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Sample records for copper deficiency myeloneuropathy

  1. Approach to a case of myeloneuropathy

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    Ravindra Kumar Garg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myeloneuropathy is a frequently encountered condition and often poses a diagnostic challenge. A variety of nutritional, toxic, metabolic, infective, inflammatory, and paraneoplastic disorders can present with myeloneuropathy. Deficiencies of vitamin B12, folic acid, copper, and vitamin E may lead to myeloneuropathy with a clinical picture of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. Among infective causes, chikungunya virus has been shown to produce a syndrome similar to myeloneuropathy. Vacuolar myelopathy seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is clinically very similar to subacute combined degeneration. A paraneoplastic myeloneuropathy, an immune-mediated disorder associated with an underlying malignancy, may rarely be seen with breast cancer. Tropical myeloneuropathies are classified into two overlapping clinical entities — tropical ataxic neuropathy and tropical spastic paraparesis. Tropical spastic paraparesis, a chronic noncompressive myelopathy, has frequently been reported from South India. Establishing the correct diagnosis of myeloneuropathy is important because compressive myelopathies may pose diagnostic confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord typically reveals characteristic signal changes on T2-weighted images of the cervical spinal cord. Once the presence of myeloneuropathy is established, all these patients should be subjected to a battery of tests. Blood levels of vitamin B12, folic acid, vitamins A, D, E, and K, along with levels of iron, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, and calcium should be assessed. The pattern of neurologic involvement and results obtained from a battery of biochemical tests often help in establishing the correct diagnosis.

  2. Proximal Limb Weakness in a Patient with Celiac Disease: Copper Deficiency, Gluten Sensitivity, or Both as the Underlying Cause?

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    J. David Avila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease has been associated with several neurologic disorders which may result from micronutrient deficiencies, coexisting autoimmune conditions, or gluten sensitivity. Copper deficiency can produce multiple neurologic manifestations. Myeloneuropathy is the most common neurologic syndrome and it is often irreversible, despite copper replacement. We report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with progressive proximal limb weakness and weight loss in the setting of untreated celiac disease without gastrointestinal symptoms. He had anemia, neutropenia, and severe hypocupremia. The pattern of weakness raised the suspicion that there was an underlying myopathy, although this was not confirmed by electrodiagnostic studies. Weakness and hematologic abnormalities resolved completely within 1 month of total parenteral nutrition with copper supplementation and a gluten-free diet. Myopathy can rarely occur in patients with celiac disease, but the mechanism is unclear. Pure proximal limb weakness has not been previously reported in copper deficiency. We propose that this may represent a novel manifestation of hypocupremia and recommend considering copper deficiency and gluten sensitivity in patients presenting with proximal limb weakness.

  3. Proximal Limb Weakness in a Patient with Celiac Disease: Copper Deficiency, Gluten Sensitivity, or Both as the Underlying Cause?

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    Avila, J David; Lacomis, David

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease has been associated with several neurologic disorders which may result from micronutrient deficiencies, coexisting autoimmune conditions, or gluten sensitivity. Copper deficiency can produce multiple neurologic manifestations. Myeloneuropathy is the most common neurologic syndrome and it is often irreversible, despite copper replacement. We report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with progressive proximal limb weakness and weight loss in the setting of untreated celiac disease without gastrointestinal symptoms. He had anemia, neutropenia, and severe hypocupremia. The pattern of weakness raised the suspicion that there was an underlying myopathy, although this was not confirmed by electrodiagnostic studies. Weakness and hematologic abnormalities resolved completely within 1 month of total parenteral nutrition with copper supplementation and a gluten-free diet. Myopathy can rarely occur in patients with celiac disease, but the mechanism is unclear. Pure proximal limb weakness has not been previously reported in copper deficiency. We propose that this may represent a novel manifestation of hypocupremia and recommend considering copper deficiency and gluten sensitivity in patients presenting with proximal limb weakness.

  4. Microvascular effects of copper deficiency in rats

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    Schuschke, D.A.; Saari, J.T.; Ackermann, D.M.; Miller, F.N. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (USA))

    1989-02-15

    We have studied the microcirculatory responses in copper deficient rats using the rat cremaster muscle preparation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a copper supplemented diet (CuS, 5 ppm) or a copper deficient diet (CuD, O ppm) for five weeks prior to experimentation. The rats (240-300g) were anesthetized with pentobarbital and the cremaster (with intact nerve and blood supply) were spread in a tissue bath filled with krebs solution. In vivo television microscopy was used to observe the microcirculation. Fluorescein isothiocyanate tagged to bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) was injected i.a. 30 min prior to the start of experimentation. In the CuS animals photoactivation of the intravascular FITC-BSA caused significant platelet aggregation and reduction in red blood cell column diameter (RBCCD) by 30 min and stasis of flow by 60 min. In CuD animals there was no reduction in RBCCD and only minor platelet aggregation after 60 min of photoactivation. Topical administration of compound 48/80 (1.0 and 10.0 {mu}g/ml) induced a significantly greater macromolecular leakage (increased interstitial fluorescence of FITC-BSA) in the CuD animals than in the control, CuS animals. These results suggest that copper deficiency results in marked alterations of the regulatory mechanisms governing thrombosis and inflammation.

  5. Myeloneuropathy following nitrous oxide anesthaesia in a patient with macrocytic anaemia

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    Sesso, R.M.C.C.; Iunes, Y.; Melo, A.C.P. [Department of Neurology, Instituto de Assistencia Medica ao Servidor Publico Estadual, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1999-08-01

    The neurological condition triggered by anaesthesia with nitrous oxide involves the cyanocobalamine pathway and is characterised by progressive demyelination and axonal lesions of the peripheral nerves and cervicothoracic spinal cord (posterior and anterolateral columns) giving a peripheral neuropathy and very frequently subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. It is possible to show these demyelinating lesions by MRI of the spine, allowing early diagnosis and follow-up. We describe a case of myeloneuropathy with onset a few hours after nitrous oxide anaesthesia in a patient with macrocytic anaemia and possible subclinical vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency and MRI evidence of a lesion of the cervical spinal cord. Neurological and haematological improvement followed cyanocobalamine replacement. (orig.) With 2 figs., 15 refs.

  6. Three distinct cases of copper deficiency in hospitalized pediatric patients.

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    Dembinski, Karolina; Gargasz, Anne Elizabeth; Dabrow, Sharon; Rodriguez, Lisa

    2012-08-01

    Although copper deficiency is a rare occurrence in the developed world, attention should be given to the proper supplementation of minerals to at-risk pediatric patients. This study presents 3 distinct cases of copper deficiency in hospitalized patients aged 14 months, 6 years, and 12 years. Two patients had short bowel syndrome, requiring prolonged parenteral nutrition or complex intravenous fluid supplementation. The third patient was severely malnourished. Copper deficiency manifested in all of our patients as either microcytic anemia or pancytopenia with myelodysplastic syndrome. Copper deficiency is an important diagnosis to be considered in patients with prematurity, parenteral nutrition dependency, malabsorption, and/or those with malnutrition. More studies are needed to establish appropriate amounts of copper supplementation to replenish copper stores in deficient patients.

  7. Copper deficiency in patients with cystinosis with cysteamine toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besouw, Martine T P; Schneider, Jerry; Janssen, Mirian C;

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether copper deficiency plays a role in the recently described cysteamine toxicity in patients with cystinosis, and to examine whether polymorphisms in copper transporters, lysyl oxidase, and/or type I procollagen genes could be responsible for the occurrence of cysteamine toxicity in...

  8. Night blindness due to vitamin A deficiency associated with copper deficiency myelopathy secondary to bowel bypass surgery

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    Abdul Jabbar AlHassany, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We present an interesting case of combined vitamin A and copper deficiency after a history of gastric bypass surgery where symptoms improved after parenteral copper and vitamin A treatment. Gastric bypass surgery as a cause of fat soluble vitamin deficiency is generally under-reported. Copper deficiency has been reported after gastric bypass surgery. Vitamin A deficiency after gastric bypass surgery has also been reported in the literature, but the reported cases again fall below the actual f...

  9. Effect of copper deficiency and of water stress on the microstructure of tomato leaf surface

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    Barbara Dyki; Jan Borowski; Waldemar Kowalczyk

    2013-01-01

    The reaction of tomato plants cv. Tukan F1 to copper deficiency and to water stress was compared. Plants grown in copper deficiency and in conditions of water stress were significantly smaller than controls. They had also lower turgor. The epidermis cells of the upper side leaf in the plants growing in copper deficiency or water stress conditions were smaller than in control plants. However the stomata and trichomes number of leaves plants with copper or water deficiency grown were bigger in ...

  10. Night blindness due to vitamin A deficiency associated with copper deficiency myelopathy secondary to bowel bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHassany, Ali Abdul Jabbar

    2014-04-29

    We present an interesting case of combined vitamin A and copper deficiency after a history of gastric bypass surgery where symptoms improved after parenteral copper and vitamin A treatment. Gastric bypass surgery as a cause of fat soluble vitamin deficiency is generally under-reported. Copper deficiency has been reported after gastric bypass surgery. Vitamin A deficiency after gastric bypass surgery has also been reported in the literature, but the reported cases again fall below the actual figures. B12 and folate deficiencies can produce a type of myelopathy similar to that produced by copper deficiency, and differentiation on the basis of laboratory tests, neurophysiology and improvement of symptoms after replacement therapy might be the hallmark of diagnosis. Combinations of vitamin deficiencies were previously reported, but no cases of combined vitamin A and copper deficiency could be found in the literature.

  11. Copper Deficiency in Sheep with High Liver Iron Accumulation

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    Isadora Karolina Freitas de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of enzootic ataxia among sheep raised in the northeastern region of Brazil is described. Copper (Cu deficiency was diagnosed in a herd of 56 sheep, among which five presented characteristic clinical symptoms of enzootic ataxia. The symptoms began 30 days after birth, with a clinical condition that included locomotion difficulty, limb ataxia, tremors, and continual falls. Liver biopsies were performed and blood was collected to determine hepatic and plasmatic Cu, iron (Fe, and zinc (Zn concentration, respectively. The laboratory results showed that the animals presented low copper concentrations in the plasma and liver, without difference between the clinically healthy animals and those affected by enzootic ataxia. Even after supplementation with adequate Cu levels had been recommended, it was found on a new visit to the farm four months later that one animal still presented a clinical condition and that the hepatic Cu levels of the herd had not risen. Despite the low copper content of the diet, the high hepatic Fe levels found suggest that antagonism due to this element may have been an important factor in triggering copper deficiency in these animals, and thus, additional copper supplementation may be necessary for these animals.

  12. Experimental Copper Deficiency, Chromium Deficiency and Additional Molybdenum Supplementation in Goats – Pathological Findings

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    Frank A

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary copper (Cu deficiency, chromium (Cr deficiency and molybdenosis (Mo has been suggested to cause the "mysterious" moose disease in the southwest of Sweden. The present experiment was performed on goats to investigate the clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations after 20 months feeding of a semi-synthetic diet deficient in Cu and Cr. Four groups were included in the study: control group (n = 4, Cu-deficient group (group 1, n = 4, Cr-deficient group (group 2, n = 2 and Cu+Cr-deficient group (group 3, n = 3. Group 3 was additionally supplemented with tetrathiomolybdate during the last 2 months of the experiment. Main histopathological findings in groups 1 and 3 were the lesions in the liver, characterised by a severe active fibrosis, bile duct proliferation, haemosiderosis and mild necroses. Additionally, degenerative alterations of the exocrine pancreas were prominent in groups 1 and 3. Lesions in group 3 were more pronounced than in group 1. In group 3, the skin showed an atrophic dermatosis, while in group 2 a crusty dermatitis caused by Candida spp. was observed. This study shows that liver, pancreas and skin are mainly affected by a long term deficiency of copper and the findings are complicated by molybdenum application while chromium deficiency produced no histomorphological effects in our study.

  13. Copper overload and deficiency both adversely affect the central nervous system of Drosophila.

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    Hwang, Joab E C; de Bruyne, Marinus; Warr, Coral G; Burke, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The human copper homeostasis disorders Menkes and Wilson disease both have severe neurological symptoms. Menkes is a copper deficiency disorder whereas Wilson disease patients suffer from copper toxicity, indicating that tight control of neuronal copper levels is essential for proper nervous system development and function. Here we examine the consequences of neuronal copper deficiency and excess in the Drosophila melanogaster nervous system, using targeted manipulation of the copper uptake genes Ctr1A and Ctr1B and efflux gene ATP7 in combination with altered dietary copper levels. We find that pan-neuronal over expression of Ctr1B and ATP7 both result in a reduction in viability. The effects of Ctr1B over expression are exacerbated by dietary copper supplementation and rescued by copper limitation indicating a copper toxicity phenotype. Dietary manipulation has the opposite effect on ATP7 over expression, indicating that this causes neuronal copper deficiency due to excessive copper efflux. Copper deficiency also causes a highly penetrant developmental defect in surviving adult flies which can be replicated by both copper excess and copper deficiency targeted specifically to a small subset of neuropeptidergic cells. We conclude that both copper overload and excess have detrimental effects on Drosophila neuronal function, reducing overall fly viability as well as impacting on a specific neuropeptide pathway.

  14. Effect of copper deficiency on plasma and adrenal catecholamines

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    Kennedy, B.W.; Bhathena, S.J.; Fields, M.; Voyles, N.R.; Timmers, K.I.; Recant, L.

    1986-03-01

    Copper (Cu) ion is an essential component of enzymes involved in catecholamine (CAT) metabolism. Copper deficiency (CuD) has been shown to affect the CAT content of brain (decreased norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA)) and heart (increased DA and decreased NE). It is thus possible that plasma and adrenal CAT could be altered by CuD. The authors, then, investigated the effect of CuD on plasma and adrenal CAT in rats fed copper-deficient (0.6 ..mu..g Cu/g) or copper-supplemented (6.0 ..mu..g Cu/g) diets with either 62% starch (S) or fructose (F) as the carbohydrate source for 7 weeks after weaning. CuD was ascertained by decreased plasma Cu and ceruloplasmin activity. CuD increased the levels of all three CAT (NE, P < 0.001, epinephrine (E), P < 0.0001 and DA, P < 0.01) in plasma, but had no effect on adrenal CAT content. Dietary F had no significant effect on plasma CAT compared to S but did increase E in adrenal tissue (P < 0.001). They have previously demonstrated that CuD is accompanied by increased plasma glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol and decreased insulin. Thus, increased plasma CAT along with decreased plasma insulin may explain, in part, the glucose intolerance and abnormal lipid metabolism observed in CuD.

  15. Peripheral neuropathy in a copper-deficient goat

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    Valdir Morais de Almeida

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This report aimed to describe a case of peripheral neuropathy in a copper-deficient goat, and highlights the clinical, and pathological features of the disease. The goat had low body score, hyporexia, alopecia, achromotrichia, left hindlimb protraction, paralysis with dragging of digit and difficulty to stand up and microcytic normochromic anemia. Copper concentration in serum was markedly lower (2.0µmol L-1 whereas the iron serum content was significantly increased (51.0µmol L-1. The main gross alteration was the reduction of the quadriceps vastus laterallis muscle volume. Histologically, there was atrophy of the quadriceps vastus laterallis muscle and presence of satellite cells, infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages and replacement of the fibers by connective tissue. In the femoral nerve, there was axonal degeneration with myelin sheath expansion and presence of vacuoles, usually in chains and containing axonal debris or macrophages. Clinical, laboratorial and pathologic findings are consistent with peripheral neuropathy due to a severy copper deficiency.

  16. Effect of copper deficiency and of water stress on the microstructure of tomato leaf surface

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    Barbara Dyki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of tomato plants cv. Tukan F1 to copper deficiency and to water stress was compared. Plants grown in copper deficiency and in conditions of water stress were significantly smaller than controls. They had also lower turgor. The epidermis cells of the upper side leaf in the plants growing in copper deficiency or water stress conditions were smaller than in control plants. However the stomata and trichomes number of leaves plants with copper or water deficiency grown were bigger in comparision with control. The pores of stomata were always larger in leaves of control plants than in other objects.

  17. Excretion of laccase by sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells. Effects of a copper deficiency.

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    Bligny, R; Gaillard, J; Douce, R

    1986-07-15

    Copper-deprived sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells do not excrete molecules of active laccase in their culture medium. In the range of 2-100 micrograms of copper initially present per litre of nutrient solution, the total laccase activity measured in the cell suspensions at the end of the exponential phase of growth was closely proportional to the amount of added copper. However, copper-deprived cells excreted the laccase apoprotein (laccase without copper) at the same rate as copper-supplied cells excreted the active, copper-containing, laccase. When the culture medium was initially supplied with limiting amounts of copper, the active laccase was excreted until all copper molecules were metabolized. Thereafter, the laccase apoprotein was excreted. Consequently, at the end of the exponential phase of growth, the cell supernatants contained a mixture of apoprotein and copper-containing laccase. After purification and concentration, this mixture of copper-containing laccase (blue) and laccase apoprotein (slightly yellow) showed a yellow-green colour. Under copper-limiting culture conditions an equivalent decrease of Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3 Cu2+ was observed. Addition of copper to copper-deficient enzyme solutions does not result in a recovery of the enzyme activity. However, when added to copper-deficient sycamore-cell suspensions, copper induced a recovery of the excretion of active enzyme, at a normal rate, within about 10 h. The first molecules of active laccase were excreted after 3-4 h.

  18. Sulfur-Induced Copper Deficiency in the Yaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Xiao-yun

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1990s, yak in the Haizi area in China has been affected by an ailment characterized by pica, emaciation, dyskinesia,and anemia. To determine the cause of disease, the mineral composition of soil and forages, and samples of blood, hair,and liver of yaks from the Haizi area in China were determined. The concentrations of copper in soil and forage from affected ranches and unaffected areas are within the normal ranges. The mean concentration of copper in blood and liver from the affected yaks was (0.31± 0.03) and (13.7 ± 3.1)μg g-1, respectively, compared with (0.98±0.16) and (95.6±11.2)μg g-1for unaffected yaks. The concentrations of sulfur in soil and forage from affected ranches were (1.91±0.26) and (1 .37±0.17)%, respectively, compared with (1.11±0.31) and (0.52±0.18)% (dry matter) for normal areas. The contents of sulfur in blood and liver affected animals were (7.32 ± 1.8) and (2.54 ± 3. 1)%, respectively, compared with (4.22±0.73) and (1.31 ± 0.33)% (in fresh and soft tissues) for healthy animals, respectively. Oral administration of tribasic copper chloride prevented and cured the disease. Thus it is reasonable to conclude that ailments of yaks in the Haizi area are probably caused by a secondary copper deficiency, mainly due to high sulfur content in soil and forage.

  19. Marginal Copper Deficiency Increases Liver Neutrophil Accumulation After Ischemia/Reperfusion in Rats

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    Copper deficiency can lead to an augmented inflammatory response through effects on both neutrophils and the microvascular endothelium. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of marginal copper deficiency on the inflammatory injury response to hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. Male weanlin...

  20. Myelopathy secondary to copper deficiency as a complication of treatment of Wilson's disease.

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    Lozano Herrero, Jesús; Muñoz Bertrán, Eduardo; Ortega González, Isabel; Gómez Espín, Rosa; López Espín, María Isabel

    2012-12-01

    Wilson's Disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism resulting in a pathological accumulation of this metal, initially in the liver and later in other organs, mainly brain. Treatment with copper chelating agents and zinc salts results in a depletion of copper deposits and prevents or reverses the clinical manifestations. Copper deficiency may cause haematological and neurological changes, the latter principally being polyneuropathy and myelopathy. We report a patient with WD who developed a myelopathy associated with a deficiency of copper following prolonged treatment with D-penicillamine and zinc salts.

  1. Copper Transporter 2 Content Is Lower in Liver and Heart of Copper-Deficient Rats

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    Jesse Bertinato

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu transporter 2 (Ctr2 is a transmembrane protein that transports Cu across cell membranes and increases cytosolic Cu levels. Experiments using cell lines have suggested that Ctr2 expression is regulated by Cu status. The importance of changes in Ctr2 expression is underscored by recent studies demonstrating that lower Ctr2 content in cells increases the cellular uptake of platinum-containing cancer drugs and toxicity to the drugs. In this study, we examined whether Ctr2 expression is altered by a nutritional Cu deficiency in vivo. Ctr2 mRNA and protein in liver and heart from rats fed a normal (Cu-N, moderately deficient (Cu-M or deficient (Cu-D Cu diet was measured. Rats fed the Cu-deficient diets showed a dose-dependent decrease in liver Ctr2 protein compared to Cu-N rats. Ctr2 protein was 42% and 85% lower in Cu-M and Cu-D rats, respectively. Liver Ctr2 mRNA was 50% lower in Cu-D rats and unaffected in Cu-M rats. In heart, Ctr2 protein was only lower in Cu-D rats (46% lower. These data show that Cu deficiency decreases Ctr2 content in vivo.

  2. Mild copper deficiency alters gene expression of proteins involved in iron metabolism.

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    Auclair, Sylvain; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Coudray, Charles; Schneider, Susanne; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Mazur, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Iron and copper homeostasis share common proteins and are therefore closely linked to each other. For example, copper-containing proteins like ceruloplasmin and hephaestin oxidize Fe(2+) during cellular export processes for transport in the circulation bound to transferrin. Indeed, copper deficiency provokes iron metabolism disorders leading to anemia and liver iron accumulation. The aim of the present work was to understand the cross-talk between copper status and iron metabolism. For this purpose we have established dietary copper deficiency in C57BL6 male mice during twelve weeks. Hematological parameters, copper and iron status were evaluated. cDNA microarray studies were performed to investigate gene expression profiles of proteins involved in iron metabolism in the liver, duodenum and spleen. Our results showed that copper deficiency induces microcytic and hypochromic anemia as well as liver iron overload. Gene expression profiles, however, indicate that hepatic and intestinal mRNA expression neither compensates for hepatic iron overload nor the anemia observed in this mouse model. Instead, major modifications of gene expression occurred in the spleen. We observed increased mRNA levels of the transferrin receptors 1 and 2 and of several proteins involved in the heme biosynthesis pathway (ferrochelatase, UroD, UroS,...). These results suggest that copper-deficient mice respond to the deficiency induced anemia by an adaptation leading to an increase in erythrocyte synthesis.

  3. The solution structure of the copper clioquinol complex.

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    Pushie, M Jake; Nienaber, Kurt H; Summers, Kelly L; Cotelesage, Julien J H; Ponomarenko, Olena; Nichol, Helen K; Pickering, Ingrid J; George, Graham N

    2014-04-01

    Clioquinol (5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline) recently has shown promising results in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and in cancer therapy, both of which also are thought to be due to clioquinol's ability as a lipophilic copper chelator. Previously, clioquinol was used as an anti-fungal and anti-protozoal drug that was responsible for an epidemic of subacute myelo-optic neuropathy (SMON) in Japan during the 1960s, probably a myeloneuropathy arising from a clioquinol-induced copper deficiency. Previous X-ray absorption spectroscopy of solutions of copper chelates of clioquinol suggested unusual coordination chemistry. Here we use a combination of electron paramagnetic, UV-visible and X-ray absorption spectroscopies to provide clarification of the chelation chemistry between clioquinol and copper. We find that the solution structures for the copper complexes formed with stoichiometric and excess clioquinol are conventional 8-hydroxyquinolate chelates. Thus, the promise of clioquinol in new treatments for Alzheimer's disease and in cancer therapy is not likely to be due to any novel chelation chemistry, but rather due to other factors including the high lipophilicity of the free ligand and chelate complexes.

  4. Regression of Copper-Deficient Heart Hypertrophy: Reduction in the Size of Hypertrophic Cardiomyocytes

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    Dietary copper deficiency causes cardiac hypertrophy and its transition to heart failure in a mouse model. Copper repletion results in a rapid regression of cardiac hypertrophy and prevention of heart failure. The present study was undertaken to understand dynamic changes of cardiomyocytes in the hy...

  5. Copper deficiency and effects of copper supplementation in a herd of red deer (Cervus elaphus

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    Bernhoft Aksel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Copper (Cu deficiency was diagnosed in a Norwegian red deer (Cervus elaphus herd subsequent to deaths due to emaciation in late autumn 1999. The animals had free access to salt licks containing 3000 mg Cu/kg. An evaluation of the herd revealed poor calf growth rate, low weights of adult hinds, dull and light-coloured hair coats and cases of diarrhoea. The herd was subsequently monitored throughout a three-year period of Cu-supplementation. The monitoring regimen included clinical observation, copper serum examination, weighing, faecal parasitological examination, and reproduction control by ultrasound. During the period January 2000 to May 2001, the animals were treated with Cu oxid capsules (1 g CuO/10 kg liveweight at 2–4 months intervals, with the exception of March to September 2000. The animals were fed continuously with Cu-enriched concentrates containing 300 mg Cu/kg, at a rate of 1/2 kg per head and day, from May 2001 to January 2003. Following both copper supplementation regimens adequate serum Cu concentrations were measured, and markedly improved body weights, coat quality and reproductive results were observed, except for the period from March to September 2000 when no treatment was given. The results showed that in a deer herd, with a diet low in Cu, supplementation with CuO capsules had to be given at intervals of a few months to maintain adequate serum Cu levels. Free access to Cu-containing salt licks did not meet the animals' Cu demand. Good and stable results were achieved by the daily feeding of Cu-enriched concentrates.

  6. Copper deficiency in a herd of captive muskoxen.

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    Blakley, B R; S. C. Tedesco; Flood, P F

    1998-01-01

    At necropsy, a mature muskox cow was found to have exceedingly low serum and liver copper concentrations of 4.8 = mumol/L and 0.02 mmol/kg, respectively. Serum copper levels were also low in remaining members of the herd but returned to normal after parenteral treatment with calcium copper edetate.

  7. A targetable fluorescent sensor reveals that copper-deficient SCO1 and SCO2 patient cells prioritize mitochondrial copper homeostasis.

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    Dodani, Sheel C; Leary, Scot C; Cobine, Paul A; Winge, Dennis R; Chang, Christopher J

    2011-06-08

    We present the design, synthesis, spectroscopy, and biological applications of Mitochondrial Coppersensor-1 (Mito-CS1), a new type of targetable fluorescent sensor for imaging exchangeable mitochondrial copper pools in living cells. Mito-CS1 is a bifunctional reporter that combines a Cu(+)-responsive fluorescent platform with a mitochondrial-targeting triphenylphosphonium moiety for localizing the probe to this organelle. Molecular imaging with Mito-CS1 establishes that this new chemical tool can detect changes in labile mitochondrial Cu(+) in a model HEK 293T cell line as well as in human fibroblasts. Moreover, we utilized Mito-CS1 in a combined imaging and biochemical study in fibroblasts derived from patients with mutations in the two synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 1 and 2 proteins (SCO1 and SCO2), each of which is required for assembly and metalation of functionally active cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Interestingly, we observe that although defects in these mitochondrial metallochaperones lead to a global copper deficiency at the whole cell level, total copper and exchangeable mitochondrial Cu(+) pools in SCO1 and SCO2 patient fibroblasts are largely unaltered relative to wild-type controls. Our findings reveal that the cell maintains copper homeostasis in mitochondria even in situations of copper deficiency and mitochondrial metallochaperone malfunction, illustrating the importance of regulating copper stores in this energy-producing organelle.

  8. The Arabidopsis COPT6 transport protein functions in copper distribution under copper-deficient conditions.

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    Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Andrés-Colás, Nuria; Perea-García, Ana; Neumann, Ulla; Dodani, Sheel C; Huijser, Peter; Peñarrubia, Lola; Puig, Sergi

    2013-08-01

    Copper (Cu), an essential redox active cofactor, participates in fundamental biological processes, but it becomes highly cytotoxic when present in excess. Therefore, living organisms have established suitable mechanisms to balance cellular and systemic Cu levels. An important strategy to maintain Cu homeostasis consists of regulating uptake and mobilization via the conserved family of CTR/COPT Cu transport proteins. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, COPT1 protein mediates root Cu acquisition, whereas COPT5 protein functions in Cu mobilization from intracellular storage organelles. The function of these transporters becomes critical when environmental Cu bioavailability diminishes. However, little is know about the mechanisms that mediate plant Cu distribution. In this report, we present evidence supporting an important role for COPT6 in Arabidopsis Cu distribution. Similarly to COPT1 and COPT2, COPT6 fully complements yeast mutants defective in high-affinity Cu uptake and localizes to the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis cells. Whereas COPT2 mRNA is only up-regulated upon severe Cu deficiency, COPT6 transcript is expressed under Cu excess conditions and displays a more gradual increase in response to decreases in environmental Cu levels. Consistent with COPT6 expression in aerial vascular tissues and reproductive organs, copt6 mutant plants exhibit altered Cu distribution under Cu-deficient conditions, including increased Cu in rosette leaves but reduced Cu levels in seeds. This altered Cu distribution is fully rescued when the wild-type COPT6 gene is reintroduced into the copt6 mutant line. Taken together, these findings highlight the relevance of COPT6 in shoot Cu redistribution when environmental Cu is limited.

  9. Colloidal silver ingestion with copper and caeruloplasmin deficiency.

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    Stepien, Karolina M; Taylor, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The copper concentration in serum can be affected by the presence of other trace elements such as silver. Low serum copper may result in decreased caeruloplasmin synthesis. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman, who was admitted to hospital with acute psychosis and who had been ingesting chronically, colloidal silver.

  10. Acute myeloneuropathy: An uncommon presentation of Sjögren′s syndrome

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    Rajesh Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjögren′s syndrome is associated with central and peripheral nervous system involvement. The peripheral neuropathy is usually a sensory predominant neuropathy or a cranial neuropathy. Myelopathy is usually of focal, subacute, chronic or relapsing type. Acute myeloneuropathy as the predominant manifestation has not been described in the literature. We describe a middle aged woman who presented with an acute onset motor quadriparesis and bladder dysfunction. She had dryness of eyes and mouth for 8 months. Nerve conduction studies revealed motor axonal neuropathy and magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord showed T2 hyperintensities involving entire cord. Mild perineural fibrosis, focal foamy changes in endoneurium and lymphocytic infiltration were seen in sural nerve biopsy specimen. Patient improved clinically after intravenous methylprednisolone therapy.

  11. Zinc Deficiency Impacts CO2 Assimilation and Disrupts Copper Homeostasis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malasarn, Davin; Kropat, Janette; Hsieh, Scott I.; Finazzi, Giovanni; Casero, David; Loo, Joseph A.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Wollman, Francis-André; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient because of its role in catalysis and in protein stabilization, but excess zinc is deleterious. We distinguished four nutritional zinc states in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: toxic, replete, deficient, and limited. Growth is inhibited in zinc-limited and zinc-toxic cells relative to zinc-replete cells, whereas zinc deficiency is visually asymptomatic but distinguished by the accumulation of transcripts encoding ZIP family transporters. To identify targets of zinc deficiency and mechanisms of zinc acclimation, we used RNA-seq to probe zinc nutrition-responsive changes in gene expression. We identified genes encoding zinc-handling components, including ZIP family transporters and candidate chaperones. Additionally, we noted an impact on two other regulatory pathways, the carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) and the nutritional copper regulon. Targets of transcription factor Ccm1 and various CAH genes are up-regulated in zinc deficiency, probably due to reduced carbonic anhydrase activity, validated by quantitative proteomics and immunoblot analysis of Cah1, Cah3, and Cah4. Chlamydomonas is therefore not able to grow photoautotrophically in zinc-limiting conditions, but supplementation with 1% CO2 restores growth to wild-type rates, suggesting that the inability to maintain CCM is a major consequence of zinc limitation. The Crr1 regulon responds to copper limitation and is turned on in zinc deficiency, and Crr1 is required for growth in zinc-limiting conditions. Zinc-deficient cells are functionally copper-deficient, although they hyperaccumulate copper up to 50-fold over normal levels. We suggest that zinc-deficient cells sequester copper in a biounavailable form, perhaps to prevent mismetallation of critical zinc sites. PMID:23439652

  12. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium metabolism in patients with human growth hormone deficiency or acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, K; Nishi, Y; Hatano, S; Kihara, M; Ohta, M; Sakoda, K; Uozumi, T; Usui, T

    1985-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate trace metal metabolism in patients with known abnormalities of human growth hormone (hGH). The mean concentration of zinc in plasma and urine decreased in patients with hGH deficiency after hGH injection, whereas, after adenomectomy, in patients with acromegaly, zinc increased in plasma, remained the same in erythrocytes, and decreased in urine. There was a negative correlation between plasma zinc and serum hGH levels and a positive correlation between urinary zinc excretion and serum hGH levels in acromegaly. In hGH deficiency, the copper content remained unchanged in plasma and erythrocytes and rose in urine after treatment; however, in acromegaly, the copper content increased in plasma and remained unchanged in erythrocytes and urine after surgery. The mean concentration of erythrocyte manganese did not change significantly after treatment in patients with hGH deficiency or acromegaly, but the pre-hGH treatment level of erythrocyte manganese in hGH deficiency was lower than in the controls. Plasma selenium concentrations were decreased in hGH deficiency and increased in acromegaly patients after therapy. These results suggest that hGH affects the metabolism of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium.

  13. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergaz, Zivanit, E-mail: zivanit@hadassah.org.il [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Shoshani-Dror, Dana [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Guillemin, Claire [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Weksler-Zangen, Sarah [Diabetes Research Unit, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, MN (United States); Ornoy, Asher [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2012-12-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  14. Copper deficiency induced emphysema is associated with focal adhesion kinase inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Mizuno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Copper is an important regulator of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α dependent vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression, and is also required for the activity of lysyl oxidase (LOX to effect matrix protein cross-linking. Cell detachment from the extracellular matrix can induce apoptosis (anoikis via inactivation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK. METHODOLOGY: To examine the molecular mechanisms whereby copper depletion causes the destruction of the normal alveolar architecture via anoikis, Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper deficient diet for 6 weeks while being treated with the copper chelator, tetrathiomolybdate. Other groups of rats were treated with the inhibitor of auto-phosphorylation of FAK, 1,2,4,5-benzenetetraamine tetrahydrochloride (1,2,4,5-BT or FAK small interfering RNA (siRNA. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Copper depletion caused emphysematous changes, decreased HIF-1α activity, and downregulated VEGF expression in the rat lungs. Cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8 and Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim expression was increased, and the phosphorylation of FAK was decreased in copper depleted rat lungs. Administration of 1,2,4,5-BT and FAK siRNA caused emphysematous lung destruction associated with increased expression of cleaved capase-3, caspase-8 and Bim. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that copper-dependent mechanisms contribute to the pathogenesis of emphysema, which may be associated with decreased HIF-1α and FAK activity in the lung.

  15. Imaging of human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated chronic progressive myeloneuropathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcindor, F. (Dept. of Neurology, State Univ. of New York, Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)); Valderrama, R. (Dept. of Neurology, State Univ. of New York, Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)); Canavaggio, M. (Abbott Labs., North Chicago, IL (United States)); Lee, H. (Abbott Labs., North Chicago, IL (United States)); Katz, A. (Dept. of Neurology, State Univ. of New York, Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)); Montesinos, C. (Beth Israel Medical Center, Dept. of Neurology and Clinical Electrophysiology, New York, NY (United States)); Madrid, R.E. (New York State Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, Inst. for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, NY (United States)); Merino, R.R. (Beth Israel Medical Center, Dept. of Neurology and Clinical Electrophysiology, New York, NY (United States)); Pipia, P.A. (Dept. of Neurology, State Univ. of New York, Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States))

    1992-12-01

    We studied magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head and cervical spine and CT of the head in 46 patients (14 men, 32 women) with chronic progressive myeloneuropathy. The findings were correlated with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) serology, race, country of origin, and age. We found a female predominance of 2:1. Most patients were aged between 30 and 50 years, and most were Caribbean immigrants and black. There were 9 men and 17 women with blood antibody titers to HTLV-I and 7 mem and 15 women with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) titers. All patients with virus or antibodies in blood or CSF were Caribbean immigrants or black. T2-weighted cranial MRI showed scattered areas of high signal intensity in the cerebral white matter, usually in the periventricular and subcortical areas, but not in the posterior cranial fossa. Cranial CT revealed periventricular low density areas, ventricular enlargement, and atrophy MRI of the cervical spine showed atrophy of the cord. Myelography was normal in all 15 patients examined. No imaging differences were observed between the HTLV-I-positive and -negative patients. These findings, although consistent with demyelination, are not specific. (orig.)

  16. The Proteome of Copper, Iron, Zinc, and Manganese Micronutrient Deficiency in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Scott I.; Castruita, Madeli; Malasarn, Davin; Urzica, Eugen; Erde, Jonathan; Page, M. Dudley; Yamasaki, Hiroaki; Casero, David; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Loo, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Trace metals such as copper, iron, zinc, and manganese play important roles in several biochemical processes, including respiration and photosynthesis. Using a label-free, quantitative proteomics strategy (MSE), we examined the effect of deficiencies in these micronutrients on the soluble proteome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We quantified >103 proteins with abundances within a dynamic range of 3 to 4 orders of magnitude and demonstrated statistically significant changes in ∼200 proteins in each metal-deficient growth condition relative to nutrient-replete media. Through analysis of Pearson's coefficient, we also examined the correlation between protein abundance and transcript abundance (as determined via RNA-Seq analysis) and found moderate correlations under all nutritional states. Interestingly, in a subset of transcripts known to significantly change in abundance in metal-replete and metal-deficient conditions, the correlation to protein abundance is much stronger. Examples of new discoveries highlighted in this work include the accumulation of O2 labile, anaerobiosis-related enzymes (Hyd1, Pfr1, and Hcp2) in copper-deficient cells; co-variation of Cgl78/Ycf54 and coprogen oxidase; the loss of various stromal and lumenal photosynthesis-related proteins, including plastocyanin, in iron-limited cells; a large accumulation (from undetectable amounts to over 1,000 zmol/cell) of two COG0523 domain-containing proteins in zinc-deficient cells; and the preservation of photosynthesis proteins in manganese-deficient cells despite known losses in photosynthetic function in this condition. PMID:23065468

  17. Arabidopsis copper transport protein COPT2 participates in the cross talk between iron deficiency responses and low-phosphate signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea-García, Ana; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Andrés-Colás, Nuria; Vera-Sirera, Francisco; Pérez-Amador, Miguel A; Puig, Sergi; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2013-05-01

    Copper and iron are essential micronutrients for most living organisms because they participate as cofactors in biological processes, including respiration, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress protection. In many eukaryotic organisms, including yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammals, copper and iron homeostases are highly interconnected; yet, such interdependence is not well established in higher plants. Here, we propose that COPT2, a high-affinity copper transport protein, functions under copper and iron deficiencies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). COPT2 is a plasma membrane protein that functions in copper acquisition and distribution. Characterization of the COPT2 expression pattern indicates a synergic response to copper and iron limitation in roots. We characterized a knockout of COPT2, copt2-1, that leads to increased resistance to simultaneous copper and iron deficiencies, measured as reduced leaf chlorosis and improved maintenance of the photosynthetic apparatus. We propose that COPT2 could play a dual role under iron deficiency. First, COPT2 participates in the attenuation of copper deficiency responses driven by iron limitation, possibly to minimize further iron consumption. Second, global expression analyses of copt2-1 versus wild-type Arabidopsis plants indicate that low-phosphate responses increase in the mutant. These results open up new biotechnological approaches to fight iron deficiency in crops.

  18. [Metabolic and nutritional neuropathies: update in diabetes, vitamin B12 and copper deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franques, J; Gazzola, S

    2013-12-01

    Metabolic and deficiency neuropathies retain a growing interest because of their important prevalence. The dismemberment of diabetic neuropathies is proceeded, letting distinct pathophysiological mechanisms appear. So, even if glycaemic control remains determining for preventing the neuropathy associated with type 1 diabetes, it seems to have a restricted role with type 2 diabetes in which other metabolic factors are involved. The diagnosis of neuropathy due to B12 vitamin deficiency remains a real challenge for the clinician. Indeed, positive and negative predictive values of serum B12 and metabolites assay are weak, only a good therapeutic response allows a reliable diagnostic. It is so recommended to know the clinical and contextual particularities of this etiology in order to not delay the vitamin substitution, determining for the functional outcome. Finally, copper deficiency remains an unknown cause of neuropathy which is suitable to raise in case of malabsorption but also and especially in case of abuse of dental adhesive rich in zinc.

  19. Beer improves copper metabolism and increases longevity in Cu-deficient rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.J.; Klevay, L.M. (Dept. of Agriculture, Grand Forks, ND (USA))

    1989-02-09

    Moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages decreases risk of death from ischemic heart disease (IHD). Evidence suggests that Cu-deficiency is important in the etiology and pathophysiology of IHD. The effect of beer (25 ng Cu/ml) drinking on the severity of Cu-deficiency was examined in weanling, male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a low Cu diet (0.84 {mu}g Cu/g). Beer drinking increased median longevity to 204 or 299 d from 62 or 42 d respectively in rats drinking water in two experiments (15 rats/group). In experiment 3, a single dose of {sup 67}Cu (3.3 {mu}Ci as chloride) was added to 1 g of feed and given to 12-h fasted rats 30 d after the start of the experiment. Whole body counting over 13 d showed apparent Cu absorption and t{sub {1/2}} (biological) were greater in Cu-deficient rats drinking beer than in similar rats drinking water. Plasma cholesterol was lower but hematocrit and liver Cu were higher in surviving rats drinking beer than in rats drinking water. Body weight was not affected by beer in any experiment. In experiment 4, a 4% aqueous ethanol solution had no effect on longevity of copper deficient rats. A non-alcohol component of beer alters Cu metabolism and mitigates the severity of nutritional Cu-deficiency in rats.

  20. Effect of copper deficiency on the content and secretion of pancreatic islet hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhathena, S.J.; Voyles, N.R.; Timmers, K.I.; Fields, M.; Kennedy, B.W.; Recant, L.

    1986-03-01

    Experimental copper (Cu) deficiency in rats is characterized by glucose intolerance and hyperlipemia. Its severity is increased by dietary fructose (F) as compared to starch (S). Since islet hormones are intimately involved in carbohydrate metabolism the authors studied the effects of Cu deficiency on their content and secretion. Rats were fed Cu deficient (CuD) (0.6 ..mu..g Cu/g) or Cu supplemented (6.0 ..mu..g Cu/g) diets with either 62% F or S for 7 weeks after weaning. Feeding CuD diets decreased plasma insulin (I) (P < 0.001) but not plasma glucagon (G). F feeding compared to S magnified the effects of Cu deficiency. Total pancreatic content of I in CuD rats was increased threefold (P < 0.001). Total somatostatin content increased significantly only in the pancreas of CuD rats fed F. Although total G content was not altered in CuD rats, when G was expressed per g protein or g wet weight, significant increases were found in CuD rats fed F. Thus, of the islet hormones, the major effect of Cu deficiency was on I. When pancreata were perfused in vitro with high glucose, pancreas from CuD rats had reduced insulin response. Thus, cellular functions dependent on Cu are involved in maintaining the ability of the islets of Langerhans to secrete I in a normal fashion.

  1. Enhanced thermoelectric performance of spark plasma sintered copper-deficient nanostructured copper selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Kriti; Gahtori, Bhasker; Bathula, Sivaiah; Jayasimhadri, M.; Singh, Niraj Kumar; Sharma, Sakshi; Haranath, D.; Srivastava, A. K.; Dhar, Ajay

    2015-06-01

    We report the thermoelectric properties of nanostructured Cu-deficient Cu2Se, which was synthesized by high energy ball milling followed by spark plasma sintering. Our method obtained a significant enhancement in the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT), i.e., ~1.4 at 973 K, which was ~30% higher than its bulk counterpart. This enhancement in the thermoelectric performance was due mainly to a significant reduction in the lattice thermal conductivity, which was attributed to enhanced phonon scattering at various length scales by nanoscale defects as well as abundant nanograin boundaries. The nanoscale defects were characterized by transmission electron microscopy of the nanostructured Cu2-xSe samples, which formed the basis of the ZT enhancement.

  2. Copper deficiency leads to anemia, duodenal hypoxia, upregulation of HIF-2α and altered expression of iron absorption genes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matak, Pavle; Zumerle, Sara; Mastrogiannaki, Maria; El Balkhi, Souleiman; Delga, Stephanie; Mathieu, Jacques R R; Canonne-Hergaux, François; Poupon, Joel; Sharp, Paul A; Vaulont, Sophie; Peyssonnaux, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron and copper are essential trace metals, actively absorbed from the proximal gut in a regulated fashion. Depletion of either metal can lead to anemia. In the gut, copper deficiency can affect iron absorption through modulating the activity of hephaestin - a multi-copper oxidase required for optimal iron export from enterocytes. How systemic copper status regulates iron absorption is unknown. Mice were subjected to a nutritional copper deficiency-induced anemia regime from birth and injected with copper sulphate intraperitoneally to correct the anemia. Copper deficiency resulted in anemia, increased duodenal hypoxia and Hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) levels, a regulator of iron absorption. HIF-2α upregulation in copper deficiency appeared to be independent of duodenal iron or copper levels and correlated with the expression of iron transporters (Ferroportin - Fpn, Divalent Metal transporter - Dmt1) and ferric reductase - Dcytb. Alleviation of copper-dependent anemia with intraperitoneal copper injection resulted in down regulation of HIF-2α-regulated iron absorption genes in the gut. Our work identifies HIF-2α as an important regulator of iron transport machinery in copper deficiency.

  3. Effects of a Copper-Deficient Diet on the Biochemistry, Neural Morphology and Behavior of Aged Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognin, Silvia; Pasqualetto, Federica; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Scancar, Janez; Milacic, Radmila; Zambenedetti, Pamela; Cozzi, Bruno; Zatta, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Copper dyshomeostasis has been suggested as an aetiological risk factor for some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease. However, the precise mechanism at the base of this involvement is still obscure. In this work, we show the effects of a copper-deficient diet in aged CD1 mice and the influence of such a diet on: a) the concentration of various metal ions (aluminium, copper, iron, calcium, zinc) in the main organs and in different brain areas; b) the alteration of metallothioneins I-II and tyrosine hydroxylase immunopositivity in the brain; c) behavioural tests (open field, pole, predatory aggression, and habituation/dishabituation smell tests). Our data suggested that the copper-deficiency was able to produce a sort of “domino effect” which altered the concentration of the other tested metal ions in the main organs as well as in the brain, without, however, significantly affecting the animal behaviour. PMID:23071712

  4. Effects of a copper-deficient diet on the biochemistry, neural morphology and behavior of aged mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bolognin

    Full Text Available Copper dyshomeostasis has been suggested as an aetiological risk factor for some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the precise mechanism at the base of this involvement is still obscure. In this work, we show the effects of a copper-deficient diet in aged CD1 mice and the influence of such a diet on: a the concentration of various metal ions (aluminium, copper, iron, calcium, zinc in the main organs and in different brain areas; b the alteration of metallothioneins I-II and tyrosine hydroxylase immunopositivity in the brain; c behavioural tests (open field, pole, predatory aggression, and habituation/dishabituation smell tests. Our data suggested that the copper-deficiency was able to produce a sort of "domino effect" which altered the concentration of the other tested metal ions in the main organs as well as in the brain, without, however, significantly affecting the animal behaviour.

  5. Mechanism of oxygen releasing of copper ferrite in the formation of the corresponding oxygen-deficient compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping; YU Bo; ZHANG Lei

    2009-01-01

    Copper ferrite is a promising material for hydrogen production through thermochemical water splitting. In this work, the cation distribution of copper ferrite and the corresponding oxygen-deficient compound of spinel structure was analyzed based on the crystal structural chemistry theory. The mechanism of oxygen releasing of CuO, Fe2O3, CuFe2O4 and metal (M=Ni, Mn or Zn) doped copper ferrite in the proc-ess of temperature rising was investigated by differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetry (DTA-TG). By combining the theoretical analysis with experimental results, the mechanism of oxygen releasing of copper ferrite is proposed, which is different from that of other ferrites. For copper ferrite, the oxygen releasing caused by Cu(Ⅱ)→Cu(I) plays a predominant role, while for other ferrites, the oxygen releas-ing resulting from Fe(ⅡI)→Fe(Ⅱ) is dominant.

  6. Mechanism of oxygen releasing of copper ferrite in the formation of the corresponding oxygen-deficient compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Copper ferrite is a promising material for hydrogen production through thermochemical water splitting.In this work,the cation distribution of copper ferrite and the corresponding oxygen-deficient compound of spinel structure was analyzed based on the crystal structural chemistry theory.The mechanism of oxygen releasing of CuO,Fe2O3,CuFe2O4 and metal(M=Ni,Mn or Zn) doped copper ferrite in the proc-ess of temperature rising was investigated by differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetry(DTA-TG).By combining the theoretical analysis with experimental results,the mechanism of oxygen releasing of copper ferrite is proposed,which is different from that of other ferrites.For copper ferrite,the oxygen releasing caused by Cu(Ⅱ)→Cu(Ⅰ) plays a predominant role,while for other ferrites,the oxygen releas-ing resulting from Fe(Ⅲ)→Fe(Ⅱ) is dominant.

  7. [Prevalence of deficiency and dietary intake of iron, zinc and copper in Chilean childbearing age women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Borja, Angélica; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate anemia, the biochemical status and dietary adequacy of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in Chilean childbearing age women. We studied a convenience sample of 86 women aged 18 to 48 years from Santiago, Chile. We determined anemia and the micronutrient status through hemoglobin (Hb) mean corpuscular volume, transferrin saturation, zinc protoporphyrin, serum ferritin (SF), serum Zn and Cu. Dietary adequacy was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Of all women, 4.7% had Fe deficiency (ID) anemia, 21 % ID without anemia, 26 % depleted Fe stores and 48.3% normal Fe status. Obese women had higher SF (p<0.01) compared with those classified as having normal BMI. Also, showed higher Hb (p<0.05) concentrations compared with overweight and normal weight women. Partidipants showed 3.5 % and 2.3 % of Zn and Cu deficiency, respectively. Also, 95 %, 94 % and 99 % had adequate intake of Fe, Zn and Cu respectively, according to EAR cut points. There were no significant differences in micronutrients intake across different nutritional status. There was a low prevalence of anemia, Fe, Zn and Cu deficiency. A high percentage of women reached micronutrient adequacy. However, 47% of women had ID without anemia and Fe depleted stores.

  8. COPPER AND MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCIES IN PATIENTS WITH SHORT BOWEL SYNDROME RECEIVING PARENTERAL NUTRITION OR ORAL FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Bitu Moreno BRAGA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Patients with short bowel syndrome have significant fluid and electrolytes loss. Objective Evaluate the mineral and electrolyte status in short bowel syndrome patients receiving intermittent parenteral nutrition or oral feeding. Methods Twenty two adults with short bowel syndrome, of whom 11 were parenteral nutrition dependent (PN group, and the 11 remaining had been weaned off parenteral nutrition for at least 1 year and received all nutrients by oral feeding (OF group. The study also included 14 healthy volunteers paired by age and gender (control group. Food ingestion, anthropometry, serum or plasma levels of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, zinc, iron and copper were evaluated. PN group subjects were evaluated before starting a new parenteral nutrition cycle. Results The levels of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and zinc were similar between the groups. The magnesium value was lower in the PN group (1.0 ± 0.4 mEq /L than other groups. Furthermore, this electrolyte was lower in the OF group (1.4 ± 0.3 mEq /L when compared to the Control group (1.8 ± 0.1 mEq/L. Lower values of copper (69±24 vs 73±26 vs 109±16 µg/dL were documented, respectively, for the PN and OF groups when compared to the control group. Conclusion Hypomagnesemia and hypocupremia are electrolyte disturbances commonly observed in short bowel syndrome. Patients with massive intestinal resection require monitoring and supplementation in order to prevent magnesium and copper deficiencies.

  9. A pyrazolyl-based thiolato single-source precursor for the selective synthesis of isotropic copper-deficient copper(I) sulfide nanocrystals: synthesis, optical and photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Gopinath; Santra, Ananyakumari; Bera, Pradip; Acharjya, Moumita; Jana, Sumanta; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar; Mondal, Anup; Seok, Sang Il; Bera, Pulakesh

    2016-10-01

    Hexagonal copper-deficient copper(I) sulfide (Cu2- x S, x = 0.03, 0.2) nanocrystals (NCs) are synthesized from a newly prepared single-source precursor (SP), [Cu(bdpa)2][CuCl2], where bdpa is benzyl 3,5-dimethyl-pyrazole-1-carbodithioate. The SP is crystallized with space group Pī and possesses a distorted tetrahedron structure with a CuN2S2 chromophore where the central copper is in +1 oxidation state. Distortion in copper(I) structure and the low decomposition temperature of SP make it favorable for the low-temperature solvent-assisted selective growth of high-copper content sulfides. The nucleation and growth of Cu2- x S ( x = 0.03, 0.2) are effectively controlled by the SP and the solvent in the solvothermal decomposition process. During decomposition, fragment benzyl thiol (PhCH2SH) from SP effectively passivates the nucleus leading to spherical nanocrystals. Further, solvent plays an important role in the selective thermochemical transformation of CuI-complex to Cu2- x S ( x = 0.03, 0.2) NCs. The chelating binders (solvent) like ethylene diamine (EN) and ethylene glycol (EG) prefer to form spherical Cu1.97S nanoparticles (djurleite), whereas nonchelating hydrazine hydrate (HH) shows the tendency to furnish hexagonal platelets of copper-deficient Cu1.8S. The optical band gap values (2.25-2.50 eV) show quantum confinement effect in the structure. The synthesized NCs display excellent catalytic activity ( 87 %) toward photodegradation of organic dyes like Congo Red (CR) and Methylene Blue (MB).

  10. Cardiovascular effects of copper deficiency on activity of superoxide dismutase in diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A Al-Bayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Copper (Cu is essential both for its role in antioxidant enzymes, like Cu/zinc (Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD and ceruloplasmin, as well as its role in lysyl oxidase, essential for the strength and integrity of the heart and blood vessels. With such a central role in cardiovascular health, Cu has been generally overlooked in the debate over improving our cardiovascular health. Cu deficiency has produced many of the same abnormalities present in cardiovascular disease. It seems almost certain that Cu plays a large role in the development of this killer disease, not because of its excess in the diet, but rather its deficiency. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the cardiovascular effects of Cu deficiency on the activity of SOD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM with and without diabetic nephropathy. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five patients with T2DM were recruited in this study which were divided into two subgroups based on the presence of microalbuminuria, the first group (microal buminuric group, n = 31 had a microalbuminuria between 30 and 299 μg/mg. The second group (normoal buminuric group, n = 29 had an albumin level less than 30 μg/mg. The two diabetic groups were compared to the control group (n = 37. Results: The results of our study showed a significant reduction in the levels of SOD enzyme associated with an increased urinary Cu excretion in microalbuminuric group compared to the control group at P < 0.05. Conclusions: The current study illustrates that the regulation of the blood concentrations of Cu may be a potential therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  11. Zinc Deficiency and Zinc Therapy Efficacy with Reduction of Serum Free Copper in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. Brewer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We are in the midst of an epidemic of Alzheimer’s disease (AD in developed countries. We have postulated that ingestion of inorganic copper from drinking water and taking supplement pills and a high fat diet are major causative factors. Ingestion of inorganic copper can directly raise the blood free copper level. Blood free copper has been shown by the Squitti group to be elevated in AD, to correlate with cognition, and to predict cognition loss. Secondly, we have shown that AD patients are zinc deficient compared to age matched controls. Zinc is important in neuronal protection. We carried out a 6-month small double blind trial of a new zinc formulation on AD patients. We found that in patients 70 years and older, zinc therapy protected against cognition decline compared to placebo controls. We also found that zinc therapy significantly lowered blood free copper levels. So zinc efficacy could be due to restoring neuronal zinc levels, to lowering blood free copper levels, or to both.

  12. Pseudo-Foster Kennedy Syndrome as a Rare Presentation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

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    Petramfar, Peyman; Hosseinzadeh, Farideh; Mohammadi, S. Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pseudo-Foster Kennedy syndrome is a triad consisting of ipsilateral optic atrophy, contralateral optic disc edema, and ipsilateral anosmia in the absence of an intracranial mass. Vitamin B12 plays an important role in DNA synthesis, and its deficiency causes peripheral neuropathy, myeloneuropathy, and, very rarely, optic neuropathy. Case Presentation In this study, we describe a 34-year-old male who presented with progressive loss of visual acuity and field. Fundoscopy showed opt...

  13. White monkey syndrome and presumptive copper deficiency in wild savannah baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, A Catherine; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne

    2011-11-01

    In immature wild savannah baboons (Papio cynocephalus), we observed symptoms consistent with copper (Cu) deficiency and, more specifically, with a disorder referred to as white monkey syndrome (WMS) in laboratory primates. The objectives of this study were to characterize this pathology, and test three hypotheses that (1) Cu deficiency may have been induced by zinc (Zn) toxicity, (2) it may have been induced by molybdenum (Mo) toxicity, and (3) cumulative rainfall during the perinatal period and particularly during gestation is an ecological factor distinguishing infants afflicted with WMS from non-WMS infants. During 2001-2009, we observed 22 instances of WMS out of a total 377 live births in the study population. Visible symptoms exhibited by WMS infants included whitening of the animal's fur and/or impaired mobility characterized by an apparent "stiffening" of the hindlimbs. Occurrence of WMS did not vary significantly by gender. However, among individuals that survived at least 180 days, WMS males had a significantly lower survivorship probability than non-WMS males. Zn/Cu ratios assessed from hair samples of adult female baboons were higher in females who had produced at least one WMS offspring relative to females who had not had a WMS offspring. This was true even when the hair sample was collected long after the birth of the female's afflicted infant. We consider this potentially indicative of a robust tendency for low Cu levels induced by elevated Zn intake in some individuals. No significant differences of Mo/Cu ratios were observed. Cumulative rainfall during gestation (∼179 days) was 50% lower for WMS infants relative to non-WMS infants. In contrast, rainfall for the two classes of infants did not differ in the 180 days before conception or in the 180 days following birth. This finding highlights the importance of prenatal ecological conditions in healthy fetal development with regard to WMS.

  14. The BiCu{sub 1−x}OS oxysulfide: Copper deficiency and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthebaud, D.; Guilmeau, E.; Lebedev, O.I. [Laboratoire CRISMAT, UMR 6508 CNRS/ENSICAEN/UCBN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, F-14050 CAEN Cedex 4 (France); Maignan, A., E-mail: antoine.maignan@ensicaen.fr [Laboratoire CRISMAT, UMR 6508 CNRS/ENSICAEN/UCBN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, F-14050 CAEN Cedex 4 (France); Gamon, J.; Barboux, P. [Institut de Recherche de Chimie de Paris, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 09 France (France)

    2016-05-15

    An oxysulfide series of nominal compositions BiCu{sub 1−x}OS with x<0.20 has been prepared and its structural properties characterized by combining powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques. It is found that this oxysulfide, crystallizing in the P4/nmm space group, tends to adopt a constant amount of copper vacancy corresponding to x=0.05 in the BiCu{sub 1−x}OS formula. The presence of Cu vacancies is confirmed by HAADF-STEM analysis showing, in the Cu atomic columns, alternating peaks of different intensities in some very localized regions. For larger Cu deficiencies (x>0.05 in the nominal composition), other types of structural nanodefects are evidenced such as bismuth oxysulfides of the “BiOS” ternary system which might explain the report of superconductivity for the BiCu{sub 1−x}OS oxysulfide. Local epitaxial growth of the BiCuOS oxysulfide on top of CuO is also observed. In marked contrast to the BiCu{sub 1−x}OSe oxyselenide, these results give an explanation to the limited impact of Cu deficiency on the Seebeck coefficient in BiCu{sub 1−x}OS compounds. - Graphical abstract: High resolution TEM image showing a Bi(Cu)OS/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}S interface and corresponding dislocation region. The Bi(Cu)OS structure adopts a rather constant Cu content (near 0.95); starting from BiCuOS leads to the formation of defects such as the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}S oxysulfide.

  15. Copper Chaperone for Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase is a sensitive biomarker of mild copper deficiency induced by moderately high intakes of zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L'Abbé Mary R

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small increases in zinc (Zn consumption above recommended amounts have been shown to reduce copper (Cu status in experimental animals and humans. Recently, we have reported that copper chaperone for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (CCS protein level is increased in tissues of overtly Cu-deficient rats and proposed CCS as a novel biomarker of Cu status. Methods Weanling male Wistar rats were fed one of four diets normal in Cu and containing normal (30 mg Zn/kg diet or moderately high (60, 120 or 240 mg Zn/kg diet amounts of Zn for 5 weeks. To begin to examine the clinical relevance of CCS, we compared the sensitivity of CCS to mild Cu deficiency, induced by moderately high intakes of Zn, with conventional indices of Cu status. Results Liver and erythrocyte CCS expression was significantly (P P Conclusion Collectively, these data show that CCS is a sensitive measure of Zn-induced mild Cu deficiency and demonstrate a dose-dependent biphasic response for reduced Cu status by moderately high intakes of Zn.

  16. Chronic but not acute antidepresant treatment alters serum zinc/copper ratio under pathological/zinc-deficient conditions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlyniec, K; Ostachowicz, B; Krakowska, A; Reczynski, W; Opoka, W; Nowak, G

    2014-10-01

    Depression is the leading psychiatric disorder with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinical studies report lower serum zinc in depressed patients, suggesting a strong link between zinc and mood disorders. Also copper as an antagonistic element to zinc seems to play a role in depression, where elevated concentration is observed. In the present study we investigated serum copper and zinc concentration after acute or chronic antidepressant (AD) treatment under pathological/zinc-deficient conditions. Zinc deficiency in mice was induced by a special diet administered for 6 weeks (zinc adequate diet - ZnA, contains 33.5 mgZn/kg; zinc deficient diet - ZnD, contains 0.2 mgZn/kg). Animals received acute or chronically saline (control), imipramine, escitalopram, reboxetine or bupropion. To evaluate changes in serum copper and zinc concentrations the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was performed. In ZnD animals serum zinc level was reduced after acute ADs treatment (similarly to vehicle treatment), however, as demonstrated in the previous study after chronic ADs administration no differences between both ZnA and ZnD groups were observed. Acute ADs in ZnD animals caused different changes in serum copper concentration with no changes after chronic ADs treatment. The calculated serum Zn/Cu ratio is reduced in ZnD animals (compared to ZnA subjects) treated with saline (acutely or chronically) and in animals treated acutely with ADs. However, chronic treatment with ADs normalized (by escitalopram, reboxetine or bupropion) or increased (by imipramine) this Zn/Cu ratio. Observed in this study normalization of serum Zn/Cu ratio in depression-like conditions by chronic (but not acute) antidepressants suggest that this ratio may be consider as a marker of depression or treatment efficacy.

  17. Copper deficiency in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} ceramics, textured and single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odier, P.; Gotor, F.J.; Pellerin, N.; Lobo, R.P.S.M.; Dembinski, K. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France). Centre de Recherches sur la Physique des Hautes Temperatures; Ayache, J. [CSNM, Bat 108, Universitede Paris XI, 91 405 Orsay Campus (France); Noel, H.; Potel, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide et Inorganique Moleculaire-URA CNRS, 1495 Rennes (France); Chaminade, J.P. [ICMCB, Chateau de Brivazac, Av. A. Schweitzer, 33 600 Pessac (France); Collin, G. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, C.E. Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    1998-04-03

    Copper deficiency is studied in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} phase. We compare polycrystals formed by sintering with textured and single crystals. The experimental method uses electron probe micro-analysis and X-ray structural determinations on single crystals. We show that YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} phase accommodates Cu deficiency up to several percent. Copper vacancies are located at the Cu(1) site (in the chains). Copper deficiency is evidenced when a liquid phase is involved in the chemical process. The implications of copper vacancies on the physical properties has probably to be reconsidered in future. (orig.) 20 refs.

  18. Clinical Analysis of Copper Deficiency Myelopathy%铜缺乏性脊髓病临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽霞; 晏峰; 汤亚男; 卢丽萍; 李洁; 雷四英

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To explore etiological factors, the clinical manifestations and therapy of copper deficiency myelopathy(CDM). Methods: The data of 7 CDM patients were retrospectively analyzed on the clinical manifestations, results of accessory examinations, therapy and conversion. Results: 7 patients were with damaged posterior funiculus and lateral funiculus of the spinal cord, peripheral nerves. Serum copper assay of 7 patients were lower than that of health persons. Examination of electromyogram in the 7 patients showed that there were abnormal in the peripheral nerves and abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials(SEP). Among 7 patients received spine magnetic resonance imaging (MR1), there were 2 with Tl abnormal signal and long T2 abnormal signal, 2 with no reinforcement in enhancement scanning. Combining copper therapy can imporve CDM evidently. Conclusion: CDM is a disease characterized mainly with posterior funiculus, lateral funiculus and peripheral nerves damage due to copper deficiency. Early diagnosis and therapy is the key.%目的:探讨铜缺乏性脊髓病(CDM)的病因、临床表现及治疗方法.方法:回顾性分析7例铜缺乏性脊髓病患者的临床表现、辅助检查及治疗效果.结果:7例患者均有后索、侧索和周围神经损害,血清铜浓度降低;7例肌电图提示周围神经损害,体感诱发电位异常;2例MRI有胸髓改变.补铜治疗有效.结论:铜缺乏性脊髓病是以铜缺乏导致的后索、侧索及周围神经损害为主的疾病,早期诊断是治疗CDM的关键.

  19. Copper and bezafibrate cooperate to rescue cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in cells of patients with sco2 mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casarin Alberto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in SCO2 cause cytochrome c oxidase deficiency (COX and a fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy. SCO2 encodes a protein involved in COX copper metabolism; supplementation with copper salts rescues the defect in patients’ cells. Bezafibrate (BZF, an approved hypolipidemic agent, ameliorates the COX deficiency in mice with mutations in COX10, another COX-assembly gene. Methods We have investigated the effect of BZF and copper in cells with SCO2 mutations using spectrophotometric methods to analyse respiratory chain activities and a luciferase assay to measure ATP production.. Results Individual mitochondrial enzymes displayed different responses to BZF. COX activity increased by about 40% above basal levels (both in controls and patients, with SCO2 cells reaching 75-80% COX activity compared to untreated controls. The increase in COX was paralleled by an increase in ATP production. The effect was dose-dependent: it was negligible with 100 μM BZF, and peaked at 400 μM BZF. Higher BZF concentrations were associated with a relative decline of COX activity, indicating that the therapeutic range of this drug is very narrow. Combined treatment with 100 μM CuCl2 and 200 μM BZF (which are only marginally effective when administered individually achieved complete rescue of COX activity in SCO2 cells. Conclusions These data are crucial to design therapeutic trials for this otherwise fatal disorder. The additive effect of copper and BZF will allow to employ lower doses of each drug and to reduce their potential toxic effects. The exact mechanism of action of BZF remains to be determined.

  20. The effect of an induced copper deficiency on the total plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    decline in the plasma copper concentration from 160 fLg/dlto 56 fLg/dlwas achieved. Further indications ... that the need for copper is higher for reproduction than for normal body maintenance. Die effek van 'n ..... Trace elements in Human and.

  1. COMMD1-deficient dogs accumulate copper in hepatocytes and provide a good model for chronic hepatitis and fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Favier

    Full Text Available New therapeutic concepts developed in rodent models should ideally be evaluated in large animal models prior to human clinical application. COMMD1-deficiency in dogs leads to hepatic copper accumulation and chronic hepatitis representing a Wilson's disease like phenotype. Detailed understanding of the pathogenesis and time course of this animal model is required to test its feasibility as a large animal model for chronic hepatitis. In addition to mouse models, true longitudinal studies are possible due to the size of these dogs permitting detailed analysis of the sequence of events from initial insult to final cirrhosis. Therefore, liver biopsies were taken each half year from five new born COMMD1-deficient dogs over a period of 42 months. Biopsies were used for H&E, reticulin, and rubeanic acid (copper staining. Immunohistochemistry was performed on hepatic stellate cell (HSC activation marker (alpha-smooth muscle actin, α-SMA, proliferation (Ki67, apoptosis (caspase-3, and bile duct and liver progenitor cell (LPC markers keratin (K 19 and 7. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western Blots were performed on gene products involved in the regenerative and fibrotic pathways. Maximum copper accumulation was reached at 12 months of age, which coincided with the first signs of hepatitis. HSCs were activated (α-SMA from 18 months onwards, with increasing reticulin deposition and hepatocytic proliferation in later stages. Hepatitis and caspase-3 activity (first noticed at 18 months increased over time. Both HGF and TGF-β1 gene expression peaked at 24 months, and thereafter decreased gradually. Both STAT3 and c-MET showed an increased time-dependent activation. Smad2/3 phosphorylation, indicative for fibrogenesis, was present at all time-points. COMMD1-deficient dogs develop chronic liver disease and cirrhosis comparable to human chronic hepatitis, although at much higher pace. Therefore they represent a genetically-defined large animal model to test clinical

  2. Copper deficiency can limit nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Florian Benedikt; Nielsen, Peter Borch; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Incomplete nitrification in biological filters during drinking water treatment is problematic, as it compromises drinking water quality. Nitrification problems can be caused by a lack of nutrients for the nitrifying microorganisms. Since copper is an important element in one of the essential...... enzymes in nitrification, we investigated the effect of copper dosing on nitrification in different biological rapid sand filters treating groundwater. A lab-scale column assay with filter material from a water works demonstrated that addition of a trace metal mixture, including copper, increased ammonium...... removal compared to a control without addition. Subsequently, another water works was investigated in full-scale, where copper influent concentrations were below 0.05 μg Cu L-1 and nitrification was incomplete. Copper dosing of less than 5 μg Cu L-1 to a full-scale filter stimulated ammonium removal...

  3. Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection date,...

  4. ROLE OF COPPER AND IRON DEFICIENCIES IN PATHOGENESIS OF RECURRENT APHTHOUS ULCER

    OpenAIRE

    Laxmi Shruthi; Shetty Pushparaja; Pandey Bhavna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the serum levels of copper and iron in recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) patients and to compare these levels with normal healthy individuals. A total of 60 patients were examined with 30 recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) patients and 30 healthy controls. Serum samples obtained from the patients were digested using nitric acid and subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometer for copper estimation. Serum iron was estimated using Bathophenanthroline method. Al...

  5. Prostacyclin (PGI sub 2 ) synthesis in basal and thrombin challenged aortic rings is depressed in copper deficient and copper marginal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.K.; Mathias, M.M.; Allen, K.G.D. (Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins (United States) Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Thirty male weanling rats were fed AIN based copper deficient (CuD) diet containing 0.1% of the Cu chelator N,N{prime}-bis(2-aminoethyl)-1,3-propanediamine.4HCl for 1 week. Animals were then assigned to three groups of 10 each and fed copper adequate (CuA), copper marginal (CuM) on CuD diets providing 7.5, 1.6 and 0.5 {mu}g Cu/g respectively for 26 days. Animals were pair meal fed to CuD for the last 16 days. Thoracic aorta were excised and 2 mm rings incubated in 2 ml Krebs Henseleit salts, 10mM HEPES pH 7.4, 37{degree}, 95.5 O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}. PGI{sub 2} in incubation medium was determined by RIA as 6-keto PGF{sub 1{alpha}}. Cu status was assessed by liver Cu and aortic tissue superoxide dismutase (CuSOD). PGI{sub 2} production by 1 hour rested rings was linear from 0 to 10 minutes. Rested aortic rings produced < 5% PGI{sub 2} as in freshly excised rings. PGI{sub 2} synthesis in basal incubation, was significantly depressed 41% in CuM and 56% in CuD aortic rings. Challenge with 1OU/ml thrombin significantly increased PGI{sub 2} synthesis in CuA, CuM and CuD aortic rings by 32%-54%. CuM and CuD aortic ring PGI{sub 2} synthesis was significantly depressed by 32% and 48% respectively in thrombin challenged incubations. Both CuM and CuD decrease basal and thrombin challenged aortic ring PGI{sub 2} synthesis and this is associated with changes in aortic tissue CuSOD.

  6. Effects of copper deficiency on iron metabolism in rats%铜缺乏对大鼠铁代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖飞; 王朝旭; 杨丽

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究铜缺乏对大鼠肝脏铁调节蛋白2(IRP2)、转铁蛋白受体(TfR)及铁蛋白(Fn)mRNA的影响.方法 40只雄性SD大鼠按体重随机分为4组,每组10只,对照组(Ⅰ组),铜完全缺乏组(Ⅱ组),铜边缘缺乏组(Ⅲ组),铁及铜边缘缺乏组(Ⅳ组).喂养8周后处死,取大鼠组织和血清,进行相关指标和基因表达检测.结果 与对照组比较,铜缺乏使大鼠血清铁和血清铁蛋白含量显著降低(P<0.05),血清转铁蛋白受体水平明显升高,铜缺乏时大鼠肝脏IRP2、TFR mRNA表达水平明显升高,Fn mRNA明显降低(P<0.05).结论 铜缺乏通过影响铁吸收、储存、转运而影响大鼠体内铁的营养状况.铜缺乏影响大鼠IRP2 mRNA表达与IRE-IRP结合活性,在转录后水平改变TfR和Fn mRNA的表达,影响机体的铁稳态.%Objective To study the effects of copper deficiency on iron metabolism,the expression of IRP mRNA and Fn mRNA and transferrin receptor mRNA in rats.Methods Forty clean male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups according to body weight and there were 10 rats in each group.The groups are normal iron and copper control group(groupⅠ),copper deficiency group (groupⅡ),normal iron and copper slightly deficient group(group Ⅲ),both iron and copper slightly deficient group(group Ⅳ).After 8 weeks,all the rats were killed by sodium pentobarbital anesthesia and all samples were collected and detected for gene expression.Results Compared with the controls,the contents of serum iron and serum ferritin in completely copper deficiency group decreased (P <0.05),but the level of serum transferrin receptor increased significantly under the complete copper deficiency(P <0.05).Compared with that of the control group,the level of IRP2 mRNA in complete copper deficiency group was significantly increased (P < 0.05),and the level of transferrin receptor mRNA was also increased compared with that of the control group,compared with the control group

  7. Relative and combined effects of ethanol and protein deficiency on bone manganese and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, José M; González-Reimers, Emilio; DeLaVega-Prieto, María José; Durán-Castellón, María del Carmen; Viña-Rodríguez, José; Galindo-Martín, Luis; Alvisa-Negrín, Julio; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco

    2012-06-01

    Both manganese and copper may affect bone synthesis. Bone content of both metals can be altered in alcoholics, although controversy exists regarding this matter. To analyse the relative and combined effects of ethanol and a low protein diet on bone copper and manganese, and their relationships with bone structure and metabolism, including trabecular bone mass (TBM), osteoid area (OA), osteocalcin (OCN), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), parathyroid hormone (PTH), urinary hydroxyproline (uHP) and vitamin D. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. The control rats received a 18% protein-containing diet; a second group, an isocaloric, 2% protein-containing diet; a third one, an isocaloric, 36% ethanol-containing diet and a fourth, an isocaloric diet containing 2% protein and 36% ethanol. After sacrifice, TBM and OA were histomorphometrically assessed; bone and serum manganese and copper were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and serum OCN, IGF-1, PTH, uHP and vitamin D by radioimmunoassay. Ethanol-fed rats showed decreased TBM and bone manganese. Significant relationships existed between bone manganese and TBM, serum IGF-1 and OCN. Ethanol leads to a decrease in bone manganese, related to decreased bone mass and bone synthesis. No alterations were found in bone copper.

  8. Prenatal copper deficiency in rat dams causes persistent reduction in nuclear-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunits in cardiac mitochrondria of the first generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that the offspring of rat dams having low copper (Cu) intake during pregnancy and lactation experience a deficiency in cardiac cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) after postnatal day 10. The present study was undertaken to determine the relative influences of pre-and postnatal Cu ...

  9. Effects of electron-deficient beta-diketiminate and formazan supporting ligands on copper(I)-mediated dioxygen activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungjun; Hill, Lyndal M R; Gupta, Aalo K; Naab, Benjamin D; Gilroy, Joe B; Hicks, Robin G; Cramer, Christopher J; Tolman, William B

    2009-05-18

    Copper(I) complexes of a diketiminate featuring CF(3) groups on the backbone and dimethylphenyl substituents (4) and a nitroformazan (5) were synthesized and shown by spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, cyclic voltammetry, and theory to contain copper(I) sites electron-deficient relative to those supported by previously studied diketiminate complexes comprising alkyl or aryl backbone substituents. Despite their electron-poor nature, oxygenation of LCu(CH(3)CN) (L = 4 or 5) at room temperature yielded bis(hydroxo)dicopper(II) compounds and at -80 degrees C yielded bis(mu-oxo)dicopper complexes that were identified on the basis of UV-vis and resonance Raman spectroscopy, spectrophotometric titration results (2:1 Cu/O(2) ratio), electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (silent), and density functional theory calculations. The bis(mu-oxo)dicopper complex supported by 5 exhibited unusual spectroscopic properties and decayed via a novel intermediate proposed to be a metallaverdazyl radical complex, findings that highlight the potential for the formazan ligand to exhibit "noninnocent" behavior.

  10. Corrosion of copper in oxygen-deficient groundwater with and without deep bedrock micro-organisms: Characterisation of microbial communities and surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen-Saarivirta, E.; Rajala, P.; Bomberg, M.; Carpén, L.

    2017-02-01

    Copper specimens were exposed to oxygen-deficient artificial groundwater in the presence and absence of micro-organisms enriched from the deep bedrock of the planned nuclear waste repository site at Olkiluoto island on the western coast of Finland. During the exposure periods of 4 and 10 months, the copper specimens were subjected to electrochemical measurements. The biofilm developed on the specimens and the water used in the exposures were subjected to microbiological analyses. Changes in the water chemistry were also determined and surfaces of the copper specimens were characterized with respect to the morphology and composition of the formed corrosion products. The results showed that under biotic conditions, redox of the water and open circuit potential (OCP) of the copper specimens were generally negative and resulted in the build-up of a copper sulphide, Cu2S, layer due to the activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) that were included in the system. In the 4-month test, the electrochemical behaviour of the specimens changed during the exposure and alphaproteobactria Rhizobiales were the dominant bacterial group in the biofilm where the highest corrosion rate was observed. In the 10-month test, however, deltaproteobacteria SRB flourished and the initial electrochemical behaviour and the low corrosion rate of the copper were retained until the end of the test period. Under abiotic conditions, the positive water redox potential and specimen OCP correlated with the formation of copper oxide, Cu2O. Furthermore, in the absence of SRB, Cu2O provided slightly inferior protection against corrosion compared to that by Cu2S in the presence of SRB. The obtained results show that the presence of microorganisms may enhance the passivity of copper. In addition, the identification of key microbial species, such as SRB thriving on copper for long time periods, is important for successful prediction of the behaviour of copper.

  11. Copper deficiency alters cell bioenergetics and induces mitochondrial fusion through up-regulation of MFN2 and OPA1 in erythropoietic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, Rodrigo I.; Jensen, Erik L.; Ruiz, Lina M.; Rivera, Salvador; Ruiz, Sebastián [Center for Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Simon, Felipe; Riedel, Claudia [Center for Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Millennium Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Santiago (Chile); Ferrick, David [Seahorse Bioscience, Billerica, MA (United States); Elorza, Alvaro A., E-mail: aelorza@unab.cl [Center for Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Millennium Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •In copper deficiency, cell proliferation is not affected. In turn, cell differentiation is impaired. •Enlarged mitochondria are due to up-regulation of MNF2 and OPA1. •Mitochondria turn off respiratory chain and ROS production. •Energy metabolism switch from mitochondria to glycolysis. -- Abstract: Copper is essential in cell physiology, participating in numerous enzyme reactions. In mitochondria, copper is a cofactor for respiratory complex IV, the cytochrome c oxidase. Low copper content is associated with anemia and the appearance of enlarged mitochondria in erythropoietic cells. These findings suggest a connection between copper metabolism and bioenergetics, mitochondrial dynamics and erythropoiesis, which has not been explored so far. Here, we describe that bathocuproine disulfonate-induced copper deficiency does not alter erythropoietic cell proliferation nor induce apoptosis. However it does impair erythroid differentiation, which is associated with a metabolic switch between the two main energy-generating pathways. That is, from mitochondrial function to glycolysis. Switching off mitochondria implies a reduction in oxygen consumption and ROS generation along with an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential. Mitochondrial fusion proteins MFN2 and OPA1 were up-regulated along with the ability of mitochondria to fuse. Morphometric analysis of mitochondria did not show changes in total mitochondrial biomass but rather bigger mitochondria because of increased fusion. Similar results were also obtained with human CD34+, which were induced to differentiate into red blood cells. In all, we have shown that adequate copper levels are important for maintaining proper mitochondrial function and for erythroid differentiation where the energy metabolic switch plus the up-regulation of fusion proteins define an adaptive response to copper deprivation to keep cells alive.

  12. Optimal copper supply is required for normal plant iron deficiency responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Brian M; Armbrust, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) homeostasis are tightly linked across biology. Understanding crosstalk between Fe and Cu nutrition could lead to strategies for improved growth on soils with low or excess metals, with implications for agriculture and phytoremediation. Here, we show that Cu and Fe nutrition interact to increase or decrease Fe and/or Cu accumulation in leaves and Fe uptake processes. Leaf Cu concentration increased under low Fe supply, while high Cu lowered leaf Fe concentration. Ferric reductase activity, an indicator of Fe demand, was inhibited at insufficient or high Cu supply. Surprisingly, plants grown without Fe were more susceptible to Cu toxicity.

  13. Anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiency in Mexican adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Anemia y deficiencia de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en adolescentes mexicanos: resultados de la ENSANUT 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora; Berenice Gaona; Salvador Villalpando; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Ricardo Robledo

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVE: To describe the frequency of anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiencies among Mexican adolescents in the probabilistic survey ENSANUT 2006. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample included 2447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 y. Capillary hemoglobin and venous blood samples were collected to measure the concentrations of ferritin, sTFR, CRP, zinc, iron, copper and magnesium. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for mineral deficiencies. RESULTS: The overa...

  14. Effects of nanomolar copper on water plants—Comparison of biochemical and biophysical mechanisms of deficiency and sublethal toxicity under environmentally relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, George, E-mail: george.thomas@uni.kn [Universität Konstanz, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Sektion, Fachbereich Biologie, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Stärk, Hans-Joachim, E-mail: ha-jo.staerk@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Wellenreuther, Gerd, E-mail: Gerd.wellenreuther@desy.de [HASYLAB at DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Dickinson, Bryan C., E-mail: bryan.dickinson@gmail.com [Harvard University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Küpper, Hendrik, E-mail: hendrik.kuepper@uni-konstanz.de [Universität Konstanz, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Sektion, Fachbereich Biologie, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Institute of Physical Biology, Branišovská 31, CZ-370 05 České Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •We found different optimal Cu requirement for different physiological mechanisms. •Kinetics and concentration thresholds of damage mechanisms were established. •Cu toxicity caused internal Cu re-distribution and inhibition of Zn uptake. •Cu deficient plants released Cu, indicating lack of high-affinity Cu transporters. •Cu deficiency caused re-distribution of zinc in the plant. -- Abstract: Toxicity and deficiency of essential trace elements like Cu are major global problems. Here, environmentally relevant sub-micromolar concentrations of Cu (supplied as CuSO{sub 4}) and simulations of natural light- and temperature cycles were applied to the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum. Growth was optimal at 10 nM Cu, while PSII activity (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) was maximal around 2 nM Cu. Damage to the PSII reaction centre was the first target of Cu toxicity, followed by disturbed regulation of heat dissipation (NPQ). Only after that, electron transport through PSII (Φ{sub PSII}) was inhibited, and finally chlorophylls decreased. Copper accumulation in the plants was stable until 10 nM Cu in solution, but strongly increased at higher concentrations. The vein was the main storage site for Cu up to physiological concentrations (10 nM). At toxic levels it was also sequestered to the epidermis and mesophyll until export from the vein became inhibited, accompanied by inhibition of Zn uptake. Copper deficiency led to a complete stop of growth at “0” nM Cu after 6 weeks. This was accompanied by high starch accumulation although electron flow through PSII (Φ{sub PSII}) decreased from 2 weeks, followed by decrease in pigments and increase of non photochemical quenching (NPQ). Release of Cu from the plants below 10 nM Cu supply in the nutrient solution indicated lack of high-affinity Cu transporters, and on the tissue level copper deficiency led to a re-distribution of zinc.

  15. Paradoxical Condensation of Copper with Elevated β-Amyloid in Lipid Rafts under Cellular Copper Deficiency Conditions: IMPLICATIONS FOR ALZHEIMER DISEASE*

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Ya Hui; Robb, Elysia L.; Volitakis, Irene; Ho, Michael; Evin, Genevieve; Li, Qiao-Xin; Janetta G Culvenor; Masters, Colin L.; Cherny, Robert A.; Bush, Ashley I.

    2009-01-01

    Redox-active copper is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) aggregation, and amyloid formation. Aβ·copper complexes have been identified in AD and catalytically oxidize cholesterol and lipid to generate H2O2 and lipid peroxides. The site and mechanism of this abnormality is not known. Growing evidence suggests that amyloidogenic processing of the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) occurs in lipid rafts, membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol. ...

  16. STUDY OF CLINICO- EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS ADMITTED WITH INFANTILE TREMOR SYNDROME (ITS AND STATUS OF TRACE ELEMENTS (ZINC, COPPER DEFICIENCY IN THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Makwana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Under nutrition is one of the major problems in the field of Paediatrics. The greatest risk of malnutrition is in the first two years of life. The effects of this early damage on health, brain development, intelligence, educability and productivity are potentially reversible. The current study was an attempt to find out the clinico epidemiological profile, evaluate them for trace elements deficiency and most appropriate management options in those who are admitted with infantile tremor syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS The current study was a hospital based cross sectional study that was conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Dr. S. N. Medical College Jodhpur. Duration of study was One Year. Any child up to the age of three years of age admitted in the paediatric wards with typical features of infantile tremor syndrome. RESULTS Maximum numbers of patients were found between 6 months to 12 months of age, there was slight male predominance. The majority of infants in our study (85% were exclusively breast fed, 66% of cases were having low serum Copper level. 9% of cases were having low serum zinc level. 8% of cases were having low serum copper level with tremors. CONCLUSION In our study the fact that NTS is mainly seen in children who are exclusively breast feed for a longer period with delayed introduction of weaning foods. The main presenting features remain developmental delay, hyper pigmentation and anemia. Among nutritional factors, deficiency of copper and zinc in children plays a big role in development of disease. Thus to prevent the development of nutritional tremor syndrome stress should be on early timely introduction of weaning foods, especially rich in copper and zinc. What is already known about this Study- low levels of trace elements like copper and zinc may be responsible for typical clinical manifestations in patients of infantile tremor syndrome. Pronged and Exclusive breast feeding further aggravate these features

  17. Is brain copper deficiency in Alzheimer's, Lewy body, and Creutzfeldt Jakob diseases the common key for a free radical mechanism and oxidative stress-induced damage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloncle, Roger; Guillard, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    In Alzheimer's (AD), Lewy body (LBD), and Creutzfeldt Jakob (CJD) diseases, similar pathological hallmarks have been described, one of which is brain deposition of abnormal protease-resistant proteins. For these pathologies, copper bound to proteins is able to protect against free radicals by reduction from cupric Cu++ to cupreous Cu+. We have previously demonstrated in bovine brain homogenate that free radicals produce proteinase K-resistant prion after manganese is substituted for copper. Since low brain copper levels have been described in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, in substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease, and in various brain regions in AD, LBD, and CJD, a mechanism has been proposed that may underlie the neurodegenerative processes that occur when copper protection against free radicals is impaired. In peptide sequences, the alpha acid proton near the peptide bond is highly mobile and can be pulled out by free radicals. It will produce a trivalent α-carbon radical and induce a free radical chain process that will generate a D-amino acid configuration in the peptide sequence. Since only L-amino acids are physiologically present in mammalian (human) proteins, it may be supposed that only physiological L-peptides can be recycled by physiological enzymes such as proteases. If a D-amino acid is found in the peptide sequence subsequent to deficient copper protection against free radicals, it will not be recognized and might alter the proteasome L-amino acid recycling from brain peptides. In the brain, there will result an accumulation of abnormal protease-resistant proteins such as those observed in AD, LBD, and CJD.

  18. COPPER, ZINC, VITAMIN–C AND OX IDATIVE STRESS CAN CAUSES IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Rajeswari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is precious for women it is the most memorable movement in her life. In pregnancy period the Copper, Zinc, vitamin C plays an important role for production of hemoglobin and controls the oxidative stress. The present study under taken to asses the causing Zinc, Copper, vitamin C and ROS, anemia in pregnant period. METERIALS & METHODS: 40 cases of 4th-8th month pregnant subjects were selected for the present study blood sample collected for estimation of Hemoglobin, Zinc, Copper vitamin C and ROS. Hemoglobin whole blood, Zinc, Copper, ROS serum, vitamin C heparinised blood. RESULTS: Significantly decreases the Hemoglobin (P<0.001. Zinc (P<0.001, Copper (0.001 vitamin C (P<0.001 MDA significantly elevation observed in pregnant women compare to normal healthy women’s are controls. CONCLUSION: Lowered levels of Zinc, Copper, vitaminC, Hemoglobin and elevated MDA concentration were consistently observed in pregnant women. These by abate the synthesis of hemoglobin for the lack of these biological substance which can leads to increase the oxidative stress.

  19. Studies on the preparation of active oxygen-deficient copper ferrite and its application for hydrogen production through thermal chemical water splitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen generation through thermal chemical water splitting technology has recently received in- creasingly international interest in the nuclear hydrogen production field. Besides the main known sulfur-iodine (S-I) cycle developed by the General Atomics Company and the UT3 cycle (iron, calcium, and bromine) developed at the University of Tokyo, the thermal cycle based on metal oxide two-step water splitting methods is also receiving research and development attention worldwide. In this work, copper ferrite was prepared by the co-precipitation method and oxygen-deficient copper ferrite was synthesized through first and second calcination steps for the application of hydrogen production by a two-step water splitting process. The crystal structure, properties, chemical composition and δ were investigated in detail by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS), ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV), gas chro- matography (GC), and so on. The experimental two-step thermal chemical cycle reactor for hydrogen generation was designed and developed in this lab. The hydrogen generation process of water splitting through CuFe2O4-δ and the cycle performance of copper ferrite regeneration were firstly studied and discussed.

  20. Studies on the preparation of active oxygen-deficient copper ferrite and its application for hydrogen production through thermal chemical water splitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Bo; ZHANG Ping; ZHANG Lei; CHEN Jing; XU JingMing

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen generation through thermal chemical water splitting technology has recently received in-creasingly international interest in the nuclear hydrogen production field. Besides the main known sulfur-iodine (S-I) cycle developed by the General Atomics Company and the UT3 cycle (iron, calcium, and bromine) developed at the University of Tokyo, the thermal cycle based on metal oxide two-step water splitting methods is also receiving research and development attention worldwide. In this work, copper ferrite was prepared by the co-precipitation method and oxygen-deficient copper ferrite was synthesized through first and second calcination steps for the application of hydrogen production by a two-step water splitting process. The crystal structure, properties, chemical composition and δwere investigated in detail by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS), ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV), gas chro-matography (GC), and so on. The experimental two-step thermal chemical cycle reactor for hydrogen generation was designed and developed in this lab. The hydrogen generation process of water splitting through CuFe2O4-δ and the cycle performance of copper ferrite regeneration were firstly studied and discussed.

  1. Zinc or copper deficiency-induced impaired inflammatory response to brain trauma may be caused by the concomitant metallothionein changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, M.; Thomsen, Pernille Sjølin;

    2001-01-01

    damage to neurons as indicated by neuron specific enolase (NSE) ir, and the number of cells undergoing apoptosis (measured by TUNEL) was dramatically increased. Zinc deficiency significantly altered brain response to TBI, potentiating the microgliosis and reducing the astrogliosis, while increasing...

  2. [Copper and the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krízek, M; Senft, V; Motán, J

    1997-11-19

    Copper is one of the essential trace elements. It is part of a number of enzymes. Deficiency of the element is manifested by impaired haematopoesis, bone metabolism, disorders of the digestive, cardiovascular and nervous system. Deficiency occurs in particular in patients suffering from malnutrition, malabsorption, great copper losses during administration of penicillamine. Sporadically copper intoxications are described (suicidal intentions or accidental ingestion of beverages with a high copper content). Acute exposure to copper containing dust is manifested by metal fume fever. Copper salts can produce local inflammations. Wilson's disease is associated with inborn impaired copper metabolism. In dialyzed patients possible contaminations of the dialyzate with copper must be foreseen as well as the possible release of copper from some dialyzation membranes. With the increasing amount of copper in the environment it is essential to monitor the contamination of the environment.

  3. Study on “Blind—Ear”——Copper Deficiency Symptom in Wheat on Subtropic Hill Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QINSUI-CHU; WUZHENG; 等

    1992-01-01

    The “blind-ear” as a Cu deficiency symptom in wheat on upland soils in the hilly area of Zhejiang Province was discussed in this paper.Through 3 years of field experiments,it was elucidated that “blind-ear” in wheat plant appeared due to the low level of available Cu in the soils,and the critical value 3 mg/kg for total Cu in the plant at grain filling stage and 1 mg/kg for available Cu(0.1 M HCl)in the soils.A basal dressing of 30 kg/ha of Cu sulfate to the soils could completely eliminate Cu deficiency symptoms,obtain normal grain yield and have residual effect for at least 3 years.

  4. Deficiency and toxicity of nanomolar copper in low irradiance—A physiological and metalloproteomic study in the aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demersum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, George [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Andresen, Elisa [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Department Plant Biophysics and Biochemistry, Biology Centre of the ASCR, Branišovská 31/1160, CZ-37005 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Mattusch, Jürgen [UFZ − Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Hubáček, Tomáš [Institute of Hydrobiology, Department of Hydrochemistry and Ecosystem Modelling, Biology Centre of the ASCR, Na Sádkách 7, 37005 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); SoWa National Research Infrastructure, Biology Centre of the ASCR, Na Sádkách 7, 37005 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); and others

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Environmentally relevant toxicity and limitation of Cu were investigated. • Copper > 50nM replaces Mg in the LHCII‐trimers. • Deficiency causes decreased electron flow through PSII via lack of plastocyanin. • Of all metabolic pathways, photosynthesis was most affected by Cu toxicity. • Detection of Cu in the Chl peaks of LHCII suggests the generation of [Cu]‐Chl. - Abstract: Essential trace elements (Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, etc) lead to toxic effects above a certain threshold, which is a major environmental problem in many areas of the world. Here, environmentally relevant sub-micromolar concentrations of Cu{sup 2+} and simulations of natural light and temperature cycles were applied to the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum a s a model for plant shoots. In this low irradiance study resembling non‐summer conditions, growth was optimal in the range 7.5–35 nM Cu, while PSII activity (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) was maximal around 7.5 nM Cu. Damage to the light harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCII) was the first target of Cu toxicity (>50 nM Cu) where Cu replaced Mg in the LHCII-trimers. This was associated with a subsequent decrease of Chl a as well as heat dissipation (NPQ). The growth rate was decreased from the first week of Cu deficiency. Plastocyanin malfunction due to the lack of Cu that is needed for its active centre was the likely cause of diminished electron flow through PSII (Φ{sub PSII}). The pigment decrease added to the damage in the photosynthetic light reactions. These mechanisms ultimately resulted in decrease of starch and oxygen production.

  5. [Copper metabolism and genetic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Norikazu

    2016-07-01

    Copper is one of essential trace elements. Copper deficiency lead to growth and developmental failure and/or neurological dysfunction. However, excess copper is also problems for human life. There are two disorders of inborn error of copper metabolism, Menkes disease and Wilson disease. Menkes disease is an X linked recessive disorder with copper deficiency and Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive disorder with copper accumulation. These both disorders result from the defective functioning of copper transport P-type ATPase, ATP7A of Menkes disease and ATP7B of Wilson disease. In this paper, the author describes about copper metabolism of human, and clinical feature, diagnosis and treatment of Menkes disease and Wilson disease.

  6. Mortes súbitas em bovinos associadas à carência de cobre Sudden deaths in cattle associated with copper deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Marques

    2003-01-01

    de S (0,21±0,04% a 0,5±0,17% e Fe (172,92±62,64 a 437,24±205,44 ppm-bs alcançaram, ocasionalmente, níveis tóxicos. Teores de proteína variaram de 7,77±2,6% a 13,16±3,02%. Seis amostras de água e 6 amostras de pasto submerso foram coletadas no fim do experimento quando o campo estava inundado. Altos teores de Fe (169, 23±83,49 ppm e S (0,06±0,03% foram encontrados na água. Os teores de Fe e S no pasto submerso foram de 469,5±218,28 ppm e 0,19±0,05%, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que as mortes súbitas foram causadas por deficiência de Cu. Três fatores parecem ser responsáveis pela deficiência de Cu: 1 altos teores de Fe na pastagem e na água; 2 ocasionalmente baixos teores de Cu na pastagem; e 3 ingestão de S acima dos requerimentos, devido aos teores ocasionalmente altos na pastagem e na água. O surto descrito é similar a outros surtos de morte súbita em bovinos descritos no sul do Rio Grande do Sul durante o inverno, que foram, também, associados a baixos teores de cobre no fígado. As regiões onde ocorre a enfermidade são caracterizadas por solos arenosos e ácidos com inundações freqüentes durante o inverno. Em solos ácidos periodicamente inundáveis o ferro é solubilizado e absorvido pelas plantas, diminuindo o conteúdo de Cu na forragem e aumentando os teores de Fe. Esta parece ser a maior razão para a deficiência de cobre na região.An outbreak of sudden death was observed in cattle in southern Brazil. No significant gross or microscopic lesions were found in 10 cattle at post-mortem examination. To test if the sudden deaths were caused by a toxic plant, 13 weeds were collected and given to rabbits at a total of 440 to 600 g per kg body weight within 7 days. Results were negative. Mean copper levels of the liver in 10 cattle were very low (3.6±1.6 ppm-dry matter suggesting Cu deficiency as the cause of the disease. Five samples of pasture collected during the outbreak had normal levels of Cu (8.4±0.8 ppm

  7. Anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiency in Mexican adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Anemia y deficiencia de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en adolescentes mexicanos: resultados de la ENSANUT 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: To describe the frequency of anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiencies among Mexican adolescents in the probabilistic survey ENSANUT 2006. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample included 2447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 y. Capillary hemoglobin and venous blood samples were collected to measure the concentrations of ferritin, sTFR, CRP, zinc, iron, copper and magnesium. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for mineral deficiencies. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anemia was 11.8 and 4.6%, body iron deficiency 18.2 and 7.9% for females and males, respectively. Overall prevalence of tissue iron deficiency was 6.9%, low serum copper were14.4 and 12.25%; zinc 28.4 and 24.5%, magnesium 40 and 35.3%; for females and males, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of mineral deficiency in Mexican adolescents; females were more prone to have more mineral deficiencies. Nutritional interventions are necessaries in order to reduce and control them.OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de anemia y deficiencia de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en adolescentes mexicanos en la encuesta probabilística ENSANUT 2006. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La muestra incluyó 2447 adolescentes de 12 a 19 años de edad. Se tomó hemoglobina capilar y muestras de sangre venosa para medir las concentraciones séricas de ferritina, sTFR, CRP, zinc, hierro, cobre y magnesio. Se construyeron modelos de regresión logística para evaluar el riesgo de deficiencia de minerales. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de anemia fue de 11.8% en mujeres y 4.6% en hombres. Las deficiencias de hierro fueron de 18.2 y 7.9% La deficiencia tisular de hierro fue 6.9%; la baja concentración de cobre fue de 14.4 y 12.25% la de zinc de 28.4 y 24.5%, la de magnesio fue 40 y 35.3% en mujeres y hombres, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Existe una alta prevalencia de deficiencia de minerales en los adolescentes; las mujeres tuvieron mayor riesgo. Son necesarias

  8. Oxidative Stress Markers in Vitamin B12 Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Rahi, Sushil Kumar

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we report the status of oxidative stress markers in vitamin B12 deficiency and their relation to clinical, laboratory, and neurophysiological findings. Fifty-one subjects with serum vitamin B12 deficiency (B12 deficiency patients groups as well as with normal controls. In the patients, GSH, MDA and TAC were correlated with demographic, clinical, hematological, biochemical, nerve conduction study (NCS), visual evoked potential (VEP) and somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) findings. In the study group, 20 (39.2 %) patients had SACD manifesting with myeloneuropathy, cognitive or behavioral abnormalities, and 31(60.8 %) patients had non-SACD neurological manifestations. The GSH (2.46 ± 0.32 vs. 2.70 ± 0.36 mg/dl; P = 0.002) and TAC (2.13 ± 0.38 vs. 2.33 ± 0.24 nmol Trolox eq/l, P = 0.005) levels were lower, and MDA levels (4.01 ± 0.69 vs. 3.00 ± 0.45 nmol/ml, P B12 deficiency group compared with controls. Similar trend was found in SACD and non-SACD vitamin B12 deficiency groups. GSH levels correlated with abnormal VEP (r = 0.54; P B12 deficiency was associated with reduction in GSH and TAC and increase in MDA levels which were more marked in SACD compared to non-SACD group.

  9. Copper metabolism and copper-mediated alterations in the metabolism of cultured astrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Scheiber, Ivo Florin

    2012-01-01

    Copper is an essential element that is required for a variety of important cellular functions. Since not only copper deficiency, but also excess of copper can seriously affect cellular functions, cellular copper metabolism is tightly regulated. Disturbances of copper homeostasis are the underlying defect of the inherited diseases Menkes and Wilson s disease and have also been linked to several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer s disease and Parkinson s disease. Known astrocytes f...

  10. Pseudo-Foster Kennedy Syndrome as a Rare Presentation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petramfar, Peyman; Hosseinzadeh, Farideh; Mohammadi, S. Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pseudo-Foster Kennedy syndrome is a triad consisting of ipsilateral optic atrophy, contralateral optic disc edema, and ipsilateral anosmia in the absence of an intracranial mass. Vitamin B12 plays an important role in DNA synthesis, and its deficiency causes peripheral neuropathy, myeloneuropathy, and, very rarely, optic neuropathy. Case Presentation In this study, we describe a 34-year-old male who presented with progressive loss of visual acuity and field. Fundoscopy showed optic disc edema with telangiectasia in the right eye, while the left eye had optic disc atrophy. We ruled out nearly all possible and common causes of optic neuropathy, and vitamin B12 deficiency was finally diagnosed. After treatment with vitamin B12, the patient improved. Conclusions Demyelinating disease, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, autoimmune disease, and hereditary optic neuropathy could cause optic neuropathy. Normal CBC parameters and the absence of clinical manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency could not rule out its diagnosis. Careful physical examinations and history-taking with a classical approach led us to the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency and its treatment. PMID:27621919

  11. Efeitos da deficiência de cobre, zinco e magnésio sobre o sistema imune de crianças com desnutrição grave Effects of copper, zinc and magnesium deficiency on the immune system of severely malnourished children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Michelle C. de Macêdo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esclarecer as repercussões da deficiência de cobre, zinco e magnésio sobre o sistema imune de crianças desnutridas graves. FONTES DE DADOS: Foi realizada revisão bibliográfica mediante consulta às bases de dados Pubmed Medline, Lilacs e SciELO, selecionando-se publicações científicas recentes, da última década, e representativas do tema por meio dos descritores: desnutrição infantil, cobre, zinco, magnésio e sistema imune. SÍNTESE DE DADOS: Os micronutrientes são compostos orgânicos essenciais. Além de sua função regulatória, atuam de maneira decisiva na modulação da resposta imune. Sua deficiência pode ocorrer devido à ingestão inadequada ou associada a doenças específicas. Quando associada à desnutrição, a multideficiência de minerais pode acarretar disfunções imunológicas e aumento na suscetibilidade a infecções, afetando gravemente a eficácia de intervenções terapêuticas. Cobre, zinco e magnésio atuam como cofatores de enzimas responsáveis tanto por diversas atividades metabólicas como na resposta imune inata e adquirida, além do papel importante na maturação dos tecidos e células linfoides. Sua deficiência acarreta neutropenia e linfopenia, comprometendo a imunocompetência. CONCLUSÕES: As alterações ocasionadas pelos déficits séricos dos minerais cobre, zinco e magnésio comprometem o funcionamento do sistema imune, levando à imunossupressão. A reposição desses elementos no manejo da desnutrição grave, como preconizada pela Organização Mundial da Saúde, é essencial, uma vez que tais alterações podem ser reversíveis.OBJECTIVE: To report the effects of the deficiency of copper, zinc and magnesium on the immune system of severely malnourished children. DATA SOURCE: A literature review was performed by consulting the databases Pubmed Medline, Lilacs and SciELO, using the descriptors: child malnutrition, copper, zinc, magnesium and immune system. Representative

  12. Relapsing hypocupraemic myelopathy requiring high‐dose oral copper replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Prodan, C.I.; Bottomley, S S; Holland, N R; Lind, S. E.

    2006-01-01

    Adult‐onset copper deficiency with neurological manifestations is a newly recognised syndrome. Long‐term oral copper replacement therapy has been the mainstay of treatment in the literature. A case of relapsing hypocupraemic myelopathy responsive to increased doses of copper replacement is reported. Standard doses of copper may not be sufficient for all patients.

  13. Studies of copper transport in mammalian cells using copper radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camakaris, J.; Voskoboinik, I.; Brooks, H.; Greenough, M. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia). Department of Genetics; Smith, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division; Mercer, J. [Deakin University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Centre of Cellular and Molecular Biology

    1998-12-31

    The trace element copper poses a major problem for all organisms. It is essential as a number of vital enzymes require it. Copper deficiency can lead to neurological disorders, osteoporosis and weakening of arteries. However Cu is also highly toxic and homeostatic mechanisms have evolved to maintain Cu at levels which satisfy requirements but do not cause toxicity. Toxicity is mediated by the oxidative capacity of Cu and its ability to generate toxic free radicals. There are several acquired and inherited diseases due to either Cu toxicity or Cu deficiency. The study of these diseases facilitates identification of genes and proteins involved in copper homeostasis, and this in turn will provide rational therapeutic approaches. Using the copper radioisotopes {sup 64}Cu (t1/2 = 12.8 hr) and {sup 67}Cu (t1/2 = 61 hr) we have developed a number of systems for studying copper transport in mammalian cells. These include investigation of copper uptake, copper efflux and ligand blot assays for Cu-binding proteins. Our studies have focused on Menkes disease which is an inherited and usually lethal copper deficiency disorder in humans. We have demonstrated that the Menkes protein is directly involved as a copper efflux pump in mammalian cells. Using cells overexpressing the Menkes protein we have provided the first biochemical evidence that this functions as a Cu translocating (across the membrane) P-type ATPase (Voskoboinik et al., FEBS Letters, in press). These studies were carried out using purified plasma membrane vesicles. We are now carrying out structure- function studies on this protein using targeted mutations and assaying using the radiocopper vesicle assay. Recently we have commenced studies on the role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in copper transport and relationship of this to Alzheimers disease

  14. An iron-deficient diet stimulates the onset of the hepatitis due to hepatic copper deposition in the Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Naoki; Sugawara, Chieko [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Public Health

    1999-09-01

    To study effects of dietary Cu and Fe levels on the onset of hepatitis in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, female rats (40 days old) were fed a semipurified diet containing 0.1 or 10 mg Cu/kg and 1.5 or 150 mg Fe/kg in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement for 35 days. At 75 days after birth, LEC rats (+Cu-Fe) fed a Cu-sufficient but Fe-deficient diet (Cu, 10 mg/kg; Fe, 1.5 mg/kg) showed jaundice, with lethargy, anorexia, and malaise. The biochemical variables relating to liver function were significantly increased compared to three other groups, a Cu- and Fe-deficient (-Cu-Fe) group, a Cu-deficient but Fe-sufficient (-Cu+Fe) group, and a Cu and Fe sufficient (+Cu+Fe) group. Furthermore, the +Cu-Fe rat liver showed massive necrosis with huge nuclei. The other three groups presented no biochemical and histological findings of hepatitis. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations were 289 {+-} 87 (mean {+-} SD) {mu}g/g liver and 8.7 {+-} 1.8 mg/g liver, respectively, in the +Cu-Fe rats. However, in the +Cu+Fe group the values were 196 {+-} 28 {mu}g Cu/g liver and 10.8 {+-} 1.0 mg/g liver. Hepatic Fe deposition was not influenced significantly by the dietary Cu level. The +Cu-Fe group with jaundice showed the highest free Cu concentration in the liver among the four groups, but the hepatic free Fe concentration was similar to those in the -Cu+Fe and +Cu+Fe groups. Our results indicate that an Fe-deficient diet enhances the deposition of hepatic Cu due to increased absorption of Cu from the gastrointestinal tract. This deposition stimulated the onset of hepatitis. (orig.)

  15. Interactions of peptide amidation and copper: novel biomarkers and mechanisms of neural dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet-Moore, Danielle; Prohaska, Joseph R; Nillni, Eduardo A; Czyzyk, Traci; Wetsel, William C; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian genomes encode only a small number of cuproenzymes. The many genes involved in coordinating copper uptake, distribution, storage and efflux make gene/nutrient interactions especially important for these cuproenzymes. Copper deficiency and copper excess both disrupt neural function. Using mice heterozygous for peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), a cuproenzyme essential for the synthesis of many neuropeptides, we identified alterations in anxiety-like behavior, thermoregulation and seizure sensitivity. Dietary copper supplementation reversed a subset of these deficits. Wildtype mice maintained on a marginally copper-deficient diet exhibited some of the same deficits observed in PAM(+/-) mice and displayed alterations in PAM metabolism. Altered copper homeostasis in PAM(+/-) mice suggested a role for PAM in the cell type specific regulation of copper metabolism. Physiological functions sensitive to genetic limitations of PAM that are reversed by supplemental copper and mimicked by copper deficiency may serve as indicators of marginal copper deficiency.

  16. Effect of Dietary Phytase Supplementation on Bone and Hyaline Cartilage Development of Broilers Fed with Organically Complexed Copper in a Cu-Deficient Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyński, Siemowit; Tomaszewska, Ewa; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Tomczyk, Agnieszka

    2017-07-15

    Tibial mechanical, chemical, and histomorphometrical traits were investigated for growing male Ross 308 broiler chickens fed diets that had copper (Cu) from organic source at a lowered level of 25% of the daily requirement (4 mg kg(-1) of a premix) with or without phytase. Dietary treatments were control non-copper, non-phytase group (0 Suppl); 4 mg kg(-1) Cu non-phytase group (25%Cu); and 4 mg kg(-1) Cu + 500 FTU kg(-1) phytase group (25%Cu + phyt). The results show that birds fed with the addition of phytase exhibited improved weight gain and final body weight and had increased serum IGF-1 and osteocalcin concentrations. The serum concentration of Cu and P did not differ between groups; however, Ca concentration decreased in the 25%Cu + phyt group when compared to the 25%Cu group. Added Cu increased bone Ca, P, Cu, and ash content in Cu-supplemented groups, but bone weight and length increased only by the addition of phytase. Bone geometry, yield, and ultimate strengths were affected by Cu and phytase addition. A decrease of the elastic stress and ultimate stress of the tibia in Cu-supplemented groups was observed. The histomorphometric analysis showed a positive effect of Cu supplementation on real bone volume and trabecular thickness in the tibia metaphyseal trabeculae; additionally, phytase increased the trabeculea number. The supplementation with Cu significantly increased the total articular cartilage and growth plate cartilage thickness; however, the changes in thickness of particular zones were dependent upon phytase addition. In summary, dietary Cu supplements given to growing broilers with Cu in their diet restricted to 25% of the daily requirement had a positive effect on bone metabolism, and phytase supplementation additionally improved cartilage development.

  17. Copper hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-10-01

    The world production of copper is steadily increasing. Although humans are widely exposed to copper-containing items on the skin and mucosa, allergic reactions to copper are only infrequently reported. To review the chemistry, biology and accessible data to clarify the implications of copper hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common. As a metal, it possesses many of the same qualities as nickel, which is a known strong sensitizer. Cumulative data on subjects with presumed related symptoms and/or suspected exposure showed that a weighted average of 3.8% had a positive patch test reaction to copper. We conclude that copper is a very weak sensitizer as compared with other metal compounds. However, in a few and selected cases, copper can result in clinically relevant allergic reactions.

  18. Copper transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats.

  19. Copper hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common...

  20. An Analysis of Contemporary Copper Recycling in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Qiang; LU Zhong-wu

    2006-01-01

    Copper consumption increased very quickly in China in recent years, which could not be met by inland copper industry. In order to achieve a sustainable development of copper industry, an analysis of copper recycling in China was necessary. For the life cycle of copper products a copper-flow diagram with time factor was worked out and the contemporary copper recycling in China was analyzed, from which the following data were obtained. The average life cycle of copper products was 30 years. From 1998 to 2002, the use ratio of copper scraps in copper production, the use ratio of copper scraps in copper manufacture, the materials self-support ratio in copper production, and the materials self-support ratio in copper manufacture were 26.50%, 15.49%, 48.05% and 59.41%, respectively. The materials self-support ratios in copper production and manufacture declined year by year in recent years on the whole, and the latter dropped more quickly. The average index of copper ore and copper scrap from 1998 to 2002 were 0.8475 t/t and 0.0736 t/t, respectively; and copper resource efficiency was 1.1855 t/t. Some efforts should be paid to reduce copper ores consumption and promote copper scraps regeneration.Copper scraps were mostly imported from foreign countries because of shortage in recent years in China. Here the reasons related to copper scraps deficiency were also demonstrated. But we can forecast: when copper production was in a slow rise or in a steady state in China, the deficiency of copper scraps may be mitigated; when copper production was in a steady state for a very long time, copper scraps may become relatively abundant. According to the status of copper industry in China, the raw materials of copper production and manufacture have to depend on oversea markets heavily in recent years, and at the same time, the copper scraps using proportion and efficiency in copper industry should be improved.

  1. Use of copper radioisotopes in investigating disorders of copper metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camakaris, J.; Voskoboinik, I.; Brooks, H.; Greenough, M. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia). Department of Genetics; Smith, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division; Mercer, J. [Deakin University, Rusden Campus, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Centre of Cellular and Molecular Biology

    1998-12-31

    Full text: Copper is an essential trace element for life as a number of vital enzymes require it. Copper deficiency can lead to neurological disorders, osteoporosis and weakening of arteries. However Cu is also highly toxic and homeostatic mechanisms have evolved to maintain Cu at levels which satisfy requirements but do not cause toxicity. Toxicity is mediated by the oxidative capacity of Cu and its ability to generate toxic free radicals. There are several acquired and inherited diseases due to either Cu toxicity or Cu deficiency. The study of these diseases facilitates identification of genes and proteins involved in copper homeostasis, and this in turn will provide rational therapeutic approaches. Our studies have focused on Menkes disease in humans which is an inherited and usually lethal copper deficiency. Using copper radioisotopes {sup 64}Cu (t 1/2 = 12.8 hr) and {sup 67}Cu (t 1/2 = 61 hr) we have studied the protein which is mutated in Menkes disease. This is a transmembrane copper pump which is responsible for absorption of copper into the body and also functions to pump out excess Cu from cells when Cu is elevated. It is therefore a vital component of normal Cu homeostasis. We have provided the first biochemical evidence that the Menkes protein functions as a P-type ATPase Cu pump (Voskoboinik et al., FEBS Letters, in press) and these data will be discussed. The assay involved pumping of radiocopper into purified membrane vesicles. Furthermore we have transfected normal and mutant Menkes genes into cells and are carrying out structure-function studies. We are also studying the role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) as a Cu transport protein in order to determine how Cu regulates this protein and its cleavage products. These studies will provide vital information on the relationship between Cu and APP and processes which lead to Alzheimers disease

  2. Zinc, copper and selenium in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwal, R S; Bahuguna, A

    1994-07-15

    Of the nine biological trace elements, zinc, copper and selenium are important in reproduction in males and females. Zinc content is high in the adult testis, and the prostate has a higher concentration of zinc than any other organ of the body. Zinc deficiency first impairs angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, and this in turn leads to depletion of testosterone and inhibition of spermatogenesis. Defects in spermatozoa are frequently observed in the zinc-deficient rat. Zinc is thought to help to extend the functional life span of the ejaculated spermatozoa. Zinc deficiency in the female can lead to such problems as impaired synthesis/secretion of (FSH) and (LH), abnormal ovarian development, disruption of the estrous cycle, frequent abortion, a prolonged gestation period, teratogenicity, stillbirths, difficulty in parturition, pre-eclampsia, toxemia and low birth weights of infants. The level of testosterone in the male has been suggested to play a role in the severity of copper deficiency. Copper-deficient female rats are protected against mortality due to copper deficiency, and the protection has been suggested to be provided by estrogens, since estrogens alter the subcellular distribution of copper in the liver and increase plasma copper levels by inducing ceruloplasmin synthesis. The selenium content of male gonads increases during pubertal maturation. Selenium is localized in the mitochondrial capsule protein (MCP) of the midpiece. Maximal incorporation in MCP occurs at steps 7 and 12 of spermatogenesis and uptake decreases by step 15. Selenium deficiency in females results in infertility, abortions and retention of the placenta. The newborns from a selenium-deficient mother suffer from muscular weakness, but the concentration of selenium during pregnancy does not have any effect on the weight of the baby or length of pregnancy. The selenium requirements of a pregnant and lactating mother are increased as a result of selenium transport to the fetus via

  3. Copper deficiency conditioned by high levels of zinc, manganese and iron in the Middle Paraíba, RJ, BrazilDeficiência de cobre condicionada a altos teores de zinco, manganês e ferro na região do Médio Paraíba, RJ, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Lopes Marques

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of microminerals in the soils, pastures, and sera of adult and young bovines were determined in 7 areas of Middle Paraíba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, that showed a history of low reproductive performance, marked weight loss of cows after calving, allotriophagy, and changes in pelage color. The animals were subjected to clinical evaluation, and the main signs were as follows: regular to poor general condition, anemia, alopecia, depigmentation of the pelage in adult animals, discolored pelage (reddish in dark animals, and thinning and loss of hair around the eyes. Calves showed bad general appearance, retarded development, and rough, dry, and spiked hair. There were other evident signs such as craving and consumption of foreign material such as soil, wood, or bones. After the interview with the owners and on-site evaluation of the herds, soil samples, forages, and blood serum samples were obtained for analysis of macro and micronutrients in 2 different periods: May/June (end of the rainy season–autumn and October/November (end of dry season–spring. The findings of soil (3.03 ± 1.72/3.13 ± 1.22 mg/ dm3 and forage (11.91 ± 2.92/13.6 ± 5.23 ppm samples indicated normal and high levels of copper, respectively, in most of the pastures which is contrary to the clinical signs of deficiency observed in the animals. However, the copper levels in serum were lower than normal (0.42 ± 0.14/0.45 ± 0.17 ppm in majority of the animals, in periods of evaluation and for all properties. Excessively high values of iron, zinc, and manganese were found in soil and pasture samples, which could have probably been acting as antagonists of copper absorption, resulting in a conditioned deficiency. Descrevem-se as concentrações de microelementos minerais em amostras de solos, pastagens e soro de bovinos adultos e jovens em sete propriedades na região do Médio Paraíba, RJ, Brasil com histórico de baixo desempenho reprodutivo, emagrecimento

  4. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 By ATA | Featured , Iodine Deficiency , News Releases , Potassium Iodide (KI) | No Comments IDD NEWSLETTER – February 2017 VOLUME ... 2016 By ATA | Featured , Iodine Deficiency , News Releases , Potassium Iodide (KI) | No Comments IDD NEWSLETTER – November 2015 (PDF ...

  5. Clusterin and COMMD1 Independently Regulate Degradation of the Mammalian Copper ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Materia, Stephanie; Cater, Michael A.; Klomp, Leo W. J.; Mercer, Julian F. B.; La Fontaine, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    ATP7A and ATP7B are copper-transporting P-1B-type ATPases (Cu-ATPases) that are critical for regulating intracellular copper homeostasis. Mutations in the genes encoding ATP7A and ATP7B lead to copper deficiency and copper toxicity disorders, Menkes and Wilson diseases, respectively. Clusterin and C

  6. Clusterin and COMMD1 Independently Regulate Degradation of the Mammalian Copper ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Materia, Stephanie; Cater, Michael A.; Klomp, Leo W. J.; Mercer, Julian F. B.; La Fontaine, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    ATP7A and ATP7B are copper-transporting P-1B-type ATPases (Cu-ATPases) that are critical for regulating intracellular copper homeostasis. Mutations in the genes encoding ATP7A and ATP7B lead to copper deficiency and copper toxicity disorders, Menkes and Wilson diseases, respectively. Clusterin and C

  7. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers : a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J.; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Martens, Ellen C. C. P.; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; Sluis, van de Bart; Houwen, Roderick H. J. H.; Watson, Adrian L.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Hodgkinson, Victoria L.; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J.; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to

  8. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J.; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Martens, Ellen C. C. P.; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; van de Sluis, Bart; Houwen, Roderick H. J. H.; Watson, Adrian L.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Hodgkinson, Victoria L.; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J.; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to

  9. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J.; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Martens, Ellen C. C. P.; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; van de Sluis, Bart; Houwen, Roderick H. J. H.; Watson, Adrian L.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Hodgkinson, Victoria L.; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J.; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to

  10. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers : a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Martens, Ellen C C P; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; van de Sluis, Bart; Houwen, Roderick H J H; Watson, Adrian L; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Hodgkinson, Victoria L; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J; Polishchuk, Roman S; Leegwater, Peter A J; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to

  11. Anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiency in Mexican adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Anemia y deficiencia de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en adolescentes mexicanos: resultados de la ENSANUT 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora; Berenice Gaona; Salvador Villalpando; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Ricardo Robledo

    2012-01-01

    .... MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample included 2447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 y. Capillary hemoglobin and venous blood samples were collected to measure the concentrations of ferritin, sTFR, CRP, zinc, iron, copper and magnesium...

  12. Disaccharidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, T M; Christopher, N L

    1969-02-01

    This review of the literature and current knowledge concerning a nutritional disorder of disaccharidase deficiency discusses the following topics: 1) a description of disorders of disaccharide digestion; 2) some historical perspective on the laboratory and bedside advances in the past 10 years that have helped define a group of these digestive disorders; 3) a classification of conditions causing disaccharide intolerance; and 4) a discussion of some of the specific clinical syndromes emphasizing nutritional consequences of these syndromes. The syndromes described include congenital lactase deficiency, acquired lactase deficiency in teenagers and adults, acquired generalized disaccharidase deficiency secondary to diffuse mucosal damage, acquired lactose intolerance secondary to alterations in the intestinal transit, sucrase-isomaltase deficiencies, and other disease associations connected with lactase deficiency such as colitis.

  13. DETERMINATION OF COPPER IN EARLY HUMAN CHORIONIC VILLI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAIWen-Juan; DONGCai-Jin; CHENGZhuai-Sheng; ZONGWen-Ping; WANGZhen-Hai; SHIBin

    1989-01-01

    Some human genetic diseases of mctabolism are associated with enzyme deficiency in chorionic villi and have been reported in previous studies. Some enzyme activities are dependent on trace elements. Tφnnesen reported that genetic diseases due to disorder of copper metabolism could be diagnosed by determination of copper content in ehorionie

  14. Copper toxicity in a New Zealand dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard; Beasley, Laura; MacPherson, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Chronic copper toxicity was diagnosed in a Jersey herd in the Waikato region of New Zealand following an investigation into the deaths of six cattle from a herd of 250 dry cows. Clinical signs and post-mortem examination results were consistent with a hepatopathy, and high concentrations of copper in liver and blood samples of clinically affected animals confirmed copper toxicity. Liver copper concentrations and serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were both raised in a group of healthy animals sampled at random from the affected herd, indicating an ongoing risk to the remaining cattle; these animals all had serum copper concentrations within normal limits. Serum samples and liver biopsies were also collected and assayed for copper from animals within two other dairy herds on the same farm; combined results from all three herds showed poor correlation between serum and liver copper concentrations. To reduce liver copper concentrations the affected herd was drenched with 0.5 g ammonium molybdate and 1 g sodium sulphate per cow for five days, and the herd was given no supplementary feed or mineral supplements. Liver biopsies were repeated 44 days after the initial biopsies (approximately 1 month after the end of the drenching program); these showed a significant 37.3% decrease in liver copper concentrations (P record keeping, but multiple sources of copper contributed to a long term copper over supplementation of the herd; the biggest source of copper was a mineral supplement. The farmer perceived this herd to have problems with copper deficiency prior to the diagnosis of copper toxicity, so this case demonstrates the importance of monitoring herd copper status regularly. Also the poor correlation between liver and serum copper concentrations in the three herds sampled demonstrates the importance of using liver copper concentration to assess herd copper status.

  15. Abnormal Copper Homeostasis: Mechanisms and Roles in Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Manto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a cofactor of proteins and enzymes involved in critical molecular pathways in mammals and low eukaryotes, copper is a transition metal essential for life. The intra-cellular and extra-cellular metabolism of copper is under tight control, in order to maintain free copper concentrations at very low levels. Copper is a critical element for major neuronal functions, and the central nervous system is a major target of disorders of copper metabolism. Both the accumulation of copper and copper deficiency are associated with brain dysfunction. The redox capacities of free copper, its ability to trigger the production of reactive oxygen species and the close relationships with the regulation of iron and zinc are remarkable features. Major advances in our understanding of the relationships between copper, neuronal functions and neurodegeneration have occurred these last two decades. The metabolism of copper and the current knowledge on the consequences of copper dysregulation on brain disorders are reviewed, with a focus on neurodegenerative diseases, such as Wilson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. In vitro studies, in vivo experiments and evidence from clinical observations of the neurotoxic effects of copper provide the basis for future therapies targeting copper homeostasis.

  16. Clinical zinc deficiency as early presentation of Wilson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biervliet, Stephanie; Küry, Sébastien; De Bruyne, Ruth; Vanakker, Olivier M; Schmitt, Sébastien; Vande Velde, Saskia; Blouin, Eric; Bézieau, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    Wilson disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the copper metabolism caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the ATP-ase Cu(2+) transporting polypeptide (ATP7B) gene. The copper accumulation in different organs leads to the suspicion of Wilson disease. We describe a child with clinical zinc deficiency as presenting symptom of Wilson disease, which was confirmed by 2 mutations within the ATP7B gene and an increased copper excretion.

  17. Prolidase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Qazi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolidase deficiency is a rare inborn disorder of collagen metabolism characterized by chronic recurrent skin ulceration. A seven-year-old girl and her younger sibling with clinical features and laboratory criteria fulfilling the diagnosis of prolidase deficiency are presented in view of rarity of the condition.

  18. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected. Howeve

  19. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected. Howeve

  20. Mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases associated with copper imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Luisa; Lombardo, Marco F; Ciriolo, Maria R; Rotilio, Giuseppe

    2004-03-01

    Copper is an essential transition metal ion for the function of key metabolic enzymes, but its uncontrolled redox reactivity is source of reactive oxygen species. Therefore a network of transporters strictly controls the trafficking of copper in living systems. Deficit, excess, or aberrant coordination of copper are conditions that may be detrimental, especially for neuronal cells, which are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress. Indeed, the genetic disturbances of copper homeostasis, Menkes' and Wilson's diseases, are associated with neurodegeneration. Furthermore, copper interacts with the proteins that are the hallmarks of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, prion diseases, and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In all cases, copper-mediated oxidative stress is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction, which is a common feature of neurodegeneration. In particular we recently demonstrated that in copper deficiency, mitochondrial function is impaired due to decreased activity of cytochrome c oxidase, leading to production of reactive oxygen species, which in turn triggers mitochondria-mediated apoptotic neurodegeneration.

  1. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 0 Iodine Daily Serving now recommended in Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements for Pregnant and Lactating Women By ATA | 2015 News Releases , Iodine Deficiency , News Releases , Thyroid Disease and Pregnancy | No Comments Falls Church, February 10, 2015 —The ...

  2. Iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimshaw, N S

    1991-10-01

    The world's leading nutritional problem is iron deficiency. 66% of children and women aged 15-44 years in developing countries have it. Further, 10-20% of women of childbearing age in developed countries are anemic. Iron deficiency is identified with often irreversible impairment of a child's learning ability. It is also associated with low capacity for adults to work which reduces productivity. In addition, it impairs the immune system which reduces the body's ability to fight infection. Iron deficiency also lowers the metabolic rate and the body temperature when exposed to cold. Hemoglobin contains nearly 73% of the body's iron. This iron is always being recycled as more red blood cells are made. The rest of the needed iron does important tasks for the body, such as binds to molecules that are reservoirs of oxygen for muscle cells. This iron comes from our diet, especially meat. Even though some plants, such as spinach, are high in iron, the body can only absorb 1.4-7% of the iron in plants whereas it can absorb 20% of the iron in red meat. In many developing countries, the common vegetarian diets contribute to high rates of iron deficiency. Parasitic diseases and abnormal uterine bleeding also promote iron deficiency. Iron therapy in anemic children can often, but not always, improve behavior and cognitive performance. Iron deficiency during pregnancy often contributes to maternal and perinatal mortality. Yet treatment, if given to a child in time, can lead to normal growth and hinder infections. However, excess iron can be damaging. Too much supplemental iron in a malnourished child promotes fatal infections since the excess iron is available for the pathogens use. Many countries do not have an effective system for diagnosing, treating, and preventing iron deficiency. Therefore a concerted international effort is needed to eliminate iron deficiency in the world.

  3. Copper homeostasis in grapevine: functional characterization of the Vitis vinifera copper transporter 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Viviana; Bassil, Elias; Hanana, Mohsen; Blumwald, Eduardo; Gerós, Hernâni

    2014-07-01

    The Vitis vinifera copper transporter 1 is capable of self-interaction and mediates intracellular copper transport. An understanding of copper homeostasis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is particularly relevant to viticulture in which copper-based fungicides are intensively used. In the present study, the Vitis vinifera copper transporter 1 (VvCTr1), belonging to the Ctr family of copper transporters, was cloned and functionally characterized. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that VvCTr1 monomers are small peptides composed of 148 amino acids with 3 transmembrane domains and several amino acid residues typical of Ctr transporters. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) demonstrated that Ctr monomers are self-interacting and subcellular localization studies revealed that VvCTr1 is mobilized via the trans-Golgi network, through the pre-vacuolar compartment and located to the vacuolar membrane. The heterologous expression of VvCTr1 in a yeast strain lacking all Ctr transporters fully rescued the phenotype, while a deficient complementation was observed in a strain lacking only plasma membrane-bound Ctrs. Given the common subcellular localization of VvCTr1 and AtCOPT5 and the highest amino acid sequence similarity in comparison to the remaining AtCOPT proteins, Arabidopsis copt5 plants were stably transformed with VvCTr1. The impairment in root growth observed in copt5 seedlings in copper-deficient conditions was fully rescued by VvCTr1, further supporting its involvement in intracellular copper transport. Expression studies in V. vinifera showed that VvCTr1 is mostly expressed in the root system, but transcripts were also present in leaves and stems. The functional characterization of VvCTr-mediated copper transport provides the first step towards understanding the physiological and molecular responses of grapevines to copper-based fungicides.

  4. Nutrition and hair: deficiencies and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finner, Andreas M

    2013-01-01

    Hair follicle cells have a high turnover. A caloric deprivation or deficiency of several components, such as proteins, minerals, essential fatty acids, and vitamins, caused by inborn errors or reduced uptake, can lead to structural abnormalities, pigmentation changes, or hair loss, although exact data are often lacking. The diagnosis is established through a careful history, clinical examination of hair loss activity, and hair quality and confirmed through targeted laboratory tests. Examples of genetic hair disorders caused by reduced nutritional components are zinc deficiency in acrodermatitis enteropathica and copper deficiency in Menkes kinky hair syndrome.

  5. Role of copper in the process of spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Ogórek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu is an essential trace element required for the normal development of living organisms. Due to its redox potential, copper is a cofactor in many enzymes responsible for important processes in cells. Copper deficiency has a significant influence on the reduction or the total eradication of copper-dependent enzymes in the body, thereby inhibiting cell life processes. On the other hand, copper is a very reactive element and in its free state, it can trigger the production of large amounts of free radicals, which will consequently lead to the damage of proteins and DNA. Because of those reasons, living organisms have developed precise mechanisms regulating the concentration of copper in cells. Copper also plays a very important role in male fertility. It is an essential element for the production of male gametes. The significant role of copper is also described in the processes of cell division – mitotic and meiotic. Copper-dependent enzymes such as ceruloplasmin, superoxide dismutase SOD1 and SOD3, group of metallothionein and cytochrome c oxidase are present at all stages of gametogenesis as well as in the somatic cells of the testis and in the somatic cells of epididymis. Substantial amounts of copper can also be found in liquids associated with sperm in the epididymis and prostate. Copper also affects the integral androgen distribution in terms of fertility on the line hypothalamic-pituitary-testis. Both copper increase and deficiency leads to a significant reduction in male fertility, which spans the entire spectrum of abnormalities at the sperm level, male gonad, production of hormones and distribution of micronutrients such as zinc and iron. Nowadays, the effects of copper on gametes production have become more important and are connected with the increasing levels of pollution with heavy metals in environment.

  6. The many "faces" of copper in medicine and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordyjewska, Anna; Popiołek, Łukasz; Kocot, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential microelement found in all living organisms with the unique ability to adopt two different redox states-in the oxidized (Cu(2+)) and reduced (Cu(+)). It is required for survival and serves as an important catalytic cofactor in redox chemistry for proteins that carry out fundamental biological functions, important in growth and development. The deficit of copper can result in impaired energy production, abnormal glucose and cholesterol metabolism, increased oxidative damage, increased tissue iron (Fe) accrual, altered structure and function of circulating blood and immune cells, abnormal neuropeptides synthesis and processing, aberrant cardiac electrophysiology, impaired myocardial contractility, and persistent effects on the neurobehavioral and the immune system. Increased copper level has been found in several disorders like e.g.: Wilson's disease or Menke's disease. New findings with the great potential for impact in medicine include the use of copper-lowering therapy for antiangiogenesis, antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory purposes. The role of copper in formation of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease, and successful treatment of this disorder in rodent model by copper chelating are also of interest. In this work we will try to describe essential aspects of copper in chosen diseases. We will represent the evidence available on adverse effect derived from copper deficiency and copper excess. We will try to review also the copper biomarkers (chosen enzymes) that help reflect the level of copper in the body.

  7. Cobalamin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Wolfgang; Obeid, Rima

    2012-01-01

    Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B12) consists of a corrinoid structure with cobalt in the centre of the molecule. Neither humans nor animals are able to synthesize this vitamin. Foods of animal source are the only natural source of cobalamin in human diet. There are only two enzymatic reactions in mammalian cells that require cobalamin as cofactor. Methylcobolamin is a cofactor for methionine synthase. The enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA-mutase requires adenosylcobalamin as a cofactor. Therefore, serum concentrations of homocysteine (tHcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) will increase in cobalamin deficiency. The cobalamin absorption from diet is a complex process that involves different proteins: haptocorrin, intrinsic factor and transcobalamin (TC). Cobalamin that is bound to TC is called holotranscobalamin (holoTC) which is the metabolically active vitamin B12 fraction. HoloTC consists 6 and 20% of total cobalamin whereas 80% of total serum cobalamin is bound to another binding protein, haptocorrin. Cobalamin deficiency is common worldwide. Cobalamin malabsorption is common in elderly subjects which might explain low vitamin status. Subjects who ingest low amount of cobalamin like vegetarians develop vitamin deficiency. No single parameter can be used to diagnose cobalamin deficiency. Total serum cobalamin is neither sensitive nor it is specific for cobalamin deficiency. This might explain why many deficient subjects would be overlooked by utilizing total cobalamin as status marker. Concentration of holotranscobalamin (holoTC) in serum is an earlier marker that becomes decreased before total serum cobalamin. Concentrations of MMA and tHcy increase in blood of cobalamin deficient subjects. Despite limitations of these markers in patients with renal dysfunction, concentrations of MMA and tHcy are useful functional markers of cobalamin status. The combined use of holoTC and MMA assays may better indicate cobalamin status than either of them. Because Cbl deficiency is a risk factor

  8. Copper allergy from dental copper amalgam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardsson, Lars; Björkner, Bert; Karlsteen, Magnus; Schütz, Andrejs

    2002-05-06

    A 65-year-old female was investigated due to a gradually increasing greenish colour change of her plastic dental splint, which she used to prevent teeth grinding when sleeping. Furthermore, she had noted a greenish/bluish colour change on the back of her black gloves, which she used to wipe her tears away while walking outdoors. The investigation revealed that the patient had a contact allergy to copper, which is very rare. She had, however, had no occupational exposure to copper. The contact allergy may be caused by long-term exposure of the oral mucosa to copper from copper-rich amalgam fillings, which were frequently used in childhood dentistry up to the 1960s in Sweden. The deposition of a copper-containing coating on the dental splint may be caused by a raised copper intake from drinking water, increasing the copper excretion in saliva, in combination with release of copper due to electrochemical corrosion of dental amalgam. The greenish colour change of the surface of the splint is probably caused by deposition of a mixture of copper compounds, e.g. copper carbonates. Analysis by the X-ray diffraction technique indicates that the dominant component is copper oxide (Cu2O and CuO). The corresponding greenish/bluish discoloration observed on the back of the patient's gloves may be caused by increased copper excretion in tears.

  9. [The changes of processes of free radical oxidation of lipids and proteins, antioxidant defence in rats with hypofunction of the thyroid gland in conditions of iodine and copper deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronych-Semchenko, N M; Huranych, T V

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid status, copper balance, correlation of processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids (POL), proteins (POP), antioxidant defence (AOD) were examined in experiments on rats with hypofunction of thyroid gland under iodine monodeficit (HTGI) and combined iodine and copper deficit (HTGI+Cu). It was determined that a combined deficit of microelements is accompanied by a distribution of copper content between different tissues (increase in red blood cell mass and cerebrum, decrease in myocardium), essential changes of indexes of hypotalamo-hypophysis-thyroid axis, oxygen-dependent metabolism, antiradical defense, exacerbating the effects of negative influence of each of them on organism. It was established that HTGI+Cu causes a suppression of oxygen-dependent processes. In thyroid gland, it is shown a decrease of content of dyenic conjugates (DC) by 69,70% , of TBA-reacting products (TBA-RP) by 47,72% in diencephalon, the volume of modified proteins (VMP) - by 37,10-98,98% in the tissues of diencephalons. The results obtained let us to suggest a pivotal role ofmicroelement dysbalance and metabolic mechanisms in pathogenesis of cardiological pathology under thyroid dysfunction. The development of HTGI +Cu exhausts the resources of AOD: decreases the activity of catalase (on 47,05%), superoxide dismutase (on 33,13%), ceruloplasmine (on 33,93%) and saturation of transferrin with iron (on 56,76%) against the background of selective rise in the activity of glu-tationreductase (in 2,8 time) in comparison with the control data. The long-term disturbances ofantyoxidative defence can be the reason of manifestation of oxygendependent processes and the development of pathological changes in separate physiological systems of organism.

  10. VLCAD deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boneh, A; Andresen, B S; Gregersen, N

    2006-01-01

    We diagnosed six newborn babies with very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) through newborn screening in three years in Victoria (prevalence rate: 1:31,500). We identified seven known and two new mutations in our patients (2/6 homozygotes; 4/6 compound heterozygotes). Blood...

  11. Copper Products Capacity Expansion Stimulate the Copper Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>The dramatic growth of copper consumption in China can directly be seen from the expansion of copper products capacity.According to sta- tistics,in the past 4 years,the improvement on the balance of trade on copper bar,copper,and copper alloy and copper wire & cable has driven the growth of copper consumption a lot.

  12. Antwerp Copper Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes.......In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes....

  13. Copper and copper proteins in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Sergio; Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology.

  14. Role of the human high-affinity copper transporter in copper homeostasis regulation and cisplatin sensitivity in cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Macus Tien; Fu, Siqing; Savaraj, Niramol; Chen, Helen H W

    2012-09-15

    The high-affinity copper transporter (Ctr1; SCLC31A1) plays an important role in regulating copper homeostasis because copper is an essential micronutrient and copper deficiency is detrimental to many important cellular functions, but excess copper is toxic. Recent research has revealed that human copper homeostasis is tightly controlled by interregulatory circuitry involving copper, Sp1, and human (hCtr1). This circuitry uses Sp1 transcription factor as a copper sensor in modulating hCtr1 expression, which in turn controls cellular copper and Sp1 levels in a 3-way mutual regulatory loop. Posttranslational regulation of hCtr1 expression by copper stresses has also been described in the literature. Because hCtr1 can also transport platinum drugs, this finding underscores the important role of hCtr1 in platinum-drug sensitivity in cancer chemotherapy. Consistent with this notion is the finding that elevated hCtr1 expression was associated with favorable treatment outcomes in cisplatin-based cancer chemotherapy. Moreover, cultured cell studies showed that elevated hCtr1 expression can be induced by depleting cellular copper levels, resulting in enhanced cisplatin uptake and its cell-killing activity. A phase I clinical trial using a combination of trientine (a copper chelator) and carboplatin has been carried out with encouraging results. This review discusses new insights into the role of hCtr1 in regulating copper homeostasis and explains how modulating cellular copper availability could influence treatment efficacy in platinum-based cancer chemotherapy through hCtr1 regulation.

  15. The effect of copper on the content and composition of saccharides in oat plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ślusarczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the content and composition of saccharides and the dose and time of application of copper sulphate was studied in different organs and stages of development of oats (Avena sativa L. var. 'Udycz żółty'. The plant material was obtained from pot experiments run on low peat, deficient in copper. Under these conditions, oat plants contained less soluble sugars, hemicelluloses and cellulose than plants receiving a sufficient amount of this element. The differences in the composition of the individual saccharide fractions depended on the dose of copper and time of its application, as well as on the organ and stage of development of the oat plant. In grain of oats grown in copper deficient peat, increased amounts of pentoses (arabinose and xylose were found concomitantly with a lowered glucose content. Attempts to explain the changes in the sugar metabolism under conditions of copper deficiency and the role of this micronutrient in seed formation are presented.

  16. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  17. Inherited copper transport disorders: biochemical mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Hiroko; Fujisawa, Chie; Bhadhprasit, Wattanaporn

    2012-03-01

    Copper is an essential trace element required by all living organisms. Excess amounts of copper, however, results in cellular damage. Disruptions to normal copper homeostasis are hallmarks of three genetic disorders: Menkes disease, occipital horn syndrome, and Wilson's disease. Menkes disease and occipital horn syndrome are characterized by copper deficiency. Typical features of Menkes disease result from low copper-dependent enzyme activity. Standard treatment involves parenteral administration of copper-histidine. If treatment is initiated before 2 months of age, neurodegeneration can be prevented, while delayed treatment is utterly ineffective. Thus, neonatal mass screening should be implemented. Meanwhile, connective tissue disorders cannot be improved by copper-histidine treatment. Combination therapy with copper-histidine injections and oral administration of disulfiram is being investigated. Occipital horn syndrome characterized by connective tissue abnormalities is the mildest form of Menkes disease. Treatment has not been conducted for this syndrome. Wilson's disease is characterized by copper toxicity that typically affects the hepatic and nervous systems severely. Various other symptoms are observed as well, yet its early diagnosis is sometimes difficult. Chelating agents and zinc are effective treatments, but are inefficient in most patients with fulminant hepatic failure. In addition, some patients with neurological Wilson's disease worsen or show poor response to chelating agents. Since early treatment is critical, a screening system for Wilson's disease should be implemented in infants. Patients with Wilson's disease may be at risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding the link between Wilson's disease and hepatocellular carcinoma will be beneficial for disease treatment and prevention.

  18. Abnormalities of zinc and copper during total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, S F; Goodgame, J T; Smith, J C; Maher, M M; Makuch, R W; Henkin, R I; Brennan, M F

    1979-01-01

    Changes in serum zinc and copper levels were studied in 19 tumor bearing patients undergoing parenteral nutrition (TPN) for five to 42 days. Before initiation of intravenous feeding mean serum zinc and copper concentrations were within normal limits but during TPN levels decreased significantly below those measured prior to parenteral nutrition. During TPN nitrogen, zinc, and copper intake, urinary output and serum levels were studied prospectively in nine of these patients. These nine patients exhibited positive nitrogen retention based upon urinary nitrogen excretion, but elevated urinary zinc and copper excretion and lowered serum zinc and copper concentrations. Neither blood administration nor limited oral intake was consistently able to maintain normal serum levels of zinc or copper. Zinc and copper supplementation of hyperalimentation fluids in four patients studied for five to 16 days was successful in increasing serum zinc and copper levels in only two. The data obtained suggest that patients undergoing parenteral nutrition may require supplementation of zinc and copper to prevent deficiencies of these elements. PMID:103506

  19. Hepatic cobalt and copper levels in lambs in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivertsen, T; Plassen, C

    2004-01-01

    Cobalt and copper concentrations were measured in 599 lamb livers collected at slaughter from 58 sheep flocks in 6 different parts of Norway in 1993. Information about pasture, additional feeding and mineral supplements in the flocks was obtained through a questionnaire. Average hepatic levels of cobalt in the lamb flocks varied from copper from 5 to 240 microg/g ww. Flocks with deficient or marginal cobalt status were found in all parts of southern Norway, but primarily in the west and south-west. Some flocks with marginal copper status were found in the south-west, while flocks with signs of excessive hepatic copper concentrations were found mainly in inner parts of central and northern Norway. Hepatic copper concentrations were significantly higher in lambs that had grazed mountain pastures than in those that had grazed lowland pastures in the summer.

  20. Association between Serum Copper Status and Working Memory in Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements such as copper are essential micronutrients. Traditionally, copper has been studied in the context of micronutrient deficiencies. Recent studies in both animals and humans, however, have revealed that elevated blood copper can also have adverse effects on cognitive function since free copper can cross the blood-brain barrier and subsequently impose oxidative stress to neuronal cells. However, most of these human studies were conducted in adult populations with and without cognitive decline, and there are few studies on the effect of excess copper on cognitive function in children. This project seeks to look at the effects of elevated copper levels on cognitive development in a population of school age children (ages 10–14 years with mean age of 12.03 years and standard deviation (SD of 0.44 from Jintan, China. Briefly, serum copper levels and working memory test scores were collected from a sample of 826 children with a mean serum copper level of 98.10 (SD 0.75. Copper level was considered as a categorical variable (taking the first group as those with as ≤84.3 μg/dL, the second group as >84.3 and ≤110.4 μg/dL, and the third group as >110.4 μg/dL with the cut-off values defined by the first and third quartiles of the sample. Results showed a significant association between high copper levels (>110.4 μg/dL and poorer working memory in boys but this association was not seen in lower copper levels in either sex. These results suggests that in school age children, like in adults, elevated copper levels have the potential to adversely affect cognition.

  1. Copper Status of Exposed Microorganisms Influences Susceptibility to Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Vincent C.; Spitzmiller, Melissa R.; Hong-Hermesdorf, Anne; Kropat, Janette; Damoiseaux, Robert D.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Mahendra, Shaily

    2017-01-01

    Although interactions of metallic nanoparticles (NP) with various microorganisms have been previously explored, few studies have examined how metal sensitivity impacts NP toxicity. Herein, we investigated the effects of copper nanoparticles’ (Cu-NPs) exposure to the model alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in the presence and absence of the essential micronutrient copper. The toxic ranges for Cu-NPs and the ionic control, CuCl2, were determined using a high-throughput ATP-based fluorescence assay. Cu-NPs caused similar mortality in copper-replete and copper-deplete cells (IC50: 14–16 mg/L), but were less toxic than the ionic control, CuCl2 (IC50: 7 mg/L). Using this concentration range, we assessed Cu-NP impacts to cell morphology, copper accumulation, chlorophyll content, and expression of stress genes under both copper supply states. Osmotic swelling, membrane damage, and chloroplast and organelle disintegration were observed by transmission electron microscopy at both conditions. Despite these similarities, copper-deplete cells showed greater accumulation of loosely bound and tightly bound copper after exposure to Cu-NPs. Furthermore, copper-replete cells experienced greater loss of chlorophyll content, 19 % for Cu-NPs, compared to only an 11% net decrease in copper-deplete cells. The tightly bound copper was bioavailable as assessed by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR analysis of CYC6, a biomarker for Cu-deficiency. The increased resistance of copper-deplete cells to Cu-NPs suggests that these cells potentially metabolize excess Cu-NPs or better manage sudden influxes of ions. Our findings recommend that toxicity assessments must account for the nutritional status of impacted organisms and use toxicity models based on estimations of the bioavailable fractions. PMID:26387648

  2. [Copper pathology (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, B; Romette, J; Di Costanzo, J D

    1982-01-30

    Copper is an essential dietary component, being the coenzyme of many enzymes with oxidase activity, e.g. ceruloplasmin, superoxide dismutase, monoamine oxidase, etc. The metabolism of copper is complex and imperfectly known. Active transport of copper through the intestinal epithelial cells involves metallothionein, a protein rich in sulfhydryl groups which also binds the copper in excess and probably prevents absorption in toxic amounts. In hepatocytes a metallothionein facilitates absorption by a similar mechanism and regulates copper distribution in the liver: incorporation in an apoceruloplasmin, storage and synthesis of copper-dependent enzymes. Metallothioneins and ceruloplasmin are essential to adequate copper homeostasis. Apart from genetic disorders, diseases involving copper usually result from hypercupraemia of varied origin. Wilson's disease and Menkes' disease, although clinically and pathogenetically different, are both marked by low ceruloplasmin and copper serum levels. The excessive liver retention of copper in Wilson's disease might be due to increased avidity of hepatic metallothioneins for copper and decreased biliary excretion through lysosomal dysfunction. Menkes' disease might be due to low avidity of intestinal and hepatic metallothioneins for copper. The basic biochemical defect responsible for these two hereditary conditions has not yet been fully elucidated.

  3. [Copper IUDs (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, M

    1983-10-01

    Following initial development of the Grafenberg ring in the 1920's, IUDs fell into disuse until the late 1950s, when plastic devices inserted using new technology began to gain worldwide acceptance. Further research indicated that copper had a significant antifertility effect which increased with increasing surface area, and several copper IUDs were developed and adapted, including the Copper T 200, the Copper T 220C, and the Copper T 380 A, probably the most effective yet. The Gravigard and Multiload are 2 other copper devices developed according to somewhat different principles. Copper devices are widely used not so much because of their great effectiveness as because of their suitability for nulliparous patients and their ease of insertion, which minimizes risk of uterine perforation. Records of 2584 women using Copper IUDs for 7190 women-years and 956 women using devices without copper for 6059 women-years suggest that the copper devices were associated with greater effectiveness and fewer removals for complications. Research suggests that the advantages of copper IUDs become more significant with increased duration of use. Contraindications to copper devices include allergy to copper and hepatolenticular degeneration. No carcinogenic or teratogenic effect of copper devices has been found, but further studies are needed to rule out other undesirable effects. Significant modifications of copper devices in recent years have been developed to increase their effectiveness, prolong their duration of usefulness, facilitate insertion and permit insertion during abortion or delivery. The upper limit of the surface area of copper associated with increased effectiveness appears to be between 200-300 sq mm, and at some point increases in copper exposure may provoke expulsion of the IUD. The duration of fertility inhibition of copper IUDs is usually estimated at 2-3 years, but recent research indicates that it may be 6-8 years, and some devices may retain copper surface

  4. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are unique to specific vitamin deficiencies. Folate-deficiency anemia risk factors include: Undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure. ... the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Outlook Doctors usually can successfully treat iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment ... poor skin tone, dizziness, and depression. After her doctor diagnosed her with iron-deficiency anemia, Susan got ...

  6. Metallo-pathways to Alzheimer's disease: lessons from genetic disorders of copper trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, M A; Ramírez Munoz, A; Bush, A I; Opazo, C M

    2016-09-01

    Copper is an essential metal ion that provides catalytic function to numerous enzymes and also regulates neurotransmission and intracellular signaling. Conversely, a deficiency or excess of copper can cause chronic disease in humans. Menkes and Wilson disease are two rare heritable disorders of copper transport that are characterized by copper deficiency and copper overload, respectively. Changes to copper status are also a common feature of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In the case of AD, which is characterized by brain copper depletion, changes in the distribution of copper has been linked with various aspects of the disease process; protein aggregation, defective protein degradation, oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although AD is a multifactorial disease that is likely caused by a breakdown in multiple cellular pathways, copper and other metal ions such as iron and zinc play a central role in many of these cellular processes. Pioneering work by researchers who have studied relatively rare copper transport diseases has shed light on potential metal ion related disease mechanisms in other forms of neurodegeneration such as AD.

  7. Serum copper and ceruloplasmin in preterm infants: prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, M; Chan, W Y; Ramadan, T Z; McCaffree, M A; Rennert, O M

    1982-01-01

    The postnatal time courses in preterm infants (30.0 weeks mean gestational age) of serum copper and ceruloplasmin (Cp) are described and compared. Serum copper was measured by nonflame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and serum Cp was measured by both immunodiffusion (Cpi) and enzyme assay (Cpe). With the exception of Cpe between 7 and 11 weeks of age, correlations among the three laboratory parameters were excellent. Following an early rise in all values, a plateau was seen in copper and Cpi between 5 and 11 weeks; Cpe showed a discordant fall at 7 to 11 weeks of age. After 11 weeks a secondary and definitive rise in all values was seen. Examination of individual time courses indicates the existence of a subgroup of infants with falling values between 5 and 11 weeks of age. Preterm infants had significantly higher serum copper (0.53 +/- 0.05 micrograms/ml) at a mean postnatal age of 10 weeks (39-41 weeks postconception) than did full-term infants (0.44 +/- 0.04 microns/ml) of similar postconceptional age. Low serum copper values were correlated with parenteral nutrition deficient in copper, with increased growth rates, and with twin pregnancies. It is concluded that extrauterine life in preterm infants is associated with precocious rises in serum copper and Cp values. The subgroup of infants with falling values may represent subclinically copper-deficient infants. This subgroup may bias the results of grouped data downwards. A role for nutritional factors in the delayed postnatal rise of serum copper and Cp values in preterm infants cannot be excluded on the basis of current knowledge.

  8. Handling of Copper and Copper Oxide Nanoparticles by Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulcke, Felix; Dringen, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Copper is an essential trace element for many important cellular functions. However, excess of copper can impair cellular functions by copper-induced oxidative stress. In brain, astrocytes are considered to play a prominent role in the copper homeostasis. In this short review we summarise the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms which are involved in the handling of copper by astrocytes. Cultured astrocytes efficiently take up copper ions predominantly by the copper transporter Ctr1 and the divalent metal transporter DMT1. In addition, copper oxide nanoparticles are rapidly accumulated by astrocytes via endocytosis. Cultured astrocytes tolerate moderate increases in intracellular copper contents very well. However, if a given threshold of cellular copper content is exceeded after exposure to copper, accelerated production of reactive oxygen species and compromised cell viability are observed. Upon exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of copper ions or copper oxide nanoparticles, astrocytes increase their copper storage capacity by upregulating the cellular contents of glutathione and metallothioneins. In addition, cultured astrocytes have the capacity to export copper ions which is likely to involve the copper ATPase 7A. The ability of astrocytes to efficiently accumulate, store and export copper ions suggests that astrocytes have a key role in the distribution of copper in brain. Impairment of this astrocytic function may be involved in diseases which are connected with disturbances in brain copper metabolism.

  9. Canine models of copper toxicosis for understanding mammalian copper metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Fieten, Hille; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Watson, Adrian L.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary forms of copper toxicosis exist in man and dogs. In man, Wilson’s disease is the best studied disorder of copper overload, resulting from mutations in the gene coding for the copper transporter ATP7B. Forms of copper toxicosis for which no causal gene is known yet are recognized as well, often in young children. Although advances have been made in unraveling the genetic background of disorders of copper metabolism in man, many questions regarding disease mechanisms and copper homeo...

  10. COX19 mediates the transduction of a mitochondrial redox signal from SCO1 that regulates ATP7A-mediated cellular copper efflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Scot C.; Cobine, Paul A.; Nishimura, Tamiko; Verdijk, Robert M.; de Krijger, Ronald; de Coo, René; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Winge, Dennis R.; Shoubridge, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    SCO1 and SCO2 are metallochaperones whose principal function is to add two copper ions to the catalytic core of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). However, affected tissues of SCO1 and SCO2 patients exhibit a combined deficiency in COX activity and total copper content, suggesting additional roles for these proteins in the regulation of cellular copper homeostasis. Here we show that both the redox state of the copper-binding cysteines of SCO1 and the abundance of SCO2 correlate with cellular copper content and that these relationships are perturbed by mutations in SCO1 or SCO2, producing a state of apparent copper overload. The copper deficiency in SCO patient fibroblasts is rescued by knockdown of ATP7A, a trans-Golgi, copper-transporting ATPase that traffics to the plasma membrane during copper overload to promote efflux. To investigate how a signal from SCO1 could be relayed to ATP7A, we examined the abundance and subcellular distribution of several soluble COX assembly factors. We found that COX19 partitions between mitochondria and the cytosol in a copper-dependent manner and that its knockdown partially rescues the copper deficiency in patient cells. These results demonstrate that COX19 is necessary for the transduction of a SCO1-dependent mitochondrial redox signal that regulates ATP7A-mediated cellular copper efflux. PMID:23345593

  11. Role of the P-Type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B in brain copper homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon eTelianidis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there have been significant advances in our understanding of copper homeostasis and the pathological consequences of copper dysregulation. Cumulative evidence is revealing a complex regulatory network of proteins and pathways that maintain copper homeostasis. The recognition of copper dysregulation as a key pathological feature in prominent neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and prion diseases has led to increased research focus on the mechanisms controlling copper homeostasis in the brain. The copper-transporting P-Type ATPases (copper-ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, are critical components of the copper regulatory network. Our understanding of the biochemistry and cell biology of these complex proteins has grown significantly since their discovery in 1993. They are large polytopic transmembrane proteins with six copper-binding motifs within the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain, eight transmembrane domains and highly conserved catalytic domains. These proteins catalyze ATP-dependent copper transport across cell membranes for the metallation of many essential cuproenzymes, as well as for the removal of excess cellular copper to prevent copper toxicity. A key functional aspect of these copper transporters is their copper-responsive trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the cell periphery. ATP7A- and ATP7B-deficiency, due to genetic mutation, underlie the inherited copper transport disorders, Menkes and Wilson diseases, respectively. Their importance in maintaining brain copper homeostasis is underscored by the severe neuropathological deficits in these disorders. Herein we will review and update our current knowledge of these copper transporters in the brain and the central nervous system, their distribution and regulation, their role in normal brain copper homeostasis and how their absence or dysfunction contributes to disturbances in copper homeostasis and neurodegeneration.

  12. Role of the P-Type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B in brain copper homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telianidis, Jonathon; Hung, Ya Hui; Materia, Stephanie; Fontaine, Sharon La

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades there have been significant advances in our understanding of copper homeostasis and the pathological consequences of copper dysregulation. Cumulative evidence is revealing a complex regulatory network of proteins and pathways that maintain copper homeostasis. The recognition of copper dysregulation as a key pathological feature in prominent neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and prion diseases has led to increased research focus on the mechanisms controlling copper homeostasis in the brain. The copper-transporting P-type ATPases (copper-ATPases), ATP7A and ATP7B, are critical components of the copper regulatory network. Our understanding of the biochemistry and cell biology of these complex proteins has grown significantly since their discovery in 1993. They are large polytopic transmembrane proteins with six copper-binding motifs within the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain, eight transmembrane domains, and highly conserved catalytic domains. These proteins catalyze ATP-dependent copper transport across cell membranes for the metallation of many essential cuproenzymes, as well as for the removal of excess cellular copper to prevent copper toxicity. A key functional aspect of these copper transporters is their copper-responsive trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the cell periphery. ATP7A- and ATP7B-deficiency, due to genetic mutation, underlie the inherited copper transport disorders, Menkes and Wilson diseases, respectively. Their importance in maintaining brain copper homeostasis is underscored by the severe neuropathological deficits in these disorders. Herein we will review and update our current knowledge of these copper transporters in the brain and the central nervous system, their distribution and regulation, their role in normal brain copper homeostasis, and how their absence or dysfunction contributes to disturbances in copper homeostasis and neurodegeneration.

  13. Hair copper in intrauterine copper device users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, M; Heyndrickx, A; Uyttersprot, C

    1984-03-01

    The antifertility effect of copper-bearing IUDs is based on continuous release of copper, which is a result of the reaction between the metal and the uterine secretions. Released cupric ions collect in the endometrium and in the uterine fluid but significant accumulation has not been found in the bloodstream or elsewhere. Following Laker's suggestion that hair be used for monitoring essential trace elements, e.g., copper, we checked the copper content of the hair of women wearing copper-bearing IUDs. Samples of untreated pubic hair removed by clipping before diagnostic curettage were obtained from 10 young (24-34 years old), white caucasian females who until then had been wearing an MLCu250 IUD for more than 1 year. Pubes from 10 comparable (sex, age, race) subjects who had never used a Cu-containing device served as controls. The unwashed material was submitted to the toxicology laboratory, where the copper content was assessed by flameless atomic absorption, a technique whose lower limit of measurement lies at a concentration of 0.05 mcg Cu/ml fluid (50 ppb). Hair samples were washed to remove extraneous traces of metal according to the prescriptions of the International Atomic Energy Agency, weighed, and mineralized, after which a small volume (10 mcl) of the diluted fluid was fed into the graphite furnace. Each sample (75-150 mg) was analyzed 4 times, both before and after washing. Since the cleaning procedure reduces the weight of the sample (mainly by the removal of fat, dust, etc.) this explains why the percentage copper content of washed hair is higher than that of unwashed hair belonging to the same subject. The results indicate that there was no significant difference (Mann-Whitney U test) between the mean copper levels of both unwashed and washed pubes from women who were using or had never used an MLCu250 IUD. We therefore conclude that the use of this copper-containing device is not associated with significant accumulation of copper in (pubic) hair.

  14. China Copper Processing Industry Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>1. Market Consumption The ’China Factor’ and Copper Price Fluctuation We all know China is an enormous consumer of copper,but the exact levels of consumption and where the copper has gone remains a mystery.

  15. Biogenic nanoparticles: copper, copper oxides, copper sulphides, complex copper nanostructures and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubilar, Olga; Rai, Mahendra; Tortella, Gonzalo; Diez, Maria Cristina; Seabra, Amedea B; Durán, Nelson

    2013-09-01

    Copper nanoparticles have been the focus of intensive study due to their potential applications in diverse fields including biomedicine, electronics, and optics. Copper-based nanostructured materials have been used in conductive films, lubrification, nanofluids, catalysis, and also as potent antimicrobial agent. The biogenic synthesis of metallic nanostructured nanoparticles is considered to be a green and eco-friendly technology since neither harmful chemicals nor high temperatures are involved in the process. The present review discusses the synthesis of copper nanostructured nanoparticles by bacteria, fungi, and plant extracts, showing that biogenic synthesis is an economically feasible, simple and non-polluting process. Applications for biogenic copper nanoparticles are also discussed.

  16. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Anouk de Bruyn; Yves Jacquemyn; Kristof Kinget; François Eyskens

    2015-01-01

    We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, su...

  17. Combining -Omics to Unravel the Impact of Copper Nutrition on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Stem Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printz, Bruno; Guerriero, Gea; Sergeant, Kjell; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Guignard, Cédric; Renaut, Jenny; Lutts, Stanley; Hausman, Jean-Francois

    2016-02-01

    Copper can be found in the environment at concentrations ranging from a shortage up to the threshold of toxicity for plants, with optimal growth conditions situated in between. The plant stem plays a central role in transferring and distributing minerals, water and other solutes throughout the plant. In this study, alfalfa is exposed to different levels of copper availability, from deficiency to slight excess, and the impact on the metabolism of the stem is assessed by a non-targeted proteomics study and by the expression analysis of key genes controlling plant stem development. Under copper deficiency, the plant stem accumulates specific copper chaperones, the expression of genes involved in stem development is decreased and the concentrations of zinc and molybdenum are increased in comparison with the optimum copper level. At the optimal copper level, the expression of cell wall-related genes increases and proteins playing a role in cell wall deposition and in methionine metabolism accumulate, whereas copper excess imposes a reduction in the concentration of iron in the stem and a reduced abundance of ferritins. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis suggests a role for the apoplasm as a copper storage site in the case of copper toxicity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  18. D-penicillamine treatment of copper-associated hepatitis in Labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieten, Hille; Dirksen, Karen; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Winter, Esther A; Watson, Adrian L; Leegwater, Peter A J; Rothuizen, Jan

    2013-06-01

    d-penicillamine is effectively used in the lifelong treatment of copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers and Wilson's disease in humans. A complex form of copper-associated hepatitis has recently been characterized in the Labrador retriever. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of d-penicillamine treatment for copper-associated hepatitis in this breed, to study the effects on hepatic copper, iron and zinc concentrations, and to evaluate parameters to predict optimal duration of treatment. Forty-three client owned Labrador retrievers that were diagnosed with increased hepatic copper were treated with d-penicillamine and underwent at least one follow-up examination including a liver biopsy for histopathological scoring of inflammatory lesions. Hepatic copper, iron and zinc concentrations were determined in the initial and follow-up biopsies by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The influence of initial hepatic copper concentration, sex, age, d-penicillamine formulation and the occurrence of side effects were investigated for their influence on hepatic copper concentration after a certain period of treatment by generalized mixed modelling. d-penicillamine proved to be effective in reducing hepatic copper concentration and associated inflammatory lesions. Parameters derived from the model can be used to estimate the necessary duration of d-penicillamine treatment for Labrador retrievers with increased hepatic copper concentration. Continuous, lifelong d-penicillamine treatment is not recommended in this breed, as there may be a risk for hepatic copper and zinc deficiency.

  19. Systems Biology Approach in Chlamydomonas Reveals Connections between Copper Nutrition and Multiple Metabolic Steps[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruita, Madeli; Casero, David; Karpowicz, Steven J.; Kropat, Janette; Vieler, Astrid; Hsieh, Scott I.; Yan, Weihong; Cokus, Shawn; Loo, Joseph A.; Benning, Christoph; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we query the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii copper regulon at a whole-genome level. Our RNA-Seq data simulation and analysis pipeline validated a 2-fold cutoff and 10 RPKM (reads per kilobase of mappable length per million mapped reads) (~1 mRNA per cell) to reveal 63 CRR1 targets plus another 86 copper-responsive genes. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses captured 25% of the corresponding proteins, whose abundance was also dependent on copper nutrition, validating transcriptional regulation as a major control mechanism for copper signaling in Chlamydomonas. The impact of copper deficiency on the expression of several O2-dependent enzymes included steps in lipid modification pathways. Quantitative lipid profiles indicated increased polyunsaturation of fatty acids on thylakoid membrane digalactosyldiglycerides, indicating a global impact of copper deficiency on the photosynthetic apparatus. Discovery of a putative plastid copper chaperone and a membrane protease in the thylakoid suggest a mechanism for blocking copper utilization in the chloroplast. We also found an example of copper sparing in the N assimilation pathway: the replacement of copper amine oxidase by a flavin-dependent backup enzyme. Forty percent of the targets are previously uncharacterized proteins, indicating considerable potential for new discovery in the biology of copper. PMID:21498682

  20. Copper and silver halates

    CERN Document Server

    Woolley, EM; Salomon, M

    2013-01-01

    Copper and Silver Halates is the third in a series of four volumes on inorganic metal halates. This volume presents critical evaluations and compilations for halate solubilities of the Group II metals. The solubility data included in this volume are those for the five compounds, copper chlorate and iodate, and silver chlorate, bromate and iodate.

  1. Coping with copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ines; Jacquiod, Samuel; Brejnrod, Asker

    2016-01-01

    Copper has been intensively used in industry and agriculture since mid-18(th) century and is currently accumulating in soils. We investigated the diversity of potential active bacteria by 16S rRNA gene transcript amplicon sequencing in a temperate grassland soil subjected to century-long exposure......, suggesting a potential promising role as bioindicators of copper contamination in soils....

  2. Serum Copper Concentration in Newborns with Neural Tube Defects in Northern Iran; A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad-Reza Mansourian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the eventual association between copper deficiency in newborns with neural tube defects (NTD in Northern Iran. A high prevalence of neural tube defects has been reported from this region.Methods: This hospital based case control study was carried out on 13 newborns having neural tube defects and 35 healthy controls in Northern Iran during 2005-2006. Serum copper was measured by spectrophotometery.Findings: Serum copper level in newborns with NTD and healthy normal newborns was 16.5 (±7.2 μmol/l and 16.7 (±6.6 μmol/l, respectively. In case group 38.5% of newborns and in control group 28.6% had copper deficiency. Logistic regression analysis showed no association between the presence of NTD and copper deficiency (OR:1.6, 95% CI=0.3-7.1, P=0.5.Conclusion :This study showed no association between NTD and copper deficiency in newborns.

  3. Kunpeng Copper:The largest Copper Smelting Company of Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>On September 9,Liangshan Mining Company’s 100,000 tons/year cathode copper project kicked off.It is another key project of the company following the successful launch of the 100,000 tons/year anode copper project.Based on ISA copper smelting technology of the largest open-cast copper mine in southwest China,

  4. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000408.htm Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency is a group of rare genetic ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video— ... treatment. For more information about living with and managing iron-deficiency anemia, go to the Health Topics ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ... of the condition. Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require ...

  7. Folate-deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000551.htm Folate-deficiency anemia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Folate-deficiency anemia is a decrease in red blood cells (anemia) ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... severity of the condition. Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood ... With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video— ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ... condition. Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Deficiency Anemia What Is... CAUSES WHO IS AT RISK SIGNS & SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENTS PREVENTION LIVING WITH CLINICAL ... and women are the two groups at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Outlook Doctors usually can ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Deficiency Anemia Explore Iron-Deficiency Anemia What Is... CAUSES WHO IS AT RISK SIGNS & SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENTS ... Google+ SITE INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT FOIA NO FEAR ACT OIG CONTACT US National Institutes of Health ...

  12. Posttranslational regulation of copper transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berghe, P.V.E.

    2009-01-01

    The transition metal copper is an essential cofactor for many redox-active enzymes, but excessive copper can generate toxic reactive oxygen species. Copper homeostasis is maintained by highly conserved proteins, to balance copper uptake, distribution and export on the systemic and cellular level. Th

  13. Fabricating Copper Nanotubes by Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E. H.; Ramsey, Christopher; Bae, Youngsam; Choi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Copper tubes having diameters between about 100 and about 200 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into the pores of alumina nanopore membranes. Copper nanotubes are under consideration as alternatives to copper nanorods and nanowires for applications involving thermal and/or electrical contacts, wherein the greater specific areas of nanotubes could afford lower effective thermal and/or electrical resistivities. Heretofore, copper nanorods and nanowires have been fabricated by a combination of electrodeposition and a conventional expensive lithographic process. The present electrodeposition-based process for fabricating copper nanotubes costs less and enables production of copper nanotubes at greater rate.

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily ... Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily ... Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily ... Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily treated condition that occurs if you don' ... from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia . The term "anemia" usually refers ...

  19. Copper dyshomoeostasis in Parkinson's disease: implications for pathogenesis and indications for novel therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Katherine M; Mercer, Julian F B; Chen, Nicholas; Double, Kay L

    2016-04-01

    Copper is a biometal essential for normal brain development and function, thus copper deficiency or excess results in central nervous system disease. Well-characterized disorders of disrupted copper homoeostasis with neuronal degeneration include Menkes disease and Wilson's disease but a large body of evidence also implicates disrupted copper pathways in other neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease and prion diseases. In this short review we critically evaluate the data regarding changes in systemic and brain copper levels in Parkinson's disease, where alterations in brain copper are associated with regional neuronal cell death and disease pathology. We review copper regulating mechanisms in the human brain and the effects of dysfunction within these systems. We then examine the evidence for a role for copper in pathogenic processes in Parkinson's disease and consider reports of diverse copper-modulating strategies in in vitro and in vivo models of this disorder. Copper-modulating therapies are currently advancing through clinical trials for Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease and may also hold promise as disease modifying agents in Parkinson's disease. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  20. Targeting copper in cancer therapy: 'Copper That Cancer'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoyer, Delphine; Masaldan, Shashank; La Fontaine, Sharon; Cater, Michael A

    2015-11-01

    Copper is an essential micronutrient involved in fundamental life processes that are conserved throughout all forms of life. The ability of copper to catalyze oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, which can inadvertently lead to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), necessitates the tight homeostatic regulation of copper within the body. Many cancer types exhibit increased intratumoral copper and/or altered systemic copper distribution. The realization that copper serves as a limiting factor for multiple aspects of tumor progression, including growth, angiogenesis and metastasis, has prompted the development of copper-specific chelators as therapies to inhibit these processes. Another therapeutic approach utilizes specific ionophores that deliver copper to cells to increase intracellular copper levels. The therapeutic window between normal and cancerous cells when intracellular copper is forcibly increased, is the premise for the development of copper-ionophores endowed with anticancer properties. Also under investigation is the use of copper to replace platinum in coordination complexes currently used as mainstream chemotherapies. In comparison to platinum-based drugs, these promising copper coordination complexes may be more potent anticancer agents, with reduced toxicity toward normal cells and they may potentially circumvent the chemoresistance associated with recurrent platinum treatment. In addition, cancerous cells can adapt their copper homeostatic mechanisms to acquire resistance to conventional platinum-based drugs and certain copper coordination complexes can re-sensitize cancer cells to these drugs. This review will outline the biological importance of copper and copper homeostasis in mammalian cells, followed by a discussion of our current understanding of copper dysregulation in cancer, and the recent therapeutic advances using copper coordination complexes as anticancer agents.

  1. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk de Bruyn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. This supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy according to plasma concentrations.

  2. Wilson’s Disease: An Inherited, Silent, Copper Intoxication Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Merle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wilson’s disease is a rare, autosomal recessive, genetic, copper overload disease, which evokes multiple motor or neuropsychiatric symptoms and liver disease. It is the consequence of a variety of different mutations affecting the ATP7B gene. This gene encodes for a class IB, P-type, copper-transporting ATPase, which is located in the trans-Golgi network of the liver and brain, and mediates the excretion of excess copper into the bile. When functionally inactive, the excess copper is deposited in the liver, brain, and other tissues. Free copper induces oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and lowers the apoptotic threshold of the cell. The symptoms in affected persons can vary widely and usually appear between the ages of 6 years and 20 years, but there are also cases in which the disease manifests in advanced age. In this review, we discuss the considerations in diagnosis, clinical management, and treatment of Wilson’s disease. In addition, we highlight experimental efforts that address the pathogenesis of Wilson’s disease in ATP7B deficient mice, novel analytical techniques that will improve the diagnosis at an early stage of disease onset, and treatment results with copper-chelating agents.

  3. Effect of copper on liver and bone metabolism in malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, A H; Sapan, N; Ediz, B; Genç, Z; Ozkan, K

    1994-01-01

    This study was planned to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) deficiency on liver and bone metabolism in malnourished children. Serum total calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (P), Ca/P, Cu/Ca, Cu/P ratios and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity values were analyzed. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) enzyme activities and the ALT/AST (De Ritis) ratio as well as their correlations with Cu were tested to determine liver function. The results of the study showed that Cu deficiency directly affects the organic matrix formation, and by the suppression of ALP activity, indirectly causes decalcification. In the liver, however, no direct effect of Cu deficiency was seen. Deterioration in liver function and Cu deficiency increased parallel with the severity of malnutrition. Thus we concluded that a correlation exists between Cu and the parameters that indicate liver function.

  4. LEP copper accelerating cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    These copper cavities were used to generate the radio frequency electric field that was used to accelerate electrons and positrons around the 27-km Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN, which ran from 1989 to 2000. The copper cavities were gradually replaced from 1996 with new superconducting cavities allowing the collision energy to rise from 90 GeV to 200 GeV by mid-1999.

  5. COX19 mediates the transduction of a mitochondrial redox signal from SCO1 that regulates ATP7A-mediated cellular copper efflux

    OpenAIRE

    Leary, Scot C; Cobine, Paul A.; Nishimura, Tamiko; Verdijk, Robert M; de Krijger, Ronald; Coo, René; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Winge, Dennis R; Eric A Shoubridge

    2013-01-01

    SCO1 and SCO2 are metallochaperones whose principal function is to add two copper ions to the catalytic core of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). However, affected tissues of SCO1 and SCO2 patients exhibit a combined deficiency in COX activity and total copper content, suggesting additional roles for these proteins in the regulation of cellular copper homeostasis. Here we show that both the redox state of the copper-binding cysteines of SCO1 and the abundance of SCO2 correlate with cellular copper ...

  6. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  7. Cell therapy to remove excess copper in Wilson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    To achieve permanent correction of Wilson’s disease by a cell therapy approach, replacement of healthy hepatocytes will be most desirable. There is a physiological need for hepatic ATP7B-dependent copper transport in bile, which is deficient in Wilson’s disease, producing progressive copper accumulation in the liver or brain with organ damage. The ability to repopulate the liver with healthy hepatocytes raised possibilities for cell therapy in Wilson’s disease. Therapeutic principles included...

  8. Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip

  9. Rheological study of copper and copper grapheme feedstock for powder injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaman, N. Emira Binti; Rafi Raza, M.; Muhamad, N.; Niaz Akhtar, M.; Bakar Sulong, A.

    2017-01-01

    Heatsink is one of the solution to optimize the performance of smart electronic devices. Copper and its composites are helping the electronic industry to solve the heating problem. Copper-graphene heat sink material with enhanced thermal conductivity is the ultimate goal.Powder injection molding (PIM) has advantages of high precision and production rate, complex shape, low cost and suitabality for metal and cremics.PIM consists of four sub sequential steps; feedstock preparation, molding, debinding and sintering. Feedstock preparation is a critical step in PIM process. Any deficiency at this stage cannot be recovered at latter stages. Therefore, this research was carried out to investigate the injectability of copper and copper graphene composite using PIM. PEG based multicomponent binder system was used and the powder loading was upto 7vol.% less than the critical powder loading was used to provide the wettability of the copper powder and graphene nanoplatelets (GNps). Corpper-graphene feedstock contained 0.5vol.% of GNps . To ensure the homogeneity of GNps within feedstock a unique technique was addopted. The microscopic results showed that the feedstock is homogeneous and ready for injection. The viscosity-shear rate relationship was determined and results showed that the addition of 0.5vol.% of GNps in copper has increased the viscosity upto 64.9% at 140˚C than that of pure copper feedstock. This attribute may be due to the large surface area of GNps. On the other hand, by increasing the temperature, viscosity of the feedstock was decreased, which was recommended for PIM. The overall viscosity and share rate lies within the range recommended for PIM process. It is clear that both feedstocks showed pseudo plastic behaviour which is suitable for PIM process. In the pseudo plastic behaviour, the viscosity decreases with the shear rate. It may be due to change in the structure of the solid particles or the binder. The molding results showed that both copper

  10. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  11. ATOX1 gene silencing increases susceptibility to anticancer therapy based on copper ionophores or chelating drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barresi, Vincenza; Spampinato, Giorgia; Musso, Nicolò; Trovato Salinaro, Angela; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Condorelli, Daniele Filippo

    2016-03-01

    Copper is a catalytic cofactor required for the normal function of many enzymes involved in fundamental biological processes but highly cytotoxic when in excess. Therefore its homeostasis and distribution is strictly regulated by a network of transporters and intracellular chaperones. ATOX1 (antioxidant protein 1) is a copper chaperone that plays a role in copper homeostasis by binding and transporting cytosolic copper to ATPase proteins in the trans-Golgi network. In the present study the Caco-2 cell line, a colon carcinoma cell line, was used as an in vitro model to evaluate if ATOX1 deficiency could affect sensitivity to experimentally induced copper dyshomeostasis. Silencing of ATOX1 increased toxicity of a short treatment with a high concentration of Cu(2+). Copper ionophores, such as 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline, induced a copper-dependent cell toxicity which was significantly potentiated after ATOX1 silencing. The copper chelator TPEN (N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine) produced a form of cell toxicity that was reversed by the addition of Cu(2+). ATOX1 silencing increased Caco-2 cell sensitivity to TPEN toxicity. Our results suggest the possibility of a therapy with copper-chelating or ionophore drugs in subtypes of tumors showing specific alterations in ATOX1 expression.

  12. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Montes; Susana Rivera-Mancia; Araceli Diaz-Ruiz; Luis Tristan-Lopez; Camilo Rios

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased pr...

  13. Copper complexes as therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Clare; White, Anthony R

    2012-02-01

    The importance of transition metals in biological processes has been well established. Copper (Cu) is a transition metal that can exist in oxidised and reduced states. This allows it to participate in redox and catalytic chemistry, making it a suitable cofactor for a diverse range of enzymes and molecules. Cu deficiency or toxicity is implicated in a variety of pathological conditions; therefore inorganic complexes of Cu have been investigated for their therapeutic and diagnostic potential. These Cu complexes have been shown to be effective in cancer treatment due to their cytotoxic action on tumour cells. Alternatively, Cu complexes can also modulate Cu homeostasis in the brain, resulting in protective effects in several models of neurodegeneration. In other diseases such as coronary heart disease and skin disease, the success of Cu complexes as potential therapeutics will most likely be due to their ability to increase SOD activity, leading to relief of oxidative stress. This review seeks to provide a broad insight into some of the diverse actions of Cu complexes and demonstrate the strong future for these compounds as potential therapeutic agents.

  14. Alzheimer’s Disease Causation by Copper Toxicity and Treatment with Zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J Brewer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Evidence will be presented that the Alzheimer’s disease (AD epidemic is new, the disease being very rare in the 1900s. The incidence is increasing rapidly, but only in developed countries. We postulate that the new emerging environmental factor partially causal of the AD epidemic is ingestion of inorganic copper from drinking water and taking supplement pills, along with a high fat diet. Inorganic copper can be partially directly absorbed and elevate the serum free copper pool. The Squitti group has shown that serum free copper is elevated in AD, correlates with cognition, and predicts cognition loss. Thus, our inorganic copper hypothesis fits well with the Squitti group data. We have also shown that AD patients are zinc deficient compared to age-matched controls. Because zinc is a neuronal protective factor, we postulate that zinc deficiency may also be partially causative of AD. We carried out a small 6 month double blind study of a new zinc formulation and found that in patients age 70 and over, it protected against cognition loss. Zinc therapy also significantly reduced serum free copper in AD patients, so efficacy may come from restoring normal zinc levels, or from lowering serum free copper, or from both.

  15. Jiangxi Copper Plans to Increase its Refined Copper Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>According to news published on March 30th, China’s largest copper producer--Jiangxi Copper alleged in its 2010 Financial Report Statement that it plans to improve its output of refined copper by 4.4% in 2011, to increase from 900,000 tonnes last year to 940,000 tons.

  16. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Martens, Ellen C C P; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; van de Sluis, Bart; Houwen, Roderick H J H; Watson, Adrian L; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Hodgkinson, Victoria L; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J; Polishchuk, Roman S; Leegwater, Peter A J; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to Wilson disease, which is characterized by a predominantly hepatic copper accumulation. The low incidence and the phenotypic variability of human copper toxicosis hamper identification of causal genes or modifier genes involved in the disease pathogenesis. The Labrador retriever was recently characterized as a new canine model for copper toxicosis. Purebred dogs have reduced genetic variability, which facilitates identification of genes involved in complex heritable traits that might influence phenotype in both humans and dogs. We performed a genome-wide association study in 235 Labrador retrievers and identified two chromosome regions containing ATP7A and ATP7B that were associated with variation in hepatic copper levels. DNA sequence analysis identified missense mutations in each gene. The amino acid substitution ATP7B:p.Arg1453Gln was associated with copper accumulation, whereas the amino acid substitution ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile partly protected against copper accumulation. Confocal microscopy indicated that aberrant copper metabolism upon expression of the ATP7B variant occurred because of mis-localization of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dermal fibroblasts derived from ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile dogs showed copper accumulation and delayed excretion. We identified the Labrador retriever as the first natural, non-rodent model for ATP7B-associated copper toxicosis. Attenuation of copper accumulation by the ATP7A mutation sheds an interesting light on the interplay of copper transporters in body copper homeostasis and warrants a thorough investigation of ATP7A as a modifier gene in copper-metabolism disorders. The identification of two new functional variants in ATP7A and

  17. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hille Fieten

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to Wilson disease, which is characterized by a predominantly hepatic copper accumulation. The low incidence and the phenotypic variability of human copper toxicosis hamper identification of causal genes or modifier genes involved in the disease pathogenesis. The Labrador retriever was recently characterized as a new canine model for copper toxicosis. Purebred dogs have reduced genetic variability, which facilitates identification of genes involved in complex heritable traits that might influence phenotype in both humans and dogs. We performed a genome-wide association study in 235 Labrador retrievers and identified two chromosome regions containing ATP7A and ATP7B that were associated with variation in hepatic copper levels. DNA sequence analysis identified missense mutations in each gene. The amino acid substitution ATP7B:p.Arg1453Gln was associated with copper accumulation, whereas the amino acid substitution ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile partly protected against copper accumulation. Confocal microscopy indicated that aberrant copper metabolism upon expression of the ATP7B variant occurred because of mis-localization of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dermal fibroblasts derived from ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile dogs showed copper accumulation and delayed excretion. We identified the Labrador retriever as the first natural, non-rodent model for ATP7B-associated copper toxicosis. Attenuation of copper accumulation by the ATP7A mutation sheds an interesting light on the interplay of copper transporters in body copper homeostasis and warrants a thorough investigation of ATP7A as a modifier gene in copper-metabolism disorders. The identification of two new functional

  18. The copper-transporting capacity of ATP7A mutants associated with Menkes disease is ameliorated by COMMD1 as a result of improved protein expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Willianne I. M.; de Bie, Prim; Wichers, Catharina G. K.; van den Berghe, Peter V. E.; van der Plaats, Rozemarijn; Berger, Ruud; Wijmenga, Cisca; Klomp, Leo W. J.; van de Sluis, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Menkes disease (MD) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by copper deficiency resulting in a diminished function of copper-dependent enzymes. Most MD patients die in early childhood, although mild forms of MD have also been described. A diversity of mutations in the gene encoding of the G

  19. The role of insufficient copper in lipid synthesis and fatty-liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Austin; Tallino, Savannah; Yu, Lei; Burkhead, Jason L

    2017-04-01

    The essential transition metal copper is important in lipid metabolism, redox balance, iron mobilization, and many other critical processes in eukaryotic organisms. Genetic diseases where copper homeostasis is disrupted, including Menkes disease and Wilson disease, indicate the importance of copper balance to human health. The severe consequences of insufficient copper supply are illustrated by Menkes disease, caused by mutation in the X-linked ATP7A gene encoding a protein that transports copper from intestinal epithelia into the bloodstream and across the blood-brain barrier. Inadequate copper supply to the body due to poor diet quality or malabsorption can disrupt several molecular level pathways and processes. Though much of the copper distribution machinery has been described and consequences of disrupted copper handling have been characterized in human disease as well as animal models, physiological consequences of sub-optimal copper due to poor nutrition or malabsorption have not been extensively studied. Recent work indicates that insufficient copper may be important in a number of common diseases including obesity, ischemic heart disease, and metabolic syndrome. Specifically, marginal copper deficiency (CuD) has been reported as a potential etiologic factor in diseases characterized by disrupted lipid metabolism such as non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD). In this review, we discuss the available data suggesting that a significant portion of the North American population may consume insufficient copper, the potential mechanisms by which CuD may promote lipid biosynthesis, and the interaction between CuD and dietary fructose in the etiology of NAFLD. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 69(4):263-270, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. Impairment of interrelated iron- and copper homeostatic mechanisms in brain contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjørringe, Tina; Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Moos, Torben

    2012-01-01

    is strictly regulated, and concordantly protective barriers, i.e., the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCB) have evolved to separate the brain environment from the circulation. The uptake mechanisms of the two metals interact. Both iron deficiency and overload lead......Iron and copper are important co-factors for a number of enzymes in the brain, including enzymes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and myelin formation. Both shortage and an excess of iron or copper will affect the brain. The transport of iron and copper into the brain from the circulation...... to altered copper homeostasis in the brain. Similarly, changes in dietary copper affect the brain iron homeostasis. Moreover, the uptake routes of iron and copper overlap each other which affect the interplay between the concentrations of the two metals in the brain. The divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1...

  1. Chinese Copper Manufacturers Expand Overseas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>In 2012,China’s apparent copper consumption reached 8.84 million tons,accounting for 43%of the global total demand.Spurred by strong demand,China’s copper smelting capacity roars with annual average growth in domestic copper smelting capacity reaching approx-

  2. Fabrication and Characterization of Metallic Copper and Copper Oxide Nanoflowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *H. S. Virk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Copper nanoflowers have been fabricated using two different techniques; electro-deposition of copper in polymer and anodic alumina templates, and cytyltrimethal ammonium bromide (CTAB-assisted hydrothermal method. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM images record some interesting morphologies of metallic copper nanoflowers. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM has been used to determine morphology and composition of copper oxide nanoflowers. X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern reveals the monoclinic phase of CuO in the crystallographic structure of copper oxide nanoflowers. There is an element of random artistic design of nature, rather than science, in exotic patterns of nanoflowers fabricated in our laboratory.

  3. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Restless Legs Syndrome Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily treated condition that occurs if you ...

  5. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  6. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A;

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  7. Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Tarım

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone deficiency is the most promising entity in terms of response to therapy among the treatable causes of growth retardation. It may be due to genetic or acquired causes. It may be isolated or a part of multiple hormone deficiencies. Diagnostic criteria and therefore treatment indications are still disputed. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 36-8

  8. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... periods. By following her treatment plan and making smart lifestyle choices, Susan continues to feel better and see the benefits of treatment. For more information about living with and managing iron-deficiency anemia, go to the Health Topics Iron-Deficiency Anemia article. Updated: March 26, ...

  10. Iron induced nickel deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is increasingly apparent that economic loss due to nickel (Ni) deficiency likely occurs in horticultural and agronomic crops. While most soils contain sufficient Ni to meet crop requirements, situations of Ni deficiency can arise due to antagonistic interactions with other metals. This study asse...

  11. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  12. Deficiently Extremal Gorenstein Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavinder Singh

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this article is to study the homological properties of deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebras. We prove that if / is an odd deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebra with pure minimal free resolution, then the codimension of / must be odd. As an application, the structure of pure minimal free resolution of a nearly extremal Gorenstein algebra is obtained.

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Restless Legs Syndrome Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily treated condition that occurs if you ...

  14. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  15. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Montes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson’s disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson’s disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson’s disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson’s disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology.

  16. Industrial experiment of copper electrolyte purification by copper arsenite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ya-jie; XIAO Fa-xin; WANG Yong; LI Chun-hua; XU Wei; JIAN Hong-sheng; MA Yut-ian

    2008-01-01

    Copper electrolyte was purified by copper arsenite that was prepared with As2O3. And electrolysis experiments of purified electrolyte were carried out at 235 and 305 A/m2, respectively. The results show that the yield of copper arsenite is up to 98.64% when the molar ratio of Cu to As is 1.5 in the preparation of copper arsenite. The removal rates of Sb and Bi reach 74.11% and 65.60% respectively after copper arsenite is added in electrolyte. The concentrations of As, Sb and Bi in electrolyte nearly remain constant during electrolysis of 13 d. The appearances of cathode copper obtained at 235 and 305 A/m2 are slippery and even, and the qualification rate is 100% according to the Chinese standard of high-pure cathode copper(GB/T467-97).

  17. Prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia in High-School Girl Students of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Noori Shadkam

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is generally assumed that 50% of the cases of anemia are due to iron deficiency. The most severe consequence of iron depletion is iron deficiency anemia (IDA, and it is still considered the most common nutrition deficiency worldwide. The main risk factors for IDA include: inadequate iron intake, impaired absorption or transport, physiologic losses associated with chronological or reproductive age, or acute or chronic blood loss, parasite infections such as hookworms, acute and chronic infections, including malaria, cancer, tuberculosis, HIV and other micronutrient deficiencies, including vitamins A and B12, folate, riboflavin, and copper deficiency. Methods: This work as a cross-sectional study was done in 2007-2008 in Yazd. Two hundred girls who participated in the study were selected randomly from eight girl high schools. Five ml venous blood was collected for determination of serum ferritin and cell blood count (CBC. Serum ferritin was determined by using ECLIA method and CBC by cell counter SYSMEX KX21N. Iron deficiency was defined as having serum ferritin values below 12 μ/l. Anemia was defined as having Hemoglobin levels below12 g/dl. Iron-deficiency anemia was considered to be the combination of both. Results: The3 mean ageyears and body mass index (kg/m2 were 15.19±0.7years and 21.5±4.2, respectively. Distribution in the 14, 15 and 16 years and more age groups were 13, 58.5 and 28.5 percent, respectively. Mean of Hemoglobin(g/dl, Hematocrit(%, MCV (fl, MCH (pg, MCHC (g/dl and ferritin(μ/l were 12.8±0.9, 38.9±3.0, 80.7±4.3, 26.6±1.8, 33.2±3.6 and 23±18.2, respectively. Of the total, 13.5% were anemic, 68% of which had Iron Deficiency Anemia (9.3% of the total. Iron deficiency was present in 34.7% of the population under study. Conclusion: According to world health organization criteria, anemia is a mild public health problem in this region, but iron deficiency is a significant problem and suitable measures for

  18. Bioavailability of copper bound to dietary fiber in mice and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockway, S.W.; Brannon, P.M.; Weber, C.W.

    The bioavailability of copper (Cu) was compared in mice or rats fed diets containing wheat bran-bound Cu and adequate Cu (unbound) or deficient Cu with cellulose or wheat bran. Cardiac and hepatic Cu content were comparable in mice fed bran-bound or adequate Cu and greater than mice fed deficient Cu. Cardiac Cu content was comparable in rats fed bran-bound Cu and adequate Cu and greater than rats fed deficient Cu. Hepatic Cu content, however, was less in rats fed bran-bound Cu than adequate Cu and greater in both than deficient Cu. Both rats and mice utilized dietary Cu bound to wheat bran, suggesting that mineral-fiber interactions may not decrease bioavailability when dietary mineral is adequate. Tissue Cu content in Cu-deficiency was lower in animals fed wheat bran compared to cellulose, suggesting that the type of fiber may exacerbate effects of mineral deficiency.

  19. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  20. Elucidating the role of copper in CHO cell energy metabolism using (13)C metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargund, Shilpa; Qiu, Jinshu; Goudar, Chetan T

    2015-01-01

    (13)C-metabolic flux analysis was used to understand copper deficiency-related restructuring of energy metabolism, which leads to excessive lactate production in recombinant protein-producing CHO cells. Stationary-phase labeling experiments with U-(13)C glucose were conducted on CHO cells grown under high and limiting copper in 3 L fed-batch bioreactors. The resultant labeling patterns of soluble metabolites were measured by GC-MS and used to estimate metabolic fluxes in the central carbon metabolism pathways using OpenFlux. Fluxes were evaluated 300 times from stoichiometrically feasible random guess values and their confidence intervals calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. Results from metabolic flux analysis exhibited significant carbon redistribution throughout the metabolic network in cells under Cu deficiency. Specifically, glycolytic fluxes increased (25%-79% relative to glucose uptake) whereas fluxes through the TCA and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) were lower (15%-23% and 74%, respectively) compared with the Cu-containing condition. Furthermore, under Cu deficiency, 33% of the flux entering TCA via the pyruvate node was redirected to lactate and malate production. Based on these results, we hypothesize that Cu deficiency disrupts the electron transport chain causing ATP deficiency, redox imbalance, and oxidative stress, which in turn drive copper-deficient CHO cells to produce energy via aerobic glycolysis, which is associated with excessive lactate production, rather than the more efficient route of oxidative phosphorylation.

  1. The Effect of Copper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    higher (p<0.05) in the broodfish fed CSD0 and CSD1 diets than the other diets. Exposure of Clarias gariepinus fish to copper in water, at concentrations above 1.0mg CuSO4/g elicits adverse ... introduction of a toxicant to an aquatic system ..... Toxicity of four commonly used agrochemicals on. Oreochromis niloticus (L) fry.

  2. Presenilin promotes dietary copper uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Southon

    Full Text Available Dietary copper is essential for multicellular organisms. Copper is redox active and required as a cofactor for enzymes such as the antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1. Copper dyshomeostasis has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Mutations in the presenilin genes encoding PS1 and PS2 are major causes of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. PS1 and PS2 are required for efficient copper uptake in mammalian systems. Here we demonstrate a conserved role for presenilin in dietary copper uptake in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Ubiquitous RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the single Drosophila presenilin (PSN gene is lethal. However, PSN knockdown in the midgut produces viable flies. These flies have reduced copper levels and are more tolerant to excess dietary copper. Expression of a copper-responsive EYFP construct was also lower in the midgut of these larvae, indicative of reduced dietary copper uptake. SOD activity was reduced by midgut PSN knockdown, and these flies were sensitive to the superoxide-inducing chemical paraquat. These data support presenilin being needed for dietary copper uptake in the gut and so impacting on SOD activity and tolerance to oxidative stress. These results are consistent with previous studies of mammalian presenilins, supporting a conserved role for these proteins in mediating copper uptake.

  3. Deficiencies of the microelements, folate and vitamin B12 in women of the child bearing ages in gorgan, northern iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedehi, Maliheh; Behnampour, Naser; Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar

    2013-06-01

    The deficiencies of folic acid, vitamin B12, and microelements during pregnancy may affect the health of newborns. To assess the serum levels of folate, vitamin B12, iron, zinc and copper in healthy women of the childbearing ages in Gorgan, northern Iran. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on 100 women of childbearing ages in northern Iran during November 2007-March 2008. The serum levels of folate, vitamin B12, iron, copper and zinc were evaluated by laboratory tests. Iron, copper , folate, vitamin B12 deficiencies and folate with vitamin B12 deficiency were detected in 13%, 32% , 13% , 32% and 11% women of the childbearing ages, respectively . According to the ethnicity, vitamin B12, folate and iron deficiencies in the Sistani group were observed in 38.3%, 12.9% and 12.9% of the women, respectively. In the native Fars group, the above mentioned deficiencies were found in 31.1%, 13.4% and 7.5% of the subjects. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies were observed in the urban habitant in 32.7% and 11.5 % of the subjects as compared to those in the rural habitant (in 30.4% and 15.2%of the subjects respectively). The folate deficiencies in the under and above 18 years old subjects were 22.2% and 9.9%, respectively. This study showed that the deficiency of the micronutrients was considerable in women of the childbearing ages in Gorgan, northern Iran.

  4. Comparative characteristics of copper, copper chloride, and copper bromide vapor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian, M.A.; Petrash, G.G.; Trofimov, A.N.

    1980-03-01

    The paper reports the results of a comparative study of copper and copper halide vapor lasers emitting in a repetitively-pulsed regime. Copper chloride and copper bromide vapor lasers are found to have identical lasing characteristics under any excitation conditions. These characteristics are different from those of a copper vapor laser. An average lasing power of 13 W has been obtained for all lasers studied for an efficiency of 1%. It is shown that the choice of a laser will largely depend on the laser design suitability for a specific application.

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events Spokespeople Email Alerts E-Newsletters About NHLBI Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs ... severity of the condition. Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may ...

  6. Factor II deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  7. Factor VII deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor VII is one such coagulation factor. Factor VII deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & ... of the condition. Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-rich protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Iron-deficiency ... 2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National Institutes ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CAUSES WHO IS AT RISK SIGNS & SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENTS PREVENTION LIVING WITH CLINICAL TRIALS LINKS Related Topics ... Doctors usually can successfully treat iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment will depend on the cause and severity of ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood transfusions , iron injections, or intravenous iron therapy. Rate This ... video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as tiredness, poor skin tone, dizziness, and depression. After her doctor diagnosed her with iron-deficiency ... to stop her monthly periods. By following her treatment plan and making smart lifestyle choices, Susan continues ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Digg. Share this page from the NHLBI on Facebook. Add this link to the NHLBI to my ... Deficiency Anemia article. Updated: March 26, 2014 Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SITE INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT FOIA ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chest pain, and other symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in children, and other complications. Infants and young children and ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events Spokespeople Email Alerts E-Newsletters About NHLBI Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs ... food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia . The term "anemia" usually refers to ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events Spokespeople Email Alerts E-Newsletters About NHLBI Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs ... the body. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time if your body doesn't have enough iron ...

  17. Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency? Sleep deprivation (DEP-rih-VA- ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: June 7, 2017 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chest pain, and other symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in children, and other complications. Infants and young children and ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CAUSES WHO IS AT RISK SIGNS & SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENTS PREVENTION LIVING WITH CLINICAL TRIALS LINKS Related Topics ... Doctors usually can successfully treat iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment will depend on the cause and severity of ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a waste product) from your body. Anemia also can occur if your red blood cells don't ... have less hemoglobin than normal. Iron-deficiency anemia can cause fatigue (tiredness), shortness of breath, chest pain, ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical ... iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood transfusions , iron injections, or intravenous iron therapy. ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in ... 18/2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of breath, chest pain, and other symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in children, and other complications. Infants and young children and ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Digg. Share this page from the NHLBI on Facebook. Add this link to the NHLBI to my ... Deficiency Anemia article. Updated: March 26, 2014 Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SITE INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT FOIA ...

  5. Perspectives on the Role and Relevance of Copper in Cardiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Denis M

    2017-03-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy as a result of dietary copper deficiency has been studied for 40 plus years and is the subject of this review. While connective tissue anomalies occur, a hallmark pathology is cardiac hypertrophy, increased mitochondrial biogenesis, with disruptive cristae, vacuolization of mitochondria, and deposition of lipid droplets. Electrocardiogram abnormalities have been demonstrated along with biochemical changes especially as it relates to the copper-containing enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. The master controller of mitochondrial biogenesis, PGC1-α expression and protein, along with other proteins and transcriptional factors that play a role are upregulated. Nitric oxide, vascular endothelial growth factor, and cytochrome c oxidase all may enhance the upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Marginal copper intakes reveal similar pathologies in the absence of cardiac hypertrophy. Reversibility of the copper-deficient rat heart with a copper-replete diet has resulted in mixed results, depending on both the animal model used and temporal relationships. New information has revealed that copper supplementation may rescue cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload.

  6. The activity of ascorbic acid and catechol oxidase, the rate of photosynthesis and respiration as related to plant organs, stage of development and copper supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. Łyszcz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Some experiments were performed to investigate the physiological role of copper in oat and sunflower and to recognize some effects of copper deficiency. Oat and sunflower plants were grown in pots on a peat soil under copper deficiency conditions (–Cu or with the optimal copper supply (+Cu. In plants the following measurements were carried out: 1 the activity of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO and of catechol oxidase (PPO in different plant organs and at different stages of plant development, 2 the activity and the rate of photosynthesis, 3 the activity of RuDP-carboxylase, 4 the intensity of plant respiration. The activity of AAO and of PPO, and also the rate and the activity of photosynthesis were significantly lower under conditions of copper deficiency. The activity of both discussed oxidases depended on: 1 the plant species, 2 plant organs, 3 stage of plant development. Copper deficiency caused decrease of the respiration intensity of sunflower leaves but it increased to some extent the respiration of oat tops. Obtained results are consistent with the earlier suggestion of the authors that the PPO activity in sunflower leaves could be a sensitive indicator of copper supply of the plants, farther experiments are in progress.

  7. Iron deficiency anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Naigamwalla, Dinaz Z.; Webb, Jinelle A.; Giger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Iron is essential to virtually all living organisms and is integral to multiple metabolic functions. The most important function is oxygen transport in hemoglobin. Iron deficiency anemia in dogs and cats is usually caused by chronic blood loss and can be discovered incidentally as animals may have adapted to the anemia. Severe iron deficiency is characterized by a microcytic, hypochromic, potentially severe anemia with a variable regenerative response. Iron metabolism and homeostasis will be ...

  8. Proximal Focal Femoral Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Kalia, Vibhuti

    2008-01-01

    Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD) is a developmental disorder of the proximal segment of thefemur and of acetabulum resulting in shortening of the affected limb and impairment of the function. It isa spectrum of congenital osseous anomalies characterized by a deficiency in the structure of the proximalfemur. The diagnosis is often made by radiological evaluation which includes identification and descriptionof PFFD and evaluation of associated limb anomalies by plain radiographs. Contra...

  9. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Labrune Philippe; Gajdos Vincent; Eberschweiler Pascale; Hubert-Buron Aurélie; Petit François; Vianey-Saban Christine; Boudjemline Alix; Piraud Monique; Froissart Roseline

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency), or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI), is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, betw...

  10. Production of ultrahigh purity copper using waste copper nitrate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J Y; Kim, D S

    2003-04-25

    The production of ultrahigh purity copper (99.9999%) by electrolysis in the presence of a cementation barrier has been attempted employing a waste nitric copper etching solution as the electrolyte. The amount of copper deposited on the cathode increased almost linearly with electrolysis time and the purity of copper was observed to increase as the electrolyte concentration was increased. At some point, however, as the electrolyte concentration increased, the purity of copper decreased slightly. As the total surface area of cementation barrier increased, the purity of product increased. The electrolyte temperature should be maintained below 35 degrees C in the range of investigated electrolysis conditions to obtain the ultrahigh purity copper. Considering that several industrial waste solutions contain valuable metallic components the result of present study may support a claim that electrowinning is a very desirable process for their treatment and recovery.

  11. Tongling:Copper Industry Giant Takes Shape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Centering on the strategic goal of building "World Copper Capital", Tongling constantly extends its product lines and improves the copper industry chain. Now, the copper industry with a production value of RMB 100 billion has taken shape.As the largest copper wire rod manufacturer in Asia, Tongling Quanwei Copper Technologies Co., Ltd., upon its moving into the local market,

  12. Vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Robert; Brown, David L

    2003-03-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency is a common cause of macrocytic anemia and has been implicated in a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders. The role of B12 deficiency in hyperhomocysteinemia and the promotion of atherosclerosis is only now being explored. Diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is typically based on measurement of serum vitamin B12 levels; however, about 50 percent of patients with subclinical disease have normal B12 levels. A more sensitive method of screening for vitamin B12 deficiency is measurement of serum methylmalonic acid and homocysteine levels, which are increased early in vitamin B12 deficiency. Use of the Schilling test for detection of pernicious anemia has been supplanted for the most part by serologic testing for parietal cell and intrinsic factor antibodies. Contrary to prevailing medical practice, studies show that supplementation with oral vitamin B12 is a safe and effective treatment for the B12 deficiency state. Even when intrinsic factor is not present to aid in the absorption of vitamin B12 (pernicious anemia) or in other diseases that affect the usual absorption sites in the terminal ileum, oral therapy remains effective.

  13. Direct Production of Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorovich, G. S.; Bell, M. C.; Diaz, C. M.; Bell, J. A. E.

    1987-09-01

    The use of commercially pure oxygen in flash smelting a typical chalcopyrite concentrate or a low grade comminuted matte directly to copper produces a large excess of heat. The heat balance is controlled by adjusting the calorific value of the solid feed. A portion of the sulfide material is roasted to produce a calcine which is blended with unroasted material, and the blend is then autogeneously smelted with oxygen and flux directly to copper. Either iron silicate or iron calcareous slags are produced, both being subject to a slag cleaning treatment. Practically all of the sulfur is contained in a continuous stream of SO2 gas, most of which is strong enough for liquefaction. A particularly attractive feature of these technologies is that no radically new metallurgical equipment needs to be developed. The oxygen smelting can be carried out not only in the Inco type flash furnace but in other suitable smelters such as cyclone furnaces. Another major advantage stems from abolishion of the ever-troublesome converter aisle, which is replaced with continuous roasting of a fraction of the copper sulfide feed.

  14. Copper in foods, beverages and waters from South East Spain: influencing factors and daily dietary intake by the Andalusian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Reynold, C; Navarro-Alarcon, M; López-Ga De La Serrana, H; Lopez-Martinez, M C

    2008-08-01

    The copper content of 225 food, 49 beverage and twelve potable water samples were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Analyses of NIST and BCR reference materials demonstrated the accuracy of this technique. The highest copper levels were found in dried fruit and legumes, followed by organ meats, molluscs and crustaceans, cephalopods, cereals and sausages, respectively. In cereals, legumes and fruit, copper levels increased significantly with increasing levels of protein and decreasing carbohydrate content (p < 0.001). In meat and meat by-products, copper concentrations found in organ meats were significantly higher (p < 0.01). In fresh fish products, copper levels in shellfish were significantly higher than those measured in fish (p < 0.001). In vegetables, the copper concentrations found in mushrooms were significantly higher (p < 0.005). Mean copper concentrations analysed in cheese were statistically higher than those determined in other dairy products (p < 0.01). In beverages, copper levels determined in rum and juices were significantly higher (p < 0.001). Beverages for which a vegetable component was directly used in their manufacturing process (juices, wines and beers) had statistically higher copper levels when compared with fresh drinks. The daily dietary intake (DDI) of copper in the Andalusian diet was 1979 mug day(-1) per person. Cereals, meat, meat by-products and vegetables are the food categories that are the main source of copper in the daily diet. Taking into account the dietary reference intakes and upper levels (900 and 10, 000 mug Cu day(-1) for healthy adults, respectively), the mean copper DDI found indicate that for most of healthy adult individuals from the area, no adverse effects occur in relation to copper nutrition (deficiency or toxicity). Potable waters supplied 53 mug day(-1), which constitutes on average 0.025% of the maximum tolerable daily intake of this element set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee.

  15. Mechanochemical reactions on copper-based compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castricum, H.L.; Bakker, H.; Poels, E.K.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanochemical reactions of copper and copper oxides with oxygen and carbon dioxide are discussed, as well as decomposition and reduction of copper compounds by mechanical milling under high-vacuum conditions.

  16. Oxidation Mechanism of Copper Selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskinen, Pekka; Patana, Sonja; Kobylin, Petri; Latostenmaa, Petri

    2014-09-01

    The oxidation mechanism of copper selenide was investigated at deselenization temperatures of copper refining anode slimes. The isothermal roasting of synthetic, massive copper selenide in flowing oxygen and oxygen - 20% sulfur dioxide mixtures at 450-550 °C indicate that in both atmospheres the mass of Cu2Se increases as a function of time, due to formation of copper selenite as an intermediate product. Copper selenide oxidises to copper oxides without formation of thick copper selenite scales, and a significant fraction of selenium is vaporized as SeO2(g). The oxidation product scales on Cu2Se are porous which allows transport of atmospheric oxygen to the reaction zone and selenium dioxide vapor to the surrounding gas. Predominance area diagrams of the copper-selenium system, constructed for selenium roasting conditions, indicate that the stable phase of copper in a selenium roaster gas with SO2 is the sulfate CuSO4. The cuprous oxide formed in decomposition of Cu2Se is further sulfated to CuSO4.

  17. Copper and copper-nickel-alloys - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klassert, Anton; Tikana, Ladji [Deutsches Kupferinstitut e.V. Am Bonneshof 5, 40474 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    With the increasing level of industrialization the demand for and the number of copper alloys rose in an uninterrupted way. Today, the copper alloys take an important position amongst metallic materials due to the large variety of their technological properties and applications. Nowadays there exist over 3.000 standardized alloys. Copper takes the third place of all metals with a worldwide consumption of over 15 millions tons per year, following only to steel and aluminum. In a modern industrial society we meet copper in all ranges of the life (electro-technology, building and construction industry, mechanical engineering, automotive, chemistry, offshore, marine engineering, medical applications and others.). Copper is the first metal customized by humanity. Its name is attributed to the island Cyprus, which supplied in the antiquity copper to Greece, Rome and the other Mediterranean countries. The Romans called it 'ore from Cyprus' (aes cyprium), later cuprum. Copper deposited occasionally also dapper and could be processed in the recent stone age simply by hammering. Already in early historical time copper alloys with 20 to 50 percent tin was used for the production of mirrors because of their high reflecting power. Although the elementary nickel is an element discovered only recently from a historical perspective, its application in alloys - without any knowledge of the alloy composition - occurred at least throughout the last 2.000 years. The oldest copper-nickel coin originates from the time around 235 B.C.. Only around 1800 AD nickel was isolated as a metallic element. In particular in the sea and offshore technology copper nickel alloys found a broad field of applications in piping systems and for valves and armatures. The excellent combination of characteristics like corrosion resistance, erosion stability and bio-fouling resistance with excellent mechanical strength are at the basis of this success. An experience of many decades supports the use

  18. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment.

  19. Changing scenario of micronutrient deficiencies in India during four decades and its impact on crop responses and nutritional health of human and animals

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Singh; Narwal, R P; G, Bhupal Raj; Patel, K P; Sadana, U S

    2009-01-01

    Changing scenario of micronutrient deficiencies phase wise during four decades (1968-2008) was studied in soils of India, their impact of crop production and changes in micronutrient concentration in seeds and fodders, thereby influences on animal and human health. Results of 269,000 soil sample analysis revealed that mean deficiency of zinc, iron, copper, manganese, boron, molybdenum was found in 49, 12, 3, 5, 33 and 13% samples, respectively. Throughout country, zinc deficiency is increasin...

  20. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blander, Milton; Sinha, Shome N.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  1. Variations of serum copper values in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Vukelić Jelka; Kapamadžija Aleksandra; Petrović Đorđe; Grujić Zorica; Novakov-Mikić Aleksandra; Kopitović Vesna; Bjelica Artur

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Copper is essential micronutrient and has an important role in the human body. The serum copper increases during pregnancy and is doubled at full term. Lower levels of serum copper in pregnancy are connected with some pathological conditions. Objective. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of serum copper in normal and pathological pregnancies, comparing them with values of serum copper in non-pregnant women, to determine if serum copper is lower in some pathol...

  2. In vitro digestion method for estimation of copper bioaccessibility in Açaí berry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzik, Lena; Wojcieszek, Justyna

    Copper is an essential trace element for humans and its deficiency can lead to numerous diseases. A lot of mineral supplements are available to increase intake of copper. Unfortunately, only a part of the total concentration of elements is available for human body. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine bioaccessibility of copper in Açai berry, known as a "superfood" because of its antioxidant qualities. An analytical methodology was based on size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to a mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP MS) and on capillary liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization (µ-HPLC-ESI MS/MS). To extract various copper compounds, berries were treated with the following buffers: ammonium acetate, Tris-HCl, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The best extraction efficiency of copper was obtained for SDS extract (88 %), while results obtained for Tris-HCl and ammonium acetate were very similar (47 and 48 %, respectively). After SEC-ICP-MS analysis, main signal was obtained for all extracts in the region of molecular mass about 17 kDa. A two-step model simulated gastric (pepsin) and gastrointestinal (pancreatin) digestion was used to obtain the knowledge about copper bioaccessibility. Copper compounds present in Açai berry were found to be highly bioaccessible. The structures of five copper complexes with amino acids such as aspartic acid, tyrosine, phenylalanine, were proposed after µ-HPLC-ESI MS/MS analysis. Obtained results show that copper in enzymatic extracts is bound by amino acids and peptides what leads to better bioavailability of copper for human body.

  3. Nickel, copper and cobalt coalescence in copper cliff converter slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of various additives on coalescence of nickel, copper and cobalt from slags generated during nickel extraction. The analyzed fluxes were silica and lime while examined reductants were pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon compound. Slag was settled at the different holding temperatures for various times in conditions that simulated the industrial environment. The newly formed matte and slag were characterized by their chemical composition and morphology. Silica flux generated higher partition coefficients for nickel and copper than the addition of lime. Additives used as reducing agents had higher valuable metal recovery rates and corresponding partition coefficients than fluxes. Microstructural studies showed that slag formed after adding reductants consisted of primarily fayalite, with some minute traces of magnetite as the secondary phase. Addition of 5 wt% of pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon alloys favored the formation of a metallized matte which increased Cu, Ni and Co recoveries. Addition of copper-silicon alloys with low silicon content was efficient in copper recovery but coalescence of the other metals was low. Slag treated with the ferrosilicon facilitated the highest cobalt recovery while copper-silicon alloys with silicon content above 10 wt% resulted in high coalescence of nickel and copper, 87 % and 72 % respectively.

  4. Study of Copper Substitute in High Copper Price Market Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The high price of copper drives up industry cost,also it is difficult for terminal products to raise price to transfer the cost pressure brought by increase in copper price,as a result downstream consumption markets instead try to seek

  5. Fixation Property of Copper Triazole Wood Preservatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    According to AWPA E11-2006 standard,copper fixation rates of several copper-based formulations,such as ammoniacal copper,amine copper,and ammoniacal-ethanolamine copper,as well as alkaline copper quaternary(ACQ),were tested and compared in this paper.And the fixation rates of tebuconazole(TEB) and propiconazole(PPZ) in several formulations,such as copper azole,emulsified type and solvent type,were also compared.The determination of copper content in the leachate was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrom...

  6. INTERACTION OF COPPER BASED PRESERVATIVES WITH WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Temiz

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Copper is highly toxic to fungi and the element is widely used in many preservative formulations over 50 years. The interactions of wood and copper-based preservatives impact both the performance and the environment aspects of treated wood. Copper might be present in treated wood as coppercellulose complex, copper-lignin complex, and crystalline or amorphous inorganic/organic copper compounds. In this review; it was aimed to investigate the interactions of wood and copper-based preservatives, Copper Adsorpsion factors and copper forms in treated wood

  7. [Vitamin deficiencies and hypervitaminosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino, M

    1999-10-01

    There have recently been very few deficiencies with respect to fat soluble and water soluble vitamins in Japan All-trans-retinoic acid as induction or maintenance treatment improves disease free and overall survival against acute promyelocytic leukemia. In the isolated vitamin E deficiencies gene mutation has been cleared for alpha-tocopherol transferprotein. Recently, a relation of nutritional vitamin K intake and senile osteoporosis in women was epidemiologically demonstrated on a prospective study. Thiamin was yet noticed as development of deficiency in alcoholism, while the importance of supplemental folic acid during pregnancy has become especially clear in light of studies showing that folic acid supplements reduce the risk of neural tube defects in the fetus. With respect to hypervitaminosis, the Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN), USA, has established safe intakes by identifying the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) and LOAEL (Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level). Summaries of NOAEL and LOAEL for individual vitamins were shown.

  8. Antepartum Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Nakajima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD is the most common type urea cycle enzyme deficiencies. This syndrome results from a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme ornithine transcarbamylase, which catalyzes the conversion of ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to citrullin. Our case was a 28-year-old female diagnosed with OTCD following neurocognitive deficit during her first pregnancy. Although hyperammonemia was suspected as the cause of the patient's mental changes, there was no evidence of chronic liver disease. Plasma amino acid and urine organic acid analysis revealed OTCD. After combined modality treatment with arginine, sodium benzoate and hemodialysis, the patient's plasma ammonia level stabilized and her mental status returned to normal. At last she recovered without any damage left.

  9. Effects of Dietary Different Doses of Copper and High Fructose Feeding on Rat Fecal Metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoli; Song, Ming; Yin, Xinmin; Schuschke, Dale A; Koo, Imhoi; McClain, Craig J; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-09-04

    The gut microbiota plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Increased fructose consumption and inadequate copper intake are two critical risk factors in the development of NAFLD. To gain insight into the role of gut microbiota, fecal metabolites, obtained from rats exposed to different dietary levels of copper with and without high fructose intake for 4 weeks, were analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF MS). In parallel, liver tissues were assessed by histology and triglyceride assay. Our data showed that high fructose feeding led to obvious hepatic steatosis in both marginal copper deficient rats and copper supplementation rats. Among the 38 metabolites detected with significant abundance alteration between groups, short chain fatty acids were markedly decreased with excessive fructose intake irrespective of copper levels. C15:0 and C17:0 long chain fatty acids, produced only by bacteria, were increased by either high copper level or high fructose intake. In addition, increased fecal urea and malic acid paralleled the increased hepatic fat accumulation. Collectively, GC × GC-TOF MS analysis of rat fecal samples revealed distinct fecal metabolome profiles associated with the dietary high fructose and copper level, with some metabolites possibly serving as potential noninvasive biomarkers of fructose induced-NAFLD.

  10. Electroleaching of Copper Waste with Recovery of Copper by Electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuñez P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A new process to leach and recover copper from solid waste using electric fields was designed. The leaching with electro migration is presented as an alternative to traditional leaching. Preliminary data indicate that the copper ion migration is facilitated by using the electrical potential difference; therefore applying a potential difference in the processes of leaching facilitates the removal of copper. This is especially useful when mineral concentrations are very low. Different phenomena associated with transport of copper in solution are studied to generate a model able predict the state of the copper ion concentration in time. A kinetic model for the process was developed and fitted very well the experimental data.

  11. Synthesis of copper/copper oxide nanoparticles by solution plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Genki; Hosokai, Sou; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Akiyama, Tomohiro

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of copper/copper oxide nanoparticles via a solution plasma, in which the effect of the electrolyte and electrolysis time on the morphology of the products was mainly examined. In the experiments, a copper wire as a cathode was immersed in an electrolysis solution of a K2CO3 with the concentration from 0.001 to 0.50 M or a citrate buffer (pH = 4.8), and was melted by the local-concentration of current. The results demonstrated that by using the K2CO3 solution, we obtained CuO nanoflowers with many sharp nanorods, the size of which decreased with decreasing the concentration of the solution. Spherical particles of copper with/without pores formed when the citrate buffer was used. The pores in the copper nanoparticles appeared when the applied voltage changed from 105 V to 130 V, due to the dissolution of Cu2O.

  12. Mortality and GH deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Laursen, Torben;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the mortality in Denmark in patients suffering from GH deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: Mortality was analyzed in 1794 GHD patients and 8014 controls matched on age and gender. All records in GHD patients were studied and additional morbidity noted. Patients were divided into chil......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the mortality in Denmark in patients suffering from GH deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: Mortality was analyzed in 1794 GHD patients and 8014 controls matched on age and gender. All records in GHD patients were studied and additional morbidity noted. Patients were divided...

  13. A Plasmodium falciparum copper-binding membrane protein with copper transport motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Choveaux David L; Przyborski Jude M; Goldring JP

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Copper is an essential catalytic co-factor for metabolically important cellular enzymes, such as cytochrome-c oxidase. Eukaryotic cells acquire copper through a copper transport protein and distribute intracellular copper using molecular chaperones. The copper chelator, neocuproine, inhibits Plasmodium falciparum ring-to-trophozoite transition in vitro, indicating a copper requirement for malaria parasite development. How the malaria parasite acquires or secretes copper st...

  14. Nanocrystalline copper based microcomposites

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. Stobrawa; Z.M. Rdzawski; W. Głuchowski; J. Domagała-Dubiel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to investigate microstructure, mechanical properties and deformation behavior of copper microcomposites: Cu- Y2O3, Cu- ZrO2 and Cu-WC produced by powder metallurgy techniques.Design/methodology/approach: Tests were made with Cu-Y2O3, Cu-ZrO2 and Cu-WC microcomposites containing up to 2% of a strengthening phase. The materials were fabricated by powder metallurgy techniques, including milling of powders, followed by their compacting and sintering. The main mec...

  15. The Bauschinger Effect in Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Bøcker; Brown, L .M.; Stobbs, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the Bauschinger effect in pure copper shows that by comparison with dispersion hardened copper the effect is very small and independent of temperature. This suggests that the obstacles to flow are deformable. A simple composite model based on this principle accounts for the data semi...

  16. Effects of copper(II) and copper oxides on THMs formation in copper pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Qu, Jiuhui; Liu, Huijuan; Hu, Chengzhi

    2007-08-01

    Little is known about how the growth of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water is affected in copper pipe. The formation of THMs and chlorine consumption in copper pipe under stagnant flow conditions were investigated. Experiments for the same water held in glass bottles were performed for comparison. Results showed that although THMs levels firstly increased in the presence of chlorine in copper pipe, faster decay of chlorine as compared to the glass bottle affected the rate of THMs formation. The analysis of water phase was supplemented by surface analysis of corrosion scales using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). The results showed the scales on the pipe surface mainly consisted of Cu(2)O, CuO and Cu(OH)(2) or CuCO(3). Designed experiments confirmed that the fast depletion of chlorine in copper pipe was mainly due to effect of Cu(2)O, CuO in corrosion scales on copper pipe. Although copper(II) and copper oxides showed effect on THMs formation, the rapid consumption of chlorine due to copper oxide made THM levels lower than that in glass bottles after 4h. The transformations of CF, DCBM and CDBM to BF were accelerated in the presence of copper(II), cupric oxide and cuprous oxide. The effect of pH on THMs formation was influenced by effect of pH on corrosion of copper pipe. When pH was below 7, THMs levels in copper pipe was higher as compared to glass bottle, but lower when pH was above 7.

  17. Iodine-deficiency disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Jooste, P.L.; Pandav, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed iodine-deficien

  18. Factor V deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When certain blood clotting factors are low or missing, your blood does not clot properly. Factor V deficiency is rare. It may be caused by: A defective Factor V gene passed down through families (inherited) An antibody that interferes with normal Factor ...

  19. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolk, Jan; Seersholm, Niels; Kalsheker, Noor

    2006-01-01

    biennially to exchange views and research findings. The fourth biennial meeting was held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 2-3 June 2005. This review covers the wide range of AAT deficiency-related topics that were addressed encompassing advances in genetic characterization, risk factor identification, clinical...... epidemiology, inflammatory and signalling processes, therapeutic advances, and lung imaging techniques....

  20. MCAD deficiency in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Brage Storstein; Lund, Allan Meldgaard; Hougaard, David Michael

    2012-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is the most common defect of fatty acid oxidation. Many countries have introduced newborn screening for MCADD, because characteristic acylcarnitines can easily be identified in filter paper blood spot samples by tandem mass spectrometry (MS...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood transfusions , iron injections, or intravenous iron therapy. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National ...

  2. Iodine-deficiency disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Jooste, P.L.; Pandav, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed iodine-deficien

  3. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However, sub...

  4. Morbidity and GH deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Laursen, Torben; Green, Anders;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate morbidity in Denmark in all patients with GH deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: Morbidity was analyzed in 1794 GHD patients and 8014 controls matched on age and gender. All records in the GHD patients were studied and additional morbidity noted. Diagnoses and dates of admissions were...

  5. Diagnosing oceanic nutrient deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. Mark

    2016-11-01

    The supply of a range of nutrient elements to surface waters is an important driver of oceanic production and the subsequent linked cycling of the nutrients and carbon. Relative deficiencies of different nutrients with respect to biological requirements, within both surface and internal water masses, can be both a key indicator and driver of the potential for these nutrients to become limiting for the production of new organic material in the upper ocean. The availability of high-quality, full-depth and global-scale datasets on the concentrations of a wide range of both macro- and micro-nutrients produced through the international GEOTRACES programme provides the potential for estimation of multi-element deficiencies at unprecedented scales. Resultant coherent large-scale patterns in diagnosed deficiency can be linked to the interacting physical-chemical-biological processes which drive upper ocean nutrient biogeochemistry. Calculations of ranked deficiencies across multiple elements further highlight important remaining uncertainties in the stoichiometric plasticity of nutrient ratios within oceanic microbial systems and caveats with regards to linkages to upper ocean nutrient limitation. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  6. Manganese deficiency in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood transfusions , iron injections, or intravenous iron therapy. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National ...

  8. Copper: From neurotransmission to neuroproteostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Opazo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper is critical for the Central Nervous System (CNS development and function. In particular, different studies have shown the effect of copper at brain synapses, where it inhibits Long Term Potentation (LTP and receptor pharmacology. Paradoxically, according to recent studies copper is required for a normal LTP response. Copper is released at the synaptic cleft, where it blocks glutamate receptors, which explain its blocking effects on excitatory neurotransmission. Our results indicate that copper also enhances neurotransmission through the accumulation of PSD95 protein, which increase the levels of AMPA receptors located at the plasma membrane of the post-synaptic density. Thus, our findings represent a novel mechanism for the action of copper, which may have implications for the neurophysiology and neuropathology of the CNS. These data indicate that synaptic configuration is sensitive to transient changes in transition metal homeostasis. Our results suggest that copper increases GluA1 subunit levels of the AMPA receptor through the anchorage of AMPA receptors to the plasma membrane as a result of PSD-95 accumulation. Here, we will review the role of copper on neurotransmission of CNS neurons. In addition, we will discuss the potential mechanisms by which copper could modulate neuronal proteostasis (neuroproteostasis in the CNS with focus in the Ubiquitin Proteasome System, which is particularly relevant to neurological disorders such Alzheimer’s disease (AD where copper and protein dyshomeostasis may contribute to neurodegeneration. An understanding of these mechanisms may ultimately lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches to control metal and synaptic alterations observed in AD patients.

  9. Investigation of iron metabolism in mice expressing a mutant Menke's copper transporting ATPase (Atp7a protein with diminished activity (Brindled; Mo (Br (/y .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukru Gulec

    Full Text Available During iron deficiency, perturbations in copper homeostasis have frequently been documented. Previous studies in iron-deprived rats demonstrated that enterocyte and hepatic copper levels increase and a copper transporter (the Menkes Copper ATPase; Atp7a is induced in the duodenal epithelium in parallel to iron transport-related genes (e.g. Dmt1, Dcytb, Fpn1. Moreover, two ferroxidase proteins involved in iron homeostasis, hephaestin expressed in enterocytes and ceruloplasmin, produced and secreted into blood by the liver, are copper-dependent enzymes. We thus aimed to test the hypothesis that Atp7a function is important for the copper-related compensatory response of the intestinal epithelium to iron deficiency. Accordingly, iron homeostasis was studied for the first time in mice expressing a mutant Atp7a protein with minimal activity (Brindled [Mo (Br (/y ]. Mutant mice were rescued by perinatal copper injections, and, after a 7-8 week recovery period, were deprived of dietary iron for 3 weeks (along with WT littermates. Adult Mo (Br (/y mice displayed copper-deficiency anemia but had normal iron status; in contrast, iron-deprived Mo (Br (/y mice were iron deficient and more severely anemic with partial amelioration of the copper-deficient phenotype. Intestinal iron absorption in both genotypes (WT and Mo (Br (/y increased ∼3-fold when mice consumed a low-iron diet and ∼6-fold when mice were concurrently bled. WT mice exhibited no alterations in copper homeostasis in response to iron deprivation or phlebotomy. Conversely, upregulation of iron absorption was associated with increased enterocyte and liver copper levels and serum ferroxidase (ceruloplasmin activity in Mo (Br (/y mice, typifying the response to iron deprivation in many mammalian species. We thus speculate that a copper threshold exists that is necessary to allow appropriate regulate of iron absorption. In summary, Mo (Br (/y mice were able to adequately regulate iron absorption

  10. Conditional knockout of the Menkes disease copper transporter demonstrates its critical role in embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Wang

    Full Text Available The transition metal, copper (Cu, is an enzymatic cofactor required for a wide range of biochemical processes. Its essentiality is demonstrated by Menkes disease, an X-linked copper deficiency disorder characterized by defects in nervous-, cardiovascular- and skeletal systems, and is caused by mutations in the ATP7A copper transporter. Certain ATP7A mutations also cause X-linked Spinal Muscular Atrophy type 3 (SMAX3, which is characterized by neuromuscular defects absent an underlying systemic copper deficiency. While an understanding of these ATP7A-related disorders would clearly benefit from an animal model that permits tissue-specific deletion of the ATP7A gene, no such model currently exists. In this study, we generated a floxed mouse model allowing the conditional deletion of the Atp7a gene using Cre recombinase. Global deletion of Atp7a resulted in morphological and vascular defects in hemizygous male embryos and death in utero. Heterozygous deletion in females resulted in a 50% reduction in live births and a high postnatal lethality. These studies demonstrate the essential role of the Atp7a gene in mouse embryonic development and establish a powerful model for understanding the tissue-specific roles of ATP7A in copper metabolism and disease.

  11. [Development of a therapeutic agent for Menkes disease: solubilization of a copper-disulfiram complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Yujiro; Tani, Norihiko; Tabata, Hidetsugu; Wakamatsu, Shintaro; Munakata, Mitsutoshi; Maruyama, Kazuo; Kodama, Hiroko; Oshitari, Tetsuta; Natsugari, Hideaki; Takahashi, Hideyo

    2015-01-01

    Menkes disease (MD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by copper deficiency. It is caused by defective intestinal absorption of copper resulting from a deficiency of a copper-transporting ATPase, ATP7A. We investigated the effects of combination therapy with copper and disulfiram, a known lipophilic chelator. We synthesized a copper-disulfiram complex (Cu-DSF) and determined its crystal structure by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Unfortunately, Cu-DSF was not orally bioavailable due to its lipophilicity. We therefore planned to use cyclodextrin as a solubilizing agent to increase the water solubility of Cu-DSF. After comparisons of the effects of cyclodextrins (α, β, γ), it was found that addition of β-cyclodextrin (β-CyD) increased the solubility of Cu-DSF. Moreover, the modified β-CyD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, was yet more effective as a solubilizing agent. For the development of a convenient method to determine the concentration of Cu-DSF included by β-cyclodextrins, a standard curve based on UV-visible(VIS) absorption was derived.

  12. Polineuropatia nutricional entre índios Xavantes Polyneuropathy deficiency among Xavante indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.B. Vieira Filho

    1997-03-01

    polineuropatia dos Xavantes é diferente da neuropatia verificada entre os índios Kreen-Akrore e a observada entre os adolescentes índios do Parque do Xingu.The authors present two cases of polyneuropathy deficiency among Xavante indians where the sole food was rice in case 1 and almost so in case 2. The rice consumed by these indians was processed or hulled. Intoxication by cyanide from maniot or other vegetables was excluded. CASE REPORT - Two indians aged 18 and 25 years with a progressive history of weaness, decrease in muscular force and thinning were observed in their villages. On removal to the Hospital São Paulo, atrophy of the distal musculature of the upper and lower limbs, motor deficit distally with zero degree in the flexor musculature, abolished deep reflexes, plantar cutaneous reflex without response bilaterally, decreased tactile, painful and pallesthetic sensitivity distally in the lower limbs were noted on neurological examination of case 1. On neurological examination of case 2 proximal hyporeflexia in the upper limbs, areflexia in the distal portions of the upper and lower limbs, tactile and painful hypoesthesia in the feet, right hypoacousis were noted. Electromyography showed abnormalities compatible with symmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy with an axonal demyelination pattern in case 1 and predominantly demyelinizing in case 2. Cerebrospinal fluid tests were normal. DISCUSSION - Polyneuropathy was characterized by the clinical history and by neurological, electromyographic and cerebrospinal fluid tests. The diagnosis of polyneuropathy deficiency was established by the clinical history and by electromyography suggesting peripheral polyneuropathy of nutritional origin. This neuropathy deficiency does not fit myeloneuropathies such as ataxic tropical neuropathy, spastic paraparesis and Cuba neuropathy. CONCLUSION - The Xavante polyneuropathy deficiency is caused by thiamine (vitamin B1 deficiency, that is dry beriberi, owing to consumption of

  13. Genetics Home Reference: carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperammonemia due to carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase va deficiency Related Information How are ...

  14. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000528.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a condition in which ...

  15. Cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Werder, Steven F

    2010-01-01

    ...) What is to be expected from treatment? (7) How is B12 deficiency treated? On January 31st, 2009, a Medline search was performed revealing 1,627 citations related to cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia...

  16. Jiangxi Copper Corporation Builds 900,000-Ton Copper Production Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The Eastward Refined Copper Expansion Pro- ject of Guixi Smelting Plant under Jiangxi Copper Corporation has output its first lot of Copper cathode,marking the company’s pos- session of a 900,000-ton copper production ca- pacity.Thus the company further strengthens its position as the top 3 of the copper world.

  17. Secondary Copper Industry Entered Rapid Growth Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    In China’s copper output,secondary copper accounts for about 40%,for power cable industry,the usage percentage of secondary copper is about 50%.Under the favorable policy of the government to vigorously support recycling industry,secondary copper rod enterprises begin to expand,and are confident toward the industry’s potentials.

  18. Unravelling the Chemical Nature of Copper Cuprizone

    OpenAIRE

    Messori, L.; Casini, A.; C.Gabbiani; Sorace, L.; Muniz-Miranda, M.; Zatta, P

    2007-01-01

    During the last 50 years, formation of the highly chromogenic copper cuprizone complex has been exploited for spectrophotometric determinations of copper although the precise chemical nature of the resulting species has never been ascertained; we eventually show here, in contrast to current opinion, that copper cuprizone is a copper(III) complex.

  19. Secondary Copper Consumption and Location in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> China is short of copper resources and is alsothe second largest copper consuming country inthe world.The way to overcome the contradic-tion between the resource shortage and fastgrowth in consumption is to import copper rawmaterial in large quantities.Since the 1990’s,China’s import quantity of copper scrap hasincreased considerably.During the last twoyears,China has imported copper scrap worthof US$2.25 billion,1.32 times of the value ofimported copper concentrates in the same pe-riod.China is one of the biggest copper scrap

  20. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Growth Defici H e o n r c m y one in Children What is growth hormone deficiency? Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a rare condition in which the body does not make enough growth hormone (GH). GH is made by the pituitary ...

  1. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. Keywords: iron deficiency, anemia, cognitive functions, supplementation

  2. Prenatal treatment of mosaic mice (Atp7a mo-ms) mouse model for Menkes disease, with copper combined by dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenartowicz, Małgorzata; Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Koteja, Paweł; Chrząścik, Katarzyna; Møller, Lisbeth Birk

    2012-01-01

    Menkes disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder in infants caused by mutations in the gene ATP7A which encodes a copper (Cu) transporter. Defects in ATP7A lead to accumulated copper in the small intestine and kidneys and to copper deficiencies in the brain and the liver. The copper level in the kidney in postnatal copper-treated Menkes patients may reach toxic levels. The mouse model, mosaic Atp7a (mo-ms) recapitulates the Menkes phenotype and die about 15.75±1.5 days of age. In the present study we found that prenatal treatment of mosaic murine fetuses throughout gestation days 7, 11, 15 and 18 with a combination of CuCl(2) (50 mg/kg) and dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC) (280 mg/kg) leads to an increase in survival to about 76±25.3 days, whereas treatment with CuCl(2) alone (50 mg/kg) only leads to survival for about 21 days ±5 days. These copper-DMDTC treated mutants showed an improved locomotor activity performance and a gain in body mass. In contrast to treatment with CuCl(2) alone, a significant increase in the amount of copper was observed in the brain after prenatal copper-DMDTC treatment as well as a decrease in the amount of accumulated copper in the kidney, both leading towards a normalization of the copper level. Although copper-DMDTC prenatal treatment only leads to a small increase in the sub-normal copper concentration in the liver and to an increase of copper in the already overloaded small intestine, the combined results suggest that prenatal copper-DMDTC treatment also should be considered for humans.

  3. Prenatal Treatment of Mosaic Mice (Atp7a mo-ms) Mouse Model for Menkes Disease, with Copper Combined by Dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenartowicz, Małgorzata; Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Koteja, Paweł; Chrząścik, Katarzyna; Møller, Lisbeth Birk

    2012-01-01

    Menkes disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder in infants caused by mutations in the gene ATP7A which encodes a copper (Cu) transporter. Defects in ATP7A lead to accumulated copper in the small intestine and kidneys and to copper deficiencies in the brain and the liver. The copper level in the kidney in postnatal copper-treated Menkes patients may reach toxic levels. The mouse model, mosaic Atp7a mo-ms recapitulates the Menkes phenotype and die about 15.75±1.5 days of age. In the present study we found that prenatal treatment of mosaic murine fetuses throughout gestation days 7, 11, 15 and 18 with a combination of CuCl2 (50 mg/kg) and dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC) (280 mg/kg) leads to an increase in survival to about 76±25.3 days, whereas treatment with CuCl2 alone (50 mg/kg) only leads to survival for about 21 days ±5 days. These copper-DMDTC treated mutants showed an improved locomotor activity performance and a gain in body mass. In contrast to treatment with CuCl2 alone, a significant increase in the amount of copper was observed in the brain after prenatal copper-DMDTC treatment as well as a decrease in the amount of accumulated copper in the kidney, both leading towards a normalization of the copper level. Although copper-DMDTC prenatal treatment only leads to a small increase in the sub-normal copper concentration in the liver and to an increase of copper in the already overloaded small intestine, the combined results suggest that prenatal copper-DMDTC treatment also should be considered for humans. PMID:22815746

  4. Synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (SCO1) inhibits insulin sensitivity by decreasing copper levels in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiang-Bo; Guo, Liang; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Shui-Rong; Liu, Yuan; Dou, Xin; Du, Shao-Yue; Ding, Meng; Peng, Wan-Qiu; Qian, Shu-Wen; Huang, Hai-Yan; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2017-09-23

    Dysregulation of insulin signaling leads to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other metabolic disorders. Obesity is an important contributor to insulin resistance, and although the understanding of this relationship has improved in recent years, the mechanism of obesity-induced insulin resistance is not completely understood. Disorders of copper metabolism tend to accompany the development of obesity, which increases the risk of insulin resistance. Synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (SCO1) functions in the assembly of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and cellular copper homeostasis. However, the role of SCO1 in the regulation of metabolism remains unknown. Here, we found that obese mice had higher expression of SCO1 and lower levels of copper in white adipose tissue (WAT) than did the control mice. Overexpression of SCO1 in adipocytes was associated with copper deficiency. Copper increased insulin sensitivity by decreasing the level of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein. Ectopic expression of SCO1 led to insulin resistance and was accompanied by a decrease in intracellular copper level, and addition of copper abolished the inhibitory effect of SCO1 on insulin sensitivity. Our results demonstrated a novel role of SCO1 in modulating insulin sensitivity via the regulation of copper concentration in WAT and suggested a potential therapeutic target for T2DM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. [Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binek, Alicja; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin class A is the main protein of the mucosal immune system. Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (sIgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in Caucasians. sIGAD is strongly associated with the certain major histocompatibility complex region. Most individuals with sIgAD are asymptomatic and identified coincidentally. However, some patients may present with recurrent infections, allergic disorders and autoimmune manifestations. Several autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes mellitus type 1, Graves disease and celiac disease, are associated with an increased prevalence of sIgAD. Screening for sIgAD in coeliac disease is essential. Patients need treatment of associated diseases. It is also known that IgA deficiency may progress into a common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Pathogenesis and molecular mechanism involved in sIgAD should be elucidated in the future.

  6. Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relinque, B; Bardallo, L; Granero, M; Jiménez, P J; Luna, S

    2015-03-10

    Sulfite oxidase deficiency is an uncommon metabolic disease. Only few cases of its isolated form have been reported in the literature. We report a case of severe neonatal onset. A newborn baby of 41 weeks gestational age, weighted at birth of 3240 grams and had an Apgar score of 6-10-10. Fifty-three hours after being born, the baby started with seizures that were refractory to antiepileptic treatment. Brain function was monitored using a-EEG. Laboratory and imaging tests were performed. All of them were consistent with sulfite oxidase deficiency. The diagnosis was confirmed by genetic testing. We highlight the importance of this disease as part of the differential diagnosis of seizures during the neonatal period, as well as the importance of the therapeutic support based on dietary restrictions. It's also remarkable the possibility of prenatal diagnosis by quantifying enzyme activity and it's also possible carrying out DNA mutational analysis.

  7. Proximal Focal Femoral Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Kalia, Vibhuti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD is a developmental disorder of the proximal segment of thefemur and of acetabulum resulting in shortening of the affected limb and impairment of the function. It isa spectrum of congenital osseous anomalies characterized by a deficiency in the structure of the proximalfemur. The diagnosis is often made by radiological evaluation which includes identification and descriptionof PFFD and evaluation of associated limb anomalies by plain radiographs. Contrast arthrography orMagnetic Resonance Imaging is indicated when radiological features are questionable and to disclose thepresence and location of the femoral head and any cartilagenous anlage. The disorder is more commonlyunilateral and is apparent at birth. However, bilateral involvement is rarely seen. Therapy of the disorder isdirected towards satisfactory ambulation and specific treatment depending on the severity of dysplasia.

  8. An Introduction to Copper Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    There are 11 genetic types of copper deposit in China, three of which (porphyry,contact metasomatic and VMS types) are the most important. The copper deposits distribute widely both temporally and spatially in China. The features of copper ores in China are mostly poor in copper tenor and complex in metal associated. The copper metallogeny in China predominantly occurs in three metallogenic megadomains, namely the circum-Pacific, the paleo-Asian and the Tethys-Himalayan.

  9. Micronutrient deficiency in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, M K; Sommerfelt, H; Strand, T

    2001-05-01

    Malnutrition increases morbidity and mortality and affects physical growth and development, some of these effects resulting from specific micronutrient deficiencies. While public health efforts must be targeted to improve dietary intakes in children through breast feeding and appropriate complementary feeding, there is a need for additional measures to increase the intake of certain micronutrients. Food-based approaches are regarded as the long-term strategy for improving nutrition, but for certain micronutrients, supplementation, be it to the general population or to high risk groups or as an adjunct to treatment must also be considered. Our understanding of the prevalence and consequences of iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiency in children and pregnant women has advanced considerably while there is still a need to generate more knowledge pertaining to many other micronutrients, including zinc, selenium and many of the B-vitamins. For iron and vitamin A, the challenge is to improve the delivery to target populations. For disease prevention and growth promotion, the need to deliver safe but effective amounts of micronutrients such as zinc to children and women of fertile age can be determined only after data on deficiency prevalence becomes available and the studies on mortality reduction following supplementation are completed. Individual or multiple micronutrients must be used as an adjunct to treatment of common infectious diseases and malnutrition only if the gains are substantial and the safety window sufficiently wide. The available data for zinc are promising with regard to the prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia. It should be emphasized that there must be no displacement of important treatment such as ORS in acute diarrhea by adjunct therapy such as zinc. Credible policy making requires description of not only the clinical effects but also the underlying biological mechanisms. As findings of experimental studies are not always feasible to extrapolate to

  10. Orexin deficiency and narcolepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Orexin deficiency results in the sleep disorder narcolepsy in many mammalian species, including mice, dogs, and humans, suggesting that the orexin system is particularly important for normal regulation of sleep/wakefulness states, and especially for maintenance of wakefulness. This review discusses animal models of narcolepsy; the contribution of each orexin receptor subtype to the narcoleptic phenotypes; and the etiology of orexin neuronal death. It also raises the possibility of novel thera...

  11. [Iron deficiency, thrombocytosis and thromboembolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstatiev, Rayko

    2016-10-01

    Iron deficiency, the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide, is often associated with reactive thrombocytosis. Although secondary thrombocytosis is commonly considered to be harmless, there is accumulating evidence that elevated platelet counts, especially in the setting of iron deficiency, can lead to an increased thromboembolic risk in both arterial and venous systems. Here we present the mechanisms of iron deficiency-induced thrombocytosis and summarize its clinical consequences especially in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, chronic kidney disease or cancer. We hypothesize that iron deficiency is an underestimated thromboembolic risk factor, and that iron replacement therapy can become an effective preventive strategy in a variety of clinical settings.

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TV, Video Games, and the Internet Iron-Deficiency Anemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Iron-Deficiency Anemia Print A ... common nutritional deficiency in children. About Iron-Deficiency Anemia Every red blood cell in the body contains ...

  13. How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated? Treatment for iron-deficiency anemia will depend ... may be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Iron-Deficiency Anemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Iron-Deficiency Anemia A A ... common nutritional deficiency in children. About Iron-Deficiency Anemia Every red blood cell in the body contains ...

  15. Impairment of interrelated iron- and copper homeostatic mechanisms in brain contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina eSkjørringe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron and copper are important co-factors for a number of enzymes in the brain, including enzymes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and myelin formation. Both shortage and an excess of iron or copper will affect the brain. The transport of iron and copper into the brain from the circulation is strictly regulated, and concordantly protective barriers i.e. the blood-brain barrier (BBB and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF barrier (BCB have evolved to separate the brain environment from the circulation. The uptake mechanisms of the two metals interact. Both iron deficiency and overload lead to altered copper homeostasis in the brain. Similarly, changes in dietary copper affect the brain-iron homeostasis. Moreover, the uptake routes of iron and copper overlap each other which affect the interplay between the concentrations of the two metals in the brain. The divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1 is involved in the uptake of both iron and copper. Furthermore, copper is an essential co-factor in numerous proteins that are vital for iron homeostasis and affects the binding of iron-response proteins to iron-response elements in the mRNA of the transferrin receptor, DMT1 and ferroportin, all highly involved in iron transport. Iron and copper are mainly taken up at the BBB, but the BCB also plays a vital role in the homeostasis of the two metals, in terms of sequestering, uptake and efflux of iron and copper from the brain. Inside the brain, iron and copper are taken up by neurons and glia cells that express various transporters

  16. COMMD1 is linked to the WASH complex and regulates endosomal trafficking of the copper transporter ATP7A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips-Krawczak, Christine A.; Singla, Amika; Starokadomskyy, Petro; Deng, Zhihui; Osborne, Douglas G.; Li, Haiying; Dick, Christopher J.; Gomez, Timothy S.; Koenecke, Megan; Zhang, Jin-San; Dai, Haiming; Sifuentes-Dominguez, Luis F.; Geng, Linda N.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Hein, Marco Y.; Wallis, Mathew; McGaughran, Julie; Gecz, Jozef; De Sluis, Bart van; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Burstein, Ezra

    2015-01-01

    COMMD1 deficiency results in defective copper homeostasis, but the mechanism for this has remained elusive. Here we report that COMMD1 is directly linked to early endosomes through its interaction with a protein complex containing CCDC22, CCDC93, and C16orf62. This COMMD/CCDC22/CCDC93 (CCC) complex

  17. Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John J; Trakadis, Yannis J; Scriver, Charles R

    2011-08-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in intolerance to the dietary intake of the essential amino acid phenylalanine. It occurs in approximately 1:15,000 individuals. Deficiency of this enzyme produces a spectrum of disorders including classic phenylketonuria, mild phenylketonuria, and mild hyperphenylalaninemia. Classic phenylketonuria is caused by a complete or near-complete deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase activity and without dietary restriction of phenylalanine most children will develop profound and irreversible intellectual disability. Mild phenylketonuria and mild hyperphenylalaninemia are associated with lower risk of impaired cognitive development in the absence of treatment. Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency can be diagnosed by newborn screening based on detection of the presence of hyperphenylalaninemia using the Guthrie microbial inhibition assay or other assays on a blood spot obtained from a heel prick. Since the introduction of newborn screening, the major neurologic consequences of hyperphenylalaninemia have been largely eradicated. Affected individuals can lead normal lives. However, recent data suggest that homeostasis is not fully restored with current therapy. Treated individuals have a higher incidence of neuropsychological problems. The mainstay of treatment for hyperphenylalaninemia involves a low-protein diet and use of a phenylalanine-free medical formula. This treatment must commence as soon as possible after birth and should continue for life. Regular monitoring of plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations is necessary. Targets of plasma phenylalanine of 120-360 μmol/L (2-6 mg/dL) in the first decade of life are essential for optimal outcome. Phenylalanine targets in adolescence and adulthood are less clear. A significant proportion of patients with phenylketonuria may benefit from adjuvant therapy with 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin stereoisomer. Special consideration must be

  18. Exopolysaccharides favor the survival of Erwinia amylovora under copper stress through different strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordax, Mónica; Marco-Noales, Ester; López, María M; Biosca, Elena G

    2010-09-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight, a destructive disease of rosaceous plants very difficult to control. We demonstrated that copper, employed to control plant diseases, induces the "viable-but-nonculturable" (VBNC) state in E. amylovora. Moreover, it was previously reported that copper increases production of its main exopolysaccharide (EPS), amylovoran. In this work, the copper-complexing ability of amylovoran and levan, other major EPS of E. amylovora, was demonstrated. Following this, EPS-deficient mutants were used to determine the role of these EPSs in survival of this bacterium in AB mineral medium with copper, compared to their wild type strain and AB without copper. Total, viable and culturable counts of all strains were monitored for six months. With copper, a larger fraction of the viable population of EPS mutants entered into the VBNC state, and earlier than their wild type strain, showing the contribution of both EPSs to long-term survival in a culturable state. Further, we demonstrated that both EPSs can be used as carbon source by E. amylovora under deprivation conditions. Overall, these previously unreported functions of amylovoran and levan provide survival advantages for E. amylovora, which could contribute to its enhanced persistence in nature.

  19. Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Calvin J [Lakewood, CO; Miedaner, Alexander [Boulder, CO; Van Hest, Maikel [Lakewood, CO; Ginley, David S [Evergreen, CO; Nekuda, Jennifer A [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-15

    Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

  20. The Revovery of Copper and Cobalt from Oxidized Copper Ore and Converter Slag

    OpenAIRE

    ZİYADANOĞULLARI, Berrin; ZİYADANOĞULLARI, Recep

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for obtaining copper and cobalt from oxidized copper ore and converter slag. In order to convert the copper and cobalt into sulfate compounds the main step was to roast the samples obtained by sulfurization and transfer the samples into solution. First the oxidized copper ore was roasted, followed by the mixture of converter slag and oxidized copper ore. Since the levels of copper and cobalt were low, the sulfurization process was carri...

  1. Genome Sequences of Two Copper-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Copper-Fed Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthje, Freja L.; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of two copper-resistant Escherichia coli strains were determined. These had been isolated from copper-fed pigs and contained additional putative operons conferring copper and other metal and metalloid resistances.......The draft genome sequences of two copper-resistant Escherichia coli strains were determined. These had been isolated from copper-fed pigs and contained additional putative operons conferring copper and other metal and metalloid resistances....

  2. Majorana Electroformed Copper Mechanical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overman, Nicole R.; Overman, Cory T.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2012-04-30

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize ultra high purity electroformed copper for a variety of detector components and shielding. A preliminary mechanical evaluation was performed on the Majorana prototype electroformed copper material. Several samples were removed from a variety of positions on the mandrel. Tensile testing, optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and hardness testing were conducted to evaluate mechanical response. Analyses carried out on the Majorana prototype copper to this point show consistent mechanical response from a variety of test locations. Evaluation shows the copper meets or exceeds the design specifications.

  3. Hereditary iron and copper deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Flaten, Trond Peder; Andersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    can be successfully treated, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis. Serum ferritin values, transferrin saturation and genetic analysis are used when diagnosing haemochromatosis. The diagnostics of Wilson's disease depends on the use of urinary copper values, serum ceruloplasmin and liver...

  4. Clinical Aspects of Trace Elements: Zinc in Human Nutrition – Zinc Deficiency and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Pluhator

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Available evidence suggests that trace elements, such as zinc, once thought to have no nutritional relevance, are possibly deficient in large sections of the human population. Conditioned deficiencies have been reported to result from malabsorption syndromes, acrodermatitis enteropathica, alcoholism, gastrointestinal disease, thermal injury, chronic diseases (eg, diabetes, sickle cell anemia, and in total parenteral nutrition therapy. Awareness that patients with these problems are at risk has led health professionals to focus increasingly on the importance of zinc therapy in the prevention and treatment of deficiency. More recently zinc toxicity and its role in human nutrition and well-being have come under investigation. Reports have focused on the role of zinc toxicity in causes of copper deficiency, changes in the immune system and alterations in blood lipids. As the numerous challenges presented by the study of zinc in human nutrition are met, more appropriate recommendations for dietary and therapeutic zinc intake are being made.

  5. Phosphorus Deficiency Alters Nutrient Accumulation Patterns and Grain Nutritional Quality in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry J. Rose

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of biomass and mineral nutrients during the post-anthesis period was investigated in field-grown rice plants cultivated in phosphorus (P-sufficient vs. P-deficient soil. Phosphorus deficiency reduced biomass accumulation by around 30%, and reduced the accumulation of all nutrients in aboveground plant biomass except sulfur (S and copper (Cu. Ultimately, grain zinc (Zn, Cu, and calcium (Ca concentrations were significantly higher in P-deficient plants, while grain magnesium (Mg concentrations were significantly lower. While P deficiency caused a 40% reduction in the concentration of the anti-nutrient phytate in the grain, this was offset by a 40% reduction in grain starch lysophospholipids, which have positive benefits for human health and grain quality.

  6. Iatrogenic nutritional deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R C; Blass, J P

    1982-01-01

    This article catalogs the nutritional deficiencies inadvertently introduced by certain treatment regimens. Specifically, the iatrogenic effects on nutrition of surgery, hemodialysis, irradiation, and drugs are reviewed. Nutritional problems are particularly frequent consequences of surgery on the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric surgery can lead to deficiencies of vitamin B12, folate, iron, and thiamine, as well as to metabolic bone disease. The benefits of small bowel bypass are limited by the potentially severe nutritional consequences of this procedure. Following bypass surgery, patients should be monitored for signs of possible nutritional probems such as weight loss, neuropathy, cardiac arrhythmias, loss of stamina, or changes in mental status. Minimal laboratory tests should include hematologic evaluation, B12, folate, iron, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide levels. Roentgenologic examination of the bone should also be obtained. Loss of bone substance is a major consequence of many forms of treatment, and dietary supplementation with calcium is warranted. Patients undergoing hemodialysis have shown carnitine and choline deficiencies, potassium depletion, and hypovitaminosis, as well as osteomalacia. Chronic drug use may alter intake, synthesis, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism, or excretion of nutrients. Patients vary markedly in the metabolic effects of drugs, and recommendations for nutrition must be related to age, sex, reproductive status, and genetic endowment. Moreover, the illness being treated can itself alter nutritional requirements and the effect of the treatment on nutrient status. The changes in nutritional levels induced by use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (OCs) are obscure; however, the effects on folate matabolism appear to be of less clinical import than previously suggested. Reduction in pyridoxine and serum vitamin B12 levels has been

  7. Treatment of carnitine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S C

    2003-01-01

    Carnitine deficiency is a secondary complication of many inborn errors of metabolism. Pharmacological treatment with carnitine not only corrects the deficiency, it facilitates removal of accumulating toxic acyl intermediates and the generation of mitochondrial free coenzyme A (CoA). The United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) approved the use of carnitine for the treatment of inborn errors of metabolism in 1992. This approval was based on retrospective chart analysis of 90 patients, with 18 in the untreated cohort and 72 in the treated cohort. Efficacy was evaluated on the basis of clinical and biochemical findings. Compelling data included increased excretion of disease-specific acylcarnitine derivatives in a dose-response relationship, decreased levels of metabolites in the blood, and improved clinical status with decreased hospitalization frequency, improved growth and significantly lower mortality rates as compared to historical controls. Complications of carnitine treatment were few, with gastrointestinal disturbances and odour being the most frequent. No laboratory or clinical safety issues were identified. Intravenous carnitine preparations were also approved for treatment of secondary carnitine deficiency. Since only 25% of enteral carnitine is absorbed and gastrointestinal tolerance of high doses is poor, parenteral carnitine treatment is an appealing alternative therapeutic approach. In 7 patients treated long term with high-dose weekly to daily venous boluses of parenteral carnitine through a subcutaneous venous port, benefits included decreased frequency of decompensations, improved growth, improved muscle strength and decreased reliance on medical foods with liberalization of protein intake. Port infections were the most troubling complication. Theoretical concerns continue to be voiced that carnitine might result in fatal arrhythmias in patients with long-chain fat metabolism defects. No published clinical studies substantiate these

  8. Improving Beneficiation of Copper and Iron from Copper Slag by Modifying the Molten Copper Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqi Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a new technology was developed to improve the beneficiation of copper and iron components from copper slag, by modifying the molten slag to promote the mineralization of valuable minerals and to induce the growth of mineral grains. Various parameters, including binary basicity, dosage of compound additive, modification temperature, cooling rate and the end point temperature of slow cooling were investigated. Meanwhile, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS was employed to determine the mineralogy of the modified and unmodified slag, as well as to reveal the mechanisms of enhancing beneficiation. The results show that under the proper conditions, the copper grade of rougher copper concentrate was increased from 6.43% to 11.04%, iron recovery of magnetic separation was increased significantly from 32.40% to 63.26%, and other evaluation indexes were changed slightly, in comparison with unmodified copper slag. Moreover, matte and magnetite grains in the modified slag aggregated together and grew obviously to the mean size of over 50 μm, resulting in an improvement of beneficiation of copper and iron.

  9. Renal cortex copper concentration in acute copper poisoning in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Fazzio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic value of renal cortex copper (Cu concentration in clinical cases of acute copper poisoning (ACP. A total of 97 calves that died due to subcutaneous copper administration were compiled in eleven farms. At least, one necropsy was conducted on each farm and samples for complementary analysis were taken. The degree of autolysis in each necropsy was evaluated. The cases appeared on extensive grazing calf breeding and intensive feedlot farms, in calves of 60 to 200 kg body weight. Mortality varied from 0.86 to 6.96 %, on the farms studied. The first succumbed calf was found on the farms between 6 and 72 hours after the susbcutaneous Cu administration. As discrepancies regarding the reference value arose, the local value (19.9 parts per million was used, confirming the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning in 93% of the analyzed kidney samples. These results confirm the value of analysis of the cortical kidney Cu concentration for the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning.

  10. Phosphorus Deficiency in Ducklins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CuiHengmin; LuoLingping

    1995-01-01

    20 one-day-old Tianfu ducklings were fed on a natural diet deficient in phosphorus(Ca 0.80%,P 0.366%)for three weeks and examined for signs and lesions.Signs began to appear at the age of one week,and became serous at two weeks.13 ducklings died during the experiment.Morbidity was 100% and mortality was 65%.The affected ducklings mainly showed leg weakness,severe lamencess,deprssion,lack of appetite and stunted growth,The serum alkaline phosphatase activities increased markedly.The serum phosphorus concentration,tibial ash,ash calcium and phosphorus content decreased obviously.At necropsy,maxillae and ribe were soft,and the latter was crooked.Long ones were soft and broke easily.The hypertrophic zone of the growth-plate in the epiphysis of long ones was lengthened and osteoid tissue increased in the metaphyseal spongiosa histopathologically.The above mentioned symptoms and lesions could be prevented by adding phosphorus to the natural deficient diet(up to 0.65%),The relationship between lesions and signs,pathomorphological characterisation and pathogensis were also discussed in this paper.

  11. Copper metallurgy at the crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habashi F.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper technology changed from the vertical to the horizontal furnace and from the roast reaction to converting towards the end of the last century. However, the horizontal furnace proved to be an inefficient and polluting reactor. As a result many attempts were made to replace it. In the past 50 years new successful melting processes were introduced on an industrial scale that were more energy efficient and less polluting. In addition, smelting and converting were conducted in a single reactor in which the concentrate was fed and the raw copper was produced. The standing problem in many countries, however, is marketing 3 tonnes of sulfuric acid per tonne of copper produced as well as emitting large amounts of excess SO2 in the atmosphere. Pressure hydrometallurgy offers the possibility of liberating the copper industry from SO2 problem. Heap leaching technology has become a gigantic operation. Combined with solvent extraction and electrowinning it contributes today to about 20% of copper production and is expected to grow. Pressure leaching offers the possibility of liberating the copper industry from SO2 problem. The technology is over hundred years old. It is applied for leaching a variety of ores and concentrates. Hydrothermal oxidation of sulfide concentrates has the enormous advantage of producing elemental sulfur, hence solving the SO2 and sulfuric acid problems found in smelters. Precipitation of metals such as nickel and cobalt under hydrothermal conditions has been used for over 50 years. It has the advantage of a compact plant but the disadvantage of producing ammonium sulfate as a co-product. In case of copper, however, precipitation takes place without the need of neutralizing the acid, which is a great advantage and could be an excellent substitute for electrowinning which is energy intensive and occupies extensive space. Recent advances in the engineering aspects of pressure equipment design open the door widely for increased

  12. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrune Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency, or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI, is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea. Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty, generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency. GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib. Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21 and SLC37A4 (11q23 respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most

  13. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froissart, Roseline; Piraud, Monique; Boudjemline, Alix Mollet; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Petit, François; Hubert-Buron, Aurélie; Eberschweiler, Pascale Trioche; Gajdos, Vincent; Labrune, Philippe

    2011-05-20

    Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency), or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI), is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea). Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty), generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma) and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency). GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia) which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib). Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21) and SLC37A4 (11q23) respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most commonly confirmed

  14. A novel copper-catalyzed reductive coupling of N-tosylhydrazones with H-phosphorus oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Zhang, Xio; Chen, Qing-Qing; Zhou, An-Kun

    2012-10-21

    We report here a novel C(sp(3))-P bonds formation via copper-catalyzed reductive coupling of N-tosylhydrazones with H-phosphorus oxides. A variety of aliphatic and aromatic substrates bearing electron-rich and electron-deficient substituents affords phosphine oxide derivatives with moderate to good yields. This work suggests a new transformation of aldehydes/ketones via N-tosylhydrazones to organophosphorus compounds.

  15. Management of Iron Deficiency Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez, Kristine; Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie; Gasche, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Anemia affects one-fourth of the world’s population, and iron deficiency is the predominant cause. Anemia is associated with chronic fatigue, impaired cognitive function, and diminished well-being. Patients with iron deficiency anemia of unknown etiology are frequently referred to a gastroenterologist because in the majority of cases the condition has a gastrointestinal origin. Proper management improves quality of life, alleviates the symptoms of iron deficiency, and reduces the need for blo...

  16. [Iron deficiency and digestive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozon, G J N

    2014-11-01

    Iron deficiency anemia still remains problematic worldwide. Iron deficiency without anemia is often undiagnosed. We reviewed, in this study, symptoms and syndromes associated with iron deficiency with or without anemia: fatigue, cognitive functions, restless legs syndrome, hair loss, and chronic heart failure. Iron is absorbed through the digestive tract. Hepcidin and ferroportin are the main proteins of iron regulation. Pathogenic micro-organisms or intestinal dysbiosis are suspected to influence iron absorption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Lumbosacral radiation myeloneuropathy. Report of a case and an effect of prednisolone treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Kiichiro; Mizobuchi, Masato; Shimpo, Tomoyuki; Iwata, Makoto (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Ohno, Minoru

    1984-07-01

    The patient is a 23-year-old man. After the removal of the left testicular cancer, he received as a prophylactic radiotherapy a whole tumor dose of 4690 rads over the lumbosacral region and 4490 rads over the whole pelvis. Three months after the completion of the radiotherapy, he noticed a weakness in his legs, which progressed gradually over the next three months. Neither sensory symptoms nor genitourinary disturbances were noted. Physical examination three months after the onset of the neurological symptoms revealed no metastasis of the original testicular cancer. Neurological abnormalities were observed only in the lower extremities. Occasional fasciculations were also noted. Both knee and ankle jerks were absent. There were neither sensory nor genitourinary disturbances. The patient was put on prednisolone 30 mg/day PO, and two weeks later he noticed a subjective improvement in his leg power. Over the next six months, he recovered almost to the premorbid state, though the EMG and CSF findings remained unchanged. From the peculiar clinical features, the site of the lesion was thought to be located in the very proximal portion of the lower motor neuron, either in the anterior horn cells or in the anterior roots, since the irradiated field covered the spinal cord below L2 and the whole cauda equina. This is the first case of this type of radiation myelopathy that seems to have responded to prednisolone administration. Although it may be difficult to ascribe the clinical improvement in this case solely to prednisolone, a trial of steroid hormone in the acute phase of this neurological illness is recommended.

  18. Nutritional deficiencies after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Bikram S; Finelli, Frederick C; Shope, Timothy R; Koch, Timothy R

    2012-09-01

    Lifestyle intervention programmes often produce insufficient weight loss and poor weight loss maintenance. As a result, an increasing number of patients with obesity and related comorbidities undergo bariatric surgery, which includes approaches such as the adjustable gastric band or the 'divided' Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). This Review summarizes the current knowledge on nutrient deficiencies that can develop after bariatric surgery and highlights follow-up and treatment options for bariatric surgery patients who develop a micronutrient deficiency. The major macronutrient deficiency after bariatric surgery is protein malnutrition. Deficiencies in micronutrients, which include trace elements, essential minerals, and water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins, are common before bariatric surgery and often persist postoperatively, despite universal recommendations on multivitamin and mineral supplements. Other disorders, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, can promote micronutrient deficiencies, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. Recognition of the clinical presentations of micronutrient deficiencies is important, both to enable early intervention and to minimize long-term adverse effects. A major clinical concern is the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the development of metabolic bone diseases, such as osteoporosis or osteomalacia; metabolic bone diseases may explain the increased risk of hip fracture in patients after RYGB. Further studies are required to determine the optimal levels of nutrient supplementation and whether postoperative laboratory monitoring effectively detects nutrient deficiencies. In the absence of such data, clinicians should inquire about and treat symptoms that suggest nutrient deficiencies.

  19. Transcriptome Sequencing Identifies SPL7-Regulated Copper Acquisition Genes FRO4/FRO5 and the Copper Dependence of Iron Homeostasis in Arabidopsis[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, María; Casero, David; Singh, Vasantika; Wilson, Grandon T.; Grande, Arne; Yang, Huijun; Dodani, Sheel C.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Huijser, Peter; Connolly, Erin L.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Krämer, Ute

    2012-01-01

    The transition metal copper (Cu) is essential for all living organisms but is toxic when present in excess. To identify Cu deficiency responses comprehensively, we conducted genome-wide sequencing-based transcript profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type plants and of a mutant defective in the gene encoding SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE7 (SPL7), which acts as a transcriptional regulator of Cu deficiency responses. In response to Cu deficiency, FERRIC REDUCTASE OXIDASE5 (FRO5) and FRO4 transcript levels increased strongly, in an SPL7-dependent manner. Biochemical assays and confocal imaging of a Cu-specific fluorophore showed that high-affinity root Cu uptake requires prior FRO5/FRO4-dependent Cu(II)-specific reduction to Cu(I) and SPL7 function. Plant iron (Fe) deficiency markers were activated in Cu-deficient media, in which reduced growth of the spl7 mutant was partially rescued by Fe supplementation. Cultivation in Cu-deficient media caused a defect in root-to-shoot Fe translocation, which was exacerbated in spl7 and associated with a lack of ferroxidase activity. This is consistent with a possible role for a multicopper oxidase in Arabidopsis Fe homeostasis, as previously described in yeast, humans, and green algae. These insights into root Cu uptake and the interaction between Cu and Fe homeostasis will advance plant nutrition, crop breeding, and biogeochemical research. PMID:22374396

  20. Supplementation with zinc in rats enhances memory and reverses an age-dependent increase in plasma copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandusky-Beltran, Leslie A; Manchester, Bryce L; McNay, Ewan C

    2017-08-30

    Zinc and copper are essential trace elements. Dyshomeostasis in these two metals has been observed in Alzheimer's disease, which causes profound cognitive impairment. Insulin therapy has been shown to enhance cognitive performance; however, recent data suggest that this effect may be at least in part due to the inclusion of zinc in the insulin formulation used. Zinc plays a key role in regulation of neuronal glutamate signaling, suggesting a possible link between zinc and memory processes. Consistent with this, zinc deficiency causes cognitive impairments in children. The effect of zinc supplementation on short- and long-term recognition memory, and on spatial working memory, was explored in young and adult male Sprague Dawley rats. After behavioral testing, hippocampal and plasma zinc and copper were measured. Age increased hippocampal zinc and copper, as well as plasma copper, and decreased plasma zinc. An interaction between age and treatment affecting plasma copper was also found, with zinc supplementation reversing elevated plasma copper concentration in adult rats. Zinc supplementation enhanced cognitive performance across tasks. These data support zinc as a plausible therapeutic intervention to ameliorate cognitive impairment in disorders characterized by alterations in zinc and copper, such as Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. COMMD1 is linked to the WASH complex and regulates endosomal trafficking of the copper transporter ATP7A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Krawczak, Christine A; Singla, Amika; Starokadomskyy, Petro; Deng, Zhihui; Osborne, Douglas G; Li, Haiying; Dick, Christopher J; Gomez, Timothy S; Koenecke, Megan; Zhang, Jin-San; Dai, Haiming; Sifuentes-Dominguez, Luis F; Geng, Linda N; Kaufmann, Scott H; Hein, Marco Y; Wallis, Mathew; McGaughran, Julie; Gecz, Jozef; Sluis, Bart van de; Billadeau, Daniel D; Burstein, Ezra

    2015-01-01

    COMMD1 deficiency results in defective copper homeostasis, but the mechanism for this has remained elusive. Here we report that COMMD1 is directly linked to early endosomes through its interaction with a protein complex containing CCDC22, CCDC93, and C16orf62. This COMMD/CCDC22/CCDC93 (CCC) complex interacts with the multisubunit WASH complex, an evolutionarily conserved system, which is required for endosomal deposition of F-actin and cargo trafficking in conjunction with the retromer. Interactions between the WASH complex subunit FAM21, and the carboxyl-terminal ends of CCDC22 and CCDC93 are responsible for CCC complex recruitment to endosomes. We show that depletion of CCC complex components leads to lack of copper-dependent movement of the copper transporter ATP7A from endosomes, resulting in intracellular copper accumulation and modest alterations in copper homeostasis in humans with CCDC22 mutations. This work provides a mechanistic explanation for the role of COMMD1 in copper homeostasis and uncovers additional genes involved in the regulation of copper transporter recycling.

  2. 21 CFR 73.1125 - Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (chlorophyllin-copper complex). 73.1125 Section 73.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT....1125 Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin is a green to black powder obtained from chlorophyll...

  3. 21 CFR 73.2125 - Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). 73.2125 Section 73.2125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 73.2125 Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity...

  4. Testing Corrosion Inhibitors for the Conservation of Archaeological Copper and Copper Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Faltermeier

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a synopsis of the Ph.D. research undertaken at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London. The aim was to evaluate corrosion inhibitors for use in the conservation of copper and copper alloy archaeological artefacts. The objective of this work was to acquire an insight into the performance of copper corrosion inhibitors, when applied to archaeological copper.

  5. The link between copper and Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, Rupert

    2013-01-01

    Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism leading to copper accumulation in the liver and extrahepatic organs such as the brain and cornea. Patients may present with combinations of hepatic, neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Copper is the therapeutic target for the treatment of Wilson's disease. But how did copper come to be linked with Wilson's disease? The answer encompasses a study of enzootic neonatal ataxia in lambs in the 1930s, the copper-chelating properties of British Anti-Lewisite, and the chemical analysis for copper of the organs of deceased Wilson's disease patients in the mid-to-late 1940s. Wilson's disease is one of a number of copper-related disorders where loss of copper homeostasis as a result of genetic, nutritional or environmental factors affects human health.

  6. Determination of copper in clarified apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Kröppl, Michaela; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2010-03-24

    Inorganic copper compounds are not considered as synthetic fertilizers for apple trees as they are traditional fertilizers. Thus, they are used in organic farming for soil or foliar applications. The European Union is for health reasons interested in reducing copper in apple orchards. Because the fertilizer application rate affects the nutrition of apples, the applied copper might also be reflected in the copper concentration of apple juices. Thus, the determination of copper is of concern for investigating the application of copper-containing fertilizers. Samples of clarified apple juice commercially available in the European market were analyzed for their copper content. Prior to quantification by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, the juices were processed by a microwave-assisted digestion system using HNO(3). All samples were also measured directly after dilution with HNO(3). The copper concentrations measured using both methods were all below the limit of detection (17 microg/L).

  7. Synthesis of aminoarenethiolato-copper(I) complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperotto, E.; van Klink, G.P.M.; van Koten, G.

    2008-01-01

    Copper(I)-mediated reactions have recently become the choice for large industrial scale applications, since copper is environmentally friendly and cheaper than other transition metals already explored. However, most organocopper compounds still present several limitations including the sensitivity t

  8. Global assessment of undiscovered copper resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Deposits, prospects, and permissive tracts for porphyry and sediment-hosted copper resources worldwide, with estimates of undiscovered copper resources. pCu_tracts...

  9. EFFECT OF COPPER ON PASSIVITY AND CORROSION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-30

    Jun 30, 2014 ... metallic copper enriched on the surface film of austenitic stainless ... Dispersed inclusions of this phase can influence the stability of .... two microstructures showed that copper concentration possessed a non-uniform chemical.

  10. Copper tolerance and virulence in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladomersky, Erik; Petris, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for all aerobic organisms. It functions as a cofactor in enzymes that catalyze a wide variety of redox reactions due to its ability to cycle between two oxidation states, Cu(I) and Cu(II). This same redox property of copper has the potential to cause toxicity if copper homeostasis is not maintained. Studies suggest that the toxic properties of copper are harnessed by the innate immune system of the host to kill bacteria. To counter such defenses, bacteria rely on copper tolerance genes for virulence within the host. These discoveries suggest bacterial copper intoxication is a component of host nutritional immunity, thus expanding our knowledge of the roles of copper in biology. This review summarizes our current understanding of copper tolerance in bacteria, and the extent to which these pathways contribute to bacterial virulence within the host. PMID:25652326

  11. Preparation of Pure Copper Powder from Acidic Copper Chloride Waste Etchant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The method for the recycling of copper from copper chloride solution was developed. This process consists of extraction of copper, purification and particle size reduction. In the first step, reductive metal scraps were added to acidic copper chloride waste enchants produced in the PCB industry to obtain copper powder.Composition analysis showed that this powder contained impurities such as Fe, Ni, and water. So, drying and purification were carried out by using microwave and a centrifugal separator. Thereby the copper powder had a purity of higher than 99% and spherical form in morphology. The copper powder size was decreased by ball milling.

  12. Molecular Characterization of CTR-type Copper Transporters in an Oceanic Diatom, Thalassiosira oceanica 1005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, L.; Price, N. M.

    2016-02-01

    Copper is an essential micronutrient for phytoplankton growth because of its role as a redox cofactor in electron transfer proteins in photosynthesis and respiration, and a potentially limiting resource in parts of the open sea. Thalassiosira oceanica 1005 can grow at inorganic copper concentrations varying from 10 fmol/L to 10 nmol/L by regulating copper uptake across plasma membrane. Four putative CTR-type copper transporter genes (ToCTR1, ToCTR2, ToCTR3.1 and ToCTR3.2) were identified by BLASTP search against the T. oceanica genome. Predicted gene models were revised by assembled mRNA sequencing transcripts and updated gene models contained all conserved features of characterized CTR-type copper transporters. ToCTR3.1 and ToCTR3.2 may arise from one another by gene duplication as they shared a sequence similarity of 97.6% with a peptide insertion of 5 amino acids at N-terminus of ToCTR3.1. The expression of ToCTR1, ToCTR2 and ToCTR3.1/3.2 was upregulated in low copper concentrations, but only ToCTR3.1/3.2 showed a significant increase (2.5 fold) in copper-starved cells. Both ToCTR3.1 and ToCTR3.2 restored growth of a yeast double mutant, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ctr1Δctr3Δ, in copper deficient medium. GFP-fused ToCTR expression showed that some ToCTR3.1 localized to the plasma membrane but a large portion was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. Inefficient targeting of ToCTR3.1 to the yeast outer membrane may explain poorer growth compared to the Saccharomyces native ScCTR1 transformant. Thus, diatom CTR genes encoding CTR-type copper transporters show high-affinity copper uptake and their regulation may enable diatoms to survive in ocean environments containing a wide range of copper concentrations.

  13. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Jane; Pedley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world and disproportionately affects women and children. Stages of iron deficiency can be characterized as mild deficiency where iron stores become depleted, marginal deficiency where the production of many iron-dependent proteins is compromised but hemoglobin levels are normal and iron deficiency anemia where synthesis of hemoglobin is decreased and oxygen transport to the tissues is reduced. Iron deficiency anemia is usually assessed by measuring hemoglobin levels but this approach lacks both specificity and sensitivity. Failure to identify and treat earlier stages of iron deficiency is concerning given the neurocognitive implications of iron deficiency without anemia. Most of the daily iron requirement is derived from recycling of senescent erythrocytes by macrophages; only 5-10 % comes from the diet. Iron absorption is affected by inhibitors and enhancers of iron absorption and by the physiological state. Inflammatory conditions, including obesity, can result in iron being retained in the enterocytes and macrophages causing hypoferremia as a strategic defense mechanism to restrict iron availability to pathogens. Premenopausal women usually have low iron status because of iron loss in menstrual blood. Conditions which further increase iron loss, compromise absorption or increase demand, such as frequent blood donation, gastrointestinal lesions, athletic activity and pregnancy, can exceed the capacity of the gastrointestinal tract to upregulate iron absorption. Women of reproductive age are at particularly high risk of iron deficiency and its consequences however there is a controversial argument that evolutionary pressures have resulted in an iron deficient phenotype which protects against infection.

  14. Iodine deficiency in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delange, F

    1995-01-18

    Iodine is a trace element present in the human body in minute amounts (15-20 mg in adults, i.e. 0.0285 x 10(-3)% of body weight). The only confirmed function of iodine is to constitute an essential substrate for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, tetraiodothyronine, thyroxine or T4 and triiodothyronine, T3 (1). In thyroxine, iodine is 60% by weight. Thyroid hormones, in turn, play a decisive role in the metabolism of all cells of the organism (2) and in the process of early growth and development of most organs, especially of the brain (3). Brain development in humans occurs from fetal life up to the third postnatal year (4). Consequently, a deficit in iodine and/or in thyroid hormones occurring during this critical period of life will result not only in the slowing down of the metabolic activities of all the cells of the organism but also in irreversible alterations in the development of the brain. The clinical consequence will be mental retardation (5). When the physiological requirements of iodine are not met in a given population, a series of functional and developmental abnormalities occur (Table 1), including thyroid function abnormalities and, when iodine deficiency is severe, endemic goiter and cretinism, endemic mental retardation, decreased fertility rate, increased perinatal death, and infant mortality. These complications, which constitute an hindrance to the development of the affected population, are grouped under the general heading of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, IDD (6). Broad geographic areas exist in which the population is affected by IDD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Coating of a steel wire with copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, K. N.; Dubskii, G. A.; Nefed'ev, A. A.; Derevyanko, D. V.

    2016-03-01

    The process of coating of a steel wire with liquid copper at a high speed (>1 m/s) is considered. The results of long-term studies of copperizing under laboratory conditions and electron-microscopic investigation of the copper-steel adhesion are used to develop a mathematical model for coating of a steel wire with copper and to create a commercial setup to implement this process.

  16. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Wu; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Hille Fieten

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper me...

  17. 49 CFR 192.279 - Copper pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copper pipe. 192.279 Section 192.279... Copper pipe. Copper pipe may not be threaded except that copper pipe used for joining screw fittings or... heavier wall pipe listed in Table C1 of ASME/ANSI B16.5. [Amdt. 192-62, 54 FR 5628, Feb. 6, 1989, as...

  18. Modulation of tau phosphorylation by environmental copper

    OpenAIRE

    Voss, Kellen; Harris, Christopher; Ralle, Martina; Duffy, Megan; Murchison, Charles; Joseph F. Quinn

    2014-01-01

    Background The transition metal copper enhances amyloid β aggregation and neurotoxicity, and in models of concomitant amyloid and tau pathology, copper also promotes tau aggregation. Since it is not clear if the effects of environmental copper upon tau pathology are dependent on the presence of pathological amyloid β, we tested the effects of copper overload and complexing in disease models which lack pathological amyloid β. Methods We used cell culture and transgenic murine models to test th...

  19. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Wu; Leegwater, Peter A.J.; Hille Fieten

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper me...

  20. Hematological Disorders following Gastric Bypass Surgery: Emerging Concepts of the Interplay between Nutritional Deficiency and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyi Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and the associated metabolic syndrome are among the most common and detrimental metabolic diseases of the modern era, affecting over 50% of the adult population in the United States. Surgeries designed to promote weight loss, known as bariatric surgery, typically involve a gastric bypass procedure and have shown high success rates for treating morbid obesity. However, following gastric bypass surgery, many patients develop chronic anemia, most commonly due to iron deficiency. Deficiencies of vitamins B1, B12, folate, A, K, D, and E and copper have also been reported after surgery. Copper deficiency can cause hematological abnormalities with or without neurological complications. Despite oral supplementation and normal serum concentrations of iron, copper, folate, and vitamin B12, some patients present with persistent anemia after surgery. The evaluation of hematologic disorders after gastric bypass surgery must take into account issues unique to the postsurgery setting that influence the development of anemia and other cytopenias. In this paper, the clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis of the hematological disorders associated with gastric bypass surgery are reviewed, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are discussed.

  1. Tensile behavior of nanocrystalline copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, P.G.; Weertman, J.R. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Eastman, J.A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science Div.

    1995-11-01

    High density nanocrystalline copper produced by inert gas condensation was tested in tension. Displacements were measured using foil strain gauges, which greatly improved the accuracy of the strain data. The Young`s modulus of nanocrystalline copper was found to be consistent with that of coarse-grained copper. Total elongations of {approx} 1% were observed in samples with grain sizes less than 50 nm, while a sample with a grain size of 110 nm exhibited more than 10% elongation, perhaps signifying a change to a dislocation-based deformation mechanism in the larger-grained material. In addition, tensile tests were performed as a function of strain rate, with a possible trend of decreased strength and increased elongation as the strain rate was decreased.

  2. Monitoring copper in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, J M

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring copper metabolism in patients with Wilson's disease is not an exact science. At present, there are no simple methods of estimating the total body load of this metal. Indirect methods must therefore be used. A survey of the current literature shows that most approaches rely on the determination of blood and urine copper concentration. Both these should decrease with treatment. In parallel with decreased copper concentration, there should be subsequent improvement in more routine laboratory tests including liver and renal function, blood count parameters, and clotting factors. Lack of compliance is revealed by a reversal of this trend. This chapter critically reviews current testing methods and describes other approaches that may be helpful.

  3. Mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaz, P.; Takacs, L.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2002-01-01

    The mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide with iron was induced in a Fritsch P-6 planetary mill, using WC vial filled with argon and WC balls. Samples milled for specific intervals were analyzed by XRD and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Most of the reaction takes place during the first 10 min...... of milling and only FeS and Cu are found after 60 min. The main chemical process is accompanied by phase transformations of the sulfide phases as a result of milling. Djurleite partially transformed to chalcocite and a tetragonal copper sulfide phase before reduction. The cubic modification of FeS was formed...... first, transforming to hexagonal during the later stages of the process. The formation of off-stoichiometric phases and the release of some elemental sulfur by copper sulfide are also probable....

  4. Copper tolerance of Trichoderma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Petrović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Trichoderma strains can persist in ecosystems with high concentrations of heavy metals. The aim of this research was to examine the variability of Trichoderma strains isolated from different ecosystems, based on their morphological properties and restriction analysis of ITS fragments. The fungal growth was tested on potato dextrose agar, amended with Cu(II concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 10 mmol/l, in order to identify copper-resistant strains. The results indicate that some isolated strains of Trichoderma sp. show tolerance to higher copper concentrations. Further research to examine the ability of copper bioaccumulation by tolerant Trichoderma strains is needed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31080 i br. III 43010

  5. LIWU Copper Plans to Get Listed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to recently-released "Notice con-cerning Environmental Protection Checks for IPO of Sichuan LIWU Copper Co., Ltd.", Sichuan LIWU Copper Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as LIWU Copper) plans to issue 68 million shares, and all the funds raised will be

  6. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074236539; Fieten, Hille|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314112596

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurolog

  7. Extra-Hepatic Storage of Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Damsgaard, Else; Horn, N.

    1975-01-01

    The distribution of copper among the organs of an aborted, male foetus, expected to develop Menkes' syndrome, was entirely different from the distribution in 4 normal foetuses. Copper concentrations determined by neutron activation analysis showed a considerably reduced content in the liver......, but increased concentrations in the other organs analysed; total foetal copper was normal....

  8. Quanwei Copper Processing Base Put Into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Quanwei (Tongling) Copper Co.,Ltd’s copper processing base in Tongling of Anhui Province has been put into operation at the end of De- cember last year. It is reported that the copper processing project, invested by Zhengwei (Shenzhen) Technology

  9. Study on copper adsorption on olivine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The copper adsorption on olivine supplied by A/S Olivine production plant at Aheim in western Norway has been studied. The factors which affect the uptake of copper have been evaluated. The results reveal that the equilibrium pH in aqueous solution has the greatest influence on the copper adsorption thanks to the competitive adsorption between proton and copper ions, and the adsorption of copper to olivine increases rapidly with the pH increasing from 4 to 6. The initial copper concentration and olivine dose also possess significant effect on copper adsorption. The adsorption efficieny of copper increases with the increase of olivine dose or the decrease of initial copper concentration at the same pH. The ionic strength effect on the adsorption has also been investigated, but it owns little effect on the adsorption process of copper due to the formation of inner sphere surface complexation of copper on olivine. The experimental data show that olivine has a high acid buffer capacity and is an effective adsorbent for copper.

  10. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A J; Fieten, Hille

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurolog

  11. Preparation of Copper-loaded Microcapsule Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Jalšenjak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel copper-loaded chitosan or chitosan/alginate based microcapsules formulations have been presented. It was shown that prolonged release of copper from microcapsules accompanied with possible prolonged presence of copper on leaves is useful in crop protection.

  12. Preparation of Copper-loaded Microcapsule Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Jalšenjak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel copper-loaded chitosan or chitosan/alginate based microcapsules formulations have been presented. It was shown that prolonged release of copper from microcapsules accompanied with possible prolonged presence of copper on leaves is useful in crop protection.

  13. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A J; Fieten, Hille

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and

  14. Copper coating specification for the RHIC arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2010-12-01

    Copper coating specifications for the RHIC arcs are given. Various upgrade scenarios are considered and calculations of resistive wall losses in the arcs are used to constrain the necessary quality and surface thickness of a copper coating. We find that 10 {mu}m of high purity copper will suffice.

  15. Iron deficiency anemia in children

    OpenAIRE

    Pochinok, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    In the article the role of iron in the human body is highlighted. The mechanism of development of iron deficiency states, their consequences and the basic principles of diagnosis and correction of children of different ages are shown.Key words: children, iron deficiency anemia, treatment.

  16. Iron deficiency and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Haehling, Stephan; Jankowska, Ewa A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency affects up to one-third of the world's population, and is particularly common in elderly individuals and those with certain chronic diseases. Iron excess can be detrimental in cardiovascular illness, and research has now also brought anaemia and iron deficiency into the focus of card

  17. Newborn screening for MCAD deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, Gabriella A; Davidson, A G F; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia G

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (MCAD) Deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation, with potential fatal outcome. MCAD deficiency is diagnosed by acylcarnitine analysis on newborn screening blood spot cards by tandem mass spectrometry. Early diagnosis of ...

  18. Distribution of Copper in Rats Submitted to Treatment With Copper Aspirinate

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, Weiping; Yang, Yikun; Xiong, Huizhou; Lu, Ying; Yang, Rong

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of copper in Sprague – Dawley rats following a three month oral administration of 0,10 or 50mg/kg copper aspirinate has been investigated. Metal content was determined by ICP – AES in blood, brain, kidney, liver, lung, spleen, and dejection. The results show that treatment with copper aspirinate did not cause accumulation of copper in rats and excess ingested copper was excreted through feces.

  19. Chinalco Straightened Out Copper Assets, and Delegated Stock Equity of Yunnan Copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Immediately after the news that Chinalco transferred 58%stock equity of Yunnan Copper Group to its wholly-owned subsidiary China Copper Corporation Limited free of charge was disclosed on July 9,many individual investors couldn’t help but to think:Does it mean China Copper Corporation Limited will assemble assets for overall listing?At present,among main copper business companies under China Copper Corporation

  20. A copper vapor laser by using a copper-vapor-complex reaction at a low temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Kano, Toshiyuki; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    A copper vapor laser performance by using ametal-vapor-complex reaction (Cu+AlBr3) is reported. The laser operation is obtained at a low temperature without externalheating because of the AlBr3 vapors evaporating at a room temperature. The copper vapor laser using this metal-vapor-complex reaction has an advantage of deposition-free of a metallic copper to the laser tube wall, which is different from the copper halide and the organometallic copper lasers.

  1. Iron deficiency anemia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Girish; Girish, Meenakshi

    2015-06-01

    Iron deficiency is not just anemia; it can be responsible for a long list of other manifestations. This topic is of great importance, especially in infancy and early childhood, for a variety of reasons. Firstly, iron need is maximum in this period. Secondly, diet in infancy is usually deficient in iron. Thirdly and most importantly, iron deficiency at this age can result in neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits, which may not be reversible. Hypochromia and microcytosis in a complete blood count (CBC) makes iron deficiency anemia (IDA) most likely diagnosis. Absence of response to iron should make us look for other differential diagnosis like β thalassemia trait and anemia of chronic disease. Celiac disease is the most important cause of true IDA not responding to oral iron therapy. While oral ferrous sulphate is the cheapest and most effective therapy for IDA, simple nonpharmacological and pharmacological measures can go a long way in prevention of iron deficiency.

  2. How do copper contamination pulses shape the regime shifts of phytoplankton-zooplankton dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, B. I.; Yamapi, R.; Mokrani, H.

    2017-07-01

    The presence of pollutants in waters, particularly from heavy metals, is of grave concern worldwide due to its cytotoxicity to organisms. Fish and aquatic organisms are very sensitive to the increasing Cu concentrations in water. Therefore, Cu toxicity partly depends on water quality. To address the effects of impulsive copper contamination of the phytoplankton-zooplankton population dynamics, we've built a model that focuses on the interaction between algae and Daphnia with deterministic and stochastic impulse copper. In fact the Results have shown three types of outcomes depending on copper concentration. In low (4.4 μgL-1) copper concentration, deterministic and stochastic pulses may promote the persistence of Daphnia and algae populations unlike the absence of pulses. Whereas, in high (28 μgL-1) concentration, it accelerates deficiency and toxicity processes, leads to the extinction of all populations and in intermediate concentrations. Deterministic and stochastic pulses may transform population dynamics in complex oscillations. Numerical results show that the system that has been considered has more complex dynamics including bifurcation, period-doubling oscillations and chaos. Depending on minimum copper concentration in the environment, the bifurcation diagram has highlighted the resilience or the regime shifts of the system in occurrence of pulse contamination.

  3. Electrochemical nucleation and growth of copper and copper alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wenbo

    This dissertation aims to contribute to a fundamental understanding of the physicochemical processes occurring in electrochemical nucleation and growth. To this end, the effects of various anions (chloride (Cl-), sulfate (SO42-) and sulfamate (NH2SO 3-)) on the electrochemical kinetics and the mechanism of copper reduction, as well as on the microstructure of the resulting films, were studied. On the basis of this work, the deposition of copper alloys (Cu-Ag with positive heat of mixing, Cu-Au with negative heat of mixing) was investigated with the main objective to achieve an insight on the role of solid state thermodynamics on the electrocrystallization process. Chloride ions cause two competing effects: at low chloride concentration the formation of an adsorbed chloride layer introduces an additional reaction pathway, resulting in an overall depolarization of the reduction process with no significant change of the Tafel slope. At high chloride concentration, complexation phenomena induce a cathodic polarization of the deposition process and a decrease in the Tafel slope. Chlorides cause a decrease in the density and an increased size of copper nuclei. Sulfamate depolarizes copper reduction the most and results in the largest nucleus density. Chloride promotes the faceting, and dendritic growth of copper deposits along direction by introducing interfacial anisotropy. Addition of Ag in the solution or in the electrode substrate enhances copper deposition and results in an additional reduction peak. Codeposition of Cu-Ag increases nucleus density and decreases nucleus size. Such enhancement of copper deposition, the increase in nucleus density and the decrease in nucleus size by Ag could be due to the continued formation of a surface alloy of Cu-Ag and the fast interface dynamics of Ag deposition. Cu can be underpotentially codeposited in the Cu-Au alloy. Homogeneous solid solutions are grown under conditions of underpotential deposition of Cu, while precipitation

  4. A functional screen for copper homeostasis genes identifies a pharmacologically tractable cellular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlecht, Ulrich; Suresh, Sundari; Xu, Weihong; Aparicio, Ana Maria; Chu, Angela; Proctor, Michael J; Davis, Ronald W; Scharfe, Curt; St Onge, Robert P

    2014-04-05

    Copper is essential for the survival of aerobic organisms. If copper is not properly regulated in the body however, it can be extremely cytotoxic and genetic mutations that compromise copper homeostasis result in severe clinical phenotypes. Understanding how cells maintain optimal copper levels is therefore highly relevant to human health. We found that addition of copper (Cu) to culture medium leads to increased respiratory growth of yeast, a phenotype which we then systematically and quantitatively measured in 5050 homozygous diploid deletion strains. Cu's positive effect on respiratory growth was quantitatively reduced in deletion strains representing 73 different genes, the function of which identify increased iron uptake as a cause of the increase in growth rate. Conversely, these effects were enhanced in strains representing 93 genes. Many of these strains exhibited respiratory defects that were specifically rescued by supplementing the growth medium with Cu. Among the genes identified are known and direct regulators of copper homeostasis, genes required to maintain low vacuolar pH, and genes where evidence supporting a functional link with Cu has been heretofore lacking. Roughly half of the genes are conserved in man, and several of these are associated with Mendelian disorders, including the Cu-imbalance syndromes Menkes and Wilson's disease. We additionally demonstrate that pharmacological agents, including the approved drug disulfiram, can rescue Cu-deficiencies of both environmental and genetic origin. A functional screen in yeast has expanded the list of genes required for Cu-dependent fitness, revealing a complex cellular system with implications for human health. Respiratory fitness defects arising from perturbations in this system can be corrected with pharmacological agents that increase intracellular copper concentrations.

  5. Electrochemical behaviour of alkaline copper complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C L Aravinda; S M Mayanna; V R Muralidharan

    2000-10-01

    A search for non-cyanide plating baths for copper resulted in the development of alkaline copper complex baths containing trisodium citrate [TSC] and triethanolamine [TEA]. Voltammetric studies were carried out on platinum to understand the electrochemical behaviour of these complexes. In TSC solutions, the deposition of copper involves the slow formation of a monovalent species. Adsorption of this species obeys Langmuir isotherm. In TEA solutions the deposition involves the formation of monovalent ions obeying the non-activated Temkin isotherm. Conversion of divalent to monovalent copper is also slow. In TEA and TSC alkaline copper solutions, the predominant species that undergo stepwise reduction contain only TEA ligands

  6. Genetics Home Reference: protein C deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Genetic Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Thrombophilia, hereditary, due to protein C deficiency, autosomal dominant ... my area? Other Names for This Condition hereditary thrombophilia due to protein C deficiency PROC deficiency Related ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: glutathione synthetase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions glutathione synthetase deficiency glutathione synthetase deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Glutathione synthetase deficiency is a disorder that prevents the ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: GLUT1 deficiency syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions GLUT1 deficiency syndrome GLUT1 deficiency syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description GLUT1 deficiency syndrome is a disorder affecting the nervous ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: familial HDL deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions familial HDL deficiency familial HDL deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Familial HDL deficiency is a condition characterized by low levels ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic Testing (4 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Ateleiotic dwarfism Genetic Testing Registry: Autosomal dominant isolated somatotropin deficiency ... in my area? Other Names for This Condition dwarfism, growth hormone deficiency dwarfism, pituitary growth hormone deficiency ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: lactate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions lactate dehydrogenase deficiency lactate dehydrogenase deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency is a condition that affects how the ...

  12. Crystallization of copper metaphosphate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Byeong-Soo; Weinberg, Michael C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the valence state of copper in copper metaphosphate glass on the crystallization behavior and glass transition temperature has been investigated. The crystallization of copper metaphosphate is initiated from the surface and its main crystalline phase is copper metaphosphate (Cu(PO)3),independent of the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu(total)). However, the crystal morphology, the relative crystallization rates, and their temperature dependences are affected by the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu (total)) ratio in the glass. On the other hand, the totally oxidized glass crystallizes from all over the surface. The relative crystallization rate of the reduced glass to the totally oxidized glass is large at low temperature, but small at high temperature. The glass transition temperature of the glass increases as the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu(total)) ratio is raised. It is also found that the atmosphere used during heat treatment does not influence the crystallization of the reduced glass, except for the formation of a very thin CuO surface layer when heated in air.

  13. Spectroscopic studies of copper enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, D.M.; Moog, R.; Zumft, W.; Koenig, S.H.; Scott, R.A.; Cote, C.E.; McGuirl, M.

    1986-05-01

    Several spectroscopic methods, including absorption, circular dichroism (CD), magnetic CD (MCD), X-ray absorption, resonance Raman, EPR, NMR, and quasi-elastic light-scattering spectroscopy, have been used to probe the structures of copper-containing amine oxidases, nitrite reductase, and nitrous oxide reductase. The basic goals are to determine the copper site structure, electronic properties, and to generate structure-reactivity correlations. Collectively, the results on the amine oxidases permit a detailed model for the Cu(II) sites in these enzymes to be constructed that, in turn, rationalizes the ligand-binding chemistry. Resonance Raman spectra of the phenylhydrazine and 2,4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine derivatives of bovine plasma amine oxidase and models for its organic cofactor, e.g. pyridoxal, methoxatin, are most consistent with methoxatin being the intrinsic cofactor. The structure of the Cu(I) forms of the amine oxidases have been investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS); the copper coordination geometry is significantly different in the oxidized and reduced forms. Some anomalous properties of the amine oxidases in solution are explicable in terms of their reversible aggregation, which the authors have characterized via light scattering. Nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases display several novel spectral properties. The data suggest that new types of copper sites are present.

  14. Copper complexes as chemical nucleases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhil R Chakravarty; Pattubala A N Reddy; Bidyut K Santra; Anitha M Thomas

    2002-08-01

    Redox active mononuclear and binuclear copper(II) complexes have been prepared and structurally characterized. The complexes have planar N-donor heterocyclic bases like 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), dipyridoquinoxaline (dpq) and dipyridophenazine (dppz) ligands that are suitable for intercalation to B-DNA. Complexes studied for nuclease activity have the formulations [Cu(dpq)2(H2O)] (ClO4)2.H2O (1), [{CuL(H2O)}2(-ox)](ClO4)2 (L = bpy, 2; phen, 3; dpq, 4; and dppz, 5) and [Cu(L)(salgly)] (L = bpy, 6; phen, 7; dpq, 8; and dppz, 9), where salgly is a tridentate Schiff base obtained from the condensation of glycine and salicylaldehyde. The dpq complexes are efficient DNA binding and cleavage active species. The dppz complexes show good binding ability but poor nuclease activity. The cleavage activity of the bis-dpq complex is significantly higher than the bis-phen complex of copper(II). The nuclease activity is found to be dependent on the intercalating nature of the complex and on the redox potential of the copper(II)/copper(I) couple. The ancillary ligand plays a significant role in binding and cleavage activity.

  15. Copper proteomes, phylogenetics and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaria, Leonardo; Bertini, Ivano; Williams, Robert J P

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of our study of the connection between the changing environment and the changing use of particular elements in organisms in the course of their combined evolution (Decaria, Bertini and Williams, Metallomics, 2010, 2, 706). Here we treat the changes in copper proteins in historically the same increasingly oxidising environmental conditions. The study is a bioinformatic analysis of the types and the numbers of copper domains of proteins from 435 DNA sequences of a wide range of organisms available in NCBI, using the method developed by Andreini, Bertini and Rosato in Accounts of Chemical Research 2009, 42, 1471. The copper domains of greatest interest are found predominantly in copper chaperones, homeostatic proteins and redox enzymes mainly used outside the cytoplasm which are in themselves somewhat diverse. The multiplicity of these proteins is strongly marked. The contrasting use of the iron and heme iron proteins in oxidations, mostly in the cytoplasm, is compared with them and with activity of zinc fingers during evolution. It is shown that evolution is a coordinated development of the chemistry of elements with use of novel and multiple copies of their proteins as their availability rises in the environment.

  16. CopperCore Service Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogten, Hubert; Martens, Harrie; Nadolski, Rob; Tattersall, Colin; van Rosmalen, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    In an e-learning environment there is a need to integrate various e-learning services like assessment services, collaboration services, learning design services and communication services. In this article we present the design and implementation of a generic integrative service framework, called CopperCore Service Integration (CCSI). We will…

  17. Associations between serum C-reactive protein and serum zinc, ferritin, and copper in Guatemalan school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Vinh Q; Stein, Aryeh D; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Flores-Ayala, Rafael C; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Grant, Frederick K; Villalpando, Salvador; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2012-08-01

    Inflammation affects trace nutrient concentrations, but research on copper and particularly in children is limited. We assessed associations between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and zinc, iron, copper, and other biomarkers (alkaline phosphatase, hemoglobin, and albumin), in 634 healthy 6- to 11-year-old Guatemalan schoolchildren. CRP was measured by a standardized, high-sensitive method. For significant associations with CRP, we stratified nutrient concentrations across categories of CRP and compared concentrations above and below several CRP cutoff points (0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 10 mg/L), and then adjusted values using correction factors (ratios of geometric means of the nutrients in the low and high groups). Prevalence of serum zinc (ferritin (concentration was positively associated with ferritin and copper concentrations (r = 0.23 and 0.29, respectively; P 0.05). Regardless of CRP cutoffs, high (> cutoff) vs. low (≤ cutoff) CRP levels had higher ferritin and copper concentrations and lower prevalence of copper deficiency of ferritin prevalence hardly changed (from 2.1% to 2.5%) while the low copper prevalence changed appreciably (from 23.8% to 31.2%). In conclusion, CRP was positively associated with ferritin and copper but not with zinc concentrations. Adjustment for inflammation had little effect on low ferritin prevalence, low to begin with, and a large impact on low copper prevalence. High-sensitive CRP methods and the use of very low CRP cutoffs may be more accurate than traditional CRP methods in the adjustment of serum copper concentrations for inflammation in healthy school children.

  18. Iron deficiency and thrombocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbro, A; Volken, T; Buser, A; Sigle, J P; Halter, J P; Passweg, J R; Tichelli, A; Infanti, L

    2017-01-01

    According to many textbooks, iron deficiency (ID) is associated with reactive thrombocytosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between serum ferritin levels and platelet counts in a large cohort of healthy blood donors. We included all whole blood and apheresis donors aged 18 years or older with at least one ferritin measurement and one platelet count performed at the same visit between 1996 and 2014. A total of 130 345 blood counts and ferritin measurements obtained from 22 046 healthy donors were analysed. Overall, no correlation between serum ferritin and platelet count was observed (r = -0.03, ρ = 0.04 for males, and r = 0.01, ρ = -0.02 for females, respectively). Associations remained clinically negligible after adjusting for age, time since previous blood donation, number of donations and restricting the analysis to ferritin deciles. In this large, retrospective single-centre study, correlations between low ferritin and platelet count in a large and homogeneous cohort of healthy donors were negligible. Further studies in patients with more severe anaemia and patients with inflammation are warranted. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  19. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breymann, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Anemia is a common problem in obstetrics and perinatal care. Any hemoglobin below 10.5 g/dL can be regarded as true anemia regardless of gestational age. Reasons for anemia in pregnancy are mainly nutritional deficiencies, parasitic and bacterial diseases, and inborn red blood cell disorders such as thalassemias. The main cause of anemia in obstetrics is iron deficiency, which has a worldwide prevalence between estimated 20%-80% and consists of a primarily female population. Stages of iron deficiency are depletion of iron stores, iron-deficient erythropoiesis without anemia, and iron deficiency anemia, the most pronounced form of iron deficiency. Pregnancy anemia can be aggravated by various conditions such as uterine or placental bleedings, gastrointestinal bleedings, and peripartum blood loss. In addition to the general consequences of anemia, there are specific risks during pregnancy for the mother and the fetus such as intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, feto-placental miss ratio, and higher risk for peripartum blood transfusion. Besides the importance of prophylaxis of iron deficiency, the main therapy options for the treatment of pregnancy anemia are oral iron and intravenous iron preparations.

  20. Reactivity test between beryllium and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kato, M. [NGK Insulators, Ltd., Aichi-ken (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium has been expected for using as plasma facing material on ITER. And, copper alloy has been proposed as heat sink material behind plasma facing components. Therefore, both materials must be joined. However, the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper alloy does not clear in detail. For example, other authors reported that beryllium reacted with copper at high temperature, but it was not obvious about the generation of reaction products and increasing of the reaction layer. In the present work, from this point, for clarifying the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper, the out-of-pile compatibility tests were conducted with diffusion couples of beryllium and copper which were inserted in the capsule filled with high purity helium gas (6N). Annealing temperatures were 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700{degrees}C, and annealing periods were 100, 300 and 1000h. Beryllium specimens were hot pressed beryllium, and copper specimens were OFC (Oxygen Free Copper).

  1. Friction stir welding of copper alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shuhua; Liu Meng; Wang Deqing; Xu Zhenyue

    2007-01-01

    Copper plates,brass plates and copper/brass plates were friction stir welded with various parameters. Experimental results show that the microstructure of the weld is characterized by its much finer grains as contrasted with the coarse grains of parent materials and the heat-affected zones are very narrow. The microhardness of the copper weld is a little higher than that of parent plate. The microhardness of brass weld is about 25% higher than that of parent material. The tensile strength of copper joints increases with increasing welding speed in the test range. The range of parameters to obtain good welds for copper is much wider than that for brass. When different materials were welded, the position of copper plate before welding affected the quality of FSW joints. If the copper plate was put on the advancing side of weld, the good quality of weld could be got under proper parameters.

  2. Catastrophic Oxidation of Copper: A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, V. V.; Klimashin, A. A.

    2012-10-01

    A brief review of the current understanding of copper accelerated oxidation in the presence of low-melting oxides (Bi2O3, MoO3, and V2O5) is given. Special attention is paid to the kinetics, thermodynamics, and mechanisms of accelerated oxidation of copper. The mechanisms of two stages (fast and superfast) of the copper accelerated oxidation are considered. It is shown that the fast oxidation of copper occurs by a diffusion mechanism. Oxygen diffusion along the liquid channels in the oxide scale is the rate-limiting step in the overall mechanism. The superfast oxidation of copper occurs by a fluxing mechanism. Realization of the particular mechanism depends on the mass ratio of low-melting oxide to the metal. The mass ratios of low-melting oxide to the metal and the oxygen partial pressures for superfast oxidation of copper are established. A model of the fast oxidation of copper is discussed.

  3. Process Of Bonding Copper And Tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Kevin T.; Driemeyer, Daniel E.

    1999-11-23

    Process for bonding a copper substrate to a tungsten substrate by providing a thin metallic adhesion promoting film bonded to a tungsten substrate and a functionally graded material (FGM) interlayer bonding the thin metallic adhesion promoting film to the copper substrate. The FGM interlayer is formed by thermal plasma spraying mixtures of copper powder and tungsten powder in a varied blending ratio such that the blending ratio of the copper powder and the tungsten powder that is fed to a plasma torch is intermittently adjusted to provide progressively higher copper content/tungsten content, by volume, ratio values in the interlayer in a lineal direction extending from the tungsten substrate towards the copper substrate. The resulting copper to tungsten joint well accommodates the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials.

  4. Radiation resistance of copper alloys at high exposure levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, F.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Zinkle, S.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Copper alloys are currently being considered for high heat flux applications in fusion power devices. A review is presented of the results of two separate series of experiments on the radiation response of copper and copper alloys. One of these involved pure copper and boron-doped copper in the ORR mixed spectrum reactor. The other series included pure copper and a wide array of copper alloys irradiated in the FFTF fast reactor 16 refs., 13 figs.

  5. Abnormal Copper Homeostasis: Mechanisms and Roles in Neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Manto

    2014-01-01

    As a cofactor of proteins and enzymes involved in critical molecular pathways in mammals and low eukaryotes, copper is a transition metal essential for life. The intra-cellular and extra-cellular metabolism of copper is under tight control, in order to maintain free copper concentrations at very low levels. Copper is a critical element for major neuronal functions, and the central nervous system is a major target of disorders of copper metabolism. Both the accumulation of copper and copper d...

  6. Smelting chlorination method applied to removal of copper from copper slags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊; 王华; 胡建杭

    2015-01-01

    In order to reasonably utilize the iron resources of copper slags, the smelting chlorination process was used to remove copper from copper slags. Higher holding temperature and O2 flow rate are beneficial to increasing copper removal rate. However, the Cu2O mode is formed by the reaction of surplus O2 and CuCl with O2 flow rate increasing over 0.4 L/min, causing CuCl volatilization rate and copper removal rate to decrease. The resulting copper removal rate of 84.34%is obtained under the optimum conditions of holding temperature of 1573 K, residence time of 10 min, CaCl2 addition amount of 0.1 (mass ratio of CaCl2 and the copper slag) and oxygen flow rate of 0.4 L/min. The efficient removal of copper from copper slags through chlorination is feasible.

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 88 of 88 ... TI Bakare, AO Awotile, AO Loto, B Obisesan, A Oyapero ... Vol 2, No 2 (2009), Rupture of a Pregnant Uterus in a Primigravida: A Case ... Vol 1, No 1 (2008), Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting with Myeloneuropathy, Abstract.

  8. Mutations in COA6 cause cytochrome c oxidase deficiency and neonatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertling, Fabian; A M van den Brand, Mariel; Hertecant, Jozef L; Al-Shamsi, Aisha; P van den Heuvel, Lambert; Distelmaier, Felix; Mayatepek, Ertan; Smeitink, Jan A; Nijtmans, Leo G J; Rodenburg, Richard J T

    2015-01-01

    COA6/C1ORF31 is involved in cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) biogenesis. We present a new pathogenic COA6 variant detected in a patient with neonatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and isolated complex IV deficiency. For the first time, clinical details about a COA6-deficient patient are given and patient fibroblasts are functionally characterized: COA6 protein is undetectable and steady-state levels of complex IV and several of its subunits are reduced. The monomeric COX1 assembly intermediate accumulates. Using pulse-chase experiments, we demonstrate an increased turnover of mitochondrial encoded complex IV subunits. Although monomeric complex IV is decreased in patient fibroblasts, the CI/CIII2 /CIVn -supercomplexes remain unaffected. Copper supplementation shows a partial rescue of complex IV deficiency in patient fibroblasts. We conclude that COA6 is required for complex IV subunit stability. Furthermore, the proposed role in the copper delivery pathway to complex IV subunits is substantiated and a therapeutic lead for COA6-deficient patients is provided.

  9. Grain Refinement of Deoxidized Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balart, María José; Patel, Jayesh B.; Gao, Feng; Fan, Zhongyun

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the current status of grain refinement of copper accompanied in particular by a critical appraisal of grain refinement of phosphorus-deoxidized, high residual P (DHP) copper microalloyed with 150 ppm Ag. Some deviations exist in terms of the growth restriction factor ( Q) framework, on the basis of empirical evidence reported in the literature for grain size measurements of copper with individual additions of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 wt pct of Mo, In, Sn, Bi, Sb, Pb, and Se, cast under a protective atmosphere of pure Ar and water quenching. The columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) has been observed in copper, with an individual addition of 0.4B and with combined additions of 0.4Zr-0.04P and 0.4Zr-0.04P-0.015Ag and, in a previous study, with combined additions of 0.1Ag-0.069P (in wt pct). CETs in these B- and Zr-treated casts have been ascribed to changes in the morphology and chemistry of particles, concurrently in association with free solute type and availability. No further grain-refining action was observed due to microalloying additions of B, Mg, Ca, Zr, Ti, Mn, In, Fe, and Zn (~0.1 wt pct) with respect to DHP-Cu microalloyed with Ag, and therefore are no longer relevant for the casting conditions studied. The critical microalloying element for grain size control in deoxidized copper and in particular DHP-Cu is Ag.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary antithrombin deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Merck Manual Home Edition for Patients and Caregivers: Thrombophilia National Blood Clot Alliance: Antithrombin Deficiency Orphanet: Hereditary thrombophilia due to congenital antithrombin deficiency Patient Support and ...

  11. The copper metallome in prokaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, Christopher; McDevitt, Sylvia Franke

    2013-01-01

    As a trace element copper has an important role in cellular function like many other transition metals. Its ability to undergo redox changes [Cu(I) ↔ Cu(II)] makes copper an ideal cofactor in enzymes catalyzing electron transfers. However, this redox change makes copper dangerous for a cell since it is able to be involved in Fenton-like reactions creating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cu(I) also is a strong soft metal and can attack and destroy iron-sulfur clusters thereby releasing iron which can in turn cause oxidative stress. Therefore, copper homeostasis has to be highly balanced to ensure proper cellular function while avoiding cell damage.Throughout evolution bacteria and archaea have developed a highly regulated balance in copper metabolism. While for many prokaryotes copper uptake seems to be unspecific, others have developed highly sophisticated uptake mechanisms to ensure the availability of sufficient amounts of copper. Within the cytoplasm copper is sequestered by various proteins and molecules, including specific copper chaperones, to prevent cellular damage. Copper-containing proteins are usually located in the cytoplasmic membrane with the catalytic domain facing the periplasm, in the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria, or they are secreted, limiting the necessity of copper to accumulate in the cytoplasm. To prevent cellular damage due to excess copper, bacteria and archaea have developed various copper detoxification strategies. In this chapter we attempt to give an overview of the mechanisms employed by bacteria and archaea to handle copper and the importance of the metal for cellular function as well as in the global nutrient cycle.

  12. Variations of serum copper values in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukelić Jelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Copper is essential micronutrient and has an important role in the human body. The serum copper increases during pregnancy and is doubled at full term. Lower levels of serum copper in pregnancy are connected with some pathological conditions. Objective. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of serum copper in normal and pathological pregnancies, comparing them with values of serum copper in non-pregnant women, to determine if serum copper is lower in some pathological pregnancies and if this is of some importance. Methods. A total of 2170 plasma samples for copper analyses were made in the following groups: healthy non-pregnant women; healthy pregnant women from the 5th-40th gestational week, during the first delivery stage and during the first three postpartum weeks, in pregnant women with habitual abortion, imminent abortion, abortion in progress, missed abortion (9th-24th weeks, missed labour and premature rupture of membranes (29th-40th weeks. Levels of serum copper were determined by colorimetric technique of bathocuproin with disulphate as a chromogen. Results. Serum copper values in non-pregnant women range from 11.6-25.8 μmol/L. In healthy pregnant women, there is a constant trend of the increase of serum copper. The mean serum copper values revealed three significant peaks at the 22nd, 27th and 35th gestational week. Serum copper values in the patients with some pathological pregnancies in relation to the serum copper values of the healthy pregnant women were significantly lower. Conclusion. Serum copper values can be used as an indicator of some pathological pregnancies.

  13. Variations of serum copper values in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukelić, Jelka; Kapamadzija, Aleksandra; Petrović, Djordje; Grujić, Zorica; Novakov-Mikić, Aleksandra; Kopitović, Vesna; Bjelica, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Copper is essential micronutrient and has an important role in the human body. The serum copper increases during pregnancy and is doubled at full term. Lower levels of serum copper in pregnancy are connected with some pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of serum copper in normal and pathological pregnancies, comparing them with values of serum copper in non-pregnant women, to determine if serum copper is lower in some pathological pregnancies and if this is of some importance. A total of 2170 plasma samples for copper analyses were made in the following groups: healthy non-pregnant women; healthy pregnant women from the 5th-40th gestational week, during the first delivery stage and during the first three postpartum weeks, in pregnant women with habitual abortion, imminent abortion, abortion in progress, missed abortion (9th-24th weeks), missed labour and premature rupture of membranes (29th-40th weeks). Levels of serum copper were determined by colorimetric technique of bathocuproin with disulphate as a chromogen. Serum copper values in non-pregnant women range from 11.6-25.8 micromol/L. In healthy pregnant women, there is a constant trend of the increase of serum copper. The mean serum copper values revealed three significant peaks at the 22nd, 27th and 35th gestational week. Serum copper values in the patients with some pathological pregnancies in relation to the serum copper values of the healthy pregnant women were significantly lower. Serum copper values can be used as an indicator of some pathological pregnancies.

  14. Prenatal treatment of mosaic mice (Atp7a mo-ms) mouse model for Menkes disease, with copper combined by dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenartowicz, Małgorzata; Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Koteja, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    locomotor activity performance and a gain in body mass. In contrast to treatment with CuCl(2) alone, a significant increase in the amount of copper was observed in the brain after prenatal copper-DMDTC treatment as well as a decrease in the amount of accumulated copper in the kidney, both leading towards......Menkes disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder in infants caused by mutations in the gene ATP7A which encodes a copper (Cu) transporter. Defects in ATP7A lead to accumulated copper in the small intestine and kidneys and to copper deficiencies in the brain and the liver. The copper level...... in the kidney in postnatal copper-treated Menkes patients may reach toxic levels. The mouse model, mosaic Atp7a (mo-ms) recapitulates the Menkes phenotype and die about 15.75±1.5 days of age. In the present study we found that prenatal treatment of mosaic murine fetuses throughout gestation days 7, 11, 15...

  15. A Plasmodium falciparum copper-binding membrane protein with copper transport motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choveaux David L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copper is an essential catalytic co-factor for metabolically important cellular enzymes, such as cytochrome-c oxidase. Eukaryotic cells acquire copper through a copper transport protein and distribute intracellular copper using molecular chaperones. The copper chelator, neocuproine, inhibits Plasmodium falciparum ring-to-trophozoite transition in vitro, indicating a copper requirement for malaria parasite development. How the malaria parasite acquires or secretes copper still remains to be fully elucidated. Methods PlasmoDB was searched for sequences corresponding to candidate P. falciparum copper-requiring proteins. The amino terminal domain of a putative P. falciparum copper transport protein was cloned and expressed as a maltose binding fusion protein. The copper binding ability of this protein was examined. Copper transport protein-specific anti-peptide antibodies were generated in chickens and used to establish native protein localization in P. falciparum parasites by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results Six P. falciparum copper-requiring protein orthologs and a candidate P. falciparum copper transport protein (PF14_0369, containing characteristic copper transport protein features, were identified in PlasmoDB. The recombinant amino terminal domain of the transport protein bound reduced copper in vitro and within Escherichia coli cells during recombinant expression. Immunolocalization studies tracked the copper binding protein translocating from the erythrocyte plasma membrane in early ring stage to a parasite membrane as the parasites developed to schizonts. The protein appears to be a PEXEL-negative membrane protein. Conclusion Plasmodium falciparum parasites express a native protein with copper transporter characteristics that binds copper in vitro. Localization of the protein to the erythrocyte and parasite plasma membranes could provide a mechanism for the delivery of novel anti-malarial compounds.

  16. Accumulation and hyperaccumulation of copper in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, V.; Trnkova, L.; Huska, D.; Babula, P.; Kizek, R.

    2009-04-01

    Copper is natural component of our environment. Flow of copper(II) ions in the environment depends on solubility of compounds containing this metal. Mobile ion coming from soil and rocks due to volcanic activity, rains and others are then distributed to water. Bio-availability of copper is substantially lower than its concentration in the aquatic environment. Copper present in the water reacts with other compounds and creates a complex, not available for organisms. The availability of copper varies depending on the environment, but moving around within the range from 5 to 25 % of total copper. Thus copper is stored in the sediments and the rest is transported to the seas and oceans. It is common knowledge that copper is essential element for most living organisms. For this reason this element is actively accumulated in the tissues. The total quantity of copper in soil ranges from 2 to 250 mg / kg, the average concentration is 30 mg / kg. Certain activities related to agriculture (the use of fungicides), possibly with the metallurgical industry and mining, tend to increase the total quantity of copper in the soil. This amount of copper in the soil is a problem particularly for agricultural production of food. The lack of copper causes a decrease in revenue and reduction in quality of production. In Europe, shows the low level of copper in total 18 million hectares of farmland. To remedy this adverse situation is the increasing use of copper fertilizers in agricultural soils. It is known that copper compounds are used in plant protection against various illnesses and pests. Mining of minerals is for the development of human society a key economic activity. An important site where the copper is mined in the Slovakia is nearby Smolníka. Due to long time mining in his area (more than 700 years) there are places with extremely high concentrations of various metals including copper. Besides copper, there are also detected iron, zinc and arsenic. Various plant species

  17. Jiangxi Copper and Yates Joined Hands in High-Grade Copper Foil Project Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> The construction of a large-scale copper foilproject recently started in the High-Tech De-velopment Zone of Nanchang,the capital ofJiangxi Province.This new copper foil factory,with a designed annual production capacity of6,000 tons of high-grade copper foil,is a jointventure project between Jiangxi Copper Group,the No.1 copper producer in China,and YatesInc.,a leading US copper product company andthe world’s first electrical circuit board maker.

  18. Electrochemical in-situ impregnation of wood using a copper nail as source for copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Block, Thomas; Nymark, Morten

    2011-01-01

    A new method for copper impregnation of wood in structures was suggested and tested in laboratory scale with specimen of new pine sapwood. A copper nail and a steel screw were placed in the wood, and an electric direct current field was applied, so the copper nail was anode and the screw...... was cathode. At the anode, copper ions were generated. The copper ions were transported into the wood by electromigration (movement of ions in an applied electric field) towards the cathode, and a volume between the two electrodes was thereby impregnated. Copper also moved to a lesser degree in the opposite...

  19. Phosphorylation of amyloid precursor protein at threonine 668 is essential for its copper-responsive trafficking in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Karla M; Opazo, Carlos M; Norrish, David; Challis, Leesa M; Li, Qiao-Xin; White, Anthony R; Bush, Ashley I; Camakaris, James

    2014-04-18

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes post-translational modification, including O- and N-glycosylation, ubiquitination, and phosphorylation as it traffics through the secretory pathway. We have previously reported that copper promotes a change in the cellular localization of APP. We now report that copper increases the phosphorylation of endogenous APP at threonine 668 (Thr-668) in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. The level of APPT668-p (detected using a phospho-site-specific antibody) exhibited a copper-dependent increase. Using confocal microscopy imaging we demonstrate that the phospho-deficient mutant, Thr-668 to alanine (T668A), does not exhibit detectable copper-responsive APP trafficking. In contrast, mutating a serine to an alanine at residue 655 does not affect copper-responsive trafficking. We further investigated the importance of the Thr-668 residue in copper-responsive trafficking by treating SH-SY5Y cells with inhibitors for glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK3β) and cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk), the main kinases that phosphorylate APP at Thr-668 in neurons. Our results show that the GSK3β kinase inhibitors LiCl, SB 216763, and SB 415286 prevent copper-responsive APP trafficking. In contrast, the Cdk inhibitors Purvalanol A and B had no significant effect on copper-responsive trafficking in SH-SY5Y cells. In cultured primary hippocampal neurons, copper promoted APP re-localization to the axon, and this effect was inhibited by the addition of LiCl, indicating that a lithium-sensitive kinase(s) is involved in copper-responsive trafficking in hippocampal neurons. This is consistent with APP axonal transport to the synapse, where APP is involved in a number of functions. We conclude that copper promotes APP trafficking by promoting a GSK3β-dependent phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells.

  20. [Niacin deficiency and cutaneous immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Sugita, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is required for the synthesis of coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Niacin binds with G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 109A on cutaneous Langerhans cells and causes vasodilation with flushing in head and neck area. Niacin deficiency due to excessive alcohol consumption, certain drugs or inadequate uptake in diet causes pellagra, a photosensitivity dermatitis. Recently several studies have revealed the mechanism of photosensitivity in niacin deficiency, which may pave a way for new therapeutic approaches. The expression level of prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) is up-regulated in the skin of both pellagra patients and niacin deficient pellagra mouse models. In addition, pellagra is mediated through prostaglandin E₂-EP4 (PGE₂-EP4) signaling via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in keratinocytes. In this article, we have reviewed the role of niacin in immunity and the mechanism of niacin deficiency-induced photosensitivity.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: transcobalamin deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency often develop a blood disorder called megaloblastic anemia . Megaloblastic anemia results in a shortage of red blood cells, ... and Prevention: Intellectual Disability (PDF) Children's Hospital Boston: Megaloblastic Pernicious Anemia Children's Hospital Boston: White Blood Cell Disorders CLIMB: ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: prolidase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cetta G, Forlino A. Human prolidase and prolidase deficiency: an overview on the characterization of the enzyme involved in proline recycling and on the effects of its mutations. Amino Acids. 2008 Nov;35(4):739-52. doi: 10. ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: proopiomelanocortin deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... energy from food taken into the body and energy spent by the body. The correct balance is important to control eating and weight. POMC gene mutations that cause POMC deficiency result in production ...

  4. Helicobacterpy loriinfection and micronutrient deficiencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javed Yakoob; Wasim Jafri; Shahab Abid

    2003-01-01

    It is known that deficiencies of micronutrients due to infections increase morbidity and mortality. This phenomenon depicts itself conspicuously in developing countries.Deficiencies of iron, vitamins A, E, C, B12, etc are widely prevalent among populations living in the third world countries. Helicobacterpylori (Hpylori) infection has a high prevalence throughout the world. Deficiencies of several micronutrients due to Hpylori infection may be concomitantly present and vary from subtle sub-clinical states to severe clinical disorders. These essential trace elementsl micronutrients are involved in host defense mechanisms,maintaining epithelial cell integrity, glycoprotein synthesis,transport mechanisms, myocardial contractility, brain development, cholesterol and glucose metabolism. In this paper Hpyloriinfection in associaed with various micronutrients deficiencies is briefly reviewed.

  5. Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf T Soliman; Vincenzo De Sanctis; Rania Elalaily; Said Bedair; Islam Kassem

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in adolescents is variable but considerably high in many countries, especially in Middle-east and Southeast Asia. Different factors attribute to this deficiency including lack of sunlight exposure due to cultural dress codes and veiling or due to pigmented skin, and less time spent outdoors, because of hot weather, and lower vitamin D intake. A potent adaptation process significantly modifies the clinical presentation and therefore clinical ...

  6. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2014-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with...

  7. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2014-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with...

  8. Cell therapy to remove excess copper in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjeev

    2014-05-01

    To achieve permanent correction of Wilson's disease by a cell therapy approach, replacement of diseased hepatocytes with healthy hepatocytes is desirable. There is a physiological requirement for hepatic ATP7B-dependent copper (Cu) transport in bile, which is deficient in Wilson's disease, producing progressive Cu accumulation in the liver or brain with organ damage. The ability to repopulate the liver with healthy hepatocytes raises the possibility of cell therapy in Wilson's disease. Therapeutic principles included reconstitution of bile canalicular network as well as proliferation in transplanted hepatocytes, despite toxic amounts of Cu in the liver. Nonetheless, cell therapy studies in animal models elicited major differences in the mechanisms driving liver repopulation with transplanted hepatocytes in Wilson's disease versus nondiseased settings. Recently, noninvasive imaging was developed to demonstrate Cu removal from the liver, including after cell therapy in Wilson's disease. Such developments will help advance cell/gene therapy approaches, particularly by offering roadmaps for clinical trials in people with Wilson's disease.

  9. Photoelectrolysis of water using thin copper gallium diselenide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsen, Bjorn; Cole, Brian; Miller, Eric L. [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1680 East-West Road, Post 109, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Thin CuGaSe{sub 2} films were deposited by vacuum co-evaporation and characterized for their structure, properties and performance as hydrogen-evolving photoelectrodes. The 0.9 {mu}m thick films were nearly stoichiometric with very slight copper deficiency and showed polycrystalline structure with grain sizes of tens of nanometers. An electrode based on such a film was demonstrated operating with outdoor 1-sun photocurrent of up to 13 mA/cm{sup 2}. Spectral response data show significant incident-photon-to-current efficiency throughout the visible spectrum, peaking at 63% at 640 nm. Photocurrent output under simulated 1-sun Air Mass 1.5 light was stable over 4 h. Unassisted water-splitting is not possible due to high band edge positions, but operation in tandem configuration with a suitable bottom junction is feasible. (author)

  10. Radiocopper for the imaging of copper metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueting, Rebekka

    2014-04-01

    The redox-active transition metal copper is an essential trace element for growth and development and serves as a structural or catalytic cofactor for many enzymes in a range of physiological processes. Mammalian copper homeostasis is tightly regulated, and an imbalance in copper metabolism is implicated in various pathological disorders. Radioactive copper isotopes, in particular (64) Cu (t1/2  = 12.7 h) and (67) Cu (t1/2  = 62.01 h), have made important contributions to the understanding of copper metabolism in health and disease. This review gives a brief account of how radiolabelled copper(II) salts and bioreductive copper complexes have been used to trace copper uptake, transport and efflux in vitro and in vivo. Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) has emerged as a noninvasive tool to image copper metabolism in living subjects and (64) Cu-PET is investigated for the study of copper-related neurological disorders, genetic diseases and cancer.

  11. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper metabolism, the underlying genetic defects remain elusive. Several pure bred dog populations are affected with copper-associated hepatitis showing similarities to human copper metabolism disorders. Gene-mapping studies in these populations offer the opportunity to discover new genes involved in copper metabolism. Furthermore, due to the relatively large body size and long life-span of dogs they are excellent models for development of new treatment strategies. One example is the recent use of canine organoids for disease modeling and gene therapy of copper storage disease. This review addresses the opportunities offered by canine genetics for discovery of genes involved in copper metabolism disorders. Further, possibilities for the use of dogs in development of new treatment modalities for copper storage disorders, including gene repair in patient-derived hepatic organoids, are highlighted.

  12. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A J; Fieten, Hille

    2016-02-04

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper metabolism, the underlying genetic defects remain elusive. Several pure bred dog populations are affected with copper-associated hepatitis showing similarities to human copper metabolism disorders. Gene-mapping studies in these populations offer the opportunity to discover new genes involved in copper metabolism. Furthermore, due to the relatively large body size and long life-span of dogs they are excellent models for development of new treatment strategies. One example is the recent use of canine organoids for disease modeling and gene therapy of copper storage disease. This review addresses the opportunities offered by canine genetics for discovery of genes involved in copper metabolism disorders. Further, possibilities for the use of dogs in development of new treatment modalities for copper storage disorders, including gene repair in patient-derived hepatic organoids, are highlighted.

  13. Nanoscale Copper and Copper Compounds for Advanced Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lih-Juann

    2016-12-01

    Copper has been in use for at least 10,000 years. Copper alloys, such as bronze and brass, have played important roles in advancing civilization in human history. Bronze artifacts date at least 6500 years. On the other hand, discovery of intriguing properties and new applications in contemporary technology for copper and its compounds, particularly on nanoscale, have continued. In this paper, examples for the applications of Cu and Cu alloys for advanced device applications will be given on Cu metallization in microelectronics devices, Cu nanobats as field emitters, Cu2S nanowire array as high-rate capability and high-capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries, Cu-Te nanostructures for field-effect transistor, Cu3Si nanowires as high-performance field emitters and efficient anti-reflective layers, single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high-efficiency solar cell, multilevel Cu2S resistive memory, superlattice Cu2S-Ag2S heterojunction diodes, and facet-dependent Cu2O diode.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of different copper alloy surfaces against copper resistant and sensitive Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Libin; Elguindi, Jutta; Rensing, Christopher; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2012-05-01

    Copper has shown antibacterial effects against foodborne pathogens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of copper surfaces on copper resistant and sensitive strains of Salmonella enterica. Six different copper alloy coupons (60-99.9% copper) were tested along with stainless steel as the control. The coupons were surface inoculated with either S. Enteritidis or one of the 3 copper resistant strains, S. Typhimurium S9, S19 and S20; stored under various incubation conditions at room temperature; and sampled at various times up to 2 h. The results showed that under dry incubation conditions, Salmonella only survived 10-15 min on high copper content alloys. Salmonella on low copper content alloys showed 3-4 log reductions. Under moist incubation conditions, no survivors were detected after 30 min-2 h on high copper content alloys, while the cell counts decreased 2-4 logs on low copper content coupons. Although the copper resistant strains survived better than S. Enteritidis, they were either completely inactivated or survival was decreased. Copper coupons showed better antimicrobial efficacy in the absence of organic compounds. These results clearly show the antibacterial effects of copper and its potential as an alternative to stainless steel for selected food contact surfaces.

  15. Evaluation of copper resistant bacteria from vineyard soils and mining waste for copper biosorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Andreazza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Vineyard soils are frequently polluted with high concentrations of copper due application of copper sulfate in order to control fungal diseases. Bioremediation is an efficient process for the treatment of contaminated sites. Efficient copper sorption bacteria can be used for bioremoval of copper from contaminated sites. In this study, a total of 106 copper resistant bacteria were examined for resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption of copper. Eighty isolates (45 from vineyard Mollisol, 35 from Inceptisol were obtained from EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária experimental station, Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil (29º09'53.92''S and 51º31'39.40''W and 26 were obtained from copper mining waste from Caçapava do Sul, RS, Brazil (30º29'43.48''S and 53'32'37.87W. Based on resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption, 15 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Maximal copper resistance and biosorption at high copper concentration were observed with isolate N2 which removed 80 mg L-1 in 24 h. Contrarily isolate N11 (Bacillus pumilus displayed the highest specific copper biosorption (121.82 mg/L/OD unit in 24 h. GenBank MEGABLAST analysis revealed that isolate N2 is 99% similar to Staphylococcus pasteuri. Results indicate that several of our isolates have potential use for bioremediation treatment of vineyards soils and mining waste contaminated with high copper concentration.

  16. Evaluation of copper resistant bacteria from vineyard soils and mining waste for copper biosorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, R; Pieniz, S; Okeke, B C; Camargo, F A O

    2011-01-01

    Vineyard soils are frequently polluted with high concentrations of copper due application of copper sulfate in order to control fungal diseases. Bioremediation is an efficient process for the treatment of contaminated sites. Efficient copper sorption bacteria can be used for bioremoval of copper from contaminated sites. In this study, a total of 106 copper resistant bacteria were examined for resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption of copper. Eighty isolates (45 from vineyard Mollisol, 35 from Inceptisol) were obtained from EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária) experimental station, Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil (29°09'53.92″S and 51°31'39.40″W) and 26 were obtained from copper mining waste from Caçapava do Sul, RS, Brazil (30°29'43.48″S and 53'32'37.87W). Based on resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption, 15 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Maximal copper resistance and biosorption at high copper concentration were observed with isolate N2 which removed 80 mg L(-1) in 24 h. Contrarily isolate N11 (Bacillus pumilus) displayed the highest specific copper biosorption (121.82 mg/L/OD unit in 24 h). GenBank MEGABLAST analysis revealed that isolate N2 is 99% similar to Staphylococcus pasteuri. Results indicate that several of our isolates have potential use for bioremediation treatment of vineyards soils and mining waste contaminated with high copper concentration.

  17. Rapid synthesis of an electron-deficient t-BuPHOX ligand: cross-coupling of aryl bromides with secondary phosphine oxides

    KAUST Repository

    McDougal, Nolan T.

    2010-10-01

    Herein an efficient and direct copper-catalyzed coupling of oxazoline-containing aryl bromides with electron-deficient secondary phosphine oxides is reported. The resulting tertiary phosphine oxides can be reduced to prepare a range of PHOX ligands. The presented strategy is a useful alternative to known methods for constructing PHOX derivatives.

  18. The Present Conditions of China’s Copper Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>China’s copper industry has formed a complete production system and by the end of 2004, China had 600,000 tons of copper mining capacities, 1.5 million tons of copper smelting capacities, 2.15 million tons of copper refining capacities and 3.8 million tons of copper fabricating capacities.

  19. Thermoelectric Study of Copper Selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mengliang; Liu, Weishu; Ren, Zhifeng; Opeil, Cyril

    2014-03-01

    Nanostructuring has been shown to be an effective approach in reducing lattice thermal conductivity and improving the figure of merit of thermoelectric materials. Copper selenide is a layered structure material, which has a low thermal conductivity and p-type Seebeck coefficient at low temperatures. We have evaluated several hot-pressed, nanostructured copper selenide samples with different dopants for their thermoelectric properties. The phenomenon of the charge-density wave observed in the nanocomposite, resistivity, Seebeck, thermal conductivity and carrier mobility will be discussed. Funding for this research was provided by the Solid State Solar - Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC), an Energy Frontier Research Center sponsored by the DOE, Office of Basic Energy Science, Award No. DE-SC0001299/ DE-FG02-09ER46577.

  20. Copper metabolic defects and liver disease: environmental aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankit, Anand N; Bhave, Sheila A

    2002-12-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for many biological processes. Cu homeostasis is generally well maintained by inbuilt controls in intestinal absorption, biliary excretion and intrahepatic storage. Copper deficiency disorders are rare. Acute Cu toxicity occurs occasionally in accidental poisoning with Cu sulfate. Chronic Cu toxicity in the form of liver cirrhosis and damage to other organs is seen classically in Wilson's Disease (genetic abnormality of Cu metabolism) and in the presumed environmental disorder Indian Childhood Cirrhosis (ICC). The clinical, epidemiological and treatment aspects of ICC are described. The evidence linking ICC to environmental Cu is (i) greatly increased hepatic Cu; (ii) early introduction of Cu contaminated milk boiled or stored in brass vessels; (iii) dramatic decline in ICC throughout the country coincident with change in feeding vessels; and (iv) continued long-term remission in d-penicillamine-treated patients after withdrawal of the drug. The nature and role of a second factor in the causation of ICC remains unclear, although a genetic predisposition is strongly suspected. Scattered reports of an ICC-like illness from the West (Idiopathic Cu Toxicosis, Endemic Tyrolean Infantile Cirrhosis), suggest that different mechanisms (environmental, genetic or both) can lead to the same end stage liver disease-'ecogenetic' disorders.

  1. Serum level of Zinc and Copper among pregnant women of Jam area referred to Towhid Hospital,southern part of Bushehr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    syead Mojtaba Jafari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micronutrients are essential for the healthy growth and development of body organs and they have important roles in the function of immune and skeletal system . During pregnancy, due to the physiological changes for the normal growth of fetal, the need for minerals is significantly increased. The aim of this study was to find the status of serum copper and zinc and their relation to anemia in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, cross sectional descriptive study 250 pregnant women (mean age, 27.2±5.5 participated. They attended the medical center (In Jam area, Bushehr, Iran for routine checkups. Blood was collected from them and serum levels of Copper and Zinc were measured by atomic absorption spectrophothometric method. Hemoglobin and other indexes were measured by Automatic Counter analyzer. Results: the mean serum concentration of copper and Zinc were 126.5±56.7 g/dl and 67.6±18.2 g/dl respectively. Also the percentage of their deficiency was 21.2% and 47.2% respectively. The mean level of hemoglobin in the subjects was 11.9±1.2 and the percentage of anemia (Hb < 11g/dl was 21.6%. There was a significant differences between increases in gestational age and the deficiency of copper and zinc in the participants, which is as the pregnancy progress, the deficiency of Copper reduces (p=0.024 and that of Zinc increases(p=0.036. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the deficiency of Copper, Zinc and the rate of anemia in the pregnant women of Jam area is significantly high and suggests that a proper interventional program should be planned to monitor such women at risk, before their marriage or in prenatal clinics.

  2. Relationship between Paratuberculosis and the microelements Copper, Zinc, Iron, Selenium and Molybdenum in Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Paolicchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the deficiency of minerals and its relationship with Paratuberculosis, blood, serum, and fecal samples were obtained from 75 adult bovines without clinical symptoms of the disease and from two bovines with clinical symptoms of the disease, from two beef herds with a previous history of Paratuberculosis in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Serum samples were processed by ELISA and feces were cultured in Herrolds medium. Copper, zinc and iron in serum were quantified by spectrophotometry and selenium was measured by the activity of glutathione peroxidase. We also determined copper, zinc, iron and molybdenum concentrations in pastures and the concentration of sulfate in water. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map was isolated from 17.3% of fecal samples of asymptomatic animals and from the fecal samples from the two animals with clinical symptoms. All the Map-positive animals were also ELISA-positive or suspect, and among them, 84.6% presented low or marginal values of selenium and 69.2% presented low or marginal values of copper. The two animals with clinical symptoms, and isolation of Map from feces and organs were selenium-deficient and had the lowest activity of glutathione peroxidase of all the animals from both herds. All the animals negative to Map in feces and negative to ELISA had normal values of Se, while 13.8% of animals with positive ELISA or suspect and culture negative presented low levels of Se. Half of the animals that were negative both for ELISA and culture in feces were deficient in copper but none of them presented low values of selenium. The content of molybdenum and iron in pasture was high, 2.5 ppm and 1.13 ppm in one herd and 2.5 ppm and 2.02 ppm in the other, respectively, whereas the copper:molybdenum ratio was 1.5 and 5.2, respectively. These results do not confirm an interaction between imbalances of the micronutrients and clinical Paratuberculosis, but show evidence of the relationship

  3. Rapid iodometric determination of copper in some copper-base alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterdenbos, J.; Eelberse, P.A.

    1966-01-01

    Copper-base alloys, especially those containing tin, are readily dissolved in a mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acids. In the resulting solution copper can be titrated iodometrically in the conventional manner.

  4. Xinjiang Non-ferrous Metals Wuxin Copper 100,000-ton Cathode Copper Project Commences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The construction of Xinjiang Nonferrous Met-als’ Wuxin Copper’s 100,000-ton Cathode Copper Project commenced at the Fukang Xin-jiang Industrial Park of Innovative Non-Ferrous Materials recently. Xinjiang Wuxin Copper

  5. Explosive compact-coating of tungsten–copper alloy to a copper surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Xiaojie; Yan, Honghao; Wang, Xiaohong; Miao, Yusong

    2017-03-01

    This study proposed a new method for coating tungsten–copper alloy to copper surface. First, the tungsten–copper alloy powder was pre-compacted to the copper surface. Then, the powder in the hydrogen atmosphere was sintered, and the pre-compacted powder was compacted by explosive compact-coating. Finally, diffusion sintering was conducted to improve the density of the coating layer. The theoretical density of the coating reached 99.3%. Microstructure characteristics indicated that tungsten and copper powders were well mixed. Tungsten particles were larger than copper particles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) fracture surface analysis was different from the traditional fracture of metals. Coating and substrate joint surfaces, which were analyzed by SEM, indicated that the tungsten–copper alloy was sintered on the copper surface. The hardness of the coating layer was 197.6–245.2 HV, and the hardness of the substrate was approximately 55 HV.

  6. Reduction reaction analysis of nanoparticle copper oxide for copper direct bonding using formic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Masahisa; Akaike, Masatake; Matsuoka, Naoya; Suga, Tadatomo

    2017-04-01

    Copper direct bonding is required for electronics devices, especially power devices, and copper direct bonding using formic acid is expected to lower the bonding temperature. In this research, we analyzed the reduction reaction of copper oxide using formic acid with a Pt catalyst by electron spin resonance analysis and thermal gravimetry analysis. It was found that formic acid was decomposed and radicals were generated under 200 °C. The amount of radicals generated was increased by adding the Pt catalyst. Because of these radicals, both copper(I) oxide and copper(II) oxide start to be decomposed below 200 °C, and the reduction of copper oxide is accelerated by reactants such as H2 and CO from the decomposition of formic acid above 200 °C. The Pt catalyst also accelerates the reaction of copper oxide reduction. Herewith, it is considered that the copper surface can be controlled more precisely by using formic acid to induce direct bonding.

  7. ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF COPPER RECYCLING OF DEAD COPPER-CONTAINING CATALYSTS

    OpenAIRE

    O. S. Komarov; I. V. Provorova; V. I. Volosatikov; D. O. Komarov; N. I. Urbanovich

    2009-01-01

    The technology of processing of copper-bearing dead catalysts, which includes leaching and deposition of copper by means of electrolysis and also their application in composition of the mixture for alloy doping is offered.

  8. ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF COPPER RECYCLING OF DEAD COPPER-CONTAINING CATALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of processing of copper-bearing dead catalysts, which includes leaching and deposition of copper by means of electrolysis and also their application in composition of the mixture for alloy doping is offered.

  9. LEP Radio Frequency Copper Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    The pulse of a particle accelerator. 128 of these radio frequency cavities were positioned around CERN's 27-kilometre LEP ring to accelerate electrons and positrons. The acceleration was produced by microwave electric oscillations at 352 MHz. The electrons and positrons were grouped into bunches, like beads on a string, and the copper sphere at the top stored the microwave energy between the passage of individual bunches. This made for valuable energy savings as it reduced the heat generated in the cavity.

  10. Yunnan Copper Co., Ltd. Invested 1.5 Billion Yuan for 200,000-Ton Refined Copper Project in Baoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Yunnan Copper(Group)Co.,Ltd.has signed a strategic agreement with Baoding Municipal Government of Heibei Province in Kunming on the joint development of a copper smelting project.With the joint investment from Baoding Xinxian Government,Yunnan Copper Co.,Ltd.and Baoding Dali Copper Ltd,a copper refinery with an annual capacity of

  11. Functional understanding of the versatile protein copper metabolism MURR1 domain 1 (COMMD1) in copper homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedoseienko, Alina; Bartuzi, Paulina; van de Sluis, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Copper is an important cofactor in numerous biological processes in all living organisms. However, excessive copper can be extremely toxic, so it is vital that the copper level within a cell is tightly regulated. The damaging effect of copper is seen in several hereditary forms of copper toxicity in

  12. In situ Fabrication of Monolithic Copper Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Li, Mingyu; Zeng, Qingxuan; Wu, Xingyu

    2016-04-01

    Fabrication and characterization of monolithic copper azide were performed. The monolithic nanoporous copper (NPC) with interconnected pores and nanoparticles was prepared by decomposition and sintering of the ultrafine copper oxalate. The preferable monolithic NPC can be obtained through decomposition and sintering at 400°C for 30 min. Then, the available monolithic NPC was in situ reacted with the gaseous HN3 for 24 h and the monolithic NPC was transformed into monolithic copper azide. Additionally, the copper particles prepared by electrodeposition were also reacted with the gaseous HN3 under uniform conditions as a comparison. The fabricated monolithic copper azide was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  13. Nuclear Spectroscopy with Copper Isotopes of Extreme N/Z Ratios

    CERN Multimedia

    La commara, M; Roeckl, E; Van duppen, P L E; Schmidt, K A; Lettry, J

    2002-01-01

    The collaboration aims to obtain detailed nuclear spectroscopy information on isotopes close to the magic proton number Z=28 Very neutron-rich and neutron-deficient copper isotopes are ionized with the ISOLDE resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) to provide beams with low cross contamination.\\\\ \\\\On the neutron-deficient side the high $Q_\\beta$-values of $^{56}$Cu (15~MeV) and $^{57}$Cu (8.8~MeV) allow to study levels at high excitation energies in the doubly magic nucleus $^{56}$Ni and the neighbouring $^{57}$Ni. On the neutron-rich side the spectroscopy with separated copper isotopes allows presently the closest approach to the doubly magic $^{78}$Ni at an ISOL facility. Up to now no suitable target material with a rapid release was found for nickel itself. A slow release behaviour has to be assumed also for the chemically similar elements iron and cobalt.\\\\ \\\\Using a narrow-bandwidth dye laser and tuning of the laser frequency allows to scan the hyperfine splittings of the copper isotopes and isome...

  14. Potential foliar fertilizers with copper and zinc dual micronutrients in nanocrystal suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Li, Li; Du, Yumei; Hampton, Marc A.; Nguyen, Anh V.; Huang, Longbin; Rudolph, Victor; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2014-11-01

    Control preparation, aqueous stability, and ion release of several Cu-Zn-containing crystals in suspensions have been investigated as potential dual micronutrient foliar fertilizers. These crystals were prepared by quick co-precipitation through simultaneously adding potassium hydroxide and copper salt solutions into zinc salt solution, and characterized in structure and composition with XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, and ICP in detail. As-prepared Cu-Zn mixed hydroxide nitrate was identified as a two-phase mixture while Cu-Zn mixed hydroxide sulfate as a single-phase compound. These crystals are all sheet-like in morphology and stable in aqueous solutions with pH 5-9. No phase change was detected after the samples were kept in shelf for >3 months, suggesting that these crystals have long shelf lives. In terms of ion release, Cu-Zn mixed hydroxide nitrate and Cu-Zn mixed hydroxide sulfate can afford 4 and 1 mg L-1 of Cu2+, respectively, which could be suitable for different levels of copper deficiency in plants. Moreover, both compounds can provide 38-39 mg L-1 of Zn2+ in aqueous suspensions. Thus, our findings suggest that as-prepared compounds can be potentially applied as long-term foliar fertilizers to simultaneously correct deficiencies of copper and zinc in various crops.

  15. Clinical manifestation of myeloperoxidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, F

    1998-09-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an iron-containing heme protein localized in the azurophilic granules of neutrophil granulocytes and in the lysosomes of monocytes, is involved in the killing of several micro-organisms and foreign cells, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, red cells, and malignant and nonmalignant nucleated cells. Despite the primary role of the oxygen-dependent MPO system in the destruction of certain phagocytosed microbes, subjects with total or partial MPO deficiency generally do not have an increased frequency of infections, probably because other MPO-independent mechanism(s) for microbicidal activity compensate for the lack of MPO. Infectious diseases, especially with species of Candida, have been observed predominantly in MPO-deficient patients who also have diabetes mellitus, but the frequency of such cases is very low, less than 5% of reported MPO-deficient subjects. Evidence from a number of investigators indicates that individuals with total MPO deficiency show a high incidence of malignant tumors. Since MPO-deficient PMNs exhibit in vitro a depressed lytic action against malignant human cells, it can be speculated that the neutrophil MPO system plays a central role in the tumor surveillance of the host. However, any definitive conclusion on the association between MPO deficiency and the occurrence of cancers needs to be confirmed in further clinical studies. Clinical manifestations of this disorder depend on the nature of the defect; an acquired abnormality associated with other hematological or nonhematological diseases has been occasionally described, but the primary deficiency is the form more commonly reported. Another area of interest pertinent to MPO expression is related to the use of anti-MPO monoclonal antibodies for the lineage assignment of acute leukemic cells, the definition of FAB MO acute myeloid leukemia, the identification of biphenotypic acute leukemias, and their distinction from acute leukemia with minimal phenotypic deviation

  16. SRB Sells Copper for Market Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>In order to ease the tight supply situation for copper on the domestic market and meet the consumption requirement of the industry, the State Goods and Materials Adjustment Center under the State Reserves Bureau (SRB) is ready to sell 20,000 tons of copper by way of open bid. In addition, the SRB also prepares to sell 40,000 tons of copper later in December and

  17. [Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are global health problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlerup, Jens; Lindgren, Stefan; Moum, Björn

    2015-03-10

    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are global health problems leading to deterioration in patients' quality of life and more serious prognosis in patients with chronic diseases. The cause of iron deficiency and anemia is usually a combination of increased loss and decreased intestinal absorption and delivery from iron stores due to inflammation. Oral iron is first line treatment, but often hampered by intolerance. Intravenous iron is safe, and the preferred treatment in patients with chronic inflammation and bowel diseases. The goal of treatment is normalisation of hemoglobin concentration and recovery of iron stores. It is important to follow up treatment to ensure that these objectives are met and also long-term in patients with chronic iron loss and/or inflammation to avoid recurrence of anemia.

  18. Copper metabolism in analbuminaemic rats fed a high-copper diet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, S.; Berg, van den G.J.; Beynen, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    Copper metabolism in male Nagase analbuminaemic (NA) rats was compared with that in male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats fed purified diets containing either 5 or 100 mg Cu/kg diet. Dietary copper loading increased hepatic and kidney copper concentrations in both strains to the same extent, but baseline va

  19. Pc Electrolytic System Of Zhangjiagang Copper Industry Company Successfully Produced Copper After Resuming Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    On March 17,the PC electrolytic system of Zhangjiagang Copper Industry Co.,Ltd successfully produced the first batch of qualified PC electrolytic copper after resuming production.This company’s 100,000 t/a PC electrolytic copper project was completed and launched into production in April last year.

  20. Nearly 60% Copper Rod & Wire Companies Neutral about Future Copper Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>How about the trend of copper price recently? According to the survey result of Shanghai Metals Market, amongst 21 domestic copper rod & wire companies, 57% of the companies are neutral about the future copper price, while 14% and 19% of the companies consider that

  1. Jiangxi Copper Planning to Produce Copper Products of More Than 480,000 Tons This Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>It is learned from Jiangxi Copper Group that the company has made the plan to produce copper processing products of more than 480,000 tons, and meanwhile its 100,000-ton copper plate and strip project is planned to be

  2. Tongling’s Ambition for Copper Processing Industrial Leadership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Known as the "Copper Capital of Ancient China", Tongling’s copper industry posted sub-stantial growth as the domestic copper price rose. According to Wang Yijun, the Director of Tongling DPC, the local government was

  3. TonglingExtended Copper Intensive Processing Industrial Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Despite the adverse impacts including decline in copper price, in 2012, Tongling’s copper in-dustry development still made steady progress. The number of copper enterprises in Tongling with industrial output value above 100 million

  4. Impact of selenium, iron, copper and zinc in on/off Parkinson's patients on L-dopa therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, G A; Qureshi, A A; Memon, S A; Parvez, S H

    2006-01-01

    We have quantitated CSF and serum levels of Selenium, iron, copper and zinc by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer in 36 patients with parkinson's disease all on L-dopa therapy. Out of these 19 showed on or positive response to L-dopa where as 21 patients showed on and off response. These data were compared with 21 healthy controls. The results showed that serum levels of iron, copper and zinc remained unchanged where as in CSF, significant decrease in zinc was found in both on and on/off PD patients indicating the deficiency of zinc which continues in the worsening clinical condition of off patients. The level of copper remained unchanged in both on and on/off PD patients. Iron and selenium increase in CSF of both patients which is a clear evidence of relationship between increased iron and selenium level in brain which could be correlated with decrease in dopamine levels and oxidative stress in PD Patients.

  5. [Copper in methane oxidation: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yao; Kong, Jiao-Yan; Zhang, Xuan; Xia, Fang-Fang; He, Ruo

    2014-04-01

    Methane bio-oxidation plays an important role in the global methane balance and warming mitigation, while copper has a crucial function in methane bio-oxidation. On one side, copper is known to be a key factor in regulating the expression of the genes encoding the two forms of methane monooxygenases (MMOs) and is the essential metal element of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). On the other side, the content and fractionation of copper in the environment have great effects on the distribution of methanotrophs and their metabolic capability of methane and non-methane organic compounds, as well as on the copper-specific uptake systems in methanotrophs. Thus, it is meaningful to know the role of copper in methane bio-oxidation for comprehensive understanding of this process and is valuable for guiding the application of methanotrophs in greenhouse gas removal and pollution remediation. In this paper, the roles of copper in methane oxidation were reviewed, including the effect of copper on methanotrophic community structure and activity, the expression and activity of MMOs as well as the copper uptake systems in methanotrophs. The future studies of copper and methane oxidation were also discussed.

  6. Level of copper in human split ejaculate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandhan, Kalanghot; Valsa, James; Sumangala, Balakrishnan; Jaya, Vasudevan

    2017-02-03

    The purpose of this study was to understand the details of splits of an ejaculate and to locate the origin of release of copper into semen. Laboratory methods routinely followed for semen analysis were carried out. Copper was estimated by employing atomic absorption spectrophotometry. First split of ejaculate showed the highest number of motile sperm, the quality of which decreased from first to third. Copper level in splits 1, 2 and 3 was 29, 23 and 22 µg%, respectively. This study concluded that copper was released from throughout the genital tract.

  7. Structure of a copper-isoniazid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J C; Camerman, N; Camerman, A

    1981-11-01

    It is well-known that complex formation with copper ions increases the in vitro mycobactericidal action of the antituberculosis agent isoniazid. We report here the preparation and structure of a copper(II)-isoniazid complex. Unit cell parameters are a = 9.575, b = 14.855, and c = 7.056 A and space group P2(1)2(1)2(1). Copper bonding geometry is square planar with the isoniazid carbonyl oxygen and hydrazide amino nitrogen atoms and two chlorines occupying coordination positions. Complexing with copper(II) does not significantly alter the isoniazid molecular conformation.

  8. Iron deficiency in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cortés

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Context: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors. Design: From march 20 to April 5, 2004, three hundred potential blood donors from Hemocentro del Café y Tolima Grande were studied. Diagnostic tests: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum ferritin (RIA, ANNAR and the hemoglobin pre and post-donation (HEMOCUE Vital technology medical . Results: The frequency of iron deficiency in potential blood donors was 5%, and blood donors accepted was 5.1%; in blood donors rejected for low hemoglobin the frequency of iron deficiency was 3.7% and accepted blood donors was 1.7% in male and 12.6% in female. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, but not stadistic significative. Increase nivel accepted hemoglobina in 1 g/dl no incidence in male; in female increase of 0.5 g/dl low in 25% blood donors accepted with iron deficiency, but increased rejected innecesary in 16.6% and increased is 1 g/dl low blood donors female accepted in 58% (7/12, but increased the rejected innecesary in 35.6%. Conclusions: We conclude that blood donation not is a important factor for iron deficiency in blood donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests a need for a more accurate laboratory trial, as hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement alone is not sufficient for detecting and excluding blood donors with iron deficiency without anemia, and ajustes hacia

  9. Iron deficiency and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Haehling, Stephan; Jankowska, Ewa A; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D

    2015-11-01

    Iron deficiency affects up to one-third of the world's population, and is particularly common in elderly individuals and those with certain chronic diseases. Iron excess can be detrimental in cardiovascular illness, and research has now also brought anaemia and iron deficiency into the focus of cardiovascular medicine. Data indicate that iron deficiency has detrimental effects in patients with coronary artery disease, heart failure (HF), and pulmonary hypertension, and possibly in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Around one-third of all patients with HF, and more than one-half of patients with pulmonary hypertension, are affected by iron deficiency. Patients with HF and iron deficiency have shown symptomatic improvements from intravenous iron administration, and some evidence suggests that these improvements occur irrespective of the presence of anaemia. Improved exercise capacity has been demonstrated after iron administration in patients with pulmonary hypertension. However, to avoid iron overload and T-cell activation, it seems that recipients of cardiac transplantations should not be treated with intravenous iron preparations.

  10. Copper Nanoparticles in Click Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Francisco; Moglie, Yanina; Radivoy, Gabriel

    2015-09-15

    The challenges of the 21st century demand scientific and technological achievements that must be developed under sustainable and environmentally benign practices. In this vein, click chemistry and green chemistry walk hand in hand on a pathway of rigorous principles that help to safeguard the health of our planet against negligent and uncontrolled production. Copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), the paradigm of a click reaction, is one of the most reliable and widespread synthetic transformations in organic chemistry, with multidisciplinary applications. Nanocatalysis is a green chemistry tool that can increase the inherent effectiveness of CuAAC because of the enhanced catalytic activity of nanostructured metals and their plausible reutilization capability as heterogeneous catalysts. This Account describes our contribution to click chemistry using unsupported and supported copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) as catalysts prepared by chemical reduction. Cu(0)NPs (3.0 ± 1.5 nm) in tetrahydrofuran were found to catalyze the reaction of terminal alkynes and organic azides in the presence of triethylamine at rates comparable to those achieved under microwave heating (10-30 min in most cases). Unfortunately, the CuNPs underwent dissolution under the reaction conditions and consequently could not be recovered. Compelling experimental evidence on the in situ generation of highly reactive copper(I) chloride and the participation of copper(I) acetylides was provided. The supported CuNPs were found to be more robust and efficient catalyst than the unsupported counterpart in the following terms: (a) the multicomponent variant of CuAAC could be applied; (b) the metal loading could be substantially decreased; (c) reactions could be conducted in neat water; and (d) the catalyst could be recovered easily and reutilized. In particular, the catalyst composed of oxidized CuNPs (Cu2O/CuO, 6.0 ± 2.0 nm) supported on carbon (CuNPs/C) was shown to be highly versatile and very

  11. Synthesis of [18F]Arenes via the Copper-Mediated [18F]Fluorination of Boronic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossine, Andrew V; Brooks, Allen F; Makaravage, Katarina J; Miller, Jason M; Ichiishi, Naoko; Sanford, Melanie S; Scott, Peter J H

    2015-12-04

    A copper-mediated radiofluorination of aryl- and vinylboronic acids with K(18)F is described. This method exhibits high functional group tolerance and is effective for the radiofluorination of a range of electron-deficient, -neutral, and -rich aryl-, heteroaryl-, and vinylboronic acids. This method has been applied to the synthesis of [(18)F]FPEB, a PET radiotracer for quantifying metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors.

  12. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance Copper (I, copper (II variants namely copper hydroxide, copper oxychloride, tribasic copper sulfate, copper (I oxide, Bordeaux mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State France, for the pesticide active substance copper (I, copper (II variants (formerly referred to as copper compounds are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory environmental fate and behaviour and ecotoxicology data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of copper (I, copper (II variants as a fungicide/bactericide on grapes and tomatoes. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Concerns are identified.

  13. A Study of Malnutrition in Iranian Patients with Primary Antibody Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Kouhkan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is an important factor that influences immunity, and nutritional deficiencies can impair resistance to infections. Malnutrition is the most common cause of immunodeficiency worldwide. Trace elements such as zinc, selenium, iron, and copper can influence several components of immunity. Primary antibody deficiency disorders are a group of disorders characterized by an unusual susceptibility to infections and malnutrition. Impaired nutritional status has been reported in immunodeficient patients. The aim of this study was to determine anthropometric indices and trace elements status in these patients. Thirty-eight children (28 males, 10 females, aged 2-18 years with primary antibody deficiency referring to Children’s Medical Center of Tehran University of Medical Science were enrolled in this research. Primary immunodeficiency disorders consisting of CVID, XLA, IgA deficiency, IgG subclass deficiency, and hyper IgM were assessed. Anthropometric indices, comprised of height, weight that were measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated. Height-for-age (HAZ, weight-for-height (WHZ and weight-for-age (WAZ were determined according to Z-score to study mild, moderate and severe malnutrition. Serum copper, zinc, selenium and iron levels were measured by an atomic absorption spectrometer. The most common disorders were CVID 52.5% and X-linked agammaglobulinaemia 27.5%. Based on BMI measurements 21.1% of patients had malnutrition. According to HAZ, 13.2%, 13.2% and 36.8% had severe, moderate and mild malnutrition, respectively. According to WAZ, 10.5%, 18.4% and 28.6% had severe, moderate and mild malnutrition, respectively. Regarding to WHZ, 14.3% and 28.6% had moderate and mild malnutrition, respectively. Low selenium levels and high copper levels were observed in 37.5% and 70.3%, respectively. Anthropometric data showed that the frequency of malnutrition in these patients was higher than the CDC standard. Low serum selenium levels and

  14. Copper and conquer: copper complexes of di-2-pyridylketone thiosemicarbazones as novel anti-cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Chan; Fouani, Leyla; Jansson, Patric J; Wooi, Danson; Sahni, Sumit; Lane, Darius J R; Palanimuthu, Duraippandi; Lok, Hiu Chuen; Kovačević, Zaklina; Huang, Michael L H; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Richardson, Des R

    2016-09-01

    Copper is an essential trace metal required by organisms to perform a number of important biological processes. Copper readily cycles between its reduced Cu(i) and oxidised Cu(ii) states, which makes it redox active in biological systems. This redox-cycling propensity is vital for copper to act as a catalytic co-factor in enzymes. While copper is essential for normal physiology, enhanced copper levels in tumours leads to cancer progression. In particular, the stimulatory effect of copper on angiogenesis has been established in the last several decades. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that copper affects tumour growth and promotes metastasis. Based on the effects of copper on cancer progression, chelators that bind copper have been developed as anti-cancer agents. In fact, a novel class of thiosemicarbazone compounds, namely the di-2-pyridylketone thiosemicarbazones that bind copper, have shown great promise in terms of their anti-cancer activity. These agents have a unique mechanism of action, in which they form redox-active complexes with copper in the lysosomes of cancer cells. Furthermore, these agents are able to overcome P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated multi-drug resistance (MDR) and act as potent anti-oncogenic agents through their ability to up-regulate the metastasis suppressor protein, N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 (NDRG1). This review provides an overview of the metabolism and regulation of copper in normal physiology, followed by a discussion of the dysregulation of copper homeostasis in cancer and the effects of copper on cancer progression. Finally, recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of action of anti-cancer agents targeting copper are discussed.

  15. Energy and materials flows in the copper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1980-12-01

    The copper industry comprises both the primary copper industry, which produces 99.9%-pure copper from copper ore, and the secondary copper industry, which salvages and recycles copper-containing scrap metal to extract pure copper or copper alloys. The United States uses about 2 million tons of copper annually, 60% of it for electrical applications. Demand is expected to increase less than 4% annually for the next 20 years. The primary copper industry is concentrated in the Southwest; Arizona produced 66% of the 1979 total ore output. Primary production uses about 170 x 10/sup 12/ Btu total energy annually (about 100 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton pure copper produced from ore). Mining and milling use about 60% of the total consumption, because low-grade ore (0.6% copper) is now being mined. Most copper is extracted by smelting sulfide ores, with concomitant production of sulfur dioxide. Clean air regulations will require smelters to reduce sulfur emissions, necessitating smelting process modifications that could also save 20 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (10 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper) in smelting energy. Energy use in secondary copper production averages 20 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper. If all copper products were recycled, instead of the 30% now salvaged, the energy conservation potential would be about one-half the total energy consumption of the primary copper industry.

  16. Duobaoshan Porphyry Copper Deposit and Its Associated Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Duobaoshan porphyry copper deposit, situated in Nenjiang County of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, lies tectonically in the Mongolian-Okhotsk geosyncline.Duobaoshan porphyry copper ore field consisting of Duobaoshan copper deposit and Tongshan copper deposit contains rich copper associated with molybdenum, gold, silver and osmium (OsX87). In this sense, this porphyry copper ore field will turn into a large industrial base of copper, gold, silver and osmium. At present, in Duobaoshan porphyry copper deposit occurs a usable B+C+-D grade reserve of 3 276 630ton Cu, 122 920 ton Mo, 87 ton gold and 1 417 ton Ag.

  17. Energy and materials flows in the copper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1980-12-01

    The copper industry comprises both the primary copper industry, which produces 99.9%-pure copper from copper ore, and the secondary copper industry, which salvages and recycles copper-containing scrap metal to extract pure copper or copper alloys. The United States uses about 2 million tons of copper annually, 60% of it for electrical applications. Demand is expected to increase less than 4% annually for the next 20 years. The primary copper industry is concentrated in the Southwest; Arizona produced 66% of the 1979 total ore output. Primary production uses about 170 x 10/sup 12/ Btu total energy annually (about 100 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton pure copper produced from ore). Mining and milling use about 60% of the total consumption, because low-grade ore (0.6% copper) is now being mined. Most copper is extracted by smelting sulfide ores, with concomitant production of sulfur dioxide. Clean air regulations will require smelters to reduce sulfur emissions, necessitating smelting process modifications that could also save 20 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (10 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper) in smelting energy. Energy use in secondary copper production averages 20 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper. If all copper products were recycled, instead of the 30% now salvaged, the energy conservation potential would be about one-half the total energy consumption of the primary copper industry.

  18. [Vitamin A deficiency and xerophtalmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, A da S; Santos, L M

    2000-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review cases of vitamin A deficiency and the effects of vitamin A supplementation on child morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Articles published in scientific journals, technical and scientific books, and also publications by international organizations were used as source of information. RESULTS: Clinical manifestations of xerophthalmia affect the retina (night blindness), the conjunctiva (conjunctival xerosis, with or without Bitot spots), and the cornea (corneal xerosis). Corneal xerosis may lead to corneal ulceration and liquefactive necrosis (keratomalacia). A priori, these signs and symptoms are the best indicators of vitamin A deficiency; they are, however, extremely rare. Laboratory indicators include Conjunctival Impression Cytology and serum retinol concentrations. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of two biological markers in order to characterize vitamin A deficiency in a given population. If only one biological marker is used, this marker has to be backed up by a set of at least four additional risk factors. Corneal xerophthalmia should be treated as a medical emergency; In the event of suspected vitamin A deficiency, a 200,000 IU vitamin A dose should be administered orally, repeating the dose after 24 hours (half the dose for infants younger than one year). Vitamin A supplementation in endemic areas may cause a 23 to 30% reduction in the mortality rate of children aged between 6 months and five years, and attenuate the severity of diarrhea. The methods for the control of vitamin A deficiency are available in the short (supplementation with megadoses), medium (food fortification), and long run (diet diversification). CONCLUSION: There is evidence of vitamin A deficiency among Brazilian children. Pediatricians must be aware of the signs and symptoms of this disease, however sporadic they might be. It is of paramount importance that vitamin A be included in public policy plans so that we can ensure the survival of

  19. Annual Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, Copper Mountain, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Stephen F. [Front Range Scientific, Inc., Lake City, CO (United States)

    2016-03-25

    This project supported the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, held from 2007 to 2015, at Copper Mountain, Colorado. The subject of the Copper Mountain Conference Series alternated between Multigrid Methods in odd-numbered years and Iterative Methods in even-numbered years. Begun in 1983, the Series represents an important forum for the exchange of ideas in these two closely related fields. This report describes the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, 2007-2015. Information on the conference series is available at http://grandmaster.colorado.edu/~copper/.

  20. Synthesis of copper nanoparticles by electrolysis of DNA utilizing copper as sacrificial anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dinesh Pratap; Srivastava, Onkar Nath

    2007-06-01

    Copper nanoparticles have been synthesized by anodic oxidation through a simple electrolysis process employing de-oxy ribonucleic acid (DNA) as electrolyte. Platinum was taken as cathode and copper as anode. The applied voltage was 4 V and the electrolysis was performed for duration of 1 h. The copper nanoparticles were prepared in situ from the electron beam irradiation on residues of electrolyte consisting of DNA and copper particles: DNA (Cu) complexes. The size of the nanoparticles ranges between 5-50 nm. A tentative explanation has been given for the formation of copper nanoparticles.

  1. Different pathways for copper sulphate and copper nitrate antioxidation and organic acid excretion in Typha latifolia?

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubenova L.; Kuhn A.; Höltkemeier A.; Bipuah H.; Belford E.; Schröder P.

    2013-01-01

    The major topic of the present experiment was the investigation of the antioxidative enzymes and the root exudate excretion after plant exposure to copper. The copper was added for each treatment as copper sulphate and copper nitrate in the concentrations of 10 μM, 50 μM and 100 μM, respectively. The plant species chosen for the study was Typha latifolia. The experiment gives insight into the plant responses to different copper supplies during the same conditions of exposure. Remarkable resul...

  2. [Phosphate metabolism and iron deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Keitaro

    2016-02-01

    Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets(ADHR)is caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGF23 that prevent its proteolytic cleavage. Fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23)is a hormone that inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D biosynthesis. Low iron status plays a role in the pathophysiology of ADHR. Iron deficiency is an environmental trigger that stimulates FGF23 expression and hypophosphatemia in ADHR. It was reported that FGF23 elevation in patients with CKD, who are often iron deficient. In patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD, treatment with ferric citrate hydrate resulted in significant reductions in serum phosphate and FGF23.

  3. Iron deficiency in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, A F

    1982-06-01

    Iron in food is classified as belonging to the haem pool, the nonhaem pool, and extraneous sources. Haem iron is derived from vegetable and animal sources with varying bioavailability. Hookworm infestation of the intestinal tract affects 450 million people in the tropics. Schistosoma mansoni caused blood loss in 7 Egyptian patients of 7.5- 25.9 ml/day which is equivalent to a daily loss of iron of .6-7.3 mg daily urinary loss of iron in 9 Egyptian patients. Trichuris trichiura infestation by whipworm is widespread in children with blood loss of 5 ml/day/worm. The etiology of anemia in children besides iron deficiency includes malaria, bacterial or viral infections, folate deficiency and sickle-cell disease. Severe infections cause profound iron-deficiency anemia in children in central American and Malaysia. Plasmodium falciparum malaria-induced anaemia in tropical Africa lowers the mean haemoglobin concentration in the population by 2 g/dI, causing profound anaemia in some. The increased risk of premature delivery, low birthweight, fetal abnormalities, and fetal death is directly related to the degree of maternal anemia. Perinatal mortality was reduced from 38 to 4% in treated anemic mothers. Mental performance was significantly lower in anemic school children and improved after they received iron. Supplements of iron, soy-protein, calcium, and vitamins given to villagers with widespread malnutrition, iron deficiency, and hookworm infestation in Colombia reduced enteric infections in children. Severe iron-deficiency anemia was treated in adults in northern Nigeria by daily in Ferastral 10 ml, which is equivalent to 500 mg of iron per day. Choloroquine, folic acid, rephenium hydroxynaphthoate, and tetrachlorethylene treat adults with severe iron deficiency from hookworm infestation in rural tropical Africa. Blood transfusion is indicated if the patient is dying of anaemia or is pregnant with a haemoglobin concentration 6 gm/dl. In South East Asia, mg per day

  4. Differential diagnosis of iron deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    A deficiência de ferro é considerada a patologia hematológica mais prevalente no homem. Assim, é fundamental a adequada identificação de suas causas, bem como a diferenciação com outras patologias distintas para adequada abordagem da deficiência de ferro. Neste artigo são brevemente descritas outras condições que podem cursar com anemia microcítica, tais como: talassemias, anemia de doença crônica, anemia sideroblástica e envenenamento por chumbo, patologias estas que devem ser afastadas dura...

  5. Transcriptomic and physiological characterization of the fefe mutant of melon (Cucumis melo) reveals new aspects of iron-copper crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Brian M; McInturf, Samuel A; Amundsen, Keenan

    2014-09-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) homeostasis are tightly linked across biology. In previous work, Fe deficiency interacted with Cu-regulated genes and stimulated Cu accumulation. The C940-fe (fefe) Fe-uptake mutant of melon (Cucumis melo) was characterized, and the fefe mutant was used to test whether Cu deficiency could stimulate Fe uptake. Wild-type and fefe mutant transcriptomes were determined by RNA-seq under Fe and Cu deficiency. FeFe-regulated genes included core Fe uptake, metal homeostasis, and transcription factor genes. Numerous genes were regulated by both Fe and Cu. The fefe mutant was rescued by high Fe or by Cu deficiency, which stimulated ferric-chelate reductase activity, FRO2 expression, and Fe accumulation. Accumulation of Fe in Cu-deficient plants was independent of the normal Fe-uptake system. One of the four FRO genes in the melon and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) genomes was Fe-regulated, and one was Cu-regulated. Simultaneous Fe and Cu deficiency synergistically up-regulated Fe-uptake gene expression. Overlap in Fe and Cu deficiency transcriptomes highlights the importance of Fe-Cu crosstalk in metal homeostasis. The fefe gene is not orthologous to FIT, and thus identification of this gene will provide clues to help understand regulation of Fe uptake in plants.

  6. Primary Carnitine (OCTN2) Deficiency Without Neonatal Carnitine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L. de; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Morava, E.

    2013-01-01

    Although the diagnosis of a primary carnitine deficiency is usually based on a very low level of free and total carnitine (free carnitine: 1-5 muM, normal 20-55 muM) (Longo et al. 2006), we detected a patient via newborn screening with a total carnitine level 67 % of the normal value. At the age of

  7. Serum Zinc, Copper, Magnesium and Selenium Levels in Children with Helicobacter Pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Nurinnisa; Kurt, Nezahat; Özgeriş, Fatma Betül; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kılıç; Tosun, Mahya Sultan; Bakan, Nuri; Bakan, Ebubekir

    2015-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection can cause disease from mild to severe that may be accompanied by micronutrient deficiencies. We aimed to investigate serum zinc, copper, magnesium and selenium levels in Helicobacter pylori positive children. Thirty-four children, with chronic abdominal pain and diag-nosed to be Helicobacter pylori-positive and 20 healthy children with the same demo-graphic characteristics were included in the study. Serum zinc, copper and magnesium levels were measured in the flame unit of atomic absorption spectrophotometer, selenium levels were measured in the graphite unit of the same atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum zinc levels were significantly higher and serum magnesium levels were significantly lower (p0.05). There was no significant difference between serum selenium levels of two groups. We concluded that in Helicobacter pylori-positive children, many trace elements and mineral metabolism may change.

  8. Geomorphology of the lower Copper River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    1997-01-01

    The Copper River, located in southcentral Alaska, drains an area of more than 24,000 square miles. About 30 miles above its mouth, this large river enters Miles Lake, a proglacial lake formed by the retreat of Miles Glacier. Downstream from the outlet of Miles Lake, the Copper River flows past the face of Childs Glacier before it enters a large, broad, alluvial flood plain. The Copper River Highway traverses this flood plain and in 1995, 11 bridges were located along this section of the highway. These bridges cross parts of the Copper River and in recent years, some of these bridges have sustained serious damage due to the changing course of the Copper River. Although the annual mean discharge of the lower Copper River is 57,400 cubic feet per second, most of the flow occurs during the summer months from snowmelt, rainfall, and glacial melt. Approximately every six years, an outburst flood from Van Cleve Lake, a glacier-dammed lake formed by Miles Glacier, releases approximately 1 million acre-feet of water into the Copper River. When the outflow rate from Van Cleve Lake reaches it peak, the flow of the Copper River will increase between 150,000 to 190,000 cubic feet per second. Data collected by bedload sampling and continuous seismic reflection indicated that Miles Lake traps virtually all the bedload being transported by the Copper River as it enters the lake from the north. The reservoir-like effect of Miles Lake results in the armoring of the channel of the Copper River downstream from Miles Lake, past Childs Glacier, until it reaches the alluvial flood plain. At this point, bedload transport begins again. The lower Copper River transports 69 million tons per year of suspended sediment, approximately the same quantity as the Yukon River, which drains an area of more than 300,000 square miles. By correlating concurrent flows from a long-term streamflow-gaging station on the Copper River with a short-term streamflow-gaging station at the outlet of Miles Lake

  9. Liver copper concentration in Wilson's disease: effect of treatment with 'anti-copper' agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, K; Walshe, J M

    1990-01-01

    Serial copper determinations have been made on the livers of 10 patients with Wilson's disease. Two were studied before and eight after the start of treatment in order to assess the effect, if any, on the concentration of the metal. In two patients who were receiving no therapy and in one in whom it had been discontinued, the level of copper rose. In the latter patient, resumption of treatment then resulted in a fall in the level of copper in the liver. A similar fall was seen in seven patients on continuous therapy. In one patient, a very poor complier, there was a tendency for the liver copper concentration to rise over a 5-year period. All three therapies investigated--penicillamine, trientine and tetrathiomolybdate--when taken regularly, appear to be effective in reducing liver copper levels. Sixty-nine single determinations of liver copper have been plotted against time on treatment. This shows that the copper concentration falls rapidly in the first year. Thereafter, there is no linear relationship between the duration of treatment and liver copper. Poor compliers have a higher liver copper concentration than do good compliers. Determinations made from different portions of the liver showed that in only one of 19 examples was there an overlap between the near normal and the abnormal range. The principal mechanism of action of 'anti-copper' agents in Wilson's disease appears to be the mobilization of copper from the tissues, but a secondary detoxifying action may come into play later.

  10. COPPER AND COPPER-CONTAINING PESTICIDES: METABOLISM, TOXICITY AND OXIDATIVE STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Husak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief review of the current knowledge regarding metabolism and toxicity of copper and copper-based pesticides in living organisms. Copper is an essential trace element in all living organisms (bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals, because it participates in different metabolic processes and maintain functions of organisms. The transport and metabolism of copper in living organisms is currently the subject of many studies. Copper is absorbed, transported, distributed, stored, and excreted in the body via the complex of homeostatic processes, which provide organisms with a needed constant level of this micronutrient and avoid excessive amounts. Many aspects of copper homeostasis were studied at the molecular level. Copper based-pesticides, in particularly fungicides, bacteriocides and herbicides, are widely used in agricultural practice throughout the world. Copper is an integral part of antioxidant enzymes, particularly copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD, and plays prominent roles in iron homeostasis. On the other hand, excess of copper in organism has deleterious effect, because it stimulates free radical production in the cell, induces lipid peroxidation, and disturbs the total antioxidant capacity of the body. The mechanisms of copper toxicity are discussed in this review also.

  11. Three stages of copper accumulation in hepatocellular lysosomes: X-ray microanalysis of copper-loaded golden hamsters.

    OpenAIRE

    Yagi, A.; Hayashi, H; Higuchi, T.; Hishida, N.; Sakamoto, N.

    1992-01-01

    Male golden hamsters were loaded with copper by supplying them for up to 12 weeks with drinking water containing 0.5% cupric acetate. The copper feeding increased hepatic copper to widely varying levels. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis could always identify a copper-sulphur complex in the hepatocyte lysosomes of copper-loaded hamsters and the X-ray intensity of copper was found to be a reliable parameter to measure in-situ copper accumulation. Combining this parameter with the copper bi...

  12. Theory of Copper Oxide Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Kamimura, Hiroshi; Shunichi Matsuno; Tsuyoshi Hamada

    2005-01-01

    This is an advanced textbook for graduate students and researchers wishing to learn about high temperature superconductivity in copper oxides, in particular the Kamimura-Suwa (K-S) model. Because a number of models have been proposed since the discovery of high temperature superconductivity by Bednorz and Müller in 1986, the book first explains briefly the historical development that led to the K-S model. It then focuses on the physical background necessary to understand the K-S model and on the basic principles behind various physical phenomena such as electronic structures, electrical, thermal and optical properties, and the mechanism of high temperature superconductivity.

  13. Copper Scrap Industry Remained in Cold Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Beginning from 2012,domestic copper scrap enterprises entered"winter"period,this year the situation further worsened.According to survey,most medium to small sized copper scrap trading enterprises have either closed down,transferred to other businesses,or reduced trading volume,though large trading

  14. Smelting Oxidation Desulfurization of Copper Slags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lei; HU Jian-hang; WANG Hua

    2012-01-01

    According to the mechanism of sulfur removal easily through oxidation, the process of smelting oxidation desulfurization of copper slags is studied, which supplies a new thinking for obtaining the molten iron of lower sulfur content by smelting reduction of copper slags. Special attention is given to the effects of the holding temperature, the holding time and CaF2, CaO addition amounts on the desulfurization rate of copper slags. The results indicate that the rate of copper slags smelting oxidation desulfurization depends on the matte mass transfer rate through the slag phase. After the oxidation treatment, sulfur of copper slags can be removed as SO2 efficiently. Amount of Ca2+ of copper slags affects the desulfurization rate greatly, and the slag desulfurization rate is reduced by adding a certain amount of CaF2 and CaO. Compared with CaF2, CaO is negative to slags sulfur removal with equal Ca2+ addition. Under the air flow of 0.3 U/min, the sulfur content of copper slags can be reduced to 0. 004 67% in the condition of the holding time of 3 min and the holding temperature of 1 500 ℃. The sulfur content of molten iron is reduced to 0. 000 8 % in the smelting reduction of treated slags, and the problem of high sulfur content of molten iron obtained by smelting reduction with copper slag has been successively solved.

  15. Copper and Aluminium Fabricators in Deep Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The copper processing industry of Yingtan represents over 60% of the provincial fiscal revenue.Due to the fallout of the global finan- cial crisis,most of the 78 copper processing enterprises in Yingtan City have or are about to shut down.In late October,Yingtan city spe-

  16. Spent nuclear fuel rods encapsulated in copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, H.D.

    1984-04-01

    Using hot isostatic pressing, spent nuclear fuel rods and other radioactive wastes can be encapsulated in solid copper. The copper capsule which is formed is free of pores and cracks, and is highly resistant to attack by reducing ground waters. Such capsules should contain radioactive materials safely for hundreds of thousands of years in underground storage.

  17. Mesophilic leaching of copper sulphide sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR B. CVETKOVSKI

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper was precipitated using a sodium sulphide solution as the precipitation agent from an acid solution containing 17 g/l copper and 350 g/l sulphuric acid. The particle size of nearly 1 µm in the sulphide sludge sample was detected by optical microscopy. Based on chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, covellite was detected as the major sulphide mineral. The batch bioleach amenability test was performed at 32 °C on the Tk31 mine mesophilic mixed culture using a residence time of 28 days. The dissolution of copper sulphide by direct catalytic leaching of the sulphides with bacteria attached to the particles was found to be worthy, although a small quantity of ferrous ions had to be added to raise the activity of the bacteria and the redox potential of the culture medium. Throughout the 22-day period of the bioleach test, copper recovery based on residue analysis indicated a copper extraction of 95 %, with copper concentration in the bioleach solution of 15 g/l. The slope of the straight line tangential to the exponential part of the extraction curve gave a copper solubilisation rate of 1.1 g/l per day. This suggests that a copper extraction of 95 % for the period of bioleach test of 13.6 days may be attained in a three-stage bioreactor system.

  18. High Copper Amalgam Alloys in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Amalgam Restoration is an example of the material giving its name to the process. Amalgam fillings are made up of mercury, powdered silver and tin. They are mixed and packed into cavities in teeth where it hardens slowly and replaces the missing tooth substance. The high copper have become material of choice as compared to low copper alloys nowadays because of their improved mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, better marginal integrity and improved performance in clinical trial. The high copper amalgam was used as a restorative material. The application of high copper amalgam was found to be much more useful than low copper amalgam. High copper had much more strength, corrosion resistance, durability and resistance to tarnish as compared to low copper amalgams. No marked expansion or condensation was noted in the amalgam restoration after its setting after 24 hrs. By using the high copper alloy, the chances of creep were also minimized in the restored tooth. No discomfort or any kind of odd sensation in the tooth was noted after few days of amalgam restoration in the tooth.

  19. China Curbs the Investment in Copper Smelting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>According to a recent document released by the State Development and Reform Commission (SDRC), the investment in copper smelting by China’s enterprises will be put under strict control so as to prevent the blind investment and duplication in copper smelting projects at low technical standard. The document stipulated a series of conditions including equipment, technology, energy consumption and environmental protection.

  20. Jinchuan Becomes a Shareholder of Huading Copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>At the end of 2011, the signing ceremony was held for China Jinchuan Nonferrous Metals Holding Co., Ltd. to become a shareholder of Baotou Huading Copper Development Co., Ltd. As a leading company of the copper deep processing industry in the high-tech rare earth