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Sample records for cophylogeny reconstruction problem

  1. Jane: a new tool for the cophylogeny reconstruction problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovadia Yaniv

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the theory and implementation of a new software tool, called Jane, for the study of historical associations. This problem arises in parasitology (associations of hosts and parasites, molecular systematics (associations of orderings and genes, and biogeography (associations of regions and orderings. The underlying problem is that of reconciling pairs of trees subject to biologically plausible events and costs associated with these events. Existing software tools for this problem have strengths and limitations, and the new Jane tool described here provides functionality that complements existing tools. Results The Jane software tool uses a polynomial time dynamic programming algorithm in conjunction with a genetic algorithm to find very good, and often optimal, solutions even for relatively large pairs of trees. The tool allows the user to provide rich timing information on both the host and parasite trees. In addition the user can limit host switch distance and specify multiple host switch costs by specifying regions in the host tree and costs for host switches between pairs of regions. Jane also provides a graphical user interface that allows the user to interactively experiment with modifications to the solutions found by the program. Conclusions Jane is shown to be a useful tool for cophylogenetic reconstruction. Its functionality complements existing tools and it is therefore likely to be of use to researchers in the areas of parasitology, molecular systematics, and biogeography.

  2. Inverse problem approaches for digital hologram reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Corinne; Denis, Loic; Thiebaut, Eric; Fournel, Thierry; Seifi, Mozhdeh

    2011-06-01

    Digital holography (DH) is being increasingly used for its time-resolved three-dimensional (3-D) imaging capabilities. A 3-D volume can be numerically reconstructed from a single 2-D hologram. Applications of DH range from experimental mechanics, biology, and fluid dynamics. Improvement and characterization of the 3-D reconstruction algorithms is a current issue. Over the past decade, numerous algorithms for the analysis of holograms have been proposed. They are mostly based on a common approach to hologram processing: digital reconstruction based on the simulation of hologram diffraction. They suffer from artifacts intrinsic to holography: twin-image contamination of the reconstructed images, image distortions for objects located close to the hologram borders. The analysis of the reconstructed planes is therefore limited by these defects. In contrast to this approach, the inverse problems perspective does not transform the hologram but performs object detection and location by matching a model of the hologram. Information is thus extracted from the hologram in an optimal way, leading to two essential results: an improvement of the axial accuracy and the capability to extend the reconstructed field beyond the physical limit of the sensor size (out-of-field reconstruction). These improvements come at the cost of an increase of the computational load compared to (typically non iterative) classical approaches.

  3. Numerical linear algebra for reconstruction inverse problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachaoui, Abdeljalil

    2004-01-01

    Our goal in this paper is to discuss various issues we have encountered in trying to find and implement efficient solvers for a boundary integral equation (BIE) formulation of an iterative method for solving a reconstruction problem. We survey some methods from numerical linear algebra, which are relevant for the solution of this class of inverse problems. We motivate the use of our constructing algorithm, discuss its implementation and mention the use of preconditioned Krylov methods.

  4. A parameter-adaptive dynamic programming approach for inferring cophylogenies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkle, Daniel; Middendorf, Martin; Wieseke, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    . The proposed method utilizes an event-based concept for reconciliation analyses where the possible events are cospeciations, sortings, duplications, and (host) switches. All known event-based approaches so far assign costs to each type of cophylogenetic events in order to find a cost-minimal reconstruction. Co...

  5. Electromagnetic tomography (EMT): image reconstruction based on the inverse problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Starting from Maxwell's equations for inhomogeneous media, nonlinear integral equations of the inverse problem of the electromagnetic tomography (EMT) are derived, whose kernel is the dyadic Green's function for the EMT sensor with a homogeneous medium in the object space. Then in terms of ill-posedness of the inverse problem, a Tikhonov-type regularization model is established based on a linearization-approximation of the nonlinear inverse problem. Finally, an iterative algorithm of image reconstruction based on the inverse problem and reconstruction images of some object flows for simplified sensor are given. Initial results of the image reconstruction show that the algorithm based on the inverse problem is superior to those based on the linear back-projection in the quality of image reconstruction.

  6. Iterative Reconstruction Methods for Hybrid Inverse Problems in Impedance Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristoffer; Knudsen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    For a general formulation of hybrid inverse problems in impedance tomography the Picard and Newton iterative schemes are adapted and four iterative reconstruction algorithms are developed. The general problem formulation includes several existing hybrid imaging modalities such as current density...... impedance imaging, magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography, and ultrasound modulated electrical impedance tomography, and the unified approach to the reconstruction problem encompasses several algorithms suggested in the literature. The four proposed algorithms are implemented numerically in two...... be based on a theoretical analysis of the underlying inverse problem....

  7. Problems of forest reconstruction in Poland – general issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Jaszczak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, stand species compositions are in 43% consistent, in 38% – partially consistent and in 19% - inconsistent with the silvicultural stand type and, therefore, forest reconstruction is a significant and important task for foresters. The study presents the problem of stand reconstruction from the point of view of forest management (regulation, stand stability, concept of reconstruction planning and explains how the concept of stand and forest reconstruction is understood in Poland. Recommended examples of solutions in the field of stand reconstruction were indicated. Criteria of stand assignment for reconstruction, as well as methods of its realisation were discussed from the point of view of successive instructions of forest management and in the light of concepts from different research centres (Poznań, Cracow and Warsaw. The forest reconstruction system and the way of regulation of the final cutting applied within its framework were discussed. Differences in the approach to reconstruction from the point of view of the forest management instruction (2003 and principles of forest silviculture (2003 were indicated.

  8. Reconstruction of the early Universe as a convex optimization problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenier, Y.; Frisch, U.; Hénon, M.; Loeper, G.; Matarrese, S.; Mohayaee, R.; Sobolevskiĭ, A.

    2003-12-01

    We show that the deterministic past history of the Universe can be uniquely reconstructed from knowledge of the present mass density field, the latter being inferred from the three-dimensional distribution of luminous matter, assumed to be tracing the distribution of dark matter up to a known bias. Reconstruction ceases to be unique below those scales - a few Mpc - where multistreaming becomes significant. Above 6 h-1 Mpc we propose and implement an effective Monge-Ampère-Kantorovich method of unique reconstruction. At such scales the Zel'dovich approximation is well satisfied and reconstruction becomes an instance of optimal mass transportation, a problem which goes back to Monge. After discretization into N point masses one obtains an assignment problem that can be handled by effective algorithms with not more than O(N3) time complexity and reasonable CPU time requirements. Testing against N-body cosmological simulations gives over 60 per cent of exactly reconstructed points. We apply several interrelated tools from optimization theory that were not used in cosmological reconstruction before, such as the Monge-Ampère equation, its relation to the mass transportation problem, the Kantorovich duality and the auction algorithm for optimal assignment. A self-contained discussion of relevant notions and techniques is provided.

  9. Dispersal routes reconstruction and the minimum cost arborescence problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordijk, Wim; Broennimann, Olivier

    2012-09-01

    We show that the dispersal routes reconstruction problem can be stated as an instance of a graph theoretical problem known as the minimum cost arborescence problem, for which there exist efficient algorithms. Furthermore, we derive some theoretical results, in a simplified setting, on the possible optimal values that can be obtained for this problem. With this, we place the dispersal routes reconstruction problem on solid theoretical grounds, establishing it as a tractable problem that also lends itself to formal mathematical and computational analysis. Finally, we present an insightful example of how this framework can be applied to real data. We propose that our computational method can be used to define the most parsimonious dispersal (or invasion) scenarios, which can then be tested using complementary methods such as genetic analysis.

  10. Reconstruction of the early Universe as a convex optimization problem

    CERN Document Server

    Brenier, Y; Hénon, M; Loeper, G; Matarrese, S; Mohayaee, R; Sobolevskii, A

    2003-01-01

    We show that the deterministic past history of the Universe can be uniquely reconstructed from the knowledge of the present mass density field, the latter being inferred from the 3D distribution of luminous matter, assumed to be tracing the distribution of dark matter up to a known bias. Reconstruction ceases to be unique below those scales -- a few Mpc -- where multi-streaming becomes significant. Above 6 Mpc/h we propose and implement an effective Monge-Ampere-Kantorovich method of unique reconstruction. At such scales the Zel'dovich approximation is well satisfied and reconstruction becomes an instance of optimal mass transportation, a problem which goes back to Monge (1781). After discretization into N point masses one obtains an assignment problem that can be handled by effective algorithms with not more than cubic time complexity in N and reasonable CPU time requirements. Testing against N-body cosmological simulations gives over 60% of exactly reconstructed points. We apply several interrelated tools f...

  11. Classical Machian Resolution of the Spacetime Reconstruction Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Following from a question of Wheeler, why does the Hamiltonian constraint ${\\cal H}$ of GR have the particular form it does? A first answer, by Hojman, Kucha\\v{r} and Teitelboim is that using embeddability into spacetime as a principle gives the form of ${\\cal H}$. The present paper culminates a second Machian answer -- initially by Barbour, Foster and \\'{o} Murchadha -- in which space but not spacetime are assumed. Thus this answer is additionally a classical-level resolution of the spacetime reconstruction problem. In this approach, mere consistency imposed by the Dirac procedure whittles down a general ansatz to one of four alternatives: Lorentzian, Galilean, Carrollian relativity and constant mean curvature slicing. These arise together as the different ways to kill off a 4-factor obstruction term. It is novel for such an alternative to arise from principles of dynamics considerations (in contrast with the historical form of the dichotomy between universal local Galilean or Lorentzian relativity). It is f...

  12. Including geological information in the inverse problem of palaeothermal reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautner, S.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2003-04-01

    A reliable reconstruction of sediment thermal history is of central importance to the assessment of hydrocarbon potential and the understanding of basin evolution. However, only rarely do sedimentation history and borehole data in the form of present day temperatures and vitrinite reflectance constrain the past thermal evolution to a useful level of accuracy (Gallagher and Sambridge,1992; Nielsen,1998; Trautner and Nielsen,2003). This is reflected in the inverse solutions to the problem of determining heat flow history from borehole data: The recent heat flow is constrained by data while older values are governed by the chosen a prior heat flow. In this paper we reduce this problem by including geological information in the inverse problem. Through a careful analysis of geological and geophysical data the timing of the tectonic processes, which may influence heat flow, can be inferred. The heat flow history is then parameterised to allow for the temporal variations characteristic of the different tectonic events. The inversion scheme applies a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach (Nielsen and Gallagher, 1999; Ferrero and Gallagher,2002), which efficiently explores the model space and futhermore samples the posterior probability distribution of the model. The technique is demonstrated on wells in the northern North Sea with emphasis on the stretching event in Late Jurassic. The wells are characterised by maximum sediment temperature at the present day, which is the worst case for resolution of the past thermal history because vitrinite reflectance is determined mainly by the maximum temperature. Including geological information significantly improves the thermal resolution. Ferrero, C. and Gallagher,K.,2002. Stochastic thermal history modelling.1. Constraining heat flow histories and their uncertainty. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 19, 633-648. Gallagher,K. and Sambridge, M., 1992. The resolution of past heat flow in sedimentary basins from non-linear inversion

  13. A Solution to Hammer's X-ray Reconstruction Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Richard J.; Kiderlen, Markus

    2007-01-01

    We propose algorithms for reconstructing a planar convex body K from possibly noisy measurements of either its parallel X-rays taken in a fixed finite set of directions or its point X-rays taken at a fixed finite set of points, in known situations that guarantee a unique solution when the data is...

  14. Reconstruction Methods for Inverse Problems with Partial Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristoffer

    This thesis presents a theoretical and numerical analysis of a general mathematical formulation of hybrid inverse problems in impedance tomography. This includes problems from several existing hybrid imaging modalities such as Current Density Impedance Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Electrical...... Impedance Tomography, and Ultrasound Modulated Electrical Impedance Tomography. After giving an introduction to hybrid inverse problems in impedance tomography and the mathematical tools that facilitate the related analysis, we explain in detail the stability properties associated with the classification...... of a linearised hybrid inverse problem. This is done using pseudo-differential calculus and theory for overdetermined boundary value problem. Using microlocal analysis we then present novel results on the propagation of singularities, which give a precise description of the distinct features of solutions...

  15. Convex optimization problem prototyping for image reconstruction in computed tomography with the Chambolle–Pock algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidky, Emil Y.; Jørgensen, Jakob Heide; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2012-01-01

    for the purpose of designing iterative image reconstruction algorithms for CT. The primal–dual algorithm is briefly summarized in this paper, and its potential for prototyping is demonstrated by explicitly deriving CP algorithm instances for many optimization problems relevant to CT. An example application......The primal–dual optimization algorithm developed in Chambolle and Pock (CP) (2011 J. Math. Imag. Vis. 40 1–26) is applied to various convex optimization problems of interest in computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction. This algorithm allows for rapid prototyping of optimization problems...

  16. Sparse deconvolution for the large-scale ill-posed inverse problem of impact force reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Baijie; Zhang, Xingwu; Gao, Jiawei; Liu, Ruonan; Chen, Xuefeng

    2017-01-01

    Most previous regularization methods for solving the inverse problem of force reconstruction are to minimize the l2-norm of the desired force. However, these traditional regularization methods such as Tikhonov regularization and truncated singular value decomposition, commonly fail to solve the large-scale ill-posed inverse problem in moderate computational cost. In this paper, taking into account the sparse characteristic of impact force, the idea of sparse deconvolution is first introduced to the field of impact force reconstruction and a general sparse deconvolution model of impact force is constructed. Second, a novel impact force reconstruction method based on the primal-dual interior point method (PDIPM) is proposed to solve such a large-scale sparse deconvolution model, where minimizing the l2-norm is replaced by minimizing the l1-norm. Meanwhile, the preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm is used to compute the search direction of PDIPM with high computational efficiency. Finally, two experiments including the small-scale or medium-scale single impact force reconstruction and the relatively large-scale consecutive impact force reconstruction are conducted on a composite wind turbine blade and a shell structure to illustrate the advantage of PDIPM. Compared with Tikhonov regularization, PDIPM is more efficient, accurate and robust whether in the single impact force reconstruction or in the consecutive impact force reconstruction.

  17. Finding links and initiators: a graph reconstruction problem

    CERN Document Server

    Mannila, Heikki

    2008-01-01

    Consider a 0-1 observation matrix M, where rows correspond to entities and columns correspond to signals; a value of 1 (or 0) in cell (i,j) of M indicates that signal j has been observed (or not observed) in entity i. Given such a matrix we study the problem of inferring the underlying directed links between entities (rows) and finding which entries in the matrix are initiators. We formally define this problem and propose an MCMC framework for estimating the links and the initiators given the matrix of observations M. We also show how this framework can be extended to incorporate a temporal aspect; instead of considering a single observation matrix M we consider a sequence of observation matrices M1,..., Mt over time. We show the connection between our problem and several problems studied in the field of social-network analysis. We apply our method to paleontological and ecological data and show that our algorithms work well in practice and give reasonable results.

  18. The Problem of Rain Microstructure Reconstruction In Microwave Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterlyadkin, V.

    Our field measurements of raindrop oscillations in optical range had proved that prac- tically all drops oscillate as they fall. The statistical treatment of field data allows us to approximate the dependence of oscillation amplitudes of the first axisymmetric mode on the drop volume V as , where A is a some constant for a given meteorological case. A raindrops vibration result to the amplitude modulation of scattering microwave ra- diation and under the first view allows to reconstruct the rain microstructure from the spectra of scattered microwaves. But up to date the most attempts were not success- ful. At first it was connected with great influence of the Doppler effect on microwave spectra. The effect of the asperity and vibration of raindrops on polarization properties of scattered microwave radiation and the spectrum of the recorded signal was investi- gated. The possibility of controlling of contribution of vibration to the signal spectrum by choosing the angle of polarization of the sounding radiation is proved theoretically and was confirmed by laboratory measurements. A method is proposed for separat- ing the spectra components determined by raindrops oscillations. The prospect for increasing the accuracy of radar measurements of the intensity of precipitation by means on-line acquisitions of data on rain microstructure are discussed.

  19. Solutions to the reconstruction problem in asymptotic safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Tim R.; Slade, Zoë H. [STAG Research Centre & School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-13

    Starting from a full renormalised trajectory for the effective average action (a.k.a. infrared cutoff Legendre effective action) Γ{sub k}, we explicitly reconstruct corresponding bare actions, formulated in one of two ways. The first step is to construct the corresponding Wilsonian effective action S{sup k} through a tree-level expansion in terms of the vertices provided by Γ{sub k}. It forms a perfect bare action giving the same renormalised trajectory. A bare action with some ultraviolet cutoff scale Λ and infrared cutoff k necessarily produces an effective average action Γ{sub k}{sup Λ} that depends on both cutoffs, but if the already computed S{sup Λ} is used, we show how Γ{sub k}{sup Λ} can also be computed from Γ{sub k} by a tree-level expansion, and that Γ{sub k}{sup Λ}→Γ{sub k} as Λ→∞. Along the way we show that Legendre effective actions with different UV cutoff profiles, but which correspond to the same Wilsonian effective action, are related through tree-level expansions. All these expansions follow from Legendre transform relationships that can be derived from the original one between Γ{sub k}{sup Λ} and S{sup k}.

  20. Phylogenetic Diversity, Distribution, and Cophylogeny of Giant Bacteria (Epulopiscium) with their Surgeonfish Hosts in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Miyake, Sou

    2016-03-14

    Epulopiscium is a group of giant bacteria found in high abundance in intestinal tracts of herbivorous surgeonfish. Despite their peculiarly large cell size (can be up to 600 μm), extreme polyploidy (some with over 100,000 genome copies per cell) and viviparity (whereby mother cells produce live offspring), details about their diversity, distribution or their role in the host gut are lacking. Previous studies have highlighted the existence of morphologically distinct Epulopiscium cell types (defined as morphotypes A to J) in some surgeonfish genera, but the corresponding genetic diversity and distribution among other surgeonfishes remain mostly unknown. Therefore, we investigated the phylogenetic diversity of Epulopiscium, distribution and co-occurrence in multiple hosts. Here, we identified eleven new phylogenetic clades, six of which were also morphologically characterized. Three of these novel clades were phylogenetically and morphologically similar to cigar-shaped type A1 cells, found in a wide range of surgeonfishes including Acanthurus nigrofuscus, while three were similar to smaller, rod-shaped type E that has not been phylogenetically classified thus far. Our results also confirmed that biogeography appears to have relatively little influence on Epulopiscium diversity, as clades found in the Great Barrier Reef and Hawaii were also recovered from the Red Sea. Although multiple symbiont clades inhabited a given species of host surgeonfish and multiple host species possessed a given symbiont clade, statistical analysis of host and symbiont phylogenies indicated significant cophylogeny, which in turn suggests co-evolutionary relationships. A cluster analysis of Epulopiscium sequences from previously published amplicon sequencing dataset revealed a similar pattern, where specific clades were consistently found in high abundance amongst closely related surgeonfishes. Differences in abundance may indicate specialization of clades to certain gut environments

  1. A Public Key Encryption Scheme Based on the Polynomial Reconstruction Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Augot, Daniel; Finiasz, Matthieu

    2003-01-01

    International audience; The Polynomial Reconstruction problem (PR) has been introduced in 1999 as a new hard problem. Several cryptographic primitives established on this problem have been constructed, for instance Naor and Pinkas have proposed a protocol for oblivious polynomial evaluation. Then it has been studied from the point of view of robustness, and several important properties have been discovered and proved by Kiayias and Yung. Furthermore the same authors constructed a symmetric ci...

  2. A reconstruction algorithm based on topological gradient for an inverse problem related to a semilinear elliptic boundary value problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Elena; Manzoni, Andrea; Ratti, Luca

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we develop a reconstruction algorithm for the solution of an inverse boundary value problem dealing with a semilinear elliptic partial differential equation of interest in cardiac electrophysiology. The goal is the detection of small inhomogeneities located inside a domain Ω , where the coefficients of the equation are altered, starting from observations of the solution of the equation on the boundary \\partial Ω . Exploiting theoretical results recently achieved in [13], we implement a reconstruction procedure based on the computation of the topological gradient of a suitable cost functional. Numerical results obtained for several test cases finally assess the feasibility and the accuracy of the proposed technique.

  3. Multi-frequency image reconstruction for radio interferometry. A regularized inverse problem approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, André; Ferrari, Chiara; Mary, David; Schutz, Antony; Smirnov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    We describe a "spatio-spectral" deconvolution algorithm for wide-band imaging in radio interferometry. In contrast with the existing multi-frequency reconstruction algorithms, the proposed method does not rely on a model of the sky-brightness spectral distribution. This non-parametric approach can be of particular interest for the new generation of low frequency radiotelescopes. The proposed solution formalizes the reconstruction problem as a convex optimization problem with spatial and spectral regularizations. The efficiency of this approach has been already proven for narrow-band image reconstruction and the present contribution can be considered as its extension to the multi-frequency case. Because the number of frequency bands multiplies the size of the inverse problem, particular attention is devoted to the derivation of an iterative large scale optimization algorithm. It is shown that the main computational bottleneck of the approach, which lies in the resolution of a linear system, can be efficiently ...

  4. Ill-posed problem and regularization in reconstruction of radiobiological parameters from serial tumor imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvetsov, Alevei V.; Sandison, George A.; Schwartz, Jeffrey L.; Rengan, Ramesh

    2015-11-01

    The main objective of this article is to improve the stability of reconstruction algorithms for estimation of radiobiological parameters using serial tumor imaging data acquired during radiation therapy. Serial images of tumor response to radiation therapy represent a complex summation of several exponential processes as treatment induced cell inactivation, tumor growth rates, and the rate of cell loss. Accurate assessment of treatment response would require separation of these processes because they define radiobiological determinants of treatment response and, correspondingly, tumor control probability. However, the estimation of radiobiological parameters using imaging data can be considered an inverse ill-posed problem because a sum of several exponentials would produce the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind which is ill posed. Therefore, the stability of reconstruction of radiobiological parameters presents a problem even for the simplest models of tumor response. To study stability of the parameter reconstruction problem, we used a set of serial CT imaging data for head and neck cancer and a simplest case of a two-level cell population model of tumor response. Inverse reconstruction was performed using a simulated annealing algorithm to minimize a least squared objective function. Results show that the reconstructed values of cell surviving fractions and cell doubling time exhibit significant nonphysical fluctuations if no stabilization algorithms are applied. However, after applying a stabilization algorithm based on variational regularization, the reconstruction produces statistical distributions for survival fractions and doubling time that are comparable to published in vitro data. This algorithm is an advance over our previous work where only cell surviving fractions were reconstructed. We conclude that variational regularization allows for an increase in the number of free parameters in our model which enables development of more

  5. A Multilevel Approach to the Algebraic Image Reconstruction Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    space of the matrix is characterized. The composite linear system of equations can be solved using a block Gauss- Seidel method . This approach is...and later use this fact to show that the Gauss- Seidel method when applied to the problem cannot diverge and in fact must converge. Theorem 4.2: B is...xi - 1 L.....t q1Jxj L.....t q1Jxj , qii j=l j=i+l which defines one iteration of the Gauss- Seidel method . Recasting (5.4) once again in matrix

  6. On a problem of reconstruction of a discontinuous function by its Radon transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevtsov, Evgeny Yu.; Maltseva, Svetlana V.; Svetov, Ivan E.; Sultanov, Murat A.

    2016-08-01

    A problem of reconstruction of a discontinuous function by its Radon transform is considered. One of the approaches to the numerical solution for the problem consists in the next sequential steps: a visualization of a set of breaking points; an identification of this set; a determination of jump values; an elimination of discontinuities. We consider three of listed problems except the problem of jump values. The problems are investigated by mathematical modeling using numerical experiments. The results of simulation are satisfactory and allow to hope for the further development of the approach.

  7. Comparative study of iterative reconstruction algorithms for missing cone problems in optical diffraction tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, JooWon; Lee, KyeoReh; Jin, Kyong Hwan; Shin, Seungwoo; Lee, SeoEun; Park, YongKeun; Ye, Jong Chul

    2015-06-29

    In optical tomography, there exist certain spatial frequency components that cannot be measured due to the limited projection angles imposed by the numerical aperture of objective lenses. This limitation, often called as the missing cone problem, causes the under-estimation of refractive index (RI) values in tomograms and results in severe elongations of RI distributions along the optical axis. To address this missing cone problem, several iterative reconstruction algorithms have been introduced exploiting prior knowledge such as positivity in RI differences or edges of samples. In this paper, various existing iterative reconstruction algorithms are systematically compared for mitigating the missing cone problem in optical diffraction tomography. In particular, three representative regularization schemes, edge preserving, total variation regularization, and the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm, were numerically and experimentally evaluated using spherical beads as well as real biological samples; human red blood cells and hepatocyte cells. Our work will provide important guidelines for choosing the appropriate regularization in ODT.

  8. A new non-iterative reconstruction method for the electrical impedance tomography problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A. D.; Novotny, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The electrical impedance tomography (EIT) problem consists in determining the distribution of the electrical conductivity of a medium subject to a set of current fluxes, from measurements of the corresponding electrical potentials on its boundary. EIT is probably the most studied inverse problem since the fundamental works by Calderón from the 1980s. It has many relevant applications in medicine (detection of tumors), geophysics (localization of mineral deposits) and engineering (detection of corrosion in structures). In this work, we are interested in reconstructing a number of anomalies with different electrical conductivity from the background. Since the EIT problem is written in the form of an overdetermined boundary value problem, the idea is to rewrite it as a topology optimization problem. In particular, a shape functional measuring the misfit between the boundary measurements and the electrical potentials obtained from the model is minimized with respect to a set of ball-shaped anomalies by using the concept of topological derivatives. It means that the objective functional is expanded and then truncated up to the second order term, leading to a quadratic and strictly convex form with respect to the parameters under consideration. Thus, a trivial optimization step leads to a non-iterative second order reconstruction algorithm. As a result, the reconstruction process becomes very robust with respect to noisy data and independent of any initial guess. Finally, in order to show the effectiveness of the devised reconstruction algorithm, some numerical experiments into two spatial dimensions are presented, taking into account total and partial boundary measurements.

  9. Measurement Matrix Optimization and Mismatch Problem Compensation for DLSLA 3-D SAR Cross-Track Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qian; Jiang, Chenglong; Lin, Yun; Tan, Weixian; Wang, Zhirui; Hong, Wen

    2016-01-01

    With a short linear array configured in the cross-track direction, downward looking sparse linear array three-dimensional synthetic aperture radar (DLSLA 3-D SAR) can obtain the 3-D image of an imaging scene. To improve the cross-track resolution, sparse recovery methods have been investigated in recent years. In the compressive sensing (CS) framework, the reconstruction performance depends on the property of measurement matrix. This paper concerns the technique to optimize the measurement matrix and deal with the mismatch problem of measurement matrix caused by the off-grid scatterers. In the model of cross-track reconstruction, the measurement matrix is mainly affected by the configuration of antenna phase centers (APC), thus, two mutual coherence based criteria are proposed to optimize the configuration of APCs. On the other hand, to compensate the mismatch problem of the measurement matrix, the sparse Bayesian inference based method is introduced into the cross-track reconstruction by jointly estimate the scatterers and the off-grid error. Experiments demonstrate the performance of the proposed APCs’ configuration schemes and the proposed cross-track reconstruction method. PMID:27556471

  10. Measurement Matrix Optimization and Mismatch Problem Compensation for DLSLA 3-D SAR Cross-Track Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qian; Jiang, Chenglong; Lin, Yun; Tan, Weixian; Wang, Zhirui; Hong, Wen

    2016-08-22

    With a short linear array configured in the cross-track direction, downward looking sparse linear array three-dimensional synthetic aperture radar (DLSLA 3-D SAR) can obtain the 3-D image of an imaging scene. To improve the cross-track resolution, sparse recovery methods have been investigated in recent years. In the compressive sensing (CS) framework, the reconstruction performance depends on the property of measurement matrix. This paper concerns the technique to optimize the measurement matrix and deal with the mismatch problem of measurement matrix caused by the off-grid scatterers. In the model of cross-track reconstruction, the measurement matrix is mainly affected by the configuration of antenna phase centers (APC), thus, two mutual coherence based criteria are proposed to optimize the configuration of APCs. On the other hand, to compensate the mismatch problem of the measurement matrix, the sparse Bayesian inference based method is introduced into the cross-track reconstruction by jointly estimate the scatterers and the off-grid error. Experiments demonstrate the performance of the proposed APCs' configuration schemes and the proposed cross-track reconstruction method.

  11. Measurement Matrix Optimization and Mismatch Problem Compensation for DLSLA 3-D SAR Cross-Track Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Bao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With a short linear array configured in the cross-track direction, downward looking sparse linear array three-dimensional synthetic aperture radar (DLSLA 3-D SAR can obtain the 3-D image of an imaging scene. To improve the cross-track resolution, sparse recovery methods have been investigated in recent years. In the compressive sensing (CS framework, the reconstruction performance depends on the property of measurement matrix. This paper concerns the technique to optimize the measurement matrix and deal with the mismatch problem of measurement matrix caused by the off-grid scatterers. In the model of cross-track reconstruction, the measurement matrix is mainly affected by the configuration of antenna phase centers (APC, thus, two mutual coherence based criteria are proposed to optimize the configuration of APCs. On the other hand, to compensate the mismatch problem of the measurement matrix, the sparse Bayesian inference based method is introduced into the cross-track reconstruction by jointly estimate the scatterers and the off-grid error. Experiments demonstrate the performance of the proposed APCs’ configuration schemes and the proposed cross-track reconstruction method.

  12. Derivational Analogy: A Theory of Reconstructive Problem Solving and Expertise Acquisition.,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    Failed attempts, and members of other clusters provide the negative exemplars to an induction engine. DERIVATIONAL ANALOGY 1. Introduction: The Role of...transformational analogy , has been successfully implemented in ARIES (An:logical Reasoning and Inductive Experimentation System) [9]. The second approach, called...RD-ARi5 917 DERIYATIONAL ANALOGY A THEORY OF RECONSTRUCTIVE 1/1 PROBLEM SOLVING RND EXPE..(U) CRRNEGIE-MELLON UNIV PITTSBURGH PR DEPT OF COMPUTER

  13. Optical correlation algorithm for reconstructing phase skeleton of complex optical fields for solving the phase problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Gorsky, M. P.; Hanson, Steen Grüner;

    2014-01-01

    We propose an optical correlation algorithm illustrating a new general method for reconstructing the phase skeleton of complex optical fields from the measured two-dimensional intensity distribution. The core of the algorithm consists in locating the saddle points of the intensity distribution an...... and connecting such points into nets by the lines of intensity gradient that are closely associated with the equi-phase lines of the field. This algorithm provides a new partial solution to the inverse problem in optics commonly referred to as the phase problem....

  14. Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Zurrida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Primary treatment is surgery, with mastectomy as the main treatment for most of the twentieth century. However, over that time, the extent of the procedure varied, and less extensive mastectomies are employed today compared to those used in the past, as excessively mutilating procedures did not improve survival. Today, many women receive breast-conserving surgery, usually with radiotherapy to the residual breast, instead of mastectomy, as it has been shown to be as effective as mastectomy in early disease. The relatively new skin-sparing mastectomy, often with immediate breast reconstruction, improves aesthetic outcomes and is oncologically safe. Nipple-sparing mastectomy is newer and used increasingly, with better acceptance by patients, and again appears to be oncologically safe. Breast reconstruction is an important adjunct to mastectomy, as it has a positive psychological impact on the patient, contributing to improved quality of life.

  15. EXTEND OPERATION PROBLEMS AND RECONSTRUCTION OF LARGEPANEL FIVE-STOREY BUILDINGS OF 50-60-IES XX CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising of the problem. In many regions is utilised housing, that age is more than half a century. According to the research materials of the analytical center of Ukrainian Cities Association there are 25,5 thousand houses built by first mass series project of large, block and brick buildings with a total area of 72 million M2 today in the state, rather those, that require reconstruction and modernization. In general, most of the housing stock of Ukraine is in a poor technical condition due to its deficient funding; it keeps the tendency of premature aging of the housing stock.One of the major problems of modern construction industry is the continuation of housing exploitation, in particular is it the building era of mass construction of 50-60-ies of XX century, called "Khrushchevki". According to the State Statistics Service of Ukraine the deterioration of residential buildings in Ukraine amounts to 47.2%, which makes us think of the immediate actions to occure this situation. The most acceptable way, at first viewe, seems the reconstruction of "Khrushchvki". However, the reconstruction is a complex problem that requires the construction industry solution due to the economic component, the social factor, the views of residents of these homes to create a technological and economical viable result. Analysis of publications. The problem of the "Khrushchevki" reconstruction is the subject of continual researches of leading builders of Ukraine. In the researchers' attention just as the technological problems [1 - 3], so economic components [4 - 6], in general, give an idea of the work scale required to overcome the impending crisis. The purpose of the article. Defining the main problems of exploatation of panel fivestory buildings of 50 - 60-ies twentieth century and their residents thoughts about existing inconvenience, as well as associated economic, technological and legal problems in the implementation of buildings reconstruction. Conclusions

  16. Studies of Sensitivity in the Dictionary Learning Approach to Computed Tomography: Simplifying the Reconstruction Problem, Rotation, and Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Sara

    In this report, we address the problem of low-dose tomographic image reconstruction using dictionary priors learned from training images. In our recent work [22] dictionary learning is used to incorporate priors from training images and construct a dictionary, and then the reconstruction problem...... is formulated in a convex optimization framework by looking for a solution with a sparse representation in the subspace spanned by the dictionary. The work in [22] has shown that using learned dictionaries in computed tomography can lead to superior image reconstructions comparing to classical methods. Our...... formulation in [22] enforces that the solution is an exact representation by the dictionary; in this report, we investigate this requirement. Furthermore, the underlying assumption that the scale and orientation of the training images are consistent with the unknown image of interest may not be realistic. We...

  17. Multiple Linear Regression for Reconstruction of Gene Regulatory Networks in Solving Cascade Error Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faridah Hani Mohamed Salleh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory network (GRN reconstruction is the process of identifying regulatory gene interactions from experimental data through computational analysis. One of the main reasons for the reduced performance of previous GRN methods had been inaccurate prediction of cascade motifs. Cascade error is defined as the wrong prediction of cascade motifs, where an indirect interaction is misinterpreted as a direct interaction. Despite the active research on various GRN prediction methods, the discussion on specific methods to solve problems related to cascade errors is still lacking. In fact, the experiments conducted by the past studies were not specifically geared towards proving the ability of GRN prediction methods in avoiding the occurrences of cascade errors. Hence, this research aims to propose Multiple Linear Regression (MLR to infer GRN from gene expression data and to avoid wrongly inferring of an indirect interaction (A → B → C as a direct interaction (A → C. Since the number of observations of the real experiment datasets was far less than the number of predictors, some predictors were eliminated by extracting the random subnetworks from global interaction networks via an established extraction method. In addition, the experiment was extended to assess the effectiveness of MLR in dealing with cascade error by using a novel experimental procedure that had been proposed in this work. The experiment revealed that the number of cascade errors had been very minimal. Apart from that, the Belsley collinearity test proved that multicollinearity did affect the datasets used in this experiment greatly. All the tested subnetworks obtained satisfactory results, with AUROC values above 0.5.

  18. One-shot 3d surface reconstruction from instantaneous frequencies: solutions to ambiguity problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der F.; Spreeuwers, L.J.; Nijmeijer, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Phase-measuring profilometry is a well known technique for 3D surface reconstruction based on a sinusoidal pattern that is projected on a scene. If the surface is partly occluded by, for instance, other objects, then the depth shows abrupt transitions at the edges of these occlusions. This causes am

  19. Haplotype reconstruction error as a classical misclassification problem: introducing sensitivity and specificity as error measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lamina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statistically reconstructing haplotypes from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotypes, can lead to falsely classified haplotypes. This can be an issue when interpreting haplotype association results or when selecting subjects with certain haplotypes for subsequent functional studies. It was our aim to quantify haplotype reconstruction error and to provide tools for it. METHODS AND RESULTS: By numerous simulation scenarios, we systematically investigated several error measures, including discrepancy, error rate, and R(2, and introduced the sensitivity and specificity to this context. We exemplified several measures in the KORA study, a large population-based study from Southern Germany. We find that the specificity is slightly reduced only for common haplotypes, while the sensitivity was decreased for some, but not all rare haplotypes. The overall error rate was generally increasing with increasing number of loci, increasing minor allele frequency of SNPs, decreasing correlation between the alleles and increasing ambiguity. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that, with the analytical approach presented here, haplotype-specific error measures can be computed to gain insight into the haplotype uncertainty. This method provides the information, if a specific risk haplotype can be expected to be reconstructed with rather no or high misclassification and thus on the magnitude of expected bias in association estimates. We also illustrate that sensitivity and specificity separate two dimensions of the haplotype reconstruction error, which completely describe the misclassification matrix and thus provide the prerequisite for methods accounting for misclassification.

  20. [Current problems in the reconstructive surgery of the locomotor apparatus in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupatadze, D D; Nabokov, V V; Malikov, S A; Polozov, R N; Kanina, L Ia; Veselov, A G

    1997-01-01

    The authors analyze results of treatment of 778 children with malignant and benign tumors of the bones, pseudoarthroses, amputations of lower extremities and fingers, injuries of the tendons, vessels and contused-lacerated wounds of distal phalanges of fingers. The possibility to use a precision technique for the reconstructive operations of the vessels in children is shown.

  1. Stochastic Aspect of the Tomographic Reconstruction Problems in a Transport Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kharin, Igor

    2010-01-01

    The stochastic differential and integral equations describing the system of particles weakly interacting among themselves which are absorbed and scattered by particles of a medium are considered. The time-dependent transport equation with scattering is studied taking into account stochastic nature of parameters in nuclear imaging. Using dynamic attenuated Radon transform the solution of transport equation may be derived taking into account of the scattering as perturbation. We analyze the influence of the random variables upon the image reconstruction both generally and in more details for the case of point source. It is shown by the example of the method of the filtered back projection (FBP) that unaccounted small fluctuations of attenuation coefficient can cause essential distortions of image texture and degradation of the resolution at image reconstruction in single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) and less in X-ray computerized tomography (CT). The mechanism of these distortions is analyzed...

  2. Craniofacial reconstruction as a prediction problem using a Latent Root Regression model

    CERN Document Server

    Berar, Maxime; Glaunès, Joan Alexis; Rozenholc, Yves; 10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.03.010

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a computer-assisted method for facial reconstruction. This method provides an estimation of the facial shape associated with unidentified skeletal remains. Current computer-assisted methods using a statistical framework rely on a common set of extracted points located on the bone and soft-tissue surfaces. Most of the facial reconstruction methods then consist of predicting the position of the soft-tissue surface points, when the positions of the bone surface points are known. We propose to use Latent Root Regression for prediction. The results obtained are then compared to those given by Principal Components Analysis linear models. In conjunction, we have evaluated the influence of the number of skull landmarks used. Anatomical skull landmarks are completed iteratively by points located upon geodesics which link these anatomical landmarks, thus enabling us to artificially increase the number of skull points. Facial points are obtained using a mesh-matching algorithm between a common ...

  3. On the existence of compactly supported reconstruction functions in a sampling problem

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, A G; Perez-Villalon, G

    2008-01-01

    Assume that samples of a filtered version of a function in a shift-invariant space are avalaible. This work deals with the existence of a sampling formula involving these samples and having reconstruction functions with compact support. Thus, low computational complexity is involved and truncation errors are avoided. This is done in the light of the generalized sampling theory by using the oversampling technique: more samples than strictly necessary are used. For a suitable choice of the sampling period, a necessary and sufficient condition is given in terms of the Kronecker canonical form of a matrix pencil. Comparing with other characterizations in the mathematical literature, the given here has an important advantage: it can be reliable computed by using the GUPTRI form of the matrix pencil. Finally, a practical method for computing the compactly supported reconstruction functions is given for the important case where the oversampling rate is minimum.

  4. Noise reduction by sparse representation in learned dictionaries for application to blind tip reconstruction problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwiak, Grzegorz

    2017-03-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a well known tool used for the investigation of phenomena in objects in the nanometer size range. However, quantitative results are limited by the size and the shape of the nanoprobe used in experiments. Blind tip reconstruction (BTR) is a very popular method used to reconstruct the upper boundary on the shape of the probe. This method is known to be very sensitive to all kinds of interference in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) image. Due to mathematical morphology calculus, the interference makes the BTR results biased rather than randomly disrupted. For this reason, the careful choice of methods used for image enhancement and denoising, as well as the shape of a calibration sample are very important. In the paper, the results of thorough investigations on the shape of a calibration standard are shown. A novel shape is proposed and a tool for the simulation of AFM images of this calibration standard was designed. It was shown that careful choice of the initial tip allows us to use images of hole structures to blindly reconstruct the shape of a probe. The simulator was used to test the impact of modern filtration algorithms on the BTR process. These techniques are based on sparse approximation with function dictionaries learned on the basis of an image itself. Various learning algorithms and parameters were tested to determine the optimal combination for sparse representation. It was observed that the strong reduction of noise does not guarantee strong reduction in reconstruction errors. It seems that further improvements will be possible by the combination of BTR and a noise reduction procedure.

  5. An iterative virtual projection method to improve the reconstruction performance for ill-posed emission tomographic problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳华蔚; 郑树; 周怀春

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the reconstruction performance for ill-posed emission tomographic problems with limited projec-tions, a generalized interpolation method is proposed in this paper, in which the virtual lines of projection are fabricated from, but not linearly dependent on, the measured projections. The method is called the virtual projection (VP) method. Also, an iterative correction method for the integral lengths is proposed to reduce the error brought about by the virtual lines of projection. The combination of the two methods is called the iterative virtual projection (IVP) method. Based on a scheme of equilateral triangle plane meshes and a six asymmetrically arranged detection system, numerical simulations and experimental verification are conducted. Simulation results obtained by using a non-negative linear least squares method, without any other constraints or regularization, demonstrate that the VP method can gradually reduce the reconstruction error and converges to the desired one by fabricating additional effective projections. When the mean square deviation of normal error superimposed on the simulated measured projections is smaller than 0.03, i.e., the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the measured projections is higher than 30.4, the IVP method can further reduce the reconstruction error reached by the VP method apparently. In addition, as the regularization matrix in the Tikhonov regularization method is updated by an iterative correction process similar to the IVP method presented in this paper, or the Tikhonov regularization method is used in the IVP method, good improvement is achieved.

  6. A trust region-CG algorithm for deblurring problem inatmospheric image reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yanfei(王彦飞); YUAN; Yaxiang(袁亚湘); ZHANG; Hongchao(张洪超)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we solve large scale ill-posed problems, particularly the image restoration problem in atmospheric imaging sciences, by a trust region-CG algorithm. Image restoration involves the removal or minimization of degradation (blur, clutter, noise, etc.) in an image using a priori knowledge about the degradation phenomena. Our basic technique is the so-called trust region method, while the subproblem is solved by the truncated conjugate gradient method, which has been well developed for well-posed problems.The trust region method, due to its robustness in global convergence, seems to be a promising way to deal with ill-posed problems.

  7. A Direct Numerical Reconstruction Algorithm for the 3D Calderón Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delbary, Fabrice; Hansen, Per Christian; Knudsen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    In three dimensions Calderón's problem was addressed and solved in theory in the 1980s in a series of papers, but only recently the numerical implementation of the algorithm was initiated. The main ingredients in the solution of the problem are complex geometrical optics solutions to the conducti...

  8. (Re)Constructing the Wicked Problem Through the Visual and the Verbal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Harty, Chris; Tryggestad, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    processes creates new knowledge and insights, but at the same time present new problems related to the ongoing verbal feedback. The design problem being (re) constructed appears as Heracles' fight with Hydra: Every time Heracles cut of a head, two new heads grow back. The paper contributes to understanding...

  9. Heegard-Berger and Cascade Source Coding Problems with Common Reconstruction Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Behzad; Simeone, Osvaldo; Poor, H Vincent

    2011-01-01

    For the HB problem with the CR constraint, the rate-distortion function is derived under the assumption that the side information sequences are (stochastically) degraded. The rate-distortion function is also calculated explicitly for three examples, namely Gaussian source and side information with quadratic distortion metric, and binary source and side information with erasure and Hamming distortion metrics. The rate-distortion function is then characterized for the HB problem with cooperating decoders and (physically) degraded side information. For the cascade problem with the CR constraint, the rate-distortion region is obtained under the assumption that side information at the final node is physically degraded with respect to that at the intermediate node. For the latter two cases, it is worth emphasizing that the corresponding problem without the CR constraint is still open. Outer and inner bounds on the rate-distortion region are also obtained for the cascade problem under the assumption that the side in...

  10. Solving inaccuracies in anatomical models for electrocardiographic inverse problem resolution by maximizing reconstruction quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Miguel; Climent, Andreu; Liberos, Alejandro; Hernandez-Romero, Ismael; Arenal, Angel; Bermejo, Javier; Fernandez-Aviles, Francisco; Atienza, Felipe; Guillem, Maria

    2017-05-23

    Electrocardiographic Imaging (ECGI) has become an increasingly used technique for non-invasive diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmias, although the need for medical imaging technology to determine the anatomy hinders its introduction in the clinical practice. This work explores the ability of a new metric based on the inverse reconstruction quality for the location and orientation of the atrial surface inside the torso. Body surface electrical signals from 31 realistic mathematical models and four AF patients were used to estimate the optimal position of the atria inside the torso. The curvature of the L-curve from the Tikhonov method, which was found to be related to the inverse reconstruction quality, was measured after application of deviations in atrial position and orientation. Independent deviations in the atrial position were solved by finding the maximal L-curve curvature with an error of 1.7±2.4 mm in mathematical models and 9.1±11.5 mm in patients. For the case of independent angular deviations, the error in location by using the L-curve was 5.8±7.1º in mathematical models and 12.4º±13.2º in patients. The ability of the L-curve curvature was tested also under superimposed uncertainties in the 3 axis of translation and in the 3 axis of rotation and the error in location was of 2.3±3.2 mm and 6.4º±7.1º in mathematical models, and 7.9±10.7 mm and 12.1º±15.5º in patients. The curvature of L-curve is a useful marker for the atrial position and would allow emending the inaccuracies in its location.

  11. Reconstructing landcover from palaeoecological records: the problem of the inconstant constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, M. Jane; Farrell, Michelle

    2016-04-01

    Methods for estimation of past landcover from pollen analysis have become increasingly quantitative and sophisticated over the last 15 years, using a range of approaches to reconstruct land cover, vegetation abundance or communities and land use at a variety of spatial scales. All such methods rely to some degree on uniformitarian assumptions, whether implicitly or explicitly, about the relative amounts of pollen produced by different plant types (Relative Pollen Production or RPP). In the vast majority of studies‚ RPP is assumed to be constant‚ both in time and space (that is‚ it is assumed that changes in pollen proportions at different points in a core sequence imply changes in the abundance or position of the producing plants rather than a change in the amount of pollen produced by one plant relative to the other‚ and that it is possible to compare pollen assemblages of the same age from different core locations within a landscape and again interpret differences in terms of plant abundance rather than pollen production). Empirical estimates of RPP can be extracted from measurements of modern pollen assemblages and vegetation cover. This paper presents results of using a standardised methodology in multiple locations across northwest Europe which suggest that RPP is not constant, and explores possible drivers of variation and ways of addressing the challenges to quantification presented by failure of this assumption.

  12. RECONSTRUCTIVE-PLASTIC OPERATIONS ON UTERUS WITHIN THE FERTILITY RECOVERY PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAUR KARIMOV

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of recovery of fertility with young women with hysteromyoma. For choosing the method of conservative myomectomy, it is justified the reasonability of division of patients into groups, according to the degree of surgical complexity for carrying out an operation and the possibility of subsequent pregnancy: low, medium and high. The prospective research was done with 83 patients of high complexity with sterility and noncarrying of pregnancy caused with semeiotic hysteromyoma, who had conservative myomectomy done in the traditional open way. As a result of the carried out operation, the fertility has been recovered with 35 (42.2% females out of 83, by now. At that, 25 pregnant females were able to bear at full term. 4 females aborted at terms of gestation of 8(26 weeks, while the rest of 6 fell out of monitoring. Recurrent tumor has been noted in 2 (2.4% cases, among those in 1 case (1.2% it was established the rapid growth of multiple myomatous nodes.

  13. Algebraic reconstruction combined with the signal space separation method for the inverse magnetoencephalography problem with a dipole-quadrupole source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, T.; Koiwa, K.; Takagi, S.; Oyama, D.; Uehara, G.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an algebraic reconstruction method for dipole-quadrupole sources using magnetoencephalography data. Compared to the conventional methods with the equivalent current dipoles source model, our method can more accurately reconstruct two close, oppositely directed sources. Numerical simulations show that two sources on both sides of the longitudinal fissure of cerebrum are stably estimated. The method is verified using a quadrupolar source phantom, which is composed of two isosceles-triangle-coils with parallel bases.

  14. An iterative method for 2D inverse scattering problems by alternating reconstruction of medium properties and wavefields: theory and application to the inversion of elastic waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzuti, G.; Gisolf, A.

    2017-03-01

    We study a reconstruction algorithm for the general inverse scattering problem based on the estimate of not only medium properties, as in more conventional approaches, but also wavefields propagating inside the computational domain. This extended set of unknowns is justified as a way to prevent local minimum stagnation, which is a common issue for standard methods. At each iteration of the algorithm, (i) the model parameters are obtained by solution of a convex problem, formulated from a special bilinear relationship of the data with respect to properties and wavefields (where the wavefield is kept fixed), and (ii) a better estimate of the wavefield is calculated, based on the previously reconstructed properties. The resulting scheme is computationally convenient since step (i) can greatly benefit from parallelization and the wavefield update (ii) requires modeling only in the known background model, which can be sped up considerably by factorization-based direct methods. The inversion method is successfully tested on synthetic elastic datasets.

  15. An example of problems in dose reconstruction from doses formed by electromagnetic irradiation by different energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, Vladimir; Kuchuro, Joseph; Tolstik, Sergey; Leonova, Tatyana

    2010-02-01

    Dose reconstruction for citizens of Belarus affected by the Chernobyl accident showed an unexpectedly wide range of doses. Using the EPR tooth enamel dosimetry method, it has been demonstrated that when the tooth enamel dose was formed due to x-rays with effective energy of 34 keV and the additional irradiation of enamel samples was performed by gamma radiation with mean energy of 1,250 keV, it led to a considerable increase in the reconstructed absorbed dose as compared with the applied. In the case when the dose was formed due to gamma radiation and the additional irradiation was performed by x-rays, it led to a considerable decrease in the reconstructed dose as compared with the applied. When the dose formation and the additional irradiation were carried out from external sources of electromagnetic radiation of equal energy, the reconstructed dose value was close to that of the applied. The obtained data show that for adequate reconstruction of individual absorbed doses by the EPR tooth enamel spectra, it is necessary to take into account the contribution from diagnostic x-ray examination of the teeth, jaw, and skull of some individuals who were exposed to a combined effect of the external gamma radiation and x-rays.

  16. Reconstruction of defects involving the Achilles tendon and local soft tissues: a quick solution for a lingering problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, J; Rakhorst, H A; Ruettermann, M; Luijsterburg, A J M; Bos, P K; Zöphel, O T

    2015-02-01

    A total of seven patients (six men and one woman) with a defect in the Achilles tendon and overlying soft tissue underwent reconstruction using either a composite radial forearm flap (n = 3) or an anterolateral thigh flap (n = 4). The Achilles tendons were reconstructed using chimeric palmaris longus (n = 2) or tensor fascia lata (n = 2) flaps or transfer of the flexor hallucis longus tendon (n = 3). Surgical parameters such as the rate of complications and the time between the initial repair and flap surgery were analysed. Function was measured objectively by recording the circumference of the calf, the isometric strength of the plantar flexors and the range of movement of the ankle. The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) questionnaire was used as a patient-reported outcome measure. Most patients had undergone several previous operations to the Achilles tendon prior to flap surgery. The mean time to flap surgery was 14.3 months (2.1 to 40.7). At a mean follow-up of 32.3 months (12.1 to 59.6) the circumference of the calf on the operated lower limb was reduced by a mean of 1.9 cm (sd 0.74) compared with the contralateral limb (p = 0.042). The mean strength of the plantar flexors on the operated lower limb was reduced to 88.9% of that of the contralateral limb (p = 0.043). There was no significant difference in the range of movement between the two sides (p = 0.317). The mean ATRS score was 72 points (sd 20.0). One patient who had an initial successful reconstruction developed a skin defect of the composite flap 12 months after free flap surgery and this resulted in recurrent infections, culminating in transtibial amputation 44 months after reconstruction. These otherwise indicate that reconstruction of the Achilles tendon combined with flap cover results in a successful and functional reconstruction. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  17. Reoperative midface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Julio; García, Eloy

    2011-02-01

    Reoperative reconstruction of the midface is a challenging issue because of the complexity of this region and the severity of the aesthetic and functional sequela related to the absence or failure of a primary reconstruction. The different situations that can lead to the indication of a reoperative reconstructive procedure after previous oncologic ablative procedures in the midface are reviewed. Surgical techniques, anatomic problems, and limitations affecting the reoperative reconstruction in this region of the head and neck are discussed.

  18. Neuromagnetic source reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, P.S.; Mosher, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Leahy, R.M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In neuromagnetic source reconstruction, a functional map of neural activity is constructed from noninvasive magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements. The overall reconstruction problem is under-determined, so some form of source modeling must be applied. We review the two main classes of reconstruction techniques-parametric current dipole models and nonparametric distributed source reconstructions. Current dipole reconstructions use a physically plausible source model, but are limited to cases in which the neural currents are expected to be highly sparse and localized. Distributed source reconstructions can be applied to a wider variety of cases, but must incorporate an implicit source, model in order to arrive at a single reconstruction. We examine distributed source reconstruction in a Bayesian framework to highlight the implicit nonphysical Gaussian assumptions of minimum norm based reconstruction algorithms. We conclude with a brief discussion of alternative non-Gaussian approachs.

  19. Neuromagnetic source reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, P.S.; Mosher, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Leahy, R.M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In neuromagnetic source reconstruction, a functional map of neural activity is constructed from noninvasive magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements. The overall reconstruction problem is under-determined, so some form of source modeling must be applied. We review the two main classes of reconstruction techniques-parametric current dipole models and nonparametric distributed source reconstructions. Current dipole reconstructions use a physically plausible source model, but are limited to cases in which the neural currents are expected to be highly sparse and localized. Distributed source reconstructions can be applied to a wider variety of cases, but must incorporate an implicit source, model in order to arrive at a single reconstruction. We examine distributed source reconstruction in a Bayesian framework to highlight the implicit nonphysical Gaussian assumptions of minimum norm based reconstruction algorithms. We conclude with a brief discussion of alternative non-Gaussian approachs.

  20. Monge and the three point space resection problem: an application to the reconstruction of heights and volumes from a photograph of 1892

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Fallavollita

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of photogrammetric restitution is the reconstruction of the volumes, now lost, located along the road that crosses the village, on the left side of the photo. The reconstruction of points in space from twodimensional images is possible if these photos are projective figure and we have at least two projective oriented stars. The first image is a vintage photograph, the second is a figure reconstructed from an aerial photo of AM in 1938 and from the survey of the masonry still present at the site. For the survey, one of the two projective stars is assimilated to a class of vertical straight lines. With regard to photography, the problem is decomposed into two typical phases of photogrammetric processes: the internal orientation and the absolute orientation. For the absolute orientation we used the method of the pyramid vertex which, in use since the Eighteenth Century, consists in determining the projection center from three given points of which are known the positions in space.

  1. An Adaptive B-Spline Method for Low-order Image Reconstruction Problems - Final Report - 09/24/1997 - 09/24/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin; Miller, Eric L.; Rappaport, Carey; Silevich, Michael

    2000-04-11

    A common problem in signal processing is to estimate the structure of an object from noisy measurements linearly related to the desired image. These problems are broadly known as inverse problems. A key feature which complicates the solution to such problems is their ill-posedness. That is, small perturbations in the data arising e.g. from noise can and do lead to severe, non-physical artifacts in the recovered image. The process of stabilizing these problems is known as regularization of which Tikhonov regularization is one of the most common. While this approach leads to a simple linear least squares problem to solve for generating the reconstruction, it has the unfortunate side effect of producing smooth images thereby obscuring important features such as edges. Therefore, over the past decade there has been much work in the development of edge-preserving regularizers. This technique leads to image estimates in which the important features are retained, but computationally the y require the solution of a nonlinear least squares problem, a daunting task in many practical multi-dimensional applications. In this thesis we explore low-order models for reducing the complexity of the re-construction process. Specifically, B-Splines are used to approximate the object. If a ''proper'' collection B-Splines are chosen that the object can be efficiently represented using a few basis functions, the dimensionality of the underlying problem will be significantly decreased. Consequently, an optimum distribution of splines needs to be determined. Here, an adaptive refining and pruning algorithm is developed to solve the problem. The refining part is based on curvature information, in which the intuition is that a relatively dense set of fine scale basis elements should cluster near regions of high curvature while a spares collection of basis vectors are required to adequately represent the object over spatially smooth areas. The pruning part is a greedy

  2. Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekini Shehu

    2010-01-01

    real Banach space which is also uniformly smooth using the properties of generalized f-projection operator. Using this result, we discuss strong convergence theorem concerning general H-monotone mappings and system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems in Banach spaces. Our results extend many known recent results in the literature.

  3. PyFR: An Open Source Framework for Solving Advection-Diffusion Type Problems on Streaming Architectures using the Flux Reconstruction Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Witherden, Freddie D; Vincent, Peter E

    2013-01-01

    High-order numerical methods for unstructured grids combine the superior accuracy of high-order spectral or finite difference methods with the geometric flexibility of low-order finite volume or finite element schemes. The Flux Reconstruction (FR) approach unifies various high-order schemes for unstructured grids within a single framework. Additionally, the FR approach exhibits a significant degree of element locality, and is thus able to run efficiently on modern streaming architectures, such as Graphical Processing Units (GPUs). The aforementioned properties of FR mean it offers a promising route to performing affordable, and hence industrially relevant, scale-resolving simulations of hitherto intractable unsteady flows within the vicinity of real-world engineering geometries. In this paper we present PyFR, an open-source Python based framework for solving advection-diffusion type problems on streaming architectures using the FR approach. The framework is designed to solve a range of governing systems on mi...

  4. Afghanistan Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xiaoqiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Karzai regime has made some progress over the past four years and a half in the post-war reconstruction.However, Taliban's destruction and drug economy are still having serious impacts on the security and stability of Afghanistan.Hence the settlement of the two problems has become a crux of affecting the country' s future.Moreover, the Karzai regime is yet to handle a series of hot potatoes in the fields of central government' s authority, military and police building-up and foreign relations as well.

  5. Maxillary reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown James

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the various defects that occur with maxillectomy with a full review of the literature and discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques described. Reconstruction of the maxilla can be relatively simple for the standard low maxillectomy that does not involve the orbital floor (Class 2. In this situation the structure of the face is less damaged and the there are multiple reconstructive options for the restoration of the maxilla and dental alveolus. If the maxillectomy includes the orbit (Class 4 then problems involving the eye (enopthalmos, orbital dystopia, ectropion and diplopia are avoided which simplifies the reconstruction. Most controversy is associated with the maxillectomy that involves the orbital floor and dental alveolus (Class 3. A case is made for the use of the iliac crest with internal oblique as an ideal option but there are other methods, which may provide a similar result. A multidisciplinary approach to these patients is emphasised which should include a prosthodontist with a special expertise for these defects.

  6. ACL reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007208.htm ACL reconstruction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. ACL reconstruction is surgery to reconstruct the ligament in ...

  7. 一种最小创建者集合的构建算法%Heuristic Algorithm for the Minimum Founder Set Reconstructive Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴璟莉; 刘广海

    2012-01-01

    最小创建者集合问题(the Minimum Founder Set problem,MFS)是求解重组体的嵌合体结构或创建者集合的有效模型,提出一种求解访问题的构造性启发式算法H-MFS.在嵌合体中的最小片断长度须不小于L的模型约束下,各重组体的前L列之间及最后L列之间均不能出现断点.基于这个思想,该算法将创建者序列的基因位点分成三个部分分别构建.采用两组真实的生物数据对算法进行测试分析:1.Kreitman的果蝇乙醇脱氢酶数据;2.国际人类基因组单体型图计划发布的CEU种群样本.实验结果显示,该算法能快速有效地求解MFS问题,并且当重组体的SNP位点个数取值较大时,H-MFS仍具有较高的执行效率,有很好的实用价值.%The minimum founder set problem (MFS) is an effective computation model for constructing the mosaic patter or founder set from a set of recombinant sequences. In this paper, a practical constructive heuristic algorithm H-MFS is presented for solving the problem. Based on the intuition that there can not be any breakpoints among the fust (resp. the last) L columns under the constraints that the minimum fragment length of the mosaic must not less than L. H-MFS partitions the sites of founders into three parts and reconstructs them respectively.Experiments were conducted by using two sets of real biological data; L Kreitman' ADH data..2. the CEU population sample released by the International HapMap Project. The results indicate that H-MFS can solve the minimum founder set problem fast and effectively. Furthermore, when the number of recombinants and SNP sites grows large, H-MFS is still able to find satisfied solution to this problem very quickly. Hence it is practical in realistic applications.

  8. PyFR: An open source framework for solving advection-diffusion type problems on streaming architectures using the flux reconstruction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherden, F. D.; Farrington, A. M.; Vincent, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    High-order numerical methods for unstructured grids combine the superior accuracy of high-order spectral or finite difference methods with the geometric flexibility of low-order finite volume or finite element schemes. The Flux Reconstruction (FR) approach unifies various high-order schemes for unstructured grids within a single framework. Additionally, the FR approach exhibits a significant degree of element locality, and is thus able to run efficiently on modern streaming architectures, such as Graphical Processing Units (GPUs). The aforementioned properties of FR mean it offers a promising route to performing affordable, and hence industrially relevant, scale-resolving simulations of hitherto intractable unsteady flows within the vicinity of real-world engineering geometries. In this paper we present PyFR, an open-source Python based framework for solving advection-diffusion type problems on streaming architectures using the FR approach. The framework is designed to solve a range of governing systems on mixed unstructured grids containing various element types. It is also designed to target a range of hardware platforms via use of an in-built domain specific language based on the Mako templating engine. The current release of PyFR is able to solve the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on grids of quadrilateral and triangular elements in two dimensions, and hexahedral elements in three dimensions, targeting clusters of CPUs, and NVIDIA GPUs. Results are presented for various benchmark flow problems, single-node performance is discussed, and scalability of the code is demonstrated on up to 104 NVIDIA M2090 GPUs. The software is freely available under a 3-Clause New Style BSD license (see www.pyfr.org). Catalogue identifier: AETY_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETY_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: New style BSD license No. of lines in

  9. Vertex Reconstruction in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chabanat, E; D'Hondt, J; Vanlaer, P; Prokofiev, K; Speer, T; Frühwirth, R; Waltenberger, W

    2005-01-01

    Because of the high track multiplicity in the final states expected in proton collisions at the LHC experiments, novel vertex reconstruction algorithms are required. The vertex reconstruction problem can be decomposed into a pattern recognition problem ("vertex finding") and an estimation problem ("vertex fitting"). Starting from least-square methods, ways to render the classical algorithms more robust are discussed and the statistical properties of the novel methods are shown. A whole set of different approaches for the vertex finding problem is presented and compared in relevant physics channels.

  10. A Simple Approach to the Reconstruction of a Set of Points from the Multiset of n(2) Pairwise Distances in n(2) Steps for the Sequencing Problem: I. Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, Eduard

    2016-09-01

    The problem of the reconstruction of the order of sequence elements in de novo sequencing of linear and cyclic peptides is reduced to the known turnpike and beltway problems, the latter of which having no polynomial time algorithm in the general case. A new simple approach is proposed to solve both problems. It is based on sequential removal of redundancy from the inputs. For the error-free inputs that simulate mass spectra with accuracy to [Formula: see text] Da, the size of inputs decreases from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]. In this way, exhaustive search can be almost completely removed from the algorithms, and the number of steps to reconstruct a sequence is in direct ratio to the input size, [Formula: see text].

  11. Permutationally invariant state reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Moroder, Tobias; Toth, Geza; Schwemmer, Christian; Niggebaum, Alexander; Gaile, Stefanie; Gühne, Otfried; Weinfurter, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, also an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a non-linear large-scale optimization problem, this is a major challenge in the design of scalable tomography schemes. Here we present an efficient state reconstruction scheme for permutationally invariant quantum state tomography. It works for all common state-of-the-art reconstruction principles, including, in particular, maximum likelihood and least squares methods, which are the preferred choices in today's experiments. This high efficiency is achieved by greatly reducing the dimensionality of the problem employing a particular representation of permutationally invariant states known from spin coupling combined with convex optimization, which has clear advantages regarding speed, control and accuracy in comparison to commonly employed n...

  12. Breast Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rebuild the shape of the breast. Instead of breast reconstruction, you could choose to wear a breast form ... one woman may not be right for another. Breast reconstruction may be done at the same time as ...

  13. 中国空间规划体系:现状、问题与重构%Spatial Planning System in China: Status, Problems and Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向东; 刘卫东

    2012-01-01

    在世界各国无不对其空间规划体系进行改革完善以适应时代发展的背景下,对具有特殊复杂性的中国空间规划体系的发展与改革进行了系统深入探讨。首先将我国空间规划体系分为城乡建设规划、发展规划、国土资源规划、生态环境规划等不同系列规划进行了梳理,然后分析了其存在的种类繁多、发展不均衡、法制化建设落后、协调性差等问题,最后从明确目标、确立基本策略、确定基本框架、调整部门职责和权限、理顺规划层级关系、推进法制化建设等方面提出了我国空间规划体系重构的具体路径和政策建议。%In the context of the spatial planning systems in many countries have been reformed and improved to adapt to the times, this paper systematically discusses on the development and reform issue of China's spatial planning system which is specially complex. First, an overview of the spatial planning system in China is given, in detail from urban and rural construction planning, development planning, land resources planning, environmental planning, and other different series. Then, the problems are explored in-depth, including too many subtypes, uneven development, the lagged legal system, poor coordination, et al. Finally, based on the above discussion, concrete reconstruction paths and policy recommendations of the spatial planning system in China are proposed progressively, in perspective of making the objectives clear, establishing the basic strategy, determining the basic framework, adjusting the departments' responsibilities and authorities, coordinating the relationships of different planning levels, promoting legal construction.

  14. Reconstruction of War Damaged Buildings - A Problem that Still Stands. The Case of the National Economy Bank in Warsaw Restored During the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    The Polish national historiography remains silent on the reconstruction of damaged towns and cities that was undertaken by the German administration after capturing Poland in September 1939. This paper, on the war-time restoration of the National Economy Bank's headquarters in Warsaw, is an attempt to at least partially fill the gap. Designed by celebrated architect Rudolf Świerczyński in the late 1920s in accordance with contemporary air raid defence regulations, it was bombed and nevertheless seriously damaged during the September Campaign. Under the German management of the bank, the building was reconstructed and even modernized by commissioned Polish engineers.

  15. On TPC cluster reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Dydak, F; Nefedov, Y; Wotschack, J; Zhemchugov, A

    2004-01-01

    For a bias-free momentum measurement of TPC tracks, the correct determination of cluster positions is mandatory. We argue in particular that (i) the reconstruction of the entire longitudinal signal shape in view of longitudinal diffusion, electronic pulse shaping, and track inclination is important both for the polar angle reconstruction and for optimum r phi resolution; and that (ii) self-crosstalk of pad signals calls for special measures for the reconstruction of the z coordinate. The problem of 'shadow clusters' is resolved. Algorithms are presented for accepting clusters as 'good' clusters, and for the reconstruction of the r phi and z cluster coordinates, including provisions for 'bad' pads and pads next to sector boundaries, respectively.

  16. Permutationally invariant state reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moroder, Tobias; Hyllus, Philipp; Tóth, Géza;

    2012-01-01

    Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a nonlinear large-scale opti......Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a nonlinear large...... likelihood and least squares methods, which are the preferred choices in today's experiments. This high efficiency is achieved by greatly reducing the dimensionality of the problem employing a particular representation of permutationally invariant states known from spin coupling combined with convex...

  17. Penile reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giulio Garaffa; Salvatore Sansalone; David J Ralph

    2013-01-01

    During the most recent years,a variety of new techniques of penile reconstruction have been described in the literature.This paper focuses on the most recent advances in male genital reconstruction after trauma,excision of benign and malignant disease,in gender reassignment surgery and aphallia with emphasis on surgical technique,cosmetic and functional outcome.

  18. Augmented Likelihood Image Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stille, Maik; Kleine, Matthias; Hägele, Julian; Barkhausen, Jörg; Buzug, Thorsten M

    2016-01-01

    The presence of high-density objects remains an open problem in medical CT imaging. Data of projections passing through objects of high density, such as metal implants, are dominated by noise and are highly affected by beam hardening and scatter. Reconstructed images become less diagnostically conclusive because of pronounced artifacts that manifest as dark and bright streaks. A new reconstruction algorithm is proposed with the aim to reduce these artifacts by incorporating information about shape and known attenuation coefficients of a metal implant. Image reconstruction is considered as a variational optimization problem. The afore-mentioned prior knowledge is introduced in terms of equality constraints. An augmented Lagrangian approach is adapted in order to minimize the associated log-likelihood function for transmission CT. During iterations, temporally appearing artifacts are reduced with a bilateral filter and new projection values are calculated, which are used later on for the reconstruction. A detailed evaluation in cooperation with radiologists is performed on software and hardware phantoms, as well as on clinically relevant patient data of subjects with various metal implants. Results show that the proposed reconstruction algorithm is able to outperform contemporary metal artifact reduction methods such as normalized metal artifact reduction.

  19. Ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickel, Steven Z; Gupta, Salil

    2006-05-01

    Volar ligament reconstruction is an effective technique for treating symptomatic laxity of the CMC joint of the thumb. The laxity may bea manifestation of generalized ligament laxity,post-traumatic, or metabolic (Ehler-Danlos). There construction reduces the shear forces on the joint that contribute to the development and persistence of inflammation. Although there have been only a few reports of the results of volar ligament reconstruction, the use of the procedure to treat Stage I and Stage II disease gives good to excellent results consistently. More advanced stages of disease are best treated by trapeziectomy, with or without ligament reconstruction.

  20. Breast Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... senos Preguntas Para el Médico Datos Para la Vida Komen El cuidado de sus senos:Consejos útiles ... can help . Cost Federal law requires most insurance plans cover the cost of breast reconstruction. Learn more ...

  1. Climate Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Paleoclimatology Program archives reconstructions of past climatic conditions derived from paleoclimate proxies, in addition to the Program's large holdings...

  2. Nonlinear Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Pen, Ue-Li; Chen, Xuelei; Yu, Hao-Ran

    2016-01-01

    We present a direct approach to non-parametrically reconstruct the linear density field from an observed non-linear map. We solve for the unique displacement potential consistent with the non-linear density and positive definite coordinate transformation using a multigrid algorithm. We show that we recover the linear initial conditions up to $k\\sim 1\\ h/\\mathrm{Mpc}$ with minimal computational cost. This reconstruction approach generalizes the linear displacement theory to fully non-linear fields, potentially substantially expanding the BAO and RSD information content of dense large scale structure surveys, including for example SDSS main sample and 21cm intensity mapping.

  3. Paleomagnetism of paleozoic sediments from the Kozhim River section: On the problem of palinspastic reconstructions of the Subpolar Urals and Pai-Khoi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosifidi, A. G.; Khramov, A. N.

    2013-01-01

    The collections of the Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Early Permian rocks from the Kozhim River section in the Subpolar Urals are studied. It is established that the pre-Permian Paleozoic deposits from the Kozhim River were remagnetized during the Kiama hyperchron (C2-P2) probably due to magnetoviscous processes that were blocked as these sediments were leaving the zone of increased temperature during the collision between the East European Platform and the Urals. The thrusts that took place at the last stage of this collision rendered the paleomagnetic directions of the studied structures different from those extrapolated from the East European Platform. The estimates of local rotations and displacements are obtained and applied in the combined analysis with the paleomagnetic determinations for the Pai-Khoi Ridge and Subpolar Urals. The amplitudes of the thrusts average 260 km and 180 km for the structures of Pai-Khoi and Subpolar Urals, respectively. The reconstruction of the prethrusting layout of the studied structures is presented.

  4. ACL reconstruction - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - discharge; ACL reconstruction - discharge ... had surgery to reconstruct your anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The surgeon drilled holes in the bones of ...

  5. 关系重构与技巧训练--人际认知问题解决视野下的心理治疗%Relationship Reconstruction and Skill Training:Psychotherapy from the Perspective of Interpersonal Cognitive Problem Solving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付翠

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal cognitive problem-solving therapy is an important paradigm of the contemporary cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy system. It is built on such a notion that“the problems that people face are all related to interpersonal relationships”,so it attaches great importance to the relationship factors of interpersonal problems,emphasizing the orientation towards the problem-solving process and focusing on developing the mode of alternative thinking. And on the basis of relationship reconstruction intended to overcome the patients' ill social adaptation,this paper puts forward that we can provide the patients with special training to help them acquire the skills needed in solving the problems with interpersonal adaptation,so as to provide a new direction for the integration and development of the modern psychotherapy paradigm.%人际认知问题解决是基于认知—行为心理治疗体系的一个重要范式,它建立在“人们所面临的问题都是人际关系问题”这一认识基础之上,因此它重视人际问题产生的关系因素,强调问题解决的过程定向,注重可选择性的问题解决思维方式的形成,并在对患者社会适应不良状况进行关系重建的基础上提出针对性的问题解决技巧训练以解决人际适应不良问题,从而为当代心理治疗范式的整合与发展提供了新取向。

  6. Reconstruction of topology and geometry from digitisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    . The first problem, the reconstruction of topology in dimension three, is approached using combinatorics of voxel reconstructions in combination with differential topology results. An improved digital re-construction based on binary images of objects with sufficiently smooth boundary is proposed. It is shown...... that this reconstruction is ambient isotopic to the underlying object provided the resolution of the digitisation be sufficiently high and under certain assumptions on the classical voxel reconstruction. The exact lower bound on the resolution, related to the curvature of the boundary of the object, is given...

  7. Breast Reconstruction Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Reconstruction Surgery Breast Cancer Breast Reconstruction Surgery Breast Reconstruction Alternatives Some women who have had a ... chest. What if I choose not to get breast reconstruction? Some women decide not to have any ...

  8. Homotopic Object Reconstruction Using Natural Neighbor Barycentric Coordinates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ojaswa; Anton, François

    2010-01-01

    it lifts the requirement of order within the cross sections in a reconstruction problem, consequently making the reconstruction problem harder. Our approach to the reconstruction is via continuous deformations of line intersections in the plane. We define Voronoi diagram based barycentric coordinates...

  9. Homotopic Object Reconstruction Using Natural Neighbor Barycentric Coordinates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ojaswa; Anton, François

    2011-01-01

    it lifts the requirement of order within the cross sections in a reconstruction problem, consequently making the reconstruction problem harder. Our approach to the reconstruction is via continuous deformations of line intersections in the plane. We define Voronoi diagram based barycentric coordinates...

  10. Smooth Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Eighty percent of the reconstruction projects in Sichuan Province will be completed by the end of the year Despite ruins still seen everywhere in the earthquake-hit areas in Sichuan (Province, new buildings have been completed, and many people have moved into new houses. Through cameras of the media, the faces, once painful and melancholy after last year’s earthquake, now look confident and firm, gratifying people all over the

  11. Fast Tomographic Reconstruction From Limited Data Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Pelt (Daniel); K.J. Batenburg (Joost)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractImage reconstruction from a small number of projections is a challenging problem in tomography. Advanced algorithms that incorporate prior knowledge can sometimes produce accurate reconstructions, but they typically require long computation times. Furthermore, the required prior

  12. 3D Reconstruction Technique for Tomographic PIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜楠; 包全; 杨绍琼

    2015-01-01

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry(Tomo-PIV) is a state-of-the-art experimental technique based on a method of optical tomography to achieve the three-dimensional(3D) reconstruction for three-dimensional three-component(3D-3C) flow velocity measurements. 3D reconstruction for Tomo-PIV is carried out herein. Meanwhile, a 3D simplified tomographic reconstruction model reduced from a 3D volume light inten-sity field with 2D projection images into a 2D Tomo-slice plane with 1D projecting lines, i.e., simplifying this 3D reconstruction into a problem of 2D Tomo-slice plane reconstruction, is applied thereafter. Two kinds of the most well-known algebraic reconstruction techniques, algebraic reconstruction technique(ART) and multiple algebraic reconstruction technique(MART), are compared as well. The principles of the two reconstruction algorithms are discussed in detail, which has been performed by a series of simulation images, yielding the corresponding recon-struction images that show different features between the ART and MART algorithm, and then their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Further discussions are made for the standard particle image reconstruction when the background noise of the pre-initial particle image has been removed. Results show that the particle image recon-struction has been greatly improved. The MART algorithm is much better than the ART. Furthermore, the computa-tional analyses of two parameters(the particle density and the number of cameras), are performed to study their effects on the reconstruction. Lastly, the 3D volume particle field is reconstructed by using the improved algorithm based on the simplified 3D tomographic reconstruction model, which proves that the algorithm simplification is feasible and it can be applied to the reconstruction of 3D volume particle field in a Tomo-PIV system.

  13. Reconstruction Threshold for the Hardcore Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatnagar, Nayantara; Tetali, Prasad

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider the reconstruction problem on the tree for the hardcore model. We determine new bounds for the non-reconstruction regime on the k-regular tree showing non-reconstruction when lambda (e+o(1))ln^2(k). We discuss the relationship for finding large independent sets in sparse random graphs and to the mixing time of Markov chains for sampling independent sets on trees.

  14. Localized and efficient cardiac CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. P.; Badea, C. T.

    2017-03-01

    The superiority of iterative reconstruction techniques over classic analytical ones is well documented in a variety of CT imaging applications where radiation dose and sampling time are limiting factors. However, by definition, the iterative nature of advanced reconstruction techniques is accompanied by a substantial increase in data processing time. This problem is further exacerbated in temporal and spectral CT reconstruction problems where the gap between the amount of data acquired and the amount of data to be reconstructed is exaggerated within the framework of compressive sensing. Two keys to overcoming this barrier include (1) advancements in parallel-computing technology and (2) advancements in data-efficient reconstruction. In this work, we propose a novel, two-stage strategy for 4D cardiac CT reconstruction which leverages these two keys by (1) exploiting GPU computing hardware and by (2) reconstructing temporal contrast on a limited spatial domain. Following a review of the proposed algorithm, we demonstrate its application in retrospectively gated cardiac CT reconstruction using the 4D MOBY mouse phantom. Quantitatively, reconstructing the temporal contrast on a limited domain reduces the overall reconstruction error by 20% and the reconstruction error within the dynamic portion of the phantom by 15% (root-mean-square error metric). A complementary in vivo mouse experiment demonstrates a suitable reconstruction fidelity to allow the measurement of cardiac functional metrics while reducing computation time by 75% relative to direct reconstruction of ten phases of the cardiac cycle. We believe that the proposed algorithm will serve as the basis for novel, data-efficient, multi-dimensional CT reconstruction techniques.

  15. Breast Reconstruction with Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast reconstruction with implants Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Breast reconstruction is a surgical procedure that restores shape to ... treat or prevent breast cancer. One type of breast reconstruction uses breast implants — silicone devices filled with silicone ...

  16. Reconstructing complex networks with binary-state dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jingwen; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2015-01-01

    The prerequisite for our understanding of many complex networked systems lies in the reconstruction of network structure from measurable data. Although binary-state dynamics occurring in a broad class of complex networked systems in nature and society and has been intensively investigated, a general framework for reconstructing complex networks from binary states, the inverse problem, is lacking. Here we offer a general solution to the reconstruction problem by developing a data-based linearization approach for binary-state dynamics with linear, nonlinear, discrete and stochastic switching functions. The linearization allows us to convert the network reconstruction problem into a sparse signal reconstruction problem that can be resolved efficiently and credibly by convex optimization based on compressed sensing. The completely data-based linearization method and the sparse signal reconstruction constitutes a general framework for reconstructing complex networks without any knowledge of the binary-state dynami...

  17. Reconstructive Urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Fatih Önol

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of urethral stricture, Buccal Mucosa Graft (BMG and reconstruction is applied with different patch techniques. Recently often prefered, this approach is, in bulber urethra strictures of BMG’s; by “ventral onley”, in pendulous urethra because of thinner spingiosis body, which provides support and nutrition of graft; by means of “dorsal inley” being anastomosis. In the research that Cordon et al. did, they compared conventional BMJ “onley” urethroplast and “pseudo-spongioplasty” which base on periurethral vascular tissues to be nourished by closing onto graft. In repairment of front urethras that spongiosis supportive tissue is insufficient, this method is defined as peripheral dartos [çevre dartos?] and buck’s fascia being mobilized and being combined on BMG patch. Between the years 2007 and 2012, assessment of 56 patients with conventional “ventral onley” BMG urethroplast and 46 patients with “pseudo-spongioplasty” were reported to have similar success rates (80% to 84% in 3.5 year follow-up on average. While 74% of the patients that were applied pseudo-spongioplasty had disease present at distal urethra (pendulous, bulbopendulous, 82% of the patients which were applied conventional onley urethroplast had stricture at proximal (bulber urethra yet. Also lenght of the stricture at the pseudo-spongioplasty group was longer in a statistically significant way (5.8 cm to 4.7 cm on average, p=0.028. This study which Cordon et al. did, shows that conditions in which conventional sponjiyoplasti is not possible, periurethral vascular tissues are adequate to nourish BMG. Even it is an important technique in terms of bringing a new point of view to today’s practice, data especially about complications that may show up after pseudo-spongioplasty usage on long distal strictures (e.g. appearance of urethral diverticulum is not reported. Along with this we think that, providing an oppurtinity to patch directly

  18. Electronic noise modeling in statistical iterative reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyan; Tsui, Benjamin M W

    2009-06-01

    We consider electronic noise modeling in tomographic image reconstruction when the measured signal is the sum of a Gaussian distributed electronic noise component and another random variable whose log-likelihood function satisfies a certain linearity condition. Examples of such likelihood functions include the Poisson distribution and an exponential dispersion (ED) model that can approximate the signal statistics in integration mode X-ray detectors. We formulate the image reconstruction problem as a maximum-likelihood estimation problem. Using an expectation-maximization approach, we demonstrate that a reconstruction algorithm can be obtained following a simple substitution rule from the one previously derived without electronic noise considerations. To illustrate the applicability of the substitution rule, we present examples of a fully iterative reconstruction algorithm and a sinogram smoothing algorithm both in transmission CT reconstruction when the measured signal contains additive electronic noise. Our simulation studies show the potential usefulness of accurate electronic noise modeling in low-dose CT applications.

  19. Bayesian image reconstruction: Application to emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, J.; Llacer, J.

    1989-02-01

    In this paper we propose a Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) method of image reconstruction in the Bayesian framework for the Poisson noise case. We use entropy to define the prior probability and likelihood to define the conditional probability. The method uses sharpness parameters which can be theoretically computed or adjusted, allowing us to obtain MAP reconstructions without the problem of the grey'' reconstructions associated with the pre Bayesian reconstructions. We have developed several ways to solve the reconstruction problem and propose a new iterative algorithm which is stable, maintains positivity and converges to feasible images faster than the Maximum Likelihood Estimate method. We have successfully applied the new method to the case of Emission Tomography, both with simulated and real data. 41 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Network reconstruction via graph blending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Rolando

    2016-05-01

    Graphs estimated from empirical data are often noisy and incomplete due to the difficulty of faithfully observing all the components (nodes and edges) of the true graph. This problem is particularly acute for large networks where the number of components may far exceed available surveillance capabilities. Errors in the observed graph can render subsequent analyses invalid, so it is vital to develop robust methods that can minimize these observational errors. Errors in the observed graph may include missing and spurious components, as well fused (multiple nodes are merged into one) and split (a single node is misinterpreted as many) nodes. Traditional graph reconstruction methods are only able to identify missing or spurious components (primarily edges, and to a lesser degree nodes), so we developed a novel graph blending framework that allows us to cast the full estimation problem as a simple edge addition/deletion problem. Armed with this framework, we systematically investigate the viability of various topological graph features, such as the degree distribution or the clustering coefficients, and existing graph reconstruction methods for tackling the full estimation problem. Our experimental results suggest that incorporating any topological feature as a source of information actually hinders reconstruction accuracy. We provide a theoretical analysis of this phenomenon and suggest several avenues for improving this estimation problem.

  1. 四川芦山地震灾害调查与灾后重建的相关问题分析%Investigation of Lushan Earthquake Disasters and Analysis of Related Problems During Post-quake Reconstruction in Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢和平; 邓建辉; 李碧雄

    2013-01-01

    2013年4月20日四川省芦山县发生Ms7.0级地震,发震断层为龙门山前山断裂,即大川-双石断裂.这是继2008年汶川地震后发生在龙门山断裂带的又一次强震.自4月25日起,笔者先后3次前往地震灾区进行地震灾害调查.本文小结主要的地震灾害情况,并简要讨论了灾后重建可能面临的问题.结果表明:相对于汶川地震,芦山地震的灾害相对较轻;沿发震断裂未发现明显的地表破裂带;崩塌滑坡的总体规模较小,也未出现明显的堰塞湖;滑坡点主要沿发震断层分布,岩性以三叠系上统须家河组地层为主;崩塌点主要出现在河流的峡谷段,岩性以砾岩为主,少量为侵入岩;建筑物损坏严重的基本上为砖木结构以及无圈梁或构造柱的砖混结构民居;灾后重建面临的主要地质灾害问题是主要公路的崩塌灾害以及宝兴县城的泥石流防治.%In April 20,2013,a strong earthquake measured Ms 7.0 hitted Lushan county,Sichuan province,which was induced by Longmenshan front fault,i.e.Dachuan-Shuangshi fault.It was the second large earthquake occurred along Longmenshan fault zone since Wenchuan earthquake in 2008.From April 25 on,the authors made three field visits to the quake-hit area.The disasters were summarized,and the potential problems during post-quake reconstruction were discussed.The results showed that compared with Wenchuan earthquake,the quake-induced disasters were lighter; no obvious surface ruptures were ever witnessed along the quake-inducing fault; both landslide and rockfall happened in small scale,so no large barrier lake was ever formed; landslide distributed along the seismogenic fault,and the rock types were Xujiahe Formation of Upper Triassic; rockfall appeared mainly in the gorge segment of rivers,and the rock types were mainly conglomerate and secondly intrusive rock; severe building damages were mainly brick-wood structured residential housings or brick

  2. Network reconstruction from infection cascades

    CERN Document Server

    Braunstein, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing propagation networks from observations is a fundamental inverse problem, and it's crucial to understand and control dynamics in complex systems. Here we show that it is possible to reconstruct the whole structure of an interaction network and to simultaneously infer the complete time course of activation spreading, relying just on single snapshots of a small number of activity cascades. The method, that we called Inverse Dynamics Network Reconstruction (IDNR), is shown to work successfully on several synthetic and real networks, inferring the networks and the sources of infection based on sparse observations, including single snapshots. IDNR is built on a Belief Propagation approximation, that has an impressive performance in a wide variety of topological structures. The method can be applied in absence of complete time-series data by providing a detailed modeling of the posterior distribution of trajectories conditioned to the observations. Furthermore, we show by experiments that the informat...

  3. Clinical applications of iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberl, S. [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW (Australia). Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Expectation maximisation (EM) reconstruction largely eliminates the hot and cold streaking artifacts characteristic of filtered-back projection (FBP) reconstruction around localised hot areas, such as the bladder. It also substantially reduces the problem of decreased inferior wall counts in MIBI myocardial perfusion studies due to ``streaking`` from high liver uptake. Non-uniform attenuation and scatter correction, resolution recovery, anatomical information, e.g. from MRI or CT tracer kinetic modelling, can all be built into the EM reconstruction imaging model. The properties of ordered subset EM (OSEM) have also been used to correct for known patient motion as part of the reconstruction process. These uses of EM are elaborated more fully in some of the other abstracts of this meeting. Currently we use OSEM routinely for: (i) studies where streaking is a problem, including all MIBI myocardial perfusion studies, to avoid hot liver inferior wall artifact, (ii) all whole body FDG PET, all lung V/Q SPECT (which have a short acquisition time) and all gated {sup 201}TI myocardial perfusion studies due to improved noise characteristics of OSEM in these studies; (iii) studies with measured, non-uniform attenuation correction. With the accelerated OSEM algorithm, iterative reconstruction is practical for routine clinical applications and we have found OSEM to provide clearly superior reconstructions for the areas listed above and are investigating its application to other studies. In clinical use, we have not found OSEM to introduce artifacts which would not also occur with FBP, e.g. uncorrected patient motion will cause artifacts with both OSEM and FBP.

  4. Modern methods of image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puetter, R. C.

    The author reviews the image restoration or reconstruction problem in its general setting. He first discusses linear methods for solving the problem of image deconvolution, i.e. the case in which the data are a convolution of a point-spread function and an underlying unblurred image. Next, non-linear methods are introduced in the context of Bayesian estimation, including maximum likelihood and maximum entropy methods. Then, the author discusses the role of language and information theory concepts for data compression and solving the inverse problem. The concept of algorithmic information content (AIC) is introduced and is shown to be crucial to achieving optimal data compression and optimized Bayesian priors for image reconstruction. The dependence of the AIC on the selection of language then suggests how efficient coordinate systems for the inverse problem may be selected. The author also introduced pixon-based image restoration and reconstruction methods. The relation between image AIC and the Bayesian incarnation of Occam's Razor is discussed, as well as the relation of multiresolution pixon languages and image fractal dimension. Also discussed is the relation of pixons to the role played by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in statistical physics and how pixon-based image reconstruction provides a natural extension to the Akaike information criterion for maximum likelihood. The author presents practical applications of pixon-based Bayesian estimation to the restoration of astronomical images. He discusses the effects of noise, effects of finite sampling on resolution, and special problems associated with spatially correlated noise introduced by mosaicing. Comparisons to other methods demonstrate the significant improvements afforded by pixon-based methods and illustrate the science that such performance improvements allow.

  5. A survey of urban reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Musialski, Przemyslaw

    2013-05-10

    This paper provides a comprehensive overview of urban reconstruction. While there exists a considerable body of literature, this topic is still under active research. The work reviewed in this survey stems from the following three research communities: computer graphics, computer vision and photogrammetry and remote sensing. Our goal is to provide a survey that will help researchers to better position their own work in the context of existing solutions, and to help newcomers and practitioners in computer graphics to quickly gain an overview of this vast field. Further, we would like to bring the mentioned research communities to even more interdisciplinary work, since the reconstruction problem itself is by far not solved. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of urban reconstruction. While there exists a considerable body of literature, this topic is still under active research. The work reviewed in this survey stems from the following three research communities: computer graphics, computer vision and photogrammetry and remote sensing. Our goal is to provide a survey that will help researchers to better position their own work in the context of existing solutions, and to help newcomers and practitioners in computer graphics to quickly gain an overview of this vast field. Further, we would like to bring the mentioned research communities to even more interdisciplinary work, since the reconstruction problem itself is by far not solved. © 2013 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prosthetic breast reconstruction: indications and update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Tam T.; Miller, George S.; Rostek, Marie; Cabalag, Miguel S.; Rozen, Warren M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite 82% of patients reporting psychosocial improvement following breast reconstruction, only 33% patients choose to undergo surgery. Implant reconstruction outnumbers autologous reconstruction in many centres. Methods A systematic review of the literature was undertaken. Inclusion required: (I) Meta-analyses or review articles; (II) adult patients aged 18 years or over undergoing alloplastic breast reconstruction; (III) studies including outcome measures; (IV) case series with more than 10 patients; (V) English language; and (VI) publication after 1st January, 2000. Results After full text review, analysis and data extraction was conducted for a total of 63 articles. Definitive reconstruction with an implant can be immediate or delayed. Older patients have similar or even lower complication rates to younger patients. Complications include capsular contracture, hematoma and infection. Obesity, smoking, large breasts, diabetes and higher grade tumors are associated with increased risk of wound problems and reconstructive failure. Silicone implant patients have higher capsular contracture rates but have higher physical and psychosocial function. There were no associations made between silicone implants and cancer or systemic disease. There were no differences in outcomes or complications between round and shaped implants. Textured implants have a lower risk of capsular contracture than smooth implants. Smooth implants are more likely to be displaced as well as having higher rates of infection. Immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) gives the best aesthetic outcome if radiotherapy is not required but has a higher rate of capsular contracture and implant failure. Delayed-immediate reconstruction patients can achieve similar aesthetic results to IBR whilst preserving the breast skin if radiotherapy is required. Delayed breast reconstruction (DBR) patients have fewer complications than IBR patients. Conclusions Implant reconstruction is a safe and popular

  7. Neural Network for Sparse Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfa Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a neural network based on smoothing approximation techniques and projected gradient method to solve a kind of sparse reconstruction problems. Neural network can be implemented by circuits and can be seen as an important method for solving optimization problems, especially large scale problems. Smoothing approximation is an efficient technique for solving nonsmooth optimization problems. We combine these two techniques to overcome the difficulties of the choices of the step size in discrete algorithms and the item in the set-valued map of differential inclusion. In theory, the proposed network can converge to the optimal solution set of the given problem. Furthermore, some numerical experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed network in this paper.

  8. New vertex reconstruction algorithms for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Frühwirth, R; Prokofiev, Kirill; Speer, T.; Vanlaer, P.; Chabanat, E.; Estre, N.

    2003-01-01

    The reconstruction of interaction vertices can be decomposed into a pattern recognition problem (``vertex finding'') and a statistical problem (``vertex fitting''). We briefly review classical methods. We introduce novel approaches and motivate them in the framework of high-luminosity experiments like at the LHC. We then show comparisons with the classical methods in relevant physics channels

  9. Explicit reconstruction of the entanglement wedge

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jung-Wook

    2016-01-01

    The problem of bulk locality, or how the boundary encodes the bulk in AdS/CFT, is still a subject of study today. One of the major issues that needs more elucidation is the problem of subregion duality; what information of the bulk a given boundary subregion encodes. Although proofs given by two teams of researchers, Dong, Harlow, and Wall and Bao, and Kim, state that the entanglement wedge of the bulk should be reconstructible from boudnary subregions, no explicit procedure for reconstructing the entanglement wedge was as of yet given. In this paper, mode sum approach to obtaining smearing functions is generalised to include bulk reconstruction in the entanglement wedge of boundary subregions. It is generally expectated that solutions to the wave equation on a complicated coordinate patch are needed, but this hard problem has been transferred to a less hard but tractable problem of matrix inversion.

  10. Early anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction can save meniscus without any complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ik Hur

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Early ACL reconstruction had excellent clinical results and stability as good as delayed reconstruction without the problem of knee motion, muscle power, and postural control. Moreover, early reconstruction showed the high possibility of meniscal repair. Therefore, early ACL reconstruction should be recommended.

  11. Space and camera path reconstruction for omni-directional vision

    CERN Document Server

    Knill, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we address the inverse problem of reconstructing a scene as well as the camera motion from the image sequence taken by an omni-directional camera. Our structure from motion results give sharp conditions under which the reconstruction is unique. For example, if there are three points in general position and three omni-directional cameras in general position, a unique reconstruction is possible up to a similarity. We then look at the reconstruction problem with m cameras and n points, where n and m can be large and the over-determined system is solved by least square methods. The reconstruction is robust and generalizes to the case of a dynamic environment where landmarks can move during the movie capture. Possible applications of the result are computer assisted scene reconstruction, 3D scanning, autonomous robot navigation, medical tomography and city reconstructions.

  12. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eSchmauss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Its surgical approach has become less and less mutilating in the last decades. However, the overall number of breast reconstructions has significantly increased lately. Nowadays breast reconstruction should be individualized at its best, first of all taking into consideration oncological aspects of the tumor, neo-/adjuvant treatment and genetic predisposition, but also its timing (immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction, as well as the patient’s condition and wish. This article gives an overview over the various possibilities of breast reconstruction, including implant- and expander-based reconstruction, flap-based reconstruction (vascularized autologous tissue, the combination of implant and flap, reconstruction using non-vascularized autologous fat, as well as refinement surgery after breast reconstruction.

  13. Surfaces, Digitisations and Reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    We present a new digital reconstruction of r-regular sets in three-dimensional Euclidean space. We introduce a vector field and analyse the relation between the topologies of the boundaries of the r-regular set and its reconstruction. This reconstruction can be carried out faster than prior models...... based on the same digitisation, making it attractive for computing....

  14. Labral reconstruction: when to perform and how

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J White

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the understanding of the anatomy and function of the hip joint has continuously evolved, and surgical treatment options for the hip have significantly progressed. Originally, surgical treatment of the hip primarily involved resection of damaged tissue. Procedures that maintain and preserve proper hip anatomy, such as labral repair and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI correction, have shown superior results, in terms of pain reduction, increased function, and ability to return to activities. Labral reconstruction is a treatment option that uses a graft to reconstruct the native labrum. The technique and outcomes of labral reconstruction have been described relatively recently, and labral reconstruction is a cutting edge procedure that has shown promising early outcomes. The aim of this article is to review the current literature on hip labral reconstruction. We will review the indications for labral reconstruction, surgical technique and graft options, and surgical outcomes that have been described to date. Labral reconstruction provides an alternative treatment option for challenging intra-articular hip problems. Labral reconstruction restores the original anatomy of the hip and has the potential to preserve the longevity of the hip joint. This technique is an important tool in the orthopaedic surgeon’s arsenal for hip joint treatment and preservation.

  15. Hash functions and triangular mesh reconstruction*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrádek, Jan; Kuchař, Martin; Skala, Václav

    2003-07-01

    Some applications use data formats (e.g. STL file format), where a set of triangles is used to represent the surface of a 3D object and it is necessary to reconstruct the triangular mesh with adjacency information. It is a lengthy process for large data sets as the time complexity of this process is O( N log N), where N is number of triangles. Triangular mesh reconstruction is a general problem and relevant algorithms can be used in GIS and DTM systems as well as in CAD/CAM systems. Many algorithms rely on space subdivision techniques while hash functions offer a more effective solution to the reconstruction problem. Hash data structures are widely used throughout the field of computer science. The hash table can be used to speed up the process of triangular mesh reconstruction but the speed strongly depends on hash function properties. Nevertheless the design or selection of the hash function for data sets with unknown properties is a serious problem. This paper describes a new hash function, presents the properties obtained for large data sets, and discusses validity of the reconstructed surface. Experimental results proved theoretical considerations and advantages of hash function use for mesh reconstruction.

  16. Compressed Sensing, Pseudodictionary-Based, Superresolution Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-mei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial resolution of digital images is the critical factor that affects photogrammetry precision. Single-frame, superresolution, image reconstruction is a typical underdetermined, inverse problem. To solve this type of problem, a compressive, sensing, pseudodictionary-based, superresolution reconstruction method is proposed in this study. The proposed method achieves pseudodictionary learning with an available low-resolution image and uses the K-SVD algorithm, which is based on the sparse characteristics of the digital image. Then, the sparse representation coefficient of the low-resolution image is obtained by solving the norm of l0 minimization problem, and the sparse coefficient and high-resolution pseudodictionary are used to reconstruct image tiles with high resolution. Finally, single-frame-image superresolution reconstruction is achieved. The proposed method is applied to photogrammetric images, and the experimental results indicate that the proposed method effectively increase image resolution, increase image information content, and achieve superresolution reconstruction. The reconstructed results are better than those obtained from traditional interpolation methods in aspect of visual effects and quantitative indicators.

  17. Ring artifacts correction in compressed sensing tomographic reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Paleo, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel approach to handle ring artifacts correction in compressed sensing tomographic reconstruction. The correction is part of the reconstruction process, which differs from classical sinogram pre-processing and image post-processing techniques. The principle of compressed sensing tomographic reconstruction is presented. Then, we show that the ring artifacts correction can be integrated in the reconstruction problem formalism. We provide numerical results for both simulated and real data. This technique is included in the PyHST2 code which is used at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility for tomographic reconstruction.

  18. Error analysis in correlation computation of single particle reconstruction technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡悦; 隋森芳

    1999-01-01

    The single particle reconstruction technique has become particularly important in the structure analysis of hiomaeromolecules. The problem of reconstructing a picture from identical samples polluted by colored noises is studied, and the alignment error in the correlation computation of single particle reconstruction technique is analyzed systematically. The concept of systematic error is introduced, and the explicit form of the systematic error is given under the weak noise approximation. The influence of the systematic error on the reconstructed picture is discussed also, and an analytical formula for correcting the distortion in the picture reconstruction is obtained.

  19. Should I Have Breast Reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reconstruction Surgery Breast Cancer Breast Reconstruction Surgery Should I Get Breast Reconstruction Surgery? Women who have surgery ... It usually responds well to treatment. What if I choose not to have breast reconstruction? Many women ...

  20. [Breast reconstruction after mastectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Quoc, C; Delay, E

    2013-02-01

    The mutilating surgery for breast cancer causes deep somatic and psychological sequelae. Breast reconstruction can mitigate these effects and permit the patient to help rebuild their lives. The purpose of this paper is to focus on breast reconstruction techniques and on factors involved in breast reconstruction. The methods of breast reconstruction are presented: objectives, indications, different techniques, operative risks, and long-term monitoring. Many different techniques can now allow breast reconstruction in most patients. Clinical cases are also presented in order to understand the results we expect from a breast reconstruction. Breast reconstruction provides many benefits for patients in terms of rehabilitation, wellness, and quality of life. In our mind, breast reconstruction should be considered more as an opportunity and a positive choice (the patient can decide to do it), than as an obligation (that the patient would suffer). The consultation with the surgeon who will perform the reconstruction is an important step to give all necessary informations. It is really important that the patient could speak again with him before undergoing reconstruction, if she has any doubt. The quality of information given by medical doctors is essential to the success of psychological intervention. This article was written in a simple, and understandable way to help gynecologists giving the best information to their patients. It is maybe also possible to let them a copy of this article, which would enable them to have a written support and would facilitate future consultation with the surgeon who will perform the reconstruction.

  1. 单边干涉数据光谱复原的关键问题分析%Key Problem Analysis of Spectral Reconstruction of Single-sided Interferential Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏娟; 张记龙; 王志斌; 田二明; 李世伟; 郝健

    2012-01-01

    针对干涉式傅里叶变换光谱仪中干涉信号的单边过零采样和实时快速数据处理要求,该文对光谱复原中的实时数据处理关键问题进行分析.在实验中以迈克尔逊干涉仪为核心,以632.8 nm的激光为参考光源,以3.5~5.0 μm的大气窗口为被测对象,产生干涉图;通过HgCdTe点探测器对干涉图进行光电转换,获取干涉数据.基于Matlab软件对干涉数据进行预处理、最小采样数据点确定、切趾、相位校正、频谱标定等光谱复原中数据处理的关键技术和问题进行分析和仿真分析.实验表明,大气窗口的4 096点的干涉数据采用小双边干涉数据量为512点,所有干涉数据采用非对称三角切趾的Mertz法相位校正,傅里叶变换、线性标定后能快速复原目标光谱,且光谱分辨率达到4 cm-1.%For the requirements of the discrete sampling of the single-side interferogram beyond zero path difference in Fourier spectroscopy and the need of the fast real-time data processing, the key problem of real-time data processing in the spectrical reconstruction has been analyzed in this paper. In the experiment, Michelson interferometer is applied to acquire the interference fringes, the 3. 5 - 5 jtm atmospheric window is the measured object and the 632. 8 nm laser is used as the referenced light source. The interferential signals are obtained by the dot HgCdTe detector. The interferential data is predisposed, apodized, phase corrected and calibrated to rebuild the spectrums based on the Matlab software. The experiment indicates that the interferential data of the atmospheric window of 4 096 points is phase corrected by the method of Mertz in which the amount of the little double-sided data is 512 points and apodized by the symmetrical triangle function, the total data is apodized by the asymmetrical triangle function, Fourier transformed and calibrated to quickly and accurately rebuild the spectrum which is high resolution and

  2. Tomographic image reconstruction using training images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Sara; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Hansen, Per Christian

    2017-01-01

    the framework of sparse learning as a regularized non-negative matrix factorization. Incorporating the dictionary as a prior in a convex reconstruction problem, we then find an approximate solution with a sparse representation in the dictionary. The dictionary is applied to non-overlapping patches of the image......We describe and examine an algorithm for tomographic image reconstruction where prior knowledge about the solution is available in the form of training images. We first construct a non-negative dictionary based on prototype elements from the training images; this problem is formulated within...

  3. A Convex Optimization Approach to pMRI Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Cishen

    2013-01-01

    In parallel magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI) reconstruction without using estimation of coil sensitivity functions, one group of algorithms reconstruct sensitivity encoded images of the coils first followed by the magnitude only image reconstruction, e.g. GRAPPA, and another group of algorithms jointly compute the image and sensitivity functions by regularized optimization which is a non-convex problem with local only solutions. For the magnitude only image reconstruction, this paper derives a reconstruction formulation, which is linear in the magnitude image, and an associated convex hull in the solution space of the formulated equation containing the magnitude of the image. As a result, the magnitude only image reconstruction for pMRI is formulated into a two-step convex optimization problem, which has a globally optimal solution. An algorithm based on split-bregman and nuclear norm regularized optimizations is proposed to implement the two-step convex optimization and its applications to phantom and in-vi...

  4. Direct numerical reconstruction of conductivities in three dimensions using scattering transforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikowski, Jutta; Knudsen, Kim; Mueller, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    A direct three-dimensional EIT reconstruction algorithm based on complex geometrical optics solutions and a nonlinear scattering transform is presented and implemented for spherically symmetric conductivity distributions. The scattering transform is computed both with a Born approximation and fro...... the forward problem for purposes of comparison. Reconstructions are computed for several test problems. A connection to Calderón's linear reconstruction algorithm is established, and reconstructions using both methods are compared....

  5. Cosmic Tidal Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Yu, Yu; Er, Xinzhong; Chen, Xuelei

    2015-01-01

    The gravitational coupling of a long wavelength tidal field with small scale density fluctuations leads to anisotropic distortions of the locally measured small scale matter correlation function. Since the local correlation function is statistically isotropic in the absence of such tidal interactions, the tidal distortions can be used to reconstruct the long wavelength tidal field and large scale density field in analogy with the cosmic microwave background lensing reconstruction. In this paper we present in detail a formalism for the cosmic tidal reconstruction and test the reconstruction in numerical simulations. We find that the density field on large scales can be reconstructed with good accuracy and the cross correlation coefficient between the reconstructed density field and the original density field is greater than 0.9 on large scales ($k\\lesssim0.1h/\\mathrm{Mpc}$). This is useful in the 21cm intensity mapping survey, where the long wavelength radial modes are lost due to foreground subtraction proces...

  6. Ptychographic ultrafast pulse reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Spangenberg, D; Brügmann, M H; Feurer, T

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a new ultrafast pulse reconstruction modality which is somewhat reminiscent of frequency resolved optical gating but uses a modified setup and a conceptually different reconstruction algorithm that is derived from ptychography. Even though it is a second order correlation scheme it shows no time ambiguity. Moreover, the number of spectra to record is considerably smaller than in most other related schemes which, together with a robust algorithm, leads to extremely fast convergence of the reconstruction.

  7. NEW VISUAL METHOD FOR FREE-FORM SURFACE RECONSTRUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new method is put forward combining computer vision with computer aided geometric design (CAGD) to resolve the problem of free-form surface reconstruction. The surface is first subdivided into N-sided Gregory patches, and a stereo algorithm is used to reconstruct the boundary curves. Then, the cross boundary tangent vectors are computed through reflectance analysis. At last, the whole surface can be reconstructed jointing these patches with G1 continuity(tangent continuity). Examples on synthetic images are given.

  8. Exact CS Reconstruction Condition of Undersampled Spectrum-Sparse Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressive sensing (CS reconstruction of a spectrum-sparse signal from undersampled data is, in fact, an ill-posed problem. In this paper, we mathematically prove that, in certain cases, the exact CS reconstruction of a spectrum-sparse signal from undersampled data is impossible. Then we present the exact CS reconstruction condition of undersampled spectrum-sparse signals, which is valuable for digital signal compression.

  9. Thin slice three dimentional (3D reconstruction versus CT 3D reconstruction of human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: With improvement in the early diagnosis of breast cancer, breast conserving therapy (BCT is being increasingly used. Precise preoperative evaluation of the incision margin is, therefore, very important. Utilizing three dimentional (3D images in a preoperative evaluation for breast conserving surgery has considerable significance, but the currently 3D CT scan reconstruction commonly used has problems in accurately displaying breast cancer. Thin slice 3D reconstruction is also widely used now to delineate organs and tissues of breast cancers. This study was aimed to compare 3D CT with thin slice 3D reconstruction in breast cancer patients to find a better technique for accurate evaluation of breast cancer. Methods: A total of 16-slice spiral CT scans and 3D reconstructions were performed on 15 breast cancer patients. All patients had been treated with modified radical mastectomy; 2D and 3D images of breast and tumours were obtained. The specimens were fixed and sliced at 2 mm thickness to obtain serial thin slice images, and reconstructed using 3D DOCTOR software to gain 3D images. Results: Compared with 2D CT images, thin slice images showed more clearly the morphological characteristics of tumour, breast tissues and the margins of different tissues in each slice. After 3D reconstruction, the tumour shapes obtained by the two reconstruction methods were basically the same, but the thin slice 3D reconstruction showed the tumour margins more clearly. Interpretation & conclusions: Compared with 3D CT reconstruction, thin slice 3D reconstruction of breast tumour gave clearer images, which could provide guidance for the observation and application of CT 3D reconstructed images and contribute to the accurate evaluation of tumours using CT imaging technology.

  10. Photogrammetric Reconstruction with Bayesian Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, A.; Fissore, F.; Guarnieri, A.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays photogrammetry and laser scanning methods are the most wide spread surveying techniques. Laser scanning methods usually allow to obtain more accurate results with respect to photogrammetry, but their use have some issues, e.g. related to the high cost of the instrumentation and the typical need of high qualified personnel to acquire experimental data on the field. Differently, photogrammetric reconstruction can be achieved by means of low cost devices and by persons without specific training. Furthermore, the recent diffusion of smart devices (e.g. smartphones) embedded with imaging and positioning sensors (i.e. standard camera, GNSS receiver, inertial measurement unit) is opening the possibility of integrating more information in the photogrammetric reconstruction procedure, in order to increase its computational efficiency, its robustness and accuracy. In accordance with the above observations, this paper examines and validates new possibilities for the integration of information provided by the inertial measurement unit (IMU) into the photogrammetric reconstruction procedure, and, to be more specific, into the procedure for solving the feature matching and the bundle adjustment problems.

  11. Femoral Reconstruction Using External Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Palatnik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of an external fixator for the purpose of distraction osteogenesis has been applied to a wide range of orthopedic problems caused by such diverse etiologies as congenital disease, metabolic conditions, infections, traumatic injuries, and congenital short stature. The purpose of this study was to analyze our experience of utilizing this method in patients undergoing a variety of orthopedic procedures of the femur. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed our experience of using external fixation for femoral reconstruction. Three subgroups were defined based on the primary reconstruction goal lengthening, deformity correction, and repair of nonunion/bone defect. Factors such as leg length discrepancy (LLD, limb alignment, and external fixation time and complications were evaluated for the entire group and the 3 subgroups. Results. There was substantial improvement in the overall LLD, femoral length discrepancy, and limb alignment as measured by mechanical axis deviation (MAD and lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA for the entire group as well as the subgroups. Conclusions. The Ilizarov external fixator allows for decreased surgical exposure and preservation of blood supply to bone, avoidance of bone grafting and internal fixation, and simultaneous lengthening and deformity correction, making it a very useful technique for femoral reconstruction.

  12. Reconstruction of less regular conductivities in the plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kim; Tamasan, Alexandru

    2004-01-01

    We consider the inverse conductivity problem of how to reconstruct an isotropic electric conductivity distribution in a conductive body from static electric measurements on the boundary of the body. An exact algorithm for the reconstruction of a conductivity in a planer domain from the associated...

  13. Surface Reconstruction and Image Enhancement via $L^1$-Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Dobrev, Veselin

    2010-01-01

    A surface reconstruction technique based on minimization of the total variation of the gradient is introduced. Convergence of the method is established, and an interior-point algorithm solving the associated linear programming problem is introduced. The reconstruction algorithm is illustrated on various test cases including natural and urban terrain data, and enhancement oflow-resolution or aliased images. Copyright © by SIAM.

  14. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  15. Breast reconstruction - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100156.htm Breast reconstruction - series—Indication, part 1 To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Breast Reconstruction A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  16. Reconstruction of Undersampled Atomic Force Microscopy Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Arildsen, Thomas; Østergaard, Jan

    2013-01-01

    . Moreover, it is often required to take several images before a relevant observation region is identified. In this paper we show how to significantly reduce the image acquisition time by undersampling. The reconstruction of an undersampled AFM image can be viewed as an inpainting, interpolating problem...

  17. REVIEW - BIOMATERIALS FOR ABDOMINAL-WALL RECONSTRUCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIMMERMACHER, RKJ; BLEICHRODT, RP; SCHAKENRAAD, JM

    1992-01-01

    The reconstruction of large abdominal wall defects still is a major surgical problem. Many different techniques have been developed for this purpose, most of which appeared to be unsatisfactory. The lack of sufficient tissue requires the insertion of prosthetic material. Non-absorbable prostheses

  18. Breast Reconstruction with Flap Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast reconstruction with flap surgery Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Breast reconstruction is a surgical procedure that restores shape to ... breast tissue to treat or prevent breast cancer. Breast reconstruction with flap surgery is a type of breast ...

  19. A practical local tomography reconstruction algorithm based on known subregion

    CERN Document Server

    Paleo, Pierre; Mirone, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new method to reconstruct data acquired in a local tomography setup. This method uses an initial reconstruction and refines it by correcting the low frequency artifacts known as the cupping effect. A basis of Gaussian functions is used to correct the initial reconstruction. The coefficients of this basis are iteratively optimized under the constraint of a known subregion. Using a coarse basis reduces the degrees of freedom of the problem while actually correcting the cupping effect. Simulations show that the known region constraint yields an unbiased reconstruction, in accordance to uniqueness theorems stated in local tomography.

  20. Convergence of iterative image reconstruction algorithms for Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidky, Emil; Jørgensen, Jakob Heide; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2012-01-01

    solutions can aid in iterative image reconstruction algorithm design. This issue is particularly acute for iterative image reconstruction in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT), where the corresponding data model IS particularly poorly conditioned. The impact of this poor conditioning is that iterative......Most iterative image reconstruction algorithms are based on some form of optimization, such as minimization of a data-fidelity term plus an image regularizing penalty term. While achieving the solution of these optimization problems may not directly be clinically relevant, accurate optimization....... Math. Imag. Vol. 40, pgs 120-145) and apply it to iterative image reconstruction in DBT....

  1. Simulation and track reconstruction for beam telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Maqbool, Salman

    2017-01-01

    Beam telescopes are used for testing new detectors under development. Sensors are placed and a particle beam is passed through them. To test these novel detectors and determine their properties, the particle tracks need to be reconstructed from the known detectors in the telescope. Based on the reconstructed track, it’s predicted hits on the Device under Test (DUT) are compared with the actual hits on the DUT. Several methods exist for track reconstruction, but most of them don’t account for the effects of multiple scattering. General Broken Lines is one such algorithm which incorporates these effects during reconstruction. The aim of this project was to simulate the beam telescope and extend the track reconstruction framework for the FE-I4 telescope, which takes these effects into account. Section 1 introduces the problem, while section 2 focuses on beam telescopes. This is followed by the Allpix2 simulation framework in Section 3. And finally, Section 4 introduces the Proteus track reconstruction framew...

  2. Iterative wavelet thresholding for rapid MRI reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayvanrad, Mohammad H.; McKenzie, Charles A.; Peters, Terry M.

    2011-03-01

    According to the developments in the field of compressed sampling and and sparse recovery, one might take advantage of the sparsity of an object, as an additional a priori knowledge about the object, to reconstruct it from fewer samples than that needed by the traditional sampling strategies. Since most magnetic resonance (MR) images are sparse in some domain, in this work we consider the problem of MR reconstruction and how one could apply this idea to accelerate the process of MR image/map acquisition. In particular, based on the Paupolis-Gerchgerg algorithm, an iterative thresholding algorithm for reconstruction of MR images from limited k-space observations is proposed. The proposed method takes advantage of the sparsity of most MR images in the wavelet domain. Initializing with a minimum-energy reconstruction, the object of interest is reconstructed by going through a sequence of thresholding and recovery iterations. Furthermore, MR studies often involve acquisition of multiple images in time that are highly correlated. This correlation can be used as additional knowledge on the object beside the sparsity to further reduce the reconstruction time. The performance of the proposed algorithms is experimentally evaluated and compared to other state-of-the-art methods. In particular, we show that the quality of reconstruction is increased compared to total variation (TV) regularization, and the conventional Papoulis-Gerchberg algorithm both in the absence and in the presence of noise. Also, phantom experiments show good accuracy in the reconstruction of relaxation maps from a set of highly undersampled k-space observations.

  3. Reconstructing Step by Step

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    On May 22,10 days after the Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan Province,the State Council formed the Post-earthquake Reconstruction Planning Group,deciding to work out a general recon- struction plan within a period of three months. Sichuan was the worst-hit area of China,so reconstruction work there will have a direct influence on how plans proceed in other areas.On July 18,Beijing Review reporter Feng Jianhua interviewed Wang Guangsi,Vice Director of the Sichuan Development and Reform Commission,about Sichuan’s reconstruction plan.

  4. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-07-01

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system.

  5. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-07-22

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system.

  6. A combined reconstruction algorithm for computerized ionospheric tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, D. B.; Ou, J. K.; Yuan, Y. B.

    Ionospheric electron density profiles inverted by tomographic reconstruction of GPS derived total electron content TEC measurements has the potential to become a tool to quantify ionospheric variability and investigate ionospheric dynamics The problem of reconstructing ionospheric electron density from GPS receiver to satellite TEC measurements are formulated as an ill-posed discrete linear inverse problem A combined reconstruction algorithm of computerized ionospheric tomography CIT is proposed in this paper In this algorithm Tikhonov regularization theory TRT is exploited to solve the ill-posed problem and its estimate from GPS observation data is input as the initial guess of simultaneous iterative reconstruction algorithm SIRT The combined algorithm offer a more reasonable method to choose initial guess of SIRT and the use of SIRT algorithm is to improve the quality of the final reconstructed imaging Numerical experiments from the actual GPS observation data are used to validate the reliability of the method the reconstructed results show that the new algorithm works reasonably and effectively with CIT the overall reconstruction error reduces significantly compared to the reconstruction error of SIRT only or TRT only

  7. Towards an accurate volume reconstruction in atom probe tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinke, Daniel; Oberdorfer, Christian; Schmitz, Guido

    2016-06-01

    An alternative concept for the reconstruction of atom probe data is outlined. It is based on the calculation of realistic trajectories of the evaporated ions in a recursive refinement process. To this end, the electrostatic problem is solved on a Delaunay tessellation. To enable the trajectory calculation, the order of reconstruction is inverted with respect to previous reconstruction schemes: the last atom detected is reconstructed first. In this way, the emitter shape, which controls the trajectory, can be defined throughout the duration of the reconstruction. A proof of concept is presented for 3D model tips, containing spherical precipitates or embedded layers of strongly contrasting evaporation thresholds. While the traditional method following Bas et al. generates serious distortions in these cases, a reconstruction with the proposed electrostatically informed approach improves the geometry of layers and particles significantly.

  8. Tensor-based dictionary learning for dynamic tomographic reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shengqi; Zhang, Yanbo; Wang, Ge; Mou, Xuanqin; Cao, Guohua; Wu, Zhifang; Yu, Hengyong

    2015-04-01

    In dynamic computed tomography (CT) reconstruction, the data acquisition speed limits the spatio-temporal resolution. Recently, compressed sensing theory has been instrumental in improving CT reconstruction from far few-view projections. In this paper, we present an adaptive method to train a tensor-based spatio-temporal dictionary for sparse representation of an image sequence during the reconstruction process. The correlations among atoms and across phases are considered to capture the characteristics of an object. The reconstruction problem is solved by the alternating direction method of multipliers. To recover fine or sharp structures such as edges, the nonlocal total variation is incorporated into the algorithmic framework. Preclinical examples including a sheep lung perfusion study and a dynamic mouse cardiac imaging demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the vectorized dictionary-based CT reconstruction in the case of few-view reconstruction.

  9. An Intelligent Actuator Fault Reconstruction Scheme for Robotic Manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bing; Yin, Shen

    2017-01-16

    This paper investigates a difficult problem of reconstructing actuator faults for robotic manipulators. An intelligent approach with fast reconstruction property is developed. This is achieved by using observer technique. This scheme is capable of precisely reconstructing the actual actuator fault. It is shown by Lyapunov stability analysis that the reconstruction error can converge to zero after finite time. A perfect reconstruction performance including precise and fast properties can be provided for actuator fault. The most important feature of the scheme is that, it does not depend on control law, dynamic model of actuator, faults' type, and also their time-profile. This super reconstruction performance and capability of the proposed approach are further validated by simulation and experimental results.

  10. Image Reconstruction Algorithm for Electrical Charge Tomography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Rahmat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many problems in scientific computing can be formulated as inverse problem. A vast majority of these problems are ill-posed problems. In Electrical Charge Tomography (EChT, normally the sensitivity matrix generated from forward modeling is very ill-condition. This condition posts difficulties to the inverse problem solution especially in the accuracy and stability of the image being reconstructed. The objective of this study is to reconstruct the image cross-section of the material in pipeline gravity dropped mode conveyor as well to solve the ill-condition of matrix sensitivity. Approach: Least Square with Regularization (LSR method had been introduced to reconstruct the image and the electrodynamics sensor was used to capture the data that installed around the pipe. Results: The images were validated using digital imaging technique and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD method. The results showed that image reconstructed by this method produces a good promise in terms of accuracy and stability. Conclusion: This implied that LSR method provides good and promising result in terms of accuracy and stability of the image being reconstructed. As a result, an efficient method for electrical charge tomography image reconstruction has been introduced.

  11. 化学教学论部分学科基本问题的反思与重构%Reconstruction and Reflection on some Subject - basic Problems of Chemistry Didactics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏壮伟; 弓巧娟

    2011-01-01

    学科基本问题是化学教学论学科研究的重大理论问题。化学教学论学科基本问题的研究成果是显著的,但问题也是客观存在的,化学教学论的一些学科基本问题至今仍没有得到明确、合理的解决。结合实践经验和文献研究,尝试对化学教学论的学科培养对象、化学教学论学科自身理论领域的界限、化学教学过程的本质等三个问题进行“明确”的论述,以利研讨、交流。%The subject -basic problems are the major theoretical issues in subject studies of chemistry didactics. The research results on the subject - basic problems of chemistry didactics are significant, but the problem is still objectively existent. Some subject - basic problems of chemistry didactics have not been clearly and reasonably resolved. Combining practical experience with literatures, this paper tries to clearly discuss three problems including the subject cultivation of chemistry didactics, the subject theory boundaries of chemistry didactics, and the nature of chemical teaching process.

  12. Flame slice algebraic reconstruction technique reconstruction algorithm based on radial total variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shufang; Wang, Fuyao; Zhang, Cong; Xie, Hui; Wan, Minggang

    2016-09-01

    The engine flame is an important representation of the combustion process in the cylinder, and the three-dimensional (3-D) shape reconstruction of the flame can provide more information for the quantitative analysis of the flame, so as to contribute to further research on the mechanism of the combustion flame. One important method of 3-D shape reconstruction is to reconstruct the two-dimensional (2-D) projection image of the flame, so the optimization problem of the flame 2-D slice reconstruction algorithm is studied in this paper. According to the gradient sparsity characteristics in the total variation (TV) domain and radial diffusion characteristics of the engine combustion flame, a flame 2-D slice algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) reconstruction algorithm based on radial TV (ART-R-TV) is proposed. Numerical simulation results show that the new proposed ART-R-TV algorithm can reconstruct flame slice images more stably and have a better robustness than the two traditional ART algorithms especially in a limited-angle situation.

  13. Mirror Surface Reconstruction from a Single Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miaomiao; Hartley, Richard; Salzmann, Mathieu

    2015-04-01

    This paper tackles the problem of reconstructing the shape of a smooth mirror surface from a single image. In particular, we consider the case where the camera is observing the reflection of a static reference target in the unknown mirror. We first study the reconstruction problem given dense correspondences between 3D points on the reference target and image locations. In such conditions, our differential geometry analysis provides a theoretical proof that the shape of the mirror surface can be recovered if the pose of the reference target is known. We then relax our assumptions by considering the case where only sparse correspondences are available. In this scenario, we formulate reconstruction as an optimization problem, which can be solved using a nonlinear least-squares method. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on both synthetic and real images. We then provide a theoretical analysis of the potential degenerate cases with and without prior knowledge of the pose of the reference target. Finally we show that our theory can be similarly applied to the reconstruction of the surface of transparent object.

  14. Surface Reconstruction for Cross Sectional Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐美和; 唐泽圣

    1996-01-01

    In this paper,a new solution to the problem of reconstructing the surface of 3D objects over a set of cross-sectional contours is proposed.An algorithm for single branch contours connection,which is based on the closest local polar angle method,is first presented.Then the branching problems(including non-singular branchin and singular branching)are completely solved by decomposing them into several single-branching problems.Finally,these methods are applied to the reconstruction of the external surface of a complexly shaped object such as the cellular region of human brain.The results show that the presented methods are practical and satisfactory.

  15. Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It also does not involve cutting of the abdominal muscle and is a free flap. This type of ... NCI fact sheet Mammograms . What are some new developments in breast reconstruction after mastectomy? Oncoplastic surgery. In ...

  16. Prairie Reconstruction Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Prairie Reconstruction Initiative Advisory Team (PRIAT) is to identify and take steps to resolve uncertainties in the process of prairie...

  17. Head and face reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work together. Head and neck surgeons also perform craniofacial reconstruction operations. The surgery is done while you are deep asleep and pain-free (under general anesthesia ). The surgery may take ...

  18. Reconstructions of eyelid defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eyelids are the protective mechanism of the eyes. The upper and lower eyelids have been formed for their specific functions by Nature. The eyelid defects are encountered in congenital anomalies, trauma, and postexcision for neoplasm. The reconstructions should be based on both functional and cosmetic aspects. The knowledge of the basic anatomy of the lids is a must. There are different techniques for reconstructing the upper eyelid, lower eyelid, and medial and lateral canthal areas. Many a times, the defects involve more than one area. For the reconstruction of the lid, the lining should be similar to the conjunctiva, a cover by skin and the middle layer to give firmness and support. It is important to understand the availability of various tissues for reconstruction. One layer should have the vascularity to support the other layer which can be a graft. A proper plan and execution of it is very important.

  19. Prairie Reconstruction Initiative Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Prairie Reconstruction Initiative Advisory Team (PRIAT) is to identify and take steps to resolve uncertainties in the process of prairie...

  20. The evolving breast reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this editorial is to give an update on the use of the propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator flap (TAP/TDAP-flap) within the field of breast reconstruction. The TAP-flap can be dissected by a combined use of a monopolar cautery and a scalpel. Microsurgical instruments are generally...... not needed. The propeller TAP-flap can be designed in different ways, three of these have been published: (I) an oblique upwards design; (II) a horizontal design; (III) an oblique downward design. The latissimus dorsi-flap is a good and reliable option for breast reconstruction, but has been criticized...... for oncoplastic and reconstructive breast surgery and will certainly become an invaluable addition to breast reconstructive methods....

  1. Improvement in fast particle track reconstruction with robust statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M.G. [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, SA (Australia); Abbasi, R. [Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Abdou, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Ackermann, M. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J.A. [Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire, Université de Genève, CH-1211Genève (Switzerland); Ahlers, M. [Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Altmann, D. [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Auffenberg, J. [Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bai, X. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Baker, M. [Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Barwick, S.W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Baum, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Bay, R. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2014-02-01

    The IceCube project has transformed 1 km{sup 3} of deep natural Antarctic ice into a Cherenkov detector. Muon neutrinos are detected and their direction is inferred by mapping the light produced by the secondary muon track inside the volume instrumented with photomultipliers. Reconstructing the muon track from the observed light is challenging due to noise, light scattering in the ice medium, and the possibility of simultaneously having multiple muons inside the detector, resulting from the large flux of cosmic ray muons. This paper describes work on two problems: (1) the track reconstruction problem, in which, given a set of observations, the goal is to recover the track of a muon; and (2) the coincident event problem, which is to determine how many muons are active in the detector during a time window. Rather than solving these problems by developing more complex physical models that are applied at later stages of the analysis, our approach is to augment the detector's early reconstruction with data filters and robust statistical techniques. These can be implemented at the level of on-line reconstruction and, therefore, improve all subsequent reconstructions. Using the metric of median angular resolution, a standard metric for track reconstruction, we improve the accuracy in the initial reconstruction direction by 13%. We also present improvements in measuring the number of muons in coincident events: we can accurately determine the number of muons 98% of the time.

  2. Reconstruction Setting Out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The earthquake-hit Yushu shifts its focus from rescuing survivors to post-quake reconstruction The first phase of earthquake relief, in which rescuing lives was the priority, finished 12 days after a 7.1-magnitude earthquake struck the Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Yushu in northwest China’s Qinghai Province on April 14, and reconstruction of the area is now ready to begin.

  3. Two-Manifold Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Boots, Byron

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been much interest in spectral approaches to learning manifolds---so-called kernel eigenmap methods. These methods have had some successes, but their applicability is limited because they are not robust to noise. To address this limitation, we look at two-manifold problems, in which we simultaneously reconstruct two related manifolds, each representing a different view of the same data. By solving these interconnected learning problems together and allowing information to flow between them, two-manifold algorithms are able to succeed where a non-integrated approach would fail: each view allows us to suppress noise in the other, reducing bias in the same way that an instrumental variable allows us to remove bias in a {linear} dimensionality reduction problem. We propose a class of algorithms for two-manifold problems, based on spectral decomposition of cross-covariance operators in Hilbert space. Finally, we discuss situations where two-manifold problems are useful, and demonstrate that sol...

  4. Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, John J.

    1970-01-01

    Discussed are the nature of a mathematical problem, problem solving in the traditional and modern mathematics programs, problem solving and psychology, research related to problem solving, and teaching problem solving in algebra and geometry. (CT)

  5. The reconstruction of solar activity in the context of solar dynamo modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, D.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss problems of interpretation of sunspot data for use in solar dynamo modelling. The variety of the current sunspot reconstructions of archival data creates substantial difficulties for such an endeavour. We suggest a possible strategy to avoid these problems. The point is that we have to accept the possibility of several solar activity reconstructions that are contradictory in detail, and have to compare several possible reconstructions with dynamo models. The point is that a given reconstruction may not cover all the time interval of interest because this reconstruction requires information unavailable at earlier or later times.

  6. Reconstruction of eye movements during blinks

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, M S; Kliegl, R; Engbert, R; Kurths, J

    2008-01-01

    In eye movement research in reading, the amount of data plays a crucial role for the validation of results. A methodological problem for the analysis of the eye movement in reading are blinks, when readers close their eyes. Blinking rate increases with increasing reading time, resulting in high data losses, especially for older adults or reading impaired subjects. We present a method, based on the symbolic sequence dynamics of the eye movements, that reconstructs the horizontal position of the eyes while the reader blinks. The method makes use of an observed fact that the movements of the eyes before closing or after opening contain information about the eyes movements during blinks. Test results indicate that our reconstruction method is superior to methods that use simpler interpolation approaches. In addition, analyses of the reconstructed data show no significant deviation from the usual behavior observed in readers.

  7. Sky reconstruction for the Tianlai cylinder array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao; Zuo, Shi-Fan; Ansari, Reza; Chen, Xuelei; Li, Yi-Chao; Wu, Feng-Quan; Campagne, Jean-Eric; Magneville, Christophe

    2016-10-01

    We apply our sky map reconstruction method for transit type interferometers to the Tianlai cylinder array. The method is based on spherical harmonic decomposition, and can be applied to a cylindrical array as well as dish arrays and we can compute the instrument response, synthesized beam, transfer function and noise power spectrum. We consider cylinder arrays with feed spacing larger than half a wavelength and, as expected, we find that the arrays with regular spacing have grating lobes which produce spurious images in the reconstructed maps. We show that this problem can be overcome using arrays with a different feed spacing on each cylinder. We present the reconstructed maps, and study the performance in terms of noise power spectrum, transfer function and beams for both regular and irregular feed spacing configurations.

  8. Primordial density and BAO reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Chen, Xuelei

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method to reconstruct the primordial (linear) density field using the estimated nonlinear displacement field. The divergence of the displacement field gives the reconstructed density field. We solve the nonlinear displacement field in the 1D cosmology and show the reconstruction results. The new reconstruction algorithm recovers a lot of linear modes and reduces the nonlinear damping scale significantly. The successful 1D reconstruction results imply the new algorithm should also be a promising technique in the 3D case.

  9. Reconstructive options in pelvic tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayilvahanan N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pelvic tumours present a complex problem. It is difficult to choose between limb salvage and hemipelvectomy. Method: Forty three patients of tumours of pelvis underwent limb salvage resection with reconstruction in 32 patients. The majority were chondrosarcomas (20 cases followed by Ewing sarcoma. Stage II B was the most common stage in malignant lesions and all the seven benign lesions were aggressive (B3. Surgical margins achieved were wide in 31 and marginal in 12 cases. Ilium was involved in 51% of cases and periacetabular involvement was seen in 12 patients. The resections done were mostly of types I &II of Enneking′s classification of pelvic resection. Arthrodesis was attempted in 24 patients. Customized Saddle prosthesis was used in seven patients and no reconstruction in 12 patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to all high-grade malignant tumours, combined with radiotherapy in 7 patients. Results: With a mean follow up of 48.5 months and one patient lost to follow up, the recurrence rate among the evaluated cases was 16.6%. Oncologically, 30 patients were continuously disease free with 7 local recurrences and 4 deaths due to disseminated disease and 2 patients died of other causes. During the initial years, satisfactory functional results were achieved with prosthetic replacement. Long-term functional result of 36 patients who were alive at the time of latest follow up was satisfactory in 75% who underwent arthrodesis and in those where no reconstruction was used. We also describe a method of new classification of pelvic resections that clarifies certain shortcomings of the previous systems of classification. Conclusion: Selection of a procedure depends largely on the patient factors, the tumour grade, the resultant defect and the tissue factors. Resection with proper margins gives better functional and oncological results

  10. Fully 3D GPU PET reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herraiz, J.L., E-mail: joaquin@nuclear.fis.ucm.es [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Espana, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Cal-Gonzalez, J. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J.J. [Departmento de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Desco, M. [Departmento de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-21

    Fully 3D iterative tomographic image reconstruction is computationally very demanding. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has been proposed for many years as potential accelerators in complex scientific problems, but it has not been used until the recent advances in the programmability of GPUs that the best available reconstruction codes have started to be implemented to be run on GPUs. This work presents a GPU-based fully 3D PET iterative reconstruction software. This new code may reconstruct sinogram data from several commercially available PET scanners. The most important and time-consuming parts of the code, the forward and backward projection operations, are based on an accurate model of the scanner obtained with the Monte Carlo code PeneloPET and they have been massively parallelized on the GPU. For the PET scanners considered, the GPU-based code is more than 70 times faster than a similar code running on a single core of a fast CPU, obtaining in both cases the same images. The code has been designed to be easily adapted to reconstruct sinograms from any other PET scanner, including scanner prototypes.

  11. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data.

  12. Multidimensional seismic data reconstruction using tensor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimer, Nadia

    Exploration seismology utilizes the seismic wavefield for prospecting oil and gas. The seismic reflection experiment consists on deploying sources and receivers in the surface of an area of interest. When the sources are activated, the receivers measure the wavefield that is reflected from different subsurface interfaces and store the information as time-series called traces or seismograms. The seismic data depend on two source coordinates, two receiver coordinates and time (a 5D volume). Obstacles in the field, logistical and economical factors constrain seismic data acquisition. Therefore, the wavefield sampling is incomplete in the four spatial dimensions. Seismic data undergoes different processes. In particular, the reconstruction process is responsible for correcting sampling irregularities of the seismic wavefield. This thesis focuses on the development of new methodologies for the reconstruction of multidimensional seismic data. This thesis examines techniques based on tensor algebra and proposes three methods that exploit the tensor nature of the seismic data. The fully sampled volume is low-rank in the frequency-space domain. The rank increases when we have missing traces and/or noise. The methods proposed perform rank reduction on frequency slices of the 4D spatial volume. The first method employs the Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition (HOSVD) immersed in an iterative algorithm that reinserts weighted observations. The second method uses a sequential truncated SVD on the unfoldings of the tensor slices (SEQ-SVD). The third method formulates the rank reduction problem as a convex optimization problem. The measure of the rank is replaced by the nuclear norm of the tensor and the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) minimizes the cost function. All three methods have the interesting property that they are robust to curvature of the reflections, unlike many reconstruction methods. Finally, we present a comparison between the methods

  13. Robust Reconstruction of Complex Networks from Sparse Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Di, Zengru

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructing complex networks from measurable data is a fundamental problem for understanding and controlling collective dynamics of complex networked systems. However, a significant challenge arises when we attempt to decode structural information hidden in limited amounts of data accompanied by noise and in the presence of inaccessible nodes. Here, we develop a general framework for robust reconstruction of complex networks from sparse and noisy data. Specifically, we decompose the task of reconstructing the whole network into recovering local structures centered at each node. Thus, the natural sparsity of complex networks ensures a conversion from the local structure reconstruction into a sparse signal reconstruction problem that can be addressed by using the lasso, a convex optimization method. We apply our method to evolutionary games, transportation, and communication processes taking place in a variety of model and real complex networks, finding that universal high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved from sparse data in spite of noise in time series and missing data of partial nodes. Our approach opens new routes to the network reconstruction problem and has potential applications in a wide range of fields.

  14. Interferometric phase reconstruction using simplified coherence network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kui; Song, Ruiqing; Wang, Hui; Wu, Di; Wang, Hua

    2016-09-01

    Interferometric time-series analysis techniques, which extend the traditional differential radar interferometry, have demonstrated a strong capability for monitoring ground surface displacement. Such techniques are able to obtain the temporal evolution of ground deformation within millimeter accuracy by using a stack of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. In order to minimize decorrelation between stacked SAR images, the phase reconstruction technique has been developed recently. The main idea of this technique is to reform phase observations along a SAR stack by taking advantage of a maximum likelihood estimator which is defined on the coherence matrix estimated from each target. However, the phase value of a coherence matrix element might be considerably biased when its corresponding coherence is low. In this case, it will turn to an outlying sample affecting the corresponding phase reconstruction process. In order to avoid this problem, a new approach is developed in this paper. This approach considers a coherence matrix element to be an arc in a network. A so-called simplified coherence network (SCN) is constructed to decrease the negative impact of outlying samples. Moreover, a pointed iterative strategy is designed to resolve the transformed phase reconstruction problem defined on a SCN. For validation purposes, the proposed method is applied to 29 real SAR images. The results demonstrate that the proposed method has an excellent computational efficiency and could obtain more reliable phase reconstruction solutions compared to the traditional method using phase triangulation algorithm.

  15. SPECT reconstruction using DCT-induced tight framelet regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiahan; Li, Si; Xu, Yuesheng; Schmidtlein, C. R.; Lipson, Edward D.; Feiglin, David H.; Krol, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    Wavelet transforms have been successfully applied in many fields of image processing. Yet, to our knowledge, they have never been directly incorporated to the objective function in Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) image reconstruction. Our aim has been to investigate if the ℓ1-norm of non-decimated discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of the estimated radiotracer distribution could be effectively used as the regularization term for the penalized-likelihood (PL) reconstruction, where a regularizer is used to enforce the image smoothness in the reconstruction. In this study, the ℓ1-norm of 2D DCT wavelet decomposition was used as a regularization term. The Preconditioned Alternating Projection Algorithm (PAPA), which we proposed in earlier work to solve penalized likelihood (PL) reconstruction with non-differentiable regularizers, was used to solve this optimization problem. The DCT wavelet decompositions were performed on the transaxial reconstructed images. We reconstructed Monte Carlo simulated SPECT data obtained for a numerical phantom with Gaussian blobs as hot lesions and with a warm random lumpy background. Reconstructed images using the proposed method exhibited better noise suppression and improved lesion conspicuity, compared with images reconstructed using expectation maximization (EM) algorithm with Gaussian post filter (GPF). Also, the mean square error (MSE) was smaller, compared with EM-GPF. A critical and challenging aspect of this method was selection of optimal parameters. In summary, our numerical experiments demonstrated that the ℓ1-norm of discrete cosine transform (DCT) wavelet frame transform DCT regularizer shows promise for SPECT image reconstruction using PAPA method.

  16. Automatic Network Reconstruction using ASP

    CERN Document Server

    Ostrowski, Max; Durzinsky, Markus; Marwan, Wolfgang; Wagler, Annegret

    2011-01-01

    Building biological models by inferring functional dependencies from experimental data is an im- portant issue in Molecular Biology. To relieve the biologist from this traditionally manual process, various approaches have been proposed to increase the degree of automation. However, available ap- proaches often yield a single model only, rely on specific assumptions, and/or use dedicated, heuris- tic algorithms that are intolerant to changing circumstances or requirements in the view of the rapid progress made in Biotechnology. Our aim is to provide a declarative solution to the problem by ap- peal to Answer Set Programming (ASP) overcoming these difficulties. We build upon an existing approach to Automatic Network Reconstruction proposed by part of the authors. This approach has firm mathematical foundations and is well suited for ASP due to its combinatorial flavor providing a characterization of all models explaining a set of experiments. The usage of ASP has several ben- efits over the existing heuristic a...

  17. Iterative initial condition reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittfull, Marcel; Baldauf, Tobias; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by recent developments in perturbative calculations of the nonlinear evolution of large-scale structure, we present an iterative algorithm to reconstruct the initial conditions in a given volume starting from the dark matter distribution in real space. In our algorithm, objects are first moved back iteratively along estimated potential gradients, with a progressively reduced smoothing scale, until a nearly uniform catalog is obtained. The linear initial density is then estimated as the divergence of the cumulative displacement, with an optional second-order correction. This algorithm should undo nonlinear effects up to one-loop order, including the higher-order infrared resummation piece. We test the method using dark matter simulations in real space. At redshift z =0 , we find that after eight iterations the reconstructed density is more than 95% correlated with the initial density at k ≤0.35 h Mpc-1 . The reconstruction also reduces the power in the difference between reconstructed and initial fields by more than 2 orders of magnitude at k ≤0.2 h Mpc-1 , and it extends the range of scales where the full broadband shape of the power spectrum matches linear theory by a factor of 2-3. As a specific application, we consider measurements of the baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale that can be improved by reducing the degradation effects of large-scale flows. In our idealized dark matter simulations, the method improves the BAO signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 2.7 at z =0 and by a factor of 2.5 at z =0.6 , improving standard BAO reconstruction by 70% at z =0 and 30% at z =0.6 , and matching the optimal BAO signal and signal-to-noise ratio of the linear density in the same volume. For BAO, the iterative nature of the reconstruction is the most important aspect.

  18. Upper Eyelid Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Gabriela Mabel; Prost, Angela Michelle

    2016-05-01

    Reconstruction of the upper eyelid is complicated because the eyelid must retain mobility, flexibility, function, and a suitable mucosal surface over the delicate cornea. Defects of the upper eyelid may be due to congenital defects or traumatic injury or follow oncologic resection. This article focuses on reconstruction due to loss of tissue. Multiple surgeries may be needed to reach the desired results, addressing loss of tissue and then loss of function. Each defect is unique and the laxity and availability of surrounding tissue vary. Knowing the most common techniques for repair assists surgeons in the multifaceted planning that takes place.

  19. Reconstruction of inflation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Sebastiani, Lorenzo [Eurasian National University, Department of General and Theoretical Physics and Eurasian Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Zerbini, Sergio [Universita di Trento, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trento (Italy); TIFPA, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trento (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, we reconstruct viable inflationary models by starting from spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio from Planck observations. We analyze three different kinds of models: scalar field theories, fluid cosmology, and f(R)-modified gravity. We recover the well-known R{sup 2} inflation in Jordan-frame and Einstein-frame representation, the massive scalar inflaton models and two models of inhomogeneous fluid. A model of R{sup 2} correction to Einstein's gravity plus a ''cosmological constant'' with an exact solution for early-time acceleration is reconstructed. (orig.)

  20. Comparison with reconstruction algorithms in magnetic induction tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min; Cheng, Xiaolin; Xue, Yuyan

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is a kind of imaging technology, which uses the principle of electromagnetic detection to measure the conductivity distribution. In this research, we make an effort to improve the quality of image reconstruction mainly via the image reconstruction of MIT analysis, including solving the forward problem and image reconstruction. With respect to the forward problem, the variational finite element method is adopted. We transform the solution of a nonlinear partial differential equation into linear equations by using field subdividing and the appropriate interpolation function so that the voltage data of the sensing coils can be calculated. With respect to the image reconstruction, a method of modifying the iterative Newton-Raphson (NR) algorithm is presented in order to improve the quality of the image. In the iterative NR, weighting matrix and L1-norm regularization are introduced to overcome the drawbacks of large estimation errors and poor stability of the reconstruction image. On the other hand, within the incomplete-data framework of the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm, the image reconstruction can be converted to the problem of EM through the likelihood function for improving the under-determined problem. In the EM, the missing-data is introduced and the measurement data and the sensitivity matrix are compensated to overcome the drawback that the number of the measurement voltage is far less than the number of the unknown. In addition to the two aspects above, image segmentation is also used to make the lesion more flexible and adaptive to the patients' real conditions, which provides a theoretical reference for the development of the application of the MIT technique in clinical applications. The results show that solving the forward problem with the variational finite element method can provide the measurement voltage data for image reconstruction, the improved iterative NR method and EM algorithm can enhance the image

  1. Optoacoustic inversion via Volterra kernel reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Melchert, O; Roth, B

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we address the numeric inversion of optoacoustic signals to initial stress profiles. Therefore we put under scrutiny the optoacoustic kernel reconstruction problem in the paraxial approximation of the underlying wave-equation. We apply a Fourier-series expansion of the optoacoustic Volterra kernel and obtain the respective expansion coefficients for a given "apparative" setup by performing a gauge procedure using synthetic input data. The resulting effective kernel is subsequently used to solve the optoacoustic source reconstruction problem for general signals. We verify the validity of the proposed inversion protocol for synthetic signals and explore the feasibility of our approach to also account for the diffraction transformation of signals beyond the paraxial approximation.

  2. Performance bounds for sparse signal reconstruction with multiple side information [arXiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Seiler, Jurgen; Kaup, Andre

    2016-01-01

    In the context of compressive sensing (CS), this paper considers the problem of reconstructing sparse signals with the aid of other given correlated sources as multiple side information (SI). To address this problem, we propose a reconstruction algorithm with multiple SI (RAMSI) that solves...

  3. 3D Image Reconstruction: Determination of Pattern Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenbecler, Richard

    2003-03-13

    The problem of determining the euler angles of a randomly oriented 3-D object from its 2-D Fraunhofer diffraction patterns is discussed. This problem arises in the reconstruction of a positive semi-definite 3-D object using oversampling techniques. In such a problem, the data consists of a measured set of magnitudes from 2-D tomographic images of the object at several unknown orientations. After the orientation angles are determined, the object itself can then be reconstructed by a variety of methods using oversampling, the magnitude data from the 2-D images, physical constraints on the image and then iteration to determine the phases.

  4. ACTS: from ATLAS software towards a common track reconstruction software

    CERN Document Server

    Gumpert, Christian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The reconstruction of charged particles trajectories is a crucial task for most particle physics experiments. The high instantaneous luminosity achieved at the LHC leads to a high number of proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing, which has put the track reconstruction software of the LHC experiments through a thorough test. Preserving track reconstruction performance under increasingly difficult experimental conditions, while keeping the usage of computational resources at a reasonable level, is an inherent problem for many HEP experiments. Exploiting concurrent algorithms and using multivariate techniques for track identification are the primary strategies to achieve that goal. Starting from current ATLAS software, the ACTS project aims to encapsulate track reconstruction software into a generic package, which can be built against the Gaudi(Hive) framework. It provides a set of high-level algorithms and data structures for performing track reconstruction tasks as well as fast track simulation. The softw...

  5. Model-Based Reconstructive Elasticity Imaging Using Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salavat R. Aglyamov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Elasticity imaging is a reconstructive imaging technique where tissue motion in response to mechanical excitation is measured using modern imaging systems, and the estimated displacements are then used to reconstruct the spatial distribution of Young's modulus. Here we present an ultrasound elasticity imaging method that utilizes the model-based technique for Young's modulus reconstruction. Based on the geometry of the imaged object, only one axial component of the strain tensor is used. The numerical implementation of the method is highly efficient because the reconstruction is based on an analytic solution of the forward elastic problem. The model-based approach is illustrated using two potential clinical applications: differentiation of liver hemangioma and staging of deep venous thrombosis. Overall, these studies demonstrate that model-based reconstructive elasticity imaging can be used in applications where the geometry of the object and the surrounding tissue is somewhat known and certain assumptions about the pathology can be made.

  6. ACTS: from ATLAS software towards a common track reconstruction software

    CERN Document Server

    Gumpert, Christian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of charged particles' trajectories is a crucial task for most particle physics experiments. The high instantaneous luminosity achieved at the LHC leads to a high number of proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing, which has put the track reconstruction software of the LHC experiments through a thorough test. Preserving track reconstruction performance under increasingly difficult experimental conditions, while keeping the usage of computational resources at a reasonable level, is an inherent problem for many HEP experiments. Exploiting concurrent algorithms and using multivariate techniques for track identification are the primary strategies to achieve that goal. Starting from current ATLAS software, the ACTS project aims to encapsulate track reconstruction software into a generic, framework- and experiment-independent software package. It provides a set of high-level algorithms and data structures for performing track reconstruction tasks as well as fast track simulation. The software is de...

  7. Improving displayed resolution in convolution reconstruction of digital holograms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Qi; ZHAO Jian-lin; ZHANG Yan-cao; WANG Jun; DI Jiang-lei

    2006-01-01

    In digital holographic microscopy,when the object is placed near the CCD,the Fresnel approximation is no longer valid and the convolution approach has to be applied.With this approach,the sampling spacing of the reconstructed image plane is equal to the pixel size of the CCD.If the lateral resolution of the reconstructed image is higher than that of the CCD,Nyquist sampling criterion is violated and aliasing errors will be introduced.In this Letter,a new method is proposed to solve this problem by investigating convolution reconstruction of digital holograms.By appending enough zeros to the angular spectrum between the two FFT's in convolution reconstruction of digital holograms,the displayed resolution of the reconstructed image can be improved.Experimental results show a good agreement with theoretical analysis.

  8. Reconstruction of Planar Domains from Partial Integral Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Batenkov, Dmitry; Yomdin, Yosef

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of reconstruction of planar domains from their moments. Specifically, we consider domains with boundary which can be represented by a union of a finite number of pieces whose graphs are solutions of a linear differential equation with polynomial coefficients. This includes domains with piecewise-algebraic and, in particular, piecewise-polynomial boundaries. Our approach is based on one-dimensional reconstruction method of [Bat]* and a kind of "separation of variables" which reduces the planar problem to two one-dimensional problems, one of them parametric. Several explicit examples of reconstruction are given. Another main topic of the paper concerns "invisible sets" for various types of incomplete moment measurements. We suggest a certain point of view which stresses remarkable similarity between several apparently unrelated problems. In particular, we discuss zero quadrature domains (invisible for harmonic polynomials), invisibility for powers of a given polynomial, and invisibility ...

  9. Algorithms for reconstruction of chromosomal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubetsky, Vassily; Gershgorin, Roman; Seliverstov, Alexander; Gorbunov, Konstantin

    2016-01-19

    One of the main aims of phylogenomics is the reconstruction of objects defined in the leaves along the whole phylogenetic tree to minimize the specified functional, which may also include the phylogenetic tree generation. Such objects can include nucleotide and amino acid sequences, chromosomal structures, etc. The structures can have any set of linear and circular chromosomes, variable gene composition and include any number of paralogs, as well as any weights of individual evolutionary operations to transform a chromosome structure. Many heuristic algorithms were proposed for this purpose, but there are just a few exact algorithms with low (linear, cubic or similar) polynomial computational complexity among them to our knowledge. The algorithms naturally start from the calculation of both the distance between two structures and the shortest sequence of operations transforming one structure into another. Such calculation per se is an NP-hard problem. A general model of chromosomal structure rearrangements is considered. Exact algorithms with almost linear or cubic polynomial complexities have been developed to solve the problems for the case of any chromosomal structure but with certain limitations on operation weights. The computer programs are tested on biological data for the problem of mitochondrial or plastid chromosomal structure reconstruction. To our knowledge, no computer programs are available for this model. Exactness of the proposed algorithms and such low polynomial complexities were proved. The reconstructed evolutionary trees of mitochondrial and plastid chromosomal structures as well as the ancestral states of the structures appear to be reasonable.

  10. Urogenital Reconstructive Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lotte Kaasgaard

    Urogenital reconstructive surgery Lotte Kaasgaard Jakobsen1 Professor Henning Olsen1 Overlæge Gitte Hvistendahl1 Professor Karl-Erik Andersson2 1 – Dept. of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital 2 – Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University hospital Background: Congenital obstruction...

  11. Reconstruction Setting Out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The first phase of earthquake relief,in which rescuing lives was the priority,finished 12 days after a 7.1-magnitude earthquake struck the Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Yushu in northwest China's Qinghai Province on April 14,and reconstruction of the area is now ready to begin.

  12. Pangloss: Reconstructing lensing mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Thomas E.; Marshall, Philip J.; Mason, Charlotte

    2015-11-01

    Pangloss reconstructs all the mass within a light cone through the Universe. Understanding complex mass distributions like this is important for accurate time delay lens cosmography, and also for accurate lens magnification estimation. It aspires to use all available data in an attempt to make the best of all mass maps.

  13. A tensor-based dictionary learning approach to tomographic image reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Sara; Kilmer, Misha E.; Hansen, Per Christian

    2016-01-01

    We consider tomographic reconstruction using priors in the form of a dictionary learned from training images. The reconstruction has two stages: first we construct a tensor dictionary prior from our training data, and then we pose the reconstruction problem in terms of recovering the expansion...... coefficients in that dictionary. Our approach differs from past approaches in that (a) we use a third-order tensor representation for our images and (b) we recast the reconstruction problem using the tensor formulation. The dictionary learning problem is presented as a non-negative tensor factorization problem...... with sparsity constraints. The reconstruction problem is formulated in a convex optimization framework by looking for a solution with a sparse representation in the tensor dictionary. Numerical results show that our tensor formulation leads to very sparse representations of both the training images...

  14. A hybrid ECT image reconstruction based on Tikhonov regularization theory and SIRT algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wang; Xiaotong, Du; Xiaoyin, Shao

    2007-07-01

    Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) image reconstruction is a key problem that is not well solved due to the influence of soft-field in the ECT system. In this paper, a new hybrid ECT image reconstruction algorithm is proposed by combining Tikhonov regularization theory and Simultaneous Reconstruction Technique (SIRT) algorithm. Tikhonov regularization theory is used to solve ill-posed image reconstruction problem to obtain a stable original reconstructed image in the region of the optimized solution aggregate. Then, SIRT algorithm is used to improve the quality of the final reconstructed image. In order to satisfy the industrial requirement of real-time computation, the proposed algorithm is further been modified to improve the calculation speed. Test results show that the quality of reconstructed image is better than that of the well-known Filter Linear Back Projection (FLBP) algorithm and the time consumption of the new algorithm is less than 0.1 second that satisfies the online requirements.

  15. A hybrid ECT image reconstruction based on Tikhonov regularization theory and SIRT algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lei [School of Control Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); Du Xiaotong [School of Control Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); Shao Xiaoyin [Department of Manufacture Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong (China)

    2007-07-15

    Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) image reconstruction is a key problem that is not well solved due to the influence of soft-field in the ECT system. In this paper, a new hybrid ECT image reconstruction algorithm is proposed by combining Tikhonov regularization theory and Simultaneous Reconstruction Technique (SIRT) algorithm. Tikhonov regularization theory is used to solve ill-posed image reconstruction problem to obtain a stable original reconstructed image in the region of the optimized solution aggregate. Then, SIRT algorithm is used to improve the quality of the final reconstructed image. In order to satisfy the industrial requirement of real-time computation, the proposed algorithm is further been modified to improve the calculation speed. Test results show that the quality of reconstructed image is better than that of the well-known Filter Linear Back Projection (FLBP) algorithm and the time consumption of the new algorithm is less than 0.1 second that satisfies the online requirements.

  16. Breast reconstruction: Correlation between different procedures, reconstruction timing and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelkov Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Improved psychophysical condition after breast reconstruction in women has been well documented Objective. To determine the most optimal technique with minimal morbidity, the authors examined their results and complications based on reconstruction timing (immediate and delayed reconstruction and three reconstruction methods: TRAM flap, latissimus dorsi flap and reconstruction with tissue expanders and implants. Methods. Reconstruction was performed in 60 women of mean age 51.1 years. We analyzed risk factors: age, body mass index (BMI, smoking history and radiation therapy in correlation with timing and method of reconstruction. Complications of all three methods of reconstruction were under 1.5-2-year follow-up after the reconstruction. All data were statistically analyzed. Results. Only radiation had significant influence on the occurrence of complications both before and after the reconstruction, while age, smoking and BMI had no considerable influence of the development of complications. There were no statistically significant correlation between the incidence of complications, time and method of reconstruction. Conclusion. Any of the aforementioned breast reconstruction techniques can yield good results and a low rate of re-operations. To choose the best method, the patient needs to be as well informed as possible about the options including the risks and benefits of each method.

  17. Dynamic reconstruction of heterogeneous materials and microstructure evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaohua; Li, Hechao; Jiao, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Reconstructing heterogeneous materials from limited structural information has been a topic that attracts extensive research efforts and still poses many challenges. The Yeong-Torquato procedure is one of the most popular reconstruction techniques, in which the material reconstruction problem based on a set of spatial correlation functions is formulated as a constrained energy minimization (optimization) problem and solved using simulated annealing [Yeong and Torquato, Phys. Rev. E 57, 495 (1998)]. The standard two-point correlation function S2 has been widely used in reconstructions, but can also lead to large structural degeneracy for certain nearly percolating systems. To improve reconstruction accuracy and reduce structural degeneracy, one can successively incorporate additional morphological information (e.g., nonconventional or higher-order correlation functions), which amounts to reshaping the energy landscape to create a deep (local) energy minimum. In this paper, we present a dynamic reconstruction procedure that allows one to use a series of auxiliary S2 to achieve the same level of accuracy as those incorporating additional nonconventional correlation functions. In particular, instead of randomly sampling the microstructure space as in the simulated annealing scheme, our procedure utilizes a series of auxiliary microstructures that mimic a physical structural evolution process (e.g., grain growth). This amounts to constructing a series auxiliary energy landscapes that bias the convergence of the reconstruction to a favored (local) energy minimum. Moreover, our dynamic procedure can be naturally applied to reconstruct an actual microstructure evolution process. In contrast to commonly used evolution reconstruction approaches that separately generate individual static configurations, our procedure continuously evolves a single microstructure according to a time-dependent correlation function. The utility of our procedure is illustrated by successfully

  18. Resorbable extracellular matrix grafts in urologic reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Santucci

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: There is an increasingly large body of literature concerning tissue-engineering products that may be used in urology. Some of these are quite complex (such as multilayer patient-specific cell-seeded implants yet the most simple and successful products to date are also the most uncomplicated: resorbable acellular extra-cellular matrices (ECMs harvested from animals. ECMs have been used in a variety of difficult urologic reconstruction problems, and this review is intended to summarize this complex literature for the practicing urologist. METHODS: Medline search of related terms such as "SIS, small intestinal submucosa, ECM, extracellular matrix, acellular matrix and urologic reconstruction". Manuscripts missed in the initial search were taken from the bibliographies of the primary references. RESULTS: Full review of potential clinical uses of resorbable extra-cellular matrices in urologic reconstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Currently, the "state of the art" in tissue engineering solutions for urologic reconstruction means resorbable acellular xenograft matrices. They show promise when used as a pubovaginal sling or extra bolstering layers in ureteral or urethral repairs, although recent problems with inflammation following 8-ply pubovaginal sling use and failures after 1- and 4-ply SIS repair of Peyronie's disease underscore the need for research before wide adoption. Preliminary data is mixed concerning the potential for ECM urethral patch graft, and more data is needed before extended uses such as bladder augmentation and ureteral replacement are contemplated. The distant future of ECMs in urology likely will include cell-seeded grafts with the eventual hope of producing "off the shelf" replacement materials. Until that day arrives, ECMs only fulfill some of the requirements for the reconstructive urologist.

  19. Preparing for Breast Reconstruction Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Breast Reconstruction Surgery Preparing for Breast Reconstruction Surgery Your surgeon can help you know what to ... The plan for follow-up Costs Understanding your surgery costs Health insurance policies often cover most or ...

  20. Local motion-compensated method for high-quality 3D coronary artery reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Bai, Xiangzhi; Zhou, Fugen

    2016-12-01

    The 3D reconstruction of coronary artery from X-ray angiograms rotationally acquired on C-arm has great clinical value. While cardiac-gated reconstruction has shown promising results, it suffers from the problem of residual motion. This work proposed a new local motion-compensated reconstruction method to handle this issue. An initial image was firstly reconstructed using a regularized iterative reconstruction method. Then a 3D/2D registration method was proposed to estimate the residual vessel motion. Finally, the residual motion was compensated in the final reconstruction using the extended iterative reconstruction method. Through quantitative evaluation, it was found that high-quality 3D reconstruction could be obtained and the result was comparable to state-of-the-art method.

  1. Non-rigid Reconstruction of Casting Process with Temperature Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinhua; Wang, Yanjie; Li, Xin; Wang, Ying; Wang, Lu

    2017-09-01

    Off-line reconstruction of rigid scene has made a great progress in the past decade. However, the on-line reconstruction of non-rigid scene is still a very challenging task. The casting process is a non-rigid reconstruction problem, it is a high-dynamic molding process lacking of geometric features. In order to reconstruct the casting process robustly, an on-line fusion strategy is proposed for dynamic reconstruction of casting process. Firstly, the geometric and flowing feature of casting are parameterized in manner of TSDF (truncated signed distance field) which is a volumetric block, parameterized casting guarantees real-time tracking and optimal deformation of casting process. Secondly, data structure of the volume grid is extended to have temperature value, the temperature interpolation function is build to generate the temperature of each voxel. This data structure allows for dynamic tracking of temperature of casting during deformation stages. Then, the sparse RGB features is extracted from casting scene to search correspondence between geometric representation and depth constraint. The extracted color data guarantees robust tracking of flowing motion of casting. Finally, the optimal deformation of the target space is transformed into a nonlinear regular variational optimization problem. This optimization step achieves smooth and optimal deformation of casting process. The experimental results show that the proposed method can reconstruct the casting process robustly and reduce drift in the process of non-rigid reconstruction of casting.

  2. Joint reconstruction strategy for structured illumination microscopy with unknown illuminations

    CERN Document Server

    Labouesse, Simon; Idier, Jérôme; Bourguignon, Sébastien; Negash, Awoke; Liu, Penghuan; Sentenac, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The blind structured illumination microscopy (SIM) strategy proposed in (Mudry et al., 1992) is drastically revisited in this paper, unveiling the mechanism that drives the super-resolution in the method. A much improved numerical implementation is also provided for the reconstruction problem under the image positivity constraint. This algorithm rests on a new preconditioned proximal iteration faster than existing solutions, paving the way to 3D and real-time 2D reconstruction.

  3. Shape-based image reconstruction using linearized deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öktem, Ozan; Chen, Chong; Onur Domaniç, Nevzat; Ravikumar, Pradeep; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a reconstruction framework that can account for shape related prior information in imaging-related inverse problems. It is a variational scheme that uses a shape functional, whose definition is based on deformable template machinery from computational anatomy. We prove existence and, as a proof of concept, we apply the proposed shape-based reconstruction to 2D tomography with very sparse and/or highly noisy measurements.

  4. Exhaustive Verification of Weak Reconstruction For Self Complementary Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S K; Khandelwal, Akash; Tiwari, Apurv; Srilekha,

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an exhaustive approach for verification of the weak reconstruction of Self Complementary Graphs up to 17 vertices. It describes the general problem of the Reconstruction Conjecture, explaining the complexity involved in checking deck-isomorphism between two graphs. In order to improve the computation time, various pruning techniques have been employed to reduce the number of graph-isomorphism comparisons. These techniques offer great help in proceeding with a reconstructive approach. An analysis of the numbers involved is provided, along with the various limitations of this approach. A list enumerating the number of SC graphs up till 101 vertices is also appended.

  5. Regularized Image Reconstruction for Ultrasound Attenuation Transmission Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Peterlik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on ultrasonic transmission tomography as a potential medical imaging modality, namely for breast cancer diagnosis. Ultrasound attenuation coefficient is one of the tissue parameters which are related to the pathological tissue state. A technique to reconstruct images of attenuation distribution is presented. Furthermore, an alternative to the commonly used filtered backprojection or algebraic reconstruction techniques is proposed. It is based on regularization of the image reconstruction problem which imposes smoothness in the resulting images while preserving edges. The approach is analyzed on synthetic data sets. The results show that it stabilizes the image restoration by compensating for main sources of estimation errors in this imaging modality.

  6. 3D Image Reconstruction from X-Ray Measurements with Overlap

    CERN Document Server

    Klodt, Maria

    2016-01-01

    3D image reconstruction from a set of X-ray projections is an important image reconstruction problem, with applications in medical imaging, industrial inspection and airport security. The innovation of X-ray emitter arrays allows for a novel type of X-ray scanners with multiple simultaneously emitting sources. However, two or more sources emitting at the same time can yield measurements from overlapping rays, imposing a new type of image reconstruction problem based on nonlinear constraints. Using traditional linear reconstruction methods, respective scanner geometries have to be implemented such that no rays overlap, which severely restricts the scanner design. We derive a new type of 3D image reconstruction model with nonlinear constraints, based on measurements with overlapping X-rays. Further, we show that the arising optimization problem is partially convex, and present an algorithm to solve it. Experiments show highly improved image reconstruction results from both simulated and real-world measurements.

  7. Problem of Time in Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The Problem of Time occurs because the `time' of GR and of ordinary Quantum Theory are mutually incompatible notions. This is problematic in trying to replace these two branches of physics with a single framework in situations in which the conditions of both apply, e.g. in black holes or in the very early universe. Emphasis in this Review is on the Problem of Time being multi-faceted and on the nature of each of the eight principal facets. Namely, the Frozen Formalism Problem, Configurational Relationalism Problem (formerly Sandwich Problem), Foliation Dependence Problem, Constraint Closure Problem (formerly Functional Evolution Problem), Multiple Choice Problem, Global Problem of Time, Problem of Beables (alias Problem of Observables) and Spacetime Reconstruction or Replacement Problem. Strategizing in this Review is not just centred about the Frozen Formalism Problem facet, but rather about each of the eight facets. Particular emphasis is placed upon A) relationalism as an underpinning of the facets and as ...

  8. Weighted simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique for single-axis tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, D., E-mail: Daniel.Wolf@Triebenberg.de; Lubk, A.; Lichte, H.

    2014-01-15

    Tomographic techniques play a crucial role in imaging methods such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) due to their unique capabilities to reconstruct three-dimensional object information. However, the accuracy of the two standard tomographic reconstruction techniques, the weighted back-projection (W-BP) and the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) is reduced under common experimental restrictions, such as limited tilt range or noise. We demonstrate that the combination of W-BP and SIRT leads to an improved tomographic reconstruction technique: the weighted SIRT. Convergence, resolution and reconstruction error of the W-SIRT are analyzed by a detailed analytical, numerical, and experimental comparison with established methods. Our reconstruction technique is not restricted to TEM tomography but can be applied to all problems sharing single axis imaging geometry. - Highlights: • A new tomographic reconstruction technique W-SIRT was developed. • W-SIRT provides better convergence, higher resolution and smaller reconstruction error compared to established tomographic techniques. • This is demonstrated by a detailed analytical, numerical, and experimental comparison.

  9. Dendroclimatic reconstruction with time varying predictor subsets of tree indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meko, D. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Tree-ring site chronologies, the predictors for most dendroclimatic reconstructions, are essentially mean-value functions with a time varying sample size (number of trees) and sample composition. Because reconstruction models are calibrated and verified on the most recent, best-replicated part of the chronologies, regression and verification statistics can be misleading as indicators of long-term reconstruction accuracy. A new reconstruction method is described that circumvents the use of site chronologies and instead derives predictor variables from indices of individual trees. Separate regression models are estimated and cross validated for various time segments of the tree-ring record, depending on the trees available at the time. This approach allows the reconstruction to extend to the first year covered by any tree in the network and yields direct evaluation of the change in reconstruction accuracy with tree-ring sample composition. The method includes two regression stages. The first is to separately deconvolve the local climate signal for individual trees, and the second is to weight the deconvolved signals into estimates of the climatic variable to be reconstructed. The method is illustrated in an application of precipitation and tree-ring data for the San Pedro River Basin in southeastern Arizona. Extensions to larger-scale problems and spatial reconstruction are suggested. 17 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Prior Information in Inverse Boundary Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Henrik

    This thesis gives a threefold perspective on the inverse problem of inclusion detection in electrical impedance tomography: depth dependence, monotonicitybased reconstruction, and sparsity-based reconstruction. The depth dependence is given in terms of explicit bounds on the datum norm, which shows...... into how much noise that can be allowed in the datum before an inclusion cannot be detected. The monotonicity method is a direct reconstruction method that utilizes a monotonicity property of the forward problem in order to characterize the inclusions. Here we rigorously prove that the method can...... of the method. Sparsity-based reconstruction is an iterative method, that through an optimization problem with a sparsity prior, approximates the inhomogeneities. Here we make use of prior information, that can cheaply be obtained from the monotonicity method, to improve both the contrast and resolution...

  11. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are having balance problems, see your doctor. Balance disorders can be signs of other health problems, such ... cases, treating the illness that is causing the disorder will help with the balance problem. Exercises, a change in diet, and some ...

  12. Magnetic flux reconstruction methods for shaped tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, Chi-Wa

    1993-12-01

    The use of a variational method permits the Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation to be solved by reducing the problem of solving the 2D non-linear partial differential equation to the problem of minimizing a function of several variables. This high speed algorithm approximately solves the GS equation given a parameterization of the plasma boundary and the current profile (p` and FF` functions). The author treats the current profile parameters as unknowns. The goal is to reconstruct the internal magnetic flux surfaces of a tokamak plasma and the toroidal current density profile from the external magnetic measurements. This is a classic problem of inverse equilibrium determination. The current profile parameters can be evaluated by several different matching procedures. Matching of magnetic flux and field at the probe locations using the Biot-Savart law and magnetic Green`s function provides a robust method of magnetic reconstruction. The matching of poloidal magnetic field on the plasma surface provides a unique method of identifying the plasma current profile. However, the power of this method is greatly compromised by the experimental errors of the magnetic signals. The Casing Principle provides a very fast way to evaluate the plasma contribution to the magnetic signals. It has the potential of being a fast matching method. The performance of this method is hindered by the accuracy of the poloidal magnetic field computed from the equilibrium solver. A flux reconstruction package has been implemented which integrates a vacuum field solver using a filament model for the plasma, a multi-layer perception neural network as an interface, and the volume integration of plasma current density using Green`s functions as a matching method for the current profile parameters. The flux reconstruction package is applied to compare with the ASEQ and EFIT data. The results are promising.

  13. Genetic algorithms for minimal source reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, P.S.; Mosher, J.C.

    1993-12-01

    Under-determined linear inverse problems arise in applications in which signals must be estimated from insufficient data. In these problems the number of potentially active sources is greater than the number of observations. In many situations, it is desirable to find a minimal source solution. This can be accomplished by minimizing a cost function that accounts from both the compatibility of the solution with the observations and for its ``sparseness``. Minimizing functions of this form can be a difficult optimization problem. Genetic algorithms are a relatively new and robust approach to the solution of difficult optimization problems, providing a global framework that is not dependent on local continuity or on explicit starting values. In this paper, the authors describe the use of genetic algorithms to find minimal source solutions, using as an example a simulation inspired by the reconstruction of neural currents in the human brain from magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements.

  14. Hemiequilibrium problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Noor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a new class of equilibrium problems, known as hemiequilibrium problems. Using the auxiliary principle technique, we suggest and analyze a class of iterative algorithms for solving hemiequilibrium problems, the convergence of which requires either pseudomonotonicity or partially relaxed strong monotonicity. As a special case, we obtain a new method for hemivariational inequalities. Since hemiequilibrium problems include hemivariational inequalities and equilibrium problems as special cases, the results proved in this paper still hold for these problems.

  15. On Approximating Four Covering and Packing Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ashley, Mary; Berman, Piotr; Chaovalitwongse, Wanpracha; DasGupta, Bhaskar; Kao, Ming-Yang; 10.1016/j.jcss.2009.01.002

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider approximability issues of the following four problems: triangle packing, full sibling reconstruction, maximum profit coverage and 2-coverage. All of them are generalized or specialized versions of set-cover and have applications in biology ranging from full-sibling reconstructions in wild populations to biomolecular clusterings; however, as this paper shows, their approximability properties differ considerably. Our inapproximability constant for the triangle packing problem improves upon the previous results; this is done by directly transforming the inapproximability gap of Haastad for the problem of maximizing the number of satisfied equations for a set of equations over GF(2) and is interesting in its own right. Our approximability results on the full siblings reconstruction problems answers questions originally posed by Berger-Wolf et al. and our results on the maximum profit coverage problem provides almost matching upper and lower bounds on the approximation ratio, answering a...

  16. Computerized craniofacial reconstruction: Conceptual framework and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Peter; Vandermeulen, Dirk; De Greef, Sven; Willems, Guy; Clement, John Gerald; Suetens, Paul

    2010-09-10

    When confronted with a corpse that is unrecognizable due to its state of decomposition, soft-tissue mutilation or incineration, and if no other identification evidence is available, craniofacial reconstruction (CFR) can be a useful tool in the identification of the body. Traditional methods are based on manual reconstruction by physically modelling a face on a skull replica with clay or plasticine. The progress in computer science and the improvement of medical imaging technologies during recent years has had a significant impact on this domain. New, fast, flexible and computer-based objective reconstruction programs are under development. Employing the newer technologies and permanently evaluating the obtained results will hopefully lead to more accurate reconstructions, beneficial to the added value of CFR methods during crime-scene investigations. A general model-based workflow is observed, when analysing computerized CFR techniques today. The main purpose of this paper is to give an overview of existing computer-based CFR methods up to date defined within a common framework using a general taxonomy. The paper will also discuss the various alternatives and problems which arise during the process of designing a CFR program.

  17. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...... amount of data is available along the Norwegian and Russian coasts since 1950, and most published research on Arctic sea level extends cautiously from these areas. Very little tide gauge data is available elsewhere in the Arctic, and records of a length of several decades,as generally recommended for sea...

  18. Autologous Costochondral Microtia Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sapna A; Bhrany, Amit D; Murakami, Craig S; Sie, Kathleen C Y

    2016-04-01

    Reconstruction with autologous costochondral cartilage is one of the mainstays of surgical management of congenital microtia. We review the literature, present our current technique for microtia reconstruction with autologous costochondral graft, and discuss the evolution of our technique over the past 20 years. We aim to minimize donor site morbidity and create the most durable and natural appearing ear possible using a stacked framework to augment the antihelical fold and antitragal-tragal complex. Assessment of outcomes is challenging due to the paucity of available objective measures with which to evaluate aesthetic outcomes. Various instruments are used to assess outcomes, but none is universally accepted as the standard. The challenges we continue to face are humbling, but ongoing work on tissue engineering, application of 3D models, and use of validated questionnaires can help us get closer to achieving a maximal aesthetic outcome.

  19. Stochastic reconstruction of sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwart; Torquato; Hilfer

    2000-07-01

    A simulated annealing algorithm is employed to generate a stochastic model for a Berea sandstone and a Fontainebleau sandstone, with each a prescribed two-point probability function, lineal-path function, and "pore size" distribution function, respectively. We find that the temperature decrease of the annealing has to be rather quick to yield isotropic and percolating configurations. A comparison of simple morphological quantities indicates good agreement between the reconstructions and the original sandstones. Also, the mean survival time of a random walker in the pore space is reproduced with good accuracy. However, a more detailed investigation by means of local porosity theory shows that there may be significant differences of the geometrical connectivity between the reconstructed and the experimental samples.

  20. Reconstructing the Tengger calendar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Proudfoot

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of an Indic calendar among the Tengger people of the Brama highlands in east Java opens a window on Java’s calendar history. Its hybrid form reflects accommodations between this non-Muslim Javanese group and the increasingly dominant Muslim Javanese culture. Reconstruction is challenging because of this hybridity, because of inconsistencies in practice, and because the historical evidence is sketchy and often difficult to interpret.

  1. Global Alignment of Molecular Sequences via Ancestral State Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Andoni, Alexandr; Hassidim, Avinatan; Roch, Sebastien

    2009-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic techniques do not generally account for such common evolutionary events as site insertions and deletions (known as indels). Instead tree building algorithms and ancestral state inference procedures typically rely on substitution-only models of sequence evolution. In practice these methods are extended beyond this simplified setting with the use of heuristics that produce global alignments of the input sequences--an important problem which has no rigorous model-based solution. In this paper we consider a new version of the multiple sequence alignment in the context of stochastic indel models. More precisely, we introduce the following {\\em trace reconstruction problem on a tree} (TRPT): a binary sequence is broadcast through a tree channel where we allow substitutions, deletions, and insertions; we seek to reconstruct the original sequence from the sequences received at the leaves of the tree. We give a recursive procedure for this problem with strong reconstruction guarantees at low mut...

  2. Joint Image Reconstruction and Segmentation Using the Potts Model

    CERN Document Server

    Storath, Martin; Frikel, Jürgen; Unser, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new algorithmic approach to the non-smooth and non-convex Potts problem (also called piecewise-constant Mumford-Shah problem) for inverse imaging problems. We derive a suitable splitting into specific subproblems that can all be solved efficiently. Our method does not require a priori knowledge on the gray levels nor on the number of segments of the reconstruction. Further, it avoids anisotropic artifacts such as geometric staircasing. We demonstrate the suitability of our method for joint image reconstruction and segmentation from limited data in x-ray and photoacoustic tomography. For instance, our method is able to reconstruct the Shepp-Logan phantom from $7$ angular views only. We demonstrate the practical applicability in an experiment with real PET data.

  3. A Compton scattering image reconstruction algorithm based on total variation minimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shou-Peng; Wang Lin-Yuan; Yan Bin; Li Lei; Liu Yong-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Compton scattering imaging is a novel radiation imaging method using scattered photons.Its main characteristics are detectors that do not have to be on the opposite side of the source,so avoiding the rotation process.The reconstruction problem of Compton scattering imaging is the inverse problem to solve electron densities from nonlinear equations,which is ill-posed.This means the solution exhibits instability and sensitivity to noise or erroneous measurements.Using the theory for reconstruction of sparse images,a reconstruction algorithm based on total variation minimization is proposed.The reconstruction problem is described as an optimization problem with nonlinear data-consistency constraint.The simulated results show that the proposed algorithm could reduce reconstruction error and improve image quality,especially when there are not enough measurements.

  4. Geometric reconstruction methods for electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpers, Andreas, E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de [Zentrum Mathematik, Technische Universität München, D-85747 Garching bei München (Germany); Gardner, Richard J., E-mail: Richard.Gardner@wwu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225-9063 (United States); König, Stefan, E-mail: koenig@ma.tum.de [Zentrum Mathematik, Technische Universität München, D-85747 Garching bei München (Germany); Pennington, Robert S., E-mail: robert.pennington@uni-ulm.de [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Boothroyd, Chris B., E-mail: ChrisBoothroyd@cantab.net [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Houben, Lothar, E-mail: l.houben@fz-juelich.de [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E., E-mail: rdb@fz-juelich.de [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Joost Batenburg, Kees, E-mail: Joost.Batenburg@cwi.nl [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, NL-1098XG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands and Vision Lab, Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2013-05-15

    Electron tomography is becoming an increasingly important tool in materials science for studying the three-dimensional morphologies and chemical compositions of nanostructures. The image quality obtained by many current algorithms is seriously affected by the problems of missing wedge artefacts and non-linear projection intensities due to diffraction effects. The former refers to the fact that data cannot be acquired over the full 180° tilt range; the latter implies that for some orientations, crystalline structures can show strong contrast changes. To overcome these problems we introduce and discuss several algorithms from the mathematical fields of geometric and discrete tomography. The algorithms incorporate geometric prior knowledge (mainly convexity and homogeneity), which also in principle considerably reduces the number of tilt angles required. Results are discussed for the reconstruction of an InAs nanowire. - Highlights: ► Four algorithms for electron tomography are introduced that utilize prior knowledge. ► Objects are assumed to be homogeneous; convexity and regularity is also discussed. ► We are able to reconstruct slices of a nanowire from as few as four projections. ► Algorithms should be selected based on the specific reconstruction task at hand.

  5. Posteromedial Corner Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Gonzalo; Leon, Agustín; Wirth, Hans; Mena, Adolfo; Tuca, María José; Espinoza, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Report the experience, after 1-year follow-up, of 30 patients who underwent anatomical knee reconstruction of posteromedial corner (PMC) injuries, using La Prade´s Technique. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 30 consecutive patients with PMC injuries operated between November 2010 and May 2014 by the same surgical team. Inclusion criteria: patients with clinical presentation and images (stress radiographs and MRI) compatible with PMC injury, who maintained a grade III chronic instability in spite of at least 3 months of orthopedic treatment, who were reconstructed using La Prade’s anatomical technique, and completed at least 12 months of follow-up. Exclusion criteria: discordance between clinical and image studies, grade I or II medial instability, and surgery performed through a different technique. Data was collected by reviewing the electronic files and images. Functional scores (IKDC and Lysholm) were applied and registered in the preoperative evaluation, and then 6 and 12 months after surgery. Results: Thirty patients (28 men and 2 women) met the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 43 years (24-69). The vast majority (28 patients) had a high-energy mechanism of injury. Twenty patients were diagnosed in the acute setting, while 10 had a delayed diagnosis after poor results of concomitant ligament reconstructions. With the exception of 2 patients, who presented with isolated PMC injury, the majority had associated injuries as detailed: 11 cases had PMC + anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, 3 patients had PMC + posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury, 3 patients had PMC + meniscal tears, 9 patients had PMC + ACL + PCL injuries, and there were 2 cases of PMC + ACL + PCL + lateral collateral ligament injuries. Mean time for PMC reconstruction surgery was 5 months (range 2-32). Lysholm and IKDC scores were 18,2 (2-69) and 24,3 (9,2-52,9) respectively in the preoperative setting, improving to 76,7 (44-94) and 70,7 (36,8-95,4) after 1-year follow

  6. Canal Wall Reconstruction Mastoidectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the advantages of canal wall reconstruction (CWR) mastoidectomy, a single-stage technique for cholesteatoma removal and posterior external canal wall reconstruction, over the open and closed procedures in terms of cholesteatoma recurrence. Methods: Between June 2002 and December 2005, 38 patients (40 ears) with cholesteatoma were admited to Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital and received surgical treatments. Of these patients, 25 were male with ages ranging between 11 and 60 years (mean = 31.6 years) and 13 were female with ages ranging between 20 and 65 years (mean = 38.8 years). Canal wall reconstruction (CWR)mastoidectomy was performed in 31 ears and canal wall down (CWD) mastoidectomy in 9 ears. Concha cartilage was used for ear canal wall reconstruction in 22 of the 31 CWR procedures and cortical mastoid bone was used in the remaining 9 cases. Results At 0.5 to 4 years follow up, all but one patients remained free of signs of cholesteatoma recurrence, i.e., no retraction pocket or cholesteatoma matrix. One patient, a smoker, needed revision surgery due to cholesteatoma recurrence 1.5 year after the initial operation. The recurrence rate was therefore 3.2% (1/31). Cholesteatoma recurrence was monitored using postoperative CT scans whenever possible. In the case that needed a revision procedure, a retraction pocket was identified by otoendoscopy in the pars flacida area that eventually evolved into a cholesteatoma. A pocket extending to the epitympanum filled with cholesteatoma matrix was confirmed during the revision operation, A decision to perform a modified mastoidectomy was made as the patient refused to quit smoking. The mean air-bone gap in pure tone threshold was 45 dB before surgery and 25 dB after (p < 0.05). There was no difference between using concha cartilage and cortical mastoid bone for the reconstruction regarding air-bone gap improvement, CT findings and otoendoscopic results. Conclusion CWR mastoidectomy can be used for

  7. Research on the configuration design method of heterogeneous constellation reconstruction under the multiple objective and multiple constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Xu, Yanli; Dai, Huayu

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the problem of configuration design of heterogeneous constellation reconstruction, a design method of heterogeneous constellation reconstruction based on multi objective and multi constraints is proposed. At first, the concept of heterogeneous constellation is defined. Secondly, the heterogeneous constellation reconstruction methods were analyzed, and then the two typical existing design methods of reconstruction, phase position uniformity method and reconstruction configuration design method based on optimization algorithm are summarized. The advantages and shortcomings of different reconstruction configuration design methods are compared, finally the heterogeneous constellation reconstruction configuration design is currently facing problems are analyzed and put forward the thinking about the reconstruction index system of heterogeneous constellation and the selection of optimal variables and the establishment of constraints in the optimization design of the configuration.

  8. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction without drill holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brief, L P

    1991-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in adolescents with open physes remains a difficult problem for the orthopedic surgeon, especially in view of growing teenage participation in contact sports. Traditionally, treatment of ACL tears in adolescents has been conservative; the patient is advised to delay surgery up to several years for fear of damaging physes by drilling holes across them. Unfortunately, this waiting period may inflict irreparable knee damage. This paper suggests an ACL reconstruction technique that utilizes no drill holes, thus causing no harm to physes or other essential knee structures. A graft consisting of semitendinosus and gracilis (SG) tendons is passed under the anterior horn of the medial meniscus through the knee joint, then brought out through the posterior capsule and secured to the lateral femoral metaphysis. The graft is augmented with an iliotibial band tenodesis. Designed primarily but not exclusively for teenagers with open physes, the procedure has produced encouraging results thus far in a small series.

  9. Iterative Reconstruction of Coded Source Neutron Radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Gregor, Jens [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2013-01-01

    Use of a coded source facilitates high-resolution neutron imaging through magnifications but requires that the radiographic data be deconvolved. A comparison of direct deconvolution with two different iterative algorithms has been performed. One iterative algorithm is based on a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)-like framework and the second is based on a geometric model of the neutron beam within a least squares formulation of the inverse imaging problem. Simulated data for both uniform and Gaussian shaped source distributions was used for testing to understand the impact of non-uniformities present in neutron beam distributions on the reconstructed images. Results indicate that the model based reconstruction method will match resolution and improve on contrast over convolution methods in the presence of non-uniform sources. Additionally, the model based iterative algorithm provides direct calculation of quantitative transmission values while the convolution based methods must be normalized base on known values.

  10. Computational Imaging for VLBI Image Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Bouman, Katherine L; Zoran, Daniel; Fish, Vincent L; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Freeman, William T

    2015-01-01

    Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is a technique for imaging celestial radio emissions by simultaneously observing a source from telescopes distributed across Earth. The challenges in reconstructing images from fine angular resolution VLBI data are immense. The data is extremely sparse and noisy, thus requiring statistical image models such as those designed in the computer vision community. In this paper we present a novel Bayesian approach for VLBI image reconstruction. While other methods require careful tuning and parameter selection for different types of images, our method is robust and produces good results under different settings such as low SNR or extended emissions. The success of our method is demonstrated on realistic synthetic experiments as well as publicly available real data. We present this problem in a way that is accessible to members of the computer vision community, and provide a dataset website (vlbiimaging.csail.mit.edu) to allow for controlled comparisons across algorithms. Thi...

  11. Nonparametric dark energy reconstruction from supernova data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsclaw, Tracy; Alam, Ujjaini; Sansó, Bruno; Lee, Herbert; Heitmann, Katrin; Habib, Salman; Higdon, David

    2010-12-10

    Understanding the origin of the accelerated expansion of the Universe poses one of the greatest challenges in physics today. Lacking a compelling fundamental theory to test, observational efforts are targeted at a better characterization of the underlying cause. If a new form of mass-energy, dark energy, is driving the acceleration, the redshift evolution of the equation of state parameter w(z) will hold essential clues as to its origin. To best exploit data from observations it is necessary to develop a robust and accurate reconstruction approach, with controlled errors, for w(z). We introduce a new, nonparametric method for solving the associated statistical inverse problem based on Gaussian process modeling and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. Applying this method to recent supernova measurements, we reconstruct the continuous history of w out to redshift z=1.5.

  12. Image reconstruction under non-Gaussian noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciacchitano, Federica

    During acquisition and transmission, images are often blurred and corrupted by noise. One of the fundamental tasks of image processing is to reconstruct the clean image from a degraded version. The process of recovering the original image from the data is an example of inverse problem. Due......D thesis intends to solve some of the many open questions for image restoration under non-Gaussian noise. The two main kinds of noise studied in this PhD project are the impulse noise and the Cauchy noise. Impulse noise is due to for instance the malfunctioning pixel elements in the camera sensors, errors...... that the CM estimate outperforms the MAP estimate, when the error depends on Bregman distances. This PhD project can have many applications in the modern society, in fact the reconstruction of high quality images with less noise and more details enhances the image processing operations, such as edge detection...

  13. Bayesian Image Reconstruction Based on Voronoi Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrera, G F; Hitschfeld, N

    2007-01-01

    We present a Bayesian Voronoi image reconstruction technique (VIR) for interferometric data. Bayesian analysis applied to the inverse problem allows us to derive the a-posteriori probability of a novel parameterization of interferometric images. We use a variable Voronoi diagram as our model in place of the usual fixed pixel grid. A quantization of the intensity field allows us to calculate the likelihood function and a-priori probabilities. The Voronoi image is optimized including the number of polygons as free parameters. We apply our algorithm to deconvolve simulated interferometric data. Residuals, restored images and chi^2 values are used to compare our reconstructions with fixed grid models. VIR has the advantage of modeling the image with few parameters, obtaining a better image from a Bayesian point of view.

  14. In vivo bioreactors for mandibular reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, A M; Wong, M E; Mikos, A G

    2014-12-01

    Large mandibular defects are difficult to reconstruct with good functional and aesthetic outcomes because of the complex geometry of craniofacial bone. While the current gold standard is free tissue flap transfer, this treatment is limited in fidelity by the shape of the harvested tissue and can result in significant donor site morbidity. To address these problems, in vivo bioreactors have been explored as an approach to generate autologous prefabricated tissue flaps. These bioreactors are implanted in an ectopic site in the body, where ossified tissue grows into the bioreactor in predefined geometries and local vessels are recruited to vascularize the developing construct. The prefabricated flap can then be harvested with vessels and transferred to a mandibular defect for optimal reconstruction. The objective of this review article is to introduce the concept of the in vivo bioreactor, describe important preclinical models in the field, summarize the human cases that have been reported through this strategy, and offer future directions for this exciting approach.

  15. An information theoretic approach to pedigree reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almudevar, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Network structure is a dominant feature of many biological systems, both at the cellular level and within natural populations. Advances in genotype and gene expression screening made over the last few decades have permitted the reconstruction of these networks. However, resolution to a single model estimate will generally not be possible, leaving open the question of the appropriate method of formal statistical inference. The nonstandard structure of the problem precludes most traditional statistical methodologies. Alternatively, a Bayesian approach provides a natural methodology for formal inference. Construction of a posterior density on the space of network structures allows formal inference regarding features of network structure using specific marginal posterior distributions. An information theoretic approach to this problem will be described, based on the Minimum Description Length principle. This leads to a Bayesian inference model based on the information content of data rather than on more commonly used probabilistic models. The approach is applied to the problem of pedigree reconstruction based on genotypic data. Using this application, it is shown how the MDL approach is able to provide a truly objective control for model complexity. A two-cohort model is used for a simulation study. The MDL approach is compared to COLONY-2, a well known pedigree reconstruction application. The study highlights the problem of genotyping error modeling. COLONY-2 requires prior error rate estimates, and its accuracy proves to be highly sensitive to these estimates. In contrast, the MDL approach does not require prior error rate estimates, and is able to accurately adjust for genotyping error across the range of models considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. VIBRATING VELOCITY RECONSTRUCTION USING IBEM AND TIKHONOV REGULARIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The inverse problem to determine the vibrating velocity from known exterior field measurement pressure, involves the solution of a discrete ill-posed problem. To facilitate the computation of a meaningful approximate solution possible, the indirect boundary element method (IBEM) code for investigating vibration velocity reconstruction and Tikhonov regularization method by means of singular value decomposition (SVD) are used. The amount of regularization is determined by a regularization parameter. Its optimal value is given by the L-curve approach. Numerical results indicate the reconstructed normal surface velocity is a good approximation to the real source.

  17. AIR Tools - A MATLAB package of algebraic iterative reconstruction methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Saxild-Hansen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    are implemented: Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques (ART) and Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Techniques (SIRT). In addition we provide a few simplified test problems from medical and seismic tomography. For each iterative method, a number of strategies are available for choosing the relaxation parameter...... and the stopping rule. The relaxation parameter can be fixed, or chosen adaptively in each iteration; in the former case we provide a new ‘‘training’’ algorithm that finds the optimal parameter for a given test problem. The stopping rules provided are the discrepancy principle, the monotone error rule, and the NCP...

  18. Homotopy Based Reconstruction from Acoustic Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ojaswa

    of the inherent arrangement. The problem of reconstruction from arbitrary cross sections is a generic problem and is also shown to be solved here using the mathematical tool of continuous deformations. As part of a complete processing, segmentation using level set methods is explored for acoustic images and fast...... GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) based methods are suggested for a streaming computation on large volumes of data. Validation of results for acoustic images is not straightforward due to unavailability of ground truth. Accuracy figures for the suggested methods are provided using phantom object......This thesis presents work in the direction of generating smooth surfaces from linear cross sections embedded in R2 and R3 using homotopy continuation. The methods developed in this research are generic and can be applied to higher dimensions as well. Two types of problems addressed in this research...

  19. Use of the osteomuscular dorsal scapular flap in the reconstruction of mandibular defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nthumba, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    The gold standard for mandibular defect reconstruction is the fibular free flap. Nevertheless, the pedicled osteomuscular dorsal scapular flap as a reconstructive tool offers promise for mandibular defect reconstruction and could be the first choice in certain circumstances. Its use in resource-limited settings offers an excellent solution to otherwise difficult reconstructive problems of the mandible. In 8 patients, mandibular defects resulting from the excision of benign tumors (6), trauma (1), and chronic osteomyelitis (1) were reconstructed using the pedicled osteomuscular dorsal scapular flap; these defects included the central segment of the mandible. The pedicled osteomuscular dorsal scapular flap is an excellent choice for mandibular reconstruction; it may serve as the primary choice in patients with vascular pathology that precludes free tissue transfer, as well as in resource-limited environments, as a secondary choice after a failed free flap reconstruction.

  20. Inflationary Dynamics Reconstruction via Inverse-Scattering Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mastache, Jorge; Kosowsky, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of inflationary fluctuations can be recast as an inverse scattering problem. In this context, we employ the Gel'fand-Levitan method from inverse-scattering theory to reconstruct the evolution of both the inflaton field freeze-out horizon and the Hubble parameter during inflation. We demonstrate this reconstruction procedure numerically for a scenario of slow-roll inflation, as well as for a scenario which temporarily departs from slow-roll. The field freeze-out horizon is reconstructed from the accessible primordial scalar power spectrum alone, while the reconstruction of the Hubble parameter requires additional information from the tensor power spectrum. We briefly discuss the application of this technique to more realistic cases incorporating estimates of the primordial power spectra over limited ranges of scales and with specified uncertainties.

  1. Reconstructing spectral reflectance from digital camera through samples selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bin; Liao, Ningfang; Yang, Wenming; Chen, Haobo

    2016-10-01

    Spectral reflectance provides the most fundamental information of objects and is recognized as the "fingerprint" of them, since reflectance is independent of illumination and viewing conditions. However, reconstructing high-dimensional spectral reflectance from relatively low-dimensional camera outputs is an illposed problem and most of methods requaired camera's spectral responsivity. We propose a method to reconstruct spectral reflectance from digital camera outputs without prior knowledge of camera's spectral responsivity. This method respectively averages reflectances of selected subset from main training samples by prescribing a limit to tolerable color difference between the training samples and the camera outputs. Different tolerable color differences of training samples were investigated with Munsell chips under D65 light source. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms classic PI method in terms of multiple evaluation criteria between the actual and the reconstructed reflectances. Besides, the reconstructed spectral reflectances are between 0-1, which make them have actual physical meanings and better than traditional methods.

  2. Compressed Sensing Inspired Image Reconstruction from Overlapped Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The key idea discussed in this paper is to reconstruct an image from overlapped projections so that the data acquisition process can be shortened while the image quality remains essentially uncompromised. To perform image reconstruction from overlapped projections, the conventional reconstruction approach (e.g., filtered backprojection (FBP algorithms cannot be directly used because of two problems. First, overlapped projections represent an imaging system in terms of summed exponentials, which cannot be transformed into a linear form. Second, the overlapped measurement carries less information than the traditional line integrals. To meet these challenges, we propose a compressive sensing-(CS- based iterative algorithm for reconstruction from overlapped data. This algorithm starts with a good initial guess, relies on adaptive linearization, and minimizes the total variation (TV. Then, we demonstrated the feasibility of this algorithm in numerical tests.

  3. Application of Super-Resolution Image Reconstruction to Digital Holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shuqun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new application of super-resolution image reconstruction to digital holography which is a technique for three-dimensional information recording and reconstruction. Digital holography has suffered from the low resolution of CCD sensors, which significantly limits the size of objects that can be recorded. The existing solution to this problem is to use optics to bandlimit the object to be recorded, which can cause the loss of details. Here super-resolution image reconstruction is proposed to be applied in enhancing the spatial resolution of digital holograms. By introducing a global camera translation before sampling, a high-resolution hologram can be reconstructed from a set of undersampled hologram images. This permits the recording of larger objects and reduces the distance between the object and the hologram. Practical results from real and simulated holograms are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technique.

  4. Causal MRI reconstruction via Kalman prediction and compressed sensing correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Angshul

    2017-02-04

    This technical note addresses the problem of causal online reconstruction of dynamic MRI, i.e. given the reconstructed frames till the previous time instant, we reconstruct the frame at the current instant. Our work follows a prediction-correction framework. Given the previous frames, the current frame is predicted based on a Kalman estimate. The difference between the estimate and the current frame is then corrected based on the k-space samples of the current frame; this reconstruction assumes that the difference is sparse. The method is compared against prior Kalman filtering based techniques and Compressed Sensing based techniques. Experimental results show that the proposed method is more accurate than these and considerably faster.

  5. Learning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Learning Problems KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning Problems Print A ... for how to make it better. What Are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities aren't contagious, but they ...

  6. Walking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your legs or feet Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease Diseases such as arthritis or multiple sclerosis Vision or balance problems Treatment of walking problems depends on the cause. Physical therapy, surgery, or mobility aids may help.

  7. RECONSTRUCTING CCTV, BEIJING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Forcella

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the reconstruction of a building, starting from a point cloud. The shape of this building is a non-stellar concave and multi-connected structure, composed of sowns and chains. A sown is the representation of a horizontal plane formed by dense points. A chain is a planar loop modeled by rare points. CCTV structure is defined only by the three orthogonal Cartesian coordinates. The reconstruction uses a sequence of procedures and the desired output is a consistent 3D model. The first procedure is devoted to attributing points to their voxel and to estimating the three values needed afterwards. The second procedure is devoted to analyzing clusters vertically and horizontally, to preliminarily distinguishing chains from sowns and to generating relational matching. The third procedure is devoted to building closed loops between all chains and all their projections on sowns. The fourth procedure is devoted to connecting points with triangles. The fifth procedure, still being implemented, is devoted to interpolating triangles with triangular splines.

  8. Biomaterials for craniofacial reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumann, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials for reconstruction of bony defects of the skull comprise of osteosynthetic materials applied after osteotomies or traumatic fractures and materials to fill bony defects which result from malformation, trauma or tumor resections. Other applications concern functional augmentations for dental implants or aesthetic augmentations in the facial region.For ostheosynthesis, mini- and microplates made from titanium alloys provide major advantages concerning biocompatibility, stability and individual fitting to the implant bed. The necessity of removing asymptomatic plates and screws after fracture healing is still a controversial issue. Risks and costs of secondary surgery for removal face a low rate of complications (due to corrosion products when the material remains in situ. Resorbable osteosynthesis systems have similar mechanical stability and are especially useful in the growing skull.The huge variety of biomaterials for the reconstruction of bony defects makes it difficult to decide which material is adequate for which indication and for which site. The optimal biomaterial that meets every requirement (e.g. biocompatibility, stability, intraoperative fitting, product safety, low costs etc. does not exist. The different material types are (autogenic bone and many alloplastics such as metals (mainly titanium, ceramics, plastics and composites. Future developments aim to improve physical and biological properties, especially regarding surface interactions. To date, tissue engineered bone is far from routine clinical application.

  9. Reconstructing Experiences through Sketching

    CERN Document Server

    Karapanos, Evangelos; Hassenzahl, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents iScale, a survey tool that aims at eliciting users' experiences with a product from memory. iScale employs sketching in imposing a process in the reconstruction of one's experiences. Two versions of iScale, the Constructive and the Value-Account iScale, were motivated by two distinct theories on how people reconstruct emotional experiences from memory. These two versions were tested in two separate studies. Study 1 aimed at providing qualitative insight into the use of iScale and compared its performance to that of free-hand sketching. Study 2 compared the two iScale versions to a control condition: that of reporting one's experiences without employing any form of sketching. Significant differences between iScale and the "no-sketching" tool were found. Overall, iScale resulted in a) an increase in the number of experience reports that subjects provided, b) an increase in the amount of contextual information for the reported experiences, and c) an increase in subjects' accuracy in recalling...

  10. LHCb; LHCb Jet Reconstruction

    CERN Multimedia

    Augusto, O

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. It has been designed to collide proton beams at an energy up to 14 TeV in the center of mass. In 2011, the data taking was done with a center of mass energy of 7 TeV, the instant luminosity has reached values greater than $4 \\times 10^{32} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ and the integrated luminosity reached the value of 1.02 $fb^{-1}$ on the LHCb. The jet reconstruction is fundamental to observe events that can be used to test pertubative QCD (pQCD). It also provides a way to observe standard model channels and searches for new physics like SUSY. The anti-kt algorithm is a jet reconstruction algorithm that is based on the distance of the particles on the space $\\eta \\times \\phi$ and on the transverse momentum of particles. To maximize the energy resolution all information about the trackers and the calo...

  11. Reconstruction in Fourier space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, A.; Percival, W. J.; Howlett, C.

    2015-10-01

    We present a fast iterative fast Fourier transform (FFT) based reconstruction algorithm that allows for non-parallel redshift-space distortions (RSDs). We test our algorithm on both N-body dark matter simulations and mock distributions of galaxies designed to replicate galaxy survey conditions. We compare solenoidal and irrotational components of the redshift distortion and show that an approximation of this distortion leads to a better estimate of the real-space potential (and therefore faster convergence) than ignoring the RSD when estimating the displacement field. Our iterative reconstruction scheme converges in two iterations for the mock samples corresponding to Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey CMASS Data Release 11 when we start with an approximation of the RSD. The scheme takes six iterations when the initial estimate, measured from the redshift-space overdensity, has no RSD correction. Slower convergence would be expected for surveys covering a larger angle on the sky. We show that this FFT based method provides a better estimate of the real-space displacement field than a configuration space method that uses finite difference routines to compute the potential for the same grid resolution. Finally, we show that a lognormal transform of the overdensity, used as a proxy for the linear overdensity, is beneficial in estimating the full displacement field from a dense sample of tracers. However, the lognormal transform of the overdensity does not perform well when estimating the displacements from sparser simulations with a more realistic galaxy density.

  12. Direct delayed breast reconstruction with TAP flap, implant and acellular dermal matrix (TAPIA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsen-Koch, Mikkel; Gunnarsson, Gudjon L; Udesen, Ann;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The latissimus dorsi (LD) flap is considered one of the working horses within the field of breast reconstruction and it offers several advantages. However, donor-site morbidity may pose a problem. This article describes a new and modified technique for delayed breast reconstruction co...... there is a learning curve, this simple modified technique does not demand any perforator or other vessel dissection. Any trained plastic surgeon should be able to adopt the technique into the growing armamentarium of breast reconstruction possibilities....

  13. High-Performance Phylogeny Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffani L. Williams

    2004-11-10

    Under the Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship in Computational Biology, I have been afforded the opportunity to study phylogenetics--one of the most important and exciting disciplines in computational biology. A phylogeny depicts an evolutionary relationship among a set of organisms (or taxa). Typically, a phylogeny is represented by a binary tree, where modern organisms are placed at the leaves and ancestral organisms occupy internal nodes, with the edges of the tree denoting evolutionary relationships. The task of phylogenetics is to infer this tree from observations upon present-day organisms. Reconstructing phylogenies is a major component of modern research programs in many areas of biology and medicine, but it is enormously expensive. The most commonly used techniques attempt to solve NP-hard problems such as maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony, typically by bounded searches through an exponentially-sized tree-space. For example, there are over 13 billion possible trees for 13 organisms. Phylogenetic heuristics that quickly analyze large amounts of data accurately will revolutionize the biological field. This final report highlights my activities in phylogenetics during the two-year postdoctoral period at the University of New Mexico under Prof. Bernard Moret. Specifically, this report reports my scientific, community and professional activities as an Alfred P. Sloan Postdoctoral Fellow in Computational Biology.

  14. Exercises in PET Image Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, Oliver

    These exercises are complementary to the theoretical lectures about positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction. They aim at providing some hands on experience in PET image reconstruction and focus on demonstrating the different data preprocessing steps and reconstruction algorithms needed to obtain high quality PET images. Normalisation, geometric-, attenuation- and scatter correction are introduced. To explain the necessity of those some basics about PET scanner hardware, data acquisition and organisation are reviewed. During the course the students use a software application based on the STIR (software for tomographic image reconstruction) library 1,2 which allows them to dynamically select or deselect corrections and reconstruction methods as well as to modify their most important parameters. Following the guided tutorial, the students get an impression on the effect the individual data precorrections have on image quality and what happens if they are forgotten. Several data sets in sinogram format are provided, such as line source data, Jaszczak phantom data sets with high and low statistics and NEMA whole body phantom data. The two most frequently used reconstruction algorithms in PET image reconstruction, filtered back projection (FBP) and the iterative OSEM (ordered subset expectation maximation) approach are used to reconstruct images. The exercise should help the students gaining an understanding what the reasons for inferior image quality and artefacts are and how to improve quality by a clever choice of reconstruction parameters.

  15. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  16. [Deferred breast reconstruction - soul surgery?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kydlíček, Tomáš; Třešková, Inka; Třeška, Vladislav; Holubec, Luboš

    2013-01-01

    The loss or mutilation of a breast as a result of surgical treatment of neoplastic disease always represents a negative impact on a woman's psyche and negatively influences the quality of the woman's remaining life. The goal of our work was to implement deferred breast reconstruction into routine practice and the objectification of the influence of reconstruction on bodily integrity, quality of life, and the feeling of satisfaction in women. Women in remission from neoplastic disease after a radical mastectomy were indicated for breast reconstruction. Between January 2002 and December 2011 deferred breast reconstruction was carried out 174 × on 163 women, with an average age of 49.2 and an age range of 29-67 years. The most frequently used reconstruction method was a simple gel augmentation of the breast or a Becker expander/implant - 51 (29.3%) and 37 (21.3%), or in combination with a lateral thoracodorsal flap (31; 17.8% and 47; 27%); reconstruction using a free DIEP flap was carried out 7 × (4%). Complications occurred in 19 operations (10.9%) with a dominance of inflammation and pericapsular fibrosis, in a subjective analysis, satisfaction with the results prevailed, along with an increased quality of life after reconstruction. A growing number of deferred breast reconstructions, women's satisfaction with the results, the positive influence of renewed bodily integrity on the feeling of life satisfaction and the quality of life have elevated breast reconstructions to a qualitatively higher level.

  17. Reconstruction of three-dimensional occluded object using optical flow and triangular mesh reconstruction in integral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Hyun; Hong, Keehoon; Park, Gilbae; Chung, Indeok; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Lee, Byoungho

    2010-12-06

    We proposed a reconstruction method for the occluded region of three-dimensional (3D) object using the depth extraction based on the optical flow and triangular mesh reconstruction in integral imaging. The depth information of sub-images from the acquired elemental image set is extracted using the optical flow with sub-pixel accuracy, which alleviates the depth quantization problem. The extracted depth maps of sub-image array are segmented by the depth threshold from the histogram based segmentation, which is represented as the point clouds. The point clouds are projected to the viewpoint of center sub-image and reconstructed by the triangular mesh reconstruction. The experimental results support the validity of the proposed method with high accuracy of peak signal-to-noise ratio and normalized cross-correlation in 3D image recognition.

  18. L1/2 regularization based numerical method for effective reconstruction of bioluminescence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueli; Yang, Defu; Zhang, Qitan; Liang, Jimin

    2014-05-01

    Even though bioluminescence tomography (BLT) exhibits significant potential and wide applications in macroscopic imaging of small animals in vivo, the inverse reconstruction is still a tough problem that has plagued researchers in a related area. The ill-posedness of inverse reconstruction arises from insufficient measurements and modeling errors, so that the inverse reconstruction cannot be solved directly. In this study, an l1/2 regularization based numerical method was developed for effective reconstruction of BLT. In the method, the inverse reconstruction of BLT was constrained into an l1/2 regularization problem, and then the weighted interior-point algorithm (WIPA) was applied to solve the problem through transforming it into obtaining the solution of a series of l1 regularizers. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method were demonstrated with numerical simulations on a digital mouse. Stability verification experiments further illustrated the robustness of the proposed method for different levels of Gaussian noise.

  19. Automatic Texture Optimization for 3D Urban Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Ming

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of texture optimization in 3D city reconstruction by using multi-lens oblique images, the paper presents a method of seamless texture model reconstruction. At first, it corrects the radiation information of images by camera response functions and image dark channel. Then, according to the corresponding relevance between terrain triangular mesh surface model to image, implements occlusion detection by sparse triangulation method, and establishes the triangles' texture list of visible. Finally, combines with triangles' topology relationship in 3D triangular mesh surface model and means and variances of image, constructs a graph-cuts-based texture optimization algorithm under the framework of MRF(Markov random filed, to solve the discrete label problem of texture optimization selection and clustering, ensures the consistency of the adjacent triangles in texture mapping, achieves the seamless texture reconstruction of city. The experimental results verify the validity and superiority of our proposed method.

  20. Mathematical modeling to reconstruct Elastic and geoelectrical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Kiselev

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the underground medium requires estimation of accuracy of the methods used. Numerical simulation of the solution of 2D inverse problem on the reconstruction of seismic and electrical parameters of local (comparable in size with the wavelength inhomogeneities by the diffraction tomography method based upon the first order Born approximation is considered. The direct problems for the Lame and Maxwell equations are solved by the finite difference method that allows us to take correctly into account the diffraction phenomenon produced by the target inhomogeneities with simple and complex geometry. For reconstruction of the local inhomogeneities the algebraic methods and the optimizing procedures are used. The investigation includes a parametric representation of inhomogeneities by the simple and complex functions. The results of estimation of the accuracy of the reconstruction of elastic inhomogeneities and inhomogeneities of electrical conductivity by the diffraction tomography method are represented.

  1. Motion Estimation and Correction in Photoacoustic Tomographic Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Julianne

    2016-01-01

    Motion, e.g., due to patient movement or improper device calibration, is inevitable in many imaging modalities such as photoacoustic tomography (PAT) by a rotating system and can lead to undesirable motion artifacts in image reconstructions, if ignored. In this paper, we establish a hybrid-type model for PAT that incorporates motion in the model. We first introduce an approximate continuous model and establish two uniqueness results for simple parameterized motion models. Then we formulate the discrete problem of simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction as a separable nonlinear least squares problem and describe an automatic approach to detect and eliminate motion artifacts during the reconstruction process. Numerical examples validate our methods.

  2. AIR Tools - A MATLAB Package of Algebraic Iterative Reconstruction Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Saxild-Hansen, Maria

    are implemented: Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques (ART) and Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Techniques (SIRT). In addition we provide a few simplified test problems from medical and seismic tomography. For each iterative method, a number of strategies are available for choosing the relaxation parameter...... and the stopping rule. The relaxation parameter can be fixed, or chosen adaptively in each iteration; in the former case we provide a “training” algorithm that finds the optimal parameter for a given test problem. The stopping rules provided are the discrepancy principle, the monotone error rule, and the NCP...... criterion; for the first two methods “training” can be used to find the optimal discrepancy parameter. The corresponding manuscript is: • P. C. Hansen and M. Saxild-Hansen, AIR Tools – A MATLAB Package of Algebraic Iterative Reconstruction Techniques, submitted to Journal of Computational and Applied...

  3. NON-UNIQUENESS OF THE RECONSTRUCTION FOR CONNECTED AND SIMPLY CONNECTED SETS IN THE PLANE BY THEIR FIXED FINITE PROJECTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takashi; Takiguchi

    2012-01-01

    We discuss a problem to reconstruct the measurable sets in the plane from their fixed finite projections.In the main theorem,we construct an example of connected and simply connected polygons which are not uniquely reconstructed by their fixed finite projections.We also make a comparison between our main theorem and the known results on this problem.

  4. Reconstruction of Low Pressure Gas Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current reconstruction of residential areas in large cities especially with the developed heat-supply systems from thermal power stations and reduction of heat consumption for heating due to higher thermal resistance of building enclosing structures requires new technical solutions in respect of gas-supply problems. While making reconstruction of a gas-supply system of the modernized or new buildings in the operating zone of one gas-distribution plant it is necessary to change hot water-supply systems from gas direct-flow water heaters to centralized heat-supply and free gas volumes are to be used for other needs or gas-supply of new buildings with the current external gas distribution network.Selection of additional gas-line sections and points of gas-supply systems pertaining to new and reconstructed buildings for their connection to the current distribution system of gas-supply is to be executed in accordance with the presented methodology.

  5. Novel Biliary Reconstruction Techniques During Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Ian C.; Romano, John; Bohorquez, Humberto; Bugeaud, Emily; Bruce, David S.; Cohen, Ari J.; Seal, John; Reichman, Trevor W.; Loss, George E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Biliary complications remain a significant problem following liver transplantation. Several surgical options can be used to deal with a significant size mismatch between the donor and recipient bile ducts during the biliary anastomosis. We compared biliary transposition to recipient biliary ductoplasty in cadaveric liver transplant. Methods: A total of 33 reconstructions were performed from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2013. In the biliary transposition group (n=23), 5 reconstructions were performed using an internal stent (5 or 8 French pediatric feeding tube), and 18 were performed without. Of the 10 biliary ductoplasties, 2 were performed with a stent. All patients were managed with standard immunosuppression and ursodiol. Follow-up ranged from 2 months to 5 years. Results: No patients in the biliary transposition group required reoperation; 1 patient had an internal stent removed for recurrent unexplained leukocytosis, and 2 patients required endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and stent placement for evidence of stricture. Three anastomotic leaks occurred in the biliary ductoplasty group, and 2 patients in the biliary ductoplasty group required reoperation for biliary complications. Conclusion: Our results indicate that biliary reconstruction can be performed with either biliary transposition or biliary ductoplasty. These techniques are particularly useful when a significant mismatch in diameter exists between the donor and recipient bile ducts.

  6. Maxillary Tuberosity Reconstruction with Transport Distraction Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ugurlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe bone loss due to pathology in the maxillary tuberosity region is a challenging problem both surgically and prosthetically. Large bone grafts have a poor survival rate due to the delicate bony architecture in this area and presence of the maxillary sinus. Our case presentation describes a new technique for reconstructing severe bony defect in the maxillary tuberosity with horizontal distraction osteogenesis in a 45-year-old man. A 4×6×3cm cyst was discovered in the left maxillary molar region and enucleated. Three months postoperatively, the area had a severe bone defect extending to the zygomatic buttress superiorly and hamular notch posteriorly. Three months later, a bone segment including the right upper second premolar was osteotomised and distracted horizontally. The bone segment was distracted 15 mm distally. After consolidation, implants were placed when the distractor was removed. A fixed denture was loaded over the implants after 3 months. Complete alveolar bone loss extending to the cranial base can be reconstructed with transport distraction osteogenesis. Distalisation of the alveolar bone segment adjacent to the bony defect is an easy method for reconstructing such severe defects.

  7. Orbital floor reconstruction with resorbable polydioxanone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierloff, Matthias; Seeck, Niels Gunnar Karl; Springer, Ingo; Becker, StephanThomas; Kandzia, Christian; Wiltfang, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Many different materials are proposed for reconstruction of traumatic orbital floor defects. Donor-site morbidity of autologous transplants and infections or extrusions of nonresorbable implants lead to a widespread use of resorbable, alloplastic materials such as polydioxanone (PDS). The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of orbital floor fracture-related problems after surgical treatment using PDS. Ophthalmologic and clinical examinations were performed at 194 patients before orbital floor reconstruction, 14 days and 6 months after surgery (approximate defect sizes: 2 cm², n=47). Clinical findings including the ocular motility, the sensibility of the infraorbital nerve, and the position of the globe were evaluated. For statistical analysis of categorical data, confidence intervals of percentages were determined. Linear relationships between 2 variables were assessed with Pearson correlation analysis. A reduced ocular motility was diagnosed in 60 patients (31%) before surgery; in 14 patients (7%), 2 weeks; and in 10 patients (5%), 6 months after surgery. Infraorbital hypesthesia was found in 120 patients (62%) before surgery; in 47 patients (24%), 2 weeks; and in 35 patients (18%), 6 months after surgery. An enophthalmos was present in 10 patients (5%) before surgery, and in 4 patients (2%), 6 months after surgery. Our data suggest that PDS is a suitable implant for orbital floor reconstruction with acceptable low rates of infraorbital hypesthesia, bulbus motility disturbances, and enophthalmos. Polydioxanone can also be used for orbital floor defects exceeding 2 cm².

  8. Optimized ancestral state reconstruction using Sankoff parsimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiente Gabriel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parsimony methods are widely used in molecular evolution to estimate the most plausible phylogeny for a set of characters. Sankoff parsimony determines the minimum number of changes required in a given phylogeny when a cost is associated to transitions between character states. Although optimizations exist to reduce the computations in the number of taxa, the original algorithm takes time O(n2 in the number of states, making it impractical for large values of n. Results In this study we introduce an optimization of Sankoff parsimony for the reconstruction of ancestral states when ultrametric or additive cost matrices are used. We analyzed its performance for randomly generated matrices, Jukes-Cantor and Kimura's two-parameter models of DNA evolution, and in the reconstruction of elongation factor-1α and ancestral metabolic states of a group of eukaryotes, showing that in all cases the execution time is significantly less than with the original implementation. Conclusion The algorithms here presented provide a fast computation of Sankoff parsimony for a given phylogeny. Problems where the number of states is large, such as reconstruction of ancestral metabolism, are particularly adequate for this optimization. Since we are reducing the computations required to calculate the parsimony cost of a single tree, our method can be combined with optimizations in the number of taxa that aim at finding the most parsimonious tree.

  9. Reconstruction from one boundary measurement of a potential homogeneous of degree zero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Knudsen, Kim

    2006-01-01

    We consider the inverse boundary value problem concerning the determination and reconstruction of an unknown potential in a Schrödinger equation in a bounded domain from measurements on the boundary of the domain. For the special case of a small potential homogeneous of degree zero we show that one...... boundary measurement determines the potential uniquely. Moreover, we give a reconstruction procedure....

  10. Reconstruction from one boundary measurement of a potential homogeneous of degree zero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia Decebal; Knudsen, Kim

    We consider the inverse boundary value problem concerning the determination and reconstruction of an unknown potential in a Schrödinger equation in a bounded domain from measurements on the boundary of the domain. For the special case of a small potential homogeneous of degree zero we show that one...... boundary measurement determines the potential uniquely. Moreover, we give a reconstruction procedure....

  11. Biomatrices for bladder reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsueh-Kung; Madihally, Sundar V; Palmer, Blake; Frimberger, Dominic; Fung, Kar-Ming; Kropp, Bradley P

    2015-03-01

    There is a demand for tissue engineering of the bladder needed by patients who experience a neurogenic bladder or idiopathic detrusor overactivity. To avoid complications from augmentation cystoplasty, the field of tissue engineering seeks optimal scaffolds for bladder reconstruction. Naturally derived biomaterials as well as synthetic and natural polymers have been explored as bladder substitutes. To improve regenerative properties, these biomaterials have been conjugated with functional molecules, combined with nanotechology, or seeded with exogenous cells. Although most studies reported complete and functional bladder regeneration in small-animal models, results from large-animal models and human clinical trials varied. For functional bladder regeneration, procedures for biomaterial fabrication, incorporation of biologically active agents, introduction of nanotechnology, and application of stem-cell technology need to be standardized. Advanced molecular and medical technologies such as next generation sequencing and magnetic resonance imaging can be introduced for mechanistic understanding and non-invasive monitoring of regeneration processes, respectively.

  12. Reconstructability analysis of epistasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The literature on epistasis describes various methods to detect epistatic interactions and to classify different types of epistasis. Reconstructability analysis (RA) has recently been used to detect epistasis in genomic data. This paper shows that RA offers a classification of types of epistasis at three levels of resolution (variable-based models without loops, variable-based models with loops, state-based models). These types can be defined by the simplest RA structures that model the data without information loss; a more detailed classification can be defined by the information content of multiple candidate structures. The RA classification can be augmented with structures from related graphical modeling approaches. RA can analyze epistatic interactions involving an arbitrary number of genes or SNPs and constitutes a flexible and effective methodology for genomic analysis.

  13. Testing the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm for spatially explicit reconstruction of vegetation in northern Michigan and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Shinya; Parshall, Tim; Calcote, Randy; Walker, Karen

    2010-09-01

    The Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) overcomes some of the fundamental problems in pollen analysis for quantitative reconstruction of vegetation. LRA first uses the REVEALS model to estimate regional vegetation using pollen data from large sites and then the LOVE model to estimate vegetation composition within the relevant source area of pollen (RSAP) at small sites by subtracting the background pollen estimated from the regional vegetation composition. This study tests LRA using training data from forest hollows in northern Michigan (35 sites) and northwestern Wisconsin (43 sites). In northern Michigan, surface pollen from 152-ha and 332-ha lakes is used for REVEALS. Because of the lack of pollen data from large lakes in northwestern Wisconsin, we use pollen from 21 hollows randomly selected from the 43 sites for REVEALS. RSAP indirectly estimated by LRA is comparable to the expected value in each region. A regression analysis and permutation test validate that the LRA-based vegetation reconstruction is significantly more accurate than pollen percentages alone in both regions. Even though the site selection in northwestern Wisconsin is not ideal, the results are robust. The LRA is a significant step forward in quantitative reconstruction of vegetation.

  14. Salvage of Failed Prosthetic Breast Reconstructions by Autologous Conversion With Free Tissue Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabey, N. G.; Lie, K. H.; Kumiponjera, D.; Erel, E.; Simcock, J. W.; Malata, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Implant-based breast reconstructions are conceptually simple but prone to surgical revisions. Additional procedures often fail to address the problems associated with the reconstructive outcome, especially in patients who have received radiotherapy. However, conversion to free flaps may improve symptoms and aesthetic results. We reviewed our experience in the United Kingdom with autologous replacement of failed prosthetic reconstructions with the aims of documenting the indications for “tertiary” reconstructions and comparing our outcomes with those of other centers. Methods: Patients undergoing salvage surgery for suboptimal prosthetic breast reconstructions between 2000 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed for their original reconstructive operation, previous radiotherapy, indications for revision, corrective procedures undertaken, and final outcomes. Results: Of 14 patients identified, 7 had delayed and 7 had immediate reconstructions. Twelve had received radiotherapy; 6 before the initial delayed prosthetic reconstructions and 6 after immediate reconstructions. Ten patients presented after undergoing previous revisions of their original reconstructions (average 1.6). Indications for autologous conversion were capsular contracture, persistent pain, and poor cosmetic outcomes (often in combination). Salvage comprised explantation, total capsulectomy, and abdominal free flap reconstruction using deep inferior epigastric artery flaps (9) and transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps (5). The average interval between initial reconstruction and salvage was 8 years (r = 1-14). All flap transfers were successful with satisfactory aesthetic outcomes (average 21 months follow-up). Conclusions: We recommend early salvage autologous conversion of implant-based reconstructions once initial prosthetic reconstructions become unsatisfactory, particularly in recipients of radiotherapy. Many of these patients may have been better served by initial

  15. Computer and Modernization%Low-dose CT Image Reconstruction Based on Adaptive Kernel Regression Method and Algebraic Reconstruction Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟志威

    2016-01-01

    针对稀疏角度投影数据CT图像重建问题,TV-ART算法将图像的梯度稀疏先验知识引入代数重建法( ART)中,对分段平滑的图像具有较好的重建效果。但是,该算法在边界重建时会产生阶梯效应,影响重建质量。因此,本文提出自适应核回归函数结合代数重建法的重建算法( LAKR-ART),不仅在边界重建时不会产生阶梯效应,而且对细节纹理重建具有更好的重建效果。最后对shepp-logan标准CT图像和实际CT头颅图像进行仿真实验,并与ART、TV-ART算法进行比较,实验结果表明本文算法有效。%To the problem of sparse angular projection data of CT image reconstruction, TV-ART algorithm introduces the gradient sparse prior knowledge of image to algebraic reconstruction, and the local smooth image gets a better reconstruction effect. How-ever, the algorithm generates step effect when the borders are reconstructed, affecting the quality of the reconstruction. Therefore, this paper proposes an adaptive kernel regression function combined with Algebraic Reconstruction Technique reconstruction algo-rithm ( LAKR-ART) , it does not produce the step effect on the border reconstruction, and has a better effect to detail reconstruc-tion. Finally we use the shepp-logan CT image and the actual CT image to make the simulation experiment, and compare with ART and TV-ART algorithm. The experimental results show the algorithm is of effectiveness.

  16. CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Korolev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate long-term results of meniscal repair during arthroscopic ACL reconstruction.Materials and methods: 45 patients who underwent meniscal repair during arthroscopic ACL reconstruction between 2007 and 2013 by the same surgeon were included in the study. In total, fifty meniscus were repaired (26 medial and 24 lateral. Procedures included use of one up to four Fast-Fix implants (Smith & Nephew. In five cases both medial and lateral meniscus were repaired. Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm scales were used for long-term outcome analysis.Results: 19 male and 26 female patients were included in the study aging from 15 to 59 years (mean age 33,2±1,5. Median time from injury to surgical procedure was zero months (ranging zero to one. Mean time from surgery to scale analysis was 55,9±3 months (ranged 20-102. Median Cincinnati score was 97 (ranged 90-100, with excellent results in 93% of cases (43 patients and good results in 7% (3 patients. Median IKDC score was 90,8 (ranged 86,2-95,4, with excellent outcomes in 51% of cases (23 patients, good in 33% (15 patients and satisfactory in 16% (7 patients. Median Lysholm score was 95 (ranged 90-100, with excellent outcomes in 76% of cases (34 patients and good in 24% (11 patients. Authors identified no statistical differences when comparing survey results in age, sex and time from trauma to surgery.Conclusions: Results of the present study match the data from orthopedic literature that prove meniscal repair as a safe and efficient procedure with good and excellent outcomes. All-inside meniscal repair can be used irrespectively of patients' age and is efficient even in case of delayed procedures.

  17. Ptychographic reconstruction of attosecond pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Lucchini, M; Ludwig, A; Gallmann, L; Keller, U; Feurer, T

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a new attosecond pulse reconstruction modality which uses an algorithm that is derived from ptychography. In contrast to other methods, energy and delay sampling are not correlated, and as a result, the number of electron spectra to record is considerably smaller. Together with the robust algorithm, this leads to a more precise and fast convergence of the reconstruction.

  18. A Statistical Approach to Motion Compensated Cone Beam Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyksborg, Mark; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    One of the problems arising in radiotherapy planning is the quality of CT planning data. In the following attention is giving to the cone-beam scanning geometry where reconstruction of a 3D volume based on 2D projections, using the classic Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm requires a large...

  19. Algorithms For Phylogeny Reconstruction In a New Mathematical Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzini, Gabriele; Marianelli, Silvia

    1997-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a set of species is represented by a tree called phylogenetic tree or phylogeny. Its structure depends on precise biological assumptions about the evolution of species. Problems related to phylogeny reconstruction (i.e., finding a tree representation of information regard

  20. Are temperature reconstructions regionally biased?

    CERN Document Server

    Bothe, O

    2012-01-01

    Are temperature reconstructions possibly biased due to regionally differing density of utilized proxy-networks? This question is assessed utilizing a simple process-based forward model of tree growth in the virtual reality of two simulations of the climate of the last millennium with different amplitude of solar forcing variations. The pseudo-tree ring series cluster in high latitudes of the northern hemisphere and east Asia. Only weak biases are found for the full network. However, for a strong solar forcing amplitude the high latitudes indicate a warmer first half of the last millennium while mid-latitudes and Asia were slightly colder than the extratropical hemispheric average. Reconstruction skill is weak or non-existent for two simple reconstruction schemes, and comparison of virtual reality target and reconstructions reveals strong deficiencies. The temporal resolution of the proxies has an influence on the reconstruction task and results are sensitive to the construction of the proxy-network. Existing ...

  1. Sociale problemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove; Bundesen, Peter Verner

    Sociale problemer kan betragtes som selve udgangspunktet for socialt arbejde, hvor ambitionen er at råde bod på problemerne og sikre, at udsatte borgere får en bedre tilværelse. Det betyder også, at diskussionen af sociale problemer er afgørende for den sociale grundfaglighed. I denne bog sætter en...... række fagfolk på tværs af det danske socialfaglige felt fokus på sociale problemer. Det diskuteres, hvad vi overhovedet forstår ved sociale problemer, hvordan de opstår, hvilke konsekvenser de har, og ikke mindst hvordan man som fagprofessionel håndterer sociale problemer i det daglige arbejde. Bogen er...... skrevet som lærebog til professionsuddannelser, hvor sociale problemer udgør en dimension, bl.a. socialrådgiver-, pædagog- og sygeplejerskeuddannelserne....

  2. LAMB PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terent'eva Elena Olegovna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Inner and outer Lamb problems are of extreme importance for various applications in geophysics, as these problems are often used for simulation of wave fields accompanying earthquakes. Solutions of the outer Lamb problem of concentrated force impact applied to the free surface of an elastic half-plane are analyzed in this article. Two solutions are compared: the analytical solution obtained in 1984 and the solution obtained in a modern FEM complex Abaqus.

  3. LAMB PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Terent'eva Elena Olegovna

    2013-01-01

    Inner and outer Lamb problems are of extreme importance for various applications in geophysics, as these problems are often used for simulation of wave fields accompanying earthquakes. Solutions of the outer Lamb problem of concentrated force impact applied to the free surface of an elastic half-plane are analyzed in this article. Two solutions are compared: the analytical solution obtained in 1984 and the solution obtained in a modern FEM complex Abaqus.

  4. Blob-enhanced reconstruction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillo, Giusy; Cafiero, Gioacchino; Discetti, Stefano; Astarita, Tommaso

    2016-09-01

    A method to enhance the quality of the tomographic reconstruction and, consequently, the 3D velocity measurement accuracy, is presented. The technique is based on integrating information on the objects to be reconstructed within the algebraic reconstruction process. A first guess intensity distribution is produced with a standard algebraic method, then the distribution is rebuilt as a sum of Gaussian blobs, based on location, intensity and size of agglomerates of light intensity surrounding local maxima. The blobs substitution regularizes the particle shape allowing a reduction of the particles discretization errors and of their elongation in the depth direction. The performances of the blob-enhanced reconstruction technique (BERT) are assessed with a 3D synthetic experiment. The results have been compared with those obtained by applying the standard camera simultaneous multiplicative reconstruction technique (CSMART) to the same volume. Several blob-enhanced reconstruction processes, both substituting the blobs at the end of the CSMART algorithm and during the iterations (i.e. using the blob-enhanced reconstruction as predictor for the following iterations), have been tested. The results confirm the enhancement in the velocity measurements accuracy, demonstrating a reduction of the bias error due to the ghost particles. The improvement is more remarkable at the largest tested seeding densities. Additionally, using the blobs distributions as a predictor enables further improvement of the convergence of the reconstruction algorithm, with the improvement being more considerable when substituting the blobs more than once during the process. The BERT process is also applied to multi resolution (MR) CSMART reconstructions, permitting simultaneously to achieve remarkable improvements in the flow field measurements and to benefit from the reduction in computational time due to the MR approach. Finally, BERT is also tested on experimental data, obtaining an increase of the

  5. Knee Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BMI Calculator myhealthfinder Immunization Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Knee ProblemsPain, swelling, stiffness and "water" on the knee are common symptoms. Follow this chart for more ...

  6. Porcelain three-dimensional shape reconstruction and its color reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyang; Wu, Haibin; Yang, Xue; Yu, Shuang; Wang, Beiyi; Chen, Deyun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, structured light three-dimensional measurement technology was used to reconstruct the porcelain shape, and further more the porcelain color was reconstructed. So the accurate reconstruction of the shape and color of porcelain was realized. Our shape measurement installation drawing is given. Because the porcelain surface is color complex and highly reflective, the binary Gray code encoding is used to reduce the influence of the porcelain surface. The color camera was employed to obtain the color of the porcelain surface. Then, the comprehensive reconstruction of the shape and color was realized in Java3D runtime environment. In the reconstruction process, the space point by point coloration method is proposed and achieved. Our coloration method ensures the pixel corresponding accuracy in both of shape and color aspects. The porcelain surface shape and color reconstruction experimental results completed by proposed method and our installation, show that: the depth range is 860 ˜ 980mm, the relative error of the shape measurement is less than 0.1%, the reconstructed color of the porcelain surface is real, refined and subtle, and has the same visual effect as the measured surface.

  7. What to Expect After Breast Reconstruction Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Reconstruction Surgery Women who have surgery as part of ... and after your surgery. Deciding Whether To Have Breast Reconstruction Many women choose to have reconstruction surgery, but ...

  8. A MATLAB package for the EIDORS project to reconstruct two-dimensional EIT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauhkonen, M; Lionheart, W R; Heikkinen, L M; Vauhkonen, P J; Kaipio, J P

    2001-02-01

    The EIDORS (electrical impedance and diffuse optical reconstruction software) project aims to produce a software system for reconstructing images from electrical or diffuse optical data. MATLAB is a software that is used in the EIDORS project for rapid prototyping, graphical user interface construction and image display. We have written a MATLAB package (http://venda.uku.fi/ vauhkon/) which can be used for two-dimensional mesh generation, solving the forward problem and reconstructing and displaying the reconstructed images (resistivity or admittivity). In this paper we briefly describe the mathematical theory on which the codes are based on and also give some examples of the capabilities of the package.

  9. Fast algorithms for nonconvex compression sensing: MRI reconstruction from very few data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartrand, Rick [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Compressive sensing is the reconstruction of sparse images or signals from very few samples, by means of solving a tractable optimization problem. In the context of MRI, this can allow reconstruction from many fewer k-space samples, thereby reducing scanning time. Previous work has shown that nonconvex optimization reduces still further the number of samples required for reconstruction, while still being tractable. In this work, we extend recent Fourier-based algorithms for convex optimization to the nonconvex setting, and obtain methods that combine the reconstruction abilities of previous nonconvex approaches with the computational speed of state-of-the-art convex methods.

  10. APPROACHES TO DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHODOLOGY OF RECONSTRUCTION OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogina Elena Sergeevna

    2012-10-01

    WWTPs fail to perform proper treatment due to their being worn-out and obsolete. However a tougher legislation accelerates their reconstruction. Approaches to the WWTP reconstruction should demonstrate a strong economic and technological base. The author proposes a new algorithm for their reconstruction. A sensible combination of the principles of WWTP restructuring, development of new fine wastewater cleaning methods, and assimilation of new materials and chemical agents will help resolve the vital problem of waste water discharge into Russia's water bodies. This is the first methodology of reconstruction of WWTPs developed on the basis of the above concept and supported by practical implementation.

  11. A Wavelet-Based Multiresolution Reconstruction Method for Fluorescent Molecular Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Image reconstruction of fluorescent molecular tomography (FMT often involves repeatedly solving large-dimensional matrix equations, which are computationally expensive, especially for the case where there are large deviations in the optical properties between the target and the reference medium. In this paper, a wavelet-based multiresolution reconstruction approach is proposed for the FMT reconstruction in combination with a parallel forward computing strategy, in which both the forward and the inverse problems of FMT are solved in the wavelet domain. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach can significantly speed up the reconstruction process and improve the image quality of FMT.

  12. Precision analysis of non-conformal reconstruction for the surface acoustic field on axisymmetric structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yuanan; HE Zuoyong

    2003-01-01

    Reconstruction of the surface acoustic field of axisymmetric body with arbitrary boundary conditions using near-field acoustic data is studied. The method of numerical reconstruction based on orthonormalization function expansion (OFE) and boundary element integral (BEI) is presented which can overcome the singular integral problem in the boundary integral equations. By numerical examples, the precision of reconstruction for the non-conformal surface with the axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric vibrating on axisymmetric body is given.The results of the numerical simulation are shown that this kind of reconstruction method is available for engineering.

  13. A novel reconstruction algorithm for bioluminescent tomography based on Bayesian compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqi; Feng, Jinchao; Jia, Kebin; Sun, Zhonghua; Wei, Huijun

    2016-03-01

    Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) is becoming a promising tool because it can resolve the biodistribution of bioluminescent reporters associated with cellular and subcellular function through several millimeters with to centimeters of tissues in vivo. However, BLT reconstruction is an ill-posed problem. By incorporating sparse a priori information about bioluminescent source, enhanced image quality is obtained for sparsity based reconstruction algorithm. Therefore, sparsity based BLT reconstruction algorithm has a great potential. Here, we proposed a novel reconstruction method based on Bayesian compressive sensing and investigated its feasibility and effectiveness with a heterogeneous phantom. The results demonstrate the potential and merits of the proposed algorithm.

  14. Reconstruction of images from radiofrequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C M; Stevens, A D

    1994-12-01

    This paper discusses methods for obtaining image reconstructions from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra which constitute object projections. An automatic baselining technique is described which treats each spectrum consistently; rotating the non-horizontal baselines which are caused by stray magnetic effects onto the horizontal axis. The convolved backprojection method is described for both two- and three-dimensional reconstruction and the effect of cut-off frequency on the reconstruction is illustrated. A slower, indirect, iterative method, which does a non-linear fit to the projection data, is shown to give a far smoother reconstructed image when the method of maximum entropy is used to determine the value of the final residual sum of squares. Although this requires more computing time than the convolved backprojection method, it is more flexible and overcomes the problem of numerical instability encountered in deconvolution. Images from phantom samples in vitro are discussed. The spectral data for these have been accumulated quickly and have a low signal-to-noise ratio. The results show that as few as 16 spectra can still be processed to give an image. Artifacts in the image due to a small number of projections using the convolved backprojection reconstruction method can be removed by applying a threshold, i.e. only plotting contours higher than a given value. These artifacts are not present in an image which has been reconstructed by the maximum entropy technique. At present these techniques are being applied directly to in vivo studies.

  15. Direct reconstruction of enhanced signal in computed tomography perfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Lyu, Qingwen; Ma, Jianhua; Wang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    High imaging dose has been a concern in computed tomography perfusion (CTP) as repeated scans are performed at the same location of a patient. On the other hand, signal changes only occur at limited regions in CT acquired at different time points. In this work, we propose a new reconstruction strategy by effectively utilizing the initial phase high-quality CT to reconstruct the later phase CT acquired with a low-dose protocol. In the proposed strategy, initial high-quality CT is considered as a base image and enhanced signal (ES) is reconstructed directly by minimizing the penalized weighted least-square (PWLS) criterion. The proposed PWLS-ES strategy converts the conventional CT reconstruction into a sparse signal reconstruction problem. Digital and anthropomorphic phantom studies were performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed PWLS-ES strategy. Both phantom studies show that the proposed PWLS-ES method outperforms the standard iterative CT reconstruction algorithm based on the same PWLS criterion according to various quantitative metrics including root mean squared error (RMSE) and the universal quality index (UQI).

  16. Adaptive wavelet tight frame construction for accelerating MRI reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genjiao Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The sparsity regularization approach, which assumes that the image of interest is likely to have sparse representation in some transform domain, has been an active research area in image processing and medical image reconstruction. Although various sparsifying transforms have been used in medical image reconstruction such as wavelet, contourlet, and total variation (TV etc., the efficiency of these transforms typically rely on the special structure of the underlying image. A better way to address this issue is to develop an overcomplete dictionary from the input data in order to get a better sparsifying transform for the underlying image. However, the general overcomplete dictionaries do not satisfy the so-called perfect reconstruction property which ensures that the given signal can be perfectly represented by its canonical coefficients in a manner similar to orthonormal bases, resulting in time consuming in the iterative image reconstruction. This work is to develop an adaptive wavelet tight frame method for magnetic resonance image reconstruction. The proposed scheme incorporates the adaptive wavelet tight frame approach into the magnetic resonance image reconstruction by solving a l0-regularized minimization problem. Numerical results show that the proposed approach provides significant time savings as compared to the over-complete dictionary based methods with comparable performance in terms of both peak signal-to-noise ratio and subjective visual quality.

  17. Flaw shape reconstruction – an experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena STANCULESCU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Flaws can be classified as acceptable and unacceptable flaws. As a result of nondestructive testing, one takes de decision Admit/Reject regarding the tested product related to some acceptability criteria. In order to take the right decision, one should know the shape and the dimension of the flaw. On the other hand, the flaws considered to be acceptable, develop in time, such that they can become unacceptable. In this case, the knowledge of the shape and dimension of the flaw allows determining the product time life. For interior flaw shape reconstruction the best procedure is the use of difference static magnetic field. We have a stationary magnetic field problem, but we face the problem given by the nonlinear media. This paper presents the results of the experimental work for control specimen with and without flaw.

  18. Geometric reconstruction methods for electron tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Alpers, Andreas; König, Stefan; Pennington, Robert S; Boothroyd, Chris B; Houben, Lothar; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Batenburg, Kees Joost

    2012-01-01

    Electron tomography is becoming an increasingly important tool in materials science for studying three-dimensional morphologies and chemical compositions of nanostructures. The image quality obtained by many current algorithms is seriously affected by the problems of missing wedge artefacts and nonlinear projection intensities due to diffraction effects. The former refers to the fact that data cannot be acquired over the full $180^\\circ$ tilt range; the latter implies that for some orientations, crystalline structures can show strong contrast changes. To overcome these problems we introduce four algorithms from the mathematical fields of geometric and discrete tomography. The algorithms incorporate geometric prior knowledge (mainly convexity and homogeneity), which also in principle considerably reduces the number of tilt angles required. Results are discussed for the reconstruction of an InAs nanowire.

  19. Popular Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the "What's the problem represented to be" (WPR) approach. Forty-nine…

  20. Popular Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the "What's the problem represented to be" (WPR) approach. Forty-nine…

  1. Blockwise conjugate gradient methods for image reconstruction in volumetric CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, W; Titley-Peloquin, D; Soleimani, M

    2012-11-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) enables volumetric image reconstruction from 2D projection data and plays an important role in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Filtered back projection is still the most frequently used algorithm in applications. The algorithm discretizes the scanning process (forward projection) into a system of linear equations, which must then be solved to recover images from measured projection data. The conjugate gradients (CG) algorithm and its variants can be used to solve (possibly regularized) linear systems of equations Ax=b and linear least squares problems minx∥b-Ax∥2, especially when the matrix A is very large and sparse. Their applications can be found in a general CT context, but in tomography problems (e.g. CBCT reconstruction) they have not widely been used. Hence, CBCT reconstruction using the CG-type algorithm LSQR was implemented and studied in this paper. In CBCT reconstruction, the main computational challenge is that the matrix A usually is very large, and storing it in full requires an amount of memory well beyond the reach of commodity computers. Because of these memory capacity constraints, only a small fraction of the weighting matrix A is typically used, leading to a poor reconstruction. In this paper, to overcome this difficulty, the matrix A is partitioned and stored blockwise, and blockwise matrix-vector multiplications are implemented within LSQR. This implementation allows us to use the full weighting matrix A for CBCT reconstruction without further enhancing computer standards. Tikhonov regularization can also be implemented in this fashion, and can produce significant improvement in the reconstructed images.

  2. Modified adaptive algebraic tomographic reconstruction of gas distribution from incomplete projection by a two-wavelength absorption scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Li; Chunsheng Weng

    2011-01-01

    @@ A modified adaptive algebraic reconstruction technique (MAART) with an auto-adjustment relaxation parameter and smoothness regularization is developed to reveal the tomographic reconstruction of H2O distribution in combustion from incomplete projections.Determinations of relaxation parameter and regularization factor are discussed with regard to the consideration of improvement in reconstruction and reduction of computational burden.A two-wavelength scheme from tunable diode laser absorption measurement, 7444.36 and 7185.59 cm-1, is used to simplify the nonlinear solution problem for obtaining the tomographic distributions of concentration and temperature simultaneously.Results of calculations demonstrate that MAART can perform the reconstruction results more efficiently with little complex modification and much lower iterations as compared with the traditional algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) or simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) methods.The stability of the algorithm is studied by reconstruction from projections with random noise at different levels to demonstrate the dependence of reconstruction results on precise line-of-sight measurements.%A modified adaptive algebraic reconstruction technique (MAART) with an auto-adjustment relaxation parameter and smoothness regularization is developed to reveal the tomographic reconstruction of H2O distribution in combustion from incomplete projections. Determinations of relaxation parameter and regularization factor are discussed with regard to the consideration of improvement in reconstruction and reduction of computational burden. A two-wavelength scheme from tunable diode laser absorption measurement, 7444.36 and 7185.59 cm-1, is used to simplify the nonlinear solution problem for obtaining the tomographic distributions of concentration and temperature simultaneously. Results of calculations demonstrate that MAART can perform the reconstruction results more efficiently with little complex

  3. Reconstruction of strain distribution in fiber Bragg grat-ings with differential evolution algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xiao-yan; YU Qoan

    2008-01-01

    Differential evolution algorithm is used to solve the inverse problem of strain distribution in tibet Bragg grating (FBG).Linear and nonlinear strain profiles are reconstructed based on the reflection spectra. An approximate solution could beobtained within only 50 rounds of evolutions. Numerical examples show good agreements between target strain profilesand reconstructed ones. Online performance analysis illuminates the efficiency and practicality of differential evolutionalgorithm in solving the inverse problem of FBG.

  4. Evidence-Based ACL Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carlos RODRIGUEZ-MERCHAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy in the literature regarding a number of topics related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACLreconstruction. The purpose of this article is to answer the following questions: 1 Bone patellar tendon bone (BPTB reconstruction or hamstring reconstruction (HR; 2 Double bundle or single bundle; 3 Allograft or authograft; 4 Early or late reconstruction; 5 Rate of return to sports after ACL reconstruction; 6 Rate of osteoarthritis after ACL reconstruction. A Cochrane Library and PubMed (MEDLINE search of systematic reviews and meta-analysis related to ACL reconstruction was performed. The key words were: ACL reconstruction, systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The main criteria for selection were that the articles were systematic reviews and meta-analysesfocused on the aforementioned questions. Sixty-nine articles were found, but only 26 were selected and reviewed because they had a high grade (I-II of evidence. BPTB-R was associated with better postoperative knee stability but with a higher rate of morbidity. However, the results of both procedures in terms of functional outcome in the long-term were similar. The double-bundle ACL reconstruction technique showed better outcomes in rotational laxity, although functional recovery was similar between single-bundle and double-bundle. Autograft yielded better results than allograft. There was no difference between early and delayed reconstruction. 82% of patients were able to return to some kind of sport participation. 28% of patients presented radiological signs of osteoarthritis with a follow-up of minimum 10 years.

  5. TICMR: Total Image Constrained Material Reconstruction via Nonlocal Total Variation Regularization for Spectral CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiulong; Ding, Huanjun; Molloi, Sabee; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Gao, Hao

    2016-12-01

    This work develops a material reconstruction method for spectral CT, namely Total Image Constrained Material Reconstruction (TICMR), to maximize the utility of projection data in terms of both spectral information and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This is motivated by the following fact: when viewed as a spectrally-integrated measurement, the projection data can be used to reconstruct a total image without spectral information, which however has a relatively high SNR; when viewed as a spectrally-resolved measurement, the projection data can be utilized to reconstruct the material composition, which however has a relatively low SNR. The material reconstruction synergizes material decomposition and image reconstruction, i.e., the direct reconstruction of material compositions instead of a two-step procedure that first reconstructs images and then decomposes images. For material reconstruction with high SNR, we propose TICMR with nonlocal total variation (NLTV) regularization. That is, first we reconstruct a total image using spectrally-integrated measurement without spectral binning, and build the NLTV weights from this image that characterize nonlocal image features; then the NLTV weights are incorporated into a NLTV-based iterative material reconstruction scheme using spectrally-binned projection data, so that these weights serve as a high-SNR reference to regularize material reconstruction. Note that the nonlocal property of NLTV is essential for material reconstruction, since material compositions may have significant local intensity variations although their structural information is often similar. In terms of solution algorithm, TICMR is formulated as an iterative reconstruction method with the NLTV regularization, in which the nonlocal divergence is utilized based on the adjoint relationship. The alternating direction method of multipliers is developed to solve this sparsity optimization problem. The proposed TICMR method was validated using both simulated

  6. Stable reconstruction of piecewise continuous plane stratified biological tissues via electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgin, Madlena; Einziger, Pinchas D

    2010-05-01

    Image reconstruction in electrical impedance tomography is, generally, an ill-posed nonlinear inverse problem. Regularization methods are widely used to ensure a stable solution. Herein, we present a case study, which uses a novel electrical impedance tomography method for reconstruction of layered biological tissues with piecewise continuous plane-stratified profiles. The algorithm implements the recently proposed reconstruction scheme for piecewise constant conductivity profiles, utilizing Legendre expansion in conjunction with improved Prony method. It is shown that the proposed algorithm is capable of successfully reconstructing piecewise continuous conductivity profiles with moderate slop. This reconstruction procedure, which calculates both the locations and the conductivities, repetitively provides inhomogeneous depth discretization, i.e., the depths grid is not equispaced. Incorporation of this specific inhomogeneous grid in the widely used mean least square reconstruction procedure results in a stable and accurate reconstruction, whereas, the commonly selected equispaced depth grid leads to unstable reconstruction. This observation establishes the main result of our investigation, highlighting the impact of physical phenomenon (the image series expansion) on electrical impedance tomography, leading to a physically motivated stabilization of the inverse problem, i.e., an inhomogeneous depth discretization renders an inherent regularization of the mean least square algorithm. The effectiveness and the significance of inhomogeneous discretization in electrical impedance tomography reconstruction procedure is further demonstrated and verified via numerical simulations.

  7. Facial Paralysis Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razfar, Ali; Lee, Matthew K; Massry, Guy G; Azizzadeh, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Facial nerve paralysis is a devastating condition arising from several causes with severe functional and psychological consequences. Given the complexity of the disease process, management involves a multispecialty, team-oriented approach. This article provides a systematic approach in addressing each specific sequela of this complex problem.

  8. Mathematical Problems in Synthetic Aperture Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Jens

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with problems related to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The thesis is structured as follows: The first chapter explains what SAR is, and the physical and mathematical background is illuminated. The following chapter points out a problem with a divergent integral in a common approach and proposes an improvement. Numerical comparisons are shown that indicate that the improvements allow for a superior image quality. Thereafter the problem of limited data is analyzed. In a realistic SAR-measurement the data gathered from the electromagnetic waves reflected from the surface can only be collected from a limited area. However the reconstruction formula requires data from an infinite distance. The chapter gives an analysis of the artifacts which can obscure the reconstructed images due to this problem. Additionally, some numerical examples are shown that point to the severity of the problem. In chapter 4 the fact that data is available only from a limited area is used to propose a new invers...

  9. Fast alternating projection methods for constrained tomographic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Han, Yongxin; Jin, Mingwu

    2017-01-01

    The alternating projection algorithms are easy to implement and effective for large-scale complex optimization problems, such as constrained reconstruction of X-ray computed tomography (CT). A typical method is to use projection onto convex sets (POCS) for data fidelity, nonnegative constraints combined with total variation (TV) minimization (so called TV-POCS) for sparse-view CT reconstruction. However, this type of method relies on empirically selected parameters for satisfactory reconstruction and is generally slow and lack of convergence analysis. In this work, we use a convex feasibility set approach to address the problems associated with TV-POCS and propose a framework using full sequential alternating projections or POCS (FS-POCS) to find the solution in the intersection of convex constraints of bounded TV function, bounded data fidelity error and non-negativity. The rationale behind FS-POCS is that the mathematically optimal solution of the constrained objective function may not be the physically optimal solution. The breakdown of constrained reconstruction into an intersection of several feasible sets can lead to faster convergence and better quantification of reconstruction parameters in a physical meaningful way than that in an empirical way of trial-and-error. In addition, for large-scale optimization problems, first order methods are usually used. Not only is the condition for convergence of gradient-based methods derived, but also a primal-dual hybrid gradient (PDHG) method is used for fast convergence of bounded TV. The newly proposed FS-POCS is evaluated and compared with TV-POCS and another convex feasibility projection method (CPTV) using both digital phantom and pseudo-real CT data to show its superior performance on reconstruction speed, image quality and quantification.

  10. Facial Reconstruction and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Genther, Dane J; Byrne, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Extracranial infiltration of the facial nerve by salivary gland tumors is the most frequent cause of facial palsy secondary to malignancy. Nevertheless, facial palsy related to salivary gland cancer is uncommon. Therefore, reconstructive facial reanimation surgery is not a routine undertaking for most head and neck surgeons. The primary aims of facial reanimation are to restore tone, symmetry, and movement to the paralyzed face. Such restoration should improve the patient's objective motor function and subjective quality of life. The surgical procedures for facial reanimation rely heavily on long-established techniques, but many advances and improvements have been made in recent years. In the past, published experiences on strategies for optimizing functional outcomes in facial paralysis patients were primarily based on small case series and described a wide variety of surgical techniques. However, in the recent years, larger series have been published from high-volume centers with significant and specialized experience in surgical and nonsurgical reanimation of the paralyzed face that have informed modern treatment. This chapter reviews the most important diagnostic methods used for the evaluation of facial paralysis to optimize the planning of each individual's treatment and discusses surgical and nonsurgical techniques for facial rehabilitation based on the contemporary literature.

  11. Reconstruction of B mesons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, H.; Binder, U.; Böckmann, P.; Gläser, R.; Harder, G.; Lembke-Koppitz, I.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Wurth, R.; Yagil, A.; Donker, J. P.; Drescher, A.; Kamp, D.; Matthiesen, U.; Scheck, H.; Spaan, B.; Spengler, J.; Wegener, D.; Gabriel, J. C.; Schubert, K. R.; Stiewe, J.; Strahl, K.; Waldi, R.; Weseler, S.; Edwards, K. W.; Frisken, W. R.; Gilkinson, D. J.; Gingrich, D. M.; Kapitza, H.; Kim, P. C. H.; Kutschke, R.; Macfarlane, D. B.; McKenna, J. A.; McLean, K. W.; Nilsson, A. W.; Orr, R. S.; Padley, P.; Parsons, J. A.; Patel, P. M.; Prentice, J. D.; Seywerd, H. C. J.; Swain, J. D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Yoon, T.-S.; Yun, J. C.; Ammar, R.; Coppage, D.; Davis, R.; Kanekal, S.; Kwak, N.; Boštjančič, B.; Kernel, G.; Pleško, M.; Jönsson, L.; Babaev, A.; Danilov, M.; Golutvin, A.; Gorelov, I.; Lubimov, V.; Matveev, V.; Nagovitsin, V.; Ryltsov, V.; Semenov, A.; Shevchenko, V.; Soloshenko, V.; Tchistilin, V.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitzev, Yu.; Childers, R.; Darden, C. W.; Oku, Y.; Gennow, H.; Argus Collaboration

    1987-02-01

    B mesons have been reconstructed in five decay channels of the type B→D ∗±nπ(n=1,2,3) using data accumulated by the ARGUS experiment at the e +e - storage ring DORIS II at DESY. In total, we find 40 neutral B mesons above a background of 15±6 events with a mass of (5278.2±1.0±3.0) MeV/ c2 and 32 charged B mesons above a background of 17±6 events with a mass of (5275.8±1.3±3.0) MeV/ c2. The decays overlineB0D∗+π -π 0, overlineB0D∗+π -π -π +, and B-→ D∗+π -π -π 0 have been observed for the first time. We find substantially smaller branching ratios for the decay modes overlineB0→ D∗+π - and B-→ D∗+π -π - than previously published by the CLEO collaboration.

  12. Reconstructing human evolution

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2074069

    1999-01-01

    One can reconstruct human evolution using modern genetic data and models based on the mathematical theory of evolution and its four major factors : mutation, natural selection, statistical fluctuations in finite populations (random genetic drift), and migration. Archaeology gives some help on the major dates and events of the process. Chances of studying ancient DNA are very limited but there have been a few successful results. Studying DNA instead of proteins, as was done until a few years ago, and in particular the DNA of mitochondria and of the Y chromosome which are transmitted, respectively, by the maternal line and the paternal line, has greatly simplified the analysis. It is now possible to carry the analysis on individuals, while earlier studies were of necessity based on populations. Also the evolution of ÒcultureÓ (i.e. what we learn from others), in particular that of languages, gives some help and can be greatly enlightened by genetic studies. Even though it is largely based on mechanisms of mut...

  13. Mohs Surgical Reconstruction Educational Activity: a resident education tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croley, Julie A; Malone, C Helen; Goodwin, Brandon P; Phillips, Linda G; Cole, Eric L; Wagner, Richard F

    2017-01-01

    Background Surgical reconstructive planning following Mohs surgery can be a difficult subject for dermatology residents to master. Prior research demonstrates that active learning is preferred and more effective compared to passive learning models and that dermatology residents desire greater complexity and volume in surgical training. We present a novel, active, problem-based learning tool for the education of Mohs reconstruction with the goal of improving residents’ ability to plan surgical reconstructions. Materials and methods The Mohs Surgical Reconstruction Educational Activity is an active, problem-based learning activity in which residents designed repairs for planned Mohs defects prior to surgery on an iPad application or on a printed photograph. The attending Mohs surgeon reviewed the reconstructive designs, provided feedback, guided discussion, and facilitated insight into additional issues requiring further review. Residents performed or observed the Mohs and reconstructive surgical procedures for respective repairs. Surveys were administered to participants before and after participating in the Mohs Surgical Reconstruction Educational Activity to assess the educational value of the activity. Survey responses were recorded on a 5-point Likert scale. Results Mean participant-reported confidence in flap and graft knowledge, flap and graft planning, and flap and graft performance increased 1.50–2.50 Likert scale points upon completion of the Mohs surgery rotation by residents participating in the educational activity. The observed trend was larger in the dermatology resident subset, with increases of 2.00–3.50 Likert scale points reported for these questions. Mean participant-reported likelihoods of performing flaps and grafts in the future increased 0.25–0.50 Likert scale points among all residents participating in the educational activity and 0.50–1.00 Likert scale points in the dermatology resident subset. All residents participating in the

  14. Mohs Surgical Reconstruction Educational Activity: a resident education tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croley, Julie A; Malone, C Helen; Goodwin, Brandon P; Phillips, Linda G; Cole, Eric L; Wagner, Richard F

    2017-01-01

    Surgical reconstructive planning following Mohs surgery can be a difficult subject for dermatology residents to master. Prior research demonstrates that active learning is preferred and more effective compared to passive learning models and that dermatology residents desire greater complexity and volume in surgical training. We present a novel, active, problem-based learning tool for the education of Mohs reconstruction with the goal of improving residents' ability to plan surgical reconstructions. The Mohs Surgical Reconstruction Educational Activity is an active, problem-based learning activity in which residents designed repairs for planned Mohs defects prior to surgery on an iPad application or on a printed photograph. The attending Mohs surgeon reviewed the reconstructive designs, provided feedback, guided discussion, and facilitated insight into additional issues requiring further review. Residents performed or observed the Mohs and reconstructive surgical procedures for respective repairs. Surveys were administered to participants before and after participating in the Mohs Surgical Reconstruction Educational Activity to assess the educational value of the activity. Survey responses were recorded on a 5-point Likert scale. Mean participant-reported confidence in flap and graft knowledge, flap and graft planning, and flap and graft performance increased 1.50-2.50 Likert scale points upon completion of the Mohs surgery rotation by residents participating in the educational activity. The observed trend was larger in the dermatology resident subset, with increases of 2.00-3.50 Likert scale points reported for these questions. Mean participant-reported likelihoods of performing flaps and grafts in the future increased 0.25-0.50 Likert scale points among all residents participating in the educational activity and 0.50-1.00 Likert scale points in the dermatology resident subset. All residents participating in the educational activity somewhat or completely agreed

  15. Image Interpolation Through Surface Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ling; LI Xue-mei

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructing an HR (high-resolution) image which preserves the image intrinsic structures from its LR ( low-resolution) counterpart is highly challenging. This paper proposes a new surface reconstruction algorithm applied to image interpolation. The interpolation surface for the whole image is generated by putting all the quadratic polynomial patches together. In order to eliminate the jaggies of the edge, a new weight function containing edge information is incorporated into the patch reconstruction procedure as a constraint. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our method produces better results across a wide range of scenes in terms of both quantitative evaluation and subjective visual quality.

  16. [Aesthetic aspects of eyelid reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, S; Arnaud, D; Rousseau, P; Belmahi, A; Duron, J-B; Gary-Bobo, A; Malet, T; Darsonval, V; Bardot, J

    2013-10-01

    In eyelid reconstruction, filling the defect is not sufficient. In young patients, the aim is to obtain a reconstructed eyelid, as normal as possible. In elderly patients, the large amount of available skin and the good quality of scars seem to be favorable. But weakening and stretching of the connective tissue and eyelid structures and deficient production of tears may compromise the functional result. In every case, restoring aspect and function are going together. The purpose of this chapter is to show how different techniques may be used in eyelid reconstruction with good cosmetic result. Different cases are carefully described and illustrated. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  17. Path-based Iterative Reconstruction (PBIR) for X-ray Computed Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Meng; Yang, Qiao; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) techniques have demonstrated many advantages in X-ray CT image reconstruction. The MBIR approach is often modeled as a convex optimization problem including a data fitting function and a penalty function. The tuning parameter value that regulates the strength of the penalty function is critical for achieving good reconstruction results but difficult to choose. In this work, we describe two path seeking algorithms that are capable of efficiently generating a series of MBIR images with different strengths of the penalty function. The root-mean-squared-differences of the proposed path seeking algorithms are below 4 HU throughout the entire reconstruction path. With the efficient path seeking algorithm, we suggest a path-based iterative reconstruction (PBIR) to obtain complete information from the scanned data and reconstruction model.

  18. Image reconstruction using wavelet multi-resolution technique for time-domain diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Gao, Feng; Jiao, Yuting; Zhao, Huijuan

    2010-02-01

    It is generally believed that the inverse problem in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is highly ill-posed and its solution is always under-determined and sensitive to noise, which is the main problem in the application of DOT. In this paper, we propose a method on image reconstruction for time-domain diffuse optical tomography based on panel detection and Finite-Difference Method, and introduce an approach to reduce the number of unknown parameters in the reconstruction process. We propose a multi-level scheme to reduce the number of unknowns by parameterizing the spatial distribution of optical properties via wavelet transform and then reconstruct the coefficients of this transform. Compared with previous traditional uni-level full spatial domain algorithm, this method can efficiently improve the reconstruction quality. Numerical simulations show that wavelet-based multi-level inversion is superior to the uni-level algebraic reconstruction technique.

  19. Approximate Sparsity and Nonlocal Total Variation Based Compressive MR Image Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhi Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in compressive sensing (CS show that it is possible to accurately reconstruct the magnetic resonance (MR image from undersampled k-space data by solving nonsmooth convex optimization problems, which therefore significantly reduce the scanning time. In this paper, we propose a new MR image reconstruction method based on a compound regularization model associated with the nonlocal total variation (NLTV and the wavelet approximate sparsity. Nonlocal total variation can restore periodic textures and local geometric information better than total variation. The wavelet approximate sparsity achieves more accurate sparse reconstruction than fixed wavelet l0 and l1 norm. Furthermore, a variable splitting and augmented Lagrangian algorithm is presented to solve the proposed minimization problem. Experimental results on MR image reconstruction demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms many existing MR image reconstruction methods both in quantitative and in visual quality assessment.

  20. Existence and uniqueness in anisotropic conductivity reconstruction with Faraday's law

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Min-Gi

    2015-03-18

    We show that three sets of internal current densities are the right amount of data that give the existence and the uniqueness at the same time in reconstructing an anisotropic conductivity in two space dimensions. The curl free equation of Faraday’s law is taken instead of the usual divergence free equation of the electrical impedance to- mography. Boundary conditions related to given current densities are introduced which complete a well determined problem for conductivity reconstruction together with Fara- day’s law.

  1. Investigation on acoustic holography reconstruction of scattering field of target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Xuemei; HE Zuoyong

    2000-01-01

    The BEM-based (Boundary EIement Method) scattering near field acoustic holography technique, which can be used to reconstruct the scattering sound field on the surface of a target and predict the whole scattering field from measured scattering near field, is described.First, the fundamental equations of this method and the related separation method for scattering field are brought forward. Then the problems such as the affect of different hologram to reconstructed result, the availability of singular value filter method and the applicability of separation method for scattering field are analyzed by means of numerical simulation.

  2. Reconstructing the Nonlinear Dynamical Systems by Evolutionary Computation Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Minzhong; KANG Lishan

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a new dynamical evolutionary algorithm(DEA) based on the theory of statistical mechanics and investigate the reconstruction problem for the nonlinear dynamical systems using observation data. The convergence of the algorithm is discussed. We make the numerical experiments and test our model using the two famous chaotic systems (mainly the Lorenz and Chen systems ). The results show the relatively accurate reconstruction of these chaotic systems based on observational data can be obtained. Therefore we may conclude that there are broad prospects using our method to model the nonlinear dynamical systems.

  3. On the Complexity of Reconstructing Chemical Reaction Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerberg, Rolf; Flamm, Christoph; Merkle, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the structure of chemical reaction networks is crucial for a better understanding of chemical processes. Such networks are well described as hypergraphs. However, due to the available methods, analyses regarding network properties are typically made on standard graphs derived from...... the full hypergraph description, e.g. on the so-called species and reaction graphs. However, a reconstruction of the underlying hypergraph from these graphs is not necessarily unique. In this paper, we address the problem of reconstructing a hypergraph from its species and reaction graph and show NP...

  4. Prior Information in Inverse Boundary Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Henrik

    This thesis gives a threefold perspective on the inverse problem of inclusion detection in electrical impedance tomography: depth dependence, monotonicitybased reconstruction, and sparsity-based reconstruction. The depth dependence is given in terms of explicit bounds on the datum norm, which shows...... be regularized against noise with a uniform regularization parameter, and that the method can be generalized to discrete electrode models. We give examples in 2D and 3D with noisy simulated data as well as real measurements, and give a comparison of reconstructions based on a non-linear and a linear formulation...... of the reconstruction. Numerical examples are given in both 2D and 3D for partial data using noisy simulated data as well as real measurements....

  5. Prostate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do to help diagnose your prostate problem. Physical Exam A physical exam may help diagnose the cause ... sleep avoid or drink fewer liquids that have caffeine or alcohol in them avoid medicines that may ...

  6. Popular Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the ‘What's the problem represented...... to be’ (WPR) approach. Forty-nine empirical studies on Danish youth career guidance were included in the study. An analysis of the issues in focus resulted in nine problem categories. One of these, ‘targeting’, is analysed using the WPR approach. Finally, the article concludes that the WPR approach...... provides a constructive basis for a critical analysis and discussion of the collective empirical knowledge production on career guidance, stimulating awareness of problems and potential solutions among the career guidance community....

  7. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... the production of red blood cells. What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  8. Tongue problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tongue pain may also occur with: Diabetic neuropathy Leukoplakia Mouth ulcers Oral cancer After menopause, some women ... problem. Medicine may be prescribed for mouth ulcers, leukoplakia, oral cancer, and other mouth sores. Anti-inflammatory ...

  9. Erection problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... monitoring to test how strong your erection is Psychological tests to check for depression and other emotional problems ... the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should ...

  10. Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting enough air. Sometimes you can have mild breathing problems because of a stuffy nose or intense ... panic attacks Allergies If you often have trouble breathing, it is important to find out the cause.

  11. Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  12. Eyelid Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ... an irregular shape (astigmatism), it will threaten normal vision development and must be corrected as early as ...

  13. Arapahoe NWR diversion reconstruction : Preliminary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a preliminary plan for a diversion reconstruction for Hubbard #2. Oklahoma #1, Dryer, Hill and Crowder sites on the Arapahoe National Wildlife Refuge.

  14. Hologram-reconstruction signal enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezrich, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Principle of heterodyne detection is used to combine object beam and reconstructed virtual image beam. All light valves in page composer are opened, and virtual-image beam is allowed to interfere with light from valves.

  15. Rational reconstructions of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittelstaedt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of Modern Physics, such as the theory of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of Special Relativity as well as Quantum Mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results. In the second edition the rational reconstructions are completed with respect to General Relativity and Cosmology. In addition, the statistics of quantum objects is elaborated in more detail with respect to the rational reconstruction of quantum mechanics. The new material completes the approach of t...

  16. Iterative reconstruction methods in atmospheric tomography: FEWHA, Kaczmarz and Gradient-based algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlau, R.; Saxenhuber, D.; Yudytskiy, M.

    2014-07-01

    The problem of atmospheric tomography arises in ground-based telescope imaging with adaptive optics (AO), where one aims to compensate in real-time for the rapidly changing optical distortions in the atmosphere. Many of these systems depend on a sufficient reconstruction of the turbulence profiles in order to obtain a good correction. Due to steadily growing telescope sizes, there is a strong increase in the computational load for atmospheric reconstruction with current methods, first and foremost the MVM. In this paper we present and compare three novel iterative reconstruction methods. The first iterative approach is the Finite Element- Wavelet Hybrid Algorithm (FEWHA), which combines wavelet-based techniques and conjugate gradient schemes to efficiently and accurately tackle the problem of atmospheric reconstruction. The method is extremely fast, highly flexible and yields superior quality. Another novel iterative reconstruction algorithm is the three step approach which decouples the problem in the reconstruction of the incoming wavefronts, the reconstruction of the turbulent layers (atmospheric tomography) and the computation of the best mirror correction (fitting step). For the atmospheric tomography problem within the three step approach, the Kaczmarz algorithm and the Gradient-based method have been developed. We present a detailed comparison of our reconstructors both in terms of quality and speed performance in the context of a Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) system for the E-ELT setting on OCTOPUS, the ESO end-to-end simulation tool.

  17. Knapsack problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Hans; Pisinger, David

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen years have passed since the seminal book on knapsack problems by Martello and Toth appeared. On this occasion a former colleague exclaimed back in 1990: "How can you write 250 pages on the knapsack problem?" Indeed, the definition of the knapsack problem is easily understood even by a non-expert who will not suspect the presence of challenging research topics in this area at the first glance. However, in the last decade a large number of research publications contributed new results for the knapsack problem in all areas of interest such as exact algorithms, heuristics and approximation schemes. Moreover, the extension of the knapsack problem to higher dimensions both in the number of constraints and in the num­ ber of knapsacks, as well as the modification of the problem structure concerning the available item set and the objective function, leads to a number of interesting variations of practical relevance which were the subject of intensive research during the last few years. Hence, two years ago ...

  18. An inverse Sturm–Liouville problem with a fractional derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Bangti

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we numerically investigate an inverse problem of recovering the potential term in a fractional Sturm-Liouville problem from one spectrum. The qualitative behaviors of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are discussed, and numerical reconstructions of the potential with a Newton method from finite spectral data are presented. Surprisingly, it allows very satisfactory reconstructions for both smooth and discontinuous potentials, provided that the order . α∈. (1,. 2) of fractional derivative is sufficiently away from 2. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Reconstruction of distributed force characteristics in case of non punctual objects impacting beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liman A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The inverse formulation considered to reconstruct the characteristics of an impact uses in general a technique of minimizing the root mean square error between the measured and the calculated responses. The problem takes like this the form of parametric identification. To perform this in practice, a large number of sensors or an excessive computing time are required. In this work, the characteristics of impact in case of an elastic beam with the impacting object not necessarily punctual are reconstructed. We use first the reciprocity theorem in order to decouple the localization problem from the identification problem. We solve then the localization problem by means of a particle swarm algorithm.

  20. Piecing together the past: statistical insights into paleoclimatic reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingley, Martin P.; Craigmile, Peter F.; Haran, Murali; Li, Bo; Mannshardt, Elizabeth; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2012-03-01

    Reconstructing a climate process in both space and time from incomplete instrumental and climate proxy time series is a problem with clear societal relevance that poses both scientific and statistical challenges. These challenges, along with the interdisciplinary nature of the reconstruction problem, point to the need for greater cooperation between the earth science and statistics communities - a sentiment echoed in recent parliamentary reports. As a step in this direction, it is prudent to formalize what is meant by the paleoclimate reconstruction problem using the language and tools of modern statistics. This article considers the challenge of inferring, with uncertainties, a climate process through space and time from overlapping instrumental and climate sensitive proxy time series that are assumed to be well dated - an assumption that is likely only reasonable for certain proxies over at most the last few millennia. Within a unifying, hierarchical space-time modeling framework for this problem, the modeling assumptions made by a number of published methods can be understood as special cases, and the distinction between modeling assumptions and analysis or inference choices becomes more transparent. The key aims of this article are to 1) establish a unifying modeling and notational framework for the paleoclimate reconstruction problem that is transparent to both the climate science and statistics communities; 2) describe how currently favored methods fit within this framework; 3) outline and distinguish between scientific and statistical challenges; 4) indicate how recent advances in the statistical modeling of large space-time data sets, as well as advances in statistical computation, can be brought to bear upon the problem; 5) offer, in broad strokes, some suggestions for model construction and how to perform the required statistical inference; and 6) identify issues that are important to both the climate science and applied statistics communities, and

  1. Breast reconstruction after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletti, Joseph M; Fosnot, Joshua; Nelson, Jonas A; Disa, Joseph J; Bucky, Louis P

    2011-06-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the mental, emotional, and physical benefits of reconstruction in breast cancer patients. 2. Compare the most common techniques of reconstruction in patients and detail benefits and risks associated with each. 3. Outline different methods of reconstruction and identify the method considered best for the patient based on timing of the procedures, body type, adjuvant therapies, and other coexisting conditions. 4. Distinguish between some of the different flaps that can be considered for autologous reconstruction. Breast cancer is unfortunately a common disease affecting millions of women, often at a relatively young age. Reconstruction following mastectomy offers women an opportunity to mollify some of the emotional and aesthetic effects of this devastating disease. Although varying techniques of alloplastic and autologous techniques are available, all strive to achieve the same goal: the satisfactory reformation of a breast mound that appears as natural as possible without clothing and at the very least is normal in appearance under clothing. This article summarizes the various approaches to breast reconstruction and offers a balanced view of the risks and benefits of each, all of which in the end offer the opportunity for excellent and predictable results with a high degree of patient satisfaction.

  2. Sound source reconstruction using inverse boundary element calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Hald, Jørgen; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo;

    2001-01-01

    suited for solution by means of an inverse boundary element method. Since the numerical treatment of the inverse source reconstruction results in a discrete ill-posed problem, regularisation is imposed to avoid unstable solutions dominated by errors. In the present work the emphasis is on Tikhonov......Whereas standard boundary element calculations focus on the forward problem of computing the radiated acoustic field from a vibrating structure, the aim of the present work is to reverse the process, i.e., to determine vibration from acoustic field data. This inverse problem is brought on a form...

  3. On $\\mathfrak{I}$-reconstruction Property

    OpenAIRE

    L. K. Vashisht; Khattar, Geetika

    2013-01-01

    Reconstruction property in Banach spaces introduced and studied by Casazza and Christensen in [1]. In this paper we introduce reconstruction property in Banach spaces which satisfy $\\mathfrak{I}$-property. A characterization of reconstruction property in Banach spaces which satisfy $\\mathfrak{I}$-property in terms of frames in Banach spaces is obtained. Banach frames associated with reconstruction property are discussed.

  4. Improving outcomes in aesthetic facial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Stefan O P; Mureau, Marc A M

    2009-07-01

    Aesthetic facial reconstruction is a challenging art. Improving outcomes in aesthetic facial reconstruction requires a thorough understanding of the basic principles of the functional and aesthetic requirements for facial reconstruction. From there, further refinement and attention to detail can be provided. This paper discusses basic principles of aesthetic facial reconstruction.

  5. On $\\mathfrak{I}$-reconstruction Property

    OpenAIRE

    L. K. Vashisht; Khattar, Geetika

    2013-01-01

    Reconstruction property in Banach spaces introduced and studied by Casazza and Christensen in [1]. In this paper we introduce reconstruction property in Banach spaces which satisfy $\\mathfrak{I}$-property. A characterization of reconstruction property in Banach spaces which satisfy $\\mathfrak{I}$-property in terms of frames in Banach spaces is obtained. Banach frames associated with reconstruction property are discussed.

  6. Spectrotemporal CT data acquisition and reconstruction at low dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Darin P.; Badea, Cristian T., E-mail: cristian.badea@duke.edu [Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Lee, Chang-Lung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: X-ray computed tomography (CT) is widely used, both clinically and preclinically, for fast, high-resolution anatomic imaging; however, compelling opportunities exist to expand its use in functional imaging applications. For instance, spectral information combined with nanoparticle contrast agents enables quantification of tissue perfusion levels, while temporal information details cardiac and respiratory dynamics. The authors propose and demonstrate a projection acquisition and reconstruction strategy for 5D CT (3D + dual energy + time) which recovers spectral and temporal information without substantially increasing radiation dose or sampling time relative to anatomic imaging protocols. Methods: The authors approach the 5D reconstruction problem within the framework of low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition. Unlike previous work on rank-sparsity constrained CT reconstruction, the authors establish an explicit rank-sparse signal model to describe the spectral and temporal dimensions. The spectral dimension is represented as a well-sampled time and energy averaged image plus regularly undersampled principal components describing the spectral contrast. The temporal dimension is represented as the same time and energy averaged reconstruction plus contiguous, spatially sparse, and irregularly sampled temporal contrast images. Using a nonlinear, image domain filtration approach, the authors refer to as rank-sparse kernel regression, the authors transfer image structure from the well-sampled time and energy averaged reconstruction to the spectral and temporal contrast images. This regularization strategy strictly constrains the reconstruction problem while approximately separating the temporal and spectral dimensions. Separability results in a highly compressed representation for the 5D data in which projections are shared between the temporal and spectral reconstruction subproblems, enabling substantial undersampling. The authors solved the 5D reconstruction

  7. Choosing a Breast Reconstruction Surgeon and Questions to Ask

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reconstruction Surgery Questions to Ask Your Surgeon About Breast Reconstruction If you’ve had surgery to treat your ... reconstruction. Finding the right plastic surgeon for your breast reconstruction If you decide to have breast reconstruction, you’ ...

  8. Chimpocentrism and reconstructions of human evolution (a timely reminder).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaesen, Krist

    2014-03-01

    Chimpanzees, but very few other animals, figure prominently in (recent) attempts to reconstruct the evolution of uniquely human traits. In particular, the chimpanzee is used (i) to identify traits unique to humans, and thus in need of reconstruction; (ii) to initialize the reconstruction, by taking its state to reflect the state of the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees; (iii) as a baseline against which to test evolutionary hypotheses. Here I point out the flaws in this three-step procedure, and show how they can be overcome by taking advantage of much broader phylogenetic comparisons. More specifically, I explain how such comparisons yield more reliable estimations of ancestral states and how they help to resolve problems of underdetermination inherent to chimpocentric accounts. To illustrate my points, I use a recent chimpocentric argument by Kitcher. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Photoacoustic image reconstruction: material detection and acoustical heterogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeder, S.; Kronbichler, M.; Wall, W. A.

    2017-05-01

    The correct consideration of acoustical heterogeneities in the context of photoacoustic image reconstruction is an open topic. In this publication a physically motivated algorithm is proposed that reconstructs the optical absorption and diffusion coefficients using a gradient-based scheme. The simultaneous reconstruction of both material properties allows for a subsequent material identification and an accordant update of the acoustical material properties. The algorithm is general in terms of illumination scenarios, detection geometries and applications. No prior knowledge on material distributions needs to be provided, only expected materials have to be specified. Numerical experiments are performed to gain insight into the complex inverse problem and to validate the proposed method. Results show that acoustical heterogeneities are correctly detected improving the optical images.

  10. Simulation and reconstruction of free-streaming data in CBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Volker

    2011-12-01

    The CBM experiment will investigate heavy-ion reactions at the FAIR facility at unprecedented interaction rates. This implies a novel read-out and data acquisition concept with self-triggered front-end electronics and free-streaming data. Event association must be performed in software on-line, and may require four-dimensional reconstruction routines. In order to study the problem of event association and to develop proper algorithms, simulations must be performed which go beyond the normal event-by-event processing as available from most experimental simulation frameworks. In this article, we discuss the challenges and concepts for the reconstruction of such free-streaming data and present first steps for a time-based simulation which is necessary for the development and validation of the reconstruction algorithms, and which requires modifications to the current software framework FAIRROOT as well as to the data model.

  11. Superficial Circumflex Iliac Artery Perforator Flap for Dorsalis Pedis Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Kensuke; Yamashita, Shuji

    2017-04-01

    Reconstruction of dorsalis pedis with soft tissue is challenging because it needs to preserve thin structure to ensure that the patient will be able to wear shoes. Here, we report the use of a thin superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flap in dorsalis pedis reconstruction. A 67-year-old man presented with a third-degree burn, which exposed his extensor tendons. A thin SCIP flap from the left inguinal region measuring 15 × 4 cm was transferred to the dorsalis pedis region. Postoperatively, no major cosmetic or functional problems were observed. Because the invasiveness of the donor site is nearly same between SCIP flap and skin graft from inguinal region, SCIP flap is better solution in point of textural qualities for dorsalis pedis reconstruction.

  12. Position Reconstruction in a Dual Phase Xenon Scintillation Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Solovov, V N; Akimov, D Yu; Araújo, H M; Barnes, E J; Burenkov, A A; Chepel, V; Currie, A; DeViveiros, L; Edwards, B; Ghag, C; Hollingsworth, A; Horn, M; Kalmus, G E; Kobyakin, A S; Kovalenko, A G; Lebedenko, V N; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Lüscher, R; Majewski, P; Murphy, A St J; Neves, F; Paling, S M; da Cunha, J Pinto; Preece, R; Quenby, J J; Reichhart, L; Scovell, P R; Silva, C; Smith, N J T; Smith, P F; Stekhanov, V N; Sumner, T J; Thorne, C; Walker, R J

    2011-01-01

    We studied the application of statistical reconstruction algorithms, namely maximum likelihood and least squares methods, to the problem of event reconstruction in a dual phase liquid xenon detector. An iterative method was developed for in-situ reconstruction of the PMT light response functions from calibration data taken with an uncollimated gamma-ray source. Using the techniques described, the performance of the ZEPLIN-III dark matter detector was studied for 122 keV gamma-rays. For the inner part of the detector (R<100 mm), spatial resolutions of 13 mm and 1.6 mm FWHM were measured in the horizontal plane for primary and secondary scintillation, respectively. An energy resolution of 8.1% FWHM was achieved at that energy. The possibility of using this technique for improving performance and reducing cost of scintillation cameras for medical applications is currently under study.

  13. Reconstruction of Industrial Location in View of Industrial Agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Huayou; DING Sibao

    2006-01-01

    The Industrial Agglomeration Theory has been evolving all the time. The study on the industrial location has become the focus of the massive theoretical location problems about agglomeration since the 1970s. The authors here analyze the evolution and the characteristics of the Industrial Agglomeration Theory and study its effect on the reconstruction of industrial location. The study suggests that the new idea of reconstruction of industrial location is to cultivate regional innovative system. On this basis, the authors analyze two cases of old industrial bases on their construction-Tiexi Industrial District in Shenyang City and Changchun Industrial Economic Development Zone. Finally, the authors put forward some suggestions that should be regarded, which include: 1) to combine industrial location reconstruction and enterprises' inner reform; 2) to speed up adjustment of resources and opening to the world; 3) to combine government mechanism with the market mechanism properly.

  14. An Application Study of Transition Surface Reconstruction in Reverse Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUJing-ping; HEYu-lin; LIAOXiao-ping

    2004-01-01

    the reconstruction of transition surface is one of time consuming activities during surface modeling in reverse engineering. Yet currently available software applications suffer from shortcoming in processing the connection among free form surfaces. In this paper, a new method is put forward combining Surfacer with Unigraphics to resolve this problem: Curves and surfaces are first constructed in Surfacer, then, the finished data is imported into Unigraphics based on IGES format. At last, the transition surface can be reconstructed in Unigraphics. The application of this method in transition surface reconstruction is illustrated by means of two case studies,showing the connection between free form surfaces; filleting and rounding among multiple surfaces; transition surface between two sets of surfaces.

  15. Analysis Operator Learning and Its Application to Image Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Hawe, Simon; Diepold, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Exploiting a priori known structural information lies at the core of many image reconstruction methods that can be stated as inverse problems. The synthesis model, which assumes that images can be decomposed into a linear combination of very few atoms of some dictionary, is now a well established tool for the design of image reconstruction algorithms. An interesting alternative is the analysis model, where the signal is multiplied by an analysis operator and the outcome is assumed to be the sparse. This approach has only recently gained increasing interest. The quality of reconstruction methods based on an analysis model severely depends on the right choice of the suitable operator. In this work, we present an algorithm for learning an analysis operator from training images. Our method is based on an $\\ell_p$-norm minimization on the set of full rank matrices with normalized columns. We carefully introduce the employed conjugate gradient method on manifolds, and explain the underlying geometry of the constrai...

  16. Denoising Message Passing for X-ray Computed Tomography Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Perelli, Alessandro; Can, Ali; Davies, Mike E

    2016-01-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) reconstruction from sparse number of views is becoming a powerful way to reduce either the radiation dose or the acquisition time in CT systems but still requires a huge computational time. This paper introduces an approximate Bayesian inference framework for CT reconstruction based on a family of denoising approximate message passing (DCT-AMP) algorithms able to improve both the convergence speed and the reconstruction quality. Approximate Message Passing for Compressed Sensing has been extensively analysed for random linear measurements but there are still not clear solutions on how AMP should be modified and how it performs with real world problems. In particular to overcome the convergence issues of DCT-AMP with structured measurement matrices, we propose a disjoint preconditioned version of the algorithm tailored for both the geometric system model and the noise model. In addition the Bayesian DCT-AMP formulation allows to measure how the current estimate is close to the pr...

  17. Alloplastic adjuncts in breast reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabalag, Miguel S.; Rostek, Marie; Miller, George S.; Chae, Michael P.; Quinn, Tam; Rozen, Warren M.

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been an increasing role of acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) and synthetic meshes in both single- and two-stage implant/expander breast reconstruction. Numerous alloplastic adjuncts exist, and these vary in material type, processing, storage, surgical preparation, level of sterility, available sizes and cost. However, there is little published data on most, posing a significant challenge to the reconstructive surgeon trying to compare and select the most suitable product. The aims of this systematic review were to identify, summarize and evaluate the outcomes of studies describing the use of alloplastic adjuncts for post-mastectomy breast reconstruction. The secondary aims were to determine their cost-effectiveness and analyze outcomes in patients who also underwent radiotherapy. Methods Using the PRSIMA 2009 statement, a systematic review was conducted to find articles reporting on the outcomes on the use of alloplastic adjuncts in post-mastectomy breast reconstruction. Multiple databases were searched independently by three authors (Cabalag MS, Miller GS and Chae MP), including: Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to present), Embase (1980 to 2015), PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Results Current published literature on available alloplastic adjuncts are predominantly centered on ADMs, both allogeneic and xenogeneic, with few outcome studies available for synthetic meshes. Outcomes on the 89 articles, which met the inclusion criteria, were summarized and analyzed. The reported outcomes on alloplastic adjunct-assisted breast reconstruction were varied, with most data available on the use of ADMs, particularly AlloDerm® (LifeCell, Branchburg, New Jersey, USA). The use of ADMs in single-stage direct-to-implant breast reconstruction resulted in lower complication rates (infection, seroma, implant loss and late revision), and was more cost effective when compared to non-ADM, two-stage reconstruction. The majority of studies demonstrated

  18. Quantitative Study on Exact Reconstruction Sampling Condition in Limited-view CT

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Bin; Li, Lei; Zhang, Hanming; Wang, Linyuan

    2016-01-01

    In limited-view computed tomography reconstruction, iterative image reconstruction with sparsity-exploiting methods, such as total variation (TV) minimization, inspired by compressive sensing, potentially claims large reductions in sampling requirements. However, a quantitative notion of this claim is non-trivial because of the ill-defined reduction in sampling achieved by the sparsity-exploiting method. In this paper, exact reconstruction sampling condition for limited-view problem is studied by verifying the uniqueness of solution in TV minimization model. Uniqueness is tested by solving a convex optimization problem derived from the sufficient and necessary condition of solution uniqueness. Through this method, the sufficient sampling number of exact reconstruction is quantified for any fixed phantom and settled geometrical parameter in the limited-view problem. This paper provides a reference to quantify the sampling condition. Using Shepp-Logan phantom as an example, the experiment results show the quant...

  19. Reconstructing Pompeian Households

    CERN Document Server

    Mimno, David

    2012-01-01

    A database of objects discovered in houses in the Roman city of Pompeii provides a unique view of ordinary life in an ancient city. Experts have used this collection to study the structure of Roman households, exploring the distribution and variability of tasks in architectural spaces, but such approaches are necessarily affected by modern cultural assumptions. In this study we present a data-driven approach to household archeology, treating it as an unsupervised labeling problem. This approach scales to large data sets and provides a more objective complement to human interpretation.

  20. Boundary reconstruction on chords in cone-beam tomography%在锥束CT中基于弦的边缘图像重建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MarkA.Anastasio; EmilY.Sidky; 邹宇

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that the theory of cone-beam tomography image reconstruction on chords can be modified for use with local tomography problems. Our analysis reveals that discontinuities in the profiles of the object function along chords can be reconstructed readily. By consideration of all possible chords, an image that de-scribes the location of boundaries within an object can be reconstructed. A preliminary numerical study is conducted to validate and demonstrate the reconstruction method.

  1. Calculus problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baronti, Marco; van der Putten, Robertus; Venturi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    This book, intended as a practical working guide for students in Engineering, Mathematics, Physics, or any other field where rigorous calculus is needed, includes 450 exercises. Each chapter starts with a summary of the main definitions and results, which is followed by a selection of solved exercises accompanied by brief, illustrative comments. A selection of problems with indicated solutions rounds out each chapter. A final chapter explores problems that are not designed with a single issue in mind but instead call for the combination of a variety of techniques, rounding out the book’s coverage. Though the book’s primary focus is on functions of one real variable, basic ordinary differential equations (separation of variables, linear first order and constant coefficients ODEs) are also discussed. The material is taken from actual written tests that have been delivered at the Engineering School of the University of Genoa. Literally thousands of students have worked on these problems, ensuring their real-...

  2. Health-related quality of life after segmental resection of the lateral mandible: Free fibula flap versus plate reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, Johannes; Holtslag, Irene; van der Bilt, Andries; Merkx, Matthias; Koole, Ron; Van Cann, Ellen

    2015-06-01

    Segmental resection of the mandible causes functional, aesthetic and social problems affecting health-related quality of life (HRQoL). It is often assumed that reconstruction with composite free flaps guarantees better function and aesthetics than bridging the defect with reconstruction plates. Using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 version 3.0 and EORTC QLQ-H&N35), we compared HRQoL in patients who received free fibula flaps versus reconstruction plates after segmental resection of the lateral mandible. Thirty-seven completed questionnaires (18 fibula reconstructions and 19 patients with reconstruction plates) were available. Reconstruction with a free fibula flap did not provide clear additional benefit to bridging the defect with a reconstruction plate after segmental resection of the lateral mandible. In particular aspects known to have the most impact on HRQoL like swallowing, speech and chewing were not influenced by the type of reconstruction. Reconstruction of segmental defects of the lateral mandible with free fibula flap and reconstruction plate resulted in comparable HRQoL. If dental rehabilitation by means of dental implants is not anticipated in the fibula, then plate reconstruction with adequate soft tissue remains a suitable technique for the reconstruction of segmental defects of the lateral mandible. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dense surface reconstruction with shadows in MIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bingxiong; Sun, Yu; Qian, Xiaoning

    2013-09-01

    Three-dimensional reconstruction of internal organ surfaces provides useful information for better control and guidance of the operations of surgical tools for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The current reconstruction techniques using stereo cameras are still challenging due to the difficulties in correspondence matching in MIS, since there is very limited texture but significant specular reflection on organ surfaces. This paper proposes a new approach to overcome the problem by introducing weakly structured light actively casting surgical tool shadows on organ surfaces. The contribution of this paper is twofold: first, we propose a robust approach to extract shadow edges from a sequence of shadowed images; second, we develop a novel field surface interpolation (FSI) approach to obtain an accurate and dense disparity map. Our approach does not rely on texture information and is able to reconstruct accurate 3-D information by exploiting shadows from surgical tools. One advantage is that the point correspondences are directly calculated and no explicit stereo matching is required, which ensures the efficiency of the method. Another advantage is the minimum hardware requirement because only stereo cameras and a separated single-point light source are required. We evaluated the proposed approach using both phantom models and ex vivo images. Based on the experimental results, we achieved the precision of the recovered 3-D surfaces within 0.7 mm for phantom models and 1.2 mm for ex vivo images. The comparison of disparity maps indicates that with the addition of shadows, the proposed method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art stereo algorithms for MIS.

  4. A dynamic 3D foot reconstruction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Ali K; Trucco, Emanuele; Salvi, Joaquim; Wang, Weijie; Abboud, Rami J

    2011-01-01

    Foot problems are varied and range from simple disorders through to complex diseases and joint deformities. Wherever possible, the use of insoles, or orthoses, is preferred over surgery. Current insole design techniques are based on static measurements of the foot, despite the fact that orthoses are prevalently used in dynamic conditions while walking or running. This paper presents the design and implementation of a structured-light prototype system providing dense three dimensional (3D) measurements of the foot in motion, and its use to show that foot measurements in dynamic conditions differ significantly from their static counterparts. The input to the system is a video sequence of a foot during a single step; the output is a 3D reconstruction of the plantar surface of the foot for each frame of the input. Engineering and clinical tests were carried out for the validation of the system. The accuracy of the system was found to be 0.34 mm with planar test objects. In tests with real feet, the system proved repeatable, with reconstruction differences between trials one week apart averaging 2.44 mm (static case) and 2.81 mm (dynamic case). Furthermore, a study was performed to compare the effective length of the foot between static and dynamic reconstructions using the 4D system. Results showed an average increase of 9 mm for the dynamic case. This increase is substantial for orthotics design, cannot be captured by a static system, and its subject-specific measurement is crucial for the design of effective foot orthoses.

  5. An evaluation of the efficacy of microvascular breast reconstruction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrut, Mirosław; Maciejewski, Adam; Półtorak, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of different microvascular techniques in breast reconstruction with the analysis of postoperative complications. The additional goal of the study is to analyze the quality of life of patients after microvascular breast reconstruction in comparison to the control group of patients who underwent only mastectomy without any reconstructive procedures. Also the algorithm of breast reconstruction is presented as the result of own experiences. Clinical material contain 2 groups of patients - women after surgical treatment in Department of Oncological and Reconstructive Surgery, Cancer Center in Gliwice in the year 2004-2009 where in 53 cases immediate and in 26 delayed breast microvascular reconstruction were performed. In all cases the diagnosis of cancer was proved by histopathological biopsy before the treatment. The type of radical resection (mastectomy) depended on histopathological type of cancer and its localization. The reconstruction - immediate vs delayed was carefully planned together with oncological treatment of the cases. Everywhere this plan was established based on carefully examinations of inferior epigastric vessels and theirs perforators. The choice between immediate and delayed microvascular reconstruction was based on prognosis and predictive factors. The QOL was analyzed due to own questionnaire when functional, aesthetics and social effects were evaluated. Free flap survival rate for all types of free flap was 95%. In cases where classic TRAM was used the rate was 85%, in cases where muscle sparring TRAM was chosen the survival rate was 100% and in remaining cases of DIEP reconstructions the rate was 89%. Generally the complications after microvascular reconstruction occurred in 13 cases (16%). In 9 cases the problems with flaps perfusion were notified. Total flap necrosis was observed in 2 TRAM and in 2 DIEP cases. In all those cases salvage surgery was administered in which the microanastomoses

  6. Inverse Eigenvalue Problems for Two Special Acyclic Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashish Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study two inverse eigenvalue problems (IEPs of constructing two special acyclic matrices. The first problem involves the reconstruction of matrices whose graph is a path, from given information on one eigenvector of the required matrix and one eigenvalue of each of its leading principal submatrices. The second problem involves reconstruction of matrices whose graph is a broom, the eigen data being the maximum and minimum eigenvalues of each of the leading principal submatrices of the required matrix. In order to solve the problems, we use the recurrence relations among leading principal minors and the property of simplicity of the extremal eigenvalues of acyclic matrices.

  7. Direct and inverse problems of infrared tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sizikov, Valery S.; Evseev, Vadim; Fateev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The problems of infrared tomography-direct (the modeling of measured functions) and inverse (the reconstruction of gaseous medium parameters)-are considered with a laboratory burner flame as an example of an application. The two measurement modes are used: active (ON) with an external IR source...

  8. System models for PET statistical iterative reconstruction: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, A; Marabini, R; Matej, S; Sorzano, C O S; Lewitt, R M

    2016-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear imaging modality that provides in vivo quantitative measurements of the spatial and temporal distribution of compounds labeled with a positron emitting radionuclide. In the last decades, a tremendous effort has been put into the field of mathematical tomographic image reconstruction algorithms that transform the data registered by a PET camera into an image that represents slices through the scanned object. Iterative image reconstruction methods often provide higher quality images than conventional direct analytical methods. Aside from taking into account the statistical nature of the data, the key advantage of iterative reconstruction techniques is their ability to incorporate detailed models of the data acquisition process. This is mainly realized through the use of the so-called system matrix, that defines the mapping from the object space to the measurement space. The quality of the reconstructed images relies to a great extent on the accuracy with which the system matrix is estimated. Unfortunately, an accurate system matrix is often associated with high reconstruction times and huge storage requirements. Many attempts have been made to achieve realistic models without incurring excessive computational costs. As a result, a wide range of alternatives to the calculation of the system matrix exists. In this article we present a review of the different approaches used to address the problem of how to model, calculate and store the system matrix.

  9. Sparsity reconstruction in electrical impedance tomography: An experimental evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Gehre, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the potential of sparsity constraints in the electrical impedance tomography (EIT) inverse problem of inferring the distributed conductivity based on boundary potential measurements. In sparsity reconstruction, inhomogeneities of the conductivity are a priori assumed to be sparse with respect to a certain basis. This prior information is incorporated into a Tikhonov-type functional by including a sparsity-promoting ℓ1-penalty term. The functional is minimized with an iterative soft shrinkage-type algorithm. In this paper, the feasibility of the sparsity reconstruction approach is evaluated by experimental data from water tank measurements. The reconstructions are computed both with sparsity constraints and with a more conventional smoothness regularization approach. The results verify that the adoption of ℓ1-type constraints can enhance the quality of EIT reconstructions: in most of the test cases the reconstructions with sparsity constraints are both qualitatively and quantitatively more feasible than that with the smoothness constraint. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Block Compressed Sensing of Images Using Adaptive Granular Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of block Compressed Sensing (CS, the reconstruction algorithm based on the Smoothed Projected Landweber (SPL iteration can achieve the better rate-distortion performance with a low computational complexity, especially for using the Principle Components Analysis (PCA to perform the adaptive hard-thresholding shrinkage. However, during learning the PCA matrix, it affects the reconstruction performance of Landweber iteration to neglect the stationary local structural characteristic of image. To solve the above problem, this paper firstly uses the Granular Computing (GrC to decompose an image into several granules depending on the structural features of patches. Then, we perform the PCA to learn the sparse representation basis corresponding to each granule. Finally, the hard-thresholding shrinkage is employed to remove the noises in patches. The patches in granule have the stationary local structural characteristic, so that our method can effectively improve the performance of hard-thresholding shrinkage. Experimental results indicate that the reconstructed image by the proposed algorithm has better objective quality when compared with several traditional ones. The edge and texture details in the reconstructed image are better preserved, which guarantees the better visual quality. Besides, our method has still a low computational complexity of reconstruction.

  11. Quantum interferences reconstruction with low homodyne detection efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Martina; Randi, Francesco [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Titimbo, Kelvin; Zimmermann, Klaus; Benatti, Fabio [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Kourousias, Georgios; Curri, Alessio [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy); Floreanini, Roberto [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Parmigiani, Fulvio [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy); University of Cologne, Institute of Physics II, Cologne (Germany); Fausti, Daniele [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    Optical homodyne tomography consists in reconstructing the quantum state of an optical field from repeated measurements of its amplitude at different field phases (homodyne data). The experimental noise, which unavoidably affects the homodyne data, leads to a detection efficiency η<1. The problem of reconstructing quantum states from noisy homodyne data sets prompted an intense scientific debate about the presence or absence of a lower homodyne efficiency bound (η>0.5) below which quantum features, like quantum interferences, cannot be retrieved. Here, by numerical experiments, we demonstrate that quantum interferences can be effectively reconstructed also for low homodyne detection efficiency. In particular, we address the challenging case of a Schroedinger cat state and test the minimax and adaptive Wigner function reconstruction technique by processing homodyne data distributed according to the chosen state but with an efficiency η>0.5. By numerically reproducing the Schroedinger's cat interference pattern, we give evidence that quantum state reconstruction is actually possible in these conditions, and provide a guideline for handling optical tomography based on homodyne data collected by low efficiency detectors. (orig.)

  12. Acellular dermal matrix based nipple reconstruction: A modified technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavan Vidya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nipple areolar reconstruction (NAR has evolved with the advancement in breast reconstruction and can improve self-esteem and, consequently, patient satisfaction. Although a variety of reconstruction techniques have been described in the literature varying from nipple sharing, local flaps to alloplastic and allograft augmentation, over time, loss of nipple projection remains a major problem. Acellular dermal matrices (ADM have revolutionised breast reconstruction more recently. We discuss the use of ADM to act as a base plate and strut to give support to the base and offer nipple bulk and projection in a primary procedure of NAR with a local clover shaped dermal flap in 5 breasts (4 patients. We used 5-point Likert scales (1 = highly unsatisfied, 5 = highly satisfied to assess patient satisfaction. Median age was 46 years (range: 38–55 years. Nipple projection of 8 mm, 7 mm, and 7 mms were achieved in the unilateral cases and 6 mm in the bilateral case over a median 18 month period. All patients reported at least a 4 on the Likert scale. We had no post-operative complications. It seems that nipple areolar reconstruction [NAR] using ADM can achieve nipple projection which is considered aesthetically pleasing for patients.

  13. Generalized Fourier slice theorem for cone-beam image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang-Ren; Jiang, Dazong; Yang, Kevin; Yang, Kang

    2015-01-01

    The cone-beam reconstruction theory has been proposed by Kirillov in 1961, Tuy in 1983, Feldkamp in 1984, Smith in 1985, Pierre Grangeat in 1990. The Fourier slice theorem is proposed by Bracewell 1956, which leads to the Fourier image reconstruction method for parallel-beam geometry. The Fourier slice theorem is extended to fan-beam geometry by Zhao in 1993 and 1995. By combining the above mentioned cone-beam image reconstruction theory and the above mentioned Fourier slice theory of fan-beam geometry, the Fourier slice theorem in cone-beam geometry is proposed by Zhao 1995 in short conference publication. This article offers the details of the derivation and implementation of this Fourier slice theorem for cone-beam geometry. Especially the problem of the reconstruction from Fourier domain has been overcome, which is that the value of in the origin of Fourier space is 0/0. The 0/0 type of limit is proper handled. As examples, the implementation results for the single circle and two perpendicular circle source orbits are shown. In the cone-beam reconstruction if a interpolation process is considered, the number of the calculations for the generalized Fourier slice theorem algorithm is O(N^4), which is close to the filtered back-projection method, here N is the image size of 1-dimension. However the interpolation process can be avoid, in that case the number of the calculations is O(N5).

  14. Reconstruction of 3D structures from protein contact maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassura, Marco; Margara, Luciano; Di Lena, Pietro; Medri, Filippo; Fariselli, Piero; Casadio, Rita

    2008-01-01

    The prediction of the protein tertiary structure from solely its residue sequence (the so called Protein Folding Problem) is one of the most challenging problems in Structural Bioinformatics. We focus on the protein residue contact map. When this map is assigned it is possible to reconstruct the 3D structure of the protein backbone. The general problem of recovering a set of 3D coordinates consistent with some given contact map is known as a unit-disk-graph realization problem and it has been recently proven to be NP-Hard. In this paper we describe a heuristic method (COMAR) that is able to reconstruct with an unprecedented rate (3-15 seconds) a 3D model that exactly matches the target contact map of a protein. Working with a non-redundant set of 1760 proteins, we find that the scoring efficiency of finding a 3D model very close to the protein native structure depends on the threshold value adopted to compute the protein residue contact map. Contact maps whose threshold values range from 10 to 18 Angstroms allow reconstructing 3D models that are very similar to the proteins native structure.

  15. Improvement in Fast Particle Track Reconstruction with Robust Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Coenders, S; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grandmont, D T; Grant, D; Groß, A; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallen, P; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Jagielski, K; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leute, J; Lünemann, J; Macías, O; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Reimann, R; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Shanidze, R; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stanisha, N A; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zoll, M

    2013-01-01

    The IceCube project has transformed one cubic kilometer of deep natural Antarctic ice into a Cherenkov detector. Muon neutrinos are detected and their direction inferred by mapping the light produced by the secondary muon track inside the volume instrumented with photomultipliers. Reconstructing the muon track from the observed light is challenging due to noise, light scattering in the ice medium, and the possibility of simultaneously having multiple muons inside the detector, resulting from the large flux of cosmic ray muons. This manuscript describes work on two problems: (1) the track reconstruction problem, in which, given a set of observations, the goal is to recover the track of a muon; and (2) the coincident event problem, which is to determine how many muons are active in the detector during a time window. Rather than solving these problems by developing more complex physical models that are applied at later stages of the analysis, our approach is to augment the detectors early reconstruction with dat...

  16. Image reconstruction using projections from a few views by discrete steering combined with DART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Junghyun; Song, Samuel M.; Kauke, Brian; Boyd, Douglas P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose an algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) based discrete tomography method to reconstruct an image accurately using projections from a few views. We specifically consider the problem of reconstructing an image of bottles filled with various types of liquids from X-ray projections. By exploiting the fact that bottles are usually filled with homogeneous material, we show that it is possible to obtain accurate reconstruction with only a few projections by an ART based algorithm. In order to deal with various types of liquids in our problem, we first introduce our discrete steering method which is a generalization of the binary steering approach for our proposed multi-valued discrete reconstruction. The main idea of the steering approach is to use slowly varying thresholds instead of fixed thresholds. We further improve reconstruction accuracy by reducing the number of variables in ART by combining our discrete steering with the discrete ART (DART) that fixes the values of interior pixels of segmented regions considered as reliable. By simulation studies, we show that our proposed discrete steering combined with DART yields superior reconstruction than both discrete steering only and DART only cases. The resulting reconstructions are quite accurate even with projections using only four views.

  17. Automatic high-bandwidth calibration and reconstruction of arbitrarily sampled parallel MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Aelterman

    Full Text Available Today, many MRI reconstruction techniques exist for undersampled MRI data. Regularization-based techniques inspired by compressed sensing allow for the reconstruction of undersampled data that would lead to an ill-posed reconstruction problem. Parallel imaging enables the reconstruction of MRI images from undersampled multi-coil data that leads to a well-posed reconstruction problem. Autocalibrating pMRI techniques encompass pMRI techniques where no explicit knowledge of the coil sensivities is required. A first purpose of this paper is to derive a novel autocalibration approach for pMRI that allows for the estimation and use of smooth, but high-bandwidth coil profiles instead of a compactly supported kernel. These high-bandwidth models adhere more accurately to the physics of an antenna system. The second purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of a parameter-free reconstruction algorithm that combines autocalibrating pMRI and compressed sensing. Therefore, we present several techniques for automatic parameter estimation in MRI reconstruction. Experiments show that a higher reconstruction accuracy can be had using high-bandwidth coil models and that the automatic parameter choices yield an acceptable result.

  18. Microvascular breast reconstruction and lymph node transfer for postmastectomy lymphedema patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaristo, Anne M; Niemi, Tarja S; Viitanen, Tiina P; Tervala, Tomi V; Hartiala, Pauliina; Suominen, Erkki A

    2012-03-01

    Postoperative lymphedema after breast cancer surgery is a challenging problem. Recently, a novel microvascular lymph node transfer technique provided a fresh hope for patients with lymphedema. We aimed to combine this new method with the standard breast reconstruction. During 2008-2010, we performed free lower abdominal flap breast reconstruction in 87 patients. For all patients with lymphedema symptoms (n = 9), we used a modified lower abdominal reconstruction flap containing lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels surrounding the superficial circumflex vessel pedicle. Operation time, donor site morbidity, and postoperative recovery between the 2 groups (lymphedema breast reconstruction and breast reconstruction) were compared. The effect on the postoperative lymphatic vessel function was examined. The average operation time was 426 minutes in the lymphedema breast reconstruction group and 391 minutes in the breast reconstruction group. The postoperative abdominal seroma formation was increased in patients with lymphedema. Postoperative lymphoscintigraphy demonstrated at least some improvement in lymphatic vessel function in 5 of 6 patients with lymphedema. The upper limb perimeter decreased in 7 of 9 patients. Physiotherapy and compression was no longer needed in 3 of 9 patients. Importantly, we found that human lymph nodes express high levels of endogenous lymphatic vessel growth factors. Transfer of the lymph nodes and the resulting endogenous growth factor expression may thereby induce the regrowth of lymphatic network in the axilla. No edema problems were detected in the lymph node donor area. Simultaneous breast and lymphatic reconstruction is an ideal option for patients who suffer from lymphedema after mastectomy and axillary dissection.

  19. Ear Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have cold or flu symptoms?YesNoDo you have tooth pain on the same side as the ear pain ... or 2 days, see your doctor.Start OverDiagnosisA tooth problem can radiate pain to the ear on the same side.Self ...

  20. Accelerated gradient methods for total-variation-based CT image reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Jakob H.; Hansen, Per Christian [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Informatics and Mathematical Modeling; Jensen, Tobias L.; Jensen, Soeren H. [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Electronic Systems; Sidky, Emil Y.; Pan, Xiaochuan [Chicago Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2011-07-01

    Total-variation (TV)-based CT image reconstruction has shown experimentally to be capable of producing accurate reconstructions from sparse-view data. In particular TV-based reconstruction is well suited for images with piecewise nearly constant regions. Computationally, however, TV-based reconstruction is demanding, especially for 3D imaging, and the reconstruction from clinical data sets is far from being close to real-time. This is undesirable from a clinical perspective, and thus there is an incentive to accelerate the solution of the underlying optimization problem. The TV reconstruction can in principle be found by any optimization method, but in practice the large scale of the systems arising in CT image reconstruction preclude the use of memory-intensive methods such as Newton's method. The simple gradient method has much lower memory requirements, but exhibits prohibitively slow convergence. In the present work we address the question of how to reduce the number of gradient method iterations needed to achieve a high-accuracy TV reconstruction. We consider the use of two accelerated gradient-based methods, GPBB and UPN, to solve the 3D-TV minimization problem in CT image reconstruction. The former incorporates several heuristics from the optimization literature such as Barzilai-Borwein (BB) step size selection and nonmonotone line search. The latter uses a cleverly chosen sequence of auxiliary points to achieve a better convergence rate. The methods are memory efficient and equipped with a stopping criterion to ensure that the TV reconstruction has indeed been found. An implementation of the methods (in C with interface to Matlab) is available for download from http://www2.imm.dtu.dk/~pch/TVReg/. We compare the proposed methods with the standard gradient method, applied to a 3D test problem with synthetic few-view data. We find experimentally that for realistic parameters the proposed methods significantly outperform the standard gradient method. (orig.)

  1. Airway reconstruction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Background : Airway anomalies are infrequent but potentially life threatening in children. A program to care for these difficult children was set up at our institution, and this paper summarizes our experience. Methods: A total of 34 children were enrolled in the program over a period of three years. These children were evaluated as per the standard protocols. Treatment was individualized. Results: Of these 34 children, 28 had their airways restored and are doing well. Four children continue to remain on tracheostomy and two will require long term tracheostomy. There were two deaths. All children are under surveillance as there is a risk of recurrence. Conclusions: Airway anomalies are complex problems with significant morbidity and mortality. Current therapeutic modalities allow for good results. Most children were successfully decannulated and did well.

  2. RETHINKING VIOLENCE, RECONCILIATION AND RECONSTRUCTION IN BURUNDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Ndimurwimo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Armed violence and genocide are among the on-going problems that are still facing contemporary Africa and the world. In the aftermath of the outrages, devastation and appalling carnage of the Second World War, member states of the United Nations (UN undertook radical steps, inter alia, "to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights". Subsequently, the International Bill of Human Rights was proclaimed in order to lay down international human rights norms and standards of conduct and to prevent the recurrence of mass killings. Although Burundi is a State Party to the UN and African Union and is a signatory to a number of international and regional human rights treaties, the post-colonial history of Burundi is an epic tale of indescribable human suffering and misery as a result of systematic mass killings. At least every family or household in Burundi has been negatively affected by the mass killings of the 1960s, 1972, 1988 and 1990s, which have created a significant number of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs.This article traces the root causes of Burundi's systemic armed violence and argues that despite several UN Security Council Resolutions and peace agreements aimed at national reconciliation and reconstruction, mass killings and other heinous crimes remain unaddressed. The article recommends that a comprehensive transitional justice model is required in post-conflict Burundi in order to bring about national reconciliation, healing and reconstruction.

  3. l1- and l2-Norm Joint Regularization Based Sparse Signal Reconstruction Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanzi Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many problems in signal processing and statistical inference involve finding sparse solution to some underdetermined linear system of equations. This is also the application condition of compressive sensing (CS which can find the sparse solution from the measurements far less than the original signal. In this paper, we propose l1- and l2-norm joint regularization based reconstruction framework to approach the original l0-norm based sparseness-inducing constrained sparse signal reconstruction problem. Firstly, it is shown that, by employing the simple conjugate gradient algorithm, the new formulation provides an effective framework to deduce the solution as the original sparse signal reconstruction problem with l0-norm regularization item. Secondly, the upper reconstruction error limit is presented for the proposed sparse signal reconstruction framework, and it is unveiled that a smaller reconstruction error than l1-norm relaxation approaches can be realized by using the proposed scheme in most cases. Finally, simulation results are presented to validate the proposed sparse signal reconstruction approach.

  4. Quantitative study on exact reconstruction sampling condition by verifying solution uniqueness in limited-view CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bin; Zhang, Wenkun; Li, Lei; Zhang, Hanming; Wang, Linyuan

    2016-10-01

    In limited-view computed tomography reconstruction, iterative image reconstruction with sparsity-exploiting methods, such as total variation (TV) minimization, inspired by compressive sensing, potentially claims large reductions in sampling requirements. However, a quantitative notion of this claim is non-trivial because of the ill-defined reduction in sampling achieved by the sparsity-exploiting method. In this paper, exact reconstruction sampling condition for limited-view problem is studied by verifying the uniqueness of solution in TV minimization model. Uniqueness is tested by solving a convex optimization problem derived from the sufficient and necessary condition of solution uniqueness. Through this method, the sufficient sampling number of exact reconstruction is quantified for any fixed phantom and settled geometrical parameter in the limited-view problem. This paper provides a reference to quantify the sampling condition. Three phantoms are tested to study the sampling condition of limited view exact reconstruction in this paper. The experiment results show the quantified sampling number and indicate that an object would be accurately reconstructed as the scanning range becomes narrower by increasing sampling number. The increased samplings compensate for the deficiency of the projection angle. However, the lower bound of the scanning range corresponding to three different phantoms are presented, in which an exact reconstruction cannot be obtained once the projection angular is narrowed to this extent no matter how to increase sampling.

  5. Continuous analog of multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique for computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Kiyoko; Yamaguchi, Yusaku; Abou Al-Ola, Omar M.; Kojima, Takeshi; Yoshinaga, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    We propose a hybrid dynamical system as a continuous analog to the block-iterative multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (BI-MART), which is a well-known iterative image reconstruction algorithm for computed tomography. The hybrid system is described by a switched nonlinear system with a piecewise smooth vector field or differential equation and, for consistent inverse problems, the convergence of non-negatively constrained solutions to a globally stable equilibrium is guaranteed by the Lyapunov theorem. Namely, we can prove theoretically that a weighted Kullback-Leibler divergence measure can be a common Lyapunov function for the switched system. We show that discretizing the differential equation by using the first-order approximation (Euler's method) based on the geometric multiplicative calculus leads to the same iterative formula of the BI-MART with the scaling parameter as a time-step of numerical discretization. The present paper is the first to reveal that a kind of iterative image reconstruction algorithm is constructed by the discretization of a continuous-time dynamical system for solving tomographic inverse problems. Iterative algorithms with not only the Euler method but also the Runge-Kutta methods of lower-orders applied for discretizing the continuous-time system can be used for image reconstruction. A numerical example showing the characteristics of the discretized iterative methods is presented.

  6. Instrument Variables for Reducing Noise in Parallel MRI Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchou Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (GRAPPA has been a widely used parallel MRI technique. However, noise deteriorates the reconstructed image when reduction factor increases or even at low reduction factor for some noisy datasets. Noise, initially generated from scanner, propagates noise-related errors during fitting and interpolation procedures of GRAPPA to distort the final reconstructed image quality. The basic idea we proposed to improve GRAPPA is to remove noise from a system identification perspective. In this paper, we first analyze the GRAPPA noise problem from a noisy input-output system perspective; then, a new framework based on errors-in-variables (EIV model is developed for analyzing noise generation mechanism in GRAPPA and designing a concrete method—instrument variables (IV GRAPPA to remove noise. The proposed EIV framework provides possibilities that noiseless GRAPPA reconstruction could be achieved by existing methods that solve EIV problem other than IV method. Experimental results show that the proposed reconstruction algorithm can better remove the noise compared to the conventional GRAPPA, as validated with both of phantom and in vivo brain data.

  7. A Total Variation-Based Reconstruction Method for Dynamic MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Landi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, total variation (TV regularization has become a popular and powerful tool for image restoration and enhancement. In this work, we apply TV minimization to improve the quality of dynamic magnetic resonance images. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging is an increasingly popular clinical technique used to monitor spatio-temporal changes in tissue structure. Fast data acquisition is necessary in order to capture the dynamic process. Most commonly, the requirement of high temporal resolution is fulfilled by sacrificing spatial resolution. Therefore, the numerical methods have to address the issue of images reconstruction from limited Fourier data. One of the most successful techniques for dynamic imaging applications is the reduced-encoded imaging by generalized-series reconstruction method of Liang and Lauterbur. However, even if this method utilizes a priori data for optimal image reconstruction, the produced dynamic images are degraded by truncation artifacts, most notably Gibbs ringing, due to the spatial low resolution of the data. We use a TV regularization strategy in order to reduce these truncation artifacts in the dynamic images. The resulting TV minimization problem is solved by the fixed point iteration method of Vogel and Oman. The results of test problems with simulated and real data are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in reducing the truncation artifacts of the reconstructed images.

  8. Fossil energy and rural reconstruction: Potential for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaarsma, Catharinus F.; van Lier, Hubert N. (Department of Physical Planning and Rural Development, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, (Netherlands))

    1993-12-01

    Environmental problems such as smog, acid rain and the greenhouse effect have drawn increased attention to the role of fossil energy. To obtain sustainable development, a reduction in fossil energy consumption is necessary, in urban as well as in rural areas. In rural areas, land use and land exploitation as well as energy consumption depend on such factors as soil properties, water management systems and physical layout. These factors, and in this way the energy consumption, can be influenced by rural reconstructions. Modern rural reconstructions aim at improvement of land and water use conditions, accessibility, and conditions for outdoor recreation and for nature development. Energy productivity and consumption for various land uses as related to reconstruction of the countryside have been studied. This research paper focuses on the improvement of water management and parcellation, the rural road system, outdoor recreation and landscape-ecological systems. Results are applied to the Melderslo Land Reallocation Project in the southern Province of Limburg, in the Netherlands. Environmental problems require a reduction in fossil energy consumption, part of which has to be achieved in rural areas. This study shows that rural reconstruction can contribute to this goal

  9. Instrument Variables for Reducing Noise in Parallel MRI Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (GRAPPA) has been a widely used parallel MRI technique. However, noise deteriorates the reconstructed image when reduction factor increases or even at low reduction factor for some noisy datasets. Noise, initially generated from scanner, propagates noise-related errors during fitting and interpolation procedures of GRAPPA to distort the final reconstructed image quality. The basic idea we proposed to improve GRAPPA is to remove noise from a system identification perspective. In this paper, we first analyze the GRAPPA noise problem from a noisy input-output system perspective; then, a new framework based on errors-in-variables (EIV) model is developed for analyzing noise generation mechanism in GRAPPA and designing a concrete method—instrument variables (IV) GRAPPA to remove noise. The proposed EIV framework provides possibilities that noiseless GRAPPA reconstruction could be achieved by existing methods that solve EIV problem other than IV method. Experimental results show that the proposed reconstruction algorithm can better remove the noise compared to the conventional GRAPPA, as validated with both of phantom and in vivo brain data. PMID:28197419

  10. On simulated annealing phase transitions in phylogeny reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, Maximilian A R; Barker, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Phylogeny reconstruction with global criteria is NP-complete or NP-hard, hence in general requires a heuristic search. We investigate the powerful, physically inspired, general-purpose heuristic simulated annealing, applied to phylogeny reconstruction. Simulated annealing mimics the physical process of annealing, where a liquid is gently cooled to form a crystal. During the search, periods of elevated specific heat occur, analogous to physical phase transitions. These simulated annealing phase transitions play a crucial role in the outcome of the search. Nevertheless, they have received comparably little attention, for phylogeny or other optimisation problems. We analyse simulated annealing phase transitions during searches for the optimal phylogenetic tree for 34 real-world multiple alignments. In the same way in which melting temperatures differ between materials, we observe distinct specific heat profiles for each input file. We propose this reflects differences in the search landscape and can serve as a measure for problem difficulty and for suitability of the algorithm's parameters. We discuss application in algorithmic optimisation and as a diagnostic to assess parameterisation before computationally costly, large phylogeny reconstructions are launched. Whilst the focus here lies on phylogeny reconstruction under maximum parsimony, it is plausible that our results are more widely applicable to optimisation procedures in science and industry.

  11. Compact high order finite volume method on unstructured grids III: Variational reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Ren, Yu-Xin; Pan, Jianhua; Li, Wanai

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a variational reconstruction for the high order finite volume method in solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary unstructured grids. In the variational reconstruction, an interfacial jump integration is defined to measure the jumps of the reconstruction polynomial and its spatial derivatives on each cell interface. The system of linear equations to determine the reconstruction polynomials is derived by minimizing the total interfacial jump integration in the computational domain using the variational method. On each control volume, the derived equations are implicit relations between the coefficients of the reconstruction polynomials defined on a compact stencil involving only the current cell and its direct face-neighbors. The reconstruction and time integration coupled iteration method proposed in our previous paper is used to achieve high computational efficiency. A problem-independent shock detector and the WBAP limiter are used to suppress non-physical oscillations in the simulation of flow with discontinuities. The advantages of the finite volume method using the variational reconstruction over the compact least-squares finite volume method proposed in our previous papers are higher accuracy, higher computational efficiency, more flexible boundary treatment and non-singularity of the reconstruction matrix. A number of numerical test cases are solved to verify the accuracy, efficiency and shock-capturing capability of the finite volume method using the variational reconstruction.

  12. Comparison of gait parameters in distal femoral replacement using a metallic endoprosthesis versus allograft reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGheshyan, Fahad; Eltoukhy, Moataz; Zakaria, Khaled; Temple, Harry Thomas; Asfour, Shihab

    2015-10-01

    Restoration of gait mechanics after reconstruction have been associated with improved functional outcomes and increased longevity of the reconstruction. The goal of this study is to compare the gait mechanics of an allograft reconstruction of the distal femur to both metallic endoprosthetic reconstruction relative to normal control subjects. Gait parameters were captured using motion capture system, and then analyzed and compared for patients with metallic endoprosthetic reconstructions, and patients with allograft reconstructions of the distal femur following resection of malignant bone tumor, with subjects having no history of musculoskeletal disorders serving as a control group. All reconstructed distal femurs following tumor resection resulted in decreased range of motion reflected in observed flexion/extension angles compared to the normal limbs. The allograft reconstructed knees demonstrated normal patterns of rotation whereas the metal subjects had abnormal patterns of rotation and statistically significant differences in rotational moments. Allograft distal femoral reconstruction after malignant excision remains a viable option for surgeons faced with problems associated with iatrogenic muscle, bone and soft tissue defects.

  13. Accelerating image reconstruction in three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography on graphics processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Huang, Chao; Kao, Yu-Jiun; Chou, Cheng-Ying; Oraevsky, Alexander A; Anastasio, Mark A

    2013-02-01

    Optoacoustic tomography (OAT) is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) inverse problem. However, most studies of OAT image reconstruction still employ two-dimensional imaging models. One important reason is because 3D image reconstruction is computationally burdensome. The aim of this work is to accelerate existing image reconstruction algorithms for 3D OAT by use of parallel programming techniques. Parallelization strategies are proposed to accelerate a filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm and two different pairs of projection/backprojection operations that correspond to two different numerical imaging models. The algorithms are designed to fully exploit the parallel computing power of graphics processing units (GPUs). In order to evaluate the parallelization strategies for the projection/backprojection pairs, an iterative image reconstruction algorithm is implemented. Computer simulation and experimental studies are conducted to investigate the computational efficiency and numerical accuracy of the developed algorithms. The GPU implementations improve the computational efficiency by factors of 1000, 125, and 250 for the FBP algorithm and the two pairs of projection/backprojection operators, respectively. Accurate images are reconstructed by use of the FBP and iterative image reconstruction algorithms from both computer-simulated and experimental data. Parallelization strategies for 3D OAT image reconstruction are proposed for the first time. These GPU-based implementations significantly reduce the computational time for 3D image reconstruction, complementing our earlier work on 3D OAT iterative image reconstruction.

  14. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN ACL RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie H. Fu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Current Concepts in ACL Reconstruction is a complete reference text composed of the most thorough collection of topics on the ACL and its surgical reconstruction compiled, with contributions from some of the world's experts and most experienced ACL surgeons. Various procedures mentioned throughout the text are also demonstrated in an accompanying video CD-ROM. PURPOSE Composing a single, comprehensive and complete information source on ACL including basic sciences, clinical issues, latest concepts and surgical techniques, from evaluation to outcome, from history to future, editors and contributors have targeted to keep the audience pace with the latest concepts and techniques for the evaluation and the treatment of ACL injuries. FEATURES The text is composed of 27 chapters in 6 sections. The first section is mostly about basic sciences, also history of the ACL, imaging, clinical approach to adolescent and pediatric patients are subjected. In the second section, Graft Choices and Arthroscopy Portals for ACL Reconstruction are mentioned. The third section is about the technique and the outcome of the single-bundle ACL reconstruction. The fourth chapter includes the techniques and outcome of the double-bundle ACL reconstruction. In the fifth chapter revision, navigation technology, rehabilitation and the evaluation of the outcome of ACL reconstruction is subjected. The sixth/the last chapter is about the future advances to reach: What We Have Learned and the Future of ACL Reconstruction. AUDIENCE Orthopedic residents, sports traumatology and knee surgery fellows, orthopedic surgeons, also scientists in basic sciences or clinicians who are studying or planning a research on ACL forms the audience group of this book. ASSESSMENT This is the latest, the most complete and comprehensive textbook of ACL reconstruction produced by the editorial work up of two pioneer and masters "Freddie H. Fu MD and Steven B. Cohen MD" with the contribution of world

  15. Track Reconstruction Performance in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Azzurri, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    The expected performance of track reconstruction with LHC events using the CMS silicon tracker is presented. Track finding and fitting is accomplished with Kalman Filter techniques that achieve efficiencies above 99\\% on single muons with $p_T >$1~GeV/c. Difficulties arise in the context of standard LHC events with a high density of charged particles, where the rate of fake combinatorial tracks is very large for low $p_T$ tracks, and nuclear interactions in the tracker material reduce the tracking efficiency for charged hadrons. Recent improvements with the CMS track reconstruction now allow to efficiently reconstruct charged tracks with $p_T$ down to few hundred MeV/c and as few as three crossed layers, with a very small fake fraction, by making use of an optimal rejection of fake tracks in conjunction with an iterative tracking procedure.

  16. A novel algorithm of super-resolution image reconstruction based on multi-class dictionaries for natural scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Zhao, Dewei; Zhang, Huan

    2015-12-01

    Super-resolution image reconstruction is an effective method to improve the image quality. It has important research significance in the field of image processing. However, the choice of the dictionary directly affects the efficiency of image reconstruction. A sparse representation theory is introduced into the problem of the nearest neighbor selection. Based on the sparse representation of super-resolution image reconstruction method, a super-resolution image reconstruction algorithm based on multi-class dictionary is analyzed. This method avoids the redundancy problem of only training a hyper complete dictionary, and makes the sub-dictionary more representatives, and then replaces the traditional Euclidean distance computing method to improve the quality of the whole image reconstruction. In addition, the ill-posed problem is introduced into non-local self-similarity regularization. Experimental results show that the algorithm is much better results than state-of-the-art algorithm in terms of both PSNR and visual perception.

  17. Zeeman-Doppler Imaging : Old Problems and New Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, T A; Strassmeier, K G; Ilyin, I

    2009-01-01

    Zeeman-Doppler Imaging (ZDI) is a powerful inversion method to reconstruct stellar magnetic surface fields. The reconstruction process is usually solved by translating the inverse problem into a regularized least-square or optimization problem. In this contribution we will emphasize that ZDI is an inherent non-linear problem and the corresponding regularized optimization is, like many non-linear problems, potentially prone to local minima. We show how this problem will be exacerbated by using an inadequate forward model. To facilitate a more consistent full radiative transfer driven approach to ZDI we describe a two-stage strategy that consist of a principal component analysis (PCA) based line profile reconstruction and a fast approximate polarized radiative transfer method to synthesize local Stokes profiles. Moreover, we introduce a novel statistical inversion method based on artificial neural networks (ANN) which provide a fast calculation of a first guess model and allows to incorporate better physical co...

  18. Zeeman-Doppler imaging: old problems and new methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Thorsten A.; Kopf, Markus; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Ilyin, Ilya

    2009-04-01

    Zeeman-Doppler Imaging (ZDI) is a powerful inversion method to reconstruct stellar magnetic surface fields. The reconstruction process is usually solved by translating the inverse problem into a regularized least-square or optimization problem. In this contribution we will emphasize that ZDI is an inherent non-linear problem and the corresponding regularized optimization is, like many non-linear problems, potentially prone to local minima. We show how this problem will be exacerbated by using an inadequate forward model. To facilitate a more consistent full radiative transfer driven approach to ZDI we describe a two-stage strategy that consist of a principal component analysis (PCA) based line profile reconstruction and a fast approximate polarized radiative transfer method to synthesize local Stokes profiles. Moreover, we introduce a novel statistical inversion method based on artificial neural networks (ANN) which provide a fast calculation of a first guess model and allows to incorporate better physical constraints into the inversion process.

  19. Reconstruction of Fine Scale Auroral Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsch, Michael; Zettergren, Matthew; Dahlgren, Hanna; Goenka, Chhavi; Akbari, Hassanali

    2015-01-01

    We present a feasibility study for a high frame rate, short baseline auroral tomographic imaging system useful for estimating parametric variations in the precipitating electron number flux spectrum of dynamic auroral events. Of particular interest are auroral substorms, characterized by spatial variations of order 100 m and temporal variations of order 10 ms. These scales are thought to be produced by dispersive Alfv\\'en waves in the near-Earth magnetosphere. The auroral tomography system characterized in this paper reconstructs the auroral volume emission rate to estimate the characteristic energy and location in the direction perpendicular to the geomagnetic field of peak electron precipitation flux using a distributed network of precisely synchronized ground-based cameras. As the observing baseline decreases, the tomographic inverse problem becomes highly ill-conditioned; as the sampling rate increases, the signal-to-noise ratio degrades and synchronization requirements become increasingly critical. Our a...

  20. Peroneal Flap for Tongue Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Sheng; Liu, Wen-Chung; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Chen, Lee-Wei; Yang, Kuo-Chung

    2017-07-01

    Background For large tongue defects, reconstructive surgeons have devised a variety of feasible options, such as radial forearm free flap and anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. In our institution, peroneal flap has been the workhorse flap for the soft tissue defect in head and neck reconstruction. We present our experience using peroneal flap in tongue reconstruction. Patients and Methods The study included 47 patients who had undergone tongue reconstructions with peroneal flaps after tumor resection. The size and location of the defect after tumor resection determined whether the peroneal flaps could be harvested as pure septocutaneous flaps to solely reconstruct the neotongue or to carry an additional muscle bulk to fill the adjacent defect. Retrospective chart review was used to look for postoperative complications and to perform functional assessments (which were also performed through telephone inquiry). Results Of the 47 patients, 3 (6%) had flap failure and 1 (2.1%) had partial flap necrosis. The hemiglossectomy group had better results than the total glossectomy group with respect to speech and diet, but neither of these results reached statistical significance (p = 1.0 for speech and p = 0.06 for diet). The results of the subtotal glossectomy group were better than those of the total glossectomy group with respect to diet (p = 0.03). No statistically significant differences were noted among the three groups with respect to cosmetic aspect (p = 0.64). Conclusions Considering its reasonable postoperative complication rates and functional results, peroneal flap can be considered a feasible option for tongue reconstruction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Eigenvalue Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    and f. Let us consider the problem of finding the minimal constant C. We are thus interested in 2~ IVA u dx (1.24) C = sup . u2u (0 (F =0 (u dx"<u(O...fournir des bornes superieures ou inferieures, C.R. Acad. Sci., Paris 235, 995-997. .V Prodi, G. (1962]: Theoremi di tipo locale per il sistema de Navier

  2. Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Hu

    2015-01-01

    the nonsmooth convex optimization problem. First, by using Moreau-Yosida regularization, we convert the original objective function to a continuously differentiable function; then we use approximate function and gradient values of the Moreau-Yosida regularization to substitute the corresponding exact values in the algorithm. The global convergence is proved under suitable assumptions. Numerical experiments are presented to show the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  3. Vascular Reconstruction in Hepatic Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, Jennifer; Hemming, Alan

    2016-04-01

    With surgery for hepatic malignancy, there are poor options for chemotherapy; many patients are deemed unresectable because of vascular involvement or location of tumors. Over the past few decades, advances in surgical technique have allowed resection of these tumors with vascular reconstruction to achieve negative margins and improve chances for survival. This article reviews those reconstruction techniques and outcomes in detail, including in situ perfusion and ex vivo liver surgery, and provides a discussion of implications and operative planning for patients with hepatic malignancy in order to provide surgeons with better understanding of these complicated operations.

  4. Markov Random Field Surface Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    ) and knowledge about data (the observation model) in an orthogonal fashion. Local models that account for both scene-specific knowledge and physical properties of the scanning device are described. Furthermore, how the optimal distance field can be computed is demonstrated using conjugate gradients, sparse......A method for implicit surface reconstruction is proposed. The novelty in this paper is the adaption of Markov Random Field regularization of a distance field. The Markov Random Field formulation allows us to integrate both knowledge about the type of surface we wish to reconstruct (the prior...

  5. Tragal reconstruction after tumor excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Christopher J; Lin, Frank

    2015-02-01

    The tragus forms a distinct and important landmark in the overall artistic and anatomical landscape of the ear. Despite its small size, it functions to cover and prevent direct access to the ear canal. Aesthetically, it has an important role in defining the morphology of the auricle in 3 dimensions, not only covering the meatus but also casting a shadow into the conchal bowl that gives the impression of depth. Most of the techniques for tragal reconstruction are associated with creation of a tragus in patients with microtia. We present here a new technique for tragal reconstruction in the setting of tumor ablation.

  6. Rational Reconstructions of Modern Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittelstaedt, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of modern physics, such as the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of relativity as well as quantum mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results.

  7. 3D reconstruction of tensors and vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defrise, Michel; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2005-02-17

    Here we have developed formulations for the reconstruction of 3D tensor fields from planar (Radon) and line-integral (X-ray) projections of 3D vector and tensor fields. Much of the motivation for this work is the potential application of MRI to perform diffusion tensor tomography. The goal is to develop a theory for the reconstruction of both Radon planar and X-ray or line-integral projections because of the flexibility of MRI to obtain both of these type of projections in 3D. The development presented here for the linear tensor tomography problem provides insight into the structure of the nonlinear MRI diffusion tensor inverse problem. A particular application of tensor imaging in MRI is the potential application of cardiac diffusion tensor tomography for determining in vivo cardiac fiber structure. One difficulty in the cardiac application is the motion of the heart. This presents a need for developing future theory for tensor tomography in a motion field. This means developing a better understanding of the MRI signal for diffusion processes in a deforming media. The techniques developed may allow the application of MRI tensor tomography for the study of structure of fiber tracts in the brain, atherosclerotic plaque, and spine in addition to fiber structure in the heart. However, the relations presented are also applicable to other fields in medical imaging such as diffraction tomography using ultrasound. The mathematics presented can also be extended to exponential Radon transform of tensor fields and to other geometric acquisitions such as cone beam tomography of tensor fields.

  8. A two-way regularization method for MEG source reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Tian Siva

    2012-09-01

    The MEG inverse problem refers to the reconstruction of the neural activity of the brain from magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurements. We propose a two-way regularization (TWR) method to solve the MEG inverse problem under the assumptions that only a small number of locations in space are responsible for the measured signals (focality), and each source time course is smooth in time (smoothness). The focality and smoothness of the reconstructed signals are ensured respectively by imposing a sparsity-inducing penalty and a roughness penalty in the data fitting criterion. A two-stage algorithm is developed for fast computation, where a raw estimate of the source time course is obtained in the first stage and then refined in the second stage by the two-way regularization. The proposed method is shown to be effective on both synthetic and real-world examples. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2012.

  9. Rotationplasty as a reconstructive operation after tumor resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, K D; Gebhardt, M; Springfield, D S

    1991-09-01

    Reconstruction in the skeletally immature patient following resection of osteosarcoma about the knee is a challenging problem. Salvaging of the limb with allogeneic or prosthetic replacement results in a shortened limb with functional limitations. Arthrodesis yields a stiff and shortened limb. The so-called growing prosthesis has a high complication rate and is still unproven. However, rotationplasty has been successfully used as a reconstructive technique following resection of these types of tumors in the skeletally immature patient. A limb with normal sensation and proprioceptions, adequate range of motion, and without leg-length discrepancies, functional limitations, or painful neuroma is to be expected. Although a prosthesis must be worn, these patients are active and participate in unrestricted physical activity. Cosmetic acceptance has not been a problem and complications are minimal. Thus, rotationplasty requires only a single operation and results in a highly functional limb.

  10. Algebraic reconstruction of piecewise-smooth functions from integral measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Batenkov, Dmitry; Yomdin, Yosef

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some results on a well-known problem in Algebraic Signal Sampling and in other areas of applied mathematics: reconstruction of piecewise-smooth functions from their integral measurements (like moments, Fourier coefficients, Radon transform, etc.). Our results concern reconstruction (from the moments or Fourier coefficients) of signals in two specific classes: linear combinations of shifts of a given function, and "piecewise $D$-finite functions" which satisfy on each continuity interval a linear differential equation with polynomial coefficients. In each case the problem is reduced to a solution of a certain type of non-linear algebraic system of equations ("Prony-type system"). We recall some known methods for explicitly solving such systems in one variable, and provide extensions to some multi-dimensional cases. Finally, we investigate the local stability of solving the Prony-type systems.

  11. Sparse image reconstruction on the sphere: analysis vs synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Wallis, Christopher G R; McEwen, Jason D

    2016-01-01

    We develop techniques to solve ill-posed inverse problems on the sphere by sparse regularisation, exploiting sparsity in both axisymmetric and directional scale-discretised wavelet space. Denoising, inpainting, and deconvolution problems, and combinations thereof, are considered as examples. Inverse problems are solved in both the analysis and synthesis settings, with a number of different sampling schemes. The most effective approach is that with the most restricted solution-space, which depends on the interplay between the adopted sampling scheme, the selection of the analysis/synthesis problem, and any weighting of the l1 norm appearing in the regularisation problem. More efficient sampling schemes on the sphere improve reconstruction fidelity by restricting the solution-space and also by improving sparsity in wavelet space. We apply the technique to denoise Planck 353 GHz observations, improving the ability to extract the structure of Galactic dust emission, which is important for studying Galactic magnet...

  12. The Complexity of Rooted Phylogeny Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Bodirsky, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Several computational problems in phylogenetic reconstruction can be formulated as restrictions of the following general problem: given a formula in conjunctive normal form where the literals are rooted triples, is there a rooted binary tree that satisfies the formula? If the formulas do not contain disjunctions, the problem becomes the famous rooted triple consistency problem, which can be solved in polynomial time by an algorithm of Aho, Sagiv, Szymanski, and Ullman. If the clauses in the formulas are restricted to disjunctions of negated triples, Ng, Steel, and Wormald showed that the problem remains NP-complete. We systematically study the computational complexity of the problem for all such restrictions of the clauses in the input formula. For certain restricted disjunctions of triples we present an algorithm that has sub-quadratic running time and is asymptotically as fast as the fastest known algorithm for the rooted triple consistency problem. We also show that any restriction of the general rooted ph...

  13. Japanese Fiscal Reform : Fiscal Reconstruction and Fiscal Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ihori, Toshihiro; Doi, Takero; Kondo, Hiroki

    2000-01-01

    This paper evaluates the recent movement of Japanese fiscal reform. We first summarize fiscal policy in 1990s. Then, we investigate several relevant topics of fiscal policy such as the macroeconomic impact of government debt and the ustainability problem. We then consider dynamic properties of fiscal reconstruction process by analyzing the dynamic game among various interest groups. This paper points out that the long-run structural reform is more important than the short-run Keynesian policy...

  14. Superiorization of incremental optimization algorithms for statistical tomographic image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, E. S.; Zibetti, M. V. W.; Miqueles, E. X.

    2017-04-01

    We propose the superiorization of incremental algorithms for tomographic image reconstruction. The resulting methods follow a better path in its way to finding the optimal solution for the maximum likelihood problem in the sense that they are closer to the Pareto optimal curve than the non-superiorized techniques. A new scaled gradient iteration is proposed and three superiorization schemes are evaluated. Theoretical analysis of the methods as well as computational experiments with both synthetic and real data are provided.

  15. Reconstruction of nasal alar defects in asian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doo Hee; Mangoba, Dennis Cristobal S; Lee, Doh Young; Jin, Hong Ryul

    2012-01-01

    To present the aesthetic and functional outcomes of nasal alar reconstruction in Asian patients and to propose a working surgical algorithm. Seventeen patients underwent nasal alar reconstruction at a university-based facial plastic surgery practice from March 1, 1998, through February 28, 2010. The male-female ratio was 10:7, with a median age of 59 years (range, 34-78 years), and the mean follow-up duration was 64 months. The defect was mostly caused by basal cell carcinoma resection (14 of 17 [82%]), followed by the resection of squamous cell carcinoma, trauma, and excision of a previous scar. The mean defect size was 1.71 cm (range, 1-4 cm). The full-thickness defects were noted for 8 patients, whereas 9 had partial-thickness defects. The choice of reconstruction method was primarily based on the size and depth of the surgical defect. Most of the defects 1 to 2 cm in diameter needed nasolabial flaps (10 of 17 [59%]), whereas full-thickness defects larger than 2 cm needed forehead flaps (3 of 17 [18%]) to reconstruct the external defect. Smaller defects less than 1 cm were reconstructed with composite grafts (2 of 17 [12%]), a bilobed flap (1 of 17 [6%]), or primary closure (1 of 17 [6%]). Seven of 8 full-thickness defects had the internal nasal lining reconstructed using a septal mucoperichondrial flap, and 1 case was reconstructed using a cutaneous turn-in flap. Reinforcement cartilage graft was used in 8 patients. No flap failure occurred except in 1 case, in which necrosis of the internal lining flap caused contraction of the external flap with resultant alar rim elevation. An elevation of the alar margin and alar groove blunting occurred in 3 cases. No functional problems emerged. Subjective surgical outcome on a 4-point satisfaction scale revealed that 5 patients (29%) were much satisfied, 10 patients (59%) were satisfied, 1 patient (6%) was fairly satisfied, and 1 patient (6%) was dissatisfied. The choice of reconstruction method of nasal alar defect in

  16. Industrial dynamic tomographic reconstruction; Reconstrucao tomografica dinamica industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Eric Ferreira de

    2016-07-01

    The state of the art methods applied to industrial processes is currently based on the principles of classical tomographic reconstructions developed for tomographic patterns of static distributions, or is limited to cases of low variability of the density distribution function of the tomographed object. Noise and motion artifacts are the main problems caused by a mismatch in the data from views acquired in different instants. All of these add to the known fact that using a limited amount of data can result in the presence of noise, artifacts and some inconsistencies with the distribution under study. One of the objectives of the present work is to discuss the difficulties that arise from implementing reconstruction algorithms in dynamic tomography that were originally developed for static distributions. Another objective is to propose solutions that aim at reducing a temporal type of information loss caused by employing regular acquisition systems to dynamic processes. With respect to dynamic image reconstruction it was conducted a comparison between different static reconstruction methods, like MART and FBP, when used for dynamic scenarios. This comparison was based on a MCNPx simulation as well as an analytical setup of an aluminum cylinder that moves along the section of a riser during the process of acquisition, and also based on cross section images from CFD techniques. As for the adaptation of current tomographic acquisition systems for dynamic processes, this work established a sequence of tomographic views in a just-in-time fashion for visualization purposes, a form of visually disposing density information as soon as it becomes amenable to image reconstruction. A third contribution was to take advantage of the triple color channel necessary to display colored images in most displays, so that, by appropriately scaling the acquired values of each view in the linear system of the reconstruction, it was possible to imprint a temporal trace into the regularly

  17. Inverse Heat Conduction Methods in the CHAR Code for Aerothermal Flight Data Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, A. Brandon; Amar, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of flight aerothermal environments often requires the solution of an inverse heat transfer problem, which is an ill-posed problem of determining boundary conditions from discrete measurements in the interior of the domain. This paper will present the algorithms implemented in the CHAR code for use in reconstruction of EFT-1 flight data and future testing activities. Implementation details will be discussed, and alternative hybrid-methods that are permitted by the implementation will be described. Results will be presented for a number of problems.

  18. Robust framework for PET image reconstruction incorporating system and measurement uncertainties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huafeng Liu

    Full Text Available In Positron Emission Tomography (PET, an optimal estimate of the radioactivity concentration is obtained from the measured emission data under certain criteria. So far, all the well-known statistical reconstruction algorithms require exactly known system probability matrix a priori, and the quality of such system model largely determines the quality of the reconstructed images. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for PET image reconstruction for the real world case where the PET system model is subject to uncertainties. The method counts PET reconstruction as a regularization problem and the image estimation is achieved by means of an uncertainty weighted least squares framework. The performance of our work is evaluated with the Shepp-Logan simulated and real phantom data, which demonstrates significant improvements in image quality over the least squares reconstruction efforts.

  19. A quantitative comparison of the TERA modeling and DFT magnetic resonance image reconstruction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M R; Nichols, S T; Constable, R T; Henkelman, R M

    1991-05-01

    The resolution of magnetic resonance images reconstructed using the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm is limited by the effective window generated by the finite data length. The transient error reconstruction approach (TERA) is an alternative reconstruction method based on autoregressive moving average (ARMA) modeling techniques. Quantitative measurements comparing the truncation artifacts present during DFT and TERA image reconstruction show that the modeling method substantially reduces these artifacts on "full" (256 X 256), "truncated" (256 X 192), and "severely truncated" (256 X 128) data sets without introducing the global amplitude distortion found in other modeling techniques. Two global measures for determining the success of modeling are suggested. Problem areas for one-dimensional modeling are examined and reasons for considering two-dimensional modeling discussed. Analysis of both medical and phantom data reconstructions are presented.

  20. Accelerated gradient methods for total-variation-based CT image reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jakob Heide; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Hansen, Per Christian

    2011-01-01

    Total-variation (TV)-based CT image reconstruction has shown experimentally to be capable of producing accurate reconstructions from sparse-view data. In particular TV-based reconstruction is very well suited for images with piecewise nearly constant regions. Computationally, however, TV-based....... In the present work we address the question of how to reduce the number of gradient method iterations needed to achieve a high-accuracy TV reconstruction. We consider the use of two accelerated gradient-based methods, GPBB and UPN, to solve the 3D-TV minimization problem in CT image reconstruction. The former...... incorporates several heuristics from the optimization literature such as Barzilai-Borwein (BB) step size selection and nonmonotone line search. The latter uses a cleverly chosen sequence of auxiliary points to achieve a better convergence rate. The methods are memory efficient and equipped with a stopping...

  1. On the reconstruction of binary and permutation matrices under (binary) tomographic constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunetti, S.; Del Lungo, A.; Gritzmann, P.; de Vries, S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper studies the problem of reconstructing binary matrices constrained by binary tomographic information. We prove new NP-hardness results that sharpen previous complexity results in the realm of discrete tomography but also allow applications to related problems for permutation matrices. Hence

  2. Efficient ghost cell reconstruction for embedded boundary methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaka, Narsimha; Al-Marouf, Mohamad; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    A non-iterative linear reconstruction procedure for Cartesian grid embedded boundary methods is introduced. The method exploits the inherent geometrical advantage of the Cartesian grid and employs batch sorting of the ghost cells to eliminate the need for an iterative solution procedure. This reduces the computational cost of the reconstruction procedure significantly, especially for large scale problems in a parallel environment that have significant communication overhead, e.g., patch based adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) methods. In this approach, prior computation and storage of the weightage coefficients for the neighbour cells is not required which is particularly attractive for moving boundary problems and memory intensive stationary boundary problems. The method utilizes a compact and unique interpolation stencil but also provides second order spatial accuracy. It provides a single step/direct reconstruction for the ghost cells that enforces the boundary conditions on the embedded boundary. The method is extendable to higher order interpolations as well. Examples that demonstrate the advantages of the present approach are presented. Supported by the KAUST Office of Competitive Research Funds under Award No. URF/1/1394-01.

  3. Computed tomography image reconstruction from only two projections

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammad-Djafari, Ali

    2007-01-01

    English: This paper concerns the image reconstruction from a few projections in Computed Tomography (CT). The main objective of this paper is to show that the problem is so ill posed that no classical method, such as analytical methods based on inverse Radon transform, nor the algebraic methods such as Least squares (LS) or regularization theory can give satisfactory result. As an example, we consider in detail the case of image reconstruction from two horizontal and vertical projections. We then show how a particular composite Markov modeling and the Bayesian estimation framework can possibly propose satisfactory solutions to the problem. For demonstration and educational purpose a set of Matlab programs are given for a live presentation of the results. ----- French: Ce travail, \\`a but p\\'edagogique, pr\\'esente le probl\\`eme inverse de la reconstruction d'image en tomographie X lorsque le nombre des projections est tr\\`es limit\\'e. voir le texte en Anglais et en Fran\\c{c}ais.

  4. Poethical: Breaking Ground for Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krojer, Jo; Holge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2008-01-01

    Departing from a methodological experiment performed by the authors, this article reflects on and discusses issues of ethics and politics in poetic strategies of "representation". In relation to the experiment the article questions how to conceive the notion of connectedness between empirical time and the reconstruction of it in poststructuralist…

  5. Reconstructing Death in Postmodern Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Examines interaction between emerging thanatological movement and its sociohistorical context. Notes that thanatology will take on new shape as individuals and society attempt to cope with postmodernistic forces and deconstructive mentality. Considers prospect for authentic solidarity against distress in reconstructed death system. (Author/NB)

  6. Reconstruction Method for Optical Tomography Based on the Linearized Bregman Iteration with Sparse Regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcai Leng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical molecular imaging is a promising technique and has been widely used in physiology, and pathology at cellular and molecular levels, which includes different modalities such as bioluminescence tomography, fluorescence molecular tomography and Cerenkov luminescence tomography. The inverse problem is ill-posed for the above modalities, which cause a nonunique solution. In this paper, we propose an effective reconstruction method based on the linearized Bregman iterative algorithm with sparse regularization (LBSR for reconstruction. Considering the sparsity characteristics of the reconstructed sources, the sparsity can be regarded as a kind of a priori information and sparse regularization is incorporated, which can accurately locate the position of the source. The linearized Bregman iteration method is exploited to minimize the sparse regularization problem so as to further achieve fast and accurate reconstruction results. Experimental results in a numerical simulation and in vivo mouse demonstrate the effectiveness and potential of the proposed method.

  7. Joint regularization for spectro-temporal CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. P.; Badea, C. T.

    2016-03-01

    X-ray CT is widely used, both clinically and preclinically, for fast, high-resolution, anatomic imaging; however, compelling opportunities exist to expand its use in functional imaging applications. For instance, spectral information combined with nanoparticle contrast agents enables quantification of tissue perfusion levels, while temporal information details cardiac and respiratory dynamics. In previous work, we proposed and demonstrated a projection acquisition and reconstruction strategy for 5D CT (3D + dual-energy + time) which recovered spectral and temporal information without substantially increasing radiation dose or sampling time relative to anatomic imaging protocols. The approach relied on the approximate separability of the temporal and spectral reconstruction sub-problems, which enabled substantial projection undersampling and effective regularization. Here, we extend this previous work to more general, nonseparable 5D CT reconstruction cases (3D + muti-energy + time) with applicability to K-edge imaging of exogenous contrast agents. We apply the newly proposed algorithm in phantom simulations using a realistic system and noise model for a photon counting x-ray detector with six energy thresholds. The MOBY mouse phantom used contains realistic concentrations of iodine, gold, and calcium in water. Relative to weighted least-squares reconstruction, the proposed 5D reconstruction algorithm improved reconstruction and material decomposition accuracy by 3-18 times. Furthermore, by exploiting joint, low rank image structure between time points and energies, ~80 HU of contrast associated with the Kedge of gold and ~35 HU of contrast associated with the blood pool and myocardium were recovered from more than 400 HU of noise.

  8. Optimized 3D Street Scene Reconstruction from Driving Recorder Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an automatic region detection based method to reconstruct street scenes from driving recorder images. The driving recorder in this paper is a dashboard camera that collects images while the motor vehicle is moving. An enormous number of moving vehicles are included in the collected data because the typical recorders are often mounted in the front of moving vehicles and face the forward direction, which can make matching points on vehicles and guardrails unreliable. Believing that utilizing these image data can reduce street scene reconstruction and updating costs because of their low price, wide use, and extensive shooting coverage, we therefore proposed a new method, which is called the Mask automatic detecting method, to improve the structure results from the motion reconstruction. Note that we define vehicle and guardrail regions as “mask” in this paper since the features on them should be masked out to avoid poor matches. After removing the feature points in our new method, the camera poses and sparse 3D points that are reconstructed with the remaining matches. Our contrast experiments with the typical pipeline of structure from motion (SfM reconstruction methods, such as Photosynth and VisualSFM, demonstrated that the Mask decreased the root-mean-square error (RMSE of the pairwise matching results, which led to more accurate recovering results from the camera-relative poses. Removing features from the Mask also increased the accuracy of point clouds by nearly 30%–40% and corrected the problems of the typical methods on repeatedly reconstructing several buildings when there was only one target building.

  9. Applications of acellular dermal matrix in revision breast reconstruction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Scott L; Sher, Sarah R; Al-Attar, Ali; Pittman, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Acellular dermal matrix has been used for over a decade in primary breast reconstruction. Few articles have specifically examined its use in revision breast reconstruction for fold malposition, capsular contracture, rippling, and symmastia. One hundred thirty-five revision breast reconstructive procedures using acellular dermal matrix (AlloDerm) in 118 patients (154 breasts) over a 5-year period were reviewed. Most procedures were revisions or part of the second stage of previous mastectomy reconstructions; three were revisions after reconstruction of congenital chest wall deformities. Fifty-seven revisions (37 percent) were for inferior fold malposition, followed by 40 (25.9 percent) for inferior pole support, 42 (27.2 percent) for capsular contracture, 10 (6.4 percent) for rippling, and five (3.2 percent) for symmastia. The overall complication rate was 5 percent. Revisions with acellular dermal matrix were successful in 147 of 154 breasts (95.5 percent). The most common complication was capsular contracture, occurring in five breasts (3.2 percent). There was one infection (0.6 percent), failure to lower the inframammary fold in one breast (0.6 percent), and one persistence of rippling (0.6 percent). The mean follow-up was 207 days. Acellular dermal matrix has proven to be a reliable tool for managing some of the most common and challenging problems in implant-based breast reconstruction. Although there are few published data on the success of more conventional solutions to fold malposition, lower pole support, and capsular contracture, the addition of acellular dermal matrix to buttress these repairs has been shown to provide a high likelihood of success with a low risk of complications.

  10. Direct maximum parsimony phylogeny reconstruction from genotype data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi R

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maximum parsimony phylogenetic tree reconstruction from genetic variation data is a fundamental problem in computational genetics with many practical applications in population genetics, whole genome analysis, and the search for genetic predictors of disease. Efficient methods are available for reconstruction of maximum parsimony trees from haplotype data, but such data are difficult to determine directly for autosomal DNA. Data more commonly is available in the form of genotypes, which consist of conflated combinations of pairs of haplotypes from homologous chromosomes. Currently, there are no general algorithms for the direct reconstruction of maximum parsimony phylogenies from genotype data. Hence phylogenetic applications for autosomal data must therefore rely on other methods for first computationally inferring haplotypes from genotypes. Results In this work, we develop the first practical method for computing maximum parsimony phylogenies directly from genotype data. We show that the standard practice of first inferring haplotypes from genotypes and then reconstructing a phylogeny on the haplotypes often substantially overestimates phylogeny size. As an immediate application, our method can be used to determine the minimum number of mutations required to explain a given set of observed genotypes. Conclusion Phylogeny reconstruction directly from unphased data is computationally feasible for moderate-sized problem instances and can lead to substantially more accurate tree size inferences than the standard practice of treating phasing and phylogeny construction as two separate analysis stages. The difference between the approaches is particularly important for downstream applications that require a lower-bound on the number of mutations that the genetic region has undergone.

  11. Mandibular reconstruction in adults: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, B.T.; Lee, S.; Tideman, H.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Mandibular defects may result from trauma, inflammatory disease and benign or malignant tumours. Mastication, speech and facial aesthetics are often severely compromised without reconstruction. The goal of mandibular reconstruction is to restore facial form and function, implying repair of mandibula

  12. Frequency domain simultaneous algebraic reconstruction techniques: algorithm and convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiong; Zheng, Yibin

    2005-03-01

    We propose a simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) in the frequency domain for linear imaging problems. This algorithm has the advantage of efficiently incorporating pixel correlations in an a priori image model. First it is shown that the generalized SART algorithm converges to the weighted minimum norm solution of a weighted least square problem. Then an implementation in the frequency domain is described. The performance of the new algorithm is demonstrated with fan beam computed tomography (CT) examples. Compared to the traditional SART and its major alternative ART, the new algorithm offers superior image quality and potential application to other modalities.

  13. Imaging metallic samples using electrical capacitance tomography: forward modelling and reconstruction algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosani, E. Al; Zhang, M.; Abascal, J. F. P. J.; Soleimani, M.

    2016-11-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is an imaging technology used to reconstruct the permittivity distribution within the sensing region. So far, ECT has been primarily used to image non-conductive media only, since if the conductivity of the imaged object is high, the capacitance measuring circuit will be almost shortened by the conductivity path and a clear image cannot be produced using the standard image reconstruction approaches. This paper tackles the problem of imaging metallic samples using conventional ECT systems by investigating the two main aspects of image reconstruction algorithms, namely the forward problem and the inverse problem. For the forward problem, two different methods to model the region of high conductivity in ECT is presented. On the other hand, for the inverse problem, three different algorithms to reconstruct the high contrast images are examined. The first two methods are the linear single step Tikhonov method and the iterative total variation regularization method, and use two sets of ECT data to reconstruct the image in time difference mode. The third method, namely the level set method, uses absolute ECT measurements and was developed using a metallic forward model. The results indicate that the applications of conventional ECT systems can be extended to metal samples using the suggested algorithms and forward model, especially using a level set algorithm to find the boundary of the metal.

  14. Image reconstruction of fluorescent molecular tomography based on the tree structured Schur complement decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jiajun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inverse problem of fluorescent molecular tomography (FMT often involves complex large-scale matrix operations, which may lead to unacceptable computational errors and complexity. In this research, a tree structured Schur complement decomposition strategy is proposed to accelerate the reconstruction process and reduce the computational complexity. Additionally, an adaptive regularization scheme is developed to improve the ill-posedness of the inverse problem. Methods The global system is decomposed level by level with the Schur complement system along two paths in the tree structure. The resultant subsystems are solved in combination with the biconjugate gradient method. The mesh for the inverse problem is generated incorporating the prior information. During the reconstruction, the regularization parameters are adaptive not only to the spatial variations but also to the variations of the objective function to tackle the ill-posed nature of the inverse problem. Results Simulation results demonstrate that the strategy of the tree structured Schur complement decomposition obviously outperforms the previous methods, such as the conventional Conjugate-Gradient (CG and the Schur CG methods, in both reconstruction accuracy and speed. As compared with the Tikhonov regularization method, the adaptive regularization scheme can significantly improve ill-posedness of the inverse problem. Conclusions The methods proposed in this paper can significantly improve the reconstructed image quality of FMT and accelerate the reconstruction process.

  15. Accelerated reconstruction of electrical impedance tomography images via patch based sparse representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Lian, Zhijie; Wang, Jianming; Chen, Qingliang; Sun, Yukuan; Li, Xiuyan; Duan, Xiaojie; Cui, Ziqiang; Wang, Huaxiang

    2016-11-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) reconstruction is a nonlinear and ill-posed problem. Exact reconstruction of an EIT image inverts a high dimensional mathematical model to calculate the conductivity field, which causes significant problems regarding that the computational complexity will reduce the achievable frame rate, which is considered as a major advantage of EIT imaging. The single-step method, state estimation method, and projection method were always used to accelerate reconstruction process. The basic principle of these methods is to reduce computational complexity. However, maintaining high resolution in space together with not much cost is still challenging, especially for complex conductivity distribution. This study proposes an idea to accelerate image reconstruction of EIT based on compressive sensing (CS) theory, namely, CSEIT method. The novel CSEIT method reduces the sampling rate through minimizing redundancy in measurements, so that detailed information of reconstruction is not lost. In order to obtain sparse solution, which is the prior condition of signal recovery required by CS theory, a novel image reconstruction algorithm based on patch-based sparse representation is proposed. By applying the new framework of CSEIT, the data acquisition time, or the sampling rate, is reduced by more than two times, while the accuracy of reconstruction is significantly improved.

  16. Linearized image reconstruction method for ultrasound modulated electrical impedance tomography based on power density distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xizi; Xu, Yanbin; Dong, Feng

    2017-04-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is a promising measurement technique with important industrial and clinical applications. However, with limited effective measurements, it suffers from poor spatial resolution due to the ill-posedness of the inverse problem. Recently, there has been an increasing research interest in hybrid imaging techniques, utilizing couplings of physical modalities, because these techniques obtain much more effective measurement information and promise high resolution. Ultrasound modulated electrical impedance tomography (UMEIT) is one of the newly developed hybrid imaging techniques, which combines electric and acoustic modalities. A linearized image reconstruction method based on power density is proposed for UMEIT. The interior data, power density distribution, is adopted to reconstruct the conductivity distribution with the proposed image reconstruction method. At the same time, relating the power density change to the change in conductivity, the Jacobian matrix is employed to make the nonlinear problem into a linear one. The analytic formulation of this Jacobian matrix is derived and its effectiveness is also verified. In addition, different excitation patterns are tested and analyzed, and opposite excitation provides the best performance with the proposed method. Also, multiple power density distributions are combined to implement image reconstruction. Finally, image reconstruction is implemented with the linear back-projection (LBP) algorithm. Compared with ERT, with the proposed image reconstruction method, UMEIT can produce reconstructed images with higher quality and better quantitative evaluation results.

  17. Evaluation of reconstruction errors and identification of artefacts for JET gamma and neutron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciunescu, Teddy, E-mail: teddy.craciunescu@jet.uk; Tiseanu, Ion; Zoita, Vasile [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Murari, Andrea [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Kiptily, Vasily; Sharapov, Sergei [CCFE Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lupelli, Ivan [CCFE Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); University of Rome “Tor Vergata,” Roma (Italy); Fernandes, Ana [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Collaboration: EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    The Joint European Torus (JET) neutron profile monitor ensures 2D coverage of the gamma and neutron emissive region that enables tomographic reconstruction. Due to the availability of only two projection angles and to the coarse sampling, tomographic inversion is a limited data set problem. Several techniques have been developed for tomographic reconstruction of the 2-D gamma and neutron emissivity on JET, but the problem of evaluating the errors associated with the reconstructed emissivity profile is still open. The reconstruction technique based on the maximum likelihood principle, that proved already to be a powerful tool for JET tomography, has been used to develop a method for the numerical evaluation of the statistical properties of the uncertainties in gamma and neutron emissivity reconstructions. The image covariance calculation takes into account the additional techniques introduced in the reconstruction process for tackling with the limited data set (projection resampling, smoothness regularization depending on magnetic field). The method has been validated by numerically simulations and applied to JET data. Different sources of artefacts that may significantly influence the quality of reconstructions and the accuracy of variance calculation have been identified.

  18. Accelerating frequency-domain diffuse optical tomographic image reconstruction using graphics processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jaya; Chandrasekharan, Venkittarayan; Upendra, Vishwajith; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K

    2010-01-01

    Diffuse optical tomographic image reconstruction uses advanced numerical models that are computationally costly to be implemented in the real time. The graphics processing units (GPUs) offer desktop massive parallelization that can accelerate these computations. An open-source GPU-accelerated linear algebra library package is used to compute the most intensive matrix-matrix calculations and matrix decompositions that are used in solving the system of linear equations. These open-source functions were integrated into the existing frequency-domain diffuse optical image reconstruction algorithms to evaluate the acceleration capability of the GPUs (NVIDIA Tesla C 1060) with increasing reconstruction problem sizes. These studies indicate that single precision computations are sufficient for diffuse optical tomographic image reconstruction. The acceleration per iteration can be up to 40, using GPUs compared to traditional CPUs in case of three-dimensional reconstruction, where the reconstruction problem is more underdetermined, making the GPUs more attractive in the clinical settings. The current limitation of these GPUs in the available onboard memory (4 GB) that restricts the reconstruction of a large set of optical parameters, more than 13,377.

  19. IPED: Inheritance Path-based Pedigree Reconstruction Algorithm Using Genotype Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Han, Buhm; Parida, Laxmi; Eskin, Eleazar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The problem of inference of family trees, or pedigree reconstruction, for a group of individuals is a fundamental problem in genetics. Various methods have been proposed to automate the process of pedigree reconstruction given the genotypes or haplotypes of a set of individuals. Current methods, unfortunately, are very time-consuming and inaccurate for complicated pedigrees, such as pedigrees with inbreeding. In this work, we propose an efficient algorithm that is able to reconstruct large pedigrees with reasonable accuracy. Our algorithm reconstructs the pedigrees generation by generation, backward in time from the extant generation. We predict the relationships between individuals in the same generation using an inheritance path-based approach implemented with an efficient dynamic programming algorithm. Experiments show that our algorithm runs in linear time with respect to the number of reconstructed generations, and therefore, it can reconstruct pedigrees that have a large number of generations. Indeed it is the first practical method for reconstruction of large pedigrees from genotype data. PMID:24093229

  20. Asteroids@home - A BOINC distributed computing project for asteroid shape reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Durech, Josef; Vanco, Radim

    2015-01-01

    We present the project Asteroids@home that uses distributed computing to solve the time-consuming inverse problem of shape reconstruction of asteroids. The project uses the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) framework to distribute, collect, and validate small computational units that are solved independently at individual computers of volunteers connected to the project. Shapes, rotational periods, and orientations of the spin axes of asteroids are reconstructed from their disk-integrated photometry by the lightcurve inversion method.

  1. State exact reconstruction for switched linear systems via a super-twisting algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Francisco J.; Fridman, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    This article discusses the problem of state reconstruction synthesis for switched linear systems. Based only on the continuous output information, an observer is proposed ensuring the reconstruction of the entire state (continuous and discrete) in finite time. For the observer design an exact sliding mode differentiator is used, which allows the finite time convergence of the observer trajectories to the actual trajectories. The design scheme includes both cases: zero control input and nonzero control input. Simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed observer.

  2. The Plastic Surgery Compass: Navigating the Reconstructive Ladder in the Personalized Health Care Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Lars Johan M

    2016-09-01

    The reconstructive ladder and the reconstructive elevator have withstood the test of time as didactic tools for resident education. Over time, many alternative models have been suggested to incorporate the technological advances in plastic surgery, but none of them have focused on the patient. Changes in practice and the trend toward personalized health care demand a 360-degree evaluation and solution of surgical problems incorporating patient-specific characteristics. We, therefore, suggest the concept of the plastic surgery compass to navigate the ladder.

  3. Top reconstruction and boosted top experimental overview

    CERN Document Server

    Skinnari, Louise

    2015-01-01

    An overview of techniques used to reconstruct resolved and boosted top quarks is presented. Techniques for resolved top quark reconstruction include kinematic likelihood fitters and pseudo- top reconstruction. Many tools and methods are available for the reconstruction of boosted top quarks, such as jet grooming techniques, jet substructure variables, and dedicated top taggers. Different techniques as used by ATLAS and CMS analyses are described and the performance of different variables and top taggers are shown.

  4. The recording of digital hologram at short distance and reconstruction using convolution approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Li-Ping; LU Xiao-Xu

    2009-01-01

    By adopting in-line lensless Fourier setup and phase-shifting technique, we recorded the phase-shifting digital hologram at short distance. As the Fresnel diffraction condition is no longer valid, the convolution approach is chosen for the reconstruction. However, the simulated reference wave for the reconstruction would suffer from severe under-sampling due to the comparatively large pixel size. To solve this problem, sine-interpolation is introduced to get the pixel-size of the hologram reduced prior to the reconstruction. The experimental results show that an object image of high fidelity is obtained with this method.

  5. 3D Reconstruction from 2D Line Drawings only with Visible Vertices and Edges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuan; DONG Li-jun

    2014-01-01

    The human vision system can reconstruct a 3D object easily from single 2D line drawings even if the hidden lines of the object are invisible. Now, there are many methods have emulated this ability, but when the hidden lines of the object are invisible, these methods cannot reconstruct a complete 3D object. Therefore, we put forward a new algorithm to settle this hard problem. Our approach consists of two steps: (1) infer the invisible vertices and edges to complete the line drawing, (2) propose a vertex-based optimization method to reconstruct a 3D object.

  6. Reconstruction of chaotic signals with applications to chaos-based communications

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Jiu Chao

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a systematic review of the fundamental theory of signal reconstruction and the practical techniques used in reconstructing chaotic signals. Specific applications of signal reconstruction methods in chaos-based communications are expounded in full detail, along with examples illustrating the various problems associated with such applications.The book serves as an advanced textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in electronic and information engineering, automatic control, physics and applied mathematics. It is also highly suited for general nonlinear scientists who wi

  7. A Survey on Methods for Reconstructing Surfaces from Unorganized Point Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilius Matiukas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of reconstructing and visualizing surfaces from unorganized point sets. These can be acquired using different techniques, such as 3D-laser scanning, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and multi-camera imaging. The problem of reconstructing surfaces from their unorganized point sets is common for many diverse areas, including computer graphics, computer vision, computational geometry or reverse engineering. The paper presents three alternative methods that all use variations in complementary cones to triangulate and reconstruct the tested 3D surfaces. The article evaluates and contrasts three alternatives.Article in English

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF TYPES OF FORMATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEM OF REAL ESTATE RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Drapalyuk

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Basic issues of formation of organizational and technological system of real estate reconstruction are considered in the context of multi-criteria selection of optimum organiza-tional and technological solutions, with the most stable type being chosen.Results and conclusions. Specific characteristics of reconstruction objects are classified in close detail, which makes it possible to differentiate three types of formation of organizational and technological system, a combined type being preferred. Consideration of the combined type as the subject of investigation allows the generalized model of related organizational and technological systems formation to be formalized at real estate reconstruction.

  9. Time Reversal Reconstruction Algorithm Based on PSO Optimized SVM Interpolation for Photoacoustic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic imaging is an innovative imaging technique to image biomedical tissues. The time reversal reconstruction algorithm in which a numerical model of the acoustic forward problem is run backwards in time is widely used. In the paper, a time reversal reconstruction algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO optimized support vector machine (SVM interpolation method is proposed for photoacoustics imaging. Numerical results show that the reconstructed images of the proposed algorithm are more accurate than those of the nearest neighbor interpolation, linear interpolation, and cubic convolution interpolation based time reversal algorithm, which can provide higher imaging quality by using significantly fewer measurement positions or scanning times.

  10. Image reconstruction for view-limited x-ray CT in baggage scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandava, Sagar; Coccarelli, David; Greenberg, Joel A.; Gehm, Michael E.; Ashok, Amit; Bilgin, Ali

    2017-05-01

    X-ray CT based baggage scanners are widely used in security applications. Recently, there has been increased interest in view-limited systems which can improve the scanning throughput while maintaining the threat detection performance. However as very few view angles are acquired in these systems, the image reconstruction problem is challenging. Standard reconstruction algorithms such as the filtered backprojection create strong artifacts when working with view-limited data. In this work, we study the performance of a variety of reconstruction algorithms for both single and multi-energy view-limited systems.

  11. Compressive sensing reconstruction of feed-forward connectivity in pulse-coupled nonlinear networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranca, Victor J.; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2016-06-01

    Utilizing the sparsity ubiquitous in real-world network connectivity, we develop a theoretical framework for efficiently reconstructing sparse feed-forward connections in a pulse-coupled nonlinear network through its output activities. Using only a small ensemble of random inputs, we solve this inverse problem through the compressive sensing theory based on a hidden linear structure intrinsic to the nonlinear network dynamics. The accuracy of the reconstruction is further verified by the fact that complex inputs can be well recovered using the reconstructed connectivity. We expect this Rapid Communication provides a new perspective for understanding the structure-function relationship as well as compressive sensing principle in nonlinear network dynamics.

  12. Compressive sensing reconstruction of feed-forward connectivity in pulse-coupled nonlinear networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranca, Victor J; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2016-06-01

    Utilizing the sparsity ubiquitous in real-world network connectivity, we develop a theoretical framework for efficiently reconstructing sparse feed-forward connections in a pulse-coupled nonlinear network through its output activities. Using only a small ensemble of random inputs, we solve this inverse problem through the compressive sensing theory based on a hidden linear structure intrinsic to the nonlinear network dynamics. The accuracy of the reconstruction is further verified by the fact that complex inputs can be well recovered using the reconstructed connectivity. We expect this Rapid Communication provides a new perspective for understanding the structure-function relationship as well as compressive sensing principle in nonlinear network dynamics.

  13. Program package for accurate 3D field reconstruction from boundary measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Artyukh, A G; Belyakova, T V

    2002-01-01

    The problem of the magnetic field reconstruction inside a subregion in R sup 3 from magnetic measurements on the closed boundary of this subregion is considered. The efficiency of the proposed method, algorithm and associated software for the precision magnet system is discussed. The results of the software verification, numerical experiments as well as the ones of the field reconstruction using boundary measurements in the magnet M1 of the separator COMBAS are given. Requirements to the position accuracy of sensors consistent with the required accuracy of the magnetic field reconstruction are defined. Recommendations on the magnetic scheme design for the field mapping are given.

  14. The reconstruction of diffractive object digital hologram at a short distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟丽云; 张以谟; 吕晓旭; 袁操今

    2004-01-01

    By using a spherical wave as the reference wave, we recorded the in-line phase-shifting digital hologram of the 25th element of Chinese standard No. 3 resolution test pattern, and gave the corresponding numerical reconstructed results. Some problems concerning with the digital hologram recording and reconstruction of the diffractive object at a short distance are discussed. The experimental result shows that the resolution of the reconstructed image is better than 10 μm, which is the limit by using this experimental arrangement.

  15. The reconstruction of diffractive object digital hologram at a short distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liyun Zhong(钟丽云); Yimo Zhang(张以谟); Xiaoxu L(u)(吕晓旭); Caojin Yuan(袁操今)

    2004-01-01

    By using a spherical wave as the reference wave, we recorded the in-line phase-shifting digital hologram of the 25th element of Chinese standard No. 3 resolution test pattern, and gave the corresponding numerical reconstructed results. Some problems concerning with the digital hologram recording and reconstruction of the diffractive object at a short distance are discussed. The experimental result shows that the resolution of the reconstructed image is better than 10μm, which is the limit by using this experimental arrangement.

  16. Thermographic image reconstruction using ultrasound reconstruction from virtual waves

    CERN Document Server

    Burgholzer, Peter; Gruber, Jürgen; Mayr, Günther

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of subsurface features from ultrasound signals measured on the surface is widely used in medicine and non-destructive testing. In this work, we introduce a concept how to use image reconstruction methods known from ultrasonic imaging for thermographic signals, i.e. on the measured temperature evolution on a sample surface. Before using these imaging methods a virtual signal is calculated by applying a transformation to the measured temperature evolution. The virtual signal is calculated locally for every detection point and has the same initial temperature distribution as the measured signal, but is a solution of the wave equation. The introduced transformation can be used for every shape of the detection surface and in every dimension. It describes all the irreversibility of the heat diffusion, which is responsible that the spatial resolution gets worse with increasing depth. Up to now, for thermographic imaging mostly one-dimensional methods, e.g., for depth-profiling were used, which are sui...

  17. Complementarity Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-He Miao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the Lipschitz continuity of the solution mapping of symmetric cone (linear or nonlinear complementarity problems (SCLCP or SCCP, resp. over Euclidean Jordan algebras. We show that if the transformation has uniform Cartesian P-property, then the solution mapping of the SCCP is Lipschitz continuous. Moreover, we establish that the monotonicity of mapping and the Lipschitz continuity of solutions of the SCLCP imply ultra P-property, which is a concept recently developed for linear transformations on Euclidean Jordan algebra. For a Lyapunov transformation, we prove that the strong monotonicity property, the ultra P-property, the Cartesian P-property, and the Lipschitz continuity of the solutions are all equivalent to each other.

  18. Some boundary problems in electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidcock, M; Ciulli, S; Ispas, S

    1996-11-01

    Accurate mathematical modelling is important in the development of iterative image reconstruction algorithms for electrical impedance tomography (EIT). In such schemes the forward problem of calculating the electric potential from Neumann boundary data is solved many times. One aspect of this problem which has received some attention is the mathematical modelling of the electrodes used in the technique. In this paper we describe an integral equation formulation of a boundary value problem associated with this tissue and we indicate some of the ways in which this formulation can be used to obtain numerical and analytic results.

  19. Vertex Reconstruction in ATLAS Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Matt; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Vertex reconstruction is the process of taking reconstructed tracks and using them to determine the locations of proton collisions. In this poster we present the performance of our current vertex reconstruction algorithm, and look at investigations into potential improvements from a new seed finding method.

  20. The oncological implications of immediate breast reconstruction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knottenbelt, A.; Spauwen, P.H.M.; Wobbes, Th.

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: The timing of breast reconstruction following mastectomy has been an area of contention. The purpose of this study was to report the oncologic safety of mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction, primarily with a tissue expander. METHODS: We offered 54 patients (58 reconstructions) an

  1. Image reconstruction based on L1 regularization and projection methods for electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Huaxiang; Zhang, Ronghua; Wang, Jinhai; Zheng, Yu; Cui, Ziqiang; Yang, Chengyi

    2012-10-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a technique for reconstructing the conductivity distribution by injecting currents at the boundary of a subject and measuring the resulting changes in voltage. Image reconstruction in EIT is a nonlinear and ill-posed inverse problem. The Tikhonov method with L(2) regularization is always used to solve the EIT problem. However, the L(2) method always smoothes the sharp changes or discontinue areas of the reconstruction. Image reconstruction using the L(1) regularization allows addressing this difficulty. In this paper, a sum of absolute values is substituted for the sum of squares used in the L(2) regularization to form the L(1) regularization, the solution is obtained by the barrier method. However, the L(1) method often involves repeatedly solving large-dimensional matrix equations, which are computationally expensive. In this paper, the projection method is combined with the L(1) regularization method to reduce the computational cost. The L(1) problem is mainly solved in the coarse subspace. This paper also discusses the strategies of choosing parameters. Both simulation and experimental results of the L(1) regularization method were compared with the L(2) regularization method, indicating that the L(1) regularization method can improve the quality of image reconstruction and tolerate a relatively high level of noise in the measured voltages. Furthermore, the projected L(1) method can also effectively reduce the computational time without affecting the quality of reconstructed images.

  2. Well-posedness of the conductivity reconstruction from an interior current density in terms of Schauder theory

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Yong-Jung

    2015-06-23

    We show the well-posedness of the conductivity image reconstruction problem with a single set of interior electrical current data and boundary conductivity data. Isotropic conductivity is considered in two space dimensions. Uniqueness for similar conductivity reconstruction problems has been known for several cases. However, the existence and the stability are obtained in this paper for the first time. The main tool of the proof is the method of characteristics of a related curl equation.

  3. Detection and reconstruction of freeform sweeps

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2014-05-01

    We study the difficult problem of deciding if parts of a freeform surface can be generated, or approximately generated, by the motion of a planar profile through space. While this task is basic for understanding the geometry of shapes as well as highly relevant for manufacturing and building construction, previous approaches were confined to special cases like kinematic surfaces or "moulding" surfaces. The general case remained unsolved so far. We approach this problem by a combination of local and global methods: curve analysis with regard to "movability", curve comparison by common substring search in curvature plots, an exhaustive search through all planar cuts enhanced by quick rejection procedures, the ordering of candidate profiles and finally, global optimization. The main applications of our method are digital reconstruction of CAD models exhibiting sweep patches, and aiding in manufacturing freeform surfaces by pointing out those parts which can be approximated by sweeps. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Track Reconstruction at SeaQuest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Reuben; SeaQuest Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The SeaQuest experiment, at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, is a fixed target experiment that uses the Drell-Yan process to measure the quark and antiquark structure in the nucleon sea. A naïve assumption is that the number of anti-up and anti-down quarks within a nucleon sea would be the same. However, evidence shows that this is not true. The goal of SeaQuest is to more accurately measure this asymmetry in the nucleon sea. In this process event tracking is an integral step in analyzing the data collected. This is difficult due to the size of the experiment, the number of detectors and the beam dump. The beam dump is a 5m block of iron that lies just beyond the target to protect the detectors from the beam. This poses a problem for accurately tracking muons back to the target. Therefore, it is important to crosscheck two independent event trackers. Sqerp, the SeaQuest Event Reconstruction Program, is one of these trackers used at SeaQuest. This tracks events through two magnets, 4 detector stations, and 18 planes of wires. Sqerp deals with difficult problems such as matching hits in each detector station and how detector alignment affects this. This poster will focus on the methods used by Sqerp and the work done in optimizing these processes. This research was supported by US DOE MENP Grant DE-FG02-03ER41243.

  5. Reconstruction of pink esthetics: The periodontal way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, K; Arshad, L Mohamed; Priya, B Dhathri

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic procedures involving gingival reconstruction have become an integral part of current periodontal practice. The ability to cover unsightly exposed, sensitive roots and recontour soft tissue recessions have added an esthetic angle to the traditional concept of biological and functional periodontal health. The recession of the gingiva, either localized or generalized, may be associated with one or more surfaces, resulting in attachment loss and root exposure, which can lead to clinical problems such as diminished cosmetic appeal and aesthetic concern. Marginal gingival recession, therefore, can cause major functional and aesthetic problems and should not be viewed as merely a soft tissue defect, but rather as the destruction of both the soft and hard tissue. Treatment proposals for this type of defect have evolved based on the knowledge for healing the gingiva and the attachment system. This case report describes a clinical case of severe Miller Class II gingival recession treated by two stages of surgery that combined a free gingival graft and connective tissue grafting. First, a free gingival graft (FGG) was performed to obtain an adequate keratinized tissue level. Three months later, a connective tissue graft (CTG)was performed to obtain root coverage. The results indicated that the FGG allows for a gain in the keratinized tissue level and the CTG allows for root coverage with decreased recession level after 6 months. Therefore, for this type of specific gingival recession, the combined use of FGG and CTG still serves as a Gold Standard in predictable root coverage.

  6. Inversion method for initial tsunami waveform reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Voronin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of r-solution method to recover the initial tsunami waveform in a tsunami source area by remote water-level measurements. Wave propagation is considered within the scope of a linear shallow-water theory. An ill-posed inverse problem is regularized by means of least square inversion using a truncated SVD approach. The properties of obtained solution are determined to a large extent by the properties of an inverse operator, which were numerically investigated. The method presented allows one to control instability of the numerical solution and to obtain an acceptable result in spite of ill-posedness of the problem. It is shown that the accuracy of tsunami source reconstruction strongly depends on the signal-to-noise ratio, the azimuthal coverage of recording stations with respect to the source area and bathymetric features along the wave path. The numerical experiments were carried out with synthetic data and various computational domains including a real bathymetry. The method proposed allows us to make a preliminary prediction of the efficiency of the inversion with a given set of the recording stations and to find out the most informative part of the existing observation system. This essential property of the method can prove to be useful in designing a monitoring system for tsunamis.

  7. Ultra compact stars: reconstructing the perturbation potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Sebastian H.; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we demonstrate how different semi-classical methods can be combined in a novel way to reconstruct the perturbation potential of ultra compact stars. Besides rather general assumptions, the only specific information entering this approach is the spectrum of the trapped axial quasi-normal modes. In general it is not possible to find a unique solution for the potential in the inverse problem, but instead a family of potentials producing the same spectrum. Nevertheless, this already determines important properties of the involved potential and can be used to rule out many candidate models. A unique solution was found based on the additional natural assumption that the exterior part (r ≳ 3 M ) is described by the Regge–Wheeler potential. This is true in general relativity for any non-rotating spherically symmetric object. This technique can be potentially applied for the study of deviations from general relativity. The methods we demonstrate are easy to implement and rather general, therefore we expect them also to be interesting for other fields where inverse spectrum problems are studied, e.g. quantum physics and molecular spectroscopy.

  8. Reconstruction of pink esthetics: The periodontal way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Balasubramanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic procedures involving gingival reconstruction have become an integral part of current periodontal practice. The ability to cover unsightly exposed, sensitive roots and recontour soft tissue recessions have added an esthetic angle to the traditional concept of biological and functional periodontal health. The recession of the gingiva, either localized or generalized, may be associated with one or more surfaces, resulting in attachment loss and root exposure, which can lead to clinical problems such as diminished cosmetic appeal and aesthetic concern. Marginal gingival recession, therefore, can cause major functional and aesthetic problems and should not be viewed as merely a soft tissue defect, but rather as the destruction of both the soft and hard tissue. Treatment proposals for this type of defect have evolved based on the knowledge for healing the gingiva and the attachment system. This case report describes a clinical case of severe Miller Class II gingival recession treated by two stages of surgery that combined a free gingival graft and connective tissue grafting. First, a free gingival graft (FGG was performed to obtain an adequate keratinized tissue level. Three months later, a connective tissue graft (CTGwas performed to obtain root coverage. The results indicated that the FGG allows for a gain in the keratinized tissue level and the CTG allows for root coverage with decreased recession level after 6 months. Therefore, for this type of specific gingival recession, the combined use of FGG and CTG still serves as a Gold Standard in predictable root coverage.

  9. Computational methods estimating uncertainties for profile reconstruction in scatterometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, H.; Rathsfeld, A.; Scholze, F.; Model, R.; Bär, M.

    2008-04-01

    The solution of the inverse problem in scatterometry, i.e. the determination of periodic surface structures from light diffraction patterns, is incomplete without knowledge of the uncertainties associated with the reconstructed surface parameters. With decreasing feature sizes of lithography masks, increasing demands on metrology techniques arise. Scatterometry as a non-imaging indirect optical method is applied to periodic line-space structures in order to determine geometric parameters like side-wall angles, heights, top and bottom widths and to evaluate the quality of the manufacturing process. The numerical simulation of the diffraction process is based on the finite element solution of the Helmholtz equation. The inverse problem seeks to reconstruct the grating geometry from measured diffraction patterns. Restricting the class of gratings and the set of measurements, this inverse problem can be reformulated as a non-linear operator equation in Euclidean spaces. The operator maps the grating parameters to the efficiencies of diffracted plane wave modes. We employ a Gauss-Newton type iterative method to solve this operator equation and end up minimizing the deviation of the measured efficiency or phase shift values from the simulated ones. The reconstruction properties and the convergence of the algorithm, however, is controlled by the local conditioning of the non-linear mapping and the uncertainties of the measured efficiencies or phase shifts. In particular, the uncertainties of the reconstructed geometric parameters essentially depend on the uncertainties of the input data and can be estimated by various methods. We compare the results obtained from a Monte Carlo procedure to the estimations gained from the approximative covariance matrix of the profile parameters close to the optimal solution and apply them to EUV masks illuminated by plane waves with wavelengths in the range of 13 nm.

  10. Optimal Reconstruction of Material Properties in Complex Multiphysics Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Bukshtynov, Vladislav

    2013-01-01

    We develop an optimization-based approach to the problem of reconstructing temperature-dependent material properties in complex thermo-fluid systems described by the equations for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Our goal is to estimate the temperature dependence of the viscosity coefficient in the momentum equation based on some noisy temperature measurements, where the temperature is governed by a separate energy equation. We show that an elegant and computationally efficient solution of this inverse problem is obtained by formulating it as a PDE-constrained optimization problem which can be solved with a gradient-based descent method. A key element of the proposed approach, the cost functional gradients are characterized by mathematical structure quite different than in typical problems of PDE-constrained optimization and are expressed in terms of integrals defined over the level sets of the temperature field. Advanced techniques of integration on manifolds are required to evaluate numericall...

  11. A Fast Super-Resolution Reconstruction from Image Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the mechanism of imagery, a novel method called the delaminating combining template method, used for the problem of super-resolution reconstruction from image sequence, is described in this paper. The combining template method contains two steps: a delaminating strategy and a combining template algorithm. The delaminating strategy divides the original problem into several sub-problems;each of them is only connected to one degrading factor. The combining template algorithm is suggested to resolve each sub-problem. In addition, to verify the valid of the method, a new index called oriental entropy is presented. The results from the theoretical analysis and experiments illustrate that this method to be promising and efficient.

  12. Reconstruction-Free Action Inference from Compressive Imagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Kuldeep; Turaga, Pavan

    2016-04-01

    Persistent surveillance from camera networks, such as at parking lots, UAVs, etc., often results in large amounts of video data, resulting in significant challenges for inference in terms of storage, communication and computation. Compressive cameras have emerged as a potential solution to deal with the data deluge issues in such applications. However, inference tasks such as action recognition require high quality features which implies reconstructing the original video data. Much work in compressive sensing (CS) theory is geared towards solving the reconstruction problem, where state-of-the-art methods are computationally intensive and provide low-quality results at high compression rates. Thus, reconstruction-free methods for inference are much desired. In this paper, we propose reconstruction-free methods for action recognition from compressive cameras at high compression ratios of 100 and above. Recognizing actions directly from CS measurements requires features which are mostly nonlinear and thus not easily applicable. This leads us to search for such properties that are preserved in compressive measurements. To this end, we propose the use of spatio-temporal smashed filters, which are compressive domain versions of pixel-domain matched filters. We conduct experiments on publicly available databases and show that one can obtain recognition rates that are comparable to the oracle method in uncompressed setup, even for high compression ratios.

  13. Fast phylogeny reconstruction through learning of ancestral sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Mihaescu, Radu; Rao, Satish

    2008-01-01

    Given natural limitations on the length DNA sequences, designing phylogenetic reconstruction methods which are reliable under limited information is a crucial endeavor. There have been two approaches to this problem: reconstructing partial but reliable information about the tree (\\cite{Mo07, DMR08,DHJ06,GMS08}), and reaching "deeper" in the tree through reconstruction of ancestral sequences. In the latter category, \\cite{DMR06} settled an important conjecture of M.Steel, showing that, under the CFN model of evolution, all trees on $n$ leaves with edge lengths bounded by the Ising model phase transition can be recovered with high probability from genomes of length $O(\\log n)$ with a polynomial time algorithm. Their methods had a running time of $O(n^{10})$. Here we enhance our methods from \\cite{DHJ06} with the learning of ancestral sequences and provide an algorithm for reconstructing a sub-forest of the tree which is reliable given available data, without requiring a-priori known bounds on the edge lengths o...

  14. A CUDA-based reverse gridding algorithm for MR reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingzhu; Feng, Chaolu; Zhao, Dazhe

    2013-02-01

    MR raw data collected using non-Cartesian method can be transformed on Cartesian grids by traditional gridding algorithm (GA) and reconstructed by Fourier transform. However, its runtime complexity is O(K×N(2)), where resolution of raw data is N×N and size of convolution window (CW) is K. And it involves a large number of matrix calculation including modulus, addition, multiplication and convolution. Therefore, a Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA)-based algorithm is proposed to improve the reconstruction efficiency of PROPELLER (a globally recognized non-Cartesian sampling method). Experiment shows a write-write conflict among multiple CUDA threads. This induces an inconsistent result when synchronously convoluting multiple k-space data onto the same grid. To overcome this problem, a reverse gridding algorithm (RGA) was developed. Different from the method of generating a grid window for each trajectory as in traditional GA, RGA calculates a trajectory window for each grid. This is what "reverse" means. For each k-space point in the CW, contribution is cumulated to this grid. Although this algorithm can be easily extended to reconstruct other non-Cartesian sampled raw data, we only implement it based on PROPELLER. Experiment illustrates that this CUDA-based RGA has successfully solved the write-write conflict and its reconstruction speed is 7.5 times higher than that of traditional GA.

  15. Dimensionality Reduction of Laplacian Embedding for 3D Mesh Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardhiyah, I.; Madenda, S.; Salim, R. A.; Wiryana, I. M.

    2016-06-01

    Laplacian eigenbases are the important thing that we have to process from 3D mesh information. The information of geometric 3D mesh are include vertices locations and the connectivity of graph. Due to spectral analysis, geometric 3D mesh for large and sparse graphs with thousands of vertices is not practical to compute all the eigenvalues and eigenvector. Because of that, in this paper we discuss how to build 3D mesh reconstruction by reducing dimensionality on null eigenvalue but retain the corresponding eigenvector of Laplacian Embedding to simplify mesh processing. The result of reducing information should have to retained the connectivity of graph. The advantages of dimensionality reduction is for computational eficiency and problem simplification. Laplacian eigenbases is the point of dimensionality reduction for 3D mesh reconstruction. In this paper, we show how to reconstruct geometric 3D mesh after approximation step of 3D mesh by dimensionality reduction. Dimensionality reduction shown by Laplacian Embedding matrix. Furthermore, the effectiveness of 3D mesh reconstruction method will evaluated by geometric error, differential error, and final error. Numerical approximation error of our result are small and low complexity of computational.

  16. Image reconstruction from incomplete convolution data via total variation regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhida Shen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Variational models with Total Variation (TV regularization have long been known to preserve image edges and produce high quality reconstruction. On the other hand, recent theory on compressive sensing has shown that it is feasible to accurately reconstruct  images from a few linear measurements via TV regularization. However, in general TV models are difficult to solve due to the nondifferentiability and the universal coupling of variables. In this paper, we propose the use of alternating direction method for image reconstruction from highly incomplete convolution data, where an image is reconstructed as a minimizer of an energy function that sums   a TV term for image regularity and a least squares term for data fitting. Our algorithm, called RecPK, takes advantage of problem structures and has an extremely low per-iteration cost. To demonstrate the efficiency of RecPK, we  compare it with TwIST, a state-of-the-art algorithm for minimizing TV models. Moreover, we also demonstrate the usefulness of RecPK in image zooming.

  17. Reconstruction of moving acoustic sources in heterogeneous elastic solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Stephen F.; Jeong, Chanseok

    2016-04-01

    A novel computational framework for reconstructing spatial and temporal profiles of moving acoustic sources from wave responses measured at sparsely distributes sensors is introduced in this paper. This method can be applied to a broad range of acoustic-source inversion (ASI) problems for heterogeneous, complex-shaped coupled dynamic systems. The finite element method (FEM) is used to obtain wave response solutions due guessed moving sources. An adjoint-gradient based optimization technique iteratively improves the guesses so that the guessed moving sources converge on the actual moving sources. To reconstruct acoustic source profiles without a-priori knowledge of sources, we will employ high-resolution discretization of source functions in space and time. Because of such dense discretization, the order of magnitude of number of inversion parameters could range from millions to billions. Numerical experiments prove the robustness of this method by reconstructing spatial and temporal profiles of multiple dynamic moving body forces in a one-dimensional heterogeneous solid bar. The sources create stress waves propagating through the bar. The guessed source functions are spatially discretized by using linear shape functions with an element size of 1m at discrete times with a time step of 0.001s. Thus, the total number of control parameters in this example is 100,000 (i.e., 100 (in space) by 1000 (in time)). The convergence toward the target in the numerical examples is excellent, reconstructing the spatial and temporal footprints of the sources.

  18. ARTHROSCOPIC RECONSTRUCTION OF ANTERIO R CRUCIATE LIGAMENT TEARS: OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimma Reddy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anterior knee instability associated with rupture of the ACL (Anterior Cruciate Ligament is a disabling clinical problem. The ACL has a poor capacity for intrinsic repair. Thus for patients who have knee symptoms related to ACL deficiency, one may consider ligament reconstruction as a means of stabilizing the T ibio - F emoral articulation and restoring high level function of the knee joint. Arthroscopically assisted ACLR ( ACL Reconstruction has the advantage of being minimally invasive, accurate graft placement, less disturbance of normal tissue resulting in quicker recovery and rehabilitation, minimal hospital stay and very less infection rate. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between April 2012 to May 2013, 30 patients who underwent arthroscopic assisted ACL reconstructions using either bone - patellar tendon - bone auto graft ( BTB or Quadrupled hamstring auto graft ( QHG or Quadriceps tendon graft ( QTG in the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh is the material in our study. CONCLUSIONS : Arthroscopic reconstruction of Anterior Cruciate Ligament is a reliable, safe procedure. It helps in the early restoration of function and stability of the Knee joint and helps the patient to get back to his normal activity much earlier than with the traditional open surgical methods. The choice of the graft does not play a major role in the function of the knee in the long run.

  19. Reconstruction of lensing from the cosmic microwave background polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Hirata, C M; Hirata, Christopher M.; Seljak, Uros

    2003-01-01

    Gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization field has been recognized as a potentially valuable probe of the cosmological density field. We apply likelihood-based techniques to the problem of lensing of CMB polarization and show that if the B-mode polarization is mapped, then likelihood-based techniques allow significantly better lensing reconstruction than is possible using the previous quadratic estimator approach. With this method the ultimate limit to lensing reconstruction is not set by the lensed CMB power spectrum. Second-order corrections are known to produce a curl component of the lensing deflection field that cannot be described by a potential; we show that this does not significantly affect the reconstruction at noise levels greater than 0.25 microK arcmin. The reduction of the mean squared error in the lensing reconstruction relative to the quadratic method can be as much as a factor of two at noise levels of 1.4 microK arcmin to a factor of ten at 0.25 microK arcm...

  20. Automatic Indoor Building Reconstruction from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, L.; Wang, R.

    2017-09-01

    Indoor reconstruction from point clouds is a hot topic in photogrammetry, computer vision and computer graphics. Reconstructing indoor scene from point clouds is challenging due to complex room floorplan and line-of-sight occlusions. Most of existing methods deal with stationary terrestrial laser scanning point clouds or RGB-D point clouds. In this paper, we propose an automatic method for reconstructing indoor 3D building models from mobile laser scanning point clouds. The method includes 2D floorplan generation, 3D building modeling, door detection and room segmentation. The main idea behind our approach is to separate wall structure into two different types as the inner wall and the outer wall based on the observation of point distribution. Then we utilize a graph cut based optimization method to solve the labeling problem and generate the 2D floorplan based on the optimization result. Subsequently, we leverage an ?-shape based method to detect the doors on the 2D projected point clouds and utilize the floorplan to segment the individual room. The experiments show that this door detection method can achieve a recognition rate at 97% and the room segmentation method can attain the correct segmentation results. We also evaluate the reconstruction accuracy on the synthetic data, which indicates the accuracy of our method is comparable to the state-of-the art.

  1. Wavelet Helmholtz decomposition for weak lensing mass map reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deriaz, E.; Starck, J.-L.; Pires, S.

    2012-04-01

    To derive the convergence field from the gravitational shear γ of the background galaxy images, the classical methods require a convolution of the shear to be performed over the entire sky, usually expressed by the fast Fourier transform (FFT). However, it is not optimal for an imperfect geometry survey. Furthermore, FFT implicitly uses periodic conditions that introduce errors into the reconstruction. A method has been proposed that relies on computation of an intermediate field u that combines the derivatives of γ and on convolution with a Green kernel. In this paper, we study the wavelet Helmholtz decomposition as a new approach to reconstructing the dark matter mass map. We show that a link exists between the Helmholtz decomposition and the electric and magnetic component separation. We introduce a new wavelet construction that has a property that gives us more flexibility in handling the border problem, and we propose a new method of reconstructing the dark matter mass map in the wavelet space. A set of experiments based on noise-free images illustrates that this Wavelet Helmholtz decomposition reconstructs the borders better than all other existing methods.

  2. Model Based Iterative Reconstruction for Bright Field Electron Tomography (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Reconstruction Technique ( SIRT ) are applied to the data. Model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) provides a powerful framework for tomographic...the reconstruction when the typical algorithms such as Filtered Back Projection (FBP) and Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique ( SIRT ) are

  3. Network reconstruction via density sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Squartini, Tiziano; Gabrielli, Andrea; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing weighted networks from partial information is necessary in many important circumstances, e.g. for a correct estimation of systemic risk. It has been shown that, in order to achieve an accurate reconstruction, it is crucial to reliably replicate the empirical degree sequence, which is however unknown in many realistic situations. More recently, it has been found that the knowledge of the degree sequence can be replaced by the knowledge of the strength sequence, which is typically accessible, complemented by that of the total number of links, thus considerably relaxing the observational requirements. Here we further relax these requirements and devise a procedure valid when even the the total number of links is unavailable. We assume that, apart from the heterogeneity induced by the degree sequence itself, the network is homogeneous, so that its link density can be estimated by sampling subsets of nodes with representative density. We show that the best way of sampling nodes is the random selecti...

  4. Reconstruction of complete interval tournaments

    CERN Document Server

    Iványi, Antal

    2010-01-01

    Let $a, b$ and $n$ be nonnegative integers $(b \\geq a, \\ b > 0, \\ n \\geq 1)$, $\\mathcal{G}_n(a,b)$ be a multigraph on $n$ vertices in which any pair of vertices is connected with at least $a$ and at most $b$ edges and \\textbf{v =} $(v_1, v_2, ..., v_n)$ be a vector containing $n$ nonnegative integers. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of such orientation of the edges of $\\mathcal{G}_n(a,b)$, that the resulted out-degree vector equals to \\textbf{v}. We describe a reconstruction algorithm. In worst case checking of \\textbf{v} requires $\\Theta(n)$ time and the reconstruction algorithm works in $O(bn^3)$ time. Theorems of H. G. Landau (1953) and J. W. Moon (1963) on the score sequences of tournaments are special cases $b = a = 1$ resp. $b = a \\geq 1$ of our result.

  5. X-Ray Tomographic Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnie Schmittberger

    2010-08-25

    Tomographic scans have revolutionized imaging techniques used in medical and biological research by resolving individual sample slices instead of several superimposed images that are obtained from regular x-ray scans. X-Ray fluorescence computed tomography, a more specific tomography technique, bombards the sample with synchrotron x-rays and detects the fluorescent photons emitted from the sample. However, since x-rays are attenuated as they pass through the sample, tomographic scans often produce images with erroneous low densities in areas where the x-rays have already passed through most of the sample. To correct for this and correctly reconstruct the data in order to obtain the most accurate images, a program employing iterative methods based on the inverse Radon transform was written. Applying this reconstruction method to a tomographic image recovered some of the lost densities, providing a more accurate image from which element concentrations and internal structure can be determined.

  6. Blind reconstruction of linear scrambler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Xie; Fenghua Wang; Zhitao Huang

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm based on eigenanalysis technique and Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT) is proposed. The algorithm contains two steps. Firstly, the received sequence is divided into temporal windows, and a covariance matrix is computed. The li-near feedback shift register (LFSR) sequence is reconstructed from the first eigenvector of this matrix. Secondly, equations ac-cording to the recovered LFSR sequence are constructed, and the Walsh spectrum corresponding to the equations is computed. The feedback polynomial of LFSR is estimated from the Walsh spec-trum. The validity of the algorithm is verified by the simulation result. Final y, case studies are presented to il ustrate the perfor-mance of the blind reconstruction method.

  7. Bayes reconstruction of missing teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporring, Jon; Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff

    2008-01-01

     We propose a method for restoring the surface of tooth crowns in a 3D model of a human denture, so that the pose and anatomical features of the tooth will work well for chewing. This is achieved by including information about the position and anatomy of the other teeth in the mouth. Our system...... contains two major parts: A statistical model of a selection of tooth shapes and a reconstruction of missing data. We use a training set consisting of 3D scans of dental cast models obtained with a laser scanner, and we have build a model of the shape variability of the teeth, their neighbors...... regularization of the log-likelihood estimate based on differential geometrical properties of teeth surfaces, and we show general conditions under which this may be considered a Bayes prior.Finally we use Bayes method to propose the reconstruction of missing data, for e.g. finding the most probable shape...

  8. Riemann–Hilbert problem approach for two-dimensional flow inverse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agaltsov, A. D., E-mail: agalets@gmail.com [Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Novikov, R. G., E-mail: novikov@cmap.polytechnique.fr [CNRS (UMR 7641), Centre de Mathématiques Appliquées, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); IEPT RAS, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-15

    We consider inverse scattering for the time-harmonic wave equation with first-order perturbation in two dimensions. This problem arises in particular in the acoustic tomography of moving fluid. We consider linearized and nonlinearized reconstruction algorithms for this problem of inverse scattering. Our nonlinearized reconstruction algorithm is based on the non-local Riemann–Hilbert problem approach. Comparisons with preceding results are given.

  9. Solving Large-Scale Inverse Magnetostatic Problems using the Adjoint Method

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckner, Florian; Wautischer, Gregor; Huber, Christian; Vogler, Christoph; Hinze, Michael; Suess, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for the reconstruction of the magnetization state within magnetic components is presented. The occurring inverse magnetostatic problem is solved by means of an adjoint approach, based on the Fredkin-Koehler method for the solution of the forward problem. Due to the use of hybrid FEM-BEM coupling combined with matrix compression techniques the resulting algorithm is well suited for large-scale problems. Furthermore the reconstruction of the magnetization state within a permanent magnet is demonstrated.

  10. Bayes reconstruction of missing teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporring, Jon; Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff

    2008-01-01

     We propose a method for restoring the surface of tooth crowns in a 3D model of a human denture, so that the pose and anatomical features of the tooth will work well for chewing. This is achieved by including information about the position and anatomy of the other teeth in the mouth. Our system...... of a missing tooth based on the best match with our shape model on the known data, and we superior improved reconstructions of our full system....

  11. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. (comps.)

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption, and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  12. Which Reconstruction Results are Significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    other significant result is due to Tutte [17]. Tutte’s Theorem: The characteristic polynomial of a graph can be reconstructed. Equivalently, two...hypomorphic graphs must have the same characteristic polynomial . Several points should be noted concerning this theorem: 1. The derivative of the...characteristic polynomial is the sum of the char- acteristic polynomials of the vertex-deleted subgraphs. Thus the characteristic polynomials of hypomorphic

  13. A Reduction of the Graph Reconstruction Conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monikandan S.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A graph is said to be reconstructible if it is determined up to isomor- phism from the collection of all its one-vertex deleted unlabeled subgraphs. Reconstruction Conjecture (RC asserts that all graphs on at least three vertices are reconstructible. In this paper, we prove that interval-regular graphs and some new classes of graphs are reconstructible and show that RC is true if and only if all non-geodetic and non-interval-regular blocks G with diam(G = 2 or diam(Ḡ = diam(G = 3 are reconstructible

  14. Reconstructing propagation networks with temporal similarity metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Node similarity is a significant property driving the growth of real networks. In this paper, based on the observed spreading results we apply the node similarity metrics to reconstruct propagation networks. We find that the reconstruction accuracy of the similarity metrics is strongly influenced by the infection rate of the spreading process. Moreover, there is a range of infection rate in which the reconstruction accuracy of some similarity metrics drops to nearly zero. In order to improve the similarity-based reconstruction method, we finally propose a temporal similarity metric to take into account the time information of the spreading. The reconstruction results are remarkably improved with the new method.

  15. Mandibular Reconstruction, State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio ACERO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Mandibular bone loss can result in severe aesthetic and functional consequences for the patient, posing a challenge to the reconstructive maxillo-facial surgeon. Advent of microvascular surgery revolutionized mandible reconstruction introducing the possibility to transfer vascularized bone and soft tissues with high success rate. Major donor sites are the fibula, iliac crest and scapula. Planning of the reconstruction and advantages and disadvantages of the different reconstructive methods are discussed. The iliac crest provides an excellent bone for mandibular reconstruction but has some limits concerning length and versatility of soft tissues. The fibula permits the repair of large mandibular defects due to its length while the scapular osteocutaneous flap allows for the reconstruction of limited bone defects associated with large soft tissue defects. Nonvascularized reconstructive methods are associated with higher failure rates but can be considered in selected cases.

  16. Low Rank Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers Reconstruction for MR Fingerprinting

    CERN Document Server

    Assländer, Jakob; Knoll, Florian; Sodickson, Daniel K; Hennig, Jürgen; Lattanzi, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The proposed reconstruction framework addresses the reconstruction accuracy, noise propagation and computation time for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF). Methods Based on a singular value decomposition (SVD) of the signal evolution, MRF is formulated as a low rank inverse problem in which one image is reconstructed for each singular value under consideration. This low rank approximation of the signal evolution reduces the computational burden by reducing the number of Fourier transformations. Also, the low rank approximation improves the conditioning of the problem, which is further improved by extending the low rank inverse problem to an augmented Lagrangian that is solved by the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). The root mean square error and the noise propagation are analyzed in simulations. For verification, an in vivo example is provided. Results The proposed low rank ADMM approach shows a reduced root mean square error compared to the original fingerprinting reconstructi...

  17. NURBS-based geometric inverse reconstruction of free-form shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Saini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a geometric inverse algorithm is proposed for reconstructing free-form shapes (curves and surfaces in space from their arbitrary perspective images using a Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS model. In particular, NURBS model is used to recover information about the required shape in space. An optimization problem is formulated to fit the NURBS to the digitized data in the images. Control points and weights are treated as the decision variables in the optimization process. The 3D shape reconstruction problem is reduced to a problem that comprises stereo reconstruction of control points and computation of the corresponding weights. The correspondence between the control points in the two images is obtained using a third image. The performance of the proposed algorithm was validated by taking several examples based on the synthetic and real images. Comparisons were made with a point-based method in terms of various types of errors.

  18. Time-domain reconstruction using sensitivity coefficients for limited view ultrawide band tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M. Z.; Yin, W.; Bilal, M.; Armitage, D. W.; Mackin, R.; Peyton, A. J.

    2007-08-01

    This article addresses time-domain ultrawide band (UWB) electromagnetic tomography for reconstructing the unknown spatial characteristic of an object from observations of the arrivals of short electromagnetic (EM) pulses. Here, the determination of the first peak arrival of the EM traces constitutes the forward problem, and the inverse problem aims to reconstruct the EM property distribution of the media. In this article, the finite-difference time-domain method implementing a perfectly matched layer is used to solve the forward problem from which the system sensitivity maps are determined. Image reconstruction is based on the combination of a linearized update and regularized Landweber minimization algorithm. Experimental data from a laboratory UWB system using targets of different contrasts, sizes, and shapes in an aqueous media are presented. The results show that this technique can accurately detect and locate unknown targets in spite of the presence of significant levels of noise in the data.

  19. High-performance image reconstruction in fluorescence tomography on desktop computers and graphics hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberger, Manuel; Egger, Herbert; Liebmann, Manfred; Scharfetter, Hermann

    2011-11-01

    Image reconstruction in fluorescence optical tomography is a three-dimensional nonlinear ill-posed problem governed by a system of partial differential equations. In this paper we demonstrate that a combination of state of the art numerical algorithms and a careful hardware optimized implementation allows to solve this large-scale inverse problem in a few seconds on standard desktop PCs with modern graphics hardware. In particular, we present methods to solve not only the forward but also the non-linear inverse problem by massively parallel programming on graphics processors. A comparison of optimized CPU and GPU implementations shows that the reconstruction can be accelerated by factors of about 15 through the use of the graphics hardware without compromising the accuracy in the reconstructed images.

  20. Optimal sets of measurement data for profile reconstruction in scatterometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, H.; Rathsfeld, A.; Scholze, F.; Bär, M.; Dersch, U.

    2007-06-01

    We discuss numerical algorithms for the determination of periodic surface structures from light diffraction patterns. With decreasing feature sizes of lithography masks, increasing demands on metrology techniques arise. Scatterometry as a non-imaging indirect optical method is applied to simple periodic line structures in order to determine parameters like side-wall angles, heights, top and bottom widths and to evaluate the quality of the manufacturing process. The numerical simulation of diffraction is based on the finite element solution of the Helmholtz equation. The inverse problem seeks to reconstruct the grating geometry from measured diffraction patterns. Restricting the class of gratings and the set of measurements, this inverse problem can be reformulated as a non-linear operator equation in Euclidean spaces. The operator maps the grating parameters to special efficiencies of diffracted plane wave modes. We employ a Gauss-Newton type iterative method to solve this operator equation. The reconstruction properties and the convergence of the algorithm, however, is controlled by the local conditioning of the non-linear mapping. To improve reconstruction and convergence, we determine optimal sets of efficiencies optimizing the condition numbers of the corresponding Jacobians. Numerical examples are presented for "chrome on glass" masks under the wavelength 632.8 nm and for EUV masks.