labrador retrievers and identified two chromosome regions containing ATP7A and ATP7B that were associated with variation in hepatic copper levels. DNA sequence analysis identified missense mutations in each gene. The amino acid substitution ATP7B:p.Arg1453Gln was associated with copper accumulation, whereas the amino acid substitution ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile partly protected against copper accumulation. Confocal microscopy indicated that aberrant copper metabolism upon expression of the ATP7B variant occurred because of mis-localization of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dermal fibroblasts derived from ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile dogs showed copper accumulation and delayed excretion. We identified the Labrador retriever as the first natural, non-rodent model for ATP7B-associated copper toxicosis. Attenuation of copper accumulation by the ATP7A mutation sheds an interesting light on the interplay of copper transporters in body copper homeostasis and warrants a thorough investigation of ATP7A as a modifier gene in copper-metabolism disorders. The identification of two new functional

  6. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Montes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson’s disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson’s disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson’s disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson’s disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology.

  7. Creative Copper Crests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knab, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to create an art activity that would link the computer-created business cards of fourth-grade students with an upcoming school-wide medieval event. Creating family crests from copper foil would be a great connection, since they, like business cards, are an individual's way to identify themselves to others.…

  8. and copper(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (II) and copper(II)–zinc(II) complexes. SUBODH KUMAR1, R N PATEL1*, P V KHADIKAR1 and. K B PANDEYA2. 1 Department of Chemistry, APS University, Rewa 486 003, India. 2 CSJM University, Kanpur 208 016, India e-mail: (R N Patel) ...

  9. Reagent conditions of the flotation of copper, copper - molybdenum and copper -zinc ores in foreing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevaeva, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Reagents-collectors and frothers, used abroad in reagent regimes of flotation of copper, copper-molybdenum and copper zinc ores, have been considered. Xanthogenates, aerofloats, xanthogenformiates, thionocarbamates are mainly used as reagents-collectors. Methylizobutylcarbinol and Daufros are used as reagents-frothers

  10. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearling, J.L.

    1998-11-01

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes ( 64 Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective 64 Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective 64 Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential, with hypoxia

  11. The role of insufficient copper in lipid synthesis and fatty-liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Austin; Tallino, Savannah; Yu, Lei; Burkhead, Jason L

    2017-04-01

    The essential transition metal copper is important in lipid metabolism, redox balance, iron mobilization, and many other critical processes in eukaryotic organisms. Genetic diseases where copper homeostasis is disrupted, including Menkes disease and Wilson disease, indicate the importance of copper balance to human health. The severe consequences of insufficient copper supply are illustrated by Menkes disease, caused by mutation in the X-linked ATP7A gene encoding a protein that transports copper from intestinal epithelia into the bloodstream and across the blood-brain barrier. Inadequate copper supply to the body due to poor diet quality or malabsorption can disrupt several molecular level pathways and processes. Though much of the copper distribution machinery has been described and consequences of disrupted copper handling have been characterized in human disease as well as animal models, physiological consequences of sub-optimal copper due to poor nutrition or malabsorption have not been extensively studied. Recent work indicates that insufficient copper may be important in a number of common diseases including obesity, ischemic heart disease, and metabolic syndrome. Specifically, marginal copper deficiency (CuD) has been reported as a potential etiologic factor in diseases characterized by disrupted lipid metabolism such as non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD). In this review, we discuss the available data suggesting that a significant portion of the North American population may consume insufficient copper, the potential mechanisms by which CuD may promote lipid biosynthesis, and the interaction between CuD and dietary fructose in the etiology of NAFLD. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 69(4):263-270, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. Read more New treatments for disorders that lead to iron-deficiency anemia. We are ... and other pathways. This could help develop new therapies for conditions that ... behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  13. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... loss and lead to iron-deficiency anemia. Common causes of blood loss that lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular use of medicines such as aspirin ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) to learn about research that ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... blocks the intestine from taking up iron. Other medical conditions Other medical conditions that may lead to iron-deficiency anemia ... daily amount of iron. If you have other medical conditions that cause iron-deficiency anemia , such as ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Are you curious about how inflammation from chronic diseases can cause iron-deficiency anemia? Read more When there is ... DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research ...

  19. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics section only, or the News and Resources section. NHLBI Entire Site NHLBI Entire Site Health ... español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... check the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount of iron. Read less Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials We lead or sponsor many studies related to iron-deficiency anemia. See if you ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not ... iron-deficiency anemia and help rule out other types of anemia. Treatment will explain treatment-related complications ...

  6. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... anemia. Return to Signs, Symptoms, and Complications to review signs and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency ... NIH]) Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Centers for Disease Control and ... Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library ...

  8. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, ... you are experiencing side effects such as a bad metallic taste, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, or upset stomach. ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... how we are using current research and advancing research to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  11. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  12. Imaging spinal cord atrophy in progressive myelopathies: HTLV-I-associated neurological disease (HAM/TSP) and multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodi, Shila; Nair, Govind; Enose-Akahata, Yoshimi; Charlip, Emily; Vellucci, Ashley; Cortese, Irene; Dwyer, Jenifer; Billioux, B Jeanne; Thomas, Chevaz; Ohayon, Joan; Reich, Daniel S; Jacobson, Steven

    2017-11-01

    Previous work measures spinal cord thinning in chronic progressive myelopathies, including human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Quantitative measurements of spinal cord atrophy are important in fully characterizing these and other spinal cord diseases. We aimed to investigate patterns of spinal cord atrophy and correlations with clinical markers. Spinal cord cross-sectional area was measured in individuals (24 healthy controls [HCs], 17 asymptomatic carriers of HTLV-1 (AC), 47 HAM/TSP, 74 relapsing-remitting MS [RRMS], 17 secondary progressive MS [SPMS], and 40 primary progressive MS [PPMS]) from C1 to T10. Clinical disability scores, viral markers, and immunological parameters were obtained for patients and correlated with representative spinal cord cross-sectional area regions at the C2 to C3, C4 to C5, and T4 to T9 levels. In 2 HAM/TSP patients, spinal cord cross-sectional area was measured over 3 years. All spinal cord regions are thinner in HAM/TSP (56 mm 2 [standard deviation, 10], 59 [10], 23 [5]) than in HC (76 [7], 83 [8], 38 [4]) and AC (71 [7], 78 [9], 36 [7]). SPMS (62 [9], 66 [9], 32 [6]) and PPMS (65 [11], 68 [10], 35 [7]) have thinner cervical cords than HC and RRMS (73 [9], 77 [10], 37 [6]). Clinical disability scores (Expanded Disability Status Scale [p = 0.009] and Instituto de Pesquisas de Cananeia [p = 0.03]) and CD8 + T-cell frequency (p = 0.04) correlate with T4 to T9 spinal cord cross-sectional area in HAM/TSP. Higher cerebrospinal fluid HTLV-1 proviral load (p = 0.01) was associated with thinner spinal cord cross-sectional area. Both HAM/TSP patients followed longitudinally showed thoracic thinning followed by cervical thinning. Group average spinal cord cross-sectional area in HAM/TSP and progressive MS show spinal cord atrophy. We further hypothesize in HAM/TSP that is possible that neuroglial loss from a thoracic inflammatory

  13. Prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia in High-School Girl Students of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Noori Shadkam

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is generally assumed that 50% of the cases of anemia are due to iron deficiency. The most severe consequence of iron depletion is iron deficiency anemia (IDA, and it is still considered the most common nutrition deficiency worldwide. The main risk factors for IDA include: inadequate iron intake, impaired absorption or transport, physiologic losses associated with chronological or reproductive age, or acute or chronic blood loss, parasite infections such as hookworms, acute and chronic infections, including malaria, cancer, tuberculosis, HIV and other micronutrient deficiencies, including vitamins A and B12, folate, riboflavin, and copper deficiency. Methods: This work as a cross-sectional study was done in 2007-2008 in Yazd. Two hundred girls who participated in the study were selected randomly from eight girl high schools. Five ml venous blood was collected for determination of serum ferritin and cell blood count (CBC. Serum ferritin was determined by using ECLIA method and CBC by cell counter SYSMEX KX21N. Iron deficiency was defined as having serum ferritin values below 12 μ/l. Anemia was defined as having Hemoglobin levels below12 g/dl. Iron-deficiency anemia was considered to be the combination of both. Results: The3 mean ageyears and body mass index (kg/m2 were 15.19±0.7years and 21.5±4.2, respectively. Distribution in the 14, 15 and 16 years and more age groups were 13, 58.5 and 28.5 percent, respectively. Mean of Hemoglobin(g/dl, Hematocrit(%, MCV (fl, MCH (pg, MCHC (g/dl and ferritin(μ/l were 12.8±0.9, 38.9±3.0, 80.7±4.3, 26.6±1.8, 33.2±3.6 and 23±18.2, respectively. Of the total, 13.5% were anemic, 68% of which had Iron Deficiency Anemia (9.3% of the total. Iron deficiency was present in 34.7% of the population under study. Conclusion: According to world health organization criteria, anemia is a mild public health problem in this region, but iron deficiency is a significant problem and suitable measures for

  14. Comparison of copper heptonate with copper oxide wire particles as copper supplements for sheep on pasture of high molybdenum content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, G J; Babidge, P J

    2002-10-01

    To assess the effectiveness of intramuscular injection of copper heptonate (CuHep) and an oral dose of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) in preventing Cu inadequacy in adult and young sheep on pasture of high Mo content. Field experiments with flocks of mature Merino wethers and crossbred weaners. Adult wethers were given 25 or 37.5 mg Cu as CuHep, 2.5 g COWP or no Cu treatment. The weaners were given 12.5 or 25 mg Cu as CuHep, 1.25 g COWP or no Cu treatment. At intervals over the next 12 (adults) or 8 (weaners) months the sheep were weighed and samples of blood and liver were collected for trace element assay. Wool samples collected from the adults at the end of the experiment were assessed for physical characteristics. The higher dosage of CuHep raised liver Cu above control group values for at least 9 months in adults and 3 months in weaners. The lower dosage of CuHep was similarly effective for 3 months in adults but was without effect in weaners. In adults the response to COWP matched that to the higher dosage of CuHep; in weaners it was greater, lasting at least 5 months. No changes indicative of Cu deficiency, apart from a depressed body weight in adults, were seen. In sheep on pasture of high Mo content a single intramuscular injection of CuHep providing 37.5 mg Cu to adults or 25 mg Cu to weaners will raise liver Cu reserves for at least 9 and 3 months respectively and may be an acceptable alternative to COWP for preventing seasonal Cu deficiency in sheep in southern Australia.

  15. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ralph; Allen, Lindsay H; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2017-01-01

    , subclinical deficiency affects between 2.5% and 26% of the general population depending on the definition used, although the clinical relevance is unclear. B12 deficiency can affect individuals at all ages, but most particularly elderly individuals. Infants, children, adolescents and women of reproductive age...... remain debated. Management depends on B12 supplementation, either via high-dose oral routes or via parenteral administration. This Primer describes the current knowledge surrounding B12 deficiency, and highlights improvements in diagnostic methods as well as shifting concepts about the prevalence, causes...

  16. Dietary copper in excess of nutritional requirement reduces plasma and breast muscle cholesterol of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalli, R I; Pesti, G M; Ragland, W L; Konjufca, V

    1995-02-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed from hatching to 42 d of age either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 250 mg copper/kg diet from cupric sulfate pentahydrate (for 35 or 42 d). Hypocholesterolemia (11.8% reduction) and decreased breast muscle cholesterol (20.4% reduction) were observed in copper-supplemented birds. There was a slight increase (P > .05) in breast muscle copper (14.5%), and all levels were very low (copper for 42 vs 35 d resulted in lower levels of cholesterol in the plasma (12.9 vs 10.8% reduction) and breast muscle (24.6 vs 16.2% reduction). Very similar results were found in two additional experiments in which hypocholesterolemia and reduced breast muscle cholesterol were associated with reduced plasma triglycerides and blood reduced glutathione. It is well known that hypercholesterolemia is a symptom of dietary copper deficiency. The data presented here indicate that blood and breast muscle cholesterol are inversely related to dietary copper in excess of the dietary requirement for maximal growth. The cholesterol content of the edible muscle tissue of broiler chickens can be reduced by approximately 25% after feeding a supranormal level of copper for 42 d without altering the growth of the chickens or substantially increasing the copper content of the edible meat.

  17. Physiotherapy for human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated myelopathy: review of the literature and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Katia N; Macêdo, Maíra C; Andrade, Rosana P; Mendes, Selena D; Martins, José V; Baptista, Abrahão F

    2015-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) infection may be associated with damage to the spinal cord - HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis - and other neurological symptoms that compromise everyday life activities. There is no cure for this disease, but recent evidence suggests that physiotherapy may help individuals with the infection, although, as far as we are aware, no systematic review has approached this topic. Therefore, the objective of this review is to address the core problems associated with HTLV-1 infection that can be detected and treated by physiotherapy, present the results of clinical trials, and discuss perspectives on the development of knowledge in this area. Major problems for individuals with HTLV-1 are pain, sensory-motor dysfunction, and urinary symptoms. All of these have high impact on quality of life, and recent clinical trials involving exercises, electrotherapeutic modalities, and massage have shown promising effects. Although not influencing the basic pathologic disturbances, a physiotherapeutic approach seems to be useful to detect specific problems related to body structures, activity, and participation related to movement in HTLV-1 infection, as well as to treat these conditions.

  18. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy: the clinical phenomenon and the current pathobiology of an increasingly prevalent and devastating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Karadimas, Spyridon K; Fehlings, Michael G

    2013-08-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a common disorder involving chronic progressive compression of the cervical spinal cord due to degenerative disc disease, spondylosis, or other degenerative pathology. CSM is the most common form of spinal cord impairment and causes functional decline leading to reduced independence and quality of life. Despite a sound understanding of the disease process, clinical presentation and management, a universal definition of CSM and a standardized index of severity are not currently used universally. Work is required to develop a definition and establish clinical predictors of progression to improve management of CSM. Despite advances in decompressive and reconstructive surgery, patients are often left with residual disability. Gaps in knowledge of the pathobiology of CSM have limited therapeutic advances to complement surgery. Although the histopathologic and pathophysiologic similarities between CSM and traumatic spinal cord injury have long been acknowledged, the unique pathomechanisms of CSM remain unexplored. Increased efforts to elucidate CSM pathobiology could lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic targets for human CSM and other spinal cord diseases. Here, the natural history of CSM, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and current methods of clinical management are reported, along with the current state of basic scientific research in the field.

  19. Tract-Specific Diffusion Tensor Imaging Reveals Laterality of Neurological Symptoms in Patients with Cervical Compression Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Satoshi; Koda, Masao; Saito, Junya; Takahashi, Sho; Inada, Taigo; Kamiya, Koshiro; Ota, Mitsutoshi; Iijima, Yasushi; Masuda, Yoshitada; Matsumoto, Koji; Kojima, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Obata, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Masashi; Furuya, Takeo

    2016-12-01

    Patients with cervical compression myelopathy (CCM) generally present bilateral neurological symptoms in their extremities. However, a substantial portion of patients with CCM exhibit laterality of neurological symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between intrinsic structural damage and laterality of symptoms using spinal cord diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the corticospinal tract. We enrolled 10 healthy volunteers and 40 patients with CCM in this study. We evaluated motor function using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) motor score for left and right extremities. For DTI acquisitions, a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging system with diffusion-weighted spin-echo sequence was used. Regions-of-interest in the lateral column tracts were determined. We determined the correlations between fractional anisotropy (FA) and ASIA motor scores. An FA asymmetry index was calculated using left and right regions-of-interest. Four patients exhibited laterality of symptoms in their extremities, for which left and right ASIA scores correlated moderately with FA in the left and right lateral columns, respectively (left: ρ = 0.64, P laterality of symptoms. Using tract-specific DTI, we demonstrated that microstructural damages in the left and right corticospinal tracts correlated with corresponding neurological symptoms in the ipsilateral side and the FA asymmetry index could indicate laterality in neurological symptoms of patients with CCM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. HTLV-I associated myelopathy with multiple spotty areas in cerebral white matter and brain stem by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yasuo; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Yorifuji, Shirou; Tarui, Seiichiro

    1988-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted with complaints of urinary incontinence and gait disturbance, both of which had progressed slowly without any sign of remission. Family history was not contributory. Neurologically, extreme spasticity was recoginized in the lower limbs. Babinski sign was positive bilaterally. Flower-like atypical lymphocytes were seen in blood. Positive anti-HTLV-I antibody was confirmed in serum and spinal fluid by western blot. She was diagnosed as having HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM). CT reveald calcification in bilateral globus pallidus, and MRI revealed multiple spotty areas in cerebral white matter and brain stem, but no spinal cord lesion was detectable. Electrophysiologically, brain stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) suggested the presence of bilateral brain stem lesions. Neither median nor posterior tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials were evoked, a finding suggesting the existence of spinal cord lesion. In this case, the lesion was not confined to spinal cord, it was also observed in brain stem and cerebral white matter. Such distinct lesions in cerebral white matter and brain stem have not been reported in patients with HAM. It is suggested that HTLV-I is probably associated with cerebral white matter and brain stem.

  1. Clinical pathophysiology of human T-lymphotropic virus-type1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa eYamano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1, a human retrovirus, is the causative agent of a progressive neurological disease termed HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. HAM/TSP is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and is characterized by unremitting myelopathic symptoms such as spastic paraparesis, lower limb sensory disturbance, and bladder/bowel dysfunction. Approximately 0.25%–3.8% of HTLV-1-infected individuals develop HAM/TSP, which is more common in women than in men. Since the discovery of HAM/TSP, significant advances have been made with respect to elucidating the virological, molecular, and immunopathological mechanisms underlying this disease. These findings suggest that spinal cord invasion by HTLV-1-infected T cells triggers a strong virus-specific immune response and increases proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, leading to chronic lymphocytic inflammation and tissue damage in spinal cord lesions. However, little progress has been made in the development of an optimal treatment for HAM/TSP, more specifically in the identification of biomarkers for predicting disease progression and of molecular targets for novel therapeutic strategies targeting the underlying pathological mechanisms. This review summarizes current clinical and pathophysiological knowledge on HAM/TSP and discusses future focus areas for research on this disease.

  2. Psychiatric comorbidities in a young man with subacute myelopathy induced by abusive nitrous oxide consumption: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancke, Falk; Kaklauskaitė, Gintarė; Kollmer, Jennifer; Weiler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a long-standing anesthetic, is known for its recreational use, and its consumption is on the rise. Several case studies have reported neurological and psychiatric complications of N 2 O use. To date, however, there has not been a study using standardized diagnostic procedures to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a patient consuming N 2 O. Here, we report about a 35-year-old male with magnetic resonance imaging confirmed subacute myelopathy induced by N 2 O consumption, who suffered from comorbid cannabinoid and nicotine dependence as well as abuse of amphetamines, cocaine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and ketamine. Additionally, there was evidence of a preceding transient psychotic and depressive episode induced by synthetic cannabinoid abuse. In summary, this case raises awareness of an important mechanism of neural toxicity, with which physicians working in the field of substance-related disorders should be familiar. In fact, excluding N 2 O toxicity in patients with recognized substance-related disorders and new neurological deficits is compulsory, as untreated for months the damage to the nervous system is at risk of becoming irreversible.

  3. An analysis of cervical myelopathy due to cervical spondylosis or ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament by CT myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Keiju; Yonenobe, Sakuo; Ebara, Sohei; Yamashita, Kazuo; Ono, Keiro

    1988-01-01

    CT-myelographic (CTM) findings of 20 patients with ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and 24 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) were reviewed for the evaluation of (1) contributing factors to preoperative neurologic symptoms and therapeutic prognosis in OPLL, and (2) differences in pathology between OPLL and CSM. In OPLL, the severity of preoperative neurologic symptoms was not related to the degree of deformed spinal cord - as expressed by the transverse area of the spinal cord and the rate of flatness - nor the degree of ossification - as expressed by the rate of stricture, and the transverse areas of the effective spinal canal and ossification. The transverse areas of the spinal cord and effective spinal canal were correlated with both postoperative scores for neurologic symptoms and the recovery rate. Osseous compression to the spinal cord was severer in OPLL than OSM. Regarding other factors, such as size and shape of the spinal cord and therapeutic prognosis, there was no difference between the two diseases. This implied the association of dynamic compression to the spinal cord that resulted from the unstable cervical spine in the case of CSM. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. The relationship between electrodiagnosis using spinal cord evoked potential after spinal cord stimulation and MRI evaluation for cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tsuyoshi; Shiba, Keiichiro; Ueta, Takayoshi; Ohta, Hideki; Mori, Eiji; Kaji, Kozo; Yuge, Itaru; Kawano, Osamu

    2006-01-01

    We studied the correlation between the site of high intensity spinal cord signals on preoperative sagittal T2 MRIs (T2-high signal) and that of intrdaperative electrophysiological abnormalities for 200 cervical myelopathy cases. We recorded the Sp(E)-SCEPs during posterior cervical laminoplasty operations. In the cases with a T2-high signal at single levels, conduction abnormality matched the site of T2-high signal in 50%, and no conduction abnormalities were detected in 44%. In the cases with a T2-high signal at two levels, conduction abnormality matched the site of T2-high signal in only 11%, and no conduction abnormalities were disclosed in 59%. In the cases with a T2-high signal at three or more levels, conduction abnormalities matched the site of T2-high signal in 8% and no conduction abnormalities were disclosed in 72%. Our study showed a higher correspondence between the MRI finding and conduction abnormalities in the cases with T2-high signal at single levels, although our Sp(E)-SCEP study could not disclose conduction abnormalities in nearly half the cases. False negative findings of Sp(E)-SCEPs may result from the simplified recording technique. (author)

  5. CT Chest and pulmonary functional changes in patients with HTLV-associated myelopathy in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fábio Magno Falcão

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare computed tomography (CT scans of chest and lung function among patients with Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV with and without HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. In this cross-sectional study performed between January 2013 and June 2016, we included 48 patients with HAM/TSP (19 women and 11 men and without HAM/TSP (12 women and 6 men. We compared CT findings and lung functions of these groups. Patients who had HAM/TSP had abnormal CT findings (P = 0.000, including more frequent bronchiectasis (P = 0.049, parenchymal bands (P = 0.007, interlobular septal thickening (P = 0.035, and pleural thickening (P = 0.009. In addition, neither patients with HAM/TSP (9/30; 30% nor the controls (0/18; 0% had obstructive or restrictive lung disease (P = 0.009. HTLV diagnosis should be considered in all patients with abnormal CT findings in whom no other cause is apparent. It is important to remember that lung disease increases the rates of morbidity and mortality in developing countries.

  6. Comparison of Functional and Radiological Outcomes Between Two Posterior Approaches in the Treatment of Multilevel Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Jiang Ren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posterior cervical decompression is an accepted treatment for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM. Each posterior technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. In the present study, we compared the functional and radiological outcomes of expansive hemilaminectomy and laminoplasty with mini titanium plate in the treatment of multilevel CSM. Methods: Forty-four patients with multilevel CSM treated with posterior cervical surgery in Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Beijing Army General Hospital from March 2011 to June 2012 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into two groups by surgical procedure: Laminoplasty (Group L and hemilaminectomy (Group H. Perioperative parameters including age, sex, duration of symptoms, operative duration, and intraoperative blood loss were recorded and compared. Spinal canal area, calculated using AutoCAD ® software(Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA, and neurological improvement, evaluated with Japanese Orthopedic Association score, were also compared. Results: Neurological improvement did not differ significantly between groups. Group H had a significantly shorter operative duration and significantly less blood loss. Mean expansion ratio was significantly greater in Group L (77.83 ± 6.41% than in Group H (62.72 ± 3.86% (P < 0.01. Conclusions: Both surgical approaches are safe and effective in treating multilevel CSM. Laminoplasty provides a greater degree of enlargement of the spinal canal, whereas expansive hemilaminectomy has the advantages of shorter operative duration and less intraoperative blood loss.

  7. Comparison of Functional and Radiological Outcomes Between Two Posterior Approaches in the Treatment of Multilevel Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Da-Jiang; Li, Fang; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Kai, Guan; Shan, Jian-Lin; Zhao, Guang-Min; Sun, Tian-Sheng

    2015-08-05

    Posterior cervical decompression is an accepted treatment for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Each posterior technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. In the present study, we compared the functional and radiological outcomes of expansive hemilaminectomy and laminoplasty with mini titanium plate in the treatment of multilevel CSM. Forty-four patients with multilevel CSM treated with posterior cervical surgery in Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Beijing Army General Hospital from March 2011 to June 2012 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into two groups by surgical procedure: Laminoplasty (Group L) and hemilaminectomy (Group H). Perioperative parameters including age, sex, duration of symptoms, operative duration, and intraoperative blood loss were recorded and compared. Spinal canal area, calculated using AutoCAD ® software(Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA), and neurological improvement, evaluated with Japanese Orthopedic Association score, were also compared. Neurological improvement did not differ significantly between groups. Group H had a significantly shorter operative duration and significantly less blood loss. Mean expansion ratio was significantly greater in Group L (77.83 ± 6.41%) than in Group H (62.72 ± 3.86%) (P < 0.01). Both surgical approaches are safe and effective in treating multilevel CSM. Laminoplasty provides a greater degree of enlargement of the spinal canal, whereas expansive hemilaminectomy has the advantages of shorter operative duration and less intraoperative blood loss.

  8. The Effect of Copper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environment, where fishes are found, stuns them ... of earthen ponds are springing up near cocoa ... farm, which posses toxicological risk to farmed ... Veg. oil. 1.0. 1.0. 1.0. 1.0. 1.0. Copper sulphate 0. 1.0. 2.5. 5.0. 7.5. Total ..... Cellulase Production by Wild Strains of Aspergillus Niger, ... Mangrove Area of Lagos, Nigeria.

  9. Copper Pyrimidine based MOFs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesized hydrothermally in a 23-mL Teflon lined stainless steel bomb by heating copper(II) 2-pyrazinecarboxylate (31 mg, 0.1 mmol) and tin(II) iodide (75 mg, 0.2 mmol) in 4 mL water at 150±C for 24 h. The reaction vessel was subsequently cooled to 70±C at 1±C/min and held at that temperature for 6 h before returning ...

  10. The mammalian phosphate carrier SLC25A3 is a mitochondrial copper transporter required for cytochrome c oxidase biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Aren; Vest, Katherine E; Maynard, Margaret K; Gammon, Micah G; Russell, Antoinette C; Mathews, Alexander T; Cole, Shelbie E; Zhu, Xinyu; Phillips, Casey B; Kwong, Jennifer Q; Dodani, Sheel C; Leary, Scot C; Cobine, Paul A

    2018-02-09

    Copper is required for the activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal electron-accepting complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The likely source of copper used for COX biogenesis is a labile pool found in the mitochondrial matrix. In mammals, the proteins that transport copper across the inner mitochondrial membrane remain unknown. We previously reported that the mitochondrial carrier family protein Pic2 in budding yeast is a copper importer. The closest Pic2 ortholog in mammalian cells is the mitochondrial phosphate carrier SLC25A3. Here, to investigate whether SLC25A3 also transports copper, we manipulated its expression in several murine and human cell lines. SLC25A3 knockdown or deletion consistently resulted in an isolated COX deficiency in these cells, and copper addition to the culture medium suppressed these biochemical defects. Consistent with a conserved role for SLC25A3 in copper transport, its heterologous expression in yeast complemented copper-specific defects observed upon deletion of PIC2 Additionally, assays in Lactococcus lactis and in reconstituted liposomes directly demonstrated that SLC25A3 functions as a copper transporter. Taken together, these data indicate that SLC25A3 can transport copper both in vitro and in vivo . © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Neuronal differentiation is associated with a redox-regulated increase of copper flow to the secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatori, Yuta; Yan, Ye; Schmidt, Katharina; Furukawa, Eri; Hasan, Nesrin M; Yang, Nan; Liu, Chin-Nung; Sockanathan, Shanthini; Lutsenko, Svetlana

    2016-02-16

    Brain development requires a fine-tuned copper homoeostasis. Copper deficiency or excess results in severe neuro-pathologies. We demonstrate that upon neuronal differentiation, cellular demand for copper increases, especially within the secretory pathway. Copper flow to this compartment is facilitated through transcriptional and metabolic regulation. Quantitative real-time imaging revealed a gradual change in the oxidation state of cytosolic glutathione upon neuronal differentiation. Transition from a broad range of redox states to a uniformly reducing cytosol facilitates reduction of the copper chaperone Atox1, liberating its metal-binding site. Concomitantly, expression of Atox1 and its partner, a copper transporter ATP7A, is upregulated. These events produce a higher flux of copper through the secretory pathway that balances copper in the cytosol and increases supply of the cofactor to copper-dependent enzymes, expression of which is elevated in differentiated neurons. Direct link between glutathione oxidation and copper compartmentalization allows for rapid metabolic adjustments essential for normal neuronal function.

  12. Supersonic copper clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.E.; Hansen, S.G.; Geusic, M.E.; Michalopoulos, D.L.; Smalley, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Copper clusters ranging in size from 1 to 29 atoms have been prepared in a supersonic beam by laser vaporization of a rotating copper target rod within the throat of a pulsed supersonic nozzle using helium for the carrier gas. The clusters were cooled extensively in the supersonic expansion [T(translational) 1 to 4 K, T(rotational) = 4 K, T(vibrational) = 20 to 70 K]. These clusters were detected in the supersonic beam by laser photoionization with time-of-flight mass analysis. Using a number of fixed frequency outputs of an exciplex laser, the threshold behavior of the photoionization cross section was monitored as a function of cluster size.nce two-photon ionization (R2PI) with mass selective detection allowed the detection of five new electronic band systems in the region between 2690 and 3200 A, for each of the three naturally occurring isotopic forms of Cu 2 . In the process of scanning the R2PI spectrum of these new electronic states, the ionization potential of the copper dimer was determined to be 7.894 +- 0.015 eV

  13. Native copper as a natural analogue for copper canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, N.

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the occurrence of native copper as found in geological formations as a stability analogue of copper canisters that are planned to be used for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel in the Finnish bedrock. A summary of several publications on native copper occurrences is presented. The present geochemical and geohydrological conditions in which copper is met with in its metallic state show that metallic copper is stable in a wide range of temperatures. At low temperatures native copper is found to be stable where groundwater has moderate pH (about 7), low Eh (< +100 mV), and low total dissolved solids, especially chloride. Microscopical and microanalytical studies were carried out on a dozen of rock samples containing native copper. The results reveal that the metal shows no significant alteration. Only the surface of copper grains is locally coated. In the oldest samples there exist small corrosion cracks; the age of the oldest samples is over 1,000 million years. A review of several Finnish groundwater studies suggests that there are places in Finland where the geohydrological conditions are favourable for native copper stability. (orig.)

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) ... Privacy Policy Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Accessibility Copyright and Usage No FEAR ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... our clinical trials . Are you a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, ...

  19. Vitamin D Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to other diseases. In children, it can cause rickets. Rickets is a rare disease that causes the bones ... and children are at higher risk of getting rickets. In adults, severe vitamin D deficiency leads to ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. ... are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ... these usually go away within a day or two. Red blood cell transfusions. These may be used ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... more. Read less Reminders Return to Causes to review how blood loss, not consuming the recommended amount ... iron-deficiency anemia. Return to Risk Factors to review family history, lifestyle, unhealthy environments, or other factors ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. ... for iron deficiency at certain ages: Infants between 6 and 12 months, especially if they are fed ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... detect signs of iron-deficiency anemia and help rule out other types of anemia. Treatment will explain ... your blood. More testing may be needed to rule out other types of anemia. Tests for gastrointestinal ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... red blood cells, called hemolysis . Hemolysis, in this case, is caused by strong muscle contractions and the ... to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... your blood may be normal even if the total amount of iron in your body is low. ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... interferes with the body’s ability to make hemoglobin. Family history and genetics Von Willebrand disease is an ... deficiency anemia. Return to Risk Factors to review family history, lifestyle, unhealthy environments, or other factors that ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... diagnoses you with iron-deficiency anemia, your treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the ... of iron. The recommended daily amounts of iron will depend on your age, sex, and whether you ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... absorb iron and lead to iron-deficiency anemia. These conditions include: Intestinal and digestive conditions, such as ... tract. Inflammation from congestive heart failure or obesity . These chronic conditions can lead to inflammation that may ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ... Visit Children and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical ...

  18. Factor V deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000550.htm Factor V deficiency To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  19. Factor II deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000549.htm Factor II deficiency To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  20. Factor X deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000553.htm Factor X deficiency To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help increase your absorption ... deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend erythropoiesis stimulating agents (esa) . These medicines stimulate the bone marrow to ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... were born prematurely may be at an even higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores ... men of the same age. Women are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia under some circumstances, ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may recommend erythropoiesis stimulating agents (esa) . These medicines stimulate the bone marrow to make more red blood ... NHLBI is funding on iron-deficiency anemia. We stimulate high-impact research. Our Trans-Omics for Precision ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . View all trials from ClinicalTrials.gov . Visit Children and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up ... screen blood donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may order a blood test called a complete blood count ( ... your risk factors , do a physical exam, or order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... duodenum, the first part of the small intestine just beyond the stomach. Even if you have enough ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... less than 12 g/dl for women is diagnostic of anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, red blood ... both full-term and preterm infants. Look for Diagnosis will explain tests and procedures that your doctor ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... less than 12 g/dl for women is diagnostic of anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, red blood ... physical exam, or order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam Your doctor may ask about ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development ... iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood loss, consuming less than ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... improved health for people with iron-deficiency anemia. Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies program findings help to protect blood donors . NHLBI’s Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies (REDS) program , which began in ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency ... frequently. This study is located in New York City, and is recruiting by invitation only. View more ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 mg for children ... deficiency at certain ages: Infants between 6 and 12 months, especially if they are fed only breast ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... in our clinical trials . Are you a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... prevent complications such as abnormal heart rhythms and depression. Learn the warning signs of serious complications and ... donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency before potentially ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current and future NHLBI efforts to improve health through research and ... blood donors. Cardiovascular Health Study identifies predictors of future health problems in older adults. The NHLBI-sponsored ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ... This makes it harder to stop bleeding and can increase the risk of iron-deficiency anemia from ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such ... explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, ... iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... symptoms. More severe iron-deficiency anemia may cause fatigue or tiredness, shortness of breath, or chest pain. ... in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating Dizziness Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the most common symptom. ...

  19. Manganese deficiency in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem...... restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address...... the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability....

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... to learn more about iron-deficiency anemia, our role in research and clinical trials to improve health, ... of Blood Diseases and Resources (DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Treatment will explain treatment-related complications or side effects. Diagnosis Iron-deficiency anemia may be detected during ... to your doctor if you are experiencing side effects such as a bad metallic taste, vomiting, diarrhea, ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an increased risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of your age, unhealthy environments, family ... 12 months, especially if they are fed only breast milk or are fed formula that is not fortified ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... blood tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding ... of iron-deficiency anemia from trauma, surgery, or heavy menstrual periods. Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ... is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, including symptomatic female carriers who have heavy menstrual periods, may be ... anemia. Endurance activities and athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance athletes ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ... heavy menstrual bleeding, your doctor will want to control these other conditions to prevent you from developing ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk ... upper endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating Dizziness Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the ... Our support of SBIR/STTR programs is helping advance research in iron-deficiency anemia, in part by ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... infancy has lasting effects. We are interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life ... Customer Service/Center for Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... family history and genetics , lifestyle habits, or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron ... Signs, Symptoms, and Complications Iron-deficiency anemia can range from mild to severe. People with mild or ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron to prepare for blood loss during delivery. Screening and Prevention Your doctor may screen you for ... and symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia. Return to Screening and Prevention to review tests to screen for ...

  16. [Iron deficiency and pica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, J A; Marcos, J; Risueño, C E; de Cos, C; López, R; Capote, F J; Martín, M V; Gil, J L

    1998-02-01

    To study the relationship between pica and iron-lack anaemia in a series of iron-deficiency patients in order to establish the pathogenesis of such relationship. Four-hundred and thirty-three patients were analysed. Pica was studied by introducing certain diet queries into the clinical history. All patients received oral iron and were periodically controlled with the usual clinico-haematological procedures. Pica was present in 23 patients (5.3%). Eight nourishing (namely, coffee grains, almonds, chocolate, ice, lettuce, carrots, sunflower seeds and bread) and 2 non-nourishing (clay and paper) substances were involved. A second episode of pica appeared in 9 cases upon relapsing of iron deficiency. Both anaemia and pica were cured by etiologic and substitutive therapy in all instances. No clear correlation was found with either socio-economic status or pathogenetic causes of iron deficiency and pica, and no haematological differences were seen between patients with pica and those without this alteration. (1) The pathogenesis of pica is unclear, although it appears unrelated to the degree of iron deficiency. (2) According to the findings in this series, pica seems a consequence of iron deficiency rather than its cause. (3) Adequate therapy can cure both conditions, although pica may reappear upon relapse of iron deficiency.

  17. LIGNOCELLULOSE NANOCOMPOSITE CONTAINING COPPER SULFIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchi Nenkova; Peter Velev; Mirela Dragnevska; Diyana Nikolova; Kiril Dimitrov

    2011-01-01

    Copper sulfide-containing lignocellulose nanocomposites with improved electroconductivity were obtained. Two methods for preparing the copper sulfide lignocellulose nanocomposites were developed. An optimization of the parameters for obtaining of the nanocomposites with respect to obtaining improved electroconductivity, economy, and lower quantities and concentration of copper and sulfur ions in waste waters was conducted. The mechanisms and schemes of delaying and subsequent connection of co...

  18. Copper tolerance in Becium homblei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, C; Stone, J

    1971-04-09

    Analyses show that Becium homblei has apparently no mechanism for limiting copper uptake. As growth proceeds, the concentration of metal increases in leaves and stems. Much of the copper is bound to structural material of the cells. There is a significant difference between the amount of extractable material in root and leaf tissues. These differences, in conjunction with the extrinsic factor of regular bush fires, were important factors in the evolution of this copper-resistant species of Becium. 9 references.

  19. The activity of ascorbic acid and catechol oxidase, the rate of photosynthesis and respiration as related to plant organs, stage of development and copper supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. Łyszcz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Some experiments were performed to investigate the physiological role of copper in oat and sunflower and to recognize some effects of copper deficiency. Oat and sunflower plants were grown in pots on a peat soil under copper deficiency conditions (–Cu or with the optimal copper supply (+Cu. In plants the following measurements were carried out: 1 the activity of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO and of catechol oxidase (PPO in different plant organs and at different stages of plant development, 2 the activity and the rate of photosynthesis, 3 the activity of RuDP-carboxylase, 4 the intensity of plant respiration. The activity of AAO and of PPO, and also the rate and the activity of photosynthesis were significantly lower under conditions of copper deficiency. The activity of both discussed oxidases depended on: 1 the plant species, 2 plant organs, 3 stage of plant development. Copper deficiency caused decrease of the respiration intensity of sunflower leaves but it increased to some extent the respiration of oat tops. Obtained results are consistent with the earlier suggestion of the authors that the PPO activity in sunflower leaves could be a sensitive indicator of copper supply of the plants, farther experiments are in progress.

  20. Copper toxicity in housed lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, A H; Valks, D A; Appleton, M A; Shaw, W B

    1969-09-27

    Copper toxicity among 170 lambs artificially reared indoors at High Mowthorpe NAAS Experimental Husbandry Farm is reported. Although only three lambs were lost it is not unreasonable to suggest that the liver copper levels of the lambs which were slaughtered would have been high and losses could have been much heavier had there been any further copper supplementation. Even a copper level of 20 ppm in lamb concentrates given to lambs reared artificially indoors is dangerous, and intakes of much less than 38 mg per lamb per day can be fatal if given of a prolonged period. 5 references, 1 table.

  1. Copper and copper-nickel-alloys - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klassert, Anton; Tikana, Ladji [Deutsches Kupferinstitut e.V. Am Bonneshof 5, 40474 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    With the increasing level of industrialization the demand for and the number of copper alloys rose in an uninterrupted way. Today, the copper alloys take an important position amongst metallic materials due to the large variety of their technological properties and applications. Nowadays there exist over 3.000 standardized alloys. Copper takes the third place of all metals with a worldwide consumption of over 15 millions tons per year, following only to steel and aluminum. In a modern industrial society we meet copper in all ranges of the life (electro-technology, building and construction industry, mechanical engineering, automotive, chemistry, offshore, marine engineering, medical applications and others.). Copper is the first metal customized by humanity. Its name is attributed to the island Cyprus, which supplied in the antiquity copper to Greece, Rome and the other Mediterranean countries. The Romans called it 'ore from Cyprus' (aes cyprium), later cuprum. Copper deposited occasionally also dapper and could be processed in the recent stone age simply by hammering. Already in early historical time copper alloys with 20 to 50 percent tin was used for the production of mirrors because of their high reflecting power. Although the elementary nickel is an element discovered only recently from a historical perspective, its application in alloys - without any knowledge of the alloy composition - occurred at least throughout the last 2.000 years. The oldest copper-nickel coin originates from the time around 235 B.C.. Only around 1800 AD nickel was isolated as a metallic element. In particular in the sea and offshore technology copper nickel alloys found a broad field of applications in piping systems and for valves and armatures. The excellent combination of characteristics like corrosion resistance, erosion stability and bio-fouling resistance with excellent mechanical strength are at the basis of this success. An experience of many decades supports the use

  2. Spectrographic determination of impurities in copper and copper oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabato, S.F.; Lordello, A.R.

    1990-11-01

    An emission spectrographic method for the determination of Al, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ge, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Si, Sn and Zn in copper and copper oxide is described. Two mixtures (Graphite and ZnO: graphite and GeO sub(2)) were used as buffers. The standard deviation lies around 10%. (author)

  3. Nickel, copper and cobalt coalescence in copper cliff converter slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of various additives on coalescence of nickel, copper and cobalt from slags generated during nickel extraction. The analyzed fluxes were silica and lime while examined reductants were pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon compound. Slag was settled at the different holding temperatures for various times in conditions that simulated the industrial environment. The newly formed matte and slag were characterized by their chemical composition and morphology. Silica flux generated higher partition coefficients for nickel and copper than the addition of lime. Additives used as reducing agents had higher valuable metal recovery rates and corresponding partition coefficients than fluxes. Microstructural studies showed that slag formed after adding reductants consisted of primarily fayalite, with some minute traces of magnetite as the secondary phase. Addition of 5 wt% of pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon alloys favored the formation of a metallized matte which increased Cu, Ni and Co recoveries. Addition of copper-silicon alloys with low silicon content was efficient in copper recovery but coalescence of the other metals was low. Slag treated with the ferrosilicon facilitated the highest cobalt recovery while copper-silicon alloys with silicon content above 10 wt% resulted in high coalescence of nickel and copper, 87 % and 72 % respectively.

  4. Canine degenerative myelopathy: biochemical characterization of superoxide dismutase 1 in the first naturally occurring non-human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Matthew J; Beckett, Jeffrey; Coates, Joan R; Miller, Timothy M

    2013-10-01

    Mutations in canine superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) have recently been shown to cause canine degenerative myelopathy, a disabling neurodegenerative disorder affecting specific breeds of dogs characterized by progressive motor neuron loss and paralysis until death, or more common, euthanasia. This discovery makes canine degenerative myelopathy the first and only naturally occurring non-human model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), closely paralleling the clinical, pathological, and genetic presentation of its human counterpart, SOD1-mediated familial ALS. To further understand the biochemical role that canine SOD1 plays in this disease and how it may be similar to human SOD1, we characterized the only two SOD1 mutations described in affected dogs to date, E40K and T18S. We show that a detergent-insoluble species of mutant SOD1 is present in spinal cords of affected dogs that increases with disease progression. Our in vitro results indicate that both canine SOD1 mutants form enzymatically active dimers, arguing against a loss of function in affected homozygous animals. Further studies show that these mutants, like most human SOD1 mutants, have an increased propensity to form aggregates in cell culture, with 10-20% of cells possessing visible aggregates. Creation of the E40K mutation in human SOD1 recapitulates the normal enzymatic activity but not the aggregation propensity seen with the canine mutant. Our findings lend strong biochemical support to the toxic role of SOD1 in canine degenerative myelopathy and establish close parallels for the role mutant SOD1 plays in both canine and human disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of C1 Laminectomy Without Fusion in Patients With Cervical Myelopathy That Is Associated With a Retro-odontoid Pseudotumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Mitsuru; Neo, Masashi; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Ota, Masato; Otsuki, Bungo; Kaneko, Hiroki; Umebayashi, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    A retro-odontoid pseudotumor that is not associated with rheumatoid arthritis or hemodialysis is clinically rare. The majority of surgeons select transoral resection as the surgical treatment, often followed by posterior fusion or posterior decompression and fusion. In contrast, some authors have reported success with simple decompression without posterior stabilization in cases where atlanto-axial instability (AAI) is either absent or minor. In this study, we have evaluated the clinical and radiographic outcomes of C1 laminectomy without fusion as the surgical treatment for patients with cervical myelopathy that is associated with a retro-odontoid pseudotumor. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 10 patients who underwent C1 laminectomy without fusion for cervical myelopathy associated with a retro-odontoid pseudotumor. The average follow-up time was 29 months. All cases were graded as Ranawat grade 3a or 3b. After surgery, myelopathy improved in all of the patients. In 2 patients, the atlas-dens interval increased in the flexed position; however, this did not result in any clinical problems. The size of the retro-odontoid mass (measured on magnetic resonance images at least 12 mo after surgery) decreased in 4 of the 10 cases. AAI progression and mass enlargement were our primary concerns for this surgical option; however, C1 laminectomy did not cause severe AAI progression, no patients showed serious mass enlargement, and all patients demonstrated neurological improvement. This surgical strategy is beneficial especially for elderly patients given the risks of other surgical options that use an anterior transoral approach or posterior fusion.

  6. Characteristics of spondylotic myelopathy on 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo and 2D fast spin echo magnetic resonance imaging: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhadi, Mike A; Perno, Joseph R; Melhem, Elias R; Nucifora, Paolo G P

    2014-01-01

    In patients with spinal stenosis, magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine can be improved by using 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences to provide a high-resolution assessment of osseous and ligamentous structures. However, it is not yet clear whether 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences adequately evaluate the spinal cord itself. As a result, they are generally supplemented by additional 2D fast spin echo sequences, adding time to the examination and potential discomfort to the patient. Here we investigate the hypothesis that in patients with spinal stenosis and spondylotic myelopathy, 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences can characterize cord lesions equally well as 2D fast spin echo sequences. We performed a retrospective analysis of 30 adult patients with spondylotic myelopathy who had been examined with both 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences and 2D fast spin echo sequences at the same scanning session. The two sequences were inspected separately for each patient, and visible cord lesions were manually traced. We found no significant differences between 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo and 2D fast spin echo sequences in the mean number, mean area, or mean transverse dimensions of spondylotic cord lesions. Nevertheless, the mean contrast-to-noise ratio of cord lesions was decreased on 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences compared to 2D fast spin echo sequences. These findings suggest that 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences do not need supplemental 2D fast spin echo sequences for the diagnosis of spondylotic myelopathy, but they may be less well suited for quantitative signal measurements in the spinal cord.

  7. Lessons From Recruitment to an Internet-Based Survey for Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: Comparison of Free and Fee-Based Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy (DCM) is a syndrome of subacute cervical spinal cord compression due to spinal degeneration. Although DCM is thought to be common, many fundamental questions such as the natural history and epidemiology of DCM remain unknown. In order to answer these, access to a large cohort of patients with DCM is required. With its unrivalled and efficient reach, the Internet has become an attractive tool for medical research and may overcome these limitations in DCM. The most effective recruitment strategy, however, is unknown. Objective To compare the efficacy of fee-based advertisement with alternative free recruitment strategies to a DCM Internet health survey. Methods An Internet health survey (SurveyMonkey) accessed by a new DCM Internet platform (myelopathy.org) was created. Using multiple survey collectors and the website’s Google Analytics, the efficacy of fee-based recruitment strategies (Google AdWords) and free alternatives (including Facebook, Twitter, and myelopathy.org) were compared. Results Overall, 760 surveys (513 [68%] fully completed) were accessed, 305 (40%) from fee-based strategies and 455 (60%) from free alternatives. Accounting for researcher time, fee-based strategies were more expensive ($7.8 per response compared to $3.8 per response for free alternatives) and identified a less motivated audience (Click-Through-Rate of 5% compared to 57% using free alternatives) but were more time efficient for the researcher (2 minutes per response compared to 16 minutes per response for free methods). Facebook was the most effective free strategy, providing 239 (31%) responses, where a single message to 4 existing communities yielded 133 (18%) responses within 7 days. Conclusions The Internet can efficiently reach large numbers of patients. Free and fee-based recruitment strategies both have merits. Facebook communities are a rich resource for Internet researchers. PMID:29402760

  8. Lessons From Recruitment to an Internet-Based Survey for Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: Comparison of Free and Fee-Based Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Benjamin; Kotter, Mark

    2018-02-05

    Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy (DCM) is a syndrome of subacute cervical spinal cord compression due to spinal degeneration. Although DCM is thought to be common, many fundamental questions such as the natural history and epidemiology of DCM remain unknown. In order to answer these, access to a large cohort of patients with DCM is required. With its unrivalled and efficient reach, the Internet has become an attractive tool for medical research and may overcome these limitations in DCM. The most effective recruitment strategy, however, is unknown. To compare the efficacy of fee-based advertisement with alternative free recruitment strategies to a DCM Internet health survey. An Internet health survey (SurveyMonkey) accessed by a new DCM Internet platform (myelopathy.org) was created. Using multiple survey collectors and the website's Google Analytics, the efficacy of fee-based recruitment strategies (Google AdWords) and free alternatives (including Facebook, Twitter, and myelopathy.org) were compared. Overall, 760 surveys (513 [68%] fully completed) were accessed, 305 (40%) from fee-based strategies and 455 (60%) from free alternatives. Accounting for researcher time, fee-based strategies were more expensive ($7.8 per response compared to $3.8 per response for free alternatives) and identified a less motivated audience (Click-Through-Rate of 5% compared to 57% using free alternatives) but were more time efficient for the researcher (2 minutes per response compared to 16 minutes per response for free methods). Facebook was the most effective free strategy, providing 239 (31%) responses, where a single message to 4 existing communities yielded 133 (18%) responses within 7 days. The Internet can efficiently reach large numbers of patients. Free and fee-based recruitment strategies both have merits. Facebook communities are a rich resource for Internet researchers. ©Benjamin Davies, Mark Kotter. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http

  9. Comparative study on the passivation layers of copper sulphide minerals during bioleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kai-bin; Lin, Hai; Mo, Xiao-lan; Wang, Han; Wen, Hong-wei; Wen, Zi-long

    2012-10-01

    The bioleaching of copper sulphide minerals was investigated by using A. ferrooxidans ATF6. The result shows the preferential order of the minerals bioleaching as djurleite>bornite>pyritic chalcopyrite>covellite>porphyry chalcopyrite. The residues were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is indicated that jarosite may not be responsible for hindered dissolution. The elemental sulfur layer on the surface of pyritic chalcopyrite residues is cracked. The compact surface layer of porphyry chalcopyrite may strongly hinder copper extraction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) further confirms that the passivation layers of covellite, pyritic chalcopyrite, and porphyry chalcopyrite are copper-depleted sulphide Cu4S11, S8, and copper-rich iron-deficient polysulphide Cu4Fe2S9, respectively. The ability of these passivation layers was found as Cu4Fe2S9>Cu4S11>S8>jarosite.

  10. Development of Graves' ophthalmopathy and uveitis after radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease in a patient with HTLA-I associated myelopathy (HAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Yasunori; Migita, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Tomoji; Okuda, Itsuko; Takeshita, Akira; Takagi, Akio; Shishiba, Yoshimasa

    1994-01-01

    HTLV-I carriers or patients with HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM) are prone to immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. We present a 44-year-old female with HAM who developed Graves' disease. She developed severe Graves' ophthalmopathy shortly after 131 I therapy, concurrently with a remarkable increase in TSH-receptor antibody titer. Ophthalmopathy was aggravated in spite of prednisolone therapy and euthyroidism being maintained by thyroxine replacement. Uveitis also developed after 131 I therapy and iridocyclitis finally required trabeculotomy. This case suggests that HAM patients may have a higher risk of immune-mediated Graves' ophthalmopathy after 131 I therapy.(author)

  11. [Autoimmune syndrome in the tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy associated with human T-lymphotropic virus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Martha C; Torres, Miyerlandi; Tamayo, Oscar; Criollo, William; Quintana, Milton; Sánchez, Adalberto; García, Felipe

    2008-12-01

    Previous reports have given evidence that in tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP)/human T-lymphotrophic virus (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy (HAM), an autoimmune process occurs as part of its pathogenesis. The roles of autoimmunity and the molecular mimicry was evaluated in TSP/HAM patients. Plasma samples were characterized from patients in the Pacific coastal region of Colombia. Thirty-seven were identified as TSP/HAM, 10 were diagnosed with adult T-cell leukemia virus, 22 were asymptomatic carriers but seropositive for HTLV-I and 20 were seronegative and served as negative controls. Plasmatic levels of the following were determined: antinuclear antibody (ANA) levels, anticardiolipine-2 (ACL-2), interferon- (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Using Western blot, the crossreactivity of the seropositive and seronegative samples was evaluated against proteins extracted from several central nervous system components of non infected Wistar rats. The HTLV-I seropositive plasmas were crossreacted with a monoclonal tax (LT4 anti-taxp40) from spinal cord neurons of non infected Wistar rats. Of the TSP/HAM patients, 70.2% were reactive against ANA and 83.8% against ACL-2, in contrast with those ATL and asymptomatic seropositives subjects that were not reactive (P<0.001). Moreover, 70.3% had detectable levels of IFN and 43.2% had detectable IL-4. LT4 anti-taxp40 and plasma of TSP/HAM exhibited cross reactivity with a MW 33-35 kDa protein from the rat spinal cord nuclei. Support was provided for the existence of an autoimmune syndrome mediated by molecular mimicry; the syndrome was responsible for some of the axonal degeneration observed in TSP/HAM patients.

  12. The pathogenesis of tropical spastic paraparesis/human T-cell leukemia type I-associated myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casseb J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical spastic paraparesis/human T-cell leukemia type I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM is caused by a human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I after a long incubation period. TSP/HAM is characterized by a chronic progressive paraparesis with sphincter disturbances, no/mild sensory loss, the absence of spinal cord compression and seropositivity for HTLV-I antibodies. The pathogenesis of this entity is not completely known and involves a multivariable phenomenon of immune system activation against the presence of HTLV-I antigens, leading to an inflammatory process and demyelination, mainly in the thoracic spinal cord. The current hypothesis about the pathogenesis of TSP/HAM is: 1 presence of HTLV-I antigens in the lumbar spinal cord, noted by an increased DNA HTLV-I load; 2 CTL either with their lytic functions or release/production of soluble factors, such as CC-chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules; 3 the presence of Tax gene expression that activates T-cell proliferation or induces an inflammatory process in the spinal cord; 4 the presence of B cells with neutralizing antibody production, or complement activation by an immune complex phenomenon, and 5 lower IL-2 and IFN-gamma production and increased IL-10, indicating drive to a cytokine type 2 pattern in the TSP/HAM subjects and the existence of a genetic background such as some HLA haplotypes. All of these factors should be implicated in TSP/HAM and further studies are necessary to investigate their role in the development of TSP/HAM.

  13. Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on reducing spasticity in patients suffering from HTLV-1-associated myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mostafa; Nafissi, Shahriar; Jamal-Omidi, Shirin; Amiri, Motahareh; Fatehi, Farzad

    2014-12-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 has been implicated in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Regarding its endemicity in Iran and the role of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in reducing spasticity, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in reducing spasticity (as primary outcome) and pain, muscle power, and quality of life (as secondary outcomes) in patients suffering from HAM/TSP. In this pretest-posttest study, nine definite patients with HAM/TSP (according to WHO guidelines) were recruited. All patients underwent five consecutive daily sessions of active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (each session consisting of 20 trains of 10 pulses at 5 Hz and an intensity of 90% of resting motor threshold for the biceps brachii muscle). Main outcome measures including spasticity (by modified Ashworth scale), pain (by visual analog scale), muscle power, and quality of life (by SF 36) were measured before the study and days 5, 7, 30 after the termination of the sessions. Seven (77.8%) females and 2 (22.2%) males were recruited with the mean age of 52 ± 12.67 years, and the mean duration of the disease was 5 ± 3.94. Comparison of the repeated measures showed a statistically significant decrease in pain and spasticity in lower limbs. The decrement in spasticity was persistent even 30 days after the intervention; however, the pain reduction was seen only 5 days after the procedure. No change in quality of life, and muscle power was detected. It seems that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation could decrease spasticity and pain in patients with HAM/TSP, and this effect could persistently continue by 1 month, but it did not influence patients' muscle power and quality of life, and it could be used as an adjuvant therapy in patients suffering from human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated HAM/TSP.

  14. Upregulation of CB2 receptors in reactive astrocytes in canine degenerative myelopathy, a disease model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Trapero, María; Espejo-Porras, Francisco; Rodríguez-Cueto, Carmen; Coates, Joan R.; Pérez-Díaz, Carmen; de Lago, Eva; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Targeting of the CB2 receptor results in neuroprotection in the SOD1G93A mutant mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The neuroprotective effects of CB2 receptors are facilitated by their upregulation in the spinal cord of the mutant mice. Here, we investigated whether similar CB2 receptor upregulation, as well as parallel changes in other endocannabinoid elements, is evident in the spinal cord of dogs with degenerative myelopathy (DM), caused by mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1). We used well-characterized post-mortem spinal cords from unaffected and DM-affected dogs. Tissues were used first to confirm the loss of motor neurons using Nissl staining, which was accompanied by glial reactivity (elevated GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity). Next, we investigated possible differences in the expression of endocannabinoid genes measured by qPCR between DM-affected and control dogs. We found no changes in expression of the CB1 receptor (confirmed with CB1 receptor immunostaining) or NAPE-PLD, DAGL, FAAH and MAGL enzymes. In contrast, CB2 receptor levels were significantly elevated in DM-affected dogs determined by qPCR and western blotting, which was confirmed in the grey matter using CB2 receptor immunostaining. Using double-labelling immunofluorescence, CB2 receptor immunolabelling colocalized with GFAP but not Iba-1, indicating upregulation of CB2 receptors on astrocytes in DM-affected dogs. Our results demonstrate a marked upregulation of CB2 receptors in the spinal cord in canine DM, which is concentrated in activated astrocytes. Such receptors could be used as a potential target to enhance the neuroprotective effects exerted by these glial cells. PMID:28069688

  15. Upregulation of CB2 receptors in reactive astrocytes in canine degenerative myelopathy, a disease model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernández-Trapero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Targeting of the CB2 receptor results in neuroprotection in the SOD1G93A mutant mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. The neuroprotective effects of CB2 receptors are facilitated by their upregulation in the spinal cord of the mutant mice. Here, we investigated whether similar CB2 receptor upregulation, as well as parallel changes in other endocannabinoid elements, is evident in the spinal cord of dogs with degenerative myelopathy (DM, caused by mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1. We used well-characterized post-mortem spinal cords from unaffected and DM-affected dogs. Tissues were used first to confirm the loss of motor neurons using Nissl staining, which was accompanied by glial reactivity (elevated GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity. Next, we investigated possible differences in the expression of endocannabinoid genes measured by qPCR between DM-affected and control dogs. We found no changes in expression of the CB1 receptor (confirmed with CB1 receptor immunostaining or NAPE-PLD, DAGL, FAAH and MAGL enzymes. In contrast, CB2 receptor levels were significantly elevated in DM-affected dogs determined by qPCR and western blotting, which was confirmed in the grey matter using CB2 receptor immunostaining. Using double-labelling immunofluorescence, CB2 receptor immunolabelling colocalized with GFAP but not Iba-1, indicating upregulation of CB2 receptors on astrocytes in DM-affected dogs. Our results demonstrate a marked upregulation of CB2 receptors in the spinal cord in canine DM, which is concentrated in activated astrocytes. Such receptors could be used as a potential target to enhance the neuroprotective effects exerted by these glial cells.

  16. Image analysis of open-door laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy: comparing the influence of cord morphology and spine alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bon-Jour; Lin, Meng-Chi; Lin, Chin; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Feng, Shao-Wei; Ju, Da-Tong; Ma, Hsin-I; Liu, Ming-Ying; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have identified the factors affecting the surgical outcome of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) following laminoplasty. Nonetheless, the effect of these factors remains controversial. It is unknown about the association between pre-operative cervical spinal cord morphology and post-operative imaging result following laminoplasty. The goal of this study is to analyze the impact of pre-operative cervical spinal cord morphology on post-operative imaging in patients with CSM. Twenty-six patients with CSM undergoing open-door laminoplasty were classified according to pre-operative cervical spine bony alignment and cervical spinal cord morphology, and the results were evaluated in terms of post-operative spinal cord posterior drift, and post-operative expansion of the antero-posterior dura diameter. By the result of study, pre-operative spinal cord morphology was an effective classification in predicting surgical outcome - patients with anterior convexity type, description of cervical spinal cord morphology, had more spinal cord posterior migration than those with neutral or posterior convexity type after open-door laminoplasty. Otherwise, the interesting finding was that cervical spine Cobb's angle had an impact on post-operative spinal cord posterior drift in patients with neutral or posterior convexity type spinal cord morphology - the degree of kyphosis was inversely proportional to the distance of post-operative spinal cord posterior drift, but not in the anterior convexity type. These findings supported that pre-operative cervical spinal cord morphology may be used as screening for patients undergoing laminoplasty. Patients having neutral or posterior convexity type spinal cord morphology accompanied with kyphotic deformity were not suitable candidates for laminoplasty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased low-frequency oscillation amplitude of sensorimotor cortex associated with the severity of structural impairment in cervical myelopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqing Zhou

    Full Text Available Decreases in metabolites and increased motor-related, but decreased sensory-related activation of the sensorimotor cortex (SMC have been observed in patients with cervical myelopathy (CM using advanced MRI techniques. However, the nature of intrinsic neuronal activity in the SMC, and the relationship between cerebral function and structural damage of the spinal cord in patients with CM are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to assess intrinsic neuronal activity by calculating the regional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI, and correlations with clinical and imaging indices. Nineteen patients and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects underwent rs-fMRI scans. ALFF measurements were performed in the SMC, a key brain network likely to impaired or reorganized patients with CM. Compared with healthy subjects, increased amplitude of cortical low-frequency oscillations (LFO was observed in the right precentral gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, and left supplementary motor area. Furthermore, increased z-ALFF values in the right precentral gyrus and right postcentral gyrus correlated with decreased fractional anisotropy values at the C2 level, which indicated increased intrinsic neuronal activity in the SMC corresponding to the structural impairment in the spinal cord of patients with CM. These findings suggest a complex and diverging relationship of cortical functional reorganization and distal spinal anatomical compression in patients with CM and, thus, add important information in understanding how spinal cord integrity may be a factor in the intrinsic covariance of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations of BOLD signals involved in cortical plasticity.

  18. Physiotherapy for human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated myelopathy: review of the literature and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sá KN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Katia N Sá,1 Maíra C Macêdo,1 Rosana P Andrade,2 Selena D Mendes,1 José V Martins,3 Abrahão F Baptista1,4 1Neuromusculoskeletal Research Group, Bahian School of Medicine and Human Health, Salvador, Brazil; 2Edgard Santos University Hospital, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, 3Deolindo Couto Institute of Neurology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 4Biomorphology Department, Health Sciences Institute, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil Abstract: Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1 infection may be associated with damage to the spinal cord – HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis – and other neurological symptoms that compromise everyday life activities. There is no cure for this disease, but recent evidence suggests that physiotherapy may help individuals with the infection, although, as far as we are aware, no systematic review has approached this topic. Therefore, the objective of this review is to address the core problems associated with HTLV-1 infection that can be detected and treated by physiotherapy, present the results of clinical trials, and discuss perspectives on the development of knowledge in this area. Major problems for individuals with HTLV-1 are pain, sensory-motor dysfunction, and urinary symptoms. All of these have high impact on quality of life, and recent clinical trials involving exercises, electrotherapeutic modalities, and massage have shown promising effects. Although not influencing the basic pathologic disturbances, a physiotherapeutic approach seems to be useful to detect specific problems related to body structures, activity, and participation related to movement in HTLV-1 infection, as well as to treat these conditions. Keywords: HTLV-1, HAM/TSP, physical therapy modalities, quality of life, pain, sensory-motor dysfunction, urinary symptoms

  19. Computed tomography in cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy: Visualisation of structures, myelographic comparison, cord measurements and clinical utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Y.L.; Du Boulay, G.H.; Stevens, J.M.; Kendall, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    Sixty-nine patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), radiculopathy (CSR), or both (CSMR) were studied with computed tomography (CT). Computer-assisted myelography (CAM) accurately determines the site and nature of spondylotic protrusions and provides good visualisation of the subarachnoid space and cord deformities even in areas with dilute metrizamide. However, excessive vertebral movement and bulging ligamenta flava with their effects on cord deformity, so easily visualised in myelograms, are completely or partially missed. In the assessment of CSM, metrizamide myelography (MM) followed by CAM should be performed, particularly when the myelographic images are unsatisfactory due to contrast dilution or blockage, when cord compression cannot be ascertained with MM and when cord atrophy is suspected. In CSR, the diagnostic information from MM and CAM is comparable. The diagnostic criteria in CAM are, however, less direct and since MM is adequate in uncomplicated cases, CAM is generally not necessary. The APD, APD/TD ratio, area and circularity are sensitive indices of cord deformity and the first two should be used more often to assist visual assessment of cord deformity. The relation between cord parameters and treatment response is better reflected in CSM cases managed conservatively and the results suggest that the degree of cord deformity is helpful in determining the outcome and hence the choice between surgical and conservative treatment. In plain CT, the osteophytes and calcified discs are adequately visualised and canal dimensions measured with accuracy, but the cervical cord and roots cannot be properly assessed and the diagnosis of CSM or CSR cannot be ascertained. At present, its role in cervical spondylosis is therefore limited. (orig.)

  20. The functional relevance of diffusion tensor imaging in comparison to conventional MRI in patients with cervical compressive myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Young-Mi; Oh, Jae-Keun; Song, Ji-Sun [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Spine Center, Anyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Woo-Kyoung [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Anyang-si (Korea, Republic of); Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Hallym Institute for Translational Genomics and Bioinformatics, Anyang-si (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Je Hyun; Kwak, Yoon Hae [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Department of Orthopaedic surgery, Anyang-si (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Woo [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Spine Center, Anyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Department of Orthopaedic surgery, Anyang-si (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    To determine the functional relevance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics and conventional MRI (signal intensity change in T2, compression ratio) by measuring the correlation of these parameters with clinical outcome measured by the modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) score. A total of 20 cervical myelopathy (CM) patients participated in this prospective cohort study. The severities of CM were assessed using the mJOA score. Conventional MRIs (T2-weighted images) measuring the signal changes of spinal cords and the degree of compression at the lesion level and DTI metrics [fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)] at each lesion and below each lesion (C7/T1) level were acquired using a 3-T Achieva MRI. These parameters were correlated with the mJOA scores to determine the functional relevance. Ninety percent of CM patients showed signal changes and 30 % of patients noted a more than 40% canal compression ratio in conventional MRIs at the lesion level; however, these findings were not correlated with the mJOA score (p < 0.05). In contrast, FA values on DTI showed high sensitivity to CM (100%), which was well correlated with the mJOA score (p = 0.034, r = 0.475) below the lesion level (C7/T1). This study showed a meaningful symptomatic correlation between mJOA scores and FA values below the lesion levels in CM patients. It could give us more understanding of the pathological changes in spinal cords matched with various clinical findings in CM patients than the results from conventional MRI. (orig.)

  1. Cervical myelopathy due to single level disc herniation presenting as intramedullary mass lesion: What to do first?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Sakir Eksi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical myelopathy (CM is mostly a degenerative process ending in myelopathic and/or radiculopathic syndromes. On T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, CM appears as a hyperintense area near the spondylotic spine. This high intensity signal depends on the impact of outer forces and their duration. It also determines the prognosis of the surgical candidate. A 40-year-old male patient admitted to our clinic with right upper extremity weakness and hypoesthesia that had started 2 months earlier. On neurological examination there was 2/5 motor weakness of right biceps brachii, and hypoesthesia over right C6 dermatome. Right upper extremity deep tendon reflexes were hypoactive, but lower ones were hyperactive. After clinical and radiological work-up, preliminary diagnosis was directed to a spinal intramedullary tumor. Total resection of the herniated cervical disc fragment and the mass lesion was managed. Pathology of the mass lesion was compatible with subacute infarct tissue and inflammatory response. Final diagnosis was CM under effect of cervical disc herniation. Contrast-enhanced spinal cord myelopathic lesions are very rare and resemble much more tumors and inflammatory processes. However, the principal treatment approach totally differs depending on pathology. When there are both a disc herniation and a high clinical suspicion; biopsy should be delayed. The most probable solution will be surgery for the disc disease with thorough preoperative scanning of vascular malformations; clinical and radiological close follow-up after surgery. Biopsy or surgical resection can be performed if patient deteriorates despite the primary surgery.

  2. Development of a new assessment tool for cervical myelopathy using hand-tracking sensor: Part 1: validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagha, M Abdulhadi; Alagha, Mahmoud A; Dunstan, Eleanor; Sperwer, Olaf; Timmins, Kate A; Boszczyk, Bronek M

    2017-04-01

    To assess the reliability and validity of a hand motion sensor, Leap Motion Controller (LMC), in the 15-s hand grip-and-release test, as compared against human inspection of an external digital camera recording. Fifty healthy participants were asked to fully grip-and-release their dominant hand as rapidly as possible for two trials with a 10-min rest in-between, while wearing a non-metal wrist splint. Each test lasted for 15 s, and a digital camera was used to film the anterolateral side of the hand on the first test. Three assessors counted the frequency of grip-and-release (G-R) cycles independently and in a blinded fashion. The average mean of the three was compared with that measured by LMC using the Bland-Altman method. Test-retest reliability was examined by comparing the two 15-s tests. The mean number of G-R cycles recorded was: 47.8 ± 6.4 (test 1, video observer); 47.7 ± 6.5 (test 1, LMC); and 50.2 ± 6.5 (test 2, LMC). Bland-Altman indicated good agreement, with a low bias (0.15 cycles) and narrow limits of agreement. The ICC showed high inter-rater agreement and the coefficient of repeatability for the number of cycles was ±5.393, with a mean bias of 3.63. LMC appears to be valid and reliable in the 15-s grip-and-release test. This serves as a first step towards the development of an objective myelopathy assessment device and platform for the assessment of neuromotor hand function in general. Further assessment in a clinical setting and to gauge healthy benchmark values is warranted.

  3. The role of DTI in early detection of cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a preliminary study with 3-T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kara, Batuhan [Bakirkoey Dr. Sadi Konuk Teaching Hospital, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Celik, Azim [General Electric Healthcare, Istanbul (Turkey); Karadereler, Selhan [Florence Nightingale Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Istanbul (Turkey); Ulusoy, Levent; Ganiyusufoglu, Kursat; Onat, Levent; Mutlu, Ayhan; Sirvanci, Mustafa [Florence Nightingale Hospital, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Ornek, Ibrahim [Florence Nightingale Hospital, Department of Neurology, Istanbul (Turkey); Hamzaoglu, Azmi [Florence Nightingale Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-08-15

    The radiological diagnosis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) has to be made as soon as possible, since surgery performed in earlier stages during the course of CSM was reported to be more successful when compared with later stages. We hypothesized that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may detect CSM in earlier stages, before the appearance of signal increase in T2-weighted sequences. A total of 16 patients with neurological signs and symptoms of CSM but without hyperintensity in spinal cord on T2-weighted sequences enrolled in the study. The magnetic resonance (MR) examinations were performed on a 3-T MR imaging system. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated on axial plane. The ADC and FA measurements in each individual were made at the level of most severe cervical canal stenosis and at a nonstenotic level. Student's t test was used to compare FA and ADC values of the spinal cord in stenotic and nonstenotic segments. We also investigated if there was a correlation between DTI parametrics and duration of clinical symptoms by using Pearson correlation analysis. All patients showed changes in DTI parametrics at stenotic segments. While FA values of the spinal cord at the stenotic level showed a statistically significant reduction, there was a statistically significant increase in the measured ADC values (p < 0.001). There was no statistical correlation between the duration of symptoms and DTI parametrics. Our preliminary findings indicate that DTI may show abnormalities in the spinal cord before the development of T2 hyperintensity on conventional sequences in patients with CSM. (orig.)

  4. The role of DTI in early detection of cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a preliminary study with 3-T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, Batuhan; Celik, Azim; Karadereler, Selhan; Ulusoy, Levent; Ganiyusufoglu, Kursat; Onat, Levent; Mutlu, Ayhan; Sirvanci, Mustafa; Ornek, Ibrahim; Hamzaoglu, Azmi

    2011-01-01

    The radiological diagnosis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) has to be made as soon as possible, since surgery performed in earlier stages during the course of CSM was reported to be more successful when compared with later stages. We hypothesized that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may detect CSM in earlier stages, before the appearance of signal increase in T2-weighted sequences. A total of 16 patients with neurological signs and symptoms of CSM but without hyperintensity in spinal cord on T2-weighted sequences enrolled in the study. The magnetic resonance (MR) examinations were performed on a 3-T MR imaging system. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated on axial plane. The ADC and FA measurements in each individual were made at the level of most severe cervical canal stenosis and at a nonstenotic level. Student's t test was used to compare FA and ADC values of the spinal cord in stenotic and nonstenotic segments. We also investigated if there was a correlation between DTI parametrics and duration of clinical symptoms by using Pearson correlation analysis. All patients showed changes in DTI parametrics at stenotic segments. While FA values of the spinal cord at the stenotic level showed a statistically significant reduction, there was a statistically significant increase in the measured ADC values (p < 0.001). There was no statistical correlation between the duration of symptoms and DTI parametrics. Our preliminary findings indicate that DTI may show abnormalities in the spinal cord before the development of T2 hyperintensity on conventional sequences in patients with CSM. (orig.)

  5. Molecular Diagnostics of Copper-Transporting Protein Mutations Allows Early Onset Individual Therapy of Menkes Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králík, L; Flachsová, E; Hansíková, H; Saudek, V; Zeman, J; Martásek, P

    2017-01-01

    Menkes disease is a severe X-linked recessive disorder caused by a defect in the ATP7A gene, which encodes a membrane copper-transporting ATPase. Deficient activity of the ATP7A protein results in decreased intestinal absorption of copper, low copper level in serum and defective distribution of copper in tissues. The clinical symptoms are caused by decreased activities of copper-dependent enzymes and include neurodegeneration, connective tissue disorders, arterial changes and hair abnormalities. Without therapy, the disease is fatal in early infancy. Rapid diagnosis of Menkes disease and early start of copper therapy is critical for the effectiveness of treatment. We report a molecular biology-based strategy that allows early diagnosis of copper transport defects and implementation of individual therapies before the full development of pathological symptoms. Low serum copper and decreased activity of copperdependent mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase in isolated platelets found in three patients indicated a possibility of functional defects in copper-transporting proteins, especially in the ATPA7 protein, a copper- transporting P-type ATPase. Rapid mutational screening of the ATP7A gene using high-resolution melting analysis of DNA indicated presence of mutations in the patients. Molecular investigation for mutations in the ATP7A gene revealed three nonsense mutations: c.2170C>T (p.Gln724Ter); c.3745G>T (p.Glu1249Ter); and c.3862C>T (p.Gln1288Ter). The mutation c.3745G>T (p.Glu1249Ter) has not been identified previously. Molecular analysis of the ATOX1 gene as a possible modulating factor of Menkes disease did not reveal presence of pathogenic mutations. Molecular diagnostics allowed early onset of individual therapies, adequate genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis in the affected families.

  6. Impairment of interrelated iron- and copper homeostatic mechanisms in brain contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjørringe, Tina; Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Moos, Torben

    2012-01-01

    is strictly regulated, and concordantly protective barriers, i.e., the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCB) have evolved to separate the brain environment from the circulation. The uptake mechanisms of the two metals interact. Both iron deficiency and overload lead...... involved in iron transport. Iron and copper are mainly taken up at the BBB, but the BCB also plays a vital role in the homeostasis of the two metals, in terms of sequestering, uptake, and efflux of iron and copper from the brain. Inside the brain, iron and copper are taken up by neurons and glia cells...

  7. Antepartum Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Nakajima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD is the most common type urea cycle enzyme deficiencies. This syndrome results from a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme ornithine transcarbamylase, which catalyzes the conversion of ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to citrullin. Our case was a 28-year-old female diagnosed with OTCD following neurocognitive deficit during her first pregnancy. Although hyperammonemia was suspected as the cause of the patient's mental changes, there was no evidence of chronic liver disease. Plasma amino acid and urine organic acid analysis revealed OTCD. After combined modality treatment with arginine, sodium benzoate and hemodialysis, the patient's plasma ammonia level stabilized and her mental status returned to normal. At last she recovered without any damage left.

  8. [Clinical study on spinal cord decompression combined with traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng; Tan, Ming-Sheng; Yi, Ping; Tang, Xiang-Sheng; Hao, Qing-Ying; Qi, Ying-Na

    2018-01-25

    To compare the clinical effect between spinal card decompression combined with traditional Chinese medicine and simple spinal card decompression for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. From June 2012 to June 2015, 73 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy were treated, including 42 males and 31 females, aged from 29 to 73 years old with a mean of 50.9 years old. The patients were divided into the simple operation group (34 cases) and the operation combined with traditional Chinese medicine group(39 cases) according to the idea of themselves. The anterior discectomy or subtotal corpectomy with internal fixation or posterior simple open-door decompression with lateral mass screw fixation were performed in the patients. Among them, 39 cases were treated with traditional Chinese medicine after surgery. The Japanese orthopedic association (JOA) score of spinal cord function, the improvement rate of neural function, the neck dysfunction index (NDI) score and the governor vessel stasis syndrome score were compared between two groups preoperative and postoperative 1 week, 1 month and the final follow-up respectively. The internal fixation and the condition of spinal cord decompression were observed by CT, MRI and X-rays before and after operation. All the operations were successful, no injuries such as dura mater, spinal cord and nerve root were found. All the wounds were healed without infection except one patient had a superficial infection. It was solved after intermittent debridement and anti-infective therapy. Hematoma occurred in 1 case, complicated with spinal cord compression, caused incomplete paralysis, and promptly performed the re-operation to remove the hematoma without any obvious sequelae. All the patients were followed up from 12 to 24 months, (14.6±0.8) months for simple operation group and (13.5±0.7) months for operation combined with traditional Chinese medicine group, and there was no significant difference( P >0.05). The scores of JOA, NDI and

  9. Vitamin Excess and Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Liliane; Krebs, Nancy F

    2018-04-01

    The published literature supports the high prevalence of supplement use in children and adolescents in the United States. Pediatricians today are faced with questions from parents and patients about the benefits, safety, efficacy, and correct dose of vitamins and minerals. In this article, we review 7 vitamins with the most clinical relevance as judged by abundance in food, risks and symptoms of deficiency, and potential for toxicity. Specifically, we focus on possible clinical scenarios that can be indicative of nutritional deficiency. We synthesize and summarize guidelines from nutrition experts, various medical societies, the World Health Organization, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. © American Academy of Pediatrics, 2018. All rights reserved.

  10. Copper: From neurotransmission to neuroproteostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Opazo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper is critical for the Central Nervous System (CNS development and function. In particular, different studies have shown the effect of copper at brain synapses, where it inhibits Long Term Potentation (LTP and receptor pharmacology. Paradoxically, according to recent studies copper is required for a normal LTP response. Copper is released at the synaptic cleft, where it blocks glutamate receptors, which explain its blocking effects on excitatory neurotransmission. Our results indicate that copper also enhances neurotransmission through the accumulation of PSD95 protein, which increase the levels of AMPA receptors located at the plasma membrane of the post-synaptic density. Thus, our findings represent a novel mechanism for the action of copper, which may have implications for the neurophysiology and neuropathology of the CNS. These data indicate that synaptic configuration is sensitive to transient changes in transition metal homeostasis. Our results suggest that copper increases GluA1 subunit levels of the AMPA receptor through the anchorage of AMPA receptors to the plasma membrane as a result of PSD-95 accumulation. Here, we will review the role of copper on neurotransmission of CNS neurons. In addition, we will discuss the potential mechanisms by which copper could modulate neuronal proteostasis (neuroproteostasis in the CNS with focus in the Ubiquitin Proteasome System, which is particularly relevant to neurological disorders such Alzheimer’s disease (AD where copper and protein dyshomeostasis may contribute to neurodegeneration. An understanding of these mechanisms may ultimately lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches to control metal and synaptic alterations observed in AD patients.

  11. White muscle disease in three selenium deficient beef and dairy calves in Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Martín Rodriguez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: White muscle disease (WMD, nutritional myodegeneration or enzootic muscular dystrophy, is a nutritional condition associated with selenium and/or vitamin E deficiency in ruminants. These elements are constituents of the major body antioxidant systems. Depletion of selenium results in oxidative damage to cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, resulting in myodegeneration and myonecrosis, typical lesions of WMD. Selenium deficiency is common in South America, but WMD is underreported. This research describes clinical, biochemical and pathological findings in two episodes of WMD associated with selenium deficiency in beef and dairy calves in Argentina and Uruguay with concurrent copper deficiency in one of them, which resulted in spontaneous calf mortality. Further studies are necessary to estimate the true incidence and economic impact of clinical and subclinical mineral deficiencies in livestock production systems in the southern cone of South America.

  12. Advanced Copper Composites Against Copper-Tolerant Xanthomonas perforans and Tomato Bacterial Spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer-Scherer, A; Liao, Y Y; Young, M; Ritchie, L; Vallad, G E; Santra, S; Freeman, J H; Clark, D; Jones, J B; Paret, M L

    2018-02-01

    Bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas spp., is a widespread and damaging bacterial disease of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). For disease management, growers rely on copper bactericides, which are often ineffective due to the presence of copper-tolerant Xanthomonas strains. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of the new copper composites core-shell copper (CS-Cu), multivalent copper (MV-Cu), and fixed quaternary ammonium copper (FQ-Cu) as potential alternatives to commercially available micron-sized copper bactericides for controlling copper-tolerant Xanthomonas perforans. In vitro, metallic copper from CS-Cu and FQ-Cu at 100 μg/ml killed the copper-tolerant X. perforans strain within 1 h of exposure. In contrast, none of the micron-sized copper rates (100 to 1,000 μg/ml) from Kocide 3000 significantly reduced copper-tolerant X. perforans populations after 48 h of exposure compared with the water control (P copper-based treatments killed the copper-sensitive X. perforans strain within 1 h. Greenhouse studies demonstrated that all copper composites significantly reduced bacterial spot disease severity when compared with copper-mancozeb and water controls (P copper composites significantly reduced disease severity when compared with water controls, using 80% less metallic copper in comparison with copper-mancozeb in field studies (P copper composites have the potential to manage copper-tolerant X. perforans and tomato bacterial spot.

  13. What Is Combined Deficiency of Vitamin K-Dependent Clotting Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ...

  14. Common γ-chain blocking peptide reduces in vitro immune activation markers in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, Raya; Enose-Akahata, Yoshimi; Tagaya, Yutaka; Azimi, Nazli; Basheer, Asjad; Jacobson, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a progressive inflammatory myelopathy occurring in a subset of HTLV-1-infected individuals. Despite advances in understanding its immunopathogenesis, an effective treatment remains to be found. IL-2 and IL-15, members of the gamma chain (γc) family of cytokines, are prominently deregulated in HAM/TSP and underlie many of the characteristic immune abnormalities, such as spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation (SP), increased STAT5 phosphorylation in the lymphocytes, and increased frequency and cytotoxicity of virus-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CTLs). In this study, we describe a novel immunomodulatory strategy consisting of selective blockade of certain γc family cytokines, including IL-2 and IL-15, with a γc antagonistic peptide. In vitro, a PEGylated form of the peptide, named BNZ132-1-40, reduced multiple immune activation markers such as SP, STAT5 phosphorylation, spontaneous degranulation of CD8(+) T cells, and the frequency of transactivator protein (Tax)-specific CD8(+) CTLs, thought to be major players in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. This strategy is thus a promising therapeutic approach to HAM/TSP with the potential of being more effective than single monoclonal antibodies targeting either IL-2 or IL-15 receptors and safer than inhibitors of downstream signaling molecules such as JAK1 inhibitors. Finally, selective cytokine blockade with antagonistic peptides might be applicable to multiple other conditions in which cytokines are pathogenic.

  15. The relationship between cervical lordosis and Nurick scores in patients undergoing circumferential vs. posterior alone cervical decompression, instrumentation and fusion for treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shalin; Glivar, Phillip; Asgarzadie, Farbod; Cheng, David Juma Wayne; Danisa, Olumide

    2017-11-01

    The loss of regional cervical sagittal alignment and the progressive development of cervical kyphosis is a factor in the advancement of myelopathy. Adequate decompression of the spinal canal along with reestablishment of cervical lordosis are desired objective with regard to the surgical treatment of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. A retrospective chart review was conducted in which patients who underwent either a combined anterior/posterior instrumentation and decompression or a posterior alone instrumentation and decompression for the treatment of CSM at our institution were identified. Any patient undergoing operative intervention for trauma, infection or tumors were excluded. Similarly, patients undergoing posterior instrumentation with constructs extending beyond the level of C2-C7 were similarly excluded from this study. A total of 67 patients met the inclusion criteria for this study. A total of 32 patients underwent posterior alone surgery and the remaining 35 underwent combined anterior/posterior procedure. Radiographic evaluation of patient's preoperative and postoperative cervical lordosis as measured by the C2-C7 Cobb angle was performed. Each patient's preoperative and postoperative functional disability as enumerated by the Nurick score was also recorded. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine if there was a significant relationship between improvement in cervical lordosis and improvement in patient's clinical outcomes as enumerated by the Nurick Score in patients undergoing posterior alone versus combined anterior/posterior decompression, instrumentation and fusion of the cervical spine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spinal cord edema with contrast enhancement mimicking intramedullary tumor in patient with cervical myelopathy: A case report and a brief literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkasdaris, Grigorios; Chourmouzi, Danai; Karagiannidis, Apostolos; Kapetanakis, Stylianos

    2017-01-01

    Cervical myelopathy (CM) is a clinical diagnosis that may be associated with hyperintense areas on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. The use of contrast enhancement in such areas to differentiate between neoplastic and degenerative disease has rarely been described. We present a 41-year-old female with a 5-month course of progressive CM. The cervical MRI revealed spinal cord swelling, stenosis, and a hyperintense signal at the C5-C6 and C5-C7 levels. Both the neurologic and radiologic examinations were consistent with an intramedullary cervical cord tumor. To decompress the spinal canal, an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion was performed from C5 to C7 level. This resulted in immediate and significant improvement of the myelopathy. Postoperatively, over 1.5 years, the hyperintense, enhancing intramedullary lesion gradually regressed on multiple postoperative MRI scans. Spinal cord edema is occasionally seen on MR studies of the cervical spine in patients with degenerative CM. Contrast-enhanced MR studies may help differentiate hyperintense cord signals due to edema vs. atypical intramedullary tumors. Routine successive postoperative MRI evaluations are crucial to confirm the diagnosis of degenerative vs. neoplastic disease.

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... grams per deciliter (g/dl) for men and less than 12 g/dl for women is diagnostic of anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, ... blood levels of iron will be low, or less than 10 micromoles per liter (mmol/L) for both men and women. Normal levels are 10 to 30 mmol/L. ...

  18. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolk, Jan; Seersholm, Niels; Kalsheker, Noor

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha One International Registry (AIR), a multinational research program focused on alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, was formed in response to a World Health Organization recommendation. Each of the nearly 20 participating countries maintains a national registry of patients with AAT defic...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as proton ... reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) ... We are interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life ...