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  1. Geology of the platanares geothermal site, Departamento de Copan, Honduras, Central America. Field report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Eppler, D.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Ramos, N.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-05-01

    Platanares is located 16 km west of Santa Rosa de Copan, Honduras, along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente. The thermal manifestations are along faults in tuffs, tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and lavas of the Padre Miguel Group. These tuffs are silicified near the faults, are fractured, and may provide the fracture permeability necessary for the hydrothermal system. Tuffs are overlain by a wedge of terrace gravels up to 60 m thick. Quaternary conglomerates of the Quebrada del Agua Caliente are cemented by silica sinter. The Platanares area contains numerous faults, all of which appear to be extensional. There are four groups of faults (N80/sup 0/E to N70/sup 0/W, N30/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/W, N40/sup 0/ to 65/sup 0/E, and N00/sup 0/ to 05/sup 0/W). All hot springs at this site are located along faults that trend mostly northwest and north. Twenty-eight spring groups were described over an area of 0.2 km/sup 2/; half were boiling. Based on surface temperatures and flow rates, between 0.7 and 1.0 MW thermal energy is estimated for the area. The increased temperature of the stream flowing through the thermal area indicates that several megawatts of thermal energy are being added to the stream. We recommend that a dipole-dipole resistivity line be run along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente to identify zones of fracture permeability associated with buried faults and hot water reservoirs within those fault zones. A thermal gradient corehole should be drilled at Platanares to test temperatures, lithologies, and permeability of the hydrothermal system.

  2. Geology of the platanares geothermal area, Departamento de Copan, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiken, G.; Ramos, N.; Duffield, W.; Musgrave, J.; Wohletz, K.; Priest, S.; Aldrich, J.; Flores, W.; Ritchie, A.; Goff, F.; Eppler, D.; Escobar, C.

    1991-01-01

    Platanares is located 16 km west of Santa Rosa de Copan, Honduras, along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente. The thermal manifestations are along faults in tuffs, tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and lavas of the Padre Miguel Group. These tuffs are silicified near the faults, are fractured, and may provide the fracture permeability necessary for the hydrothermal system. Tuffs are overlain by a wedge of terrace gravels up to 60 m thick. Quaternary conglomerates of the Quebrada del Agua Caliente are cemented by silica sinter. The Platanares area contains numerous faults, all of which appear to be extensional. There are four groups of faults (N80/sup 0/E to N70/sup 0/W, N30/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/W, N40/sup 0/ to 65/sup 0/E, and N00/sup 0/ to 05/sup 0/W). All hot springs at this site are located along faults that trend mostly northwest and north. Twenty-eight spring groups were described over an area of 0.2 km/sup 2/; half were boiling. Based on surface temperatures and flow rates, between 0.7 and 1.0 MW thermal energy is estimated for the area. The increased temperature of the stream flowing through the thermal area indicates that several megawatts of thermal energy are being added to the stream. We recommend that a dipole-dipole resistivity line be run along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente to identify zones of fracture permeability associated with buried faults and hot water reservoirs within those fault zones. A thermal gradient corehole should be drilled at Platanares to test temperatures, lithologies, and permeability of the hydrothermal system.

  3. Updating peasant competencies to mitigate poverty in the Chorti community, Copan (Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rivas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Copan department of Honduras has a low Human Development Index (HDI 0.56 but it is very rich in hydric resources, all ranges in temperature, ecosystems, agricultural and livestock biodiversity, and rural knowledge because its original Mayan ethnic groups (Chorti and Lencas, and mixed race peasants. This article analyzes and evaluates the strategies used in the components of rural production and management of the basin of the Project 'Local Self-managed Development for Poverty Reduction in North Copán, Honduras' (NCP that worked with the Multifunctional Agriculture (MFA approach between 2003 and 2007. The main results were: To promote agro-ecological management innovations, creation of two funds to improve the farmers production, environmental protection of the basins, to consider the hydric and eco-systemic services in the management of the territory, to reassess social learning systems as the extension methodology “farmer to farmer”

  4. Prefeasibility geothermal assessment of Platanares, Department of Copan, Honduras

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    Goff, S.; Goff, F.; Heiken, G.; Duffield, W.A.; Truesdell, A.H.; Laughlin, A.W.; Flores, W.

    1989-01-01

    The Platanares geothermal system is located in a region of active Quaternary tectonism in western Honduras. Although the geothermal area is partially blanketed by Miocene ignimbrites (14.5 m.y.), there are no nearby Quaternary volcanic rocks to act as a young magmatic heat source. No acid-sulfate waters, indicative of vapor-dominated conditions, exist in the area. Hot spring activity is most vigorous along a 2 km stretch of the Quebrada del Agua Caliente fault zone. Natural discharge is high (/approximately/3300 l/min), temperatures range from 35 to 100/degree/C, pH ranges from 7 to 9, and totally dissolved solids are low (/approximately/1100 mg/kg). Chemical geothermometers indicate a subsurface reservoir temperature of about 225/degree/C. Three exploration core holes (7.8 cm diameter) have been drilled to a maximum depth of 680 m and maximum temperature of 165/degree/C. Two holes produce copious amounts of water under artesian conditions (/approximately/500 l/min max; 5 bars flowing) from fractured red beds of Cretaceous to Eocene age (Valle de Angeles Group). Maximum power output is /approximately/4.5 MW (thermal) but CO/sub 2/ released during flashing formed some aragonite scale in one hole. The third core hole has an ''apparent'' conductive gradient of 139/degree/C/km at 400 m. Downward continuation of this gradient implies that the minimum depth to the geothermal resource (225/degree/C) is 1.5 to 2.0 km. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    Honduras is a democratic, constitutional republic located between Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua in Central America. Although in the early history of the nation there were frequent revolutions, Honduras has been independent throughout much of its existence. Since the decade of the 1980s, there has been close cooperation with the US including bilateral economic and security assistance, and joint military exercises. The government constitution adopted in 1982 assures that there will be a powerful executive branch, a unicameral legislature, and a judiciary appointed by the National Congress. Following 18 years of military government, Honduras is now under civilian and constitutional rule. Its major serious concerns center around development in the economic and social spheres. Honduras is the least developed Central American country. In 1984, it became a Caribbean Basin Initiative beneficiary country and as a result, the research and development of nontraditional export products has grown greatly. The US has been its most important trade partner. Among others, the US and the World Bank have committed large amounts of financial resources to help Honduras. Honduras and El Salvador are attempting to come to some agreement about their mutual boundaries and Honduras is concerned about the Nicaraguan and general Central American situation. It supports the US position and policy toward Nicaragua. In response to the threats posed by some of its neighbors, Honduras has focused on developing a mobile deterrent force with strong counterterrorism capabilities. Honduras relies heavily on US material assistance and political support.

  6. Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    both sexes was 55.3 years in 1974 and around 60 years as of 1982. The crude death rate was estimated to be 10/1000 during 1980-85; infant mortality declined from 117/1000 live births in 1971-72 to 86/1000 in 1978. Diarrheal disease is the single most important cause of death in Honduras, and mortality from other water-related diseases remains high in comparison with other Central American countries. Malnutrition also is serious. The government considers levels and trends of mortality to be unacceptable and is particularly concerned about the continuing high level of infant mortality. In recent years the crude birthrate averaged around 44/1000; the 1981 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey found the total fertility rate to be about 6.5 births/woman, which represents a 13% decline in the level of fertility between 1971-72 and 1981.

  7. Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Honduras has an area of 112,088 square km or 43,277 square miles with a population of 4.8 million in 1991 of whom 90% are mestizos. Literacy is 68%, the infant mortality rate is 60/1000, and life expectancy is 63 years. After independence from Spain in 1821 the Central American Federation collapsed in 1938. There have been 300 internal rebellions since independence. With an inadequate economic infrastructure, sociopolitical integration has been fragile. In 1982 the Suazo government relied on US support to face the economic recession, the threat posed by the Marxist government in Nicaragua, and civil war in El Salvador. USAID sponsored ambitious social and economic projects. A peaceful transfer of power between civilian presidents occurred in 1986 despite an electoral quirk. In 1990 President Callejas introduced reforms to reduce the deficit, and to stimulate investments and exports. After initial higher inflation and low growth in 1990 and 1991, modest progress is forecast for 1992 and 1993. The powerful military has been kept in check, and human rights have been better protected. The country is among the poorest in Latin America with underemployment of 30-40% and a mostly agricultural economy. The 1990 reforms of deregulation of prices, liberalization of trade, less protectionism, and export orientation is expected to produce longterm benefits not only in agriculture but also in manufacturing. The US is the primary trading partner, and the main direct foreign investor (fruits, refining, and mining). The slash-and-burn agricultural cultivation has created environmental destruction, and as a sign of public awareness the armed forces have engaged in reforestation and fighting forest fires.

  8. Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Honduras is a country with an area of 68,000 square miles, with considerable mountainous terrain, and a subtropical but variable climate. It has a population of 4.4 million people and an annual growth rate of 3.1%. The ethnic make up is 90% mestizo, a mixture of Indian and European, with others consisting of Arab, African, oriental, and Indians. The main religion is Catholic with a fast growing Protestant minority, and the language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 60/1000 and life expectancy is 63 years. The work force is mainly agricultural 63%, services 20%, manufacturing 9%, and construction 3%. The government is a democratic constitutional republic established in 1821. The budget is $1,334 million with 7% used for defense, and the gross national product is $4.4 billion with an annual growth rate of 4.5%. Despite being poor and underdeveloped, natural resources include arable land, hydro- electric power, and considerable forest, marine, and mineral resources. Agriculture products include coffee, bananas, citrus fruit, corn, beans, and livestock. The major industries are textiles, cement, wood products, cigars and foodstuffs. Unemployment is over 15% and underemployment is estimated over 40% with the literacy rate at only 60%. In the last few years with US aid the economy has grown 3.8% a year assisted by mining, construction and the service sectors. Honduras must undertake major economic reforms to gain longterm growth and stability since it has large fiscal and trade deficits, a large public bureaucracy, poorly run state enterprises and overvalued exchange rate.

  9. Exploration geothermal gradient drilling, Platanares, Honduras, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.J.; Laughlin, A.W.; Ruefenacht, H.D.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.; Ramos, N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a review and summary of the core drilling operations component of the Honduras Geothermal Resource Development Project at the Platanares geothermal prospect in Honduras, Central America. Three intermediate depth (428 to 679 m) coreholes are the first continuously cored geothermal exploration boreholes in Honduras. These coring operations are part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) effort funded by the Agency for International Development (AID) and implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) in cooperation with the Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (ENEE) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy, thermal gradient, and flow test data of the boreholes. The primary objectives of this coring effort were (1) to obtain quantitative information on the temperature distribution as a function of depth, (2) to recover fluids associated with the geothermal reservoir, (3) to recover 75% or better core from the subsurface rock units, and (4) to drill into the subsurface rock as deeply as possible in order to get information on potential reservoir rocks, fracture density, permeabilities, and alteration histories of the rock units beneath the site. The three exploration coreholes drilled to depths of 650, 428 and 679 m, respectively, encountered several hot water entries. Coring operations and associated testing began in mid-October 1986 and were completed at the end of June 1987.

  10. First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America

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    Salgado-Maldonado Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae, which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras.

  11. First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Kreiser, Brian R; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras.

  12. Hydrogeochemical investigation of six geothermal sites in Honduras, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.; Truesdell, A.H.; Grigsby, C.O.; Janik, C.J.; Shevenell, L.A.; Paredes, J.R.; Gutierrez, J.W.; Trujillo, Jr.; Counce, D.A.

    1987-06-01

    We conducted detailed hydrogeochemical investigations at six geothermal sites in western Honduras: Azacualpa, El Olivar, Pavana, Platanares, Sambo Creek, and San Ignacio. None of the sites is associated with Quaternary silicic volcanism, although El Olivar lies adjacent to a small Quaternary basalt field and Pavana is part of a belt of hot spring activity parallel to and 35 km east of the Central American volcanic arc. None of the sites contains acid-sulfate waters indicative of vapor-dominated conditions. Thermal fluids are characterized by pH between 7 and 10, Cl<125 mg/l, HCO/sub 3/>Cl, SO/sub 4/greater than or equal toCl, Bless than or equal to17 mg/l, Liless than or equal to4 mg/l, and Asless than or equal to1.25 mg/l. Stable isotope analyses of the water show that recharge to the geothermal systems generally occurs from areas of higher elevation adjacent to the sites. Tritium contents of apparently undiluted thermal fluids range from 0 to 0.4 T.U., indicating residence times of fluids in the systems of more than 500 y. Various geochemical indicators show that mixing of hot and cold end-member fluids occurs in the system at Platanares and, to a lesser degree, in the systems at San Ignacio and Azacualpa. No mixing is apparent in the fluids discharging at Pavana, Sambo Creek, or El Olivar. Boiling is the dominant process responsible for subtle geochemical variations at Azacualpa and, possibly, San Ignacio. Our best estimates of subsurface reservoir temperatures are 225/sup 0/C at Platanares, 190/sup 0/C at San Ignacio, 185/sup 0/C at Azacualpa, 155/sup 0/C at Sambo Creek, 150/sup 0/C at Pavana, and 120/sup 0/C at El Olivar. The estimated power output of the three hottest sites is 45 thermal megawatts at Platanares, 14 thermal megawatts at San Ignacio, and 13 thermal megawatts at Azacualpa.

  13. Pediatric convulsive status epilepticus in Honduras, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero, Marco R; Holden, Kenton R; Rodriguez, Luis C; Collins, Julianne S; Samra, Jose A; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2009-10-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus (SE) in children is an important public health problem, particularly in low-resource countries. A surveillance study was performed with consecutive enrollment of all children presenting with convulsive SE to Hospital Escuela Materno-Infantil Emergency Department in Tegucigalpa, Honduras over a 13-week period in 2003. In the 47 children with SE, the mean age was 4.5 years and the median seizure duration was 95 min. Mortality and morbidity were higher in children from rural locations, with all six deaths and three cases of new neurologic abnormalities occurring in rural children who had acute symptomatic SE. We conclude that childhood SE is common in the low-resource developing country of Honduras. Given the long delays in obtaining initial treatment in pediatric emergency facilities, availability of prehospital treatment may be of particular importance in this setting.

  14. [Transfusion transmission of Chagas disease in Honduras and other Central American countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, C

    1999-01-01

    The transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi through blood transfusion is the second most important way of acquiring Chagas disease. This form of transmission transcends the vectorial transmission in many geographical areas. Honduras has developed a successful program for the control of transfusional transmission, based on the serological screening of blood donors, which is supported by law, making it mandatory. This experience has been extended to other Central American countries, supported by PAHO. Actually in the framework of the Initiative of the Central American countries for the elimination of the transmission of Chagas disease, launched in 1997, the control of transfusional transmission is becoming a reality.

  15. Application of scientific core drilling to geothermal exploration: Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Duffield, W.A. [Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Janik, C.J. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Our efforts in Honduras and Guatemala were part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (AID). Exploration core drilling operations at the Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala sites were part of a geothermal assessment for the national utility companies of these countries to locate and evaluate their geothermal resources for electrical power generation. In Honduras, country-wide assessment of all thermal areas determined that Platanares was the site with the greatest geothermal potential. In late 1986 to middle 1987, three slim core holes were drilled at Platanares to a maximum depth of 680 m and a maximum temperature of 165{degree}C. The objectives were to obtain information on the geothermal gradient, hydrothermal alterations, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids. Two holes produced copious amounts of water under artesian conditions and a total of 8 MW(t) of energy. Geothermal investigations in Guatemala focused on the Tecuamburro Volcano geothermal site. The results of surface geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical studies at Tecuamburro Volcano indicated a substantial shallow heat source. In early 1990 we drilled one core hole, TCB-1, to 808 m depth. The measured bottom hole temperature was 238{degree}C. Although the borehole did not flow, in-situ samples indicate the hole is completed in a vapor-zone above a probable 300{degree}C geothermal reservoir.

  16. Geology of the Pavana geothermal area, Departamento de Choluteca, Honduras, Central America: Field report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppler, D.B.; Heiken, G.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Paredes, J.R.; Duffield, W.A.

    1987-09-01

    The Pavana geothermal area is located in southern Honduras near the Gulf of Fonseca. This region is underlain by late Tertiary volcanic rocks. Within ranges near the geothermal manifestations, the rock sequences is characterized by intermediate to mafic laharic breccias and lavas overlain by silicic tuffs and lavas, which are in turn overlain by intermediate to mafic breccias, lavas, and tuffs. The nearest Quaternary volcanoes are about 40 km to the southwest, where the chain of active Central American volcanoes crosses the mouth of the Gulf of Fonseca. Structure of the Pavana area is dominated by generally northwest-trending, southwest-dipping normal faults. This structure is topographically expressed as northwest-trending escarpments that bound blocks of bedrock separated by asymmetric valleys that contain thin alluvial deposits. Thermal waters apparently issue from normal faults and are interpreted as having been heated during deep circulation along fault zones within a regional environment of elevated heat flow. Natural outflow from the main thermal area is about 3000 l/min of 60/sup 0/C water. Geothermometry of the thermal waters suggests a reservoir base temperature of about 150/sup 0/C.

  17. The Padre Miguel Ignimbrite Suite, central Honduras: Paleomagnetism, geochronology, and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Roberto S. Molina; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Rogers, Robert D.; Ganerød, Morgan; Dekkers, Mark J.

    2012-10-01

    The Padre Miguel Group in western Honduras is a silicic volcanic sequence that forms part of the Central American Miocene volcanic arc built on the Chortis continental fragment. We report new 40Ar/39Ar data of 16.1 ± 0.2 Ma and 14.42 ± 0.08 Ma for the Padre Miguel Group, and present paleomagnetic data for 36 cooling units (mainly ignimbrites) from localities north and northeast of the capital city of Tegucigalpa. These rocks are characterized by univectorial characteristic magnetization carried mainly by low-Ti titanomagnetites, or two component magnetizations with a minor secondary overprint. Dual polarity magnetizations suggest that it is a primary thermo-remanence and the obtained data scatter can be straightforwardly explained by paleosecular variation. The overall mean of 33 selected sites (14.39°N, 87.14°W) defines a paleomagnetic pole at lat = 80.0°N, lon = 142.9°E (K = 24.5, A95 = 5.2°). The overall mean compared with the North America expected direction indicates statistically insignificant rotation and inclination anomaly (R = - 4.1° ± 6.1° and an F = - 8.6° ± 11.3°). Restoring 255 km of sinistral slip in the Polochic-Motagua fault system, as suggested by Cayman Trough reconstructions since 15 Ma, brings the mid-Miocene arcs of southern Mexico (Oaxaca) and the Central America ignimbrite province into alignment; this is consistent with a derivation of the Chortis Block from southern Mexico. Our paleomagnetic and geochronological studies hence support models that explain the offset of the Miocene ignimbrite belt of Central America by post-Middle Miocene displacement of the Chortis Block relative to North America.

  18. A Faculty Short Course on Improving College Teaching at Escuela Agricola Panamericana, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Jimmy G.; Beeman, Carl E.

    A short course on improving college teaching at Escuela Agricola Panamericana (EAP), in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, is discussed. Two University of Florida college faculty members were engaged by the United States Information Agency to conduct the 2-week course for EAP college faculty. Course objectives included: identifying the role of the teacher and…

  19. A Faculty Short Course on Improving College Teaching at Escuela Agricola Panamericana, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Jimmy G.; Beeman, Carl E.

    A short course on improving college teaching at Escuela Agricola Panamericana (EAP), in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, is discussed. Two University of Florida college faculty members were engaged by the United States Information Agency to conduct the 2-week course for EAP college faculty. Course objectives included: identifying the role of the teacher and…

  20. Honduras: Will the Revolution Come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-03

    2. GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS. Banco Central de Honduras. Honduras en Cifras. Tegucigalpa, D.C. Departamento de Estudios Economicos , 1980. Blutstein...Tegucigalpa D. C. Departamento de Estuidios Economicos , 1980), p. 13 1 8 Agency, Op Cit., p. 9 1 9 Ibid, p. 9 25 ’A’ V~~~... .... X~l-V’ 2 0 Interview

  1. Review of the Bat Flies of Honduras, Central America (Diptera: Streblidae

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    Carl W. Dick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streblid bat flies are obligate and host-specific blood-feeding ectoparasites of bats. While the bat flies of some American countries are well studied (e.g., Panama, Venezuela, little is known about Honduran Streblidae. Accumulation of substantial numbers of specimens, from several different collections, has enabled a relatively thorough treatment of the fauna. This study is based on 2,236 specimens representing 17 genera and 43 species of Streblidae. Of those presently reported, 11 genera and 32 species are new records for Honduras, increasing the number of known genera and species by 65% and 74%, respectively. Collection and host data are listed for all known Honduran streblid bat fly species. Comments regarding host associations and specificity, geographic distribution, and taxonomic problems are given in the species accounts.

  2. Exploration drilling and reservoir model of the Platanares geothermal system, Honduras, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, F.; Goff, S.J.; Kelkar, S.; Shevenell, L.; Truesdell, A.H.; Musgrave, J.; Rufenacht, H.; Flores, W.

    1991-01-01

    Results of drilling, logging, and testing of three exploration core holes, combined with results of geologic and hydrogeochemical investigations, have been used to present a reservoir model of the Platanares geothermal system, Honduras. Geothermal fluids circulate at depths ??? 1.5 km in a region of active tectonism devoid of Quaternary volcanism. Large, artesian water entries of 160 to 165??C geothermal fluid in two core holes at 625 to 644 m and 460 to 635 m depth have maximum flow rates of roughly 355 and 560 l/min, respectively, which are equivalent to power outputs of about 3.1 and 5.1 MW(thermal). Dilute, alkali-chloride reservoir fluids (TDS ??? 1200 mg/kg) are produced from fractured Miocene andesite and Cretaceous to Eocene redbeds that are hydrothermally altered. Fracture permeabillity in producing horizons is locally greater than 1500 and bulk porosity is ??? 6%. A simple, fracture-dominated, volume-impedance model assuming turbulent flow indicates that the calculated reservoir storage capacity of each flowing hole is approximately 9.7 ?? 106 l/(kg cm-2), Tritium data indicate a mean residence time of 450 yr for water in the reservoir. Multiplying the natural fluid discharge rate by the mean residence time gives an estimated water volume of the Platanares system of ??? 0.78 km3. Downward continuation of a 139??C/km "conductive" gradient at a depth of 400 m in a third core hole implies that the depth to a 225??C source reservoir (predicted from chemical geothermometers) is at least 1.5 km. Uranium-thorium disequilibrium ages on calcite veins at the surface and in the core holes indicate that the present Platanares hydrothermal system has been active for the last 0.25 m.y. ?? 1991.

  3. Distributional records of shrews (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Soricidae) from Northern Central America with the first record of Sorex from Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Matson, John O.; McCarthy, Timothy J.; Eckerlin, Ralph P.; Bulmer, Walter; Ordonez-Garza, Nicte

    2012-01-01

    Short term surveys for small mammals in Guatemala and Honduras during 1992–2009 provided important new records for 12 taxa of shrews from 24 localities. These locality records expand the known geographic distributions for five species and for the genus Sorex Linnaeus, 1758: the geographic range of Cryptotis goodwini Jackson, 1933, now includes the Sierra de las Minas, Guatemala, and several isolated highlands in western Honduras; the known distribution of Cryptotis mayensis (Merriam, 1901) is increased with the first definite modern record for this shrew from Guatemala; Cryptotis merriami Choate, 1970, is now known to occur in the Sierra de las Minas and the Sierra del Merendon, Guatemala, as well as the isolated Sierra de Omoa and Montana de La Muralla in Honduras, and its documented elevational range (600–1720 m) is expanded; records of Sorex veraepacis Alston, 1877, expand the known distribution of this species to include the Sierra de Yalijux, Guatemala; and discovery of Sorex salvini Merriam, 1897, at Celaque, Honduras (1825–3110 m), represents a considerable extension of the geographic range of the species, and it is the first record of the genus Sorex from Honduras. In addition, the first record of potential syntopy among C. goodwini, C merriami, and Cryptotis orophilus (J.A. Allen, 1895), is reported at an elevation of 1430 m in the Sierra de Celaque, Honduras. Information associated with these records contributes substantially to knowledge of habitat use, elevational distributions, reproductive patterns, diet, and parasites of the species encountered. General patterns include the first evidence that Neotropical species of soricids have smaller litters than their temperate congeners.

  4. Appendix C: The sources of Copan Valley obsidian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbottle, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Neff, H.; Bishop, R.L. [Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (United States). Conservation Analytical Lab.

    1995-05-01

    One hundred thirty-nine obsidian samples from the Copan Valley were subjected to neutron activation analysis at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Obsidian sources from Mesoamerica have been characterized by a number of different laboratories using several techniques. Over 1,800 samples from Mesoamerica have been analyzed by neutron activation at BNL. These data are now housed both at BNL and in the Smithsonian Archaeometric Research Collections and Records (SARCAR) data base. Previous statistical analysis of the Mesoamerican obsidian artifacts and source samples has produced reference groups representing many of the sources, including Ixtepeque, San Martin Jilotepeque, and El Chayal, the three sources closest to the Copan Valley and therefore most likely to be represented in the analyzed sample. As anticipated, the overwhelming majority of obsidian recovered in the Copan Valley comes from the closest source, Ixtepeque. Of the seven El Chayal specimens, four pertain to CV-43 and three pertain to CV-20. These data provide no evidence of a difference between the two localities in external obsidian exchange relations. Thus, the authors find no grounds for questioning the assumption that the minor quantities of El Chayal obsidian that reached the Copan Valley were distributed through the same channels responsible for distribution of the more common Ixtepeque obsidian.

  5. Future U.S. National Security Strategy with Respect to Honduras and the Central American Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    34 Current History, Vol. 85, No. 515, December 1986. 38. Gonzales , Edward et al. United States Policy for Central America, R-3150-RC. Santa Monica, CA...CO: Westview Press, 1983. 85. Robbins, Carla Anne. "New look in Latin America." U.S.News and World Report, 2 January 1989. 86. Roca, Sergio . "Cuba

  6. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  7. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  8. Raman and micro-thermometric investigation of the fluid inclusions in quartz in a gold-rich formation from Lepaguare mining district (Honduras, Central America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, D.; Salvioli-Mariani, E.; Mattioli, M.; Menichetti, M.; Lottici, P. P.

    2009-08-01

    Fluid inclusions in the quartz crystals present in gold-rich veins from central Honduras have been studied by means of micro-thermometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to provide information on the physico-chemical conditions and chemical composition of the mineralizing fluids. The use of a confocal micro-Raman apparatus allowed to obtain information on the fluid composition, in particular on the gas phase, minimizing the contributions of the host matrix to the Raman signal. The samples studied were collected from an area (Lepaguare mining district, Northern-Central Honduras) rich in ore deposits due to the Cenozoic magmatic activity, where the gold and sulphide mineralization is connected with a system of quartz veins (few decimetres thick) occurring in low-grade metamorphic rocks and produced by hydrothermal fluids. The quartz crystals present in the gold-rich veins often contain fluid inclusions. Four types of fluid inclusions have been observed, but their assemblage in the same clusters and fracture systems, as well as their comparable salinity and homogenization data, suggest that they have the same origin. Micro-thermometry and Raman spectroscopy provide a composition of the mineralizing fluids attributable to the system H 2O-NaCl-KCl-CO 2-CH 4, with temperature and pressure intervals of 210-413 °C and 1050-3850 bar, respectively. These data agree with an epigenetic origin of the gold deposit (depth < 6 km) related to granitoid or granodiorite intrusions associated to orogenic environments.

  9. Raman and micro-thermometric investigation of the fluid inclusions in quartz in a gold-rich formation from Lepaguare mining district (Honduras, Central America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, D; Salvioli-Mariani, E; Mattioli, M; Menichetti, M; Lottici, P P

    2009-08-01

    Fluid inclusions in the quartz crystals present in gold-rich veins from central Honduras have been studied by means of micro-thermometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to provide information on the physico-chemical conditions and chemical composition of the mineralizing fluids. The use of a confocal micro-Raman apparatus allowed to obtain information on the fluid composition, in particular on the gas phase, minimizing the contributions of the host matrix to the Raman signal. The samples studied were collected from an area (Lepaguare mining district, Northern-Central Honduras) rich in ore deposits due to the Cenozoic magmatic activity, where the gold and sulphide mineralization is connected with a system of quartz veins (few decimetres thick) occurring in low-grade metamorphic rocks and produced by hydrothermal fluids. The quartz crystals present in the gold-rich veins often contain fluid inclusions. Four types of fluid inclusions have been observed, but their assemblage in the same clusters and fracture systems, as well as their comparable salinity and homogenization data, suggest that they have the same origin. Micro-thermometry and Raman spectroscopy provide a composition of the mineralizing fluids attributable to the system H(2)O-NaCl-KCl-CO(2)-CH(4), with temperature and pressure intervals of 210-413 degrees C and 1050-3850 bar, respectively. These data agree with an epigenetic origin of the gold deposit (depth < 6 km) related to granitoid or granodiorite intrusions associated to orogenic environments.

  10. Honduras: Caribbean Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harborne, Alastair R.; Afzal, Daniel C.; Andrews, Mark J. [Coral Cay Conservation, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an over

  11. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  12. Magmas with slab fluid and decompression melting signatures coexisting in the Gulf of Fonseca: Evidence from Isla El Tigre volcano (Honduras, Central America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Michele; Renzulli, Alberto; Agostini, Samuele; Lucidi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Isla El Tigre volcano is located in the Gulf of Fonseca (Honduras) along the Central America volcanic front, where a significant change in the strike of the volcanic chain is observed. The studied samples of this poorly investigated volcano are mainly subalkaline basic to intermediate lavas (basalts and basaltic andesites) and subordinate subalkaline/alkaline transitional basalts, both having the typical mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of arc volcanic rocks. On the basis of petrographic and geochemical features, two groups of rocks have been distinguished. Lavas from the main volcanic edifice are highly porphyritic and hy-qz normative, and have lower MgO contents ( 5 wt.%), are ol-hy normative and show lower HFSE depletions relative to LILE and LREE, with lower Ba/La, Ba/Nb and Zr/Nb ratios. This suggests that mantle-derived magmas were not produced by the same process throughout the activity of the volcano. The bulk rock geochemistry and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70373-0.70382), 143Nd/144Nd (0.51298-0.51301), 206Pb/204Pb (18.55-18.58), 207Pb/204Pb (15.54-15.56) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.23-38.26) isotopic data of Isla El Tigre compared with the other volcanoes of the Gulf of Fonseca and all available literature data for Central America suggests that this stratovolcano was mainly built by mantle-derived melts driven by slab-derived fluid-flux melting, while magmas erupted through its parasitic cones have a clear signature of decompression melting with minor slab contribution. The coexistence of these two different mantle melting generation processes is likely related to the complex geodynamic setting of the Gulf of Fonseca, where the volcanic front changes direction by ca. 30° and two fundamental tectonic structures of the Chortis continental block, mainly the N-S Honduras Depression and the NE-SW Guayape Fault Zone, cross each other.

  13. GPS-derived coupling estimates for the Central America subduction zone and volcanic arc faults: El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Mora, F.; DeMets, C.; Alvarado, D.; Turner, H. L.; Mattioli, G.; Hernandez, D.; Pullinger, C.; Rodriguez, M.; Tenorio, C.

    2009-12-01

    We invert GPS velocities from 32 sites in El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua to estimate the rate of long-term forearc motion and distributions of interseismic coupling across the Middle America subduction zone offshore from these countries and faults in the Salvadoran and Nicaraguan volcanic arcs. A 3-D finite element model is used to approximate the geometries of the subduction interface and strike-slip faults in the volcanic arc and determine the elastic response to coupling across these faults. The GPS velocities are best fit by a model in which the forearc moves 14-16 mmyr-1 and has coupling of 85-100 per cent across faults in the volcanic arc, in agreement with the high level of historic and recent earthquake activity in the volcanic arc. Our velocity inversion indicates that coupling across the potentially seismogenic areas of the subduction interface is remarkably weak, averaging no more than 3 per cent of the plate convergence rate and with only two poorly resolved patches where coupling might be higher along the 550-km-long segment we modelled. Our geodetic evidence for weak subduction coupling disagrees with a seismically derived coupling estimate of 60 +/- 10 per cent from a published analysis of earthquake damage back to 1690, but agrees with three other seismologic studies that infer weak subduction coupling from 20th century earthquakes. Most large historical earthquakes offshore from El Salvador and western Nicaragua may therefore have been intraslab normal faulting events similar to the Mw 7.3 1982 and Mw 7.7 2001 earthquakes offshore from El Salvador. Alternatively, the degree of coupling might vary with time. The evidence for weak coupling indirectly supports a recently published hypothesis that much of the Middle American forearc is escaping to the west or northwest away from the Cocos Ridge collision zone in Costa Rica. Such a hypothesis is particularly attractive for El Salvador, where there is little or no convergence obliquity to drive the

  14. An economic prefeasibility study of geothermal energy development at Platanares, Honduras. Estudio economico de prefactibilidad del desarrollo de energia geotermica en Platanares, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.K.

    1989-09-01

    The expected economic benefits from development of a geothermal power plant at Platanares in the Department of Copan, Honduras are evaluated in this report. The economic benefits of geothermal plants ranging in size from a 10-MW plant in the shallow reservoir to a 20-, 30-, 55-, or 110-MW plant in the assumed deeper reservoir were measured by computing optimal expansion plans for each size of geothermal plant. Savings are computed as the difference in present value cost between a plan that contains no geothermal plant and one that does. Present value savings in millions of 1987 dollars range from $25 million for the 10-MW plant to $110 million for the 110-MW plant -- savings of 6% to 25% over the time period 1988 through 2008. 8 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Honduras Defense Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-22

    and its Organization .......... 14 Civil -Military Relations ............................17 Impact of the Military on the Government ........... 18 Ill...Discovered by Columbus in his last voyage in August 1502, Honduras was part of the Mayan Empire that flourished throughout Southern Mexico, Guatemala...34 + " ’- " - ’ ] , . i + .°, +,.o .r+ .* -- 7--- -. * - I . .. .. early 1930’s. Civil wars, armed revolts and political struggle for power was the common denominator

  16. Geophysical Investigation for Groundwater Resources at the Soto Cano Air Base, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    America, Publicaciones Geologicas del ICAITI, No. V, pp. 31-42. Fakundiny, R.H., 1970, Geology of the El Rosario Quadrangle, Honduras, Central...freshwater aquifers in northeastern Missouri, Geophysics, vol. 39, p. 340. Interpex, Ltd., 1988. Program Resix Plus and User’s Manual , Interpex Ltd., P.O...Central. Muehlberger, W. R., 1976, The Honduras Depression, Publicaciones Geologicas del ICAITI, No. V, 42 pp. Weyl, R., 1980, Geology of Central

  17. Landslides triggered by Hurricane Mitch in Tegucigalpa, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Edwin L.; Castaneda, Mario; Held, Matthew D.

    2002-01-01

    The arrival of Hurricane Mitch in Honduras in the latter part of the 1998 hurricane season produced effects that were unprecedented in their widespread nature throughout Central America. After winds from the storm had blown down more than 70 percent of the conifer forest on the Bay Island of Guanaja, the hurricane turned inland and stalled over the mainland of Honduras for 3 days. The resulting deluge of rainfall produced devastating flooding and landslides that resulted in more than 9,000 fatalities and 3 million people displaced. Although the eye of Hurricane Mitch passed through the northern part of Honduras, the greatest rainfall totals and intensities occurred in the southern part of the country near Choluteca. For the three days October 29-31, 1998, total rainfall at Choluteca exceeded 900 mm. Not surprisingly, it was in this area that the highest landslide concentrations occurred.

  18. Note on the Honduras Radio Schools (ACPH--Accion Cultural Popular Hondureno). IEC Discussion Paper. Appendix 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael

    This report on the radio schools in Honduras, Central America, includes (1) an account of an afternoon session of the radio school's Primary Equivalence Programme (PEPA), including a testimonial of a student and a statement regarding the importance of the monitors; (2) information on the social background of Honduras; (3) an historical account of…

  19. Note on the Honduras Radio Schools (ACPH--Accion Cultural Popular Hondureno). IEC Discussion Paper. Appendix 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael

    This report on the radio schools in Honduras, Central America, includes (1) an account of an afternoon session of the radio school's Primary Equivalence Programme (PEPA), including a testimonial of a student and a statement regarding the importance of the monitors; (2) information on the social background of Honduras; (3) an historical account of…

  20. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Ana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the population structure of Plasmodium species through genetic diversity studies can assist in the design of more effective malaria control strategies, particularly in vaccine development. Central America is an area where malaria is a public health problem, but little is known about the genetic diversity of the parasite’s circulating species. This study aimed to investigate the allelic frequency and molecular diversity of five surface antigens in field isolates from Honduras. Methods Five molecular markers were analysed to determine the genotypes of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum from endemic areas in Honduras. Genetic diversity of ama-1, msp-1 and csp was investigated for P. vivax, and msp-1 and msp-2 for P. falciparum. Allelic frequencies were calculated and sequence analysis performed. Results and conclusion A high genetic diversity was observed within Plasmodium isolates from Honduras. A different number of genotypes were elucidated: 41 (n = 77 for pvama-1; 23 (n = 84 for pvcsp; and 23 (n = 35 for pfmsp-1. Pvcsp sequences showed VK210 as the only subtype present in Honduran isolates. Pvmsp-1 (F2 was the most polymorphic marker for P. vivax isolates while pvama-1 was least variable. All three allelic families described for pfmsp-1 (n = 30 block 2 (K1, MAD20, and RO33, and both allelic families described for the central domain of pfmsp-2 (n = 11 (3D7 and FC27 were detected. However, K1 and 3D7 allelic families were predominant. All markers were randomly distributed across the country and no geographic correlation was found. To date, this is the most complete report on molecular characterization of P. vivax and P. falciparum field isolates in Honduras with regards to genetic diversity. These results indicate that P. vivax and P. falciparum parasite populations are highly diverse in Honduras despite the low level of transmission.

  1. Mapa de Vulnerabilidad en Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, A. A.

    2013-05-01

    Dado que Honduras geográficamente se encuentra en una zona que esta expuesta a diferentes fenómenos sísmicos y climatológicos. Investigamos cuales son las zonas mas propensas a desastres naturales, la vulnerabilidad y el factor de resiliencia de la población de acuerdo a diferentes parámetros de estudio.

  2. Clinical Features and Neurologic Complications of Children Hospitalized With Chikungunya Virus in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, José A; Hagood, Nancy L; Summer, Andrea; Medina, Marco T; Holden, Kenton R

    2017-07-01

    The first case of Chikungunya virus in Honduras was identified in 2014. The virus has spread widely across Honduras via the Aedes aegypti mosquito, leading to an outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 2015 that significantly impacted children. A retrospective chart review of 235 children diagnosed with CHIKV and admitted to the National Autonomous University of Honduras Hospital Escuela (Hospital Escuela) in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, was accomplished with patients who were assessed for clinical features and neurologic complications. Of 235 children admitted to Hospital Escuela with CHIKV, the majority had symptoms of fever, generalized erythematous rash, and irritability. Fourteen percent had clinical arthritis. Ten percent of patients had seizures. Six percent had meningoencephalitis. There were 2 childhood deaths during the course of this study, one from meningoencephalitis and another from myocarditis. Chikungunya virus can cause severe complications in children, the majority of which impact the central nervous system.

  3. Sustainable energy policy in Honduras: Diagnosis and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Wilfredo C. [National Directorate of Energy, Tegucigalpa (MDC) (Honduras); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Fisica, Tegucigalpa (MDC) (Honduras); Ojeda, Osvaldo A. [Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco (Argentina); Flores, Marco A.; Rivas, Francisco R. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Fisica, Tegucigalpa (MDC) (Honduras)

    2011-02-15

    In view of having a still unexploited potential of natural resources available for clean energy and the possibility of using the regional electricity market in Central America, Honduras has several potential energy sources. The growing dependence on oil and the imminent increase in international prices of fossil fuels, coupled with the necessity of changing the energy sector arrangement, the State of Honduras has taken the lead for the development of a long-term sustainable energy policy. This energy policy must be able to develop various energy sources and guide both, the government and the private sector, to the planning and development of alternative energy sources and sustainable growth of the Honduran economy. In this paper, the various energy diagnoses and the potential for changing the Honduran energy mix are presented, as well as the investment required for sustainable management of the energy sector. Furthermore, the objectives of the energy policy and plan up to the year 2030 are presented, outlining the investment possibilities for the energy sector development, showing their costs and timeframes. - Research Highlights: {yields} This paper shows the development of a long-term energy policy for Honduras. {yields} The various diagnoses of the energy sector in Honduras are shown, considering the use of wood, biomass, biofuels, electricity, transportation, hydrocarbons and rural electrification. {yields} The most relevant results of the analysis of energy forecasting are shown, for which the LEAP software was used. {yields} The objectives of the energy policy and plan up to the year 2030 are presented, outlining the investment possibilities for the energy sector development, showing their costs and timeframes.

  4. Honduras geothermal development: Regulations and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.J.; Winchester, W.W.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) through the Assistant Secretary for Policy, Planning, and Evaluation funded a project to review and evaluate existing power sector laws and regulations in Honduras. Also included in the scope of the project was a review of regulations pertaining to the privatization of state-run companies. We paid particular attention to regulations which might influence opportunities to develop and commercialize Honduras` geothermal resources. We believe that Honduras is well on the road to attracting foreign investment and has planned or has already in place much of the infrastructure and legal guarantees which encourage the influx of private funds from abroad. In addition, in light of current power rationing and Honduras` new and increasing awareness of the negative effects of power sector development on the environment, geothermal energy development is even more attractive. Combined, these factors create a variety of opportunities. The potential for private sector development of geothermal positive.

  5. An economic prefeasibility study of geothermal energy development at Platonares, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.K.

    1989-01-01

    The expected economic benefits from development of a geothermal power plant at Plantanares in the Department of Copan, Honduras are evaluated in this report. The economic benefits of geothermal plants ranging in size from a 10-MW plant in the shallow reservoir to a 20-, 30-, 55-, or 110-MW plant in the assumed deeper reservoir were measured by computing optimal expansion plans for each size of geothermal computing optimal expansion plans for each size of geothermal plant. Savings are computed as the difference in present value cost between a plan that contains no geothermal plant and one that does. Present value savings in millions of 1987 dollars range from $25 million for the 10-MW plant to $110 million for the 110-MW plant -- savings of 6% to 25% over the time period 1988 through 2008. The existence of the shallow reservoir is relatively well-characterized, and much indirect scientific evidence indicate the existence of the deeper reservoir. Based on probability distributions estimated by geologists of temperature, areal extent, depth, and porosity, the expected size of power plant that the deep reservoir can support was estimated with the following results: O-MW -- 16% (i.e., there is a 16% chance that the deep reservoir will not support a power plant); 20-MW -- 38%; 30-MW -- 25%; 55-MW -- 19%; and 110-MW -- 2%. When the cost savings from each size of plant are weighted by the probability that the reservoir will support a plant of that size, the expected monetary value of the deep reservoir can be computed. It is $42 million in present value 1987 dollars -- a cost savings of 10%. The expected savings from the 10-MW plant in the shallow reservoir are expected to be close to the computed value of $25 million, i.e., the probability that the shallow reservoir can support the plant is high. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Population data for 12 Y-chromosome STR loci in a sample from Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Mireya; Yurrebaso, Iñaki; Gusmão, Leonor; García, Oscar

    2009-09-01

    Haplotype, allele frequencies and population data of 12 Y-chromosome STR loci DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 were determined from a sample of 128 unrelated male individuals from Honduras, Central America. A total of 112 haplotypes were identified by the 12 Y-STR loci of which 98 were unique. The haplotype diversity (98.99%) and the proportion of different haplotypes (87.50%) were estimated. Genetic distances were calculated between Honduras and other populations from Southern and Central America, Europe and Africa. The analysis of a Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) plot, based on pairwise R(ST) genetic distances, allowed to conclude that Honduras is highly differentiated from the African samples (0.343Honduras showed a lower genetic distance to the European cluster (composed by European and South American general population samples from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela) than to the Central American cluster (Mexico and El Salvador).

  7. Sistema de salud de Honduras The health system of Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Bermúdez-Madriz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Honduras, incluyendo los retos que enfrenta, su estructura y cobertura, su financiamiento, los recursos con los que cuenta y las actividades de rectoría que en él se desarrollan. Este sistema cuenta con un sector público constituido por la Secretaría de Salud (SS y el Instituto Hondureño de Seguridad Social (IHSS, y un sector privado en el que predomina el uso de servicios con pago de bolsillo. El Plan Nacional de Salud 2010-2014 se plantea una ambiciosa reforma del sistema que contempla la universalización del aseguramiento mediante un sistema de salud integrado y plural, en el que la SS funcionaría como una institución rectora y reguladora, y que contaría con un seguro público nacional de salud para la población pobre y un IHSS que funcionaría exclusivamente como aseguradora al contratar servicios para sus afiliados con proveedores públicos y privados, que operarían bajo un modelo de salud familiar y comunitaria.This paper describes the health system of Honduras, including its challenges, structure coverage, sources of financing, resources and stewardship activities. This system counts with a public and a private sector. The public sector includes the Ministry of Health (MH and the Honduran Social Security Institute (HSSI. The private sector is dominated by a set of providers offering services payed mostly out-of-pocket. The National Health Plan 2010-2014 includes a set of reforms oriented towards the creation of an integrated and plural system headed by the MH in its stewardship role. It also anticipates the creation of a public health insurance for the poor population and the transformation of the HSSI into a public insurance agency which contracts services for its affiliates with public and private providers under a family medicine model.

  8. Automatic Digital Analysis of Chromogenic Media for Vancomycin-Resistant-Enterococcus Screens Using Copan WASPLab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faron, Matthew L; Buchan, Blake W; Coon, Christopher; Liebregts, Theo; van Bree, Anita; Jansz, Arjan R; Soucy, Genevieve; Korver, John; Ledeboer, Nathan A

    2016-10-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are an important cause of health care-acquired infections (HAIs). Studies have shown that active surveillance of high-risk patients for VRE colonization can aid in reducing HAIs; however, these screens generate a significant cost to the laboratory and health care system. Digital imaging capable of differentiating negative and "nonnegative" chromogenic agar can reduce the labor cost of these screens and potentially improve patient care. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the WASPLab Chromogenic Detection Module (CDM) (Copan, Brescia, Italy) software to analyze VRE chromogenic agar and compared the results to technologist plate reading. Specimens collected at 3 laboratories were cultured using the WASPLab CDM and plated to each site's standard-of-care chromogenic media, which included Colorex VRE (BioMed Diagnostics, White City, OR) or Oxoid VRE (Oxoid, Basingstoke, United Kingdom). Digital images were scored using the CDM software after 24 or 40 h of growth, and all manual reading was performed using digital images on a high-definition (HD) monitor. In total, 104,730 specimens were enrolled and automation agreed with manual analysis for 90.1% of all specimens tested, with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 89.5%, respectively. Automation results were discordant for 10,348 specimens, and all discordant images were reviewed by a laboratory supervisor or director. After a second review, 499 specimens were identified as representing missed positive cultures falsely called negative by the technologist, 1,616 were identified as containing borderline color results (negative result but with no package insert color visible), and 8,234 specimens were identified as containing colorimetric pigmentation due to residual matrix from the specimen or yeast (Candida). Overall, the CDM was accurate at identifying negative VRE plates, which comprised 84% (87,973) of the specimens in this study.

  9. New geochemical investigations in Platanares and Azacualpa geothermal sites (Honduras)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberi, Franco; Carapezza, Maria Luisa; Cioni, Roberto; Lelli, Matteo; Menichini, Matia; Ranaldi, Massimo; Ricci, Tullio; Tarchini, Luca

    2013-05-01

    Platanares and Azacualpa geothermal sites of Honduras are located in an inner part of the Caribbean Plate far from the active volcanic front of Central America. Here geology indicates that there are not the conditions for the occurrence of shallow magmatic heat sources for high-enthalpy geothermal resources. Geothermal perspectives are related to the possibility of a deep circulation of meteoric water along faults and the storage of the heated fluid in fractured permeable reservoirs. Geochemical geothermometers indicate a temperature for the deeper part of the geothermal reservoir close to 200 °C for Platanares and of 150-170 °C for Azacualpa. Calcite scaling, with subordinate silica deposition has to be expected in both sites. CO2 soil flux investigations have been carried out in both areas and reveal the presence of positive anomalies likely corresponding to the presence at depth of fractured degassing geothermal reservoirs. Compared with the geothermal areas of Central Italy whose reservoirs are hosted in carbonate rocks, e.g. Latera (Chiodini et al., 2007), the CO2 soil flux measured in Honduras is significantly lower (mean of 17 g/m2day at Platanares and of 163 g/m2day at Azacualpa) probably because of the dominant silicate nature of the deep reservoirs.

  10. Breastfeeding gains popularity in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S

    1992-10-01

    In 1982, a breast feeding support program (PROALMA) first operated in 3 large public hospitals and a large health center in Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula, Honduras. It trained health workers about the benefits of breast feeding and lactation management and developed hospital breast feeding policies and practices, e.g., creation of a milk bank for premature newborns. It even convinced hospitals to stop free distribution of infant formula and bottles. In fact, annual expenditures for infant formula at the Social Security Hospital in San Pedro Sula fell from US$ 40,000 to 6000 in 1 year and to 0 by 1990. Hospital practices which were not conducive to breast feeding included separation of newborns from mothers and giving newborns sugar water as their first food. In fact, 69% of mothers at Tegucigalpa hospitals said hospital staff gave their newborns breast milk substitutes within 24 hours of birth. The program began a rooming-in system which made it easier for mothers to initiate early, frequent, and on-demand breast feeding. PROALMA staff were in the maternity wards daily to provide breast feeding counseling. At the end of 3 years, 98% of women delivering at Tegucigalpa hospitals breast fed their infants. The project eventually expanded to hospitals nationwide. Between 1981 and 1988, breast feeding rose from 80% to 93% in cities and from 95% to 98% in rural areas. Further, the median duration of breast feeding increased from 4 months to 10 months (1982-1987) in cities. Yet, just 6% of mothers exclusively breast fed their 3-4 month old infants in 1987. In addition, only 28% exclusively breast fed before introducing the bottle. Staff attitude improved as evidenced by an increase in the percentage of workers promoting breast feeding at birth (37-86% during 1982-1986). PROALMA concluded that increased efforts to promote exclusive breast feeding are needed.

  11. Sustainable energy policy in Honduras. Diagnosis and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Wilfredo C. [National Directorate of Energy, Tegucigalpa (MDC), Honduras, Central America (United States); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Fisica, Tegucigalpa (MDC), Honduras, Central America (United States); Ojeda, Osvaldo A. [Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco (Argentina); Flores, Marco A.; Rivas, Francisco R. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Fisica, Tegucigalpa (MDC), Honduras, Central America (United States)

    2011-02-15

    In view of having a still unexploited potential of natural resources available for clean energy and the possibility of using the regional electricity market in Central America, Honduras has several potential energy sources. The growing dependence on oil and the imminent increase in international prices of fossil fuels, coupled with the necessity of changing the energy sector arrangement, the State of Honduras has taken the lead for the development of a long-term sustainable energy policy. This energy policy must be able to develop various energy sources and guide both, the government and the private sector, to the planning and development of alternative energy sources and sustainable growth of the Honduran economy. In this paper, the various energy diagnoses and the potential for changing the Honduran energy mix are presented, as well as the investment required for sustainable management of the energy sector. Furthermore, the objectives of the energy policy and plan up to the year 2030 are presented, outlining the investment possibilities for the energy sector development, showing their costs and timeframes. (author)

  12. West Indian Sojourners in Guatemala and Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald N. Harpelle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Race, Nation, and West Indian Immigration to Honduras, 1890-1940. Glenn A. Chambers. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010. xii +202 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00Black Labor Migration in Caribbean Guatemala, 1882-1923. Frederick Douglass Opie. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009. 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 65.00

  13. Book Review: The Snakes of Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam Zaher

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Book review: McCranie, J. R. 2011. The Snakes of Honduras – Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation. Contributions to Herpetology, Volume 26. Society for the Study of Amphibians andReptiles, Thomson-Shore, Inc., Michigan. 724 pages, 65 figures, 23 tables, 20 color plates.

  14. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Honduras. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. ...

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Inoculation of Urine Samples with the Copan WASP® and BD Kiestra™ InoqulA™ Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jesper; Stendal, Gitta; Gerdes, Cecilie Marie

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated quantitative results as well as the quality of the inoculation patterns on urine specimens produced by two automated instruments, the Copan WASP® and the BD InoqulA™. 526 urine samples submitted in 10 ml canisters containing boric acid were processed within 30 minutes...... on an InoqulA, plating 10 ul of specimen, and two WASP instruments, one plating 1 ul of specimen (WASP-1) and the second WASP 10 ul (WASP-10). All samples were incubated, analysed, and digitally imaged using the BD Kiestra™ Total Lab Automation system. Results were evaluated using a quantitative protocol...... of the automated instruments divided by the counts for the calibrated pipet (golden standard). Ratios for the InoqulA were closest to 1,0 with the smallest standard deviations indicating that, compared to a calibrated pipet, the InoqulA results were more accurate than the WASP.. For clinical samples, the WASPs...

  16. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  17. Potential impacts of climate variability on dengue hemorrhagic fever in Honduras, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, L I; Sevilla, C; Reyes-García, S Z; Sierra, M; Kafati, R; Rodriguez-Morales, A J; Mattar, S

    2012-12-01

    Climate change and variability are affecting human health and disease direct or indirectly through many mechanisms. Dengue is one of those diseases that is strongly influenced by climate variability; however its study in Central America has been poorly approached. In this study, we assessed potential associations between macroclimatic and microclimatic variation and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases in the main hospital of Honduras during 2010. In this year, 3,353 cases of DHF were reported in the Hospital Escuela, Tegucigalpa. Climatic periods marked a difference of 158% in the mean incidence of cases, from El Niño weeks (-99% of cases below the mean incidence) to La Niña months (+59% of cases above it) (pHonduras. However, it is necessary to extend these studies in this and other countries in the Central America region, because these models can be applied for surveillance as well as for prediction of dengue.

  18. Elecciones, sistema de partidos, democracia y ciudadanía en Honduras (1980–2013*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Romero Ballivián

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Esboza las líneas gruesas de los juegos políticos en que se ha visto envuelto el proceso electoral de Honduras desde su retorno a la democracia; con el objetivo de percibir mejor las permanencias y las transformaciones de las elecciones, y propone pistas explicativas y dibuja consecuencias e implicaciones. Ofrece un análisis detallado de cada uno de los comicios, destaca las tendencias centrales de cada período

  19. The herpetofauna of the cloud forests of Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Larry David; McCranie, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The cloud forest amphibians and reptiles constitute the most important herpetofaunal segment in Honduras, due to the prevalence of endemic and Nuclear Middle American-restricted species. This segment, however, is subject to severe environmental threats due to the actions of humans. Of the 334 species of amphibians and reptiles currently known from Honduras, 122 are known to be distributed in cloud forest habitats. Cloud forest habitats are found throughout the mountainous interior of Honduras...

  20. The herpetofauna of the cloud forests of Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Larry David; James R. McCranie

    2010-01-01

    The cloud forest amphibians and reptiles constitute the most important herpetofaunal segment in Honduras, due to the prevalence of endemic and Nuclear Middle American-restricted species. This segment, however, is subject to severe environmental threats due to the actions of humans. Of the 334 species of amphibians and reptiles currently known from Honduras, 122 are known to be distributed in cloud forest habitats. Cloud forest habitats are found throughout the mountainous interior of Honduras...

  1. Jewel scarabs (Chrysina sp.) in Honduras: key species for cloud forest conservation monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocque, M; Vanhove, M P M; Creedy, T J; Burdekin, O; Nuñez-Miño, J M; Casteels, J

    2013-01-01

    Jewel scarabs, beetles in the genus Chrysina Kirby (Coleoptera: Rutelinae: Scarabaeidae), receive their name from the bright, often gold, green elytra that reflect light like a precious stone. Jewel scarabs are commonly observed at light traps in Mesoamerican cloud forests, and their association with mountain forests makes them potentially interesting candidates for cloud forest conservation monitoring. The absence of survey protocols and identification tools, and the little ecological information available are barriers. In the present study, collection of Chrysina species assembled during biodiversity surveys by Operation Wallacea in Cusuco National Park (CNP), Honduras, were studied. The aim of this overview is to provide an easy to use identification tool for in the field, hopefully stimulating data collection on these beetles. Based on the data associated with the collection localities, elevation distribution of the species in the park was analyzed. The limited data points available were complemented with potential distribution areas generated with distribution models based on climate and elevation data. This study is aimed at initializing the development of a survey protocol for Chrysina species that can be used in cloud forest conservation monitoring throughout Central America. A list of Chrysina species recorded from Honduras so far is provided. The six identified and one unidentified species recorded from CNP are easy to identify in the field based on color and straightforward morphological characteristics. Literature research revealed ten species currently recorded from Honduras. This low species richness in comparison with surrounding Central American countries indicates the poor knowledge of this genus in Honduras. Chrysina species richness in CNP increases with elevation, thereby making the genus one of a few groups of organisms where this correlation is observed, and rendering it a suitable invertebrate representative for cloud forest habitats in

  2. Eficiência dos testes COPAN (Microplate e Single na detecção de resíduos de antimicrobianos no leite Efficacy of COPAN (Microplate and Single kits in detection of antimicrobials residues in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G.M.S.C. Tenório

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência dos testes microbiológicos COPAN (Microplate e Single para detecção de resíduos de 13 antimicrobianos inoculados em leite isento de resíduos. Foram utilizadas quatro concentrações, sendo a primeira equivalente à metade do limite de detecção declarado pelo fabricante (C1; a segunda equivalente ao limite máximo de resíduos (LMR estabelecido pela legislação brasileira (C2; a terceira equivalente ao limite de detecção declarado pelo fabricante (C3; e a quarta equivalente ao dobro do limite de detecção declarado pelo fabricante (C4. Os testes apresentaram 100% de sensibilidade na detecção de amoxicilina, ampicilina, cloxacilina, penicilina, tilosina, sulfadiazina, sulfametoxazol, e 96,7% na detecção de oxacilina para as concentrações informadas pelo fabricante como limite de detecção. Em relação às concentrações estabelecidas pela legislação brasileira, verificou-se que os testes foram capazes de detectá-las para a maioria dos antimicrobianos avaliados. Os testes não se mostraram eficientes na detecção das concentrações estabelecidas pela legislação para eritromicina, oxitetraciclina, tetraciclina, trimetoprim e gentamicina (Microplate.The efficacy of the microbiological kits COPAN (Microplate and Single for detection of antimicrobials residues was tested. Thirteen drugs were inoculated into milk without residues at four concentration levels: C1 - half of the detection threshold declared by the manufacturer, C2 - the maximum residues threshold established by the Brazilian legislation, C3 - the detection threshold declared by the manufacturer, and C4 - two fold the detection threshold declared by the manufacturer. The tests showed 100% efficient in detection of amoxicillin, cloxacillin, penicillin, tilosin, sulfadiazine, and sulfa methoxazol; and 96.7% for oxacillin considering the concentration stated by the manufacturer as threshold level. Regarding the concentrations established by

  3. Leaf litter copepods from a cloud forest mountain top in Honduras (Copepoda: Cyclopidae, Canthocamptidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiers, Frank; Jocque, Merlijn

    2013-01-01

    Five different species of Copepoda were extracted from a leaf litter sample collected on the top (at 2000 m a.s.l.) of a cloud forested mountain in El Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Three of them, one Cyclopidae and two Canthocamptidae are new to science, and are described herein. Olmeccyclops hondo sp. nov. is the second representative thus far known of this New World genus. Moraria catracha sp. nov. and Moraria cusuca sp. nov. are the first formally described members of the genus occurring in Central America. The concept of a "Moraria-group" is considered to be an artificial grouping and is limited here to the genera Moraria and Morariopsis only. The distributional range of this group is essentially Holarctic, with the mountainous regions in Honduras, and probably in west Nicaragua, as the southernmost limits in the New World.

  4. Alternative Education Programmes and Middle School Dropout in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Aguilar, Claudia R.; Alas, Mario; Castellanos, Renán Rápalo; Castro, Levi; Enamorado, Ramón; Fonseca, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Honduras has made steady progress in expanding post-primary school coverage in recent years, but many rural communities still do not provide a middle (lower secondary) school. As a result, Honduras has implemented a number of middle school alternative programmes designed to meet the needs of at-risk populations throughout the country. This article…

  5. Honduras y las relaciones internacionales. 1850 - 1900

    OpenAIRE

    Zepeda Ordoñez, Ismael

    2016-01-01

    El presente ensayo es una aproximación por explicar la política exterior de Honduras entre 1850- 1900,como expresión en la evolución del Estado nacional, que nos permita comprender su comportamiento enlas relaciones internacionales. Analizar sus posiciones, intereses y contradicciones, su papel en el contextocentroamericano, y a la luz de las Instrucciones otorgadas a los funcionarios diplomáticos determinar sugrado de independencia. Entiéndase Instrucciones al conjunto de recomendaciones, fa...

  6. Honduras’ National Security Strategy To Combat Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    homesec/docs/nonprof/nps12-011504-01.pdf (accessed February 8, 2006). 5 Honduras, Secretaria de Defensa Nacional, ed., Honduras: Libro De La Defensa...trafficking, but they 51El Heraldo, "Aumenta Robo De Autos," sec. Economia , March 16, 2006. http...El Heraldo. "Aumenta Robo De Autos." March 16, 2006, sec. Economia . http://www.elheraldo.hn/nota.php?nid=47461&sec=9&fecha=2006-03-16 (accessed

  7. Honduras: Political and Economic Situation and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-13

    important for the Honduran economy, but nontraditional sectors, such as shrimp farming and the maquiladora , or export-processing industry, have grown...with U.S. apparel companies for duty-free entry into the United States of certain apparel products assembled in Honduras. As a result, maquiladoras ...2000 (CBTPA), which provides Caribbean Basin nations with NAFTA-like preferential tariff treatment, further boosted Honduran maquiladoras . Honduras

  8. Sterilization in Honduras: assessing the unmet demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz, B; Nunez, J A; Covington, D L; Colven, C E

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the availability of sterilization services at two hospitals in Honduras. Approximately 7,000 women who had given birth at the Hospital Materno Infantil in Tegucigalpa and the Hospital Leonardo Martinez in San Pedro Sula were asked about their desire for sterilization. Of the women who wanted to be sterilized, a considerable percentage had not been sterilized four months after they had given birth--58 percent of those who had delivered at Materno Infantil and 79 percent of those who had delivered at Leonardo Martinez. Twenty-three percent of the women who delivered at Materno Infantil and 4 percent of the women who delivered at Leonardo Martinez were sterilized before they were discharged. The difference may be attributed to the poor quality of the facilities at Leonardo Martinez.

  9. Breastfeeding promotion in Honduras: the PROALMA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The Honduras PROALMA project was launched in 1982 with the objectives of postponing the early introduction of supplemental foods to infants being breastfed, decrease the rate of bottle feeding, and increase the duration of breastfeeding. PROALMA was initiated as a joint project of the Ministry of Public Health, the National Social Security Institute, and the National Social Welfare Agency. Program efforts are concentrated in urban populations in 2 cities: Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula. The PROALMA project is an example of how breastfeeding promotion activities can influence feeding practices. The project shows that the duration of breastfeeding can be extended when hospital practices are changed and health professionals are trained in appropriate breastfeeding management techniques. Changes such as eliminating the routine use of supplemental formula and encouraging rooming-in resulted in successful initiation of breastfeeding in the hospital. The proportion of health professionals recommending breastfeeding increased from under 40% in 1982 to over 75% in 1985. The Maternal and Child Hospital in Tegucigalpa estimated that changes in infant feeding practices initiated by PROALMA saved the hospital close to US$15,000/year in drug use, infant formula use, and baby bottles. Indirect savings associated with reduced morbidity of newborns are being monitored. The proportion of women who were shown how to breastfeed in the hospital increased from under 10% to 70% between 1982 and 1985. Over 70% of infants were still being breastfed at 12 months of age in 1985 compared with only 35% of these infants in 1982. Before the PROALMA program, half of all breastfeeding women introduced supplementary bottle feedings by 2 weeks of age compared with a median age of 2 1/2 months in 1985. As a result of the success of this project, it has been expanded to cover all of Honduras.

  10. Testing road surface treatments to reduce erosion in forest roads in Honduras [Tratamientos de la superficie de rodadura para reducir la erosion en caminos forestales en Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Samuel; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Keller, Gordon R.

    2009-01-01

    Testing road surface treatments to reduce erosion in forest roads in Honduras. Cien. Inv. Agr. 36(3):425-432. Using forest roads produces more erosion and sedimentation than any other forest or agricultural activity. This study evaluated soil losses from a forest road in central Honduras over two consecutive years. We divided a 400-m segment of road into 8 experimental units, each 50 m in length. Four units were treated with Best Management Practices (BMPs) and four were left untreated. The BMP treatments included reshaping the road prism, installing culverts and reshaping of road ditches, compacting 20-cm layers of the road tread, crowning the road surface (3% slope, double drainage), longitudinal sloping (less than 12%), and adding a 10-cm layer of gravel (crush size = 0.63 cm). Soil movement was measured daily during the rainy seasons. The highest soil loss occurred in the control road, around 500 m3 km-1 per year, while the road treated with BMP lost approximately 225 m3km-1 per year. These results show that road surface erosion can be reduced up to 50% with the implementation of surface treatments.

  11. Assessing Knowledge and Perceptions Related to Preventive Methods and Treatment of Malaria in the Local Endemic Area of Trujillo, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campodonico, Joanna; Sevilla-Martir, Javier; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo; Kochhar, Komal

    2015-01-01

    Malaria in Honduras is endemic and accounts for 40% of the total cases in Central America. Our goal was to assess knowledge of preventive methods and current treatment of malaria among the affected community of Trujillo, Honduras. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 71 individuals. Most respondents had a good understanding about common malaria symptoms but not about the complications associated with severe cases. More important, we found that less than 20% of the respondents recognized indoor residual sprays and insecticide-treated nets as effective preventive measures, which are the most efficient preventive methods. Our study highlights the perceptions the people of Trujillo have about malaria. From our observations, we put forward recommendations to implement a comprehensive campaign to educate the Trujillo population about malaria preventive methods and to recruit local and international efforts to distribute insecticide-treated nets.

  12. Lessons from silage adoption studies in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Reiber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, silage adoption has been low in the tropics, particularly under smallholder conditions. Innovation and adoption processes of silage technologies were promoted in drought-constrained areas of Honduras using a flexible, site-specific and participatory research and extension approach. A total of about 250 farmers participated in training workshops and field days conducted in 13 locations. Smallholders successfully ensiled maize, sorghum and/or Pennisetum spp., mainly in heap and earth silos, while adoption of little bag silage (LBS was low. LBS proved useful as a demonstration, experimentation and learning tool. A ‘silage boom’ occurred in 5 locations, where favorable adoption conditions included the presence of demonstration farms and involvement of key innovators, lack of alternative dry season feeds, perceived benefits of silage feeding, a favorable milk market and both extension continuity and intensity. The lack of chopping equipment was the main reason for non-adoption by poor smallholders. The study showed that, when targeting production system needs and farmer demands, silage promotion can lead to significant adoption, including at smallholder level, in the tropics. This experience could contribute to an increase in effectiveness and sustainability of silage extension in similar situations elsewhere.

  13. Amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Cusuco National Park, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E; Padgett-Flohr, Gretchen E; Field, Richard

    2010-11-01

    Amphibian population declines in Honduras have long been attributed to habitat degradation and pollution, but an increasing number of declines are now being observed from within the boundaries of national parks in pristine montane environments. The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in these declines and was recently documented in Honduras from samples collected in Pico Bonito National Park in 2003. This report now confirms Cusuco National Park, a protected cloud forest reserve with reported amphibian declines, to be the second known site of infection for Honduras. B. dendrobatidis infection was detected in 5 amphibian species: Craugastor rostralis, Duellmanohyla soralia, Lithobates maculata, Plectrohyla dasypus, and Ptychohyla hypomykter. D. soralia, P. dasypus, and P. hypomykter are listed as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and have severely fragmented or restricted distributions. Further investigations are necessary to determine whether observed infection levels indicate an active B. dendrobatidis epizootic with the potential to cause further population declines and extinction.

  14. Short communication: HIV incidence among vulnerable populations in Honduras: results from an integrated behavioral and biological survey among female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and Garifuna in Honduras, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Andrea A; Morales, Sonia; Lorenzana de Rivera, Ivette; Paredes, Mayte; Juarez, Sandra; Alvarez, Berta; Liu, Xin; Parekh, Bharat; Monterroso, Edgar; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2013-03-01

    Honduras has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Central America. Data on HIV incidence are needed to identify groups at greatest need of prevention interventions to inform the national HIV response. We applied a test for recent infection to HIV-positive specimens from a biological and behavioral survey to estimate assay-derived incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW), and the Garifuna population in Honduras. Assay-derived estimates were compared to the mathematically modeled estimates in the same populations to assess plausibility of the assay-based estimates. Assay-derived incidence was 1.1% (95% CI 0.2-2.0) among MSM, 0.4% (95% CI 0.1-0.8) among the Garifuna, and 0% (95% CI 0-0.01) among FSWs. The modeled incidence estimates were similar at 1.03% among MSM, 0.30% among the Garifuna, and 0.23% among FSWs. HIV incidence based on the assay was highest among MSM in Honduras, lowest among FSWs, and similar to modeled incidence in these groups. Targeted programs on HIV prevention, care, and treatment are urgently needed for the MSM population. Continued support for existing prevention programs for FSWs and Garifuna are recommended.

  15. Initial Assessment, Nation Assistance Opportunities, Sula Valley, Honduras Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    naturales de la regl6n, se desar-o- Jarbn de ta! mancra que sirvan coma programas demostratlvo y de adjestramfento tanto para los territurios baja su...desarrollo de sus programas , podrA dam partfcipa- ci6n a la empmesa privada, con el prop~sito de estimular su iniciativa y de cream nuevas... oportunidades para la acci6n del sector privado en el desarrollo de la regi~n. ARTICULO 13a.- Pard la realizaci6r de sus fines, La ’Autoridad podrs obtener la

  16. manejo de parques nacionales en Costa Rica, Honduras y Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre González

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El rápido crecimiento en él numero de nuevos visitantes, que se prevé ocurrirá en los parques nacionales de la América Central en los próximos años, hace necesario que los administradores de parques de la región consideren cada vez mas el nivel de satisfacción de los visitantes, por lo que se les ofrece a los visitantes en materia de infraestructura, servicios y opciones recreativas, en sus procesos de planificación y manejo de los parques. Un estudio basado en 915 encuestas, 312 a visitantes de origen local y 603 a visitantes de origen extranjero fue realizado en Honduras, Nicaragua y Costa Rica, con el fin de determinar la brecha en satisfacción de los visitantes con la infraestructura, los servicios y las opciones recreativas, utilizando una forma modificada del modelo de brecha basado en la teoría de las expectativas-desconfirmacion. El estudio encontró que había diferencias y semejanzas significativas al nivel de 95% de probabilidad entre las caracterizas socio-demográficas y los niveles de satisfacción de los visitantes locales y extranjeros a los diferentes parques y entre los visitantes locales y extranjeros en cada parque. Modelos estandarizados fueron identificados para cada parque en cada categoría de visitante los cuales permitieron identificar aquellas variables que más influenciaban la brecha en satisfacción. El material anterior permitió además identificar aquellas áreas más importantes a las cuales se les deberían asignar recursos financieros para mejorar en el corto plazo los niveles de satisfacción de los visitantes.

  17. Capacity-Building Programs Under the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States signed the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) in August 2004 with five Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and the Dominican Republic.

  18. Child Marriage, Agency, and Schooling in Rural Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Graham, Erin; Leal, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationships between child marriage, agency, and schooling in rural Honduras. Through an in-depth qualitative case study, we address the following questions: (1) In what ways, if any, do girls exercise agency in their decision to marry? (2) How might education enhance girls' agency, expanding their choice sets and…

  19. First report of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" infecting eggplant in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    In May of 2012, eggplant (Solanum melongena) plants in an experimental research plot located at Zamorano in the Department of Francisco Morazán, Honduras, were observed with symptoms that included leaf chlorosis and cupping, overall stunting, and production of small and malformed fruits. The researc...

  20. First report of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" on pepper in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2012, bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants exhibiting symptoms that resembled those of the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” infection were observed in commercial pepper fields in several departments in Honduras, including Francisco Morazán, Ocotepeque, El Paraíso, and Olancho. Man...

  1. Forest management in Bolivia, Honduras and Nicaragua : reform failures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Pellegrini (Lorenzo)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this study we contrast forestry reforms and their stated objectives against the state of the forestry sector in Bolivia, Honduras and Nicaragua. Once we look at the policy failures that underlie the gap between policy objectives and the state of forestry, we find that stated policies

  2. Social Integration and Health Behavioral Change in San Luis, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuestion, Michael J.; Calle, Ana Quijano; Drasbek, Christopher; Harkins, Thomas; Sagastume, Lourdes J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effects of social integration on behavioral change in the course of an intensive, community-based public health intervention. The intervention trained volunteers and mobilized local organizations to promote 16 key family health practices in rural San Luis, Honduras, during 2004 to 2006. A mixed methods approach is used.…

  3. Forest management in Bolivia, Honduras and Nicaragua: reform failures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Pellegrini (Lorenzo)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study is a policy assessment contrasting forestry reforms and their intended objectives against the state of the forestry sector in Bolivia, Honduras and Nicaragua. The study finds that there is a gap between policy objectives and the state of forestry in the three countries, and th

  4. Anthracnose disease evaluation of sorghum germplasm from Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germplasm collections are important resources for sorghum improvement and 17 accessions from Honduras were inoculated with Colletotrichum sublineolum and evaluated at the Tropical Agriculture Research Station in Isabela, Puerto Rico during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons to identify sources of ant...

  5. A provisional annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biodiversity inventory of the Lepidoptera of Pico Bonito National Park and vicinity, in the Department of Atlantida of northern Honduras, has been initiated and will be conducted to obtain baseline data. We present a revised checklist of Honduran butterfly species (updated from the initial 1967 l...

  6. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on tomato in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    In April of 2012, tomato plants grown in several departments of Honduras, were observed with symptoms resembling those of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Lso) infection. The symptoms include overall chlorosis, severe stunting, leaf cupping, excessive branching of axillary shoots, and leaf pu...

  7. A new species of Poecilia from Honduras (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.N. Poeser

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Poecilia from the Atlantic slopes of Honduras is described and assigned to the subgenus Mollienesia. Poecilia hondurensis, new species, differs from all congeners in the combination of having tricuspid teeth on the inner of both jaws and lacking a prominent spine or hook on the gono

  8. Political ecology, mountain agriculture, and knowledge in Honduras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    The social and biophysical processes entailed in environmental deterioration are the subject of intense debate in Honduras, one of the poorest countries of Latin America. This book analyses the political ecology of precarious farming in mountainous areas. The author evaluates a rich array

  9. Political ecology, mountain agriculture, and knowledge in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    The social and biophysical processes entailed in environmental deterioration are the subject of intense debate in Honduras, one of the poorest countries of Latin America. This book analyses the political ecology of precarious farming in mountainous areas. The author evaluates a rich array of social

  10. Latin American 24/7 News Battle for Honduras

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Claudia Boyd-Barrett; Oliver Boyd-Barrett

    2010-01-01

    ...), NTN24 (based in Bogota, Colombia) and TeleSur (based in Caracas, Venezuela) during the first days of the aftermath of a coup in Honduras at the end of June 2009, which forcibly removed President Manuel Zelaya from office. The results, largely confirming those of the authors' earlier analysis of how these channels covered 2009 riots in Iran an...

  11. Drug consumption by medical students in tegucigalpa, Honduras Uso de drogas entre estudiantes de medicina, tegucigalpa, Honduras O uso de drogas entre estudantes de medicina em tegucigalpa, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The use of drugs, in Honduras, involves 25% of college students. The most used substances include legal and recreational drugs, such as alcohol. This study aimed to identify the use of drugs and socio-demographic factors in a sample of 260 medical students. RESULTS: Average age of 20 years old, unemployed and religious women, single, with no children. Alcohol was the most consumed drug in the last six months for recreational purposes. The following stimulants were frequently consumed: caffein...

  12. Las rutas del libro atlántico: libros enviados en el navío de Honduras (1557-1700

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rueda Ramírez, Pedro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyze shipments of books in the Honduras route, which traveled between Seville and Central America’s Atlantic ports. We analyze a sample of 52 registers from the Honduras fleet, comprising 20 percent of the total. This has allowed us to locate the book lots declared for 34 ships, a total of 130 book shipments. This group of materials reveals key features of the books’ little known arrival circuit through merchants, booksellers, and private individuals. Study of these intermediaries reveals some of the networks involved in the book trade. Study of the titles sent moreover reveals an important sample of European printed texts that arrived in the area of Guatemala and Honduras during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    En este trabajo se analizan los envíos de libros en el navío de Honduras, que viajaba entre Sevilla y los puertos atlánticos de la costa centroamericana. Examinamos una muestra de 52 registros de navíos, que suponen un 20% del total. Esto nos ha permitido localizar lotes de libros declarados en 34 barcos, en los que se han encontrado 130 envíos de libros. Este conjunto ayuda a detectar las claves del circuito de llegada de los libros, muy poco conocido, por medio de comerciantes, libreros y particulares. El estudio de los intermediarios también permitió localizar algunas de las redes que intervienen en ese tráfico de libros. Por último, el estudio de los títulos embarcados ha llevado a encontrar una muestra significativa de los textos impresos en Europa que llegaron en los siglos XVI y XVII al área de Guatemala y Honduras.

  13. Book Review: McCranie, J.R., L.D. Wilson - G. Köhler. 2005. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Bay Islands and Cayos Cochinos, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Sasa, Mahmood

    2007-01-01

    During the last four years, we have witnessed the publication of several important books that summarized current knowledge on the herpetofauna of Central America: Savage's (2002) The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica, McCranie and Wilson's (2002) The Amphibians of Honduras, Campbell and Lamar's (2004) The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere, and Solórzano's (2004) Serpientes de Costa Rica. Recently, McCranie, Wilson and Köhler inspire us with a volume on the species of amphibians ...

  14. Surnames in Honduras: A study of the population of Honduras through isonymy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Paz, Edwin Francisco; Scapoli, Chiara; Mamolini, Elisabetta; Sandri, Massimo; Carrieri, Alberto; Rodriguez-Larralde, Alvaro; Barrai, Italo

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we investigated surname distribution in 4,348,021 Honduran electors with the aim of detecting population structure through the study of isonymy in three administrative levels: the whole nation, the 18 departments, and the 298 municipalities. For each administrative level, we studied the surname effective number, α, the total inbreeding, FIT , the random inbreeding, FST , and the local inbreeding, FIS . Principal components analysis, multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis were performed on Lasker's distance matrix to detect the direction of surname diffusion and for a graphic representation of the surname relationship between different locations. The values of FIT , FST , and FIS display a variation of random inbreeding between the administrative levels in the Honduras population, which is attributed to the "Prefecture effect." Multivariate analyses of department data identified two main clusters, one south-western and the second north-eastern, with the Bay Islands and the eastern Gracias a Dios out of the main clusters. The results suggest that currently the population structure of this country is the result of the joint action of short-range directional migration and drift, with drift dominating over migration, and that population diffusion may have taken place mainly in the NW-SE direction.

  15. Zentralamerikas Jugendbanden: "Maras" in Honduras, El Salvador und Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Peetz, Peter

    2004-01-01

    "In El Salvador hat das Parlament Ende letzten Jahres ein neues Gesetz verabschiedet, nach dem die Mitgliedschaft in einer mara (Jugendbande, Streetgang) mit zwei bis fünf Jahren Gefängnis bestraft wird. Dem oder der Beschuldigten muss keine konkrete Straftat nachgewiesen werden. Einige Monate zuvor hatte der honduranische Kongress einstimmig eine ähnliche Regelung beschlossen. Mitte Januar 2004 unterzeichneten die Präsidenten von Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras und Nikaragua ein Abkommen, i...

  16. State Approaches Toward Reducing Youth Violence in Honduras and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Study on Homicide 2013, 126. 44 Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE), Cuadragésima Primera Encuesta Permanente de Hogares: Resumen Ejecutivo, Vol. 41...See Table 1).47 45 INE, Cuadragésima Primera Encuesta Permanente de Hogares, 6,14. 46 Sonja Wolf...Cuadragésima Primera Encuesta Permanente de Hogares: Resumen Ejecutivo. Vol. 41 Tegucigalpa, Honduras: INE, 2011. Jütersonke, Oliver, Robert Muggah, and

  17. Death in the Afternoon: Honduras, Hemingway, and Duncan Strong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Cuddy

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Archaeologist William Duncan Strong and author Ernest Hemingway are both known for the exemplary works they produced in their respective fields. Most people don't know the shared similarities in the parallel lives of these two men, and the greater social forces that shaped them. This essay takes a Hemingway-like approach to the life of Duncan Strong, using excerpts from Strong's expedition to Honduras in 1933 to draw analogy with the publicly renowned life of Ernest Hemingway.

  18. The herpetofauna of Parque Nacional Pico Bonito, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. McCranie

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-three species of amphibians and reptiles (six salamanders, 20 anurans, 20 lizards, and 27 snakes are known from Parque Nacional Pico Bonito, Honduras. The physiography, climate, vegetation, and microhabitats of the park are briefly described. Forty-four species are recorded from Lowland Moist Forest, 45 from Premontane Wet Forest, and 14 from Lower Montane Wet Forest. The primary microhabitat and relative abundance of each species are indicated and population declines are discussed.

  19. Drug consumption by medical students in tegucigalpa, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Juana Carolina Buchanan; Sandra Cristina Pillon

    2008-01-01

    The use of drugs, in Honduras, involves 25% of college students. The most used substances include legal and recreational drugs, such as alcohol. This study aimed to identify the use of drugs and socio-demographic factors in a sample of 260 medical students. RESULTS: Average age of 20 years old, unemployed and religious women, single, with no children. Alcohol was the most consumed drug in the last six months for recreational purposes. The following stimulants were frequently consumed: caffein...

  20. Challenges for traditional birth attendants in northern rural Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lisa Kane; Scheib, Holly; Bailey, Joanne Motino; Sacks, Emma

    2006-03-01

    to explore the relationship between community-based parteras, the staff at the Centro Materno Infantil (Mother-Child Centre), and other public health facilities within the district of Morazán in northern rural Honduras during the transition to new models of maternity care. focus-group discussions with two groups composed of a convenience sample of community parteras. After verbatim translation of the interviews, the transcripts were analysed for content. the Centro de Salud of Morazán, Yoro Honduras. 28 community-based parteras and one partero (male community midwife). five themes emerged from the focus group data: the shared view that attending birth is connected to a religious calling; the desire for additional training; the desire for support from, and connection to, existing public-health services and infrastructure; the role of parteras in providing services to women who otherwise would not receive care; and the lack of new parteras to carry on this work in the future. traditional birth attendants are still relied upon to serve more than half of the childbearing women in Honduras. The findings from the focus groups provide a foundation upon which to strengthen the relationship between community-based parteras and the government-funded systems of health care during this time of transition to new models of maternity care.

  1. Prediction of Rainfall-Induced Landslides in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, Using a Hydro-Geotechnical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Urquia, Elias; Axelsson, K.

    2010-05-01

    Central America is constantly being affected by natural hazards. Among these events are hurricanes and earthquakes, capable of triggering landslides that can alter the natural landscape, destroy infrastructure and cause the death of people in the most important settlements of the region. Hurricane Mitch in October of 1998 was of particular interest for the region, since it provoked hundreds of rainfall-induced landslides, mainly in 4 different countries. Studies carried out after Hurricane Mitch have allowed researchers to identify the factors that contribute to slope instability in many vulnerable areas. As Tegucigalpa, Honduras was partially destroyed due to the various landslide and flooding events triggered by this devastating hurricane, various research teams have deepened in their investigations and have proposed measures to mitigate the effects of similar future incidents. A model coupling an infinite-slope analysis and a simple groundwater flow approach can serve as a basis to predict the occurrence of landslides in Tegucigalpa, Honduras as a function of topographic, hydrological and soil variables. A safety map showing the rainfall-triggered landslide risk zones for Tegucigalpa, Honduras is to be created. As opposed to previous safety maps in which only steady-state conditions are studied, this analysis is extended and different steady-state and quasi-dynamic scenarios are considered for comparison. For the purpose of the latter settings, a hydrological analysis that determines the rainfall extreme values and their return periods in Tegucigalpa will account for the influence of rainfall on the groundwater flow and strength of soils. It is known that the spatial distribution of various factors that contribute to the risk of landslides (i.e. soil thickness, conductivity and strength properties; rainfall intensity and duration; root strength; subsurface flow orientation) is hard to determine. However, an effort is done to derive correlations for these

  2. The Armed Forces and the Fight against Drug-Trafficking in Honduras (Las FUERZAS ARMADAS EN EL COMBATE AL NARCOTR FICO EN HONDURAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    Narcotráfico y el Crimen Organizado y Maras de Honduras. PNUD (Tegucigalpa, Honduras, 15 de diciembre del 2004), 10. 3Ibid. 2...delincuencia común, el crimen organizado , el lavado de activos, la trata de personas y el tráfico de armas, ya que todos estos actos delictivos están ligados...naturaleza transnacional y una de las manifestaciones más sofisticadas del crimen organizado , comenzó a tener notoriedad en Honduras en la década de

  3. Honduras: una mezcla de cambio y continuidad Honduras: A Mix of Change and Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHELLE M TAYLOR-ROBINSON

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las fuentes de cambio y de continuidad en la política de Honduras para entender si el régimen democrático esta progresando hacia la consolidación. El presente artículo brevemente expone los eventos más relevantes del periodo 2008. Estos incluyen las relaciones entre el Presidente Zelaya y Hugo Chávez, los esfuerzos de las mujeres y de los afrohondureños para aumentar su representación política y las elecciones primarias de los partidos tradicionales. Varios cambios indican que la democracia está más fuerte -la expansión de la representación política parece continuará y existe la posibilidad de que el Congreso funcione como un freno contra el presidente- pero estos cambios todavía no están consolidados.This article analyzes the sources of change and of continuity in Honduran politics to better understand if the democratic regime is progressing toward consolidation. The article briefly presents the most relevant events of 2008, including relations between President Zelaya and Hugo Chavez, the efforts of women and Afro-Hondurans to increase their representation, and the primary elections of the traditional parties. Various changes indicate that democracy is stronger -that expansion of representation appears to be continuing, the possibility that the congress may function as a break on the president- but these changes still are not consolidated.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were assa

  5. Educational Facility Evaluations of Primary Schools in Rural Honduras: Departments of Cortes and Meambar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ.

    A team of 11 educational facility planners and architects from the United States and Canada conducted a facility evaluation of schools in the rural areas of Meambar and Cortes, Honduras. Team members were all part of the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International and traveled to Honduras under the auspices of a Christian mission…

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were assa

  7. EU Support for Justice and Security Sector Reform in Honduras and Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borgh, G.J.C.

    2016-01-01

    This desk study reviews the literature on EU programmes that supported security and justice reform in Guatemala and Honduras, focusing on two programs: the programme in support of the security sector (PASS) in Honduras and the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG). The

  8. Analisis de las Condiciones de Salud del Nino de 0-6 anos en Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Douglas Alberto

    1987-01-01

    Examines the National Pediatric Service and the research program of the Maternity-Infant-Hospital-School in Honduras. Reports that health conditions of young children (birth to six years) in Honduras are appalling and that available funds for health services are inadequate, reflecting the country's economic and social crisis. (NH)

  9. Fossil shrews from Honduras and their significance for late glacial evolution in body size (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N.; Croft, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Our study of mammalian remains excavated in the 1940s from McGrew Cave, north of Copan, Honduras, yielded an assemblage of 29 taxa that probably accumulated predominantly as the result of predation by owls. Among the taxa present are three species of small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis. One species, Cryptotis merriami, is relatively rare among the fossil remains. The other two shrews, Cryptotis goodwini and Cryptotis orophila, are abundant and exhibit morpho metrical variation distinguishing them from modern populations. Fossils of C. goodwini are distinctly and consistently smaller than modern members of the species. To quantify the size differences, we derived common measures of body size for fossil C. goodwini using regression models based on modern samples of shrews in the Cryptotis mexicana-group. Estimated mean length of head and body for the fossil sample is 72-79 mm, and estimated mean mass is 7.6-9.6 g. These numbers indicate that the fossil sample averaged 6-14% smaller in head and body length and 39-52% less in mass than the modern sample and that increases of 6-17% in head and body length and 65-108% in mass occurred to achieve the mean body size of the modern sample. Conservative estimates of fresh (wet) food intake based on mass indicate that such a size increase would require a 37-58% increase in daily food consumption. In contrast to C. goodwini, fossil C. orophila from the cave is not different in mean body size from modern samples. The fossil sample does, however, show slightly greater variation in size than is currently present throughout the modern geographical distribution of the taxon. Moreover, variation in some other dental and mandibular characters is more constrained, exhibiting a more direct relationship to overall size. Our study of these species indicates that North American shrews have not all been static in size through time, as suggested by some previous work with fossil soricids. Lack of stratigraphic control within the site and our

  10. Evaluation of the surface erosion from different timber yarding methods in Honduras Avaliação da erosão superficial de diferentes métodos do carregamento da madeira em Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rivera

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Surface runoff and sediment production from different timber yarding practices, some using Best Management Practices (BMPs recommended for Honduras, were monitored in experimental plots during the rainy seasons of two consecutive years in pine forest highlands of central Honduras. Different timber yarding systems were applied to pseudo-replicated plots during the rainy seasons of 1999 and 2000. In 1999, two treatments were studied: tractor yarding and skyline cable (a recommended BMP. In 2000, four treatments were evaluated: tractor skidding, skyline cable, animal skidding (another recommended BMP, and undisturbed forest (reference. During the rainy seasons of these years, surface runoff volumes and sediment yield were measured at five 1.5m x 10m erosion plots in each treated area. The results showed significant differences between traditional tractor yarding and the recommended skyline cable and animal skidding methods. Tractor yarding produced six to ten times more erosion during the rainy seasons than cable and animal yarding. The improved soil retention of cable and animal yarding was especially important during September when the highest rainfall occurred in this climate.A produção do escorrimento de superfície e do sedimento das práticas diferentes do carregamento da madeira, algumas das melhores práticas de gestão de utilização (BMPs recomendadas para Honduras, foi monitorada em lotes experimentais durante as estações das chuvas de dois anos consecutivos em montanhas da Floresta do Pinho de Honduras. Os diferentes sistemas do carregamento da madeira foram aplicados aos lotes pseudorreplicados durante as estações das chuvas de 1999 e de 2000. Em 1999, dois tratamentos foram estudados: cabo do carregamento e do trator (um BMP recomendado. Em 2000, quatro tratamentos foram avaliados: sistemas do carregamento da madeira do trator, cabo, animal e floresta imperturbada (referência. Durante as estações das chuvas desses anos, os

  11. La Cumbre Iberoamericana de Estoril: mucha Honduras pero poca profundidad

    OpenAIRE

    Malamud,Andrés

    2010-01-01

    Catorce países sobre 22 estuvieron representados por sus jefes de Estado y gobierno en la Cumbre Iberoamericana de Estoril. Los ocho restantes enviaron delegaciones de menor jerarquía, en algunos casos encabezadas por el canciller y en otros por funcionarios de segunda línea. Las reuniones de cúpula empezaron tarde y se extendieron mucho, debido sobre todo al desacuerdo respecto a la situación política en Honduras. La canciller en el exilio de Manuel Zelaya, Patricia Rodas, consiguió imponer ...

  12. Drug resistance prevalence in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected pediatric populations in Honduras and El Salvador during 1989-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguín, Africa; Erazo, Karen; Escobar, Gustavo; de Mulder, Miguel; Yebra, Gonzalo; Martín, Leticia; Jovel, Luis Enrique; Castaneda, Luis; Pérez, Elsy

    2011-05-01

    Emergence of viral resistance is a major obstacle for antiretroviral treatment (ART) effectiveness. Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) variants and drug-resistance mutations were identified in naive and antiretroviral drug-experienced children with virologic failure, in Honduras and El Salvador. Dried blood spots (DBS) from 80 individuals (54 from Honduras, 26 from El Salvador) infected during their childhood between 1989 and 2009 were collected in 2009. The HIV pol region was amplified and sequenced to identify antiretroviral-resistant mutations according to the 2009 International AIDS Society. The genotypic drug resistance interpretation was performed using the Stanford algorithm. HIV-1 variants were characterized by phylogenetic analysis and subtyping tools. HIV-1 protease and reverse transcription sequences were obtained from DBS specimens in 71 and 66 patients, respectively, of the 80 patients. All children were native Central Americans carrying subtype B, with a mean age of 9 years, most were male (65%), perinatally infected (96%), with moderate/severe AIDS symptoms (70%), and receiving first line ART at the time of sequencing (65%). Diagnostic delay was frequently observed. Infected children from Honduras presented longer ART experience and clinical outcomes, and more frequent severe symptoms. Resistant variants infected 1 of 11 naive children from El Salvador but none of the perinatally infected naive children from Honduras. Resistance was higher among ART-exposed individuals in both countries and similar for protease inhibitors (16%), nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitors (44%-52%), and nonnucleoside reverse-transcription inhibitors (66.7%). One in 10 pretreated children in each country was infected with resistant viruses to the 3 drug families. Our data support the need for continued surveillance of resistance patterns using DBS at national levels among naive and pretreated children to optimize the ART regimens.

  13. Perceptions of stakeholders about nontraditional cookstoves in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Sebastian; Dwivedi, Puneet; Bailis, Robert; Ghilardi, Adrian

    2012-12-01

    We used SWOT-AHP (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats-analytical hierarchy process) technique to measure perceptions of four stakeholder groups: employees, local promoters, community leaders and end-users, about a nontraditional cookstove (NTCS) in Honduras. These stakeholder groups are part of an ongoing NTCS dissemination project led by Proyecto Mirador. We found that all stakeholder groups have a positive perception about the existing NTCS. Employees and local promoters stakeholder groups share similar perceptions. Smokeless cooking was selected as a prime strength, closely followed by reduction in forest logging and greenhouse gas emissions by all stakeholder groups. Availability of financial resources and responsible management were identified as crucial opportunities. Time spent in wood preparation and NTCS maintenance were identified as principal weaknesses. A long waiting time between a request and installation of NTCS and the risk of losing existing financial resources were acknowledged as major threats. Design improvements that can reduce maintenance and wood preparation time, a secure long-term source of funding through a market mechanism or direct/indirect government involvement, and early execution of pending orders will help in increasing adoption of NTCSs in rural Honduras.

  14. Developing a longitudinal cancer nursing education program in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Lisa Kennedy; Wise, Barbara; Carlson, Julie R; Dowds, Cynthia; Sarchet, Vanessa; Sanchez, Jose Angel

    2013-12-01

    The present paper is a longitudinal study which aims to develop and deliver cancer nursing education conferences in Honduras using volunteer nurse educators. This program intends to (1) perform site assessments of work environments and resources for cancer care in Honduras, (2) develop cancer nursing education programs, (3) survey conference participants continuing education needs, (4) deliver cancer nursing education conferences, and (5) share data with local and global partners for future cancer programs. The study draws on a longitudinal program development with site assessments, data collection, and educational conferences at two time points. Assessments and surveys were used for conference development and delivery by volunteer nurse educators. Site assessments and conferences were delivered twice. Data were collected regarding assessments and surveys to inform program development. Survey data revealed that 65 % had internet access. Participants desired more information about handling of chemotherapy, symptom management, and palliative care. Volunteer nurse educators perform site assessments and develop educational programming for cancer nurses. Local and global partners should explore internet-based programs between site visits to create sustainable education programs.

  15. Catalog of known hot springs and thermal place names for Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, R.C.

    1986-08-01

    Thermal place names were compiled from all 1:50,000 topographic quadrangle maps for the Republic of Honduras as of July 1986, from other published maps, and from several sources of unpublished data. Known hot spring sites include those visited by Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (Honduras) geologists, sites visited by Los Alamos geologists in 1985, and other sites known to R.C. Finch. The number of known hot spring sites in Honduras with temperatures >30/sup 0/C is 125. In addition, 56 thermal sites are suspected on the basis of thermal place names. The total number of geothermal sites, known and suspected, is 181.

  16. Precipitation data in a mountainous catchment in Honduras: quality assessment and spatiotemporal characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, I.; Walther, A.; Guerrero, J.-L.; Coello, Z.; Halldin, S.; Xu, C.-Y.; Chen, D.; Lundin, L.-C.

    2010-08-01

    An accurate description of temporal and spatial precipitation variability in Central America is important for local farming, water supply and flood management. Data quality problems and lack of consistent precipitation data impede hydrometeorological analysis in the 7,500 km2 Choluteca River basin in central Honduras, encompassing the capital Tegucigalpa. We used precipitation data from 60 daily and 13 monthly stations in 1913-2006 from five local authorities and NOAA's Global Historical Climatology Network. Quality control routines were developed to tackle the specific data quality problems. The quality-controlled data were characterised spatially and temporally, and compared with regional and larger-scale studies. Two gap-filling methods for daily data and three interpolation methods for monthly and mean annual precipitation were compared. The coefficient-of-correlation-weighting method provided the best results for gap-filling and the universal kriging method for spatial interpolation. In-homogeneity in the time series was the main quality problem, and 22% of the daily precipitation data were too poor to be used. Spatial autocorrelation for monthly precipitation was low during the dry season, and correlation increased markedly when data were temporally aggregated from a daily time scale to 4-5 days. The analysis manifested the high spatial and temporal variability caused by the diverse precipitation-generating mechanisms and the need for an improved monitoring network.

  17. Drug consumption by medical students in tegucigalpa, Honduras Uso de drogas entre estudiantes de medicina, tegucigalpa, Honduras O uso de drogas entre estudantes de medicina em tegucigalpa, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Carolina Buchanan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of drugs, in Honduras, involves 25% of college students. The most used substances include legal and recreational drugs, such as alcohol. This study aimed to identify the use of drugs and socio-demographic factors in a sample of 260 medical students. RESULTS: Average age of 20 years old, unemployed and religious women, single, with no children. Alcohol was the most consumed drug in the last six months for recreational purposes. The following stimulants were frequently consumed: caffeine, mate herb tea, energetic drinks and Coke. Drugs like marijuana, cocaine, valium and sedatives were used in smaller proportions. The reasons reported by women were: to alleviate tiredness and improve their academic performance. The men's reasons were recreation and to alleviate psychological tension. This research has implications for the development of drugs prevention programs in universities.En Honduras, el uso de drogas está presente en el 25% de estudiantes universitarios. Entre las drogas de mayor consumo están las lícitas y de uso recreacional, las bebidas alcohólicas siendo las lícitas y de uso recreacional, como el caso das bebidas alcohólicas. Ese estudio tuvo como propósito identificar el consumo de drogas y los factores sociodemográficos en una muestra de 260 estudiantes de medicina. RESULTADOS: edad media 20 años, mujeres, solteros, no tiene hijos, no trabajan, profesan religión. La droga más utilizada en los últimos seis meses es el alcohol, con consumo recreacional. Los estimulantes de consumo frecuente: la cafeína, el mate; las bebidas energizantes, la coca-cola; y las drogas ilicitas como la marihuana, la cocaína, el valium y los inductores del sueño en menores proporciones. Las razones de uso para mujeres fueron: aliviar el cansancio, mejorar el rendimiento académico; y para varones: divertirse y aliviar tensiones psicológicas. Esta investigación tiene implicaciones en el desarrollo de programas preventivos del uso de

  18. Elementary Schools in Rural Honduras. Problems in Exporting Environmental Education Models from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Sam H.; Castillo, Lizeth

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a study designed to determine the best approaches for developing environmental education and teacher training materials for schools in Honduras. Results dispute the value of materials produced in the United States for use in developing nations. (CW)

  19. Drug consumption by medical students in Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Juana Carolina; Pillon, Sandra Cristina

    2008-01-01

    The use of drugs, in Honduras, involves 25% of college students. The most used substances include legal and recreational drugs, such as alcohol. This study aimed to identify the use of drugs and socio-demographic factors in a sample of 260 medical students. Average age of 20 years old, unemployed and religious women, single, with no children. Alcohol was the most consumed drug in the last six months for recreational purposes. The following stimulants were frequently consumed: caffeine, mate herb tea, energetic drinks and Coke. Drugs like marijuana, cocaine, valium and sedatives were used in smaller proportions. The reasons reported by women were: to alleviate tiredness and improve their academic performance. The men's reasons were recreation and to alleviate psychological tension. This research has implications for the development of drugs prevention programs in universities.

  20. Social integration and health behavioral change in San Luis, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuestion, Michael J; Quijano Calle, Ana; Drasbek, Christopher; Harkins, Thomas; Sagastume, Lourdes J

    2010-10-01

    This study explores the effects of social integration on behavioral change in the course of an intensive, community-based public health intervention. The intervention trained volunteers and mobilized local organizations to promote 16 key family health practices in rural San Luis, Honduras, during 2004 to 2006. A mixed methods approach is used. Standard household sample surveys were performed in 22 villages before and after the intervention. Eight villages were then resurveyed. A household survey, focus groups, and key informant interviews measured health behaviors and several social structural and psychosocial variables. The villages were then ranked on their mean behavioral and social integration scores. The quantitative and qualitative rankings were in close agreement (Kendall's coefficient of concordance = .707, p behavioral change. Health interventions can be made more effective by analyzing these features a priori.

  1. Structural and geophysical interpretation of Roatan Island, Honduras, Western Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Daniel Scott

    Roatan Island is the largest of the Bay Islands of Honduras. These islands form an emergent crest off the Caribbean coast of Honduras called the Bonacca Ridge. The Bartlett Trough to the north and subsequent Bonacca Ridge were likely formed due to the transform fault system of the Motagua-Swan Islands Fault System. This fault system forms the tectonic plate boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Although the timing and kinematics are poorly constrained, the Bay Islands and the Bonacca Ridge were likely uplifted due to transpression along this left-lateral strike-slip system. With limited regional exposures along the adjacent tectonic boundary, this study aimed to present a structural interpretation for Roatan. This new interpretation is further explained through regional considerations for a suggested geologic history of the northwestern Caribbean. In order to better constrain the kinematics of uplift and exhumation of Roatan Island, structural, gravity, and magnetic surveys were conducted. Principal attention was directed to the structural relationship between the geologic units and their relationship to one another through deformation. Resulting geologic cross-sections from this study present the metamorphic basement exposed throughout the island to be in a normal structural order consisting of biotite schist and gneiss, with overlying units of chlorite schist, carbonate, and conglomerate. These units have relatively concordant strike and dip measurements, consistent with resultant magnetic survey readings. Additionally, large and irregular bodies of amphibolite and serpentinite throughout the island are interpreted to have been emplaced as mafic and ultra-mafic intrusions in weakness zones along Early Paleogene transform system fault planes. The interpretation and suggested geologic history from this study demonstrate the importance of transpressive tectonics both local to Roatan and regionally throughout geologic history. Consideration of

  2. The coexistence of Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) and indigenous hunters in northeastern Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Marc; Estrada, Nereyda; Smith, Derek A

    2012-12-01

    The Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is a popular game species throughout Central America, particularly among indigenous populations, and is currently endangered. Research on Miskitu hunting was conducted over 4 months in a remote region in northeastern Honduras that overlaps with the Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve. The hunting zone was mapped together with hunters and interviews were conducted with elders and other community members about tapir hunting. Results show that tapir harvesting is targeted toward specific habitats at specific times of year. Harvest rates for one year suggest that tapir hunting in the area exceeds estimates of maximum sustainable production. Nevertheless, field surveys reveal the presence of tapir within 1 km of the community, and its harvest tends to be nearby, in both forested and agricultural landscapes, suggesting that the animal has not been depleted in the area. It appears that the existence of forest areas adjacent to the hunting zone that do not experience hunting, together with the anthropogenic habitats created through shifting cultivation, are factors that help explain the presence of tapirs in the area. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the potential positive role of indigenous hunters in tapir conservation throughout its distribution range.

  3. A new scorpion species of genus Diplocentrus Peters, 1861 (Scorpiones: Diplocentridae) endemic to Islas de la Bahia, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagastume-Espinoza, Kevin O; Longhorn, Stuart J; Santibáñez-López, Carlos E

    2015-07-01

    Three species of genus Diplocentrus are found in north-northwestern Honduras. These species represent the southern east limits of Diplocentrus' distribution. In recent years, a broad survey of arachnids in Honduras has yielded a collection of several specimens of an undescribed species from two islands in northern Honduras. This new species represents the second species of the genus inhabiting an island. The present contribution describes this new species, and compares it against its most similar relatives. A dichotomous key for the identification of the species of Diplocentrus in Honduras is also included.

  4. Puente de hormigón pretensado sobre el rio Ulúa, Honduras

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    Editorial, Equipo

    1967-07-01

    Full Text Available In the course of an international competition, the Compagnie Française d'Entreprises has submitted two designs, and the one adopted is a cantilever box section type bridge, prestressed transversally and longitudinally and built by successive overhangs. The present article describes in considerable detail the above road bridge, of three spans, the two end ones being 60 m long, and the centre one is 120 m long. The two middle piles rest on caissons. The overhanging sections of the main span are each 42 m long, and the middle part of the span, which is simply supported on overhanging sections, is 36 m long. The bridge is now open to traffic and is a great aid to the communications network of Honduras.En concurso internacional, la Compagnie Française d'Entreprises presentó dos soluciones, adoptándose la de un puente, tipo cantilever, de sección en cajón, pretensado transversal y longitudinalmente y construido en voladizo. La obra que en este trabajo se describe con bastante detalle es un puente para carretera, de tres tramos, dos laterales de 60 m de luz y uno central de 120 m. Las dos pilas centrales se apoyan sobre cajones. Los brazos en voladizo tienen 42 m de longitud y la pieza central de cierre, simplemente apoyada sobre las extremidades de los citados brazos, una longitud de 36 metros. El puente se halla actualmente en servicio y constituye una gran mejora en la red vial hondureña.

  5. The conservation status of the herpetofauna of Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Larry David; McCranie, James R

    2004-01-01

    The conservation status of the members of the Honduran herpetofauna is discussed. Based on current and projected future human population growth, it is posited that the entire herpetofauna is endangered. The known herpetofauna of Honduras currently consists of 334 species, including 117 amphibians and 217 reptiles (including six marine reptiles, which are not discussed in this paper). The greatest number of species occur at low and moderate elevations in lowland and/or mesic forest formations, in the Northern and Southern Cordilleras of the Serranía, and the ecophysiographic areas of the Caribbean coastal plain and foothills. Slightly more than one-third of the herpetofauna consists of endemic species or those otherwise restricted to Nuclear Middle America. Honduras is an area severely affected by amphibian population decline, with close to one-half of the amphibian fauna threatened, endangered, or extinct. The principal threats to the survival of members of the herpetofauna are uncontrolled human population growth and its corollaries, habitat alteration and destruction, pollution, pest and predator control, overhunting, and overexploitation. No Honduran amphibians or reptiles are entirely free of human impact. A gauge is used to estimate environmental vulnerability of amphibian species, using measures of extent of geographic range, extent of ecological distribution, and degree of specialization of reproductive mode. A similar gauge is developed for reptiles, using the first two measures for amphibian vulnerability, and a third scale for the degree of human persecution. Based on these gauges, amphibians and reptiles show an actual range of Environmental Vulnerability Scores (EVS) almost as broad as the theoretical range. Based on the actual EVS, both amphibian and reptilian species are divided into three categories of low, medium, and high vulnerability. There are 24 low vulnerability amphibians and 47 reptiles, 43 medium vulnerability amphibians and 111 reptiles

  6. Associations between seasonal influenza and meteorological parameters in Costa Rica, Honduras and Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P; Clara, Wilfrido A; Jara, Jorge; Balmaseda, Angel; Lara, Jenny; Lopez Moya, Mariel; Palekar, Rakhee; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Kiang, Richard K

    2015-11-04

    Seasonal influenza affects a considerable proportion of the global population each year. We assessed the association between subnational influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in three Central America countries, i.e. Costa Rica, Honduras and Nicaragua. Using virologic data from each country's national influenza centre, rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and air temperature and specific humidity data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System, we applied logistic regression methods for each of the five sub-national locations studied. Influenza activity was represented by the weekly proportion of respiratory specimens that tested positive for influenza. The models were adjusted for the potentially confounding co-circulating respiratory viruses, seasonality and previous weeks' influenza activity. We found that influenza activity was proportionally associated (P<0.05) with specific humidity in all locations [odds ratio (OR) 1.21-1.56 per g/kg], while associations with temperature (OR 0.69-0.81 per °C) and rainfall (OR 1.01-1.06 per mm/day) were location-dependent. Among the meteorological parameters, specific humidity had the highest contribution (~3-15%) to the model in all but one location. As model validation, we estimated influenza activity for periods, in which the data was not used in training the models. The correlation coefficients between the estimates and the observed were ≤0.1 in 2 locations and between 0.6-0.86 in three others. In conclusion, our study revealed a proportional association between influenza activity and specific humidity in selected areas from the three Central America countries.

  7. Access to sterilization in two hospitals in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz, B; Núñez, J

    1981-01-01

    The availability of postpartum sterilizations for women with obstetric deliveries at 2 hospitals in Honduras -- the Hospital Materno-Infantil in Teguicgalpa and the Hospital Leonardo Martinez in San Pedro -- was examined. Data were collected from the hospitals using a maternity record form that provided information regarding patients' sociodemographic backgrounds, obstetric histories, and contraceptive practices. The patients were asked about thier use of contraceptives before pregnancy and about their possible plans for contraception after delivery. If the patient was sterilized before leaving the hospital, this information was also recorded on the form. Analysis of the data reveals that the hospitals do not encourage women to be sterilized, and that they do a poor job of providing services for those women interested in sterilization. Of 18,523 women giving birth from 1977 through 1979, a total of 13,241 (71.5%) indicated that they did not want any more children. Thus, these women constituted a group for which female sterilization could be the contraceptive method of choice. Of these, 13,241 women, 3063 said that they planned to be sterilized. Among women having abortions at these hospitals, about 1/2 do not return for a followup visit 4-6 weeks later. To be eligible for sterilization in Honduras, a woman is supposed to satisfy the "rule of 80" (living children times age must equal 80). Only 6.8% of the women who planned to be but were not sterilized did not satisfy this rule. Among the women who were sterilized, the percentage of those who had cesarean deliveries was 69%. Of the women who said they planned to be sterilized but were not sterilized at delivery, less than 1% had cesarean sections. It seems apparent that women who have abdominal deliveries find it easier to obtain a sterilization at the time of delivery than do women with vaginal deliveries. At both hospitals, the proportion of sterilized women who did not satisfy the "rule of 80" was higher among

  8. Determinants of Health Service Responsiveness in Community-Based Vector Surveillance for Chagas Disease in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras.

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    Ken Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Central American countries face a major challenge in the control of Triatoma dimidiata, a widespread vector of Chagas disease that cannot be eliminated. The key to maintaining the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi at lowest levels is to sustain surveillance throughout endemic areas. Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras integrated community-based vector surveillance into local health systems. Community participation was effective in detection of the vector, but some health services had difficulty sustaining their response to reports of vectors from the population. To date, no research has investigated how best to maintain and reinforce health service responsiveness, especially in resource-limited settings.We reviewed surveillance and response records of 12 health centers in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras from 2008 to 2012 and analyzed the data in relation to the volume of reports of vector infestation, local geography, demography, human resources, managerial approach, and results of interviews with health workers. Health service responsiveness was defined as the percentage of households that reported vector infestation for which the local health service provided indoor residual spraying of insecticide or educational advice. Eight potential determinants of responsiveness were evaluated by linear and mixed-effects multi-linear regression. Health service responsiveness (overall 77.4% was significantly associated with quarterly monitoring by departmental health offices. Other potential determinants of responsiveness were not found to be significant, partly because of short- and long-term strategies, such as temporary adjustments in manpower and redistribution of tasks among local participants in the effort.Consistent monitoring within the local health system contributes to sustainability of health service responsiveness in community-based vector surveillance of Chagas disease. Even with limited resources, countries can improve health

  9. Determinants of Health Service Responsiveness in Community-Based Vector Surveillance for Chagas Disease in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ken; Zúniga, Concepción; Romero, Eduardo; Morales, Zoraida; Maguire, James H

    2015-01-01

    Central American countries face a major challenge in the control of Triatoma dimidiata, a widespread vector of Chagas disease that cannot be eliminated. The key to maintaining the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi at lowest levels is to sustain surveillance throughout endemic areas. Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras integrated community-based vector surveillance into local health systems. Community participation was effective in detection of the vector, but some health services had difficulty sustaining their response to reports of vectors from the population. To date, no research has investigated how best to maintain and reinforce health service responsiveness, especially in resource-limited settings. We reviewed surveillance and response records of 12 health centers in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras from 2008 to 2012 and analyzed the data in relation to the volume of reports of vector infestation, local geography, demography, human resources, managerial approach, and results of interviews with health workers. Health service responsiveness was defined as the percentage of households that reported vector infestation for which the local health service provided indoor residual spraying of insecticide or educational advice. Eight potential determinants of responsiveness were evaluated by linear and mixed-effects multi-linear regression. Health service responsiveness (overall 77.4%) was significantly associated with quarterly monitoring by departmental health offices. Other potential determinants of responsiveness were not found to be significant, partly because of short- and long-term strategies, such as temporary adjustments in manpower and redistribution of tasks among local participants in the effort. Consistent monitoring within the local health system contributes to sustainability of health service responsiveness in community-based vector surveillance of Chagas disease. Even with limited resources, countries can improve health service

  10. Prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis, prevalence of malaria and nutritional status of school going children in honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Franco Garcia, Dora Nelly; Fontecha Sandoval, Gustavo Adolfo; Hernandez Santana, Adriana; Singh, Prabhjot; Mancero Bucheli, Sandra Tamara; Saboya, Martha; Paz, Mirian Yolanda

    2014-10-01

    Many small studies have been done in Honduras estimating soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) prevalence but a country-wide study was last done in 2005. The country has the highest burden of malaria among all Central American countries. The present study was done to estimate country-wide STH prevalence and intensity, malaria prevalence and nutritional status in school going children. A cross-sectional study was conducted following PAHO/WHO guidelines to select a sample of school going children of 3rd to 5th grades, representative of ecological regions in the country. A survey questionnaire was filled; anthropometric measurements, stool sample for STH and blood sample for malaria were taken. Kato-Katz method was used for STH prevalence and intensity and rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for malaria parasite detection. A total of 2554 students were studied of which 43.5% had one or more STH. Trichuriasis was the most prevalent (34%) followed by ascariasis (22.3%) and hookworm (0.9%). Ecological regions II (59.7%) and VI (55.6%) in the north had the highest STH prevalence rates while IV had the lowest (10.6%). Prevalence of one or more high intensity STH was low (1.6%). Plasmodium vivax was detected by PCR in only 5 students (0.2%), all of which belonged to the same municipality; no P. falciparum infection was detected. The majority of children (83%) had normal body mass index for their respective age but a significant proportion were overweight (10.42%) and obese (4.35%). Biannual deworming campaigns would be necessary in ecological regions II and VI, where STH prevalence is >50%. High prevalence of obesity in school going children is a worrying trend and portends of future increase in obesity related diseases. Malaria prevalence, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, was low and provides evidence for Honduras to embark on elimination of the disease.

  11. Utilization of Computer Technology in the Third World: An Evaluation of Computer Operations at the University of Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermis, Mark D.

    This report of the results of an evaluation of computer operations at the University of Honduras (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras) begins by discussing the problem--i.e., poor utilization of the campus mainframe computer--and listing the hardware and software available in the computer center. Data collection methods are summarized,…

  12. A new species in the genus Amphipteryx Selys, 1853 (Odonata, Amphipterygidae) from Pico Bonito National Park, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocque, Merlijn; Argueta, Ivany

    2014-01-01

    The Mesoamerican damselfly genus Amphipteryx includes four species: Amphipteryx agrioides (Mexico), A. chiapensis (Mexico), A. meridionalis (Honduras) and A. nataliae (Verapaz, Guatemala). We describe a fifth species, Amphipteryx jaroli, from the cloud forest in Pico Bonito National park, Honduras. Additionally we include an up to date key of all species in the genus for both sexes.

  13. A new species in the genus Amphipteryx Selys, 1853 (Odonata, Amphipterygidae from Pico Bonito National Park, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlijn Jocque

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mesoamerican damselfly genus Amphipteryx includes four species: Amphipteryx agrioides (Mexico, A.chiapensis (Mexico, A. meridionalis (Honduras and A. nataliae (Verapaz, Guatemala. We describe a fifth species, Amphipteryx jaroli, from the cloud forest in Pico Bonito National park, Honduras. Additionally we include an up to date key of all species in the genus for both sexes.

  14. Nutritional quality of foods marketed to children in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Matthew D; Clements, Dennis; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to advertising of unhealthy foods may contribute to increased rates of obesity in children. This study examined the extent to which television stations marketed unhealthy foods to children during after-school programming aired over one week in La Ceiba, Honduras. Content analysis was performed on four television stations, including one broadcast station and three cable networks. Eighty hours of programming were recorded and analyzed. Advertised products were categorized as food or non-food items, with food items further classified as healthy or unhealthy. Advertisements were coded as those aimed at children, adults, or both, and chi-square tests were used to compare the proportion of unhealthy advertisements by target audience. A total of 2271 advertisements aired during the observation period, with 1120 marketing products (49.3%). Of those, 397 (35.4%) promoted foods-30.2% were for healthy foods and 69.8% for unhealthy foods. The unhealthy foods were all advertised on cable networks and not the broadcast station. Children appeared to be targeted more than adults in advertisements for unhealthy foods (92.1%, p<0.001). Cable television programming during after-school hours advertised primarily unhealthy foods. Exposure to these advertisements may promote consumption of unhealthy foods by children, increasing their risk of obesity.

  15. Postpartum hemorrhage prevention: a case study in northern rural Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lisa Kane; Bailey, Joanne Motiño; Sacks, Emma; Medina, Lilian; Piñeda, Hector Oqueli Lopez

    2008-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality globally. Safe Motherhood policies have been directed towards the reduction of PPH by recommending active management of third-stage labor as the standard of care. One component of active management involves routine use of a uterotonic agent within 1 minute of the delivery of the baby. A case study at Clínica Materno-Infantil, a free-standing public birth center in Honduras, is presented, focusing on methods to reduce PPH. The nursing staff was trained to estimate blood loss and in methods to manage PPH, including elements of active management of the third stage of labor. Medical records were reviewed and an analysis of PPH management compared to estimated blood loss (EBL) was conducted. There was no significant correlation between PPH management techniques and EBL (r = .060; P = .368). There was a statistically significant (P Materno-Infantil, routine use of a uterotonic agent appears beneficial and further implementation of active management of the third stage of labor appears warranted.

  16. A Study on Maize Farmers in Occidental Honduras

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    Ruerd Ruben

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El crédito ha sido considerado comúnmente como una estrategia importante para influir en el manejo de recursos y las estrategias de sobrevivencia campesina. Los productores con mejor acceso a recursos financieros tienen más opciones para incrementar el retorno marginal de factores variables de producción, tales como trabajo y fertilizantes. Es probable que la sustitución de factores se lleva a cabo hacia sistemas de producción más intensivos que puedan garantizar mejor la seguridad alimentaría y favorecer el uso sostenible de los suelos. Hemos realizado un estudio entre productores de maíz ubicados en el departamento occidental de Lempira en Honduras para analizar el impacto del uso de crédito sobre el retorno marginal de tierra, trabajo y fertilizantes. Encontramos que las proporciones atribuidas a trabajo y fertilizantes aumentaron considerablemente para campesinos que utilizan crédito, mientras que la proporción del factor tierra se redujo fuertemente. La posición relativa de terratenientes tiende a deteriorarse, pero la influencia de suministradores de insumos puede incrementar. Dadas las complementaridades entre fertilizantes y trabajo, el crédito puede ser un importante instrumento para cambiar las relaciones de clase en el campo.

  17. Efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Banegas, Engels Ilich; Mendoza, Meisy; Diaz, Cesar; Bucheli, Sandra Tamara Mancero; Fontecha, Gustavo A; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Goldman, Ira; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Zambrano, Jose Orlinder Nicolas

    2013-05-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) is officially used for the primary treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Honduras. In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of CQ for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in the municipality of Puerto Lempira, Gracias a Dios, Honduras was evaluated using the Pan American Health Organization-World Health Organization protocol with a follow-up of 28 days. Sixty-eight patients from 6 months to 60 years of age microscopically diagnosed with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were included in the final analysis. All patients who were treated with CQ (25 mg/kg over 3 days) cleared parasitemia by day 3 and acquired no new P. falciparum infection within 28 days of follow-up. All the parasite samples sequenced for CQ resistance mutations (pfcrt) showed only the CQ-sensitive genotype (CVMNK). This finding shows that CQ remains highly efficacious for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Gracias a Dios, Honduras.

  18. Report on Honduras: ripples in the pond--the financial crisis and remittances to chronically ill patients in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D; Mendoza-Avelares, Milton O; Chess, Laura; Milton, Evan C; Matiz Reyes, Armando; Rodriguez-Saldaña, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. financial crisis has affected employment opportunities for Latino immigrants, and this could affect their ability to send financial assistance, or "remittances", to chronically ill family members in their home country. In a cross-sectional survey of 624 chronically ill adults conducted in Honduras between June and August 2009, respondents reported their receipt of remittances, health service use, and cost-related access barriers. Fifty-four percent of respondents reported relatives living outside the country, and of this group, 66 percent (37% of the overall sample) received remittances. Seventy-four percent of respondents receiving remittances reported a decrease over the prior year, mostly due to job losses among their relatives abroad. Respondents reporting reductions in remittances received significantly less per month, on average, than those without a reduction (US $170 vs. $234; p = 0.01). In multivariate models, respondents experiencing a reduction in remittances used fewer health services and medications due to cost concerns. Remittance payments from relatives resident in the United States are a major source of income for chronically ill individuals in Latin America. Most recipients of remittances reported a reduction during the financial downturn that affected their access to care.

  19. NUEVOS REGISTROS PARA LA FLORA DE HONDURAS Y EL PARQUE NACIONAL MONTAÑA DE CELAQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes VEGA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se registran 11 novedades para la flora de Honduras a partir de ejemplares recolectados en el Parque Nacional Montaña Celaque. Los nuevos registros son: Tillandsia mateoensis (Bromeliaceae, Diastema affine (Gesneriaceae, Scutellaria costaricana (Lamiaceae, Miconia contrerasii (Melastomataceae, Acianthera violacea, Dendrophylax porrectus, Epidendrum santaclarense, Lepanthes enca-barcenae, L. fratercula, L. isabelae y Sarcoglottis schaffneri (Orchidaceae. Por otra parte, Potosia guatemalensis es sinonimizado bajo S. schaffneri. Se incluyen fotos de todas las especies, hábitats y un mapa de distribución con sus localidades en Honduras.

  20. Rickettsial infections in ticks from reptiles, birds and humans in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, Marketa; Literak, Ivan; Chevez, Luis; Martins, Thiago F; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-09-01

    Ticks were collected from captive reptiles, wild birds, and incidentally from humans at two locations in Honduras and part of these were tested for the presence of Rickettsia using polymerase chain reaction. The following species of ticks were found: Amblyomma dissimile on Iguanidae reptiles, Amblyomma longirostre and Amblyomma nodosum on birds, and Amblyomma mixtum (Amblyomma cajennense complex) on humans. A. dissimile was infected with Rickettsia sp. strain Colombianensi. Both A. longirostre and A. mixtum were infected with Candidatus 'Rickettsia amblyommii'. This study provides the first report of rickettsial infections in ticks from reptiles, birds and humans in Honduras. New host - Amblyomma tick associations are documented.

  1. Los ferrocarriles de la República de Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Marcela Alejandra

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    El desarrollo ferroviario de Honduras respondió, ante todo, a las aspiraciones y necesidades del capital extranjero, fundamentalmente norteamericano. El descubrimiento del oro en California, primero, planteó el interés por abrir vías de comunicación en Centroamérica que comunicasen el Océano Atlántico y el Pacífico. La explotación del banano, después, implicó la explotación de una serie de líneas de ferrocarril que aseguraron el abastecimiento de este producto en el mercado norteamericano. La intención de este trabajo es mostrar la forma en que el desarrollo ferroviario hondureño dependió de las oscilaciones del negocio bananero. Como medio de transporte, adoleció prácticamente de efectos multiplicadores sobre el desarrollo económico y social del país, controlado por las empresas bananeras, concentradas en la región norte del país. Concluido el ciclo alcista de las economías exportadoras y, enfrentado a la competencia de nuevos medios de transporte y a la relativa diversificación económica de la segunda mitad del siglo XX en el marco del Mercado Común Centroamericano, se verá sumido en una crisis de carácter estructural que explica su lamentable estado actual.

  2. A geochemical model of the Platanares geothermal system, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, C.J.; Truesdell, A.H.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Stallard, M.L.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

    1991-01-01

    Results of exploration drilling combined with results of geologic, geophysical, and hydrogeochemical investigations have been used to construct a geochemical model of the Platanares geothermal system, Honduras. Three coreholes were drilled, two of which produced fluids from fractured Miocene andesite and altered Cretaceous to Eocene conglomerate at 450 to 680 m depth. Large volume artesian flows of 160-165??C, predominantly bicarbonate water are chemically similar to, but slightly less saline than widespread boiling hot-spring waters. The chemistry of the produced fluid is dominated by equilibrium reactions in sedimentary rocks at greater depths and higher temperatures than those measured in the wells. Chemical, isotope, and gas geothermometers indicate a deep fluid temperature of 200-245??C and reflect a relatively short residence time in the fractures feeding the wells. Chloride-enthalpy relations as well as isotopic and chemical compositions of well discharges, thermal springs, and local cold waters support a conceptual model of ascending high-temperature (minimum 225??C) parent fluid that has cooled conductively to form the 160-165??C shallow (to 680 m) fluid encountered by the wells. The hot-spring waters are formed by boiling and steam loss from more or less conductively cooled parent fluid. The more dilute boiling spring waters (Cl = ???32 mg/kg) have cooled from > 225??C to about 160??C by conduction and from 160??C to 98??C by boiling. The most concentrated boiling spring waters (Cl = 37 mg/kg) have cooled from > 225??C to about 200??C by conduction and from 200??C to 98??C by boiling. Intermediate concentrations reflect mixed cooling paths. ?? 1991.

  3. Employment-generating projects for the energy and minerals sectors of Honduras. Proyectos generadores de empleos para los sectores energetico y minero de Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, J.A.

    1988-12-01

    A mission to Honduras invited by the Government of Honduras and sponsored by the Organization of American States addressed the generation of employment in various areas of interest to the country. The mission was made up of experts from numerous countries and international agencies. In the energy sector, the mission recommended consolidating the sector under a coordinating body; carrying out projects to promote reforestation, tree farms, and rational forest utilization; encouraging industrial energy conservation; developing alternative energy sources; and promoting rural electrification and expansion of the electrical grid. In the mining sector, the mission supported promotion and technical assistance for small gold-leaching and placer operations, the national mineral inventory, detailed exploration of promising sites, and the development of a mining school. 13 refs., 7 tabs.

  4. Crisis Discourses and Technology Regulation in a Weak State: Response to a Pesticide Disaster in Honduras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K.

    2003-01-01

    Hurricane Mitch hit Honduras in October 1998, leaving a trail of death, injury and devastating damage. As it tore through the country, the hurricane damaged a number of warehouses which contained pesticides, resulting in the discharge of more than 70 tonnes of pesticides into the environment. This a

  5. Opening the Black Box: Women's Empowerment and Innovative Secondary Education in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Graham, Erin

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to clarify the relationship between education and women's empowerment. Drawing from qualitative data collected in a study of four Garifuna villages on the north coast of Honduras, it argues that education can trigger the empowerment process if it expands women's knowledge and understanding, self-confidence and awareness of gender…

  6. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psylllid-affected tobacco in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco plants with symptoms resembling those associated with the psyllid Bactericera cockerelli and the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Lso) were observed in April of 2012 in heavily B. cockerelli-infested commercial fields in the Department of El-Paraíso, Honduras; all cultivars ...

  7. First report of Dolabra nepheliae associated with corky bark disease of Rambutan and Pulasan in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L., Sapindaceae) was first introduced into Honduras in 1927 but commercial production was not started until after 1980 when cultivation of pulasan (N. mutabile Blume) was initiated. In the last decade these crops have become popular as exotic fruit for export to North A...

  8. Cultural Capital and Innovative Pedagogy: A Case Study among Indigenous Communities in Mexico and Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorcic, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces case studies of innovative approaches to pedagogy among indigenous Mayan communities in Chiapas (Mexico) and Lencan communities in Intibuca (Honduras). Innovative approaches to researching alternative theories and practices of pedagogy are used by the author to develop an epistemology of critical pedagogy and its potential…

  9. Recent Research on the Impact of Alternative Education Delivery Systems in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Seth

    In Honduras, 88 percent of the rural population has 6 years or less of formal education. Several distance education schemes have been undertaken to address both low rural educational levels and the destruction of schools by Hurricane Mitch. This paper reports on recent studies of two distance education efforts with substantial international…

  10. Quality and Efficiency in a Complementary Middle School Program: The "Educatodos" Experience in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Mejia R., Marco Tulio; Aguilar, Claudia R.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors use recently collected data from the "Educatodos" program in Honduras to analyze attrition, an outcome that has received little attention in previous analyses of alternative school effectiveness. "Educatodos" began in the 1990s with radio courses in primary grades mainly for rural adults. Through…

  11. Opening the Black Box: Women's Empowerment and Innovative Secondary Education in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Graham, Erin

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to clarify the relationship between education and women's empowerment. Drawing from qualitative data collected in a study of four Garifuna villages on the north coast of Honduras, it argues that education can trigger the empowerment process if it expands women's knowledge and understanding, self-confidence and awareness of gender…

  12. Using "EC-Assess" to Assess a Small Biofuels Project in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngassa, Franklin Chamda

    2010-01-01

    Biofuels may contribute to both rural economic development and climate change mitigation and adaptation. The Gota Verde Project in Yoro, Honduras, attempts to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small-scale biofuel production for local use by implementing a distinctive approach to feedstock production that encourages small farm…

  13. Decentralization and Educational Performance: Evidence from the PROHECO Community School Program in Rural Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gropello, Emanuela; Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effectiveness of the Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria (PROHECO) community school program in rural Honduras. The data include standardized tests and extensive information on school, teacher, classroom and community features for 120 rural schools drawn from 15 states. Using academic achievement decompositions we find that…

  14. How Patronage Politics Undermines Parental Participation and Accountability: Community-Managed Schools in Honduras and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how patronage politics affects a popular international education model: community-managed schools (CMS). Focusing on Honduras's CMS initiative, PROHECO (Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria), I demonstrate how patronage can undermine CMS accountability. Whereas supporters argue that CMS increases accountability, partisan…

  15. Decentralization and Educational Performance: Evidence from the PROHECO Community School Program in Rural Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gropello, Emanuela; Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effectiveness of the Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria (PROHECO) community school program in rural Honduras. The data include standardized tests and extensive information on school, teacher, classroom and community features for 120 rural schools drawn from 15 states. Using academic achievement decompositions we find that…

  16. How Patronage Politics Undermines Parental Participation and Accountability: Community-Managed Schools in Honduras and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how patronage politics affects a popular international education model: community-managed schools (CMS). Focusing on Honduras's CMS initiative, PROHECO (Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria), I demonstrate how patronage can undermine CMS accountability. Whereas supporters argue that CMS increases accountability, partisan…

  17. Using "EC-Assess" to Assess a Small Biofuels Project in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngassa, Franklin Chamda

    2010-01-01

    Biofuels may contribute to both rural economic development and climate change mitigation and adaptation. The Gota Verde Project in Yoro, Honduras, attempts to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small-scale biofuel production for local use by implementing a distinctive approach to feedstock production that encourages small farm…

  18. Creating Sustainable Education Projects in Roatán, Honduras through Continuous Process Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Arjan; Randolph, Adriane B.; Heil, Shelli

    2010-01-01

    The investigators worked together with permanent residents of Roatán, Honduras on sustainable initiatives to help improve the island's troubled educational programs. Our initiatives focused on increasing the number of students eligible and likely to attend a university. Using a methodology based in continuous process improvement, we developed…

  19. La Persistencia de la Pobreza Rural en Honduras, Nicaragua y Bolivia: un Fracaso del Neoliberalismo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kay (Cristóbal)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractLos documentos de estrategia de lucha contra la pobreza, preparados por los gobiernos mediante un proceso en el que participan instituciones internacionales y actores de la sociedad civil, no dieron los resultados previstos. El artículo analiza los casos de Honduras, Nicaragua y Bolivia

  20. Policies for sustainable development in the hillside areas of Honduras: a quantitative livelihoods approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.P.G.; Pender, J.; Damon, A.; Wielemaker, W.; Schipper, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we use data for 376 households, 1,066 parcels, and 2,143 plots located in 95 villages in the hillside areas in Honduras to generate information needed by decision makers to assess the needs and opportunities for public investments, and design policies that stimulate natural resource

  1. La Persistencia de la Pobreza Rural en Honduras, Nicaragua y Bolivia: un Fracaso del Neoliberalismo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kay (Cristóbal)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractLos documentos de estrategia de lucha contra la pobreza, preparados por los gobiernos mediante un proceso en el que participan instituciones internacionales y actores de la sociedad civil, no dieron los resultados previstos. El artículo analiza los casos de Honduras, Nicaragua y Bolivia

  2. Crisis Discourses and Technology Regulation in a Weak State: Response to a Pesticide Disaster in Honduras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K.

    2003-01-01

    Hurricane Mitch hit Honduras in October 1998, leaving a trail of death, injury and devastating damage. As it tore through the country, the hurricane damaged a number of warehouses which contained pesticides, resulting in the discharge of more than 70 tonnes of pesticides into the environment. This a

  3. Crisis Discourses and Technology Regulation in a Weak State: Response to a Pesticide Disaster in Honduras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K.

    2003-01-01

    Hurricane Mitch hit Honduras in October 1998, leaving a trail of death, injury and devastating damage. As it tore through the country, the hurricane damaged a number of warehouses which contained pesticides, resulting in the discharge of more than 70 tonnes of pesticides into the environment. This

  4. An assessment of health sector guidelines and services for treatment of sexual violence in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Billings, Deborah L; Paredes-Gaitan, Yolanda; Padilla Zuniga, Karen

    2012-12-01

    In Central America, approximately 12% of women report ever having been forced to have sex by an intimate male partner, and sexual violence by others is also a frequent experience. All Central American countries are signatories to human rights agreements that oblige States to ensure access to comprehensive health services for victims of sexual violence, but there is limited information as to whether these agreements have been translated into policy and practice. This article critically examines health sector guidelines for the treatment of sexual violence in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, and reports on an assessment of services in 34 private- and public-sector facilities in the four countries. Overall, policies were consistent with international agreements and included guidance on detection and documentation of violence, forensic examination, treatment, referral and follow-up care. However, only a small proportion of women who experience sexual violence actually seek care. The challenge facing all four countries is to turn policy into practice. Screening practices were inconsistent, and policies needed to indicate more clearly the roles and responsibilities of health care providers and forensic specialists. Finally, women's right to privacy and confidentiality in reports of cases to legal authorities needed further consideration, as well as the importance of providing all services at a single location.

  5. A scoping review and prevalence analysis of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Honduras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lourdes Sanchez

    Full Text Available Honduras is endemic for soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections, but critical information gaps still remain on the prevalence and intensity of these infections as well as on their spatial distribution at subnational levels.Firstly, to review the research activity on STH infections in Honduras and secondly, to carry out a national prevalence analysis and map the geographical distribution of these infections in children.A systematic search was conducted of the published and grey literature to identify scientific work on the impact and prevalence of STH infections done between May 1930 and June 30, 2012. International databases and Honduran journals were searched. Grey literature was gleaned from local libraries and key informants. Select studies conducted between 2001 and 2012 were used to produce prevalence maps and to investigate association between STH prevalence and socio-economic and environmental factors.Of 257 identified studies, 211 (21.4% peer-reviewed were retained for analysis and categorized as clinical research (10.9%, treatment efficacy studies (8.1% or epidemiological studies (81%. Prevalence analysis and geographical mapping included 36 epidemiological studies from Honduras's 18 departments and 23% of its municipalities. Overall STH prevalence was >50% in 40.6% of municipalities. Prevalences above 20% for each trichuriasis, ascariasis, and hookworm infection were found in 68%, 47.8%, and 7.2% of studied municipalities, respectively. Municipalities with lower human development index, less access to of potable water, and with higher annual precipitation showed higher STH prevalences.This is the first study to provide a comprehensive historic review of STH research activity and prevalence in Honduras, revealing important knowledge gaps related to infection risk factors, disease burden, and anti-parasitic drug efficacy, among others. Our decade-long prevalence analysis reveals geographical differences in STH prevalence and these

  6. A scoping review and prevalence analysis of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, José Antonio; Rueda, María Mercedes; Mejia, Rosa Elena; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Canales, Maritza

    2014-01-01

    Honduras is endemic for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, but critical information gaps still remain on the prevalence and intensity of these infections as well as on their spatial distribution at subnational levels. Firstly, to review the research activity on STH infections in Honduras and secondly, to carry out a national prevalence analysis and map the geographical distribution of these infections in children. A systematic search was conducted of the published and grey literature to identify scientific work on the impact and prevalence of STH infections done between May 1930 and June 30, 2012. International databases and Honduran journals were searched. Grey literature was gleaned from local libraries and key informants. Select studies conducted between 2001 and 2012 were used to produce prevalence maps and to investigate association between STH prevalence and socio-economic and environmental factors. Of 257 identified studies, 211 (21.4% peer-reviewed) were retained for analysis and categorized as clinical research (10.9%), treatment efficacy studies (8.1%) or epidemiological studies (81%). Prevalence analysis and geographical mapping included 36 epidemiological studies from Honduras's 18 departments and 23% of its municipalities. Overall STH prevalence was >50% in 40.6% of municipalities. Prevalences above 20% for each trichuriasis, ascariasis, and hookworm infection were found in 68%, 47.8%, and 7.2% of studied municipalities, respectively. Municipalities with lower human development index, less access to of potable water, and with higher annual precipitation showed higher STH prevalences. This is the first study to provide a comprehensive historic review of STH research activity and prevalence in Honduras, revealing important knowledge gaps related to infection risk factors, disease burden, and anti-parasitic drug efficacy, among others. Our decade-long prevalence analysis reveals geographical differences in STH prevalence and these findings

  7. Middle Jurassic - Early Cretaceous rifting on the Chortis Block in Honduras: Implications for proto-Caribbean opening (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R. D.; Emmet, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    at near 120 degree angle in southeastern Honduras. We suggest that the intersection of these two trends represents part of a R-R-R triple junction during the breakup of the Americas. The WNW trending rift produced the WNW trending fabric of the central Chortis block and failed in the Early Cretaceous while the NE trending rift continued opening to form the south-facing passive margin of the northern proto-Caribbean basin.

  8. Estimating and mapping the incidence of dengue and chikungunya in Honduras during 2015 using Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Lysien I; Sierra, Manuel; Lara, Bredy; Rodríguez-Núñez, Iván; Medina, Marco T; Lozada-Riascos, Carlos O; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2016-08-22

    Geographical information systems (GIS) use for development of epidemiological maps in dengue has been extensively used, however not in other emerging arboviral diseases, nor in Central America. Surveillance cases data (2015) were used to estimate annual incidence rates of dengue and chikungunya (cases/100,000 pop) to develop the first maps in the departments and municipalities of Honduras. The GIS software used was Kosmo Desktop 3.0RC1(®). Four thematic maps were developed according departments, municipalities, diseases incidence rates. A total of 19,289 cases of dengue and 85,386 of chikungunya were reported (median, 726 cases/week for dengue and 1460 for chikungunya). Highest peaks were observed at weeks 25th and 27th, respectively. There was association between progression by weeks (p37%, both). Use of GIS-based epidemiological maps allow to guide decisions-taking for prevention and control of diseases that still represents significant issues in the region and the country, but also in emerging conditions.

  9. Modelling Spatial Patterns and Drivers of Wildfires in Honduras Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Vasquez, M. C.; Chen, C. F.; Chiang, S. H.

    2016-12-01

    Forests in Honduras are one of the most important resources as they provide a wide range of environmental, economic, and social benefits. However, they are endangered as a result of the relentless occurrence of wildfires during the dry season. Despite the knowledge acquired by the population concerning the effects of wildfires, the frequency is increasing, a pattern attributable to the numerous ignition sources linked to human activity. The purpose of this study is to integrate the wildfire occurrences throughout the 2010-2015 period with a series of anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic variables using the random forest algorithm (RF). We use a series of variables that represent the anthropogenic activity, the flammability of vegetation, climatic conditions, and topography. To represent the anthropogenic activity, we included the continuous distances to rivers, roads, and settlements. To characterize the vegetation flammability, we used the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the normalized multi-band drought index (NMDI) acquired from MODIS surface reflectance data. Additionally, we included the topographical variables elevation, slope, and solar radiation derived from the ASTER global digital elevation model (GDEM V2). To represent the climatic conditions, we employed the land surface temperature (LST) product from the MODIS sensor and the WorldClim precipitation data. We analyzed the explanatory variables through native RF variable importance analysis and jackknife test, and the results revealed that the dry fuel conditions and low precipitation combined with the proximity to non-paved roads were the major drivers of wildfires. Furthermore, we predicted the areas with highest wildfire susceptibility, which are located mainly in the central and eastern regions of the country, within coniferous and mixed forests. Results acquired were validated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the point biserial correlation

  10. [A school program for dengue control in Honduras: from knowledge to action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Montes, Gustavo Adolfo; Araujo, Roxana; Leontsini, Elli; Orellana Herrera, Gabriel; Fernández Cerna, Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    The Environmental School Program (PEA, for its Spanish acronym), a dengue control initiative focused on primary schools that took place during 2005-2010 in several cities in Honduras, is described. The environmental health program was designed to increase knowledge and develop skills in the identification and control of Aedes aegypti breeding sites, as well as in water and solid waste management. The results, as measured by behavioral change and reduced larval indices, were satisfactory in the majority of the participating schools. The initiative involved not only children, but also their parents and teachers. In addition to reducing larval indices, PEA was successful in promoting community participation in environmental issues, particularly Aedes control. The inclusion of this educational content in the primary school curriculum in Honduras remains pending.

  11. Mites associated with Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman (Scolytidae: Coleoptera) in Central America and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Moser; Robert C. Wilkinson; Edgar W. Clark

    1974-01-01

    The pine forests of central and North America continually suffer economic damage from the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman 1868***, and associated bark beetles. The most severe epidemic in the history of this insect occured in Honduras from 1962 to 1965 (1, 2). Then and subsequently, studies aimed at determining the biology and...

  12. A new species of crinoid-associated Periclimenes from Honduras (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grave, Sammy

    2014-05-02

    A new species of crinoid associated Periclimenes, P. rincewindi sp. nov. is described from the Bay Islands (Honduras) in the Caribbean. The species associates with the swimming crinoid, Analcidometra armata and displays a unique colour pattern. Morphologically, the new species is closely related to the other known crinoid associates in the Caribbean, specifically Periclimenes crinoidalis, from which it can be distinguished by a suite of relatively minor morphological features.

  13. Paleokarst Evaluation in the Upper Albian Calcareous Platforms in Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco-Velázquez B.E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation in México, Guatemala and Honduras of theUpper Albian platform carbonate rocks that were exposed to subaerial conditions by the falling of the sea level, exposing the rocks to the physical, chemical and temperature phenomena allowing for some type of karst formation. There is a methodology for the identification of paleokarsts by the petrology, fabrics, geometry and stratigraphy of the breccias. Only at Dengandho in the Actopan Platform there are the evidence...

  14. A research capacity strengthening project for infectious diseases in Honduras: experience and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lourdes Sanchez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Honduras, research capacity strengthening (RCS has not received sufficient attention, but an increase in research competencies would enable local scientists to advance knowledge and contribute to national priorities, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. Objective: This project aimed at strengthening research capacity in infectious diseases in Honduras, focusing on the School of Microbiology of the National Autonomous University of Honduras (UNAH. The primary objective was the creation of a research-based graduate program for the continued training of researchers. Parallel objectives included institutional strengthening and the facilitation of partnerships and networks. Methods: Based on a multi-stakeholder consultation, an RCS workplan was designed and undertaken from 2007 to 2012. Due to unexpected adverse circumstances, the first 2 years were heavily dedicated to implementing the project's flagship, an MSc program in infectious and zoonotic diseases (MEIZ. In addition, infrastructure improvements and demand-driven continuing education opportunities were facilitated; biosafety and research ethics knowledge and practices were enhanced, and networks fostering collaborative work were created or expanded. Results: The project coincided with the peak of UNAH's radical administrative reform and an unprecedented constitutional crisis. Challenges notwithstanding, in September 2009, MEIZ admitted the first cohort of students, all of whom undertook MDG-related projects graduating successfully by 2012. Importantly, MEIZ has been helpful in expanding the School of Microbiology's traditional etiology-based, disciplinary model to infectious disease teaching and research. By fulfilling its objectives, the project contributed to a stronger research culture upholding safety and ethical values at the university. Conclusions: The resources and strategic vision afforded by the project enhanced UNAH's overall research capacity and its

  15. A research capacity strengthening project for infectious diseases in Honduras: experience and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Canales, Maritza; Enriquez, Lourdes; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Zelaya, Ada Argentina; Espinoza, Vilma Esther; Fontecha, Gustavo Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    Background In Honduras, research capacity strengthening (RCS) has not received sufficient attention, but an increase in research competencies would enable local scientists to advance knowledge and contribute to national priorities, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Objective This project aimed at strengthening research capacity in infectious diseases in Honduras, focusing on the School of Microbiology of the National Autonomous University of Honduras (UNAH). The primary objective was the creation of a research-based graduate program for the continued training of researchers. Parallel objectives included institutional strengthening and the facilitation of partnerships and networks. Methods Based on a multi-stakeholder consultation, an RCS workplan was designed and undertaken from 2007 to 2012. Due to unexpected adverse circumstances, the first 2 years were heavily dedicated to implementing the project's flagship, an MSc program in infectious and zoonotic diseases (MEIZ). In addition, infrastructure improvements and demand-driven continuing education opportunities were facilitated; biosafety and research ethics knowledge and practices were enhanced, and networks fostering collaborative work were created or expanded. Results The project coincided with the peak of UNAH's radical administrative reform and an unprecedented constitutional crisis. Challenges notwithstanding, in September 2009, MEIZ admitted the first cohort of students, all of whom undertook MDG-related projects graduating successfully by 2012. Importantly, MEIZ has been helpful in expanding the School of Microbiology's traditional etiology-based, disciplinary model to infectious disease teaching and research. By fulfilling its objectives, the project contributed to a stronger research culture upholding safety and ethical values at the university. Conclusions The resources and strategic vision afforded by the project enhanced UNAH's overall research capacity and its potential contribution

  16. U.S. Involvement in Central America. Three Views from Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    in public policy dialogue ’The reverse formulation may also apply: Local concern about costs and risks may also increase when a small country is...This pattern, if it develops, may be manifested not only in general public policy dialogue but also, away from public view, in official bi- lateral

  17. San Ignacio (La Tembladera) geothermal site, Departamento de Francisco Morazan, Honduras, Central America: Geological field report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, M.J.; Eppler, D.; Heiken, G.; Flores, W.; Ramos, N.; Ritchie, A.

    1987-06-01

    The San Ignacio (La Tembladera) geothermal site is located on the north side of the Siria Valley, Departamento de Francisco Morazan, near the village of Barrosa. Hot springs are located along a northwest-trending fault scarp at the edge of the valley and along north-trending faults that cross the scarp. The rocks in the area are primarily Paleozoic metamorphic rocks, overlain by patches of Tertiary Padre Miguel Group tuffs and alluvial deposits. Movement probably occurred along several faults during latest Tertiary and possibly early Quaternary times. Four spring areas were mapped. Area 1, the largest, is associated with a sinter mound and consists of 40 spring groups. About half of the springs, aligned along a north-south trend, are boiling. Area 2 is a small sinter mound with several seeps. Area 3 consists of a group of hot and boiling springs aligned along a north-trending fault. The springs rise through fractured schists and a thin cover of alluvium. Area 4 is located at the intersection of several faults and includes one of the largest boiling springs in the area.

  18. Alcohol consumption by nursing students in Honduras Uso de bebidas alcohólicas entre estudiantes de enfermería en Honduras Uso de bebidas alcoólicas em estudantes de enfermagem em Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Camila Matute

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The recreational use of alcohol is very frequent in the life of college students. A descriptive study was carried out with nursing students in Honduras, where the use of psychoactive substances represents a considerable health problem, especially the use of alcohol. This study identified that 74.9% were abstinent. Nevertheless, the study focused on drinkers, whose consumption pattern may be changing over time. According to the sample characteristics, most subjects were young working women, students, and Christians. These variables should be considered in the investigation of protective factors against drinking, and in designing preventive actions in the university context.El uso recreativo de alcohol esta muy presente en la vida de los universitarios. Por medio de un estudio descriptivo entre estudiantes de enfermería en Honduras se encontró que el uso de sustancias psicoactivas producen un gran daño a la salud, principalmente el uso de alcohol. En el presente estudio, se identificó que el 74.9% era abstemio, pero nuestra atención se volvió hacia los bebedores, porque estos a lo largo del tiempo pueden estar cambiando su patrón de consumo. En la caracterización de la muestra, se encontró que la mayoría eran jóvenes, evangélicas, que estudian y trabajan. Esos son variables de consideración para una mejor exploración de los factores de protección de bebedores y el planteamiento de acciones preventivas en el contexto universitario.O consumo de álcool, de forma recreacional, está muito presente na vida dos universitários. Através de estudo descritivo com estudantes de enfermagem em Honduras, foi descoberto que o uso de substâncias psicoativas representa um grande problema para a saúde, principalmente o uso do álcool. Identificamos, no presente estudo, que 74,9% eram abstinentes, porém, a nossa atenção se voltou aos consumidores, pois estes ao longo do tempo podem estar mudando seu padrão de consumo. Na caracterização da

  19. Nesting Ecology of Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) on Utila, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damazo, Lindsey Renee Eggers

    The hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) has a circumtropical distribution and plays an important role in maintaining the health of coral reefs. Unfortunately, hawksbill populations have been decimated, and estimated numbers in the Caribbean are less than 10% of populations a century ago. The hawksbill is considered Critically Endangered, and researchers are coordinating worldwide efforts to protect this species. One country where we lack knowledge regarding hawksbills is Honduras. This study aimed to increase our understanding of hawksbill nesting ecology in Caribbean Honduras. Characteristics of hawksbill nesting activity and a nesting beach on the island of Utila were elucidated using satellite telemetry, beach profiling, vegetation surveys, beach monitoring, and nest temperature profiles. We affixed satellite transmitters to two nesting hawksbills, and found the turtles migrated to different countries. One turtle traveled 403 km to a bay in Mexico, and the other traveled 181 km to a Marine Protected Area off Belize. This study presents the first description of hawksbill migration routes from Honduras, facilitating protection efforts for turtles that traverse international waters. To investigate nesting beach and turtle characteristics, we conducted beach monitoring during the 2012 nesting season. Nesting turtle carapace sizes were similar to worldwide values, but hatchlings were heavier. To measure nest temperatures, we placed thermocouple data loggers in four nests and four pseudo-nests. Data suggested metabolic heating may be maintaining nest temperatures above the pivotal temperature. However, large temperature fluctuations corresponding to rainfall from Hurricane Ernesto (as determined using a time series cross-correlation analysis) make it difficult to predict sex ratios, and underscore the impact stochastic events can have on nest temperatures. We created topographic and substrate profiles of the beach, and found it was 475 m long, yet hawksbills

  20. Lesson's-learned from a 2003-2006 USA-Honduras NGO and University Geosciences Education Partnership in Land use Land / Land Cover Change Analysis using Remote Sensing and GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    Between 2004 and 2006 the Loma Linda University ESSE21 Mesoamerican Project (Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century) collaborated with a series of academic, NGO (nongovernmental) and government agencies, including a USAID (United States Agency for International Development) integrated environmental resource management project to: a) build the human and technical capacity of local partners in the use of geospatial technologies, e.g. GIS, GPS, Remote Sensing, b) improve their capacity to apply these tools to biodiversity, health, sustainability, protected-area management, and other NRM (Natural Resource Management) decision-making needs and problems, and c) establish long term institutional relationships for teacher/student exchange, including development of joint curricula and research projects focused on health geoinformatics as well as sustainable development. Much of this has contributed toward a new "geotourism" effort adopted by Honduras called the SAVE Honduras strategy (Scientific, Academic, Volunteer, Educational). A central element of this initiative is to increase joint collaborative research and learning together by students and faculty at US universities working with Honduran institutions (private and public). See SAVE Strategy page = http://www.fundacionsave.com/home_eng.html In the presentation we describe our experience over the last three years collaborating with key partners such as the Central American Observatory of Suyapa based at the UNAH (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras) which has opened a new GIS/Remote Sensing Laboratory. We also collaborated closely with CURLA (Centro Universitario Regional del Litoral Atlántico) located near La Ceiba--a land grant-type institution- -to support outreach and extension activities by students and staff to local-level NGOs and community groups dealing with conservation, hazards mitigation, biodiversity, fisheries and related problems. We have also participated in joint "informal

  1. Contribución de la actualización de competencias de los agricultores en la mitigacion de pobreza: Caso de la mancomunidad chorti, Copán Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas Guzman Alvaro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The Copan department of Honduras has a low Human Development Index (HDI 0.56 but it is very rich in hydric resources, all ranges in temperature, ecosystems, agricultural and livestock biodiversity, and rural knowledge because its original Mayan ethnic groups (Chorti and Lencas, and mixed race peasants.

    This article analyzes and evaluates the strategies used in the components of rural production and management of the basin of the Project ‘Local Self-managed Development for Poverty

    Reduction in North Copán, Honduras’ (NCP that worked with the Multifunctional Agriculture (MFA approach between 2003 and 2007. The main results were: To promote agro-ecological management innovations, creation of two funds to improve the farmers production, environmental protection of the basins, to consider the hydric and eco-systemic services in the management of the territory, to reassess social learning systems as the  extension methodology “farmer to farmer”.

  2. Violent Crime: A Comparative Study of Honduras and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    250 Elvira Cuadra and Maribel Padilla, Estadisticas sobre Violencia y Armas de Fuego, Nicaragua 2000-2002 (Centro de Estudios Internacionales (CEI...José Miguel. “Street Gangs in Central America.” San Salvador: UCA, 2007. Cuadra, Elvira and Maribel Padilla. Estadisticas sobre Violencia y Armas

  3. Are the Maras Overwhelming Governments in Central America?

    OpenAIRE

    Boraz, Steven C.; Thomas C. BRUNEAU

    2006-01-01

    Military Review, November - December 2006 Violence in Central America has grown so much in the last half decade that Colombia is no longer the homicide capital of the region. In fact, it now ranks fourth in that ignominious distinction behind El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala.1 The violence is mostly due to the phenomenon of street gangs, also called pandillas or gangas, but most often maras. They have grown in number, sophistication, and stature and have largely...

  4. A strategy for implementation of programs for energy efficiency and the the use of energy renewable sources in Honduras; Uma estrategia para a implementacao de programas de eficiencia energetica e do uso de fontes renovaveis de energia em Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, Jose Cecilio Carcamo

    2000-07-01

    The electric power sector in Honduras, is in a phase of transition, from a centralized and monopolistic system, to a decentralized and competitive one. The approval of the Electric Law in 1994 brought the separation of the generation, transmission and distribution functions of the electric industry, the creation of new market agents, as well as the function of regulation to the State. From the restructuration of the Honduran electric power sector, the tendency in the production of electricity is the construction of thermoelectric plants. This tendency has caused an increase of imports of fossil fuels and environmental impacts, causing a situation quite unsustainable for the Honduran society, the environment and the economy in general. In order to change the tendency of diffusion of the thermoelectric plants in the electric sector, this work makes a detailed diagnosis of the country energy resources and shows some ways to implement programs of energy efficiency. The diagnosis leads to the understanding of the problems that the agents confront in the electric power sector. With that, it is possible to elaborate a strategy whose goal is the implementation, in a profitable way, of programs of energy efficiency and projects of alternative energy sources. In order to achieve that the strategy will be successful, is necessary the implantation of environmental, economical and institutional measures. If the measures suggested by this strategy will be carry out, the use of alternative energy sources and of programs of energy efficiency will compete in better conditions with traditional energetic sources and they get to the place they belong within the Honduran electric power sector. (author)

  5. Anti-gang policies and gang responses in the Northern Triangle : The Evolution of the Gang Phenomenon in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borgh, G.J.C.; Savenije, W.

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, gangs have become a powerful and violent presence in El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras, the ‘Northern Triangle’ of Central America. 1 The particular evolution of the gang phenomenon has been deeply shaped by a series of reactions and adaptations to ill-developed security po

  6. A new Nototriton (Caudata: Plethodontidae) from Parque Nacional Montaña de Botaderos in northeastern Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Josiah H; Medina-flores, Melissa; Reyes-Calderón, Onán; Austin, James D

    2013-01-01

    The highlands of northeastern Honduras remain under-characterized in terms of biological diversity, as exemplified by the regularity of new amphibian and reptile taxa discoveries. Following the recent description of a new species of Nototriton from the Sierra de Agalta in northeastern Honduras, we report the discovery of a second new species of Nototriton from the nearby Parque Nacional Montaña de Botaderos. This new taxon, Nototriton mime sp. nov., is distinguished from other Nototriton by its distinctive pale brown dorsal coloration in adult males, relatively large nares, a relatively broad head, mitochondrial sequence divergence, and phylogenetic relationships, and is geographically isolated from other populations of Nototriton.

  7. Nuevos registros para la flora de Honduras y el Parque Nacional Montaña de Celaque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Vega

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Se registran 11 novedades para la flora de Honduras a partir de ejemplares recolectados en el Parque Nacional Montaña Celaque. Los nuevos registros son: Tillandsia mateoensis (Bromeliaceae, Diastema affine (Gesneriaceae, Scutellaria costaricana (Lamiaceae, Miconia contrerasii (Melastomataceae, Acianthera violacea, Dendrophylax porrectus, Epidendrum santaclarense, Lepanthes enca-barcenae, L. fratercula, L. isabelae y Sarcoglottis schaffneri (Orchidaceae. Por otra parte, Potosia guatemalensis es sinonimizado bajo S. schaffneri. Se incluyen fotos de todas las especies, hábitats y un mapa de distribución con sus localidades en Honduras.

  8. La participación del sector privado en los servicios de agua y saneamiento en San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Díaz

    2003-01-01

    Este estudio analiza el proceso de reforma de los sistemas de agua y alcantarillado del término municipal de San Pedro Sula iniciado en el año 1998. San Pedro Sula ilustra un caso en que la concesión de los servicios atrajo la atención de los inversores, el primer caso de participación del sector privado en los servicios de agua y saneamiento de Honduras. También ilustra una concesión otorgada por las autoridades municipales sin garantía del Gobierno de Honduras. El análisis se estructura en ...

  9. Water sanitation, access, use and self-reported diarrheal disease in rural Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Gabriela E; Bearman, Gonzalo; Sanogo, Kakotan; Stevens, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Only 79% of individuals living in rural Honduras use improved water sources. Inadequate drinking water quality is related to diarrheal illness, which in Honduras contributes to 18.6 episodes of diarrhea per child year in children under five years of age. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare access to drinking water and sanitation, as well as self-reported diarrheal disease incidence among three proximal communities in the Department of Yoro area of Honduras. An 11-item language-specific, interviewer-administered, anonymous questionnaire was administered to 263 randomly selected adults attending a June 2011 medical brigade held in the communities of Coyoles, La Hicaca, and Lomitas. Chi-square with Fisher exact tests were utilized to compare water access, sanitation, and self-reported diarrheal incidence among these communities. Coyoles and La Hicaca used private faucets as their primary water sources. Coyoles had the greatest use of bottled water. Lomitas used rivers as their primary water source, and did not use bottled water. Mostly, females were responsible for acquiring water. Usage of multiple water sanitation methods was most common in Coyoles, while no sanitation method was most common in Lomitas. In Lomitas and La Hicaca, water filters were mostly provided via donation by non-governmental organizations. Lomitas had the highest reported incidence of diarrhea among self and other household members. Critical differences in water access, sanitation, and self-reported diarrheal incidence among three geographically distinct, yet proximal, communities highlights the need for targeted interventions even in geographically proximal rural areas.

  10. Molecular diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients with tuberculosis in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghebremichael Solomon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis persists as a public health problem in Honduras. A better knowledge of the molecular characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains will contribute to understand the transmission dynamics of the disease within the country. The aim of this study was to provide an insight of the genetic biodiversity of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates collected in Honduras between 1994 and 2002. Genotyping was performed using spoligotyping and RFLP. The spoligotypes obtained were compared with the SITVIT2 proprietary database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Results Spoligotyping grouped 84% of the isolates into 27 clusters (2 to 43 strains per cluster. Of the 44 shared international types (SITs identified among the Honduran stains, 8 SITs were newly identified either within the present study or after match with an orphan type previously identified in the SITVIT2 database. In addition, 16 patterns corresponded to orphan, previously unreported isolates. The Latin American Mediterranean (LAM lineage was the most common in this study; 55% of the strains belonged to this family. Other genotypes found were Haarlem (16%, T (16%, X-clade (6%, Unknown signature (5% and S (1%. Only one Beijing strain was identified (0.5%. We observed a high degree of diversity after characterizing the 43 isolates belonging to the main spoligotyping cluster (SIT 33, LAM3 with IS6110-RFLP. A total of 35 different RFLP-fingerprints were detected, of which 6 patterns corresponded to the same number of clusters comprising 14 strains. Conclusions The findings obtained in this study show that tuberculosis transmission in Honduras is due to modern M. tuberculosis lineages with high level of biodiversity.

  11. Etno-demografía de la étnia pech, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Vargas Aguilar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se discute la metodología y hallazgos de un estudio, bajo la modalidad etno-demográfica, de la étnia pech en el oriente de Honduras, diseminada en trece comunidades en los departamentos de Olancho, Colón y Gracias a Dios. Se realizó un censo de población como parte de una metodología aplicable a los diferentes grupos étnicos. La metodología empleada busca mostrar las posibilidades e importancia de relacionar variables demográfico-estadísticas con variables culturales bajo un análisis integrado logrando "relacionar las variables culturales con el comportamiento demográfico y las tendencias poblacionales" (Valdés, L.,1988. Se discuten también las diferentes preguntas para la determinación de la población étnica, en sus limitaciones y potencialidades. El trabajo de campo del estudio fue realizado bajo convenio de la Unidad de Docencia e Investigación en Población (UDIP de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras y el Instituto Hondureño de Antropología e Historia (IHAH en 1994. Se emplean además algunos datos del censo de población más reciente en Honduras (2001, como punto de comparación y análisis del comportamiento demográfico de este grupo étnico. En los territorios de la etnia, en 1994 se contabilizaron 2079 personas (1020 hombres y 1059 mujeres, y para el último censo nacional (2001 la componían 3141 personas (1523 hombres y 1618 mujeres.

  12. Rapid ongoing decline of Baird's tapir in Cusuco National Park, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Niall P; Wheeler, Phil M; Coles, Tim; Bruford, Michael W

    2012-12-01

    During the International Tapir Symposium 16-21 Oct 2011, the conservation of Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in Honduras received a boost with the signing of a memorandum of understanding between the Minister Director of the Honduran Institute of Conservation and Forestry (ICF) and the Tapir Specialist Group (TSG). Despite this agreement, accelerating levels of hunting and habitat loss continue to pose a threat to Baird's tapir in Honduras. An ongoing study in Cusuco National Park in northwestern Honduras has been monitoring changes in population dynamics of Baird's tapir since 2006 through the collection of occupancy data. The study has identified an increase in hunting pressure, coinciding with a drastic decline in the encounter rate with Baird's tapir spoor. Here, we examine the significance of a range of demographic variables on Baird's tapir occupancy in Cusuco National Park using the software PRESENCE, and simulate the effects of different management strategies on the future dynamics of the population using the stochastic simulation software VORTEX. The predictions of the theoretical population models are compared to observed changes in occupancy levels. We found that non-intervention resulted in the local extinction of Baird's tapir within a very short time frame, but that various intervention models enabled the population to recover to near carrying capacity. Occupancy and extinction probability were shown to respond markedly to the increase in hunting pressure; and occupancy models supported the future population predictions generated by VORTEX. Our study suggests that immediate intervention is required to reduce hunting pressure to near historical levels to prevent the imminent local extinction of the species.

  13. AIDSCAP policy dialogue in Honduras: establishing the politics of prevention. Policy profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, S; Sweat, M

    1993-12-01

    Two meetings were held in August 1993 in Honduras to deliver results of assessments of the potential impact of HIV/AIDS in Tegucigalpa, the capital (where 12% of adults may be infected with HIV by 2000), and San Pedro Sula, Honduras's largest industrial city (where 17% of adults are expected to be infected), and to spark a national dialogue about the need to slow the spread of the epidemic. The economic impact will be great because most of those affected will be workers 20-30 years old. AIDS treatment costs families approximately 14 months of an average Honduran's income and AIDS illness and premature death diminishes an individual's potential income by almost two-thirds. The tools used in the Honduran analysis by AIDSCAP were mathematical modeling of the epidemic, economic impact assessments, and creation of policy dialogue. AIDSCAP trained Ministry of Health employees to gather data, which were modeled using the computer programs EIPMODEL, DemProj, and AID. Data were presented in a way to stimulate dialogue among policy makers, the media, and international donors. Initial meetings were chaired by the president and first lady of Honduras, and this initial dialogue led to the creation of CONALSIDA (Comision de Alto Nivel de Apoyo en La Lucha Contra el SIDA), a high-level AIDS policy-making body to be chaired by the first lady. This generated extensive coverage in the newspapers and on television news and talk shows. Because this initial effort will not sustain development of the necessary positive policy environment, AIDSCAP is developing ways to disseminate the information to a wider audience.

  14. Field evaluation of rapid HIV serologic tests for screening and confirming HIV-1 infection in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetler, H C; Granade, T C; Nunez, C A; Meza, R; Terrell, S; Amador, L; George, J R

    1997-03-01

    To determine the ability of simple, rapid tests to identify HIV-1 antibody-positive specimens in field settings using the World Health Organization's (WHO) alternative testing strategies. Three-phase evaluation of simple, rapid assays using banked specimens and prospectively collected serum specimens at regional hospitals and rural clinics. Seven test (Retrocell, Genie, HIVCHEK, SUDS HIV-1, Testpack, Serodia HIV-1, and HIV-1/2 RTD) were evaluated and results compared with standard enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and Western blot results (phase 1). Further evaluation consisted of prospective testing of routine specimens at regional (phase 2; n = 900) and rural, peripheral laboratories (phase 3; n = 1266) throughout Honduras with selected assays. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each assay and combination of assays for each phase to evaluate the effectiveness of the WHO alternative testing strategies. All tests in all phases were > 99% sensitive after correcting for technical errors, with two exceptions (SUDS, phase 1; HIVCHEK, phase 3). In phase 3, where the testing algorithm was diagnostic, several combinations of assays were 100% sensitive and specific using WHO strategy II or III. For the Honduras Ministry of Health, the combination of Retrocell and Genie was found to be equally sensitive, more specific (no indeterminate results), and less expensive than EIA/Western blot. Combinations of rapid, simple HIV antibody assays provide sensitivity and specificity performance comparable to EIA/Western blot. Application of these combinations in the WHO alternative testing strategies provides an inexpensive and effective method of determining HIV status. Assay combinations using these strategies can be easily performed in small, rural laboratories and have been implemented in routine HIV screening in Honduras.

  15. Discipline and punish? Youth gangs' response to "zero-tolerance" policies in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Lirio Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    The response of youth gangs to "zero tolerance" policing in Honduras are examined with respect to territoriality. Focusing on two main gangs, the Mara Salvatrucha and the 18th Street Gang, the ways in which state authority is challenged are assessed from an analysis of body territoriality, the respatialisation of organisational structures across urban neighbourhoods, and the production of new enclosed spaces of gang territoriality. These redefinitions of group territoriality strengthen the emotional bonds and sense of belonging towards the gang, enabling the emergence of a transnational/imagined community.

  16. Short-term service trips and the interprofessional team: a perspective from Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWielen, Lynn M; Halder, Gabriela E; Enurah, Alexander S; Pearson, Catherine; Stevens, Michael P; Crossman, Steven H

    2015-03-01

    Short-term service trips from the USA annually spend over $250 million dollars to provide healthcare to individuals in developing nations. These trips often uniquely define goals as related to changes in the host population and overlook the valuable benefits potentially incurred by the trip volunteers. The Honduras Outreach Medical Brigada Relief Effort utilizes an interprofessional team approach to develop the dual goals of improving health and quality of life in host communities and improving interprofessional teamwork values and skills among participants. This article outlines details of this program, describes on-going evaluation work and discusses the interprofessional implications from this project.

  17. A four-year surveillance program for detection of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A Fontecha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Countries could use the monitoring of drug resistance in malaria parasites as an effective early warning system to develop the timely response mechanisms that are required to avert the further spread of malaria. Drug resistance surveillance is essential in areas where no drug resistance has been reported, especially if neighbouring countries have previously reported resistance. Here, we present the results of a four-year surveillance program based on the sequencing of the pfcrt gene of Plasmodium falciparum populations from endemic areas of Honduras. All isolates were susceptible to chloroquine, as revealed by the pfcrt “CVMNK” genotype in codons 72-76.

  18. A four-year surveillance program for detection of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecha, Gustavo A; Sanchez, Ana L; Mendoza, Meisy; Banegas, Engels; Mejía-Torres, Rosa E

    2014-07-01

    Countries could use the monitoring of drug resistance in malaria parasites as an effective early warning system to develop the timely response mechanisms that are required to avert the further spread of malaria. Drug resistance surveillance is essential in areas where no drug resistance has been reported, especially if neighbouring countries have previously reported resistance. Here, we present the results of a four-year surveillance program based on the sequencing of the pfcrt gene of Plasmodium falciparum populations from endemic areas of Honduras. All isolates were susceptible to chloroquine, as revealed by the pfcrt "CVMNK" genotype in codons 72-76.

  19. Honduras: nuevo gobierno liberal con la misma agenda política

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Ajenjo Fresno

    2007-01-01

    El artículo presenta brevemente los eventos más relevantes ocurridos en Honduras en el periodo 2005, desde la celebración de las elecciones presidenciales y legislativas hasta la actualidad. El texto sostiene fundamentalmente que el 2005 como año electoral ha supuesto una combinación de cambio y continuidad importante, y por tanto examina la dosis de esta combinación. En particular, presta atención a los cambios de funcionamiento electoral, que sin embargo no han afectado la dinámica política...

  20. Honduras: hacia una reconfiguración del sistema partidario tras las elecciones generales de 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Graciela Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the results of the general elections held on November 24th, 2013 in Honduras in which Juan Orlando Hernández, a member of the conservative National Party, emerged as the winner. The results of these elections, marked by the crisis of 2009, allowed the ruling party to continue in power. The present analysis focuses on the political context in which the elections were held, as well as the main challenges the country faces. The article also discusses the effects of the electo...

  1. Crisis in Honduras: The Search for Answers to the Removal of President Manuel Zelaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    2010), 13. 16 Ismael Moreno, “Honduras: What’s Behind the Fourth Ballot Box,” Revista Envío, May 2009, http://www.envio.org.ni/articulo/3999/. 4...Protagonists of a Coup Foretold,” Revista Envío, July 2009, http://www.envio.org.ni/articulo/4032. 40 Baumgartner, “Introduction,” 13. While international...http://www.freedomhouse.org/report-types/freedom-world/. 135 Ismael Moreno, “After 25 Years: Formal Democracy But More Social Tragedy,” Revista

  2. Honduras: vicisitudes en la construcción de una democracia de ciudadanía

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El artículo aborda la crisis política hondureña generada por la tentativa de golpe de Estado, en junio-julio de 2009, contra el gobierno del presidente José Manuel Zelaya Rosales. Igualmente se analizan aspectos fundamentales de la trayectoria política reciente del país, los actores en conflicto y algunos escenarios futuros. El principal argumento del artículo sostiene que la actual inestabilidad política en Honduras surge de la resistencia de los sectores tradicionalmente dominantes ante la ...

  3. Dinámica del nitrógeno y el fósforo del suelo bajo tres sistemas de uso de la tierra en laderas de Honduras Dynamics of soil nitrogen and phosphorus in three land use systems on hillsides of Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracely Castro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Se condujo un estudio para determinar el efecto de los principios de manejo del Sistema Agroforestal Quesungual (SAQ en la dinámica de nitrógeno (N y fósforo (P del suelo y el impacto de estos en su productividad en el sur-occidente de Honduras, Centroamérica. Se compararon cinco sistemas: (1 tala-y-quema (TQ; (2, 3 & 4 SAQ de A study was carried out to determine the effect of management principles in the Quesungual Slash and Mulch Agroforestry System (QSMAS on the dynamics of soil nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P, and their impact on QSMAS’ productivity in southwestern Honduras, Central America. Five land use systems were compared: (1 Slash-and-burn traditional system; (2, 3 and 4 QSMAS of 10 years old, respectively; and (5 Secondary forest. Local practices were applied to produce maize Zea mays, and bean Phaseolus vulgaris, with (101 kg N + 55 kg P /ha for maize, 46 kg N + 51 kg P /ha for bean and without addition of fertilizers. Measurements included decomposition and nutrient release from biomass, aerobic mineralization of N, sequential fractionation of P, size-density fractionation of soil organic matter, and crop yield. Similarities in N dynamics indicate that QSMAS and slash-and-burn system were equally effective in providing N, although in QSMAS it is also result of a biologically mediated process. P pools in QSMAS were more dynamic and favorable by reducing their flows towards unavailable forms. Based on nutrient availability and grain yields over time, QSMAS could be a suitable option to replace the slash-and-burn system in smallholder agroecosystems.

  4. Attending School and Learning or Repeating and Leaving. A Study about the Determinants of Grade Repetition and Dropout in Primary School in Honduras. Synthesis of the Study = Asistir y Aprender o Repetir y Desertar. Un Estudio sobre los Factores que Contribuyen a la Repitencia en la Escuela Primaria en Honduras. Sintesis del Informe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Noel F.; And Others

    This paper synthesizes a study designed to identify the factors that contribute to primary school repetition and dropout in Honduras. Data were collected by record reviews; teacher, student, and parent interviews; and a test of Spanish. The sample included 1,253 students in grades 1 and 3 in 40 schools in rural Honduras. The main findings of the…

  5. Attending School and Learning or Repeating and Leaving. A Study about the Determinants of Grade Repetition and Dropout in Primary School in Honduras. Synthesis of the Study = Asistir y Aprender o Repetir y Desertar. Un Estudio sobre los Factores que Contribuyen a la Repitencia en la Escuela Primaria en Honduras. Sintesis del Informe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Noel F.; And Others

    This paper synthesizes a study designed to identify the factors that contribute to primary school repetition and dropout in Honduras. Data were collected by record reviews; teacher, student, and parent interviews; and a test of Spanish. The sample included 1,253 students in grades 1 and 3 in 40 schools in rural Honduras. The main findings of the…

  6. The policy of power and the power of policy: energy policy in Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, L.C.; Salgado, C.; Thorpe, A. [University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth (United Kingdom)

    1998-09-01

    The rapid industrialisation of Latin America and the high rate of electrification in the post-war period have combined to ensure a growing demand for energy in the region. In Honduras with its small domestic resources of oil, gas or coal hydro-electric power grew to account for about three quarters of installed capacity (423,000 kW) by 1990. The paper traces the evolution of energy supply and demand in Honduras and describes the serious energy shortages in 1994/5 (caused by environmental degradation and lack of plant maintenance). There followed a switch to imported fossil fuel sources (mainly diesel and petroleum) and assessment of new hydro-electric and wind power ventures. There are now a number of oil importers, and three new privately owned generating companies. Liberalisation of the market is likely to continue. There remains an immediate demand short-fall. In the longer term, to meet demand it will be necessary to licence further private sector generating projects. 43 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs., 1 app.

  7. Access and Barriers to Healthcare Vary among Three Neighboring Communities in Northern Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Pearson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to describe and compare access and barriers to health services in three proximal yet topographically distinct communities in northern Honduras served by the nonprofit organization the Honduras Outreach Medical Brigada Relief Effort (HOMBRE. Methods. Study personnel employed a 25-item questionnaire in Spanish at the point of care during HOMBRE clinics in Coyoles, Lomitas, and La Hicaca (N=220. We describe and compare the responses between sites, using Chi-squared and Fisher Exact tests. Results. Respondents in Lomitas demonstrated the greatest limitations in access and greatest barriers to care of all sites. Major limitations in access included “never” being able to obtain a blood test, obtain radiology services, and see a specialist. Major barriers were cost, distance, facility overcrowding, transportation, being too ill to go, inability to take time off work, and lack of alternate childcare. Conclusions. Despite being under the same local health authority, geographically remote Honduran communities experience greater burdens in healthcare access and barriers than neighboring communities of the same region.

  8. Access and Barriers to Healthcare Vary among Three Neighboring Communities in Northern Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Catherine A; Stevens, Michael P; Sanogo, Kakotan; Bearman, Gonzalo M L

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to describe and compare access and barriers to health services in three proximal yet topographically distinct communities in northern Honduras served by the nonprofit organization the Honduras Outreach Medical Brigada Relief Effort (HOMBRE). Methods. Study personnel employed a 25-item questionnaire in Spanish at the point of care during HOMBRE clinics in Coyoles, Lomitas, and La Hicaca (N = 220). We describe and compare the responses between sites, using Chi-squared and Fisher Exact tests. Results. Respondents in Lomitas demonstrated the greatest limitations in access and greatest barriers to care of all sites. Major limitations in access included "never" being able to obtain a blood test, obtain radiology services, and see a specialist. Major barriers were cost, distance, facility overcrowding, transportation, being too ill to go, inability to take time off work, and lack of alternate childcare. Conclusions. Despite being under the same local health authority, geographically remote Honduran communities experience greater burdens in healthcare access and barriers than neighboring communities of the same region.

  9. Climate change impacts on maize and dry bean yields of smallholder farmers in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENDOZA, Carlos O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rotation maize and dry bean provides the main food supply of smallholder farmers in Honduras. Crop model assessment of climate change impacts (2070–2099 compared to a 1961–1990 baseline on a maize–dry bean rotation for several sites across a range of climatic zones and elevations in Honduras. Low productivity systems, together with an uncertain future climate, pose a high level of risk for food security. The cropping systems simulation dynamic model CropSyst was calibrated and validated upon field trail site at Zamorano, then run with baseline and future climate scenarios based upon general circulation models (GCM and the ClimGen synthetic daily weather generator. Results indicate large uncertainty in crop production from various GCM simulations and future emissions scenarios, but generally reduced yields at low elevations by 0 % to 22 % in suitable areas for crop production and increased yield at the cooler, on the hillsides, where farming needs to reduce soil erosion with conservation techniques. Further studies are needed to investigate strategies to reduce impacts and to explore adaptation tactics.

  10. Honduras: nuevo gobierno liberal con la misma agenda política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ajenjo Fresno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta brevemente los eventos más relevantes ocurridos en Honduras en el periodo 2005, desde la celebración de las elecciones presidenciales y legislativas hasta la actualidad. El texto sostiene fundamentalmente que el 2005 como año electoral ha supuesto una combinación de cambio y continuidad importante, y por tanto examina la dosis de esta combinación. En particular, presta atención a los cambios de funcionamiento electoral, que sin embargo no han afectado la dinámica política de forma visible ni en relación a la agenda política de gobierno ni al contexto de gobierno unificado que garantiza el apoyo a éstaThe article briefly presents the most relevant facts occurred in Honduras in the period from 2005, when the presidential and legislative elections took place, until nowadays. The text basically posits the 2005 as an electoral year where change and continuity have been intertwined and thus pays attention to the doses of such interaction. In particular, the article focuses on the changes in the electoral rules governing the election, which in turn have not visibly affected the political dynamics, neither concerning the agenda of the government nor the context of unified government which ensures the support to this agenda

  11. Paleokarst Evaluation in the Upper Albian Calcareous Platforms in Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasco-Velázquez B.E.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation in México, Guatemala and Honduras of theUpper Albian platform carbonate rocks that were exposed to subaerial conditions by the falling of the sea level, exposing the rocks to the physical, chemical and temperature phenomena allowing for some type of karst formation. There is a methodology for the identification of paleokarsts by the petrology, fabrics, geometry and stratigraphy of the breccias. Only at Dengandho in the Actopan Platform there are the evidences to confirm a paleokarst. In the three countries mentioned there is literature related to the presence of “paleokarst” in the Upper Albian rocks of the Coahuila, Valles-San Luis Potosí, Golden Lane, Córdoba, Artesa-Mundo Nuevo, Chiapas, Guatemala and Honduras Platforms. As much of the work was done before the time when the methodology for paleokarsts was stablished, muchof the descriptions do not allow confirmation of the paleokarsts presence. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out field research and to study the subsurface rocks in order to confirm the paleokarst structures. In Texas, at the San Marcos Platform (Upper Albian rocks, the studies of the breccias confirm a paleokarst structure in the rocks. In the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico the geophysics research done at the Jordan Knoll and the Campeche Scarp has discovered at Upper Albian rocks an unconformity at the Upper Albian rocks, but there are no physical evidences or rocks to confirm a paleokarst.

  12. [Genetic isolates and inbreeding customs in three rural municipalities from Honduras].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Paz, Edwin Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el método de isonimia ha sido utilizado ampliamente para la determinación de la estructura genética aproximada de las poblaciones humanas. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la magnitud del aislamiento genético y las costumbres endogámicas en 57 comunidades de tres municipios rurales de Honduras utilizando las técnicas de isonimia. Métodos: se utilizó el listado de 408 apellidos diferentes utilizados por 20 712 votantes registrados en el Tribunal Supremo Electoral, que residen en las 57 comunidades estudiadas. Para cada comunidad se calcularon los valores de la isonimia aleatoria (IR), no aleatoria (IN) y total (IT) con el fin de evaluar los coeficientes de consanguinidad FST, FIS y FIT. Resultados: se encontró alta consanguinidad debido a aislamiento y a costumbres endogámicas en muchas comunidades. En los tres municipios se observó desviación significativa del comportamiento exógamo típico de otras poblaciones de Honduras. Conclusiones: muchas de las comunidades estudiadas presentan una elevada consanguinidad debido al aislamiento, la segregación étnica y/o costumbres endogámicas.

  13. Revolution as a care plan: ethnography, nursing and somatic solidarity in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Adrienne

    2013-12-01

    While diagnosis is not within the biomedical scope of a nurse's work, assessment-an inherently ethnographic exercise-is. In Honduras, as in the United States, nurses' proximity with patients, in terms of both time spent at the bedside and shared class identification (embodied as habitus), mean that nurses are often more effective than physicians in assessment and healing. Following the 2009 coup that brought a violently repressive regime to power in Honduras, subjectivation as citizen healers brought many nurses to assess patient health as a function of neoliberal and political violence. This assessment framed radical struggle that required nurses to block political violence with their own bodies as being a necessary part of patient care. Similarly, as ethnographer, I came to share with nurses and other Hondurans certain violent processes of subjectivation (albeit from a privileged subject position) that strengthened my solidarity with them as well as my deeply embodied investment in their care plan of organizing for radical social change. This paper examines the politicizing impact of the 2009 coup on Honduran auxiliary and professional nurses and the ways in which nurse assessment and ethnographic analysis can overlap and combine in somatic and political solidarity with patients and others resisting state and political violence through their bodies.

  14. Migration, Multiple Sexual Partnerships, and Sexual Concurrency in the Garífuna Population of Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Anisha D; Pettifor, Audrey; Barrington, Clare; Marshall, Stephen W; Behets, Frieda; Guardado, Maria Elena; Farach, Nasim; Ardón, Elvia; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    The Garífuna, an ethnic minority group in Honduras, have been disproportionately affected by HIV. Previous research suggests that migration and high rates of multiple sexual partnerships are major drivers of the epidemic. Using data from a 2012 population-based survey, we assessed whether temporary migration was associated with (1) multiple sexual partnerships and (2) sexual concurrency among Garífuna men and women in Honduras. Among both men and women, temporary migration in the last year was associated with an increased likelihood of multiple sexual partnerships and with concurrency, though only the association between migration and multiple sexual partnerships among men was statistically significant (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio 1.7, 95 % CI 1.2-2.4). Migration may contribute to HIV/STI vulnerability among Garífuna men and women via increases in these sexual risk behaviors. Research conducted among men and women at elevated risk of HIV should continue to incorporate measures of mobility, including history of internal migration.

  15. Evaluación y alternativas del proyecto de restricción vehicular "Hoy no circula" llevado a cabo en Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Laínez Bueso, Ramón

    2009-01-01

    Honduras, oficialmente República de Honduras, es un país centroamericano con un gobierno republicano presidencialista de aproximadamente 7,8 millones de habitantes, y está entre las que registra un mayor número de crecimiento en Latinoamérica. Debido al incremento del parque vehicular en este país y al crecimiento poblacional, ha surgido una problemática que es el congestionamiento vial en las principales ciudades de Honduras ya que la infraestructura vial en vez de ir mejorand...

  16. Study of Factors Preventing Children from Enrolment in Primary School in the Republic of Honduras: Analysis Using Structural Equation Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Akemi

    2015-01-01

    Studies have investigated factors that impede enrolment in Honduras. However, they have not analysed individual factors as a whole or identified the relationships among them. This study used longitudinal data for 1971 children who entered primary schools from 1986 to 2000, and employed structural equation modelling to examine the factors…

  17. The Cost-Effectiveness of Interactive Radio Instruction for Improving Primary School Instruction in Honduras, Bolivia and Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilson, Thomas D.; And Others

    Findings are presented from studies on the use of radio for teaching primary school children mathematics in Honduras and Bolivia and English as a Second Language in Lesotho. Interactive radio instruction (IRI) is so called because of the active participation of the students. Although lessons are presented by conventional radio, scripts are written…

  18. Cost benefit analysis of the introduction of heat tolerant bean varieties in Atlántida, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising ambient air temperatures, migration, and deforestation threaten the sustainability of hillside common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) farming in Atlántida, Honduras. Farmers avoid climatic constraints to common bean production by planting at different altitudes during different seasons. In this ...

  19. Description of a new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Bernardo A.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Winnie Hallwachs;  J. Bolling Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker are described from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala. Images of males and females and their genitalia are provided. Locality information and distribution maps for Costa Rica and for Guatemala are included. The biology and phylogeny of Idalus are discussed. PMID:23730178

  20. Description of a new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini)

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Espinoza Sanabria; Daniel Janzen; Winnie Hallwachs; J. Bolling Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker are described from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala. Images of males and females and their genitalia are provided. Locality information and distribution maps for Costa Rica and for Guatemala are included. The biology and phylogeny of Idalus are discussed.

  1. Physical and Sexual Violence, Mental Health indicators, and treatment seeking among street-based population groups in Tegucigalpa, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Rio Navarro, Javier; Cohen, Julien; Rocillo Arechaga, Eva; Zuniga, Edgardo

    2012-01-01

    To establish the prevalence of exposure to physical and sexual violence, mental health symptoms, and medical treatment-seeking behavior among three street-based subpopulation groups in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, and to assess the association between sociodemographic group, mental health indicators, and exposure to violence.

  2. Determinants of income-earning strategies and adoption of conservation practices in hillside communities in rural Honduras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.P.G.; Rodriguez, A.; Damon, A.; Pender, J.; Chenier, J.; Schipper, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the results of participatory diagnostic surveys conducted in 95 rural communities in the hillsides of Honduras, we determine income earning strategies at the community level; identify their main determinants; and analyze the adoption of of conservation practices. Eight income-earning strate

  3. Especie nueva de Albizia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae de Centroamérica A new species of Albizia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae from Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Linares

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra a Albizia xerophytica sp. nov., una nueva especie de El Salvador, Honduras y Nicaragua,de las selvas bajas caducifolias de la parte norte de Centroamérica y se discuten sus posibles afinidades taxonómicas.A new species, Albizia xerophytica sp. nov., is described and illustrated, and its taxonomic affinities are discussed. The tree has been collected from the low-land broadleaf forests of El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua of northern Central America.

  4. La vagina dentada: una interpretación de la Estela 25 de Izapa y las guacamayas del juego de pelota de Copán The dented vagina: an interpretation for Stela 25 of Izapa and ballcourt macaws of Copan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Chinchilla Mazariegos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las aves representadas en la Estela 25 de Izapa y el juego de pelota de Copán forman el punto de partida para un examen del tema mitológico de la vagina dentada en Mesoamérica, y sus expresiones en el arte y la narrativa. Un amplio conjunto de narraciones mitológicas recopiladas en México y Guatemala sirve como base para un examen de la historia de Siete Guacamayo en el Popol Vuh, la cual se interpreta como una variante de un mito ampliamente difundido, relacionado con el origen del Sol y la Luna. La identificación de asuntos comunes, entre ellos el de la vagina dentada, refuerza la relación entre el mito del Popol Vuh y las representaciones de Izapa y Copán. A la vez, revela detalles poco conocidos sobre el simbolismo sexual presente en los mitos cosmogónicos mesoamericanos.The birds represented at Stela 25 of Izapa and Copan ball court are the starting point for the analysis of the mythological topic focused on the vagina dentata in Ancient Mesoamerica, as well as their expressions on art and narrative. A large body of mythological narratives is used as a basis for the examination of the "Siete Guacamayo" story included in the Popol Vuh, which is interpreted as part of a widely extended myth related with the creation of the Sun and the Moon. The identification of common issues, as the vagina dentata topic, strengthens the links between the Popol Vuh myth and the Izapa and Copan representations. It also reveals less known details on the sexual symbolism included in the Mesoamerican cosmogonic myths.

  5. Digital inventory of landslides and related deposits in Honduras triggered by Hurricane Mitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Edwin L.; Hagaman, Kirk W.; Held, Matthew D.; McKenna, Jonathan P.

    2002-01-01

    Intense rainfall from Hurricane Mitch from October 27-31, 1998, exceeded 900 mm in places in Honduras and triggered in excess of 500,000 landslides throughout the country. Landslides damaged an estimated 70% of the road network in Honduras based on estimates by the U. S Army Corps of Engineers. Numbers of fatalities due to landslides are not accurately known due to the fact that numerous small villages throughout Honduras lost residents to landslides without an official count being recorded. A conservative estimate would place the number at near 1,000. Debris flows accounted for over 95% of the landslides and ranged in thickness from 1 to 15 m. Flow path lengths of these failures ranged from several meters to 7.5 km. The highest concentrations of debris flows occurred in the mountains near the town of Choluteca where over 900 mm of rain fell in three days. Although landslides other than debris flows were few, several deep-seated landslides in the city of Tegucigalpa severely impacted people and property. The 'El Berrinche' rotational slump/earth flow of approximately six million cubic meters volume destroyed the entire neighborhood of Colonia Soto near the center of the city. The landslide also dammed the Rio Choluteca and created a lagoon behind the landslide dam, which immediately posed a health problem for the city, because raw, untreated sewage was emptying into the Rio Choluteca. Several areas of highly concentrated landslides have been responsible for much of the flooding problem as well. Huge sediment influxes from landslide source areas near La Ceiba, La Libertad, Marale, and in several arms of El Cajon Reservoir have reduced stream capacities to practically nothing and have exacerbated flooding conditions in even the moderate rainfall seasons since Hurricane Mitch. The ongoing hazard to communities from landslides triggered during Hurricane Mitch are being analyzed using aerial photography taken by the U.S. Air Force and by supplemental photography taken

  6. Consecuencias del divorcio en niños y adolescentes en San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedronel González Rodríguez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación cuantitativa con enfoque descriptivo, detalla las consecuencias del divorcio en niños y adolescentes desde la perspectiva de los adultos, en la ciudad de San Pedro Sula, Cortes, Honduras. La investigación es parte de una encuesta respondida por 423 personas que residen en San Pedro Sula, quienes conocían el caso de un niño o joven cuyos padres se habían divorciado. Los encuestados refirieron que las consecuencias observadas en los niños o los adolescentes después del divorcio se manifestaron a nivel conductual, afectivo/sentimental, somático, interpersonal, cognitivo, nuevo estilo de vida, académico, económico, uso de servicios de salud mental y desarrollo de síndromes post divorcio.

  7. Honduras: hacia una reconfiguración del sistema partidario tras las elecciones generales de 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Graciela Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the results of the general elections held on November 24th, 2013 in Honduras in which Juan Orlando Hernández, a member of the conservative National Party, emerged as the winner. The results of these elections, marked by the crisis of 2009, allowed the ruling party to continue in power. The present analysis focuses on the political context in which the elections were held, as well as the main challenges the country faces. The article also discusses the effects of the electoral process on the Honduran party system, highlighting the transition from iron-clad bipartisanship to an incipient multi-party system that will condition the political scene in the years to come.

  8. Honduras: vicisitudes en la construcción de una democracia de ciudadanía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Federico Domínguez Avila

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda la crisis política hondureña generada por la tentativa de golpe de Estado, en junio-julio de 2009, contra el gobierno del presidente José Manuel Zelaya Rosales. Igualmente se analizan aspectos fundamentales de la trayectoria política reciente del país, los actores en conflicto y algunos escenarios futuros. El principal argumento del artículo sostiene que la actual inestabilidad política en Honduras surge de la resistencia de los sectores tradicionalmente dominantes ante la posibilidad cambios estructurales orientados hacia la construcción de una democracia de ciudadanía.

  9. Disasters and development in agricultural input markets: bean seed markets in Honduras after Hurricane Mitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainville, Denise Y

    2003-06-01

    The bulk of developing countries' populations and poor depend on agriculture for food and income. While rural economies and people are generally the most severely affected by natural disasters, little is known about how disasters and subsequent relief activities affect agricultural markets with differing levels of development. The article addresses this gap, drawing evidence from bean seed markets in Honduras after Hurricane Mitch. Case studies are used to address hypotheses about a disaster's effects on supply and demand in seed markets, farmers' responses and the performance of relief interventions in markets showing differing levels of development. The results show the importance of tailoring relief interventions to the markets that they will affect and to the specific effects of a disaster; the potential to use local and emerging seed distribution channels in a relief intervention; and opportunities for relief activities to strengthen community seed systems.

  10. Civil Society in Hybrid Governance: Non-Governmental Organization (NGO Legitimacy in Mediating Wal-Mart’s Local Produce Supply Chains in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dara Bloom

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper challenges the notion that the incorporation of actors from civil society into hybrid governance arrangements improves outcomes and legitimacy. Multi-stakeholder collaborations are a popular hybrid governance approach to development, including NGOs’ work to integrate smallholder farmers into supermarket supply chains. As a result, NGOs’ service provision role has expanded to include market facilitation, often necessitating NGOs act as market intermediaries. This paper explores how this new role may jeopardize NGOs’ organizational legitimacy in the eyes of their constituents, other development organizations, and supermarket partners, and therefore ultimately affect their ability to represent civil society in hybrid governance arrangements. Drawing on qualitative data collected in the Central American country of Honduras, this paper focuses on NGOs’ role organizing producer associations to facilitate access to Wal-Mart supermarkets. Findings suggest that a lack of supply chain transparency, NGOs’ negotiation between commercial and aid-oriented goals, and the potential to exclude producers from development projects threaten NGOs’ legitimacy. These findings illustrate the difficulties of embedding philanthropic activities in market-based systems, and demonstrate how multi-stakeholder collaborations may be influenced more by commercial priorities than the elements of a partnership. Ultimately, development NGOs are products of neoliberal, hybrid governance, even as their activities are expected to ease the transition of small-scale producers into this system.

  11. Water-balance uncertainty in Honduras: a limits-of-acceptability approach to model evaluation using a time-variant rating curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, I.; Guerrero, J.-L.; Beven, K.; Seibert, J.; Halldin, S.; Lundin, L.-C.; Xu, C.-Y.

    2009-04-01

    The climate of Central America is highly variable both spatially and temporally; extreme events like floods and droughts are recurrent phenomena posing great challenges to regional water-resources management. Scarce and low-quality hydro-meteorological data complicate hydrological modelling and few previous studies have addressed the water-balance in Honduras. In the alluvial Choluteca River, the river bed changes over time as fill and scour occur in the channel, leading to a fast-changing relation between stage and discharge and difficulties in deriving consistent rating curves. In this application of a four-parameter water-balance model, a limits-of-acceptability approach to model evaluation was used within the General Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) framework. The limits of acceptability were determined for discharge alone for each time step, and ideally a simulated result should always be contained within the limits. A moving-window weighted fuzzy regression of the ratings, based on estimated uncertainties in the rating-curve data, was used to derive the limits. This provided an objective way to determine the limits of acceptability and handle the non-stationarity of the rating curves. The model was then applied within GLUE and evaluated using the derived limits. Preliminary results show that the best simulations are within the limits 75-80% of the time, indicating that precipitation data and other uncertainties like model structure also have a significant effect on predictability.

  12. Asignación de recursos, satisfaccción del visitante, administración y manejo de parques nacionales en Costa Rica, Honduras y Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre González, Juan Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth forecasted of new visitors arriving to Central America national parks will make essential for park managers to consider visitor satisfaction in its planning process. A total of 915 surveys, 312 to local and 603 to foreign visitors were conducted in Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, to determine using a gap form of the expectations-disconfirmation model the satisfaction of local and foreign visitors with the infrastructure, services and recreational options. The study found that there were important differences and similarities between local and foreign visitors in socio demographics and in the satisfaction rating awarded to key infrastructure, services and recreational options. Standardized regression model identified using stepwise procedure single out the variables that influence the overall gap in satisfaction with the visit. The material permitted improved resource allocation and management decisions by the parks administrator in terms of the elements they needed to consider in their site main-tenance and investment planning in order to increase the visitor’s satisfaction with the visit.

  13. Entre a História e a Transcendência: Padre Guadalupe Carney e a luta pela Reforma Agrária em Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin P Coleman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante a Guerra Fria na América Central, o padre James Hanley Carney escreveu um livro que foi sua história de vida e uma crônica detalhada do movimento camponês em Honduras. Este ensaio analisa e contextualiza o conteúdo da autobiografia de Carney, e ao mesmo tempo reflete sobre a ideologia que é codificada no gênero autobiográfico. Sua autobiografia e as cartas que ele escreveu para sua família, juntamente com os documentos dos movimentos de trabalhadores são as fontes utilizadas. Sua tentativa de entender os camponeses hondurenhos com quem conviveu e trabalhou o levou a questionar as condições históricas e estruturais da pobreza naquele país durante o enfrentamento de Guerra Fria. Este encontro prolongado levou-o a repensar sua fé anticomunista e seus compromissos cristãos.

  14. Copan: en las tripas de un Niemeyer

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Gil Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    Esta propuesta práctica pretende mostrar la funcionalidad y elasticidad de los materiales de elaboración propia. A partir del reportaje de una revista de tendencias, se plantea un repaso de contenidos propios de los niveles A1 y A2, según el Marco de Referencia Común Europeo, a la vez que se introduce el futuro imperfecto con valor de hipótesis sobre el presente.

  15. Reclaiming the essence of nursing: the meaning of an immersion experience in Honduras for RN to bachelor of science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamshick, Pamela; August-Brady, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Cultural immersion experiences incorporated in baccalaureate nursing programs have yielded positive short- and long-term effects on the personal and professional lives of the participants. Despite this evidence, little is known about how immersion experiences affect the RN student returning to school. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to uncover the meaning of a week-long immersion in Honduras for RN students (N = 8) and its impact on their professional practice upon return from Honduras. Data were analyzed through reflective journals and two focus groups conducted postimmersion experience. Transcripts were analyzed, and four themes emerged: from the outside looking in, struggling with dissonance, searching for meaning, and from the inside looking out. These themes combined to form the essence of the meaning of the experience: reclaiming the essence of nursing. Implications for practice, education, and research are addressed.

  16. Capital intelectual y otros determinantes de la ventaja competitiva en empresas exportadoras de la zona norte de Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Geovany Calix

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze the intellectual capital and other determinants of competitive advantage in exporting companies in northern Honduras, from two perspectives: the theory of resources and capabilities, and the theory of the firm based on the knowledge. At the end of the hypothesis test data were used by probit regression. The evidence found indicates that having more intellectual capital, the seniority of the exporting company, the size and degree of requirement of the destination country, they are relevant variables that influence in a positive way the level of competitive advantage. It is believed that the results contribute to the literature on the level of competitive advantage in exporting firms in developing countries being the first work of this kind in Honduras. As a future line of research must be carried out an identification, classification and measurement of intellectual capital and competitive advantage, both variables measured longitudinally.

  17. Street Gangs in Central America: Combating them with Intelligence Fusion Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Bruneau, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Street gangs – pandillas in Spanish – are a major security challenge in the three Northern Triangle countries of Central America – El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.[1] They are also considered a threat in many US cities, with particular focus on the Mara Salvatrucha, MS-13. Domestic party politics in the three countries have resulted in the reliance of heavy hand (mano dura) responses to the gangs, which have mainly served to exacerbate the problem. The anomalous situation of ...

  18. Violence In Honduras: An Analysis of the Failure in Public Security and the States Response to Criminality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    without coordination or planning . These returning gang members gained a stronghold in Honduras.37 While deportations brought the Los Angeles gang...brings researchers. One of the promising films and research was by filmmaker Christian Poveda, but his 2008 documentary La Vida Loca126 portraying the...American Politics and Society 54, no. 1 (March 2012): 69. 126 Cristian Poveda, “La Vida Loca,” accessed January 10, 2013, http//www.youtube.com/watch?v

  19. Power to the parents? Participatory governance, civil society, and the quality of democracy in rural Honduras and Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This thesis examines whether and how participatory governance (PG), a model for incorporating citizen participation in designing and/or implementing strategies to solve public problems, can strengthen civil society and improve the quality of democracy. The study focuses on community-managed schools (CMS) in Honduras and Guatemala, arguably each country's largest PG initiative, in which parents managed rural schools.This thesis advances a "political capabilities" framework to explore state ef...

  20. Comparison of visual inspection and Papanicolau (PAP) smears for cervical cancer screening in Honduras: should PAP smears be abandoned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R B; Langrish, S M; Stern, L J; Figueroa, J; Simon, C J

    2007-09-01

    To compare visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) to Papanicolau (PAP) smears in a community setting in a developing nation. Women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Honduras received either VIA and PAP smears (VIA/PAP group) or PAP smears alone (PAP-only group). Local healthcare providers performed PAP screening. A VIA-trained nurse performed VIA exams. All PAP smears were processed in Honduras. PAP smears from the VIA/PAP group were reviewed in the United States. Women with positive VIA or PAP tests were offered colposcopy. We compared the relative accuracy of PAP smears and VIA and the proportions of women completing follow-up colposcopy after positive screening tests. In total, 1709 PAP smears were performed including women from both the VIA/PAP and PAP-only groups. Nine PAP smears were positive (0.5%). Three women completed colposcopy (33%). All three had biopsy-confirmed dysplasia. In the VIA/PAP group (n = 339), 49 VIA exams were abnormal (14%) and two PAP smears were abnormal when read in Honduras (0.6%). When reviewed in the United States, 14 of the 339 PAP smears were abnormal (4%). Forty women (83%) completed follow-up colposcopy after a positive VIA exam. Twenty-three had biopsy-proven dysplasia. All 23 dysplasia cases had negative PAP smear readings in Honduras; four PAP smears were reclassified as positive in the United States. Although few developing countries can maintain high-quality PAP smear programmes, many governments and charitable organizations support cervical cancer screening programmes that rely on PAP smears. This study underscores the need to promote alternative technologies for cervical cancer screening in low-resource settings.

  1. Inventario de los parasitoides de Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae) en la región sur de Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Se presenta un inventario de 25 especies de parasitoides (Hymenoptera) que atacan a tres especies de minadores foliares (Liriomyza) en tres departamentos de la región sur de Honduras. La especie predominante fue Liriomyza sativae. criada de 25 especies de cultivos y plantas silvestres. Las infestaciones de L. sativae fueron mayores en cultivos de Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae y Fabaceae, y en las plantas silvestres Kallstroemia maxima (Zygophyllaceae) y Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae). Se detall...

  2. Intervención en educación del ocio para la infancia en Honduras desde un enfoque humanista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Asly Berrios Palacios

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Honduras es uno de los primeros países en firmar los acuerdos y convenciones a favor los derechos de la infancia. Sin embargo, debido a las condiciones de pobreza, se convierte en uno de los países con mayor deuda social con este colectivo. Las condiciones de pobreza y desigualdad que aquejan a la población en general de América Latina y, por ende, a la infancia, son especialmente complejas en algunos países de la región. Este trabajo se apoya en un amplio marco conceptual en el que se profundiza teóricamente en el fenómeno del ocio como ámbito para el desarrollo humano; en el juego como base para el disfrute del ocio y factor de desarrollo en la infancia; en la Normativa Legal sobre los derechos de la infancia, así como la problemática específica de Honduras; y en la teoría de educación del ocio como forma de intervención. Este artículo se centra en el diseño de un Proyecto de intervención en educación del ocio para la infancia en Honduras desde un enfoque humanista. Para ello se describe el contexto de aplicación del proyecto atendiendo al marco legal educativo vigente en Honduras; la descripción del Centro de Innovación Educativa en el que se contextualiza el proyecto de intervención, perteneciente a la Universidad Pedagógica Nacional Francisco Morazán; y los programas y actividades que dan contenido a la intervención diseñada.

  3. Distribution of fish in seagrass, mangroves and coral reefs: life-stage dependent habitat use in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Many coral reef fish exhibit habitat partitioning throughout their lifetimes. Such patterns are evident in the Caribbean where research has been predominantly conducted in the Eastern region. This work addressed the paucity of data regarding Honduran reef fish distribution in three habitat types (seagrass, mangroves, and coral reefs), by surveying fish on the islands of Utila and Cayos Cochinos off the coast of Honduras (part of the Mesoamerican barrier reef). During July 2nd - Aug 27th 2007 ...

  4. Epidemiology of childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome as a cause of acute flaccid paralysis in Honduras: 1989-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero, Marco R; Varon, Daniel; Holden, Kenton R; Sladky, John T; Molina, Ida B; Cleaves, Francisco

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of acute flaccid paralysis in the pediatric population of Honduras over an 11-year period, determine what percentage of acute flaccid paralysis was Guillain-Barré syndrome, and identify the epidemiologic features of Guillain-Barré syndrome. There were 546 childhood cases of acute flaccid paralysis seen between January 1989 and December 1999 at the Hospital Escuela Materno-Infantil in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Of these cases with acute flaccid paralysis, 394 (72.2%) were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Our incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome in the Honduran pediatric population (1.37/100,000 per year) is higher than that shown in other studies. There was a significantly higher incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome in younger children (ages 1-4 years), a significant preponderance of cases from rural areas, and a mild predominance in boys but a typical clinical presentation. The Honduran pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome population had an increased mortality rate. Guillain-Barré syndrome has become the leading cause of childhood paralysis in Honduras. A better understanding of the population at highest risk and opportunities for earlier intervention with more effective therapeutic modalities may permit reducing the mortality among Honduran children who develop Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  5. La situación económica: social determinants of contraceptive use in rural Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marissa G; Garrett, Jenna J; Barrington, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Contraceptive use is an important determinant of unintended pregnancy, but little is known about the social and structural factors that determine women's contraceptive use in rural Honduras. In this study, we aim to characterise the individual and social determinants of contraceptive use among women in rural Honduras. In 2011 and 2012, we conducted 14 interviews and 2 focus groups with women 18 years and older. In our analysis, we created a family-planning narrative for each participant and coded transcripts around key emergent themes related to these determinants. We found that social determinants--including poverty, gender dynamics and availability of family-planning methods--had a strong influence on contraceptive use among women in our sample. Study participants stated that they were faced with a difficult economic situation compounded by rising prices of basic goods and diminishing job opportunities. Paradoxically, at the same time that the economic situation led women to seek contraception, it also contributed to the structural barriers that limited their ability to obtain their method of choice and maintain continuous contraceptive use. Our findings suggest the need for multi-level efforts to create an enabling and sustainable environment for family planning among women in rural Honduras.

  6. Transmission Reinforcements in the Central American Regional Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Vallem, Mallikarjuna R.; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Nguyen, Tony B.; Munoz, Christian; Herrera, Ricardo; Midence, Diego; Shpitsberg, Anna

    2016-07-25

    The Central American regional interconnected power system (SER) connects the countries members of the Central American regional electricity market (MER): Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. The SER was a result of a long term regional effort, and was initially conceived to transfer 300 MW between countries. However, the current transfer limits between countries range from 70 MW to 300 MW. Regional entities, like CRIE (Regional Commission of Electrical Interconnection), EOR (Central American Regional System Operator), and CDMER (Board of Directors of the Central American Market) are working on coordinating the national transmission expansion plans with regional transmission planning efforts. This paper presents experience in Central America region to recommend transmission reinforcements to achieve 300 MW transfer capacity between any pair of member countries of the Central American regional electricity market (MER). This paper also provides a methodology for technical analysis and for coordination among the regional and national entities. This methodology is unique for transmission systems of these characteristics.

  7. Poverty-associated risk factors for wheezing in the first year of life in Honduras and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueso, A; Figueroa, M; Cousin, L; Hoyos, W; Martínez-Torres, A E; Mallol, J; Garcia-Marcos, L

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors for wheezing specifically during the first year of life have been studied in well-developed countries, but the information from developing countries is very scarce. There are no such studies focusing on factors derived from poverty. The aim of the present study was to determine if risk factors related to poverty are associated to wheezing during the first year of life in infants from Honduras and El Salvador. A survey, using a validated questionnaire, was carried out in the metropolitan area of San Pedro Sula (Honduras) and in La Libertad (El Salvador) in centres where infants attended for a scheduled vaccination shot or a healthy child visit at 12 months of age. Fieldworkers offered questionnaires to parents and helped the illiterate when necessary. The main outcome variable was wheezing during the first year of life, as reported by parents. A total of 1047 infants in El Salvador and 780 in Honduras were included in the analysis. The prevalence of wheeze in the first year was higher in El Salvador (41.2%) than in Honduras (27.7%), as was recurrent wheezing defined as three or more episodes (18.4% vs. 11.7%). Wheezing and recurrent wheezing was associated to unpaved floor in the household (summary odds ratios for both countries 1.55, p=0.036 and 1.72, p=0.054 for any wheeze and recurrent wheezing, respectively); dust entering from streets (1.30, p=0.052 and 1.67, p=0.008); living in a heavily polluted area (1.33, p=0.037 and 1.52, p=0.033); and having mould stains on the household walls (1.36, p=0.072 and 1.76, p=0.007). Furthermore, marginal associations were found for additional person at home and use of kerosene as cooking fuel. University studies in the mother (0.34, p=0.046 and 0.32, p=0.022) and a professional occupation in the father (0.34, p=0.046 and 0.26, p=0.047) were associated to a lower risk. The prevalence of wheezing and recurrent wheezing is notoriously high in El Salvador and Honduras. In those populations factors related to poverty

  8. HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance in Honduras after a Decade of Widespread Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Avila-Ríos

    Full Text Available We assessed HIV drug resistance (DR in individuals failing ART (acquired DR, ADR and in ART-naïve individuals (pre-ART DR, PDR in Honduras, after 10 years of widespread availability of ART.365 HIV-infected, ART-naïve, and 381 ART-experienced Honduran individuals were enrolled in 5 reference centres in Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, La Ceiba, and Choluteca between April 2013 and April 2015. Plasma HIV protease-RT sequences were obtained. HIVDR was assessed using the WHO HIVDR mutation list and the Stanford algorithm. Recently infected (RI individuals were identified using a multi-assay algorithm.PDR to any ARV drug was 11.5% (95% CI 8.4-15.2%. NNRTI PDR prevalence (8.2% was higher than NRTI (2.2% and PI (1.9%, p500 vs. <350 CD4+ T cells/μL. PDR in recently infected individuals was 13.6%, showing no significant difference with PDR in individuals with longstanding infection (10.7%. The most prevalent PDR mutations were M46IL (1.4%, T215 revertants (0.5%, and K103NS (5.5%. The overall ADR prevalence in individuals with <48 months on ART was 87.8% and for the ≥48 months on ART group 81.3%. ADR to three drug families increased in individuals with longer time on ART (p = 0.0343. M184V and K103N were the most frequent ADR mutations. PDR mutation frequency correlated with ADR mutation frequency for PI and NNRTI (p<0.01, but not for NRTI. Clusters of viruses were observed suggesting transmission of HIVDR both from ART-experienced to ART-naïve individuals and between ART-naïve individuals.The global PDR prevalence in Honduras remains at the intermediate level, after 10 years of widespread availability of ART. Evidence of ADR influencing the presence of PDR was observed by phylogenetic analyses and ADR/PDR mutation frequency correlations.

  9. [Evaluation of an educational module on dengue and Aedes aegypti for schoolchildren in Honduras].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Montes, Gustavo Adolfo; Martínez, Mercedes; Sherman, Catalina; Fernández Cerna, Eduardo

    2004-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a special course on environmental health and dengue, given to primary school students and intended to promote behavioral changes in the mothers of those students that would lead to the safe handling of water, adequate disposal of trash, and control of household breeding sites of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector for dengue. In the period from April to November 2002 a community field trial was carried out that included four public schools in the city of Comayaguela, Honduras. Two of the schools formed the intervention group, and the two others made up the comparison or control group. The data collection activities before and after the intervention included knowledge tests for the schoolchildren and the teachers; surveys of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the students' mothers; entomological surveys (systematic checking in order to find water containers, to search for mosquito larvae) in the homes of the schoolchildren; in-depth interviews with the students' mothers; observation in the classrooms; and postintervention focus group with the teachers. During the intervention period the largest epidemic of classical dengue ever in the history of Tegucigalpa, the capital of Honduras, occurred. That event prompted the Secretariat of Health to undertake large-scale control activities. In the two intervention schools there was a significant increase in the students' knowledge of the following three variables: dengue caused by a virus, life cycle of the vector, and reduction of breeding sites, which is the most effective measure for controlling the vector (P Aedes aegypti was the knowledge variable that showed the greatest change among the mothers in the intervention group (P = 0.02). The values for two of the entomological indices (the House index and the Breteau index) were better in the intervention group than in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, there was a statistically

  10. Short communication: high prevalence of drug resistance in HIV type 1-infected children born in Honduras and Belize 2001 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Leda; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Murillo, Wendy; Naver, Lars; Largaespada, Natalia; Albert, Jan; Karlsson, Annika C

    2011-10-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has had a great impact on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1. However, development of drug resistance, which could be subsequently transmitted to the child, is a major concern. In Honduras and Belize the prevalence of drug resistance among HIV-1-infected children remains unknown. A total of 95 dried blood spot samples was obtained from HIV-1-infected, untreated children in Honduras and Belize born during 2001 to 2004, when preventive antiretroviral therapy was often suboptimal and consisted of monotherapy with nevirapine or zidovudine. Partial HIV-1 pol gene sequences were successfully obtained from 66 children (Honduras n=55; Belize n=11). Mutations associated with drug resistance were detected in 13% of the Honduran and 27% of the Belizean children. Most of the mutations detected in Honduras (43%) and all mutations detected in Belize were associated with resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, which was expected from the wide use of nevirapine to prevent MTCT during the study period. In addition, although several mothers reported that they had not received antiretroviral therapy, mutations associated with resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors were found in Honduras. This suggests prior and unreported use of these drugs, or that these women had been infected with resistant virus. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, the presence of drug resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1-infected Honduran and Belizean children.

  11. [Surnames and isonymy in the Garifuna communities of the Atlantic Coast of Honduras].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Paz, Edwin Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la estimación de la isonimia es una herramienta importante en la determinación de la estructura genética de las comunidades puesto que su magnitud es aproximadamente igual a cuatro veces el coeficiente de endogamia FST. Métodos: se analizaron los apellidos registrados en la base de datos de 26 comunidades del Tribunal Supremo Electoral de Honduras. Se calculó la isonimia aleatoria dentro de cada comunidad y en el total, así como diversos parámetros comunes asociados. Se determinaron las distancias genéticas de Lasker a partir de la isonimia calculada entre pares de comunidades. Resultados: se encontraron valores relativamente altos de isonimia aleatoria en comparación con otras comunidades rurales. Adicionalmente, se observaron distancias genéticas relativamente cortas y se encontró una correlación positiva con las distancias geográficas. Conclusiones: los resultados son congruentes con el aislamiento histórico de las comunidades y reciente tendencia a la homogenización por las altas tasas de migración masculina intercomunitaria. Las características de la población garífuna la hacen propicia para la realización de estudios destinados a la búsqueda de genes de susceptibilidad relacionados con enfermedades de herencia compleja.

  12. Why women don't get sterilized: a follow-up of women in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz, B; Nunez, J; Covington, D L; Colven, C

    1985-01-01

    In 1980, a study to determine interest in and access to sterilization for females was initiated at two Ministry of Health hospitals in Honduras. Results of the baseline study showed that 42 percent of women desiring sterilization from the Tegucigalpa hospital and 21 percent from the San Pedro Sula hospital had had a tubal ligation. A second study was conducted two years later, following up the interested but unsterilized women from the baseline study. Results show that 33 percent of women in the Tegucigalpa group, compared to 15 percent in the San Pedro Sula group, had been sterilized. Part of this difference can be attributed to an increase in sterilization facilities in Tegucigalpa over the two years after the baseline study was conducted. Among the major reasons women gave for not having been sterilized were financial and time constraints. Over the two-year period, the authors estimate that, of women interested in sterilization at delivery, 52 percent in total were sterilized in Tegucigalpa and 29 percent in San Pedro Sula.

  13. “El templo de Colohete (Honduras y su significado simbólico”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libny Rodrigo Ventura Lara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda la singularidad del templo colonial del pueblo indígena de San Manuel de Colohete, Honduras, antigua encomienda de la familia Lara que por la influencia que pudo haber tenido en él se extraen cuidadosamente sus raíces hasta remontar a un presunto principado judío medieval en la ciudad de Narbona, Francia. El enfoque está puesto sobre su simbología que al parecer está relacionada con la “Tradición del Templo” (tradición arquitectónica asociada con el Templo de Salomón. Esta tradición Andrés Cassard la advierte en el palacio del Escorial, España construido en el siglo XVI. Martha Fernández hace lo mismo respecto a la arquitectura virreinal de Nueva España. La referencia a las tradiciones de constructores está plasmada en su fachada con una serie de símbolos que incluyen la escuadra y el compás. Ello lleva a plantearse la existencia de la tradición masónica operativa entre algunos de los constructores coloniales del área.

  14. Tailored nutrition education and food assistance improve adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy: evidence from Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Homero; Palar, Kartika; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Smith, Alexandria; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Ramírez, Blanca; Farías, Hugo; Wagner, Glenn

    2014-10-01

    Food insecurity and malnutrition negatively affect adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and are associated with poor HIV clinical outcomes. We examined the effect of providing household food assistance and nutrition education on ART adherence. A 12-month prospective clinical trial compared the effect of a monthly household food basket (FB) plus nutrition education (NE) versus NE alone on ART adherence on 400 HIV patients at four clinics in Honduras. Participants had been receiving ART for an average of 3.7 years and were selected because they had suboptimal adherence. Primary outcome measures were missed clinic appointments, delayed prescription refills, and self-reported missed doses of ART. These three adherence measures improved for both groups over 12 months (p < 0.01), mostly within 6 months. On-time prescription refills improved for the FB plus NE group by 19.6 % more than the group receiving NE alone after 6 months (p < 0.01), with no further change at 12 months. Change in missed appointments and self-reported missed ART doses did not significantly differ by intervention group.

  15. Effect of feed supplements on dry season milk yield and profitability of crossbred cows in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, Christoph; Peters, Michael; Möhring, Jens; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    The contribution of dry season silage feeding on daily milk yield (MY) and dairying profitability in terms of income over feed cost (IOFC) was evaluated in dual-purpose cattle production systems in Honduras. MY records of 34 farms from two milk collection centres were collected over a 2-year period. Farms were surveyed to obtain information on the type, quantity and cost of supplemented feed, breed type and number of lactating cows in each month. Farms were classified in silage farms (SF, with a short silage supplementation period), non-silage farms (NSF) and prototype farms (PF, with an extended silage supplementation period). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and a linear mixed model approach. PF had significantly higher MY than SF and NSF but, due to higher expenses for both concentrate and silage, similar IOFC compared to NSF. SF had similar MY but lower IOFC compared to NSF, due to higher feed expenses. The effect of silage feeding, particularly maize silage, on MY was significant and superior to that of other forage supplements. Silage supplementation contributed to the highest MY and IOFC on farms with crossbred cows of >62.5 % Bos taurus and to the second highest profitability on farms with >87.5 % Bos indicus share. It is concluded that silage can play an important role in drought-constrained areas of the tropics and can contribute to profitable dairying, irrespective of breed.

  16. Intestinal parasitic infections and eosinophilia in an human immunedeficiency virus positive population in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina G Kaminsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of intestinal parasites, their regional distribution and their relations to eosinophilia were studied in 133 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive individuals from Honduras. After signing an informed consent, participants answered a socio-demographic and risk factor questionnaire, a complete physical examination, medical history, and a series of laboratory tests. All participants were HIV positive but not acquired immunodeficiency syndrome positive. Of them, 67% were co-infected with pathogen and non pathogen parasites. Overall occurrence of nematodes was: 44.3% for Trichuris trichiura, 24% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 12% for Hookworm and 7.5% for Strongyloides stercoralis. No cases of Giardia lamblia, acute amebiasis or cryptosporidiasis were diagnosed. Mean eosinophil percents for participants were consistently and significantly higher in infected than in non infected individuals: 22% for Hookworm vs 7.2% (p < 0.001, 11% for Trichuris compared to 5.2% (p < 0.001, 13.2% compared to 7.5% for S. stercoralis (p < 0.05, and 12% compared to 6% for Ascaris cases (p < 0.05. Helminths and non pathogenic protozoa, as single or mixed infections, occurred among the participants. There was a strong correlation between eosinophilia and helminthiasis infections; however, none was identified between CD4 levels and eosinophilia. Because parasitic infections aggravate malnutrition and promote a disbalanced Th2 response in a potentially immuno-compromised host, their effect on HIV disease progression needs further study, mainly in countries were HIV and parasitic infections are highly prevalent.

  17. Climate-related disaster opens a window of opportunity for rural poor in northeastern Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Kendra; Coomes, Oliver T

    2011-03-29

    Two distinct views are evident in research on how rural communities in developing countries cope with extreme weather events brought by climate change: (i) that the resource-reliant poor are acutely vulnerable and need external assistance to prepare for such events, and (ii) that climate-related shocks can offer windows of opportunity in which latent local adaptive capacities are triggered, leading to systemic improvement. Results from a longitudinal study in a Tawahka community in Honduras before and after Hurricane Mitch (1994-2002) indicate that residents were highly vulnerable to the hurricane--due in part to previous development assistance--and that the poorest households were the hardest hit. Surprisingly, however, the disaster enabled the poor to initiate an institutional change that led to more equitable land distribution, slowed primary forest conversion, and positioned the community well to cope with comparable flooding occurring 10 y later. The study provides compelling evidence that communities can seize on the window of opportunity created by climate-induced shocks to generate sustained social-ecological improvement, and suggests that future interventions should foster local capacities for endogenous institutional change to enhance community resilience to climate shocks.

  18. Community trust and household health: A spatially-based approach with evidence from rural Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarychta, Alan

    2015-12-01

    What is the relationship between community trust and household health? Scholars working to understand the effects of trust and social capital on human health tend to focus on individual characteristics or social environments, frequently without integrating these two dimensions. In light of this, the present paper makes contributions in both conceptualization and measurement. First, I develop a spatially-based approach for operationalizing community trust as the product of individual orientation and social environment. This approach highlights the need for a household to trust its neighbors and for those neighbors to reciprocate trust in order to constitute the psychological and material mechanisms critical for linking social context to individual health. Second, I illustrate the utility of this measure by evaluating the relationship between community trust and self-rated health status using an original population census survey from 2009 to 2010 for two municipalities in western Honduras (approximately 2800 households with a response rate of 94.9%). I implement spatial regression analysis and show that there is a positive and substantively meaningful relationship between community trust and household health; households that are trusting and surrounded by similarly trusting neighbors report better health status, while those in uncertain or mutually distrusting environments report worse health. The theory and results presented here suggest an important link between trust and social capital at the community level, which is particularly salient for rural regions in developing countries where health resources are scarce and community-based interventions are common.

  19. Identifying Ancient Settlement Patterns through LiDAR in the Mosquitia Region of Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Diaz, Juan Carlos; Cohen, Anna S.; Neil Cruz, Oscar; Gonzáles, Alicia M.; Leisz, Stephen J.; Pezzutti, Florencia; Shrestha, Ramesh; Carter, William

    2016-01-01

    The Mosquitia ecosystem of Honduras occupies the fulcrum between the American continents and as such constitutes a critical region for understanding past patterns of socio-political development and interaction. Heavy vegetation, rugged topography, and remoteness have limited scientific investigation. This paper presents prehistoric patterns of settlement and landuse for a critical valley within the Mosquitia derived from airborne LiDAR scanning and field investigation. We show that (i) though today the valley is a wilderness it was densely inhabited in the past; (ii) that this population was organized into a three-tiered system composed of 19 settlements dominated by a city; and, (iii) that this occupation was embedded within a human engineered landscape. We also add to a growing body of literature that demonstrates the utility of LiDAR as means for rapid cultural assessments in undocumented regions for analysis and conservation. Our ultimate hope is for our work to promote protections to safeguard the unique and critically endangered Mosquitia ecosystem and other similar areas in need of preservation. PMID:27560962

  20. Identifying Ancient Settlement Patterns through LiDAR in the Mosquitia Region of Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Christopher T; Fernández-Diaz, Juan Carlos; Cohen, Anna S; Neil Cruz, Oscar; Gonzáles, Alicia M; Leisz, Stephen J; Pezzutti, Florencia; Shrestha, Ramesh; Carter, William

    2016-01-01

    The Mosquitia ecosystem of Honduras occupies the fulcrum between the American continents and as such constitutes a critical region for understanding past patterns of socio-political development and interaction. Heavy vegetation, rugged topography, and remoteness have limited scientific investigation. This paper presents prehistoric patterns of settlement and landuse for a critical valley within the Mosquitia derived from airborne LiDAR scanning and field investigation. We show that (i) though today the valley is a wilderness it was densely inhabited in the past; (ii) that this population was organized into a three-tiered system composed of 19 settlements dominated by a city; and, (iii) that this occupation was embedded within a human engineered landscape. We also add to a growing body of literature that demonstrates the utility of LiDAR as means for rapid cultural assessments in undocumented regions for analysis and conservation. Our ultimate hope is for our work to promote protections to safeguard the unique and critically endangered Mosquitia ecosystem and other similar areas in need of preservation.

  1. Violence, Rule of Law, and Punitive Policies in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica De la Torre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that high levels of violence and crime in the so called North Triangle of Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras, together with the incapacity of the state of enforcing the rule of law, are causing growing anxiety among the population and are attracting the support of the community to implement authoritarian measures to fight crime. The response of the governments of the region in the face of the rise of crime and public demand for security has been the policies of "iron fist", and the use of "populist punitiveness" as a strategy to gain the backing of an electorate deeply concerned by insecurity.

  2. Radical, reformist and aborted liberalism: origins of national regimes in Central America Liberalismo radical, reformista y frustrado: orígenes de los regímenes nacionales en América central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James MAHONEY

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available During the twentieth century, the countries of Central America were characterized by remarkably different political regimes: military-authoritarianism in Guatemala and El Salvador, progressive democracy in Costa Rica and traditional-authoritarianism in Honduras and Nicaragua. This article explains these contrasting regime outcomes by exploring the agrarian and state-building reforms pursued by political leaders during the nineteenth– and early twentieth century liberal reform period. Based on differences in the transformation of state and class structures, three types of liberalism are identified: radical liberalism in Guatemala and El Salvador, reformist liberalism in Costa Rica and aborted liberalism in Honduras and Nicaragua. It is argued that these types of liberalism set the Central American countries on contrasting paths of political development, culminating in diverse regime outcomes.Durante el siglo XX, los países de América Central se caracterizaron por tener regímenes políticos muy diferentes: el autoritarismo militar en Guatemala y El Salvador; la democracia progresista en Costa Rica y el autoritarismo tradicional en Honduras y Nicaragua. Este artículo explica los resultados de estos distintos regímenes mediante la exploración de las reformas agrarias y de la construcción del Estado llevadas a cabo por los líderes políticos durante el siglo XIX y principios del periodo de reformas liberales del siglo XX. Basándose en las diferencias de la transformación del Estado y de las estructuras de clases, se pueden identificar tres tipos de liberalismo: liberalismo radical en Guatemala y El Salvador; liberalismo reformista en Costa Rica y liberalismo frustrado en Honduras y Nicaragua. Se argumenta que estos tipos de liberalismo condujeron a los países de América Central a caminos contrarios al desarrollo político, culminando así en regímenes con resultados diversos.

  3. Trypanosoma rangeli genotypes association with Rhodnius prolixus and R. pallescens allopatric distribution in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Antón, Fernando; Urrea, Daniel Alfonso; Guhl, Felipe; Arévalo, Carolina; Azofeifa, Gabriela; Urbina, Andrea; Blandón-Naranjo, Melissa; Sousa, Octavio E; Zeledón, Rodrigo; Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2009-12-01

    Previous kDNA polymorphism-based reports have revealed the existence of two Trypanosoma rangeli genotypes (KP1+ and KP1-): SL and SSU rRNA gene polymorphism-based studies have revealed that five genotypes (A-E) are distributed throughout different Latin-American countries. Some evidence has shown that the genotypes' biogeographical distribution is associated with sympatric Rhodnius species. 12 T. rangeli isolates from humans and reservoirs from El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica and Panama were characterised by kDNA and mini-exon gene intergene spacer analysis and compared to 12 previously characterised isolates from humans and vectors from Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras and Venezuela. Central American isolates corresponded to genotypes called KP1(+) or lineage A and KP1(-) or lineage C. Such dimorphism was corroborated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in 22 selected isolates; a dendrogram was thus produced having two defined branches. One branch grouped KP1(-) or lineage C strains isolated from Rhodnius colombiensis (Colombia), humans (Panama), Procyon lotor and Choloepus hoffmanni (Costa Rica). The other group was formed by KP1(+) or lineage A strains isolated from Rhodnius prolixus (Colombia, Venezuela) and humans (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras). These results present evidence that both groups infect different mammals (humans, domestic and silvatic animals) having no association with any particular vertebrate species; however, T. rangeli KP1(+) or (A) strains have been isolated in Central America in areas where R. prolixus circulate (Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala) and KP1(-) or (C) strains have been isolated in areas where Rhodnius pallescens is the main vector (Panama and Costa Rica) indicating a parasite-vector association. The same lineages circulate in Andean countries (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru), KP1+ being associated with members of the prolixus group (R. prolixus and Rhodnius robustus) and KP1- with members of the

  4. Revision of the species of the genus Cathorops (Siluriformes: Ariidae from Mesoamerica and the Central American Caribbean, with description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre P. Marceniuk

    Full Text Available The ariid genus Cathorops includes species that occur mainly in estuarine and freshwater habitats of the eastern and western coasts of southern Mexico, Central and South America. The species of Cathorops from the Mesoamerica (Atlantic slope and Caribbean Central America are revised, and three new species are described: C. belizensis from mangrove areas in Belize; C. higuchii from shallow coastal areas and coastal rivers in the Central American Caribbean, from Honduras to Panama; and C. kailolae from río Usumacinta and lago Izabal basins in Mexico and Guatemala. Additionally, C. aguadulce, from the río Papaloapan basin in Mexico, and C. melanopus from the río Motagua basin in Guatemala and Honduras, are redescribed and their geographic distributions are revised.

  5. Entre los valores y los intereses. Las relaciones entre América Latina y la Unión Europea tras el golpe de Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    SANAHUJA, José Antonio

    2010-01-01

    El golpe de Estado en Honduras plantea un desafío para los actores extrarregionales como la Unión Europea. Aunque la ue condenó rápidamente la asonada militar y dispuso sanciones al gobierno de facto, demostrando la veloz reacción comunitaria en materia de política exterior, con el paso del tiempo comenzaron a registrarse algunas ambigüedades, motivadas por el cálculo geopolítico y el temor a la influencia de Hugo Chávez. A partir del caso Honduras, el artículo analiza las relaciones entre la...

  6. Una mirada a la ciencia política en Honduras: la necesidad de sentar bases para su institucionalización

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro Cálix; Rolando Sierra

    2005-01-01

    Resumen El presente artículo tiene como propósito esbozar, a groso modo, el contexto, los antecedentes, los alcances y los desafíos de la ciencia política en Honduras. A priori, se reconoce en el país un rezago significativo de esta disciplina dentro del campo de las ciencias sociales. Tal aseveración causa mayor preocupación si se observa que el derecho, la sociología, la historia y la psicología -que aparecen como ciencias con mayor despegue relativo en Honduras, ya que cuentan con una mayo...

  7. An investigation into the Swan Island Honduras collecting event of Tiaporus fuliginosus Cope (Reptilia: Teiidae) and its systematic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCranie, James R.; Gotte, Steve W.

    2015-01-01

    Confusion exists in the literature concerning the collecting event of the teiid lizard Tiaporus fuliginosus. We investigated the literature and documents stored at the Smithsonian Institution Archives involving the collector of those specimens in an effort to resolve that confusion. We conclude that the type series was collected on the Swan Islands of Honduras by Charles H. Townsend during 1887. We also provide a redescription of that nominal form and show that it is a valid species that should be called Ameiva fuliginosa. We also examined the type series of A. panchlora from Old Providence, Colombia and confirm that its 1950 placement as a junior synonym of A. fuliginosa is correct.

  8. Rupture directivity and local site effects: the M7.3 Honduras earthquake of May 23, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, D.; Mooney, W. D.

    2009-12-01

    On May 28, 2009, at 2:24 AM local time, a M 7.3 earthquake struck off the coast of Honduras on the Motagua-Swan Fault System (MSFS), part of the boundary between the North America and Caribbean plates. This plate boundary has an average slip rate of 20 mm/year. This left-lateral earthquake had an average slip of 1.5 m on a 100-km-long near-vertical fault plane (Hayes and Ji, 2009). The hypocenter depth is estimated at 10 km. The main shock caused 130 structures, including homes and office buildings, to collapse or suffer significant damage in northern Honduras. Seven deaths were reported. Due to a lack of recordings in the area, the available documentation of the local effects of this earthquake are the USGS "Did you feel it?" responses and the data collected during our field seismic intensity investigation. We conducted a field investigation in Honduras between May 30 and June 6, 2009, focused on areas with local reports of damage, including the cities of La Ceiba, El Progresso, San Pedro Sula, Puerto Cortes in northern Honduras and the island of Roatan in the Caribbean Sea. The damage ascertained at these five sites shows that the severity of damage did not decrease with distance from the epicenter as predicted by standard attenuation relations. Instead, a concentration of damage was observed in El Progresso, approximately 75 km directly south from the SW end of the rupture and 160 km from the epicenter. The island of Roatan, just 30 km from the epicenter, was graded as VI on the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale while, El Progresso was graded as VIII (one unit higher than “Did you feel it?”). These intensity anomalies can be explained by two factors: (1) SW-directed rupture propagation and proximity to a localized 3.0m slip pulse (asperity) that occurred near the SW end of the fault (Hayes and Ji, 2009) that focused energy toward the city of El Progress on the mainland and; (2) local site effects, particularly the Precambrian schists and gneisses on the

  9. Comentarios sobre las posibilidades de un nuevo programa macroeconómico entre Honduras y el Fondo Monetario Internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Katz

    2008-01-01

    El presente informe analiza de manera sucinta las ponencias efectuadas tanto por las autoridades del gobierno de Honduras como por el representante del Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI) en la reunión mantenida por ambas partes el 24 de abril de 2007 en Tegucigalpa. En la exposición se han tomado en cuenta, asimismo, las conversaciones previas mantenidas por el consultor con las autoridades del gobierno en la misión de apoyo realizada en los últimos días de febrero de 2007, así como algunos ...

  10. Bilateral Agreement for Military Assistance between the Government of Honduras and the Government of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 22-05... internos y externos de otro (Dirección de Tratados 1937). Honduras también formo parte de los Estados que asumieron responsabilidades en el Acuerdo sobre...derecho interno . Además cuando un Tratado internacional afecte una disposición constitucional, debe ser aprobado por el mismo procedimiento que rige la

  11. "La vida no tiene precio": la oposición a la minería en Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Middeldorp, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo documenta la oposición a la minería en Honduras, un país alborde del “auge minero”, producto de la aprobación de la nueva Ley de Mineríaen abril del 2013. El movimiento surgió en la primera década del siglo XXI enrespuesta al establecimiento de dos minas industriales, y enmarca el accesoal agua no contaminada como requisito para la vida y el sustento –un cuadrodiscursivo que se basa extensivamente en los impactos negativos de la operacióna cielo abierto de Goldcorp en el Valle d...

  12. Contenido de sodio, azúcares y grasas en los alimentos procesados de mayor consumo en Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, A; Di Iorio, A.B.; Tejada, O.A.

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: Un estudio en jóvenes de la aldea El Jicarito (zona semiurbana de Honduras) refiere que más del 40% consumen bebidas carbonatadas y cereales azucarados de desayuno, 30% consume donas y pan dulce y 19% presentan sobrepeso y obesidad. No existe un estudio nacional sobre el consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados ni su perfil de nutrientes críticos que afectan la salud pública hondureña. Similares estudios se han realizado en Chile y Brasil. Material y método: 520 alimentos procesados...

  13. Situación nutricional en el curso de vida de la comunidad de ‘El Jicarito’ en Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, A; Di Iorio, A.B.

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: La información sobre la situación nutricional en Honduras de la década de los 60 y la encuesta de consumo de los 70, contribuyeron a la construcción de programas y políticas; son pocos los estudios realizados de actualización. Material y método: Compendio de seis proyectos entre 2013 – 2016 y primer estudio descriptivo transversal (n=455, ambos sexos) sobre la situación nutricional (consumo alimentario, actividad física, antropometría, indicadores clínicos) en el curso de vida e...

  14. U.S. Military Civic Action in Honduras, 1982-1985: Tactical Success, Strategic Uncertainty. CLIC Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    1985d) 26 November: p12. ---(1985e) 6 December: p4-p5. Fiallos Navarro, F. (1985) "La Politica del Departamento de Estado Hacia Centroamerica ...34 Foro Centroamerica I, 3 (15 October). 56 Finegan, J. (1984) "Honduras: US Troops Dig In." The Times Magazine (2 July): 4-14. Fulton, J. S. (1986) "The...34 Excerpts from Document No. 1367. New York: January. Garcia, J. (1986) Interview with the author. New Mexico State University, 3 March. Garcia, R. A. (1986

  15. Security Assistance to Central America: Assessment of U.S. Involvement in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    calamity appears in the final Long Count dates carved in the declining centers: - Piedras Negras, 795; Palenque , 799; Bonampax, 800; ,uieigrea, 805...Jain Labna BAY OF CAMPECHE Becan * Ghicarrna * Calakmul * El Mirador * lu Palenque "Uaxactun * Barton e Peten Itza * Ramnie ~ Piedras Negras La Naya

  16. Mapping of hazard from rainfall-triggered landslides in developing countries: Examples from Honduras and Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, E.L.; Reid, M.E.; McKenna, J.P.; Michael, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Loss of life and property caused by landslides triggered by extreme rainfall events demonstrates the need for landslide-hazard assessment in developing countries where recovery from such events often exceeds the country's resources. Mapping landslide hazards in developing countries where the need for landslide-hazard mitigation is great but the resources are few is a challenging, but not intractable problem. The minimum requirements for constructing a physically based landslide-hazard map from a landslide-triggering storm, using the simple methods we discuss, are: (1) an accurate mapped landslide inventory, (2) a slope map derived from a digital elevation model (DEM) or topographic map, and (3) material strength properties of the slopes involved. Provided that the landslide distribution from a triggering event can be documented and mapped, it is often possible to glean enough topographic and geologic information from existing databases to produce a reliable map that depicts landslide hazards from an extreme event. Most areas of the world have enough topographic information to provide digital elevation models from which to construct slope maps. In the likely event that engineering properties of slope materials are not available, reasonable estimates can be made with detailed field examination by engineering geologists or geotechnical engineers. Resulting landslide hazard maps can be used as tools to guide relocation and redevelopment, or, more likely, temporary relocation efforts during severe storm events such as hurricanes/typhoons to minimize loss of life and property. We illustrate these methods in two case studies of lethal landslides in developing countries: Tegucigalpa, Honduras (during Hurricane Mitch in 1998) and the Chuuk Islands, Micronesia (during Typhoon Chata'an in 2002).

  17. Genesis of the hydrothermal gold deposits in the Canan area, Lepaguare District, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Michele; Menichetti, Marco; Renzulli, Alberto; Toscani, Lorenzo; Salvioli-Mariani, Emma; Suarez, Pedro; Murroni, Alessandro

    2014-04-01

    The Canan area (Honduras) is characterized by a gold-bearing ore deposit that is associated with quartz-veined shear zones. Gold mineralization occurs in low-to medium-grade metamorphic host-rocks (graphitic and sericitic schists). Hydrothermal fluids, which are associated with the emplacement of Cretaceous-Tertiary granodioritic intrusions, are responsible for the formation of quartz veins and the hydrothermal alteration of wall-rocks. Three main altered zones have been detected in the wall-rocks as far as 150 cm from the quartz veins. The distal zone (up to 50-cm thick) contains quartz, chlorite and illite. The intermediate zone is the thickest (up to 80 cm) and is marked by quartz, muscovite, sulphides, kaolinite and native elements such as Au and Ag. The proximal zone, which is close to the quartz veins, is rather thin (up to 25 cm) and contains clay minerals, Al-oxides-hydroxides and sulphides. The transition from the distal to the proximal zone is accompanied by the enrichment of SiO2 and the depletion of all other major elements, except for Fe2O3(tot). Precious metals occur in the highest concentrations in the intermediate zone (Au up to 7.6 ppm and Ag up to 11 ppm). We suggest that gold was transported as a reduced sulphur complex and was precipitated from the hydrothermal solution by the reaction of the sulphur complexes with Fe2+ from the alteration of the mafic minerals of the host-rock. Fluid-wall-rock interactions seem to be the main cause of gold mineralization. Genetic relationships with a strike-slip fault system, hydrothermal alteration zones within the metamorphic wall-rocks, and an entire set of geochemical anomalies are consistent with orogenic-type gold deposits of the epizonal class.

  18. A Sustainable and Resilient Housing Model for Indigenous Populations of the Mosquitia Region (Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Gambino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a sustainable housing model for the Mosquitia region of Honduras, aimed at improving the living conditions of indigenous communities and reducing their vulnerability to the effects of climate change. The improved housing efficiency and resilience will contribute to strengthen sanitation and hygiene, improve the living comfort and reduce environmental impact, particularly focusing on preserving the forest biodiversity. The project was developed following the criteria of environmental, technical, social and economic sustainability to propose a shared model, reproducible by the beneficiaries living in different kinds of Mosquitian ecosystems. Increased building efficiency is obtained through optimization of construction techniques and improvement of materials’ performances. The main material of the proposed dwelling is wood, coherently with the “Miskita” tradition; the increase of its durability, which is obtained by proper seasoning and protection from atmospheric agents and parasites, contributes to the optimization of the use of this natural resource and to reducing the impact on deforestation, which threatens forest biodiversity. The data collection campaign, conducted before developing the housing model design and which has aimed at obtaining information on technical and social aspects related to residences’ welfare and health conditions, has highlighted the great importance of improving the construction model. Despite the advance in sanitary conditions and the economic level, the data collection campaign revealed that even the most developed communities amongst those visited have been perpetrating substantial construction errors, which reduce the resilience of structures to extreme natural phenomena, such as tropical storms and hurricanes, which frequently affect the Mosquitia region. This unexpected discovery increased the importance of housing model design in order to correct these improper construction

  19. CARACTERIZACIÓN MOLECULAR DE ACCESIONES CULTIVADAS Y SILVESTRES DE FRIJOL COMÚN DE HONDURAS

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    Marcelino Santiago Guachambala-Cando

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar la diversidad genética de las accesiones de Phaseolus que se conservan en el Banco de Germoplasma, un grupo de 69 accesiones de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y de P. coccineus de Honduras, fueron evaluadas con 30 cebadores mediante la técnica de marcadores moleculares RAPD (Polimorfismos de ADN Amplificados al Azar, generándose 341 fragmentos polimórficos de ADN. Las distancias genéticas fueron determinadas según el coeficiente (o índice de similaridad de Dice y el método UPGMA. Estos análisis moleculares identificaron dos grupos a partir de un coeficiente de Dice (CD de 0,48, uno perteneciente a P. vulgaris y el otro a P. coccineus. Las accesiones de P. vulgaris, mostraron una división marcada (CD de 0,64 entre las pertenecientes a los reservorios andino y mesoamericano. Por otro lado, las accesiones mesoamericanas se separaron (CD de 0,76 en cuatro grupos, correspondientes a las accesiones silvestres, las variedades de la raza Jalisco, y las variedades mejoradas y criollas de la raza Mesoamérica. Los resultados confirmaron las distancias genéticas esperadas, incluyendo mayor distancia entre las especies de Phaseolus, seguidas de la separación entre las accesiones del reservorio andino y el mesomericano de P. vulgaris. En el reservorio mesoamericano, las dos accesiones de la raza Jalisco presentaron menor similitud que las de la raza Mesoamérica, y dentro de la raza Mesoamérica, los silvestres separados de los cultivados; adicionalmente, las mejoradas relativamente diferentes a las criollas.

  20. Fifty-Year Flood-Inundation Maps for Santa Rosa de Aguan, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the coastal municipality of Santa Rosa de Aguan that are prone to oceanic storm-surge flooding and wave action. The 50-year flood on the Rio Aguan (4,270 cubic meters per second), would inundate most of the area surveyed for this municipality and beyond. Therefore a detailed numerical hydraulic model was not developed for this municipality as it was for the others. The 50-year storm surge would likely produce higher water levels than the 50-year flood on the river during normal astronomical tides. The elevation of the 50-year storm surge was estimated to be 4.35 meters above normal sea level, based on hurricane probabilities and published storm-surge elevations associated with various hurricane categories. Flood-inundation maps, including areas of wave-action hazard and a color-shaded elevation map, were created from the available data and the estimated 50-year storm tide. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the hazard areas are available on a computer in the municipality of Santa Rosa de Aguan as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Data Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the maps in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report.

  1. Feasibility, drug safety, and effectiveness of etiological treatment programs for Chagas disease in Honduras, Guatemala, and Bolivia: 10-year experience of Medecins Sans Frontieres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Yun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis is a zoonotic or anthropozoonotic disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Predominantly affecting populations in poor areas of Latin America, medical care for this neglected disease is often lacking. Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders (MSF has provided diagnostic and treatment services for Chagas disease since 1999. This report describes 10 years of field experience in four MSF programs in Honduras, Guatemala, and Bolivia, focusing on feasibility protocols, safety of drug therapy, and treatment effectiveness. METHODOLOGY: From 1999 to 2008, MSF provided free diagnosis, etiological treatment, and follow-up care for patients <18 years of age seropositive for T. cruzi in Yoro, Honduras (1999-2002; Olopa, Guatemala (2003-2006; Entre Ríos, Bolivia (2002-2006; and Sucre, Bolivia (2005-2008. Essential program components guaranteeing feasibility of implementation were information, education, and communication (IEC at the community and family level; vector control; health staff training; screening and diagnosis; treatment and compliance, including family-based strategies for early detection of adverse events; and logistics. Chagas disease diagnosis was confirmed by testing blood samples using two different diagnostic tests. T. cruzi-positive patients were treated with benznidazole as first-line treatment, with appropriate counseling, consent, and active participation from parents or guardians for daily administration of the drug, early detection of adverse events, and treatment withdrawal, when necessary. Weekly follow-up was conducted, with adverse events recorded to assess drug safety. Evaluations of serological conversion were carried out to measure treatment effectiveness. Vector control, entomological surveillance, and health education activities were carried out in all projects with close interaction with national and regional programs. RESULTS: Total numbers of

  2. [Biolarvicide Bacillus sphaericus-2362(GRISELESF) for the control of malaria in a health area of the Republic of Honduras].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Sergio D Blanco; Colombi, Elide; Flores, Luis Nery; Canales, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The results of the application of biolarvicide Bacillus sphaericus-2362(GRISELESF) for the reduction of larval densities of Anopheles albimanus as the impact on the epidemiological situation of the disease in health area 2, Sanitary Region 1 of the Ministry of Health Care of Honduras. The biolarvicide was applied in 1999 in five health units which were the most affected by this tropical disease (Ojo del Agua, Villa de San Francisco, San Juan de Flores, Moroceli and El Jicarito). The dose used was 10 ml per square meter of effective breeding area; larval densities were estimated during biological pre- and post-treatment phases. The product showed 100 % effectiveness and a lasting effect up to four months after treatment in the 11 monitored breeding sites. This entomological impact led to a significantly statistical reduction (p < 0,01) of annual parasite incidence in 1999 (21,45) as compared with 1998(45,64) in the five treated units. It was also observed that this product was harmless to Anopheles almimanus larva-eating fish and insects (Coleóptera, Hemiptera and Odonata. The satisfactory entomological and epidemiological results in this health area allowed recommending this biological method as part of the comprehensive programs for the control of malarial vectors in the Republic of Honduras.

  3. Worlds Apart: A Social Theoretical Exploration of Local Networks, Natural Actors, and Practitioners of Rural Development in Southern Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Gareau

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the importance of incorporating the socioecological realities of alternative networks into analyses of rural development. Cultural theory is examined, which provides a base upon which rural development can identify difference in worldviews based on difference in sociological conditions and environmental phenomena. Actor-oriented theory problematizes the ideal types of cultural theory, providing a means of give-and-take between actors’ worldviews of different networks. Actor-network theory breaks down the nature-culture dichotomy of actor-oriented theory, so that nature becomes as ‘active’ an actor as people and community. Actor-network theory brings nature and society together, perceiving the two as mutually inclusive and constitutive. Coupled with recognition of power associated with political economic/ecological forces, actor-network theory can encourage us to see the frequency of tropical storms in Honduras as being among the powerful actors that have played a significant, consistent role in shaping the mode of ordering of impoverished Honduran peoples. This paper concludes by exploring how alternative, agroecological networks established in a protected area in southern Honduras with ‘strong’ natural actors can be re-ordered by incorporating autonomy and resiliency into the network.

  4. Provenance and family variation of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis from Guatemala and Honduras, grown in Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Vicente Pongitory Gifoni

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis (Sénécl Barr. & Golf. is a tropical pine that naturally occurs in lowland areas of Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and eastern Mexico. It has been one of the most studied tropical pines and the one with the most commercial importance in Brazil. The objective of this work was to select the best provenances for plantations and best trees in families for the establishment of seed orchards. For that a trial with five provenances and 47 open-pollinated families was planted near Planaltina, Federal District, in the Cerrado Region of Brazil. The provenances tested were Poptun (Guatemala, Gualjoco, Los Limones, El Porvenir and Santa Cruz de Yojoa (Honduras and assessed at 12 years of age. Poptun and Gualjoco had larger volume, and Los Limones and El Porvenir the lowest incidence of forks and foxtails. Individual tree heritabilities for volume, stem form and branch diameter were 0.34, 0.06, and 0.26 respectively. More than 90% of the trees had defects, common in unimproved P. caribaea. Selection criteria for quality traits need to be relaxed in the first generation of breeding to allow for larger genetic gains in productivity. Results from this test compared with P. caribaea var. hondurensis trials in other Brazilian, Colombian and Venezuelan sites suggest that provenance x site and family x site interactions are not as strong as in other pine species.

  5. Hurricane Mitch: Landscape Analysis of Damaged Forest Resources of the Bay Islands and Caribbean Coast of Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.; Michot, Thomas C.; Roetker, Fred; Sullivan, Jason; Melder, Marcus; Handley, Benjamin; Balmat, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    The advent of analog and digital video has provided amateur photographers with professional-like technology to capture dynamic images with ease and clarity. Videography is also rapidly changing traditional business and scientific applications. In the natural sciences, camcorders are being used largely to record timely observations of plant and animal behavior or consequence of some catastrophic event. Spectacular video of dynamic events such as hurricanes, volcanic eruptions and wildfire document the active process and aftermath. Scientists can analyze video images to quantify aspects of a given event, behavior, or response, temporally and spatially. In this study we demonstrate the simple use of an aerial application of videography to record the spatial extent and damage expression of mangrove forest in the Bay Islands and mainland coast of northern Honduras from wind damage following Hurricane Mitch (1998). In this study, we conducted a video overflight of coastal forests of the Bay Islands and mainland coast of northern Honduras 14 months after impact by Hurricane Mitch (1998). Coastal areas were identified where damage was evident and described relative to damage extent to forest cover, windfall orientation, and height of downed trees. The variability and spatial extent of impact on coastal forest resources is related to reconstructed wind profiles based on model simulations of Mitch's path, strength, and circulation during landfall.

  6. Escrito de alegatos finales presentados por el Estado de Nicaragua dentro del Proceso promovido en contra del Estado de Honduras, por la violación de diversos instrumentos jurídicos de integración regional.

    OpenAIRE

    Edmundo Castillo Salazar

    2002-01-01

    El escrito de alegatos finales presentado por el Estado de Nicaragua dentro del proceso promovido en contra del Estado de Honduras, plantea una relación de hechos probados relativos a la conducta diplomática y procesal de la República de Honduras, seguidamente expone la relación de hechos relativos a las violaciones a los objetivos y principios fundamentales del sistema de la integración centroamericana, atribuibles a la República de Honduras, para terminar con la petición de la condena por v...

  7. Primary care provision by volunteer medical brigades in Honduras: a health record review of more than 2,500 patients over three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; Adunuri, Nikesh; Negin, Joel; Tracey, Patti; Fontecha, Claudio; Caldwell, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The weak health system in Honduras contributes to poor health indicators. To improve population health, a number of volunteer medical brigades from developed countries provide health services in Honduras. To date, there is little information on the brigades' activities and impact. The primary objective of this article is to increase understanding of the type of health care provided by voluntary medical brigades by evaluating and presenting data on patients' presenting symptoms, diagnoses, and care outcomes. The article focuses on an ongoing medical brigade organized by Canadian health professionals in conjunction with Honduras' largest national non-governmental organization. This is a descriptive study of data that are routinely collected by volunteer Canadian health care professionals. Data on all patients presenting to temporary primary health care facilities across Honduras between 2006 and 2009 were analyzed. The data were used to analyze patient demographics, presenting symptoms, diagnoses, and treatments. We found that the brigades provide additional human resources to the relatively weak Honduran health care system. However, while brigades may increase solidarity between Hondurans and Canadians, concerns persist regarding cost-effectiveness and continuity of care for conditions treated by short-term brigade volunteers. Greater scrutiny is needed to increase brigades' effectiveness and ensure they are supportive of domestic health systems.

  8. Acuerdo general de cooperación entre los gobiernos de Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras y Nicaragua y el Gobierno de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos.

    OpenAIRE

    El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Acuerdo de los Gobiernos de EE.UU, CR, México

    2016-01-01

    Acuerdo general de cooperación entre los gobiernos de Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras y Nicaragua y el Gobierno de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, celebrada en Tuxtla Gutiérrez, México el 11 de enero de 1991

  9. The Significance of Language Study in Library and Information Science: A Comparison of Two Programs in the United States and Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Charlotte; Faires, Debbie; Hirsh, Sandra; Carranza, Nítida

    2017-01-01

    This comparative case study evaluated the role of foreign language study within the Library and Information Science (LIS) curriculum of two programs in the United States and Honduras. The purpose of this research was to understand the significance and usefulness of language courses from the perspective of the students enrolled. Students who had…

  10. Comparison of the prevalence of bronchial asthma in school-aged children and adolescents on Roatán Island and in other coastal communities in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Santos-Fernández

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of asthma was higher than in other Latin American regions, with the most cases in participants of African descent, and those with a family history of asthma. The results will provide important data on asthma in Honduras and will contribute to the identification of risk groups.

  11. Flood-hazard mapping in Honduras in response to Hurricane Mitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    The devastation in Honduras due to flooding from Hurricane Mitch in 1998 prompted the U.S. Agency for International Development, through the U.S. Geological Survey, to develop a country-wide systematic approach of flood-hazard mapping and a demonstration of the method at selected sites as part of a reconstruction effort. The design discharge chosen for flood-hazard mapping was the flood with an average return interval of 50 years, and this selection was based on discussions with the U.S. Agency for International Development and the Honduran Public Works and Transportation Ministry. A regression equation for estimating the 50-year flood discharge using drainage area and annual precipitation as the explanatory variables was developed, based on data from 34 long-term gaging sites. This equation, which has a standard error of prediction of 71.3 percent, was used in a geographic information system to estimate the 50-year flood discharge at any location for any river in the country. The flood-hazard mapping method was demonstrated at 15 selected municipalities. High-resolution digital-elevation models of the floodplain were obtained using an airborne laser-terrain mapping system. Field verification of the digital elevation models showed that the digital-elevation models had mean absolute errors ranging from -0.57 to 0.14 meter in the vertical dimension. From these models, water-surface elevation cross sections were obtained and used in a numerical, one-dimensional, steady-flow stepbackwater model to estimate water-surface profiles corresponding to the 50-year flood discharge. From these water-surface profiles, maps of area and depth of inundation were created at the 13 of the 15 selected municipalities. At La Lima only, the area and depth of inundation of the channel capacity in the city was mapped. At Santa Rose de Aguan, no numerical model was created. The 50-year flood and the maps of area and depth of inundation are based on the estimated 50-year storm tide.

  12. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping of Tegucigalpa, Honduras Using Artificial Neural Network, Bayesian Network and Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Urquia, E. L.; Braun, A.; Yamagishi, H.

    2016-12-01

    Tegucigalpa, the capital city of Honduras, experiences rainfall-induced landslides on a yearly basis. The high precipitation regime and the rugged topography the city has been built in couple with the lack of a proper urban expansion plan to contribute to the occurrence of landslides during the rainy season. Thousands of inhabitants live at risk of losing their belongings due to the construction of precarious shelters in landslide-prone areas on mountainous terrains and next to the riverbanks. Therefore, the city is in the need for landslide susceptibility and hazard maps to aid in the regulation of future development. Major challenges in the context of highly dynamic urbanizing areas are the overlap of natural and anthropogenic slope destabilizing factors, as well as the availability and accuracy of data. Data-driven multivariate techniques have proven to be powerful in discovering interrelations between factors, identifying important factors in large datasets, capturing non-linear problems and coping with noisy and incomplete data. This analysis focuses on the creation of a landslide susceptibility map using different methods from the field of data mining, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Bayesian Networks (BN) and Decision Trees (DT). The input dataset of the study contains geomorphological and hydrological factors derived from a digital elevation model with a 10 m resolution, lithological factors derived from a geological map, and anthropogenic factors, such as information on the development stage of the neighborhoods in Tegucigalpa and road density. Moreover, a landslide inventory map that was developed in 2014 through aerial photo interpretation was used as target variable in the analysis. The analysis covers an area of roughly 100 km2, while 8.95 km2 are occupied by landslides. In a first step, the dataset was explored by assessing and improving the data quality, identifying unimportant variables and finding interrelations. Then, based on a training

  13. Actitudes lingüísticas en Honduras. Un estudio sociolingüístico sobre el español de Honduras frente al de otros países de habla hispana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilcia Hernández

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de Tegucigalpa, hacia al español de Honduras y el de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo hace parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando a una muestra de 400 informantes estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. Se muestran los resultados del análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo desde una perspectiva sociolingüística y dejan al descubierto no solo las actitudes lingüísticas positivas y negativas, sino también expresiones de lealtad por la variedad lingüística nacional, opiniones sobre la corrección lingüística y la alta estima hacia el español de Honduras en relación con el español de los demás países hispanohablantes. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of native Spanish speakers from Tegucigalpa, towards Spanish spoken in Honduras and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital, interviewing a stratified sample of 400 respondents based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. The results from the qualitative and quantities analysis are drawn using a sociolinguistic perspective and show not only the positive and negative linguistic attitudes towards specific varieties of Spanish, but also expressions of linguistic loyalty towards the national variety of the Spanish language, opinions about linguistic correctness and the high degree of appreciation towards Honduran Spanish compared to the variants of Spanish spoken in the other Spanish-speaking countries.

  14. Revision of the species of the genus Cathorops (Siluriformes: Ariidae from Mesoamerica and the Central American Caribbean, with description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre P. Marceniuk

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ariid genus Cathorops includes species that occur mainly in estuarine and freshwater habitats of the eastern and western coasts of southern Mexico, Central and South America. The species of Cathorops from the Mesoamerica (Atlantic slope and Caribbean Central America are revised, and three new species are described: C. belizensis from mangrove areas in Belize; C. higuchii from shallow coastal areas and coastal rivers in the Central American Caribbean, from Honduras to Panama; and C. kailolae from río Usumacinta and lago Izabal basins in Mexico and Guatemala. Additionally, C. aguadulce, from the río Papaloapan basin in Mexico, and C. melanopus from the río Motagua basin in Guatemala and Honduras, are redescribed and their geographic distributions are revised.O gênero de ariídeos Cathorops inclui espécies que habitam principalmente águas doces e estuarinas das plataformas orientais e ocidentais do sul do México, Américas do Sul e Central. Neste estudo, se apresenta uma revisão das espécies de Cathorops da Mesoamérica (bacias do Atlântico e Caribe centroamericano, incluindo a descrição de três espécies novas: C. belizensis, de áreas de manglar em Belice; C. higuchii, de águas costeiras rasas e rios costeiros do Caribe centroamericano, desde Honduras até o Panamá; e C. kailolae, das bacias do rio Usumacinta e lago Izabal no México e Guatemala. Adicionalmente, se redescrevem C. aguadulce, da bacia do rio Papaloapan no México, e C. melanopus, da bacia do rio Motagua na Guatemala e Honduras, apresentando-se uma revisão de suas distribuições geográficas.

  15. Los productos forestales no maderables como complemento económico en zonas forestales de países en desarrollo. Caso de El Merendón, en San Pedro Sula. Honduras. CA.

    OpenAIRE

    Vignote Peña, Santiago; Barbero, María Jesús; Vilela, Iago

    2013-01-01

    Se analizan las posibilidades que tiene el cultivo de mariposas y la utilización de las plantas en la alimentación, sanidad y otros usos en el medio rural de Honduras, como complemento para su desarrollo.

  16. Refugees from Central American gangs

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Elizabeth G.

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras are among the world’s mostfragile nations, yet they are largely ignored by refugee agencies whounderestimate transnational criminal organisations’ abuses andpowers of control, while overestimating national governments’ abilityand willingness to protect their citizens.

  17. Boundary Layer Dust Occurrence IV Atmospheric Dust Over Selected Geographical Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    San Marcos, Colombia 4 San Salvador/Ilopango, El Savador 4 Santa Elena, Venezuela 4 Santa Rosa de Copan, Honduras °> Sariwon, North Korea 4...Nicolo, Italy 4 Vienna, Austria 4 Villa Cisneros , Spanish Sahara 1, 37 Vrf Omul, Rumania 4 Wittenberge, East Germany 4 Wonsan, North Korea 4

  18. Boundary Layer Dust Occurrence. 4. Atmospheric Dust over Selected Geographical Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    s) San Marcos, Colombia 4 San Salvador/Ilopango, El Savador 4 Santa Elena, Venezuela 4 Santa Rosa de Copan, Honduras 4 Sariwon, North Korea 4...Ueckermunde, East Germany 4 Ulan Bator, Mongolia 4 Unqg, North Korea 4 Varna, Bulgaria 4 Venezia/San wicolo, Italy 4 Vienna, Austria 4 Villa Cisneros

  19. Changes in the use of manual vacuum aspiration for postabortion care within the public healthcare service network in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Ana Ligia; Flores, Ivo Flores; Morales, Alma Fabiola; de Gil, Marina Padilla

    2014-07-01

    Honduras is one of the 17 priority countries included in the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences. The priority category enables the country to request emergency funding to acquire services or commodities that could contribute toward achieving the objectives laid out in its plan of action. These objectives include improving postabortion care by increasing the use of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) as an outpatient procedure with minimal human and material resources. Since the Ministry of Health lacked funding, use of the emergency fund was approved for the purchase and distribution of MVA kits nationwide to ensure continuity and the hope of increasing MVA use. Eleven hospitals participating in this initiative provided data for analysis of the outcome. These data show no increase in MVA use; however, as discussed in the article, further investigation provided valuable information on the reasons behind these results.

  20. A comparative analysis of locally based conservation education programs that promote issue awareness and community solutions within Honduras and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Nicole R.

    Public understanding and concern for environment issues is critical to conservation efforts. In this study, I investigated education programs focused on the local environmental issues and their impact on sense of place, environmental knowledge, empowerment and awareness (Honduras and Boston). I hypothesized that the curriculum will have an effect on multiple student measures and teachers who participate in workshops will have greater ownership of the curriculum, influencing curriculum's effectiveness. Then I looked at the relation of environmental knowledge to environmental connection, at the regional (Honduras) and international levels (Honduras vs. United States), comparing cultural differences in same measures mentioned. I hypothesized that a population connected to their natural surroundings will have an embedded biological understanding and appreciation of their surroundings. I surveyed a total of 887 students (727 Honduras, 160 Boston) and 293 teachers (Honduras), with participant and nonparticipant teachers included, in a pre/post/follow-up survey design. To evaluate these hypotheses, I used multiple measures to assess program success and regional differences: implicit measures (general sense of place); explicit measures (knowledge of problems and solutions; degree of specificity in thinking about these issues); and affective and attitudinal components (sense of empowerment). For the exploratory study, I gathered parallel data from teachers, so that the effects of the program on both teachers and students would be evident. Our results indicate that there were significant changes in number of problem and solution types proposed by students, that students' responses matched those of their teacher on some measures (but not all) by the end of the program. In Honduras, the main effect of being in the teacher workshop appears to be in their willingness to teach environmental education. Results for student's sense of place and environmental empowerment were

  1. Fluids in distal Zn-Pb-Ag skarns: Evidence from El Mochito, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, I. M.; Williams-Jones, A. E.; Ault, K.; Gagnon, J. E.; Fryer, B. J.

    2009-05-01

    Zn-Pb-Ag mantos, chimneys, and skarns represent a spectrum of carbonate-hosted sulfide mineral deposits that have been collectively termed carbonate replacement deposits. Most such deposits cannot be related to plutons and, particularly for distal skarns, the role of magmatic versus other fluids (basinal brines and meteoric waters) has been uncertain. The El Mochito Zn-Pb-Ag deposit, Honduras, is an example of a large distal skarn, and comprises mantos and chimneys hosted mainly by limestones of the Early Cretaceous Tepemechin Formation. Previous isotopic studies indicate a magmatic source for the S and Pb and involvement of both magmatic and meteoric fluids in ore formation. The ore is hosted by garnet, magnetite, and pyroxene skarns, which developed sequentially from grandite- to andradite- to magnetite- and hedenbergite- rich skarns. Sphalerite and argentiferous galena occur interstitially to, or replace, the skarn minerals, with Fe- poor sphalerite (S1) principally associated with garnet skarn and Fe-rich (S2) sphalerite associated with pyroxene. Data from primary fluid inclusions show that the salinity of the mineralizing fluids decreased from ˜10-18 wt. % during the formation of garnet skarn and S1 sphalerite to ˜2-13 wt. % during pyroxene skarn formation and S2 sphalerite precipitation. Early, high-salinity fluids (˜33 wt. %) are represented by rare halite-saturated inclusions in garnet. Temperature increased from ˜ 365°C to ˜ 365°C from garnet/S1 sphalerite to pyroxene/S2 sphalerite, assuming a pressure of 500 bars. GC analyses indicate that the total concentrations of COv(2), CH4, and N2 were < 1 mole %. LA-ICPMS analyses were conducted mainly on inclusions in grandite and S1 sphalerite. The principal dissolved elements in the inclusions are Ca and Na, followed by K and Mn. The ore metals, Zn, Pb, and Ag, are present in high concentrations, with median values of 6000, 900, and 50 ppm, respectively. Element concentrations in fluid inclusions hosted

  2. The energy situation in five Central American countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.; Booth, S.R.; Umana Q, A.

    1987-06-01

    This study describes the energy resources and the changes that have taken place in energy supply and demand in five Central American countries between 1970 and 1984. Economic changes are also reviewed because they influence and are affected by changes in the energy sector. The work was performed under the auspices of the US Agency for International Development. The Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama are highly dependent on fuel wood as a source of energy, particularly in the residential sector. They also rely upon imported oil products to supply a growing modern sector. Most countries have significant hydroelectric and geothermal resources, and most countries produce a large portion of their electricity from hydroelectric projects. Demand for electricity has grown rapidly. Relative shares of primary versus secondary energy in the five countries vary significantly and strongly correlate with average per capita income. Consumption of secondary energy has declined during the recent economic recession suffered by the region.

  3. High prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium among female sex workers in Honduras: implications for the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, L G; Paz-Bailey, G; Morales-Miranda, S; Morgan, M; Alvarez, B; Hickman, L; Monterroso, E

    2012-01-01

    This study describes HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and risk factors associated with Mycoplasma genitalium among female sex workers (FSWs) in four cities in Honduras. In 2006, 795 FSWs from Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, La Ceiba and Comayagua were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and tested for HIV prevalence and STI. HIV prevalence ranged from no infections in Comayagua to 5.4% in Tegucigalpa. With the exception of Comayagua, more than 20% of FSWs were infected with M. genitalium. M. genitalium in the aggregated cities was associated with HIV positivity, being aged ≤30 years old, drinking alcohol more than once weekly and always using condoms with regular clients in the past month. In comparison with a 2001 surveillance study we found lower rates of HIV infection. Interventions for HIV control and prevention among FSWs, including promotion of condom use, are needed in Honduras.

  4. El conflicto territorial entre Nicaragua y Honduras concerniente al paralelo 150 y a la bisectriz en dirección al paralelo 170

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Barbosa Miranda

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available El conflicto territorial entre Honduras y Nicaragua en el Mar Caribe, es en la actualidad un tema de singular importancia que se hace necesario divulgar y profundizar. Por lo que en este artículo se presenta una compilación y síntesis de los principales documentos relacionados al mismo, lo que nos permite analizar la estrategia geopolítica de Honduras basada en la imposición unilateral de una frontera con Nicaragua en el paralelo 15c y su estrecha vinculación con la política expansiva de Colombia. También, conocer la estrategia de Nicaragua y la necesidad de una orientación de sus acciones políticas, jurídicas, económicas, sociales y militares de acuerdo a una sólida Doctrina de Defensa Nacional.

  5. New species of Diabrotica Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae and a key to Diabrotica and related genera: results of a synopsis of North and Central American Diabrotica species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Derunkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The following 18 new species of Diabrotica are described and illustrated as a result of the synopsis of North and Central American species: D. barclayi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. caveyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. costaricensis sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. dmitryogloblini sp. nov., Mexico; D. duckworthorum sp. nov., Honduras; D. hartjei sp. nov., Panama; D. josephbalyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. lawrencei sp. nov., Mexico; D. mantillerii sp. nov., Panama; D. martinjacobyi sp. nov., Honduras; D. mitteri sp. nov., Panama; D. perkinsi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. redfordae sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. reysmithi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. salvadorensis sp. nov., El Salvador; D. sel sp. nov., Panama; D. spangleri sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. waltersi sp. nov., Panama. In addition, a key to separate Diabrotica from related genera is presented.

  6. Situación y problemática actual de la pesquería y la acuicultura en las zonas costeras de Honduras.

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Espinoza

    2016-01-01

    Se describe a grandes rasgos la situación de la pesca artesanal en las costas norte (Caribe) y sur (Pacífico) del país. El gobierno de Honduras en colaboración con el gobierno del Japón (JICA) ha implementado un Proyecto de Modernización de las Comunidades Costeras para la capacitación y equipamiento de los pescadores artesanales en la Zona Norte del país.

  7. Childhood immunization rates in rural Intibucá, Honduras: an analysis of a local database tool and community health center records for assessing and improving vaccine coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yuan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccines are highly effective at preventing infectious diseases in children, and prevention is especially important in resource-limited countries where treatment is difficult to access. In Honduras, the World Health Organization (WHO reports very high immunization rates in children. To determine whether or not these estimates accurately depict the immunization coverage in non-urban regions of the country, we compared the WHO data to immunization rates obtained from a local database tool and community health center records in rural Intibucá, Honduras. Methods We used data from two sources to comprehensively evaluate immunization rates in the area: 1 census data from a local database and 2 immunization data collected at health centers. We compared these rates using logistic regression, and we compared them to publicly available WHO-reported estimates using confidence interval inclusion. Results We found that mean immunization rates for each vaccine were high (range 84.4 to 98.8 percent, but rates recorded at the health centers were significantly higher than those reported from the census data (p≤0.001. Combining the results from both databases, the mean rates of four out of five vaccines were less than WHO-reported rates (p p=0.03. The rates by individual vaccine were similar across townships (p >0.05, except for diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis vaccine (p=0.02 and oral polio vaccine (p Conclusions Immunization rates in Honduras were high across data sources, though most of the rates recorded in rural Honduras were less than WHO-reported rates. Despite geographical difficulties and barriers to access, the local database and Honduran community health workers have developed a thorough system for ensuring that children receive their immunizations on time. The successful integration of community health workers and a database within the Honduran decentralized health system may serve as a model for other immunization programs in

  8. New species of salamander (Caudata: Plethodontidae: Cryptotriton) from Quebrada Cataguana, Francisco Morazán, Honduras, with comments on the taxonomic status of Cryptotriton wakei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccranie, James R; Rovito, Sean M

    2014-05-09

    We describe a new species of the plethodontid salamander genus Cryptotriton from Honduras after comparing morphological, molecular, and osteological data from the holotype to that of the other nominal forms of the genus. The new species differs from all of the known species of Cryptotriton in at least one character from all three datasets. We also suggest placing C. wakei in the synonymy of C. nasalis after examining the morphological and osteological characters of the single known specimen of C. wakei.

  9. Narco-scapes: Cocaine Trafficking and Deforestation in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrathall, D.; McSweeney, K.; Nielsen, E.; Pearson, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Narcotics trafficking and drug interdiction efforts have resulted in a well-documented social crisis in Central America, but more recently, has been tightly linked to environmental catastrophe and accelerated deforestation in transit zones. This talk will outline synthesis findings from multi-country, interdisciplinary research on cocaine trafficking as an engine of forest loss in Central America. During the "narco-boom" of the mid-2000s, we observed a geographical evolution of cocaine flows into Central America, and the transit of cocaine through new spaces, accompanied by specific patterns of social and environmental change in new nodes of transit. We coarsely estimated that the total amount of cocaine flowing through Central America increased from 70 metric tons in 2000 to 350 mt in 2012, implying that total cocaine trafficking revenue in the region increased from roughly 600 million dollars to 3.5 billion in that time. We describe the mechanism by which these locally captured cocaine rents resulted in a rapid conversion of forest into cattle pasture. Narco-traffickers are drawn to invest in the cattle economy, as a direct means of laundering and formalizing proceeds. Ranching is a land intensive activity, and new narco-enriched cattle pastures can be isolated from other forms forest loss solely by their spatial and temporal change characteristics. A preliminary forest change study in Honduras, for example, indicated that areas of accelerated deforestation were in close proximity to known narcotics trafficking routes and were thirteen times more extensive on average than other forest clearings. Deforested areas commonly appeared in isolated and biodiverse lowland tropical rainforest regions that often intersected with protected areas and indigenous reserves. We find that narco-deforestation is a readily identifiable signal of the extent and health of the cocaine economy. This talk will feature summaries of both ethnographic and land cover change we have observed

  10. Diseño de un modelo conceptual sobre la transferencia de resultados de investigación en salud pública en Honduras Design of a conceptual model on the transference of public health research results in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A Macías-Chapula

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Diseñar un modelo conceptual sobre la comunicación de los resultados de la investigación científica en el área de la salud pública, en un contexto local. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: A través del enfoque de pensamiento de sistemas se utilizó la Metodología de Sistemas Blandos (MSB y la bibliometría para analizar y resolver una situación problemática relacionada con la transferencia de los resultados de la investigación a los diversos actores del sistema de salud de Honduras. RESULTADOS: Se definieron y modelaron seis definiciones de raíz relevantes a la situación problemática expresada, las cuales llevaron al diseño del modelo conceptual. Éste identificó cuatro niveles de resolución: el de los investigadores, los profesionales de la información/documentación, los profesionales de la salud y la población abierta/la sociedad. CONCLUSIONES: La MSB ayudó a diseñar el modelo conceptual. El estudio bibliométrico fue relevante en la construcción de una imagen rica de la situación problemática.OBJECTIVE: To design a conceptual model on the transference of public health research results at the local, context level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using systems thinking concepts, a soft systems approach (SSM was used to analyse and solve what was perceived as a problem situation related to the transference of research results within Honduras public health system. A bibliometric analysis was also conducted to enrich the problem situation. RESULTS: Six root definitions were defined and modeled as relevant to the expressed problem situation. This led to the development of the conceptual model. The model obtained identified four levels of resolution as derived from the human activities involved in the transference of research results: 1 those of the researchers; 2 the information/documentation professionals; 3 health staff; and 4 the population/society. These actors/ clients and their activities were essential to the functioning of the

  11. Measurement of Health Program Equity Made Easier: Validation of a Simplified Asset Index Using Program Data From Honduras and Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergo, Alex; Ritter, Julie; Gwatkin, Davidson R; Binkin, Nancy

    2016-03-01

    Equitable access to programs and health services is essential to achieving national and international health goals, but it is rarely assessed because of perceived measurement challenges. One of these challenges concerns the complexities of collecting the data needed to construct asset or wealth indices, which can involve asking as many as 40 survey questions, many with multiple responses. To determine whether the number of variables and questions could be reduced to a level low enough for more routine inclusion in evaluations and research without compromising programmatic conclusions, we used data from a program evaluation in Honduras that compared a pro-poor intervention with government clinic performance as well as data from a results-based financing project in Senegal. In both, the full Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) asset questionnaires had been used as part of the evaluations. Using the full DHS results as the "gold standard," we examined the effect of retaining successively smaller numbers of variables on the classification of the program clients in wealth quintiles. Principal components analysis was used to identify those variables in each country that demonstrated minimal absolute factor loading values for 8 different thresholds, ranging from 0.05 to 0.70. Cohen's kappa statistic was used to assess correlation. We found that the 111 asset variables and 41 questions in the Honduras DHS could be reduced to 9 variables, captured by only 8 survey questions (kappa statistic, 0.634), without substantially altering the wealth quintile distributions for either the pro-poor program or the government clinics or changing the resulting policy conclusions. In Senegal, the 103 asset variables and 36 questions could be reduced to 32 variables and 20 questions (kappa statistic, 0.882) while maintaining a consistent mix of users in each of the 2 lowest quintiles. Less than 60% of the asset variables in the 2 countries' full DHS asset indices overlapped, and in none of

  12. Resistance of common bean breeding lines to Phaeoisariopsis griseola isolates from Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angular leaf spot (ALS) disease caused by Phaeoisariopsis griseola Sacc. Ferraris, is currently one of the most important factors limiting bean productivity in Central America. The development of breeding lines which combine resistance to ALS and Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus (BGYMV) and tolerance...

  13. Evaluation of common bean lines for adaptation to high temperatures in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    As in other regions worldwide, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in Central America and the Caribbean (CA/C) region is threatened by effects of climate change including increasing temperatures and drought due to variable rainfall patterns. One of the main alternatives for increasing ada...

  14. The Role of Gender in Chagas Disease Prevention and Control in Honduras: An Analysis of Communication and Collaboration Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Diana Rocío Rodríguez; Mertens, Frédéric; Zúniga, Concepción Valeriano; Mendoza, Yolanda; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Monroy, Maria Carlota

    2016-09-01

    In Honduras, where Chagas disease is a serious health and environmental concern, prevention measures face the challenge of achieving widespread and long-term sustainable adoption by communities. The article integrates social network analysis and a gender-sensitive approach to understand the role of men and women in the implementation of a community-level intervention, based on the adoption of housing improvements to reduce the presence of the insect vector. A total of 108 people in the community of El Salitre were interviewed. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, participation in project activities, communication and collaboration networks related to Chagas disease prevention, knowledge of Chagas disease, and adoption of housing improvements techniques. Communication mostly occurred between the same gender individuals and was associated with knowledge of Chagas disease. Socioeconomic status, Chagas disease knowledge, and collaboration with men were associated with women adopting housing improvements. For men, however, participation in project activities, formal education, and collaboration with women were associated with adoption. These findings suggest that men and women were driven by distinct concerns, interests, and motivations when adopting new Chagas disease prevention strategies. Participatory community interventions that seek to generate health knowledge and foster collaborations to reduce health risk should address gender differences.

  15. TURISMO EN EL MUNDO MAYA. FLUJOS DE VISITANTES EN EL SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO DE COPÁN (HONDURAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de la Calle Vaquero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El área maya constituye una importante región turística de América Latina, en especial respecto al turismo cultural. Aunque existe una importante producción científica sobre la zona, pocos trabajos abordan los temas relacionados con la afluencia y perfil de los visitantes. En este artículo se presenta la metodología utilizada para cuantificar y caracterizar el flujo de visita del Parque Arqueológico de Copán en Honduras, detallándose los resultados obtenidos. Se señala en primer lugar las características básicas de la visita (distribución temporal, forma de organización del viaje, etc.. Seguidamente se aborda la identificación de los grandes componentes del flujo de visita, a partir de la consideración conjunta de varios criterios de agrupación. Por último se resalta la importancia de contar con este tipo de datos a efectos de un correcto manejo del uso público y del diseño de estrategias coherentes de desarrollo turístico.

  16. Successes and challenges to implementing an early childhood supplemental feeding program in rural Honduras: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennillo, Haran A; El Rayess, Fadya

    2014-04-01

    Malnutrition is a major cause of childhood illness, stunted growth and death worldwide. A supplemental nutrition program for young children was implemented in Guachipilincito, Honduras. This study explores early successes and challenges to implementing this program. We conducted a qualitative, semi-structured, key informant interview study in 2012. Two researchers analyzed interview transcripts using the immersion/crystallization method of qualitative analysis. The program evolved from addressing macronutrient deficiency in 2010, to targeting micronutrient deficiency. Successes include: consistent food distribution, positive community feedback and establishment of a Honduran community oversight committee. Challenges include: tracking growth data, sharing of food among family members, and long-term sustainability. Next steps include: obtaining stable funding, utilizing local food suppliers, and increasing crop diversity. Participants identified cultural and economic factors contributing to challenges with these steps. While the feeding program is having successes, it still faces many challenges. Additional interviews with Honduran-based staff, community leaders and program recipients may identify the best ways to address these challenges.

  17. 'We do the impossible': women overcoming barriers to cervical cancer screening in rural Honduras--a positive deviance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Jenna J; Barrington, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for women in Honduras, and sexual behaviour and low screening uptake are two major factors contributing to high rates of morbidity and mortality. A qualitative study was conducted to investigate barriers that prevent rural Honduran women from engaging in screening and ways that women overcome those barriers. This study examined examples of positive deviance, or individuals engaging in the uncommon but beneficial practise of screening. Amor por sí misma (self-love), and social support were identified as two constructs women employed to overcome barriers to screening. Participants defined self-love as the act of displaying care and concern for oneself and one's health and suggested that it compels women to participate in screening. Social support was defined as receiving tangible aid and advice from others that facilitated women's screening participation. Findings suggest that the concept of self-love could be used in future screening promotion efforts and that integrating social support would also be beneficial. Engaging men in sexual and reproductive health programming is suggested in order to ensure male partners offer social support for screening and to challenge the cultural, gender and sexual norms that place women at higher risk for cervical cancer.

  18. Environmental concepts in rural Honduras: A case study of their range and application within environmental education design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Robert Sanders

    1998-12-01

    The rate of environmental degradation in the Third World continues to present residents of countries like Honduras with conditions that threaten the quality of life and ecological systems. How people conceptualize their environment could be a point of entry into a greater understanding of environmental problems. Through individual interviews and focus group discussions, this study comprises a qualitative examination of the environmental concepts of a sample of 75 rural Hondurans. Analysis of their concepts was used to construct a tentative interpretation of the rural Honduran worldview characteristics of Self, Other, Relationship, Classification, Causality, Time, and Space. The findings of this investigation indicated that rural Hondurans conceptualize their environment through the worldview lenses of survival and poverty, leading to a sense of fatalism when confronting the complex and multifaceted problems associated with quality of life and environmental quality. Analysis of concepts and worldview also indicated that rural Hondurans generally do not believe their environmental problems are solvable, nor do they appear to understand that these problems are also cultural problems whose solutions will most likely require some revision of their current worldview. An educational approach that fosters the integration of compatible environmental concepts into the rural Honduran worldview is recommended through the application of design strategies for a prospective environmental education process.

  19. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses in Three Central American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    de Seguridad Social, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Correspondence: V. A. Laguna-Torres, US Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, 3230 Lima Pl, Washington...The University of Honduras, The Instituto Hondu- reño de Seguridad Social, Tegucigalpa, Honduras the Hospital de Santa Ana, El Salvador, and all...decision to submit this publica - tion. Copyright Statement: Tadeusz J. Kochel and Eric S. Hal- sey are US military service members, and V. Alberto Laguna

  20. Escrito de alegatos finales presentados por el Estado de Nicaragua dentro del Proceso promovido en contra del Estado de Honduras, por la violación de diversos instrumentos jurídicos de integración regional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Castillo Salazar

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available El escrito de alegatos finales presentado por el Estado de Nicaragua dentro del proceso promovido en contra del Estado de Honduras, plantea una relación de hechos probados relativos a la conducta diplomática y procesal de la República de Honduras, seguidamente expone la relación de hechos relativos a las violaciones a los objetivos y principios fundamentales del sistema de la integración centroamericana, atribuibles a la República de Honduras, para terminar con la petición de la condena por violación de los objetivos, principios y disposiciones de los instrumentos jurídicos de integración regional

  1. Central American Street Gangs: Their Role in Communities and Prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Wolf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available – Territories of Violence: State, Marginal Youth, and Public Security in Honduras, by Lirio Gutiérrez Rivera. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.– Adiós Niño: The Gangs of Guatemala City and the Politics of Death, by Deborah T. Levenson. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2013.– The Rule of Law in Central America: Citizens’ Reactions to Crime and Punishment, by Mary Fran T. Malone. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2012.– Ver, oír, callar. En las profundidades de una pandilla salvadoreña, by Juan José Martínez D’Aubuisson. San Salvador: AURA Ediciones, 2013.– Gangsters Without Borders: An Ethnography of a Salvadoran Street Gang, by T. W. Ward. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

  2. Small-scale fishing in Central American indigenous people: governance, tenure and sustainable management of marine resources

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This research develops four case studies on small-scale fisheries in Central America located within indigenous territories. The ngöbe Bugle Conte Burica Territory in the south of Costa Rica, the Garífuna territory in nueva Armenia Honduras, the Rama territory in Nicaragua and the ngöbe Bugle territory in Bocas del Toro, Panamá. This is one of the first studies focusing on indigenous territories, artisanal fisheries and SSF guidelines. The cases are a first approach to discussing and analyzing...

  3. Development and validation of a nutritional education pamphlet for low literacy pediatric oncology caregivers in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Melissa; Chismark, Elisabeth A; Mosby, Terezie; Day, Sara W

    2010-12-01

    A culturally appropriate nutrition education pamphlet was developed and validated for low-literacy caregivers in Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala. The pamphlet was developed after a preliminary survey of pediatric oncology nurses in the 3 countries to assess the need for education materials, caregiver literacy levels, and local eating habits. Experts in nutrition and low-literacy patient education and pediatric oncology nurses validated the pamphlet's content and design. The pamphlet was validated positively and has been circulated to pediatric oncology caregivers in Central America.

  4. Spatial variation of hermatypic coral assemblages in Cayos Cochinos Archipelago, Honduras Variación espacial de los ensamblajes de corales hermatípicos en el archipiélago Cayos Cochinos, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián A Rodríguez-Zaragoza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variations of hermatypic coral assemblages were evaluated at five sites in Cayos Cochinos Archipelago, Honduras, in February 2008. Richness and coverage of corals and other benthic morpho-functional groups were estimated using 56 videotransects. Topographic complexity and depth were also measured by transect. Twenty-two coral taxa were recorded for Cayos Cochinos. Total species richness was similar (16 and 17 taxa at all sites, whereas species richness by transect was different among sites (6-12 taxa. Shannon diversity showed weak differences among sites (1.46-2.13, whereas Pielou evenness was not different among sites. Simpson dominance was low with weak differences among sites (0.15-0.27. The total cover of hermatypic coral was 16.5% at Roatan Bank, 10.5% at Salamandinga, 9.7% at Punta Pelicanos, 7.6% at La Grupera, and 6.9% at Mariposales. The ANOSIM revealed assemblages of different corals between sites, except between La Grupera, Punta Pelicanos, and Salamandinga. The NMDS associated La Grupera, Punta Pelicanos, and Salamandinga given the greater contribution of Porites astreoides, Agaricia agaricites, and Montastraea annularis; whereas the NMDS differentiated Mariposales and Roatan Bank, which had more dissimilar assemblages with a greater predominance of Montastraea cavernosa, Agaricia agaricites, and Diploria labyrinthiformis. According to the BIO-ENV method, coral composition and abundance were correlated with the cover of articulated calcareous algae, sandy substrate, total hermatypic corals, rocky-calcareous substrate, fleshy macroalgae, and hydrocorals. In general, the differences found in the coral assemblages of Cayos Cochinos could be due to geomorphological characteristics as well as the effects of human activities in the study area.La variación espacial del ensamblaje de corales hermatípicos se evaluó en cinco sitios del archipiélago Cayo Cochinos, Honduras, durante febrero 2008. La riqueza y cobertura de corales y

  5. Uso y difusión del frijol de abono (Mucuna deeringiana) en las laderas del litoral Atlántico de Honduras.

    OpenAIRE

    Buckles, Daniel; Ponce, Ignacio; Sain, Gustavo; Medina, Gilmer

    2016-01-01

    La conservación del suelo, los nutrimentos y el agua son los principales problemas que afrontan los agricultores e investigadores agrícolas en los sistemas de cultivo basados en el maíz en Centroamérica y México. Algunos productores de Honduras han ideado y refinado una tecnología eficaz para el cultivo del maíz en ladera en la que se siembra el frijol de abono (Mucuna deeringiana) en rotación con el maíz de postrera (o temporada seca). Los resultados de la encuesta realizada en el Departamen...

  6. Estudio de la evolución del uso del suelo en la zona de reserva del Merendón, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Salomón Moreno, Roberto Luis

    2009-01-01

    El presente proyecto ha sido llevado a cabo en la Zona de Reserva del Merendón (Municipalidad de San Pedro Sula, Honduras). Consiste en un estudio de la evolución de los usos de suelo presentes en la reserva: asentamientos humanos, agricultura tradicional, pastizales, terrenos forestales, matorral y suelos desnudos. Para la realización del estudio se comparan los mapas de uso de suelo ya existentes de 1992 y 2001 con el mapa de uso de suelo de 2009, elaborado para este fin con la ayuda de tec...

  7. Situación y problemática actual de la pesquería y la acuicultura en las zonas costeras de Honduras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Espinoza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe a grandes rasgos la situación de la pesca artesanal en las costas norte (Caribe y sur (Pacífico del país. El gobierno de Honduras en colaboración con el gobierno del Japón (JICA ha implementado un Proyecto de Modernización de las Comunidades Costeras para la capacitación y equipamiento de los pescadores artesanales en la Zona Norte del país.

  8. Estudio regional sobre las dimensiones sociales en el manejo de areas marinas protegidas: casos en Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras y Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Vivienne Solís; Borrás, Marvin Fonseca; Gallardo, Daniela Barguil; Ochoa, Mariela; Castañeda, Edgar; Castillo, Geodisio

    2012-01-01

    Explora la percepción de las personas residentes en las comunidades costeras vinculadas a los espacios marinos protegidos en Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica y Panamá. Profundiza, a partir de estudios de caso y el análisis comparativo, los temas de gobernanza, derechos humanos y distribución justa y equitativa de beneficios derivados de la conservación. Los resultados destacan que los esfuerzos de conservación marina no han logrado establecer puentes que permitan satisfacer las necesidades so...

  9. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: The semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, Stewart M., E-mail: soakley@csuchico.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Chico State University, California State University, Chico, CA 95929 (United States); Jimenez, Ramon, E-mail: rjimenez1958@yahoo.com [Public Works, Municipality of Villanueva, Cortes (Honduras)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Open dumping is the most common form of waste disposal in neglected small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semi-mechanized landfills can be a sustainable option for small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the theory of design and operation of semi-mechanized landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Villanueva, Honduras has operated its semi-mechanized landfill for 15 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cost of operation is US$4.60/ton with a land requirement of 0.2m{sup 2}/person-year. - Abstract: Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in

  10. Modelling hurricane exposure and wind speed on a mesoclimate scale: a case study from Cusuco NP, Honduras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven P Batke

    Full Text Available High energy weather events are often expected to play a substantial role in biotic community dynamics and large scale diversity patterns but their contribution is hard to prove. Currently, observations are limited to the documentation of accidental records after the passing of such events. A more comprehensive approach is synthesising weather events in a location over a long time period, ideally at a high spatial resolution and on a large geographic scale. We provide a detailed overview on how to generate hurricane exposure data at a meso-climate level for a specific region. As a case study we modelled landscape hurricane exposure in Cusuco National Park (CNP, Honduras with a resolution of 50 m×50 m patches. We calculated actual hurricane exposure vulnerability site scores (EVVS through the combination of a wind pressure model, an exposure model that can incorporate simple wind dynamics within a 3-dimensional landscape and the integration of historical hurricanes data. The EVSS was calculated as a weighted function of sites exposure, hurricane frequency and maximum wind velocity. Eleven hurricanes were found to have affected CNP between 1995 and 2010. The highest EVSS's were predicted to be on South and South-East facing sites of the park. Ground validation demonstrated that the South-solution (i.e. the South wind inflow direction explained most of the observed tree damage (90% of the observed tree damage in the field. Incorporating historical data to the model to calculate actual hurricane exposure values, instead of potential exposure values, increased the model fit by 50%.

  11. Legendary lost city Ciudad Blanca found under tropical forest in Honduras, using ERS-2 and JERS-1 SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakam-Simen, Francis; Nezry, Edmond; Ewing, James J.; Maschal, Ted

    1998-10-01

    The legendary 'Ciudad Blanca' of Honduras was first referred to under the name Xucutaco by the Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes already in 1526. Located in the remote, impenetrable and incompletely mapped rainforest of the Mosquito Coast, it was never conquered by the Spanish. With the time, it was slowly abandoned and forgotten. Two JERS-1 and one ERS-2 SLC Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images have been used to identify and to locate the lost city, a task made difficult due to the thick vegetation cover. To this end, advanced processing tools for the detection of artificial targets under forest cover, and for SAR data fusion have been used. Among the techniques used, a new Bayesian Distribution Entropy Maximum A Posteriori (DE-MAP) vector speckle filter, particularly suited for the restoration of a strongly textured scene, has been used to enhance the SAR images. This new speckle filter incorporates a statistical description of the effects of the SAR imaging system: in order to account for the effects due to the spatial correlation of the speckle in SAR images, an estimator originating from the local spatial autocorrelation function (ACF) of the SAR signal are incorporated to this filter, to refine the evaluation of the non-stationary first order local statistics, to improve the restoration of the scene textural properties, and to preserve the useful spatial resolution in the speckle filtered image. On the other hand, radargrammetric techniques have been used to: (1) produce a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the study area; (2) fuse ERS and JERS information in order to allow visual identification of the remnants of Ciudad Blanca by visual photo-interpretation. Using the processed images, geocoded UTM spatio-maps of the region have also been produced to locate accurately our findings, and guide a ground expedition in the future.

  12. Distribution, habitat, size, and color pattern of Cnemidophorus lemniscatus (Sauria: Teiidae) on Cayo Cochino Pequeño, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Chad E.; Reed, Robert N.; Shaw, Hayley J.; Boback, Scott M.; Walker, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Cayo Cochino Pequeño is a 0.64-km2 Caribbean island in the Cayos Cochinos archipelago, Department of Islas de la Bahía, Honduras. One published report noted the presence of the rainbow whiptail (Cnemidophorus lemniscatus) on Cayo Cochino Pequeño, but nothing is known about the biology of this insular population. During a part of the dry season in July and August 2004, we used drift fences, pitfall traps, and separate observational transects to elucidate the distribution and habitat use of C. lemniscatus on the island. The only population of this species was located in a narrow coastal zone (width to 60 m and length to 450 m) on the southern half of the eastern windward side of the island. We analyzed the percentage of the canopy cover and the percentage of 4 ground coverage types along 2 transects 200 m long in this area to understand the basis of the suitability of the habitat for C. lemniscatus. Descriptively, the area harboring this species on Cayo Cochino Pequeño consisted of the remnants of a coconut palm grove with low-lying herbaceous vegetation and grasses, in which a mosaic of small, open areas of sandy soil and coral fragments, with or without accumulations of debris, were the foci of lizard activities. Also observed in this habitat were 2 individuals of the brown racer (Dryadophis melanolomus), an actively foraging snake and likely predator on C. lemniscatus. Data obtained on rainbow whiptails captured in pitfall traps and subsequently released were used to determine the size and color patterns of hatchlings and adult males and females.

  13. Modelling hurricane exposure and wind speed on a mesoclimate scale: a case study from Cusuco NP, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batke, Sven P; Jocque, Merlijn; Kelly, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    High energy weather events are often expected to play a substantial role in biotic community dynamics and large scale diversity patterns but their contribution is hard to prove. Currently, observations are limited to the documentation of accidental records after the passing of such events. A more comprehensive approach is synthesising weather events in a location over a long time period, ideally at a high spatial resolution and on a large geographic scale. We provide a detailed overview on how to generate hurricane exposure data at a meso-climate level for a specific region. As a case study we modelled landscape hurricane exposure in Cusuco National Park (CNP), Honduras with a resolution of 50 m×50 m patches. We calculated actual hurricane exposure vulnerability site scores (EVVS) through the combination of a wind pressure model, an exposure model that can incorporate simple wind dynamics within a 3-dimensional landscape and the integration of historical hurricanes data. The EVSS was calculated as a weighted function of sites exposure, hurricane frequency and maximum wind velocity. Eleven hurricanes were found to have affected CNP between 1995 and 2010. The highest EVSS's were predicted to be on South and South-East facing sites of the park. Ground validation demonstrated that the South-solution (i.e. the South wind inflow direction) explained most of the observed tree damage (90% of the observed tree damage in the field). Incorporating historical data to the model to calculate actual hurricane exposure values, instead of potential exposure values, increased the model fit by 50%.

  14. Distribution of fish in seagrass, mangroves and coral reefs: life-stage dependent habitat use in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaxion-Harm, Jessica; Saunders, James; Speight, Martin R

    2012-06-01

    Many coral reef fish exhibit habitat partitioning throughout their lifetimes. Such patterns are evident in the Caribbean where research has been predominantly conducted in the Eastern region. This work addressed the paucity of data regarding Honduran reef fish distribution in three habitat types (seagrass, mangroves, and coral reefs), by surveying fish on the islands of Utila and Cayos Cochinos off the coast of Honduras (part of the Mesoamerican barrier reef). During July 2nd - Aug 27th 2007 and June 22nd - Aug 17th, 2008, visual surveys (SCUBA and snorkel) were performed in belt transects in different areas: eleven coral reef, six seagrass beds, and six mangroves sites. Juvenile densities and total habitat surface area were used to calculate nursery value of seagrass and mangroves. A total of 113 fish species from 32 families were found during underwater surveys. Multi-dimensional analyses revealed distinct clusters of fish communities in each habitat type by separating fish associated with seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs. Coral reefs showed the highest mean fish species richness and were dominated by adult fish, while juvenile fish characterized seagrass beds and mangrove sites. Habitat use differed widely at the fish species level. Scarus iseri (Striped Parrotfish), the most abundant fish in this study, were found in all three habitat types, while Lutjanus apodus (Schoolmaster Snapper) juveniles were located primarily in mangroves before migrating to coral reefs. Many species used seagrass beds and mangroves as nurseries; however, the nursery value could not be generalized at the family level. Furthermore, for some fish species, nursery value varied between islands and sites. Our results suggest that connectivity of seagrass, mangrove, and coral reef sites at a species and site levels, should be taken into consideration when implementing policy and conservation practices.

  15. Trends in adolescent unions and childbearing in four Central American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remez, Lisa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Four low-income Central American nations—El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua—have the highest rates of adolescent fertility in Latin America. More information on time trends in adolescent marital and reproductive behaviors is needed to assess the need for improved information and services to delay marriage and childbearing. Methodology: Data from these countries’ recent Demographic and Health Surveys and Reproductive Health Surveys are used to examine trends in adolescent unions and childbearing by comparing two cohorts roughly a generation apart, 40–44-year-olds and 20–24-year-olds. We tested for significant differences over time, both for women overall and within subgroups, using Pearson Χ2 statistics that take the stratified, cluster sample design into account. Findings: As of 2001–2005/6, adolescent unions, which are far more likely to be consensual than legal, were still widespread in the subregion, as 45–60% of 20–24-year-old women in these four countries had entered into a union before their 20th birthday. Nonetheless, such early unions have fallen significantly over time in all four countries, declining by relatively less in Honduras (by six percentage points than in the other three countries (by 10–15 percentage points. In contrast, no comparable uniform trend emerged in the timing of first births: The proportions giving birth before age 20 fell significantly only in Nicaragua (by eight points; declines were smaller and nonsignificant in the other three countries (2–5 points. At the subgroup level, just one change was significant within area of residence—the 12-point decline in the proportion with any adolescent birth in urban areas in Nicaragua. Although the change was not significant at the population level, adolescent births increased significantly among less-educated women and the poorest women in El Salvador and Honduras, as traditional behaviors likely became more concentrated in those

  16. Innovation Trajectories in Honduras' Coffee Value Chain. Public and Private Influence on the Use of New Knowledge and Technology among Coffee Growers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hartwich

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, results from a study on the use of improved coffee production technology schemes among smallholder coffee producers in three prominent coffee producing regions in Honduras are presented. The impact of various schemes (trajectories in which different agents influence the producers’ decision to use new technologies was analyzed. In particular, there are differences in the influence of a private coffee buying organizations and b government and public development agencies on the innovation behavior of coffee growers. Drawing from network data that depict the internal and outbound connectedness of producers in three village communities in main coffee producing zones in Honduras, tools of social network analysis were applied to find out how interactions with certain agents, separately and cumulatively, has influenced their use of improved methods in coffee production and marketing. The results suggest that there are significant differences in the way that various providers of knowledge and technology, especially private buyers and development agencies, influence the farmers’ behavior towards innovation. The influence of buyers, according to the data, is focused on certification and quality aspects, whereas development agents focus on improved agronomic practices. Farmers who communicate with the extension branch of input providers tend to be more innovative. These results suggest that development programs should take more seriously into account the role of private actors in innovation among agricultural producers and, hence, design development programs in such a way to allow for collaboration with these agents.

  17. Refugees from Central American gangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G Kennedy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras are among the world’s mostfragile nations, yet they are largely ignored by refugee agencies whounderestimate transnational criminal organisations’ abuses andpowers of control, while overestimating national governments’ abilityand willingness to protect their citizens.

  18. Deployable centralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-02-28

    A centralizer assembly is disclosed that allows for the assembly to be deployed in-situ. The centralizer assembly includes flexible members that can be extended into the well bore in situ by the initiation of a gas generating device. The centralizer assembly can support a large load carrying capability compared to a traditional bow spring with little or no installation drag. Additionally, larger displacements can be produced to centralize an extremely deviated casing.

  19. [Intake of dietary fiber in the Central American isthmus: nutritional implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, E; Bressani, R

    1989-09-01

    Mean intakes of dietary fiber (DF) were estimated in the population of Central America and Panama, using the results of dietary surveys conducted in 1969 and 1986 both in rural and urban areas, as well as data on the DF content of foods as consumed in the region. Data on preschool children were also estimated. The results indicated that DF intake in urban areas is lower than that of rural areas, particularly in Costa Rica and Panama. In 1969, intake varied from 32g in El Salvador to 15g in Panama in urban areas, while in rural areas intake was from 45g in El Salvador to 13g in Panama. The foods which contributed most to the total intake in Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras were tortillas and beans, while in Costa Rica and Panama, beans provided the largest intake. In preeschool children, intake was 12.5g in El Salvador and 5.4g in Costa Rica in 1969, which is the same tendency as that found for adults. From more recent data on food intake, it was found that DF intake had decreased in the rural areas of El Salvador, Honduras and Costa Rica, being between 4 and 9% in the first two countries and 12% in Costa Rica. In the urban area of the latter, from 1969 to 1986 a decrease in DF intake of around 20% has taken place.

  20. Geochemistry of thermal fluids in NW Honduras: New perspectives for exploitation of geothermal areas in the southern Sula graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaccioni, Bruno; Franco, Tassi; Alberto, Renzulli; Orlando, Vaselli; Marco, Menichetti; Salvatore, Inguaggiato

    2014-06-01

    The results of a geochemical survey on thermal waters and, for the first time for this site, gas discharges in five geothermal sites (Azacualpa "La Cueva", Río Ulua, Río Gualcarque, El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente) in NW Honduras are here presented and discussed. El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente, in the southern part of the Sula graben are very close to a Quaternary basaltic field, whereas Azacualpa "La Cueva", Río Ulua and Río Gualcarque, located to the southwest of the Yojoa Lake, direcly emerge from the Cretaceous limestone deposits. The measured temperatures range between 37.5 and 104.8 °C. "Mature", alkaline, Na-SO4 thermal waters discharge from Azacualpa "La Cueva", while those from El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente are "immature" and show a Na-HCO3 composition. Chemical equilibria of waters and gases from the Azacualpa "La Cueva" thermal springs indicate temperatures ranging from 150 to 200 °C. Conversely, gas discharges from El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente have attained a partial chemical equilibrium in the liquid phase at slightly higher temperatures (200-250 °C), although gas-gas faster reactions involving CO seem to be adjusted in an isothermally separated vapor phase. Unlike Azacualpa, SiO2 geothermometer at El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente indicates equilibrium temperatures for the liquid phase much lower than those calculated for the gas phase (≤ 120 °C). We conclude that thermal waters from the Azacualpa area likely represent the direct emergence of a water dominated reservoir having temperatures ≤ 150-200 °C. By contrast, at El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente hot springs are supplied by a boiling shallow aquifer fed by a vapor phase rising from a steam-dominated zone. The above geochemical model is consistent with a geothermal reservoir hosted within the Cretaceous carbonate sequences of the Yojoa Group in the whole investigated sites. The reservoir extensively crops out in the Azacualpa area whereas the

  1. Apoyo para políticas y estrategias de manejo integrado de recursos hídricos en América Central

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Aguilar; Fernando López; Nelson Flores; Luis Morgan

    1999-01-01

    El presente informe presenta los resultados de la cooperación técnica no reembolsable BID-CRRH N° ATN/SF-5758-RG. "Apoyo para políticas y estrategias de manejo integrado de recursos hídricos en América Central". El trabajo se sustenta en una serie de entrevistas realizadas en Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua y Panamá. El diálogo establecido por los consultores con los niveles técnicos y políticos, así como con representantes de distintos grupos sociales o sectores inter...

  2. Multi-Decadal Mangrove Forest Change Detection and Prediction in Honduras, Central America, with Landsat Imagery and a Markov Chain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Farn Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests play an important role in providing ecological and socioeconomic services for human society. Coastal development, which converts mangrove forests to other land uses, has often ignored the services that mangrove may provide, leading to irreversible environmental degradation. Monitoring the spatiotemporal distribution of mangrove forests is thus critical for natural resources management of mangrove ecosystems. This study investigates spatiotemporal changes in Honduran mangrove forests using Landsat imagery during the periods 1985–1996, 1996–2002, and 2002–2013. The future trend of mangrove forest changes was projected by a Markov chain model to support decision-making for coastal management. The remote sensing data were processed through three main steps: (1 data pre-processing to correct geometric errors between the Landsat imageries and to perform reflectance normalization; (2 image classification with the unsupervised Otsu’s method and change detection; and (3 mangrove change projection using a Markov chain model. Validation of the unsupervised Otsu’s method was made by comparing the classification results with the ground reference data in 2002, which yielded satisfactory agreement with an overall accuracy of 91.1% and Kappa coefficient of 0.82. When examining mangrove changes from 1985 to 2013, approximately 11.9% of the mangrove forests were transformed to other land uses, especially shrimp farming, while little effort (3.9% was applied for mangrove rehabilitation during this 28-year period. Changes in the extent of mangrove forests were further projected until 2020, indicating that the area of mangrove forests could be continuously reduced by 1,200 ha from 2013 (approximately 36,700 ha to 2020 (approximately 35,500 ha. Institutional interventions should be taken for sustainable management of mangrove ecosystems in this coastal region.

  3. Pathways to marriage and cohabitation in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Grace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The notion that increasing prevalence of cohabitation relative to marriage, and increasing age at first marriage are part of a broader shift in societal norms -- a second demographic transition -- is now well supported by studies focused on US and European populations. Recent research points to the similarly high prevalence of cohabitation in Latin America as perhaps signaling the diffusion of modern ideals and norms about union formation. In Central America this is unlikely to be the case given the long history and enduring acceptance of cohabitation that is unrelated to modern ideals. While there are studies that have documented this history and current prevalence, there is no research examining the intersecting life course pathways from adolescence through early adulthood that lead to marriage or cohabitation. This is not surprising given that available data for Central American countries are not ideally suited to studying the process. Methods: We use retrospective questions from large, nationally representative Central American surveys (Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua to establish the timing of marriage or cohabitation and events that are closely tied to union formation. We utilize additive causespecific hazard models, and predicted transition probabilities based on selected covariate pathways, to study the competing risks of exiting from the status of never in union. Results: Our results identify sexual activity and pregnancy as the primary drivers of union formation and indicate that education serves as a protective factor against union formation. We also find distinct differences among countries and a strong indication that cohabitations are less stable unions.

  4. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccranie, James R

    2015-03-13

    An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras is provided. The list includes three amphibian species (Ptychohyla euthysanota, Bolitoglossa odonnelli, Oedipina chortiorum) and two reptile species (Laemanctus waltersi [elevated from subspecies status], Epictia phenops) not included in the most recent checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the country. Also, one amphibian genus and species (Triprion petasatus) is removed from the country list and one Honduran lizard (Ctenosaura praeocularis) is synonymized with an older name. Comments where more study is needed are also included where pertinent. Authors, dates, and original spellings of the higher-level taxonomy of all taxa covered herein are also given. A total of 401 species (137 amphibians and 264 reptiles) are now known from the country with 111 species (27.7%) being Honduran endemics (52 amphibians and 59 reptiles).

  5. Evaluación de paleokarsts en las plataformas calcáreas del Albiano Superior en México, Guatemala y Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    B.E. Carrasco-Velázquez

    2011-01-01

    Se presenta el resultado de una evaluación en México, Guatemala y Honduras de las rocas en las plataformas carbonatadas del Albiano Superior, que fueron expuestas a condiciones subaéreas por un descenso del nivel del mar, propiciando que los fenómenos físicos y químicos, así como las condiciones de temperatura favorecieran la formación de algún tipo de karsticidad. Se emplea una metodología para identifi car un paleokarst, por medio de la petrología, fábrica, geometría y estratigrafía de sus ...

  6. Incidencias de la presencia de la contrarrevolución nicaragüense en el municipio de Trojes, departamento de El paraíso, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Elvia Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Note portant sur l'auteur CENTROAMÉRICA Y HONDURAS EN LA DÉCADA DE LOS OCHENTA El conflicto centroamericano se traduce en una serie de procesos históricos íntimamente relacionados, los cuales se producen en el seno de cada uno de los países del área y cuyas causas son imputables a aspectos económicos, políticos y sociales. Centroamérica vislumbró la década de los ochenta inmersa en una profunda crisis económica que se tradujo en la caída de las exportaciones, fuentes de empleo y tasas negativ...

  7. Honduras: vicisitudes en la construcción de una democracia de ciudadanía - doi:10.5102/uri.v7i1.927

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Federico Dominguez Ávila

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a crise política hondureña gerada pela tentativa de golpe de Estado, en junho-julho de 2009, contra o governo do presidente José Manuel Zelaya Rosales. Serão analisados os aspectos fundamentais da trajetória política recente do país, os atores em conflito e alguns cenários futuros. O principal argumento do artigo é que a atual instabilidade política em Honduras surge da resistencia dos setores tradicionalmente dominantes frente à posibilidades de mudanças estrutrurais direcionadas à construção de uma democracia cidadã.

  8. Use of a rapid test on umbilical cord blood to screen for Trypanosoma cruzi infection in pregnant women in Argentina, Bolivia, Honduras, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Gamboa-León, Miriam Rubi; Del Cid-Lemus, Jaime; Althabe, Fernando; Alger, Jackeline; Almendares, Olivia; Cafferata, María L; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Dumonteil, Eric; Gibbons, Luz; Padilla-Raygoza, Nicolás; Schneider, Dominique; Belizán, José M; Buekens, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study of Chagas disease in five endemic areas in Argentina, Bolivia, Honduras, and México to estimate the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi-specific antibodies in pregnant women, and to assess the use of a rapid test (Chagas Stat-Pak) to screen for T. cruzi infection at the time of delivery. The prevalence of antibodies to T. cruzi measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in maternal blood was 5.5% (a range of 0.8-28.8% among the countries) in 2,495 women enrolled. Compared with ELISA in maternal blood samples, the Chagas Stat-Pak rapid test sensitivity and specificity in umbilical cord blood were 94.6% and 99.0%, respectively. These results show the ability for a rapid determination of the presence of T. cruzi-specific antibodies in umbilical cord blood as a pragmatic strategy to screen for infection in pregnant women.

  9. Distribution and structure of lotic macroinvertebrate communities and the influence of environmental factors in a tropical cloud forest, Cusuco National Park, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O'Callaghan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neotropical cloud forests are a critically endangered ecosystem characterised by their unusual hydrological conditions which frequently make them important sources of clean potable water. To facilitate any meaningful research on cloud forest streams it is necessary to first describe the structure and composition of the local lotic aquatic communities and to establish which environmental factors structure them under natural conditions. The present study sampled the macroinvertebrate communities of rivers draining the montane cloud forests of Cucuso National Park in Honduras, where increasing anthropogenic pressures are threatening water quality. Using multivariate techniques a bottom-up approach was adopted to establish groups of similar sites and identify environmental factors driving the differences between these. Three site groupings emerged based largely on differences in taxon composition driven mainly by pH and altitude.

  10. Un movimiento étnico-religioso en el área de Copán (Honduras: la Iglesia Milenarista del Siglo Nuevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio R. Mena Cabezas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La aparición de un movimiento mesiánico y milenarista en el área chortí del norte de Honduras junto con los procesos de etnogénesis indígenas emprendidos sirven de referente etnográfico para analizar y reflexionar sobre las relaciones entre fenómenos sociales, religiosos, políticos e identitarios en el contexto de la globalización en Honduras. Las reivindicaciones económicas, sociales, educativas, sanitarias o las reclamaciones de tierras se reelaboran desde perspectivas étnicas mayas, de esta forma adquieren un valor simbólico privilegiado. Las tensiones, conflictos y contradicciones del movimiento indígena se han extendido al campo religioso. En este contexto surge la Iglesia del Nuevo Siglo o Nuevo Katum. El trabajo plantea una interpretación de los fenómenos religiosos como motores de cambio y transformación, algo que es, por lo demás, mucho más cercano a la experiencia concreta y personal de los agentes sociales. La reelaboración que lleva a cabo este movimiento de la realidad económica, social e ideológica, van mucho más allá de una mera interpretación profética del mundo al dotar a los seguidores chortís de estrategias prácticas de relación eficaz con el mundo y de transformación de las relaciones tanto intra como interétnicas.

  11. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: the semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Stewart M; Jimenez, Ramón

    2012-12-01

    Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in Villanueva has operated for 15 years, using a total land area of approximately 11 ha for a population that grew from 23,000 to 48,000, with a land requirement of 0.2m(2)/person year, a cover to waste ratio of 0.2, and an estimated soil surplus of 298,000 m(3) that is valorized and used onsite. The landfill has been operated solely by the municipality with an operational cost in 2010 estimated at US$4.60 per ton. A modified water balance analysis at Villanueva shows negligible leachate generation from covered trenches and 700 m(3)/yr (60 m(3)/ha yr) from the two open

  12. Fluid inclusions and preliminary studies of hydrothermal alteration in core hole PLTG-1, Platanares geothermal area, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Platanares geothermal area in western Honduras consists of more than 100 hot springs that issue from numerous hot-spring groups along the banks or within the streambed of the Quebrada de Agua Caliente (brook of hot water). Evaluation of this geothermal area included drilling a 650-m deep PLTG-1 drill hole which penetrated a surface mantling of stream terrace deposits, about 550 m of Tertiary andesitic lava flows, and Cretaceous to lower Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the lower 90 m of the drill core. Fractures and cavities in the drill core are partly to completely filled by hydrothermal minerals that include quartz, kaolinite, mixed-layer illite-smectite, barite, fluorite, chlorite, calcite, laumontite, biotite, hematite, marcasite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, stibnite, and sphalerite; the most common open-space fillings are calcite and quartz. Biotite from 138.9-m depth, dated at 37.41 Ma by replicate 40Ar/39 Ar analyses using a continuous laser system, is the earliest hydrothermal mineral deposited in the PLTG-1 drill core. This mid-Tertiary age indicates that at least some of the hydrothermal alteration encountered in the PLTG-1 drill core occured in the distant past and is unrelated to the present geothermal system. Furthermore, homogenization temperatures (Th) and melting-point temperatures (Tm) for fluid inclusions in two of the later-formed hydrothermal minerals, calcite and barite, suggest that the temperatures and concentration of dissolved solids of the fluids present at the time these fluid inclusions formed were very different from the present temperatures and fluid chemistry measured in the drill hole. Liquid-rich secondary fluid inclusions in barite and caicite from drill hole PLTG-1 have Th values that range from about 20??C less than the present measured temperature curve at 590.1-m depth to as much as 90??C higher than the temperature curve at 46.75-m depth. Many of the barite Th measurements (ranging between 114?? and 265??C) plot above the

  13. Area Handbook for Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blutstein, Howard I.; And Others

    This volume is one of 62 in a series of handbooks designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of various countries. This handbook seeks to supply an integrated and comprehensive exposition and analysis of the entire…

  14. Centralized Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

      With the complexities surrounding the choice of decentralized vs. centralized labs, as well as the most optimal use of biomarkers in clinical trials, choosing the right lab or CRO partner is paramount...

  15. Characterization of Trypanosoma rangeli Strains Isolated in Central and South America: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisard Edmundo C

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagelate parasite that infects domestic and sylvatic animals, as well as man, in Central and South America. T. rangeli has an overlapping distribution with T. cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, sharing several animal reservoirs and triatomine vectors. We have isolated T. rangeli strains in the State of Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil, which dramatically increased the distribution area of this parasite. This brief review summarizes several studies comparing T. rangeli strains isolated in Santa Catarina with others isolated in Colombia, Honduras and Venezuela. The different methods used include indirect immunofluorescence and western blot assays, lectin agglutination, isoenzyme electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, triatomine susceptibility, in vitro cell infection assays, and mini-exon gene analysis.

  16. ACCESS TO GOVERNMENT INFORMATION: EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF TRANSPARENCY POLICIES IN FOUR CENTRAL AMERICAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Ríos Cázares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the functioning of public information access systems in four Central American countries (Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama based on the methodology used in the project Transparency Metric 2010, conducted by the Center for Economic Research and Teaching (CIDE. The specific objective is to identify common challenges, recurring issues and best practices in matter of access to governmental information in these four countries. The study shows that, although all four countries have made progress in consolidating a specialised Freedom of Information Legislation (FOI, significant challenges remain in institutionalising the operation of such system, as well as consolidating its ability to effectively make government information public, both proactively and in response to specific requests from citizens. The main challenge is to develop a public policy which allows structuring a coherent system for the access to information.

  17. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

    1988-08-01

    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  18. Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna‐Torres, Victor A.; Sánchez‐Largaespada, José F.; Lorenzana, Ivette; Forshey, Brett; Aguilar, Patricia; Jimenez, Mirna; Parrales, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Francisco; García, Josefina; Jimenez, Ileana; Rivera, Maribel; Perez, Juan; Sovero, Merly; Rios, Jane; Gamero, María E.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Laguna‐Torres et al. (2011) Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(2), 123–134. Background  Despite the disease burden imposed by respiratory diseases on children in Central America, there is a paucity of data describing the etiologic agents of the disease. Aims  To analyze viral etiologic agents associated with influenza‐like illness (ILI) in participants reporting to one outpatient health center, one pediatric hospital, and three general hospitals in El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua Material & Methods  Between August 2006 and April 2009, pharyngeal swabs were collected from outpatients and inpatients. Patient specimens were inoculated onto cultured cell monolayers, and viral antigens were detected by indirect and direct immunofluorescence staining. Results  A total of 1,756 patients were enrolled, of whom 1,195 (68.3%) were under the age of 5; and 183 (10.4%) required hospitalization. One or more viral agents were identified in 434 (24.7%) cases, of which 17 (3.9%) were dual infections. The most common viruses isolated were influenza A virus (130; 7.4% of cases), respiratory syncytial virus (122; 6.9%), adenoviruses (63; 3.6%), parainfluenza viruses (57; 3.2%), influenza B virus (47; 2.7% of cases), and herpes simplex virus 1 (22; 1.3%). In addition, human metapneumovirus and enteroviruses (coxsackie and echovirus) were isolated from patient specimens. Discussion  When compared to the rest of the population, viruses were isolated from a significantly higher percentage of patients age 5 or younger. The prevalence of influenza A virus or influenza B virus infections was similar between the younger and older age groups. RSV was the most commonly detected pathogen in infants age 5 and younger and was significantly associated with pneumonia (p < 0.0001) and hospitalization (p < 0.0001). Conclusion  Genetic analysis of influenza

  19. Central line infections - hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection; Central venous catheter - infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired ...

  20. Estudio de un brote de leptospirosis en Honduras tras el paso del huracán Mitch y potencialidad profiláctica de vax-SPIRAL®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Naranjo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En Honduras, uno de los países de Centroamérica más afectados por el huracán Mitch, debido a las fuertes lluvias e inundaciones, se crearon las condiciones idóneas para el desarrollo de un brote de leptospirosis. Un grupo de especialistas cubanos realizamos un estudio a 68 pacientes con un cuadro clínico epidemiológico sospechoso de leptospirosis entre los pobladores del Departamento de Puerto Cortés, una las regiones más comprometidas. A todos los pacientes se les tomó una muestra de sangre para hemocultivo y obtención de suero. Se empleó la técnica de aglutinación microscópica (MAT para la identificación de las cepas de leptospira y para evaluar la protección conferida por vax-SPIRAL® (vacuna antileptospirósica cubana frente al reto con la cepa aislada y se verificó la prevalencia de leptospiras en los riñones e hígado. Se observó un predominio de pacientes del sexo masculino, en un grupo entre 15-49 años. Los municipios de este Departamento con un mayor número de casos fueron San Pedro Sula, La Lima y Chamelecón. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron: fiebre, cefalea, mialgias, malestar general, entre otros. Más del 80% de los individuos manifestaron la presencia de roedores en sus viviendas y que tuvieron contacto con aguas estancadas y animales domésticos. La cepa aislada del hemocultivo positivo fue del serogrupo Icterohaemorrhagiae, muy virulento en el modelo animal empleado. Se evidenció el 100% de protección de los hámsteres inmunizados con vax-SPIRAL® y retados con la cepa de Honduras. El análisis macroscópico de los órganos de los animales inmunizados que sobrevivieron al reto al 100%, reveló la ausencia de signos característicos de la infección.

  1. Aplicación de metodologías participativas para el mejoramiento genético de frijol en Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Rosas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplicación de metodologías participativas para el mejoramiento genético de frijol en Honduras. Aunque se reconoce que los enfoques tradicionales de fitomejoramiento han sido efectivos en incrementar los rendimientos y solucionar problemas de plagas que limitan la producción de cultivos, se argumenta que los niveles de adopción, y los impactos esperados, han sido limitados. Bajo este contexto, se incluyen a los pequeños productores de cultivos básicos, que no poseen los recursos para modificar su ambiente productivo para poder obtener las respuestas en rendimiento de variedades mejoradas de mayor potencial. Sin embargo, en el caso de frijol en Centro América, las variedades mejoradas generadas de manera convencional han sido valiosas en reducir la diseminación de enfermedades que hubieran causado una reducción significativa del rendimiento, pe. el mosaico dorado amarillo. El fitomejoramiento participativo (FP, que involucra una participación activa de los agricultores en el desarrollo de variedades con adaptación específica, se presenta como una alternativa para incrementar el acceso y la adopción de variedades mejoradas para pequeños productores con limitado acceso a las tecnologías y/o bajo uso de insumos. En Centro América, ya existen algunas iniciativas de FP en los cultivos de frijol y maíz; a raíz de estas iniciativas, el interés y las expectativas de los agricultores, organizaciones y donantes ha crecido recientemente. La presente publicación, trata de dar algunas pautas sobre la aplicación de este enfoque de FP en el mejoramiento genético del frijol, con base a la experiencia del Programa de Investigaciones en Frijol de Zamorano, a través de los dos primeros años de actividades de un proyecto conducido con la colaboración de técnicos de una organización no gubernamental y agricultores de comunidades de Yorito y el Lago Yojoa, en Honduras

  2. Propiedades hidrogeoquímicas e isotópicas del agua subterránea en la parte media de la cuenca del Río Tulián, Puerto Cortés, Honduras Hydrochemicaland isotopic properties of the groundwater in the middle part of the Tulián River watershed, Puerto Cortés, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirza C Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se identifican las propiedades hidroquímicas e isotópicas del agua subterránea recolectada en 11 manantiales, 1 de ellos termal, en la parte media de la cuenca del río Tulián de la ciudad de Puerto Cortés, Cortés, Honduras. A partir de los valores de los isótopos estables, deuterio (²H y oxígeno -18 (18O, se deduce que el origen del agua subterránea es meteórico. Las características hidrogeoquímicas indican que los manantiales pertenecen a un mismo sistema hidrológico, compuesto por esquistos y gneiss fracturados de la formación Esquistos Cacaguapa. El agua de los manantiales evaluados es principalmente bicarbonatada sódica y bicarbonatada cálcica. Los contenidos isotópicos no muestran una variación de δ18O cómo se esperaría en el manantial termal.The present study identifies the hydrochemical and isotopic properties of 11 springs, including one thermal spring, in Tulian watershed, located in the city of Puerto Cortés, Cortés, Honduras. The relation between the concentrations of the environmental stable isotopes deuterium (²H and oxygen -18 (18O in the water is similar to the relation in global meteoric water, indicating that the water has a meteoric origin. Evaluation of the geochemical characteristics of the water reveals that these springs belong to the same hydrogeological system, which comprises a fractured schist and gneiss of the Esquistos Cacaguapa formation. The water of the evaluated springs is mainly Na-Ca-HCO3. The δ2H (‰ and δ2H contents indicate that there is no variation in the ‰ value.

  3. Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Central Solenoid (CS) is a single layer coil wound internally in a supporting cylinder housed in the cryostat of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. It was successfully tested at Toshiba in December 2000 and was delivered to CERN in September 2001 ready for integration in the LAr Calorimeter in 2003. An intermediate test of the chimney and proximity cryogenics was successfully performed in June 2002.

  4. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  5. Increasing the Participation of Afro-Descendants in Bank-Funded Projects in Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, Josefina; Aoki, Sayo

    2005-01-01

    A World Bank's Latin America and Caribbean Region's portfolio (projects) review was carried out with the aim of , (i) analyzing the reach of the Bank's Central America Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development (CAESSD) projects in Afro-descendant areas, and (ii) suggesting recommendations for increasing Afro-descendent participation in Bank's projects. This note, presents a brie...

  6. Una óptica igualitaria: Autorretratos, construcción del ser, y encuentro homosocial en una plantación bananera en Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Coleman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En una imagen inédita de la década de 1930, aparece el fotógrafo Rafael Platero Paz abrazando a un estadounidense blanco cerca de un río en El Progreso, Honduras. Ambos hombres se muestran completamente desnudos y cubriendo sus genitales únicamente con una hojas. Ambos miran directamente a la cámara. Este trabajo examina los autorretratos de Platero Paz que hemos encontrado en un archivo visual compuesto por fotos de campesinos y bananeros, de imágenes de nuevas madres y de comerciantes locales. Invocando la feonomenología de la mirada de Jean-Paul Sartre, propongo que en sus autorretratos tradicionales, Platero Paz posó para otro eventual. . Ahí estaba él, esperando el reconocimiento y la aprobación del Otro. Y en la medida en que el Otro fue postulado como el observador ideal de estos retratos, Platero Paz declaraba: “Yo soy el Otro”.  En contraste, en la foto del Jardín del Edén Platero Paz incorpora al Otro en su paisaje y declara “Yo soy nosotros”, estableciendo una relación homosocial, sino homoerótica, una relación sujeto-sujeto en el espacio hipermasculino de una plantación bananera.

  7. Conflictividad y Gestión Multilateral de Crisis en América Latina: casos Venezuela (2002 y Honduras (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Martínez Meucci

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En América Latina se evidencia una modificación importante de los patrones de conflicto que imperaban antes y después de la ola democratizadora de los años 80 y 90 del siglo XX. A su vez, durante las últimas dos décadas se ha pasado de la preeminencia del paradigma institucional / liberal a la irrupción de diversos gobiernos de legitimidad social / plebiscitaria. La lucha entre estas dos formas de entender y practicar la democracia ha alimentado en gran medida las crisis políticas de los últimos 15 años, hasta el punto de provocar diversas iniciativas de gestión multilaterales de crisis. El estudio comparado de tales iniciativas permite comprender mejor la evolución de los patrones de conflictividad desde los años 90 hasta nuestros días, tanto a nivel nacional como regional, y sopesar aciertos y desaciertos de las iniciativas de gestión multilateral. La comparación de los casos de Venezuela (2002 y Honduras (2009 permite constatar el avance del paradigma social / plebiscitario, el mayor peso de Brasil en la región y la insuficiencia de los procesos electorales para canalizar la conflictividad característica de las últimas dos décadas.

  8. Divergence in morphology, but not habitat use, despite low genetic differentiation among insular populations of the lizard Anolis lemurinus in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, M.L.; Montgomery, Chad E.; Boback, Scott M.; Reed, R.N.; Campbell, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of recently isolated populations are useful because observed differences can often be attributed to current environmental variation. Two populations of the lizard Anolis lemurinus have been isolated on the islands of Cayo Menor and Cayo Mayor in the Cayos Cochinos Archipelago of Honduras for less than 15 000 y. We measured 12 morphometric and 10 habitat-use variables on 220 lizards across these islands in 2 y, 2008 and 2009. The goals of our study were (1) to explore patterns of sexual dimorphism, and (2) to test the hypothesis that differences in environment among islands may have driven divergence in morphology and habitat use despite genetic homogeneity among populations. Although we found no differences among sexes in habitat use, males had narrower pelvic girdles and longer toe pads on both islands. Between islands, males differed in morphology, but neither males nor females differed in habitat use. Our data suggest that either recent selection has operated differentially on males despite low genetic dill'erentiation, or that they display phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental variation. We suggest that patterns may be driven by variation in intrapopulation density or differences in predator diversity among islands.

  9. Central pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Supreet

    2014-12-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is central pain, a neuropathic pain syndrome caused by a lesion in the brain or spinal cord that sensitizes one's perception of pain. It is a debilitating condition caused by various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, strokes, spinal cord injuries, or brain tumors. Varied symptoms and the use of pharmacological medicines and nonpharmacological therapies will be addressed.

  10. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  11. Risk for transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmunis, G A; Zicker, F; Pinheiro, F; Brandling-Bennett, D

    1998-01-01

    We report the potential risk for an infectious disease through tainted transfusion in 10 countries of South and Central America in 1993 and in two countries of South America in 1994, as well as the cost of reagents as partial estimation of screening costs. Of the 12 countries included in the study, nine screened all donors for HIV; three screened all donors for hepatitis B virus (HBV); two screened all donors for Trypanosoma cruzi; none screened all donors for hepatitis C virus (HCV); and six screened some donors for syphilis. Estimates of the risk of acquiring HIV through blood transfusion were much lower than for acquiring HBV, HCV, or T. cruzi because of significantly higher screening and lower prevalence.rates for HIV. An index of infectious disease spread through blood transfusion was calculated for each country. The highest value was obtained for Bolivia (233 infections per 10,000 transfusions); in five other countries, it was 68 to 103 infections per 10,000. The risks were lower in Honduras (nine per 10,000), Ecuador (16 per 10,000), and Paraguay (19 per 10,000). While the real number of potentially infected units or infected persons is probably lower than our estimates because of false positives and already infected recipients, the data reinforce the need for an information system to assess the level of screening for infectious diseases in the blood supply. Since this information was collected, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Venezuela have made HCV screening mandatory; serologic testing for HCV has increased in those countries, as well as in El Salvador and Honduras. T. cruzi screening is now mandatory in Colombia, and the percentage of screened donors increased not only in Colombia, but also in Ecuador, El Salvador, and Paraguay. Laws to regulate blood transfusion practices have been enacted in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Peru. However, donor screening still needs to improve for one or more diseases in most countries.

  12. Emerging deforestation trends in tropical dry forests ecoregions of Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, C. A.; Cao, G.; Smith, V.

    2015-12-01

    Neotropical dry forests (TDF) have experienced an unprecedented deforestation that is leading to the loss of tropical biodiversity at a rapid pace, but information on deforestation dynamics in TDF is scarce. In this study, we present a sub-continental and national level assessment of TDF loss patterns in Mexico and Central America at high spatial and temporal resolution using remote sensing and GIS technologies. We used the Global Forest Change (GFC) dataset published by Hansen et al. (2013) which shows results from time-series analysis of Landsat images in characterizing global forest extent and change from 2000 through 2013. We analyzed forest loss within and around mapped TDF cover mapped by Portillo-Quintero et al. 2010. In order to minimize errors in source data, we overlaid a 25 x 25 km grid on top of the regional dataset and conducted a cell by cell and country by country inspection at multiple scales using high resolution ancillary data. We identified trends in the clustering of space-time TDF deforestation data using ArcGIS, categorizing trends in: new, consecutive, intensifying, persistent, diminishing, sporadic, oscillating and historical hotspots (high frequency of deforestation events) and cold spots (low frequency of deforestation). In general, the region is experiencing less frequent deforestation events with a higher number of intensifying and new cold spots across TDF landscapes. However, an important number of intensifying and persistent hotspots exist so no general trend in forest loss was detected for the period 2001-2013, except for El Salvador which shows a significant decreasing trend in forest loss. Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala are the major sources of intensifying, persistent and new deforestation hot spots. These were identified in the southern pacific coast and the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, northwestern Guatemala, both western and eastern Honduras and around Lake Nicaragua in Nicaragua.

  13. Feasibility, Drug Safety, and Effectiveness of Etiological Treatment Programs for Chagas Disease in Honduras, Guatemala, and Bolivia: 10-Year Experience of Médecins Sans Frontières

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Oliver; Lima, M. Angeles; Ellman, Tom; Chambi, Wilma; Castillo, Sandra; Flevaud, Laurence; Roddy, Paul; Parreño, Fernando; Albajar Viñas, Pedro; Palma, Pedro Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Background Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is a zoonotic or anthropozoonotic disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Predominantly affecting populations in poor areas of Latin America, medical care for this neglected disease is often lacking. Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders (MSF) has provided diagnostic and treatment services for Chagas disease since 1999. This report describes 10 years of field experience in four MSF programs in Honduras, Guatemala, and Bolivia, focusing on feasibility protocols, safety of drug therapy, and treatment effectiveness. Methodology From 1999 to 2008, MSF provided free diagnosis, etiological treatment, and follow-up care for patients Bolivia (2002–2006); and Sucre, Bolivia (2005–2008). Essential program components guaranteeing feasibility of implementation were information, education, and communication (IEC) at the community and family level; vector control; health staff training; screening and diagnosis; treatment and compliance, including family-based strategies for early detection of adverse events; and logistics. Chagas disease diagnosis was confirmed by testing blood samples using two different diagnostic tests. T. cruzi-positive patients were treated with benznidazole as first-line treatment, with appropriate counseling, consent, and active participation from parents or guardians for daily administration of the drug, early detection of adverse events, and treatment withdrawal, when necessary. Weekly follow-up was conducted, with adverse events recorded to assess drug safety. Evaluations of serological conversion were carried out to measure treatment effectiveness. Vector control, entomological surveillance, and health education activities were carried out in all projects with close interaction with national and regional programs. Results Total numbers of children and adolescents tested for T. cruzi in Yoro, Olopa, Entre Ríos, and Sucre were 24,471, 8,927, 7,613, and 19,400, respectively

  14. Honduras en la ruta trans-ístmica (Análisis de la propuesta de Juan García de Hermosilla de mudar Nombre de Dios por Puerto Caballos 1556-1570

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizet Payne Iglesias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los proyectos para la construcción de una ruta que conectaría el Caribe y el pacífico para ampliar el comercio con el Perú a través de Honduras entre 1525 y 1570. Resaltando los intereses que se pusieron en juego y las disputas con otros espacios regionales como el de Nombre de Dios - Panamá, además de las razones de su fracaso que marcarían los derroteros de muchas regiones centroamericanas.

  15. Factores de riesgo relacionados al uso de drogas ilegales: perspectiva crítica de familiares y personas cercanas en un centro de salud público en San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    RODRÍGUEZ FUNES, Gladys Magdalena; Brands,Bruna; Adlaf,Edward; Giesbrecht, Norman; Simich,Laura; Wright,Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    En este estudio, se presentan datos cuantitativos del estudio multicéntrico, multimétodos, de corte transversal realizado en un centro de salud público en San Pedro Sula, en Honduras. Su objetivo es describir la perspectiva crítica que tienen los familiares o personas, que se consideran afectadas por tener a alguien cercano que usa o ha usado drogas ilegales, con relación a factores de riesgo. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante una encuesta con 100 entrevistados. La mayor parte de las personas ...

  16. Pre-Migration Trauma Exposure and Mental Health Functioning among Central American Migrants Arriving at the US Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Allen; Joscelyne, Amy; Granski, Megan; Rosenfeld, Barry

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of families and individuals have arrived at the U.S. border from Central America, in particular, from Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala. This study sought to examine pre-migration trauma exposure and current mental health functioning of migrant families arriving at the U.S. border from the Northern Triangle region, with specific attention to the reasons offered for leaving their home country and the frequency with which migrant families appear to satisfy legal criteria for asylum We interviewed 234 adults in McAllen, Texas, using a structured interview and standardized questionnaires to assess exposure to trauma prior to migration, reasons for leaving their home country and symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression. We found that 191 participants (83%) cited violence as a reason for fleeing their country, 119 individuals (69%) did not report the events to the police out of fear of gang-related retaliation or police corruption, and 90% (n = 204) reported being afraid to return to their native country. Based on self-report symptom checklists, 32% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for PTSD (n = 51), 24% for depression (n = 36), and 17% for both disorders (n = 25). Examining these data against the criteria for asylum in the U.S., we found that 70% of the overall sample (n = 159) met criteria for asylum, including 80% of those from El Salvador, 74% from Honduras, and 41% from Guatemala. These findings suggest that the majority of Central American migrants arriving at the U.S. border have significant mental health symptoms in response to violence and persecution, and warrant careful consideration for asylum status.

  17. Bridging Epidemiology and Remote Sensing: A Case Study of Dengue Fever and Land Use and Land Cover Change in Roatán, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuholske, C.; Brooks, T.

    2015-12-01

    Dengue fever is one of the fastest spreading infectious diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean. As part of a yearlong epidemiological study of dengue, this paper takes the first step to model the relationship between the urban/built environment and incidents of dengue fever in Roatán, Honduras. Roatán has experienced an 80-fold increase in annual tourists since the 1990s, with over 1.2 million people now visiting the island yearly. In tandem, the Caribbean island's population has exploded from fewer than 13,000 people in the 1970s to over 100,000 people today. Using broadband remote sensed satellite imagery, this paper maps and measures how this massive influx of tourists and population has altered the island's landscape. Results from a decision tree classifying technique applied to a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) image from 1985 and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) image from 2014 suggest a rapid pace of urbanization; built and impervious surface has increased over 300% in the last 30 years. Emerging research suggests, similar to other mosquito-borne diseases, a correlation between built environment and risk to dengue because of the increase in stagnate water that serve as disease-host reservoirs. This remote sensing analysis will be integrated with georeferenced household level data of cases of dengue collected during a year-long cross-sectional study of dengue patients in Roatán. The result will be to model the relationship between dengue fever and urban/built environment.

  18. [Prevalence of sensitization to inhalant allergens in the immunology department from Hospital de Especialidades Pediátricas María, Honduras, 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-González, Victoria Alejandra; Díaz-Flores, Adolfo Martín; Fernández-Zelaya, Karla Zobeyda; Rivera-Reyes, María Félix

    2017-01-01

    Antecedentes: Las enfermedades alérgicas constituyen un problema de salud pública; se estima que entre 30 y 40 % de la población mundial se encuentra afectada por alguna. Conocer la prevalencia de sensibilización a alérgenos permite ofrecer diagnósticos y tratamientos adecuados. En Honduras no se cuenta con estudios en pacientes pediátricos. Objetivos: El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar el tipo de sensibilización más frecuente en los niños y su correlación con las enfermedades alérgicas más frecuentes en los pacientes en inmunoterapia del Hospital María de Especialidades Pediátricas. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo transversal descriptivo en el cual se revisaron los expedientes y base de datos de los pacientes en inmunoterapia alérgica del Hospital de Especialidades Pediátricas María entre enero de 2015 y junio de 2016. Resultados: Se evaluaron 215 niños en inmunoterapia, las edades oscilaron entre 3 y 18 años, con una media de 10.8 años. Se identificó que 73.02 % tenía pruebas epicutáneas positivas a aeroalérgenos. Los aeroalérgenos más frecuentes fueron Dermatophagoides farinae y Dermatophagoides psterossynium mix (96.74 %), cucaracha americana (37.21 %) y Aspergillus fumigatus y Homdonderum cladosporioides (16.28 %). Conclusiones: Los ácaros domésticos y la cucaracha americana constituyeron la mayor causa de sensibilización en pacientes en inmunoterapia.

  19. An adequacy evaluation of a maternal health intervention in rural Honduras: the impact of engagement of men and empowerment of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Peter R; Sohani, Salim; Costa, Edith da; Klaas, Naomi; Amendola, Luis; Duron, Joel

    2015-02-01

    To determine the impact that a 6-year maternal and child health project in rural Honduras had on maternal health services and outcomes, and to test the effect of level of father involvement on maternal health. This was a program evaluation conducted through representative household surveys administered at baseline in 2007 and endline in 2011 using 30 cluster samples randomly-selected from the 229 participating communities. Within each cluster, 10 households having at least one mother-child pair were randomly selected to complete a questionnaire, for a total of about 300 respondents answering close to 100 questions each. Changes in key outcome variables from baseline to endline were tested using logistic regression, controlling for mother's education and father's involvement. There were improvements in most maternal health indicators, including an increase in women attending prenatal checkups (84% to 92%, P = 0.05) and institutional births (44% to 63%, P = 0.002). However, the involvement of the fathers decreased as reflected by the percentage of fathers accompanying mothers to prenatal checkups (48% to 41%, P = 0.01); the fathers' reported interest in prenatal care (74% to 52%, P = 0.0001); and fathers attending the birth (66% to 54%, P = 0.05). There was an interaction between the fathers' scores and the maternal outcomes, with a larger increase in institutional births among mothers with the least-involved fathers. Rather than the father's involvement being key, changes in the mothers may have led to increased institutional births. The project may have empowered women through early identification of pregnancy and stronger social connections encouraged by home visits and pregnancy clubs. This would have enabled even the women with unsupportive fathers to make healthier choices and achieve higher rates of institutional births.

  20. Determinantes Socieconómicos en la Lucha contra la Malaria en Honduras: ¿Qué Sabemos? ¿Qué Funciona?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avilés, María Victoria

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Existe un escaso conocimiento a escala mundial de los determinantes socioeconómicos de la malaria, una tragedia que ha trascendido los límites sanitarios para convertirse en un obstáculo al desarrollo. La evaluación de intervenciones públicas concretas provee importante información pero es insuficiente para lograr un conocimiento extensivo de qué factores socioeconómicos (a nivel del hogar y de la comunidad están más asociados con los diferenciales de incidencia de la malaria; con diferentes prácticas preventivas y curativas; y con el conocimiento de tratamientos e intervenciones públicas eficaces. Este estudio provee ese tipo de conocimiento para Honduras, un país con altos niveles de pobreza y malaria. Para ello, se diseñó y levantó en Agosto del 2004 una encuesta piloto en 29 comunidades localizadas en nueve municipios a lo largo del país. Se encontraron marcadas diferencias socioeconómicas entre los individuos afectados por la malaria, aunque estas diferencias estaban más relacionadas con la localización, género e infraestructura social que con sus niveles de ingreso. La incidencia de la malaria también resultó ser sensible a políticas efectivas, entre otras cosas, porque la población en su conjunto conoce los tratamientos y cuando los comienza, típicamente los completa. Es pues necesario enfatizar la eficiencia más que la cobertura de estas intervenciones. También hay un amplio espacio para mejorar los hábitos higiénicos y la institucionalización de prácticas médicas en áreas de alta incidencia.

  1. Do reef fish habituate to diver presence? Evidence from two reef sites with contrasting historical levels of SCUBA intensity in the Bay Islands, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Benjamin M; Daly, Marymegan; Exton, Dan A

    2015-01-01

    Contact between humans and the marine environment is increasing, but the capacity of communities to adapt to human presence remains largely unknown. The popularization of SCUBA diving has added a new dimension to human impacts in aquatic systems and, although individual-level impacts have been identified, cumulative effects on ecosystem function and community-wide responses are unclear. In principle, habituation may mitigate the consequences of human presence on the biology of an individual and allow the quick resumption of its ecological roles, but this has not been documented in aquatic systems. Here, we investigate the short-term impact of human presence and the long-term habituation potential of reef-fish communities to recreational SCUBA divers by studying symbiotic cleaning interactions on coral reefs with differing levels of historical contact with divers. We show that incidences of human contact result in a smaller decline in ecosystem function and more rapid resumption of baseline services on a reef in Utila, Honduras that has heavy historical levels of SCUBA diver presence, compared to an un-dived reef site in the Cayos Cochinos Marine Protected Area (CCMPA). Nonetheless, despite the generally smaller change in ecosystem function and decades of regular contact with divers, cleaning behavior is suppressed by >50% at Utila when divers are present. We hypothesize that community-wide habituation of reef fish is not fully achievable and may be biologically restricted to only partial habituation. Differential responses to human presence impacts the interpretation and execution of behavioral research where SCUBA is the predominant means of data collection, and provides an important rationale for future research investigating the interplay between human presence, ecosystem function, and community structure on coral reefs.

  2. Determinantes Socieconómicos en la Lucha contra la Malaria en Honduras: ¿Qué Sabemos? ¿Qué Funciona?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Avilés

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Existe un escaso conocimiento a escala mundial de los determinantes socioeconómicos de la malaria, una tragedia que ha trascendido los límites sanitarios para convertirse en un obstáculo al desarrollo. La evaluación de intervenciones públicas concretas provee importante información pero es insuficiente para lograr un conocimiento extensivo de qué factores socioeconómicos (a nivel del hogar y de la comunidad están más asociados con los diferenciales de incidencia de la malaria; con diferentes prácticas preventivas y curativas; y con el conocimiento de tratamientos e intervenciones públicas eficaces. Este estudio provee ese tipo de conocimiento para Honduras, un país con altos niveles de pobreza y malaria. Para ello, se diseñó y levantó en Agosto del 2004 una encuesta piloto en 29 comunidades localizadas en nueve municipios a lo largo del país. Se encontraron marcadas diferencias socioeconómicas entre los individuos afectados por la malaria, aunque estas diferencias estaban más relacionadas con la localización, género e infraestructura social que con sus niveles de ingreso. La incidencia de la malaria también resultó ser sensible a políticas efectivas, entre otras cosas, porque la población en su conjunto conoce los tratamientos y cuando los comienza, típicamente los completa. Es pues necesario enfatizar la eficiencia más que la cobertura de estas intervenciones. También hay un amplio espacio para mejorar los hábitos higiénicos y la institucionalización de prácticas médicas en áreas de alta incidencia.

  3. The health benefits of social mobilization: experiences with community-based Integrated Management of Childhood Illness in Chao, Peru and San Luis, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkins, Thomas; Drasbek, Christopher; Arroyo, Juan; McQuestion, Michael

    2008-06-01

    This article reviews the implementation of the community component of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy in Chao, Peru (2001 to 2004) and San Luis, Honduras (2003 to 2005). An evaluation was conducted in 2005 and included a project documentation review, key-informant interviews, and a household level baseline and follow-up survey of the WHO/UNICEF key family practices in each intervention site. The promotion of the key family practices in Chao and San Luís demonstrated measurable success. In comparison with the initial survey in 2002, the percentage of participant mothers ( N = 78) in Chao in 2004 who knew that they should breastfeed exclusively for at least six months increased from 33% to 94%; the presentation of complete vaccination records for one-year-old children increased by 19%; the recognition of danger signs for pneumonia increased 18% and for diarrhea by 8%; and the percentage of mothers who received four or more prenatal check-ups increased by 25%. A dramatic reduction in malaria cases was also attributed to the intervention in Chao. In San Luis, a quasi-experimental, random household sample ( N = 300) showed that the incidence of diarrheal disease among children under five years old declined by 18% between survey rounds (from 44% in August 2004 to 26% in December 2005). Social mobilization has promoted inter-sector consensus-building around community health issues, especially those related to maternal and child health. The promotion of the participation of representatives from various organizations via the community IMCI social-actor methodology has led to increased civic cooperation. Positive changes in health behaviors have been documented through an increase in preventive health practices, greater demand for primary health care services, and concrete community actions to improve public health.

  4. Impact of food support on food security and body weight among HIV antiretroviral therapy recipients in Honduras: a pilot intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palar, Kartika; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Smith, Alexandria; Farías, Hugo; Wagner, Glenn; Martinez, Homero

    2015-01-01

    Optimal strategies to improve food security and nutrition for people living with HIV (PLHIV) may differ in settings where overweight and obesity are prevalent and cardiovascular disease risk is a concern. However, no studies among PLHIV have investigated the impact of food support on nutritional outcomes in these settings. We therefore assessed the effect of food support on food insecurity and body weight in a population of PLHIV with high prevalence of overweight and obesity. We implemented a pilot intervention trial in four government-run HIV clinics in Honduras. The trial tested the effect of a monthly household food ration plus nutrition education (n = 203), compared to nutrition education alone (n = 197), over 12 months. Participants were clinic patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Assessments were obtained at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes for this analysis were food security, using the validated Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale and body weight (kg). Thirty-one percent of participants were overweight (22%) or obese (8%) at baseline. At 6 months, the probability of severe food insecurity decreased by 48.3% (p nutrition education alone was associated with average weight loss of 0.72 kg (p Nutrition education alone was associated with weight gain among underweight and normal weight participants. Household food support may improve food security but not necessarily nutritional status of ART recipients above and beyond nutrition education. Improving nutritional tailoring of food support and testing the impact of nutrition education should be prioritized for PLHIV in Latin America and similar settings.

  5. Central America in Transition: From Maize to Wheat Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado Salvador Peña

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama are in transition from a dietary culture based mainly on maize to a wheat-containing diet. Several other changes are occurring, such as a decrease of parasitic and infectious diseases. The environmental changes permit a prediction of an increase of celiac disease and other autoimmune diseases such as type I diabetes and thyroid disease in these genetically heterogeneous countries. At present, celiac disease and gluten-related disorders are considered to be of no relevance at the level of public health in these nations. This review documents the presence of celiac disease in Central America. It draws attention to some of the challenges in planning systematic studies in the region since up until recently celiac disease was unknown. The aim of this review is to disseminate knowledge obtained with preliminary data, to stimulate clinical and basic scientists to study these diseases in Central America and to alert authorities responsible for the planning of education and health, to find possibilities to avoid a rise in these disorders before the epidemics start, as has occurred in the Mediterranean countries.

  6. Central America in Transition: From Maize to Wheat Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Amado Salvador; Crusius, Jakob Bart Arie

    2015-08-26

    The Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama are in transition from a dietary culture based mainly on maize to a wheat-containing diet. Several other changes are occurring, such as a decrease of parasitic and infectious diseases. The environmental changes permit a prediction of an increase of celiac disease and other autoimmune diseases such as type I diabetes and thyroid disease in these genetically heterogeneous countries. At present, celiac disease and gluten-related disorders are considered to be of no relevance at the level of public health in these nations. This review documents the presence of celiac disease in Central America. It draws attention to some of the challenges in planning systematic studies in the region since up until recently celiac disease was unknown. The aim of this review is to disseminate knowledge obtained with preliminary data, to stimulate clinical and basic scientists to study these diseases in Central America and to alert authorities responsible for the planning of education and health, to find possibilities to avoid a rise in these disorders before the epidemics start, as has occurred in the Mediterranean countries.

  7. Team Massachusetts & Central America Solar Decathlon 2015 Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kenneth [Western New England Univ., Springfield, MA (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Our team was Team MASSCA (Massachusetts and Central America), which was a partnership of Western New England University (WNE) located in Massachusetts USA, The Technological University of Panama (UTP), and Central American Technological University (UNITEC) of Honduras. Together we had a group of 6 faculty members and approximately 30 undergraduate students. Our house is ‘The EASI’ House, which stands for Efficient, Affordable, Solar Innovation. The EASI house is rectangular with two bedrooms and one bath, and offers a total square footage of 680. Based on competition estimates, The EASI house costs roughly $121,000. The EASI house has a 5kW solar system. Faculty and students from all three institutions were represented at the competition in Irvine California. Team MASSCA did well considering this was our first entry in the Solar Decathlon competition. Team MASSCA won the following awards: First Place – Affordability Contest Second Place – Energy Balance Contest. The competition provided a great experience for our students (and faculty as well). This competition provided leadership, endurance, and technical knowledge/skills for our students, and was the single most important hands-on experience during their undergraduate years. We are extremely pleased with the awards we received. At the same time we have learned from our efforts and would do better if we were to compete in the future. Furthermore, as a result of our team’s Inter-Americas collaborative effort, UTP and WNE have partnered to form Team PANAMASS (PANAma and MASSachusetts) and have developed The 3 SMART House for the inaugural Solar Decathlon Latin America & Caribbean competition held in Colombia.

  8. Detailed Seismic Reflection Images of the Central American Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, K. D.; Fulthorpe, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    New high-resolution seismic reflection profiles across the Central American volcanic arc (CAVA) reveal an asymmetric deformation pattern with large-scale folding and uplift of basinal strata in the forearc contrasted by intrusive bodies, normal faults, and possible strikes-slip faults in the backarc. Since Miocene times the CAVA has migrated seaward, apparently impinging on the Sandino forearc basin and creating or modifying the low-lying Nicaragua depression, which contains the backarc and much of the arc. However the structural nature of the depression and its possible relationship to forearc sliver movement is poorly known. In November-December 2004 we recorded a large, high-resolution, seismic reflection dataset largely on the Pacific shelf (forearc) area of Central America, extending from NW Costa Rica to the SE edge of El Salvador's territorial waters. We seized an opportunity to study the nature of the CAVA by recording data into the Gulf of Fonseca, a large embayment at the intersection of Nicaragua, Honduras, and El Salvador. With 3 GI airguns and a 2100 m streamer we recorded data with typical penetration of 2-3 seconds in the Sandino basin and frequency content of ~10-250 Hz (at shallow levels). Penetration was limited over the arc summit with high velocity volcanic rocks encountered at depths as shallow as a few hundred meters. To the NE the edge of the Nicaragua depression occurs abruptly; our data show a well-developed sedimentary basin 1.5-3 km thick separated by numerous steeply-dipping faults. The broadband signal and good penetration of this dataset will help us determine the chronology of arc development in this position and the styles of deformation in the forearc, arc, and backarc areas. In turn, this will help us understand the regional tectonic and stratigraphic development of this margin due to the profound affects of the arc.

  9. Estudio descriptivo de factores de riesgo cardiovascular a una muestra de la población de una comunidad indígena de Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvin Z. Reyes-García

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los principales factores de riesgo cardiovasculares en una muestra de la Etnia Lenca del Departamento de Intibucá, Honduras. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, en un muestreo a conveniencia de personas mayores de 18 años en San Francisco de Opalaca, Intibucá. Se utilizó consentimiento informado y se aplicó un cuestionario socio demográfico y epidemiológico mediante una entrevista. El cuestionario incluyó los siguientes aspectos: Antecedentes patológicos y nutricionales, hábitos tóxicos y actividad física. Además se hizo un examen físico que incluyó la toma de presión arterial, talla y peso. Se tomaron muestras de sangre venosa para evaluar la glucometría y el perfil lipídico. Resultados: De las 122 personas entrevistadas, 68 (55,7% fueron mujeres y 54 (44,3% hombres. La media para la edad fue de 36,2 años. Un total de 26 personas (21,3% reportaron fumar al momento del estudio (20,5% de los hombres y 1% de las mujeres, p<0,001 y 33 personas (27,0% reportaron uso de alcohol (25,4% de los hombres y 1,6% de las mujeres, p<0,001. La presión arterial se distribuyó de la siguiente manera; 17 (13,9% hipotensión, 95 (77,8% normal, 6 (4,9% prehipertension, 1 (0,8% HTA sistólica aislada y 3 (2,5% HTA grado I. Conclusión: La población estudiada posee factores de riesgo importantes para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, dentro de los cuales los más significativos fueron el tabaquismo y alcoholismo.

  10. ESTUDIO DESCRIPTIVO DE FACTORES DE RIESGO CARDIOVASCULAR A UNA MUESTRA DE LA POBLACIÓN DE UNA COMUNIDAD INDÍGENA DE HONDURAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvin Z. Reyes-García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los principales factores de riesgo cardiovasculares en una muestra de la Etnia Lenca del Departamento de Intibucá, Honduras. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, en un muestreo a conveniencia de personas mayores de 18 años en San Francisco de Opalaca, Intibucá. Se utilizó consentimiento informado y se aplicó un cuestionario socio demográfico y epidemiológico mediante una entrevista. El cuestionario incluyó los siguientes aspectos: Antecedentes patológicos y nutricionales, hábitos tóxicos y actividad física. Además se hizo un examen físico que incluyó la toma de presión arterial, talla y peso. Se tomaron muestras de sangre venosa para evaluar la glucometría y el perfil lipídico. Resultados: De las 122 personas entrevistadas, 68 (55,7% fueron mujeres y 54 (44,3% hombres. La media para la edad fue de 36,2 años. Un total de 26 personas (21,3% reportaron fumar al momento del estudio (20,5% de los hombres y 1% de las mujeres, p<0,001 y 33 personas (27,0% reportaron uso de alcohol (25,4% de los hombres y 1,6% de las mujeres, p<0,001. La presión arterial se distribuyó de la siguiente manera; 17 (13,9% hipotensión, 95 (77,8% normal, 6 (4,9% prehipertension, 1 (0,8% HTA sistólica aislada y 3 (2,5% HTA grado I. Conclusión: La población estudiada posee factores de riesgo importantes para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, dentro de los cuales los más significativos fueron el tabaquismo y alcoholismo.

  11. Una propuesta metodológica para medir la vulnerabilidad de un territorio ante los peligros naturales: el caso de Honduras tras el paso del huracán Mitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamdanech Zarco, Ismael

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available When some kind of humanitarian disaster happens, one question comes to our mind. Would it have been possible to avoid the disaster? Other questions also seem reasonable: would it have been possible lighten the consequences?, would the disaster have been so destructive in a developed zone? The vulnerability concept arises related to these questions, as an approach of a disaster effects on populations and territories with different characteristics. Along this work, we develop a methodology to measure the vulnerability concept. This methodology is applied to the Mitch hurricane in Honduras case.

    [es] Cuando sucede alguna catástrofe humanitaria de cualquier tipo siempre surge, o al menos debería hacerlo, una pregunta: ¿se podría haber evitado?, e inmediatamente aparecen otras, ¿en cualquier caso, se podrían haber atenuado sus consecuencias?, ¿habría causado los mismos daños en una zona desarrollada? Relacionado con estas preguntas aparece el concepto de vulnerabilidad, como una aproximación al efecto de una misma catástrofe sobre poblaciones y territorios con diferentes características. En este trabajo se desarrolla una metodología para medir dicho concepto de vulnerabilidad y se aplica al caso del huracán Mitch en Honduras. [fr] Quand un certain genre de désastre humanitaire se produit, une question vient à notre esprit. Il aurait été possible d'éviter le désastre? D'autres questions semblent également raisonnables : il aurait été possible éclairent les conséquences?, le désastre aurait été si destructif dans une zone développée? Le concept de vulnérabilité surgit connexe à ces questions, comme approche des effets d'un désastre sur des populations et des territoires avec différentes caractéristiques. Le long de ce travail, nous développons une méthodologie pour mesurer le concept de vulnérabilité. Cette méthodologie est appliquée à l'ouragan de Mitch dans le cas du Honduras.

  12. Phylogeography and genetic variation of Triatoma dimidiata, the main Chagas disease vector in Central America, and its position within the genus Triatoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Bargues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among Chagas disease triatomine vectors, the largest genus, Triatoma, includes species of high public health interest. Triatoma dimidiata, the main vector throughout Central America and up to Ecuador, presents extensive phenotypic, genotypic, and behavioral diversity in sylvatic, peridomestic and domestic habitats, and non-domiciliated populations acting as reinfestation sources. DNA sequence analyses, phylogenetic reconstruction methods, and genetic variation approaches are combined to investigate the haplotype profiling, genetic polymorphism, phylogeography, and evolutionary trends of T. dimidiata and its closest relatives within Triatoma. This is the largest interpopulational analysis performed on a triatomine species so far. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Triatomines from Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Cuba, Colombia, Ecuador, and Brazil were used. Triatoma dimidiata populations follow different evolutionary divergences in which geographical isolation appears to have had an important influence. A southern Mexican-northern Guatemalan ancestral form gave rise to two main clades. One clade remained confined to the Yucatan peninsula and northern parts of Chiapas State, Guatemala, and Honduras, with extant descendants deserving specific status. Within the second clade, extant subspecies diversity was shaped by adaptive radiation derived from Guatemalan ancestral populations. Central American populations correspond to subspecies T. d. dimidiata. A southern spread into Panama and Colombia gave the T. d. capitata forms, and a northwestern spread rising from Guatemala into Mexico gave the T. d. maculipennis forms. Triatoma hegneri appears as a subspecific insular form. CONCLUSIONS: The comparison with very numerous Triatoma species allows us to reach highly supported conclusions not only about T. dimidiata, but also on different, important Triatoma species groupings and their evolution. The very large intraspecific genetic

  13. Phylogeography and Genetic Variation of Triatoma dimidiata, the Main Chagas Disease Vector in Central America, and Its Position within the Genus Triatoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargues, María Dolores; Klisiowicz, Debora R.; Gonzalez-Candelas, Fernando; Ramsey, Janine M.; Monroy, Carlota; Ponce, Carlos; Salazar-Schettino, Paz María; Panzera, Francisco; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Sousa, Octavio E.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Dujardin, Jean Pierre; Guhl, Felipe; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2008-01-01

    Background Among Chagas disease triatomine vectors, the largest genus, Triatoma, includes species of high public health interest. Triatoma dimidiata, the main vector throughout Central America and up to Ecuador, presents extensive phenotypic, genotypic, and behavioral diversity in sylvatic, peridomestic and domestic habitats, and non-domiciliated populations acting as reinfestation sources. DNA sequence analyses, phylogenetic reconstruction methods, and genetic variation approaches are combined to investigate the haplotype profiling, genetic polymorphism, phylogeography, and evolutionary trends of T. dimidiata and its closest relatives within Triatoma. This is the largest interpopulational analysis performed on a triatomine species so far. Methodology and Findings Triatomines from Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Cuba, Colombia, Ecuador, and Brazil were used. Triatoma dimidiata populations follow different evolutionary divergences in which geographical isolation appears to have had an important influence. A southern Mexican–northern Guatemalan ancestral form gave rise to two main clades. One clade remained confined to the Yucatan peninsula and northern parts of Chiapas State, Guatemala, and Honduras, with extant descendants deserving specific status. Within the second clade, extant subspecies diversity was shaped by adaptive radiation derived from Guatemalan ancestral populations. Central American populations correspond to subspecies T. d. dimidiata. A southern spread into Panama and Colombia gave the T. d. capitata forms, and a northwestern spread rising from Guatemala into Mexico gave the T. d. maculipennis forms. Triatoma hegneri appears as a subspecific insular form. Conclusions The comparison with very numerous Triatoma species allows us to reach highly supported conclusions not only about T. dimidiata, but also on different, important Triatoma species groupings and their evolution. The very large intraspecific genetic variability found in T

  14. Lead isotope composition of Central American volcanoes: Influence of the Galapagos plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenson, Mark D.; Carr, Michael J.; Maharaj, Susan V.; Juliano, Scott; Bolge, Louise L.

    2004-06-01

    Lead isotopic analyses of lavas from Central America, both along and behind the volcanic arc, help to clarify source components in the mantle wedge. Analysis of previous Pb isotopic data had implied that little or no marine sediment lead was added to the Central American source region, as all samples fell within the MORB field, in contrast to other information (e.g., Ba/La, 10Be, 87Sr/86Sr) that indicated a high subduction component. The data presented here include several analyses of local marine sediment, showing it to be exceptionally unradiogenic in Pb and thus permitting high sediment contributions to the mantle source region without significant changes in Pb isotopes. Combined Pb-Nd and Pb-Sr isotopic diagrams clearly illustrate the influence of crustal contamination for samples from Guatemala and Honduras, and of subducted sediment for all lavas of the volcanic front. Samples collected behind the volcanic front are derived from mixing between enriched and depleted mantle sources, and in central Costa Rica (extending to the back arc) overlap Pb, Sr and Nd isotope values for both Cocos Island and some components of the Galapagos hot spot. The restricted geographical occurrence of the enriched mantle signature in Central America, coupled with the persistence of the signal well into the back arc region, imply that these lavas are sampling Galapagos plume-influenced mantle. The presence of this plume component beneath southern Central America and extending to the northeast beneath the Caribbean confirms a Galapagos hot spot origin for this part of Caribbean Plate.

  15. Medicinal plants used to treat snakebite in Central America: Review and assessment of scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Peter; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

    2017-03-06

    Every year between 1.2 and 5.5 million people worldwide are victims of snakebites, with about 400,000 left permanently injured. In Central America an estimated 5500 snakebite cases are reported by health centres, but this is likely to be an underestimate due to unreported cases in rural regions. The aim of this study is to review the medicinal plants used traditionally to treat snakebites in seven Central American countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. A literature search was performed on published primary data on medicinal plants of Central America and those specifically pertaining to use against snakebites. Plant use reports for traditional snakebite remedies identified in primary sources were extracted and entered in a database, with data analysed in terms of the most frequent numbers of use reports. The scientific evidence that might support the local uses of the most frequently reported species was also examined. A total of 260 independent plant use reports were recorded in the 34 sources included in this review, encompassing 208 species used to treat snakebite in Central America. Only nine species were reported in at least three studies: Cissampelos pareira L., Piper amalago L., Aristolochia trilobata L., Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L.) Druce, Strychnos panamensis Seem., Dorstenia contrajerva L., Scoparia dulcis L., Hamelia patens Jacq., and Simaba cedron Planch. Genera with the highest number of species used to treat snakebite were Piper, Aristolochia, Hamelia, Ipomoea, Passiflora and Peperomia. The extent of the scientific evidence available to understand any pharmacological basis for their use against snakebites varied between different plant species. At least 208 plant species are traditionally used to treat snakebite in Central America but there is a lack of clinical research to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Available pharmacological data suggest different plant species may target different symptoms of

  16. Hydroclimatological Processes in the Central American Dry Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, H. G.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.; Amador, J. A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Mora, G.

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the hydroclimatological variability and the climatic precursors of drought in the Central American Dry Corridor (CADC), a subregion located in the Pacific coast of Southern Mexico and Central America. Droughts are frequent in the CADC, which is featured by a higher climatological aridity compared to the highlands and Caribbean coast of Central America. The CADC region presents large social vulnerability to hydroclimatological impacts originated from dry conditions, as there is a large part of population that depends on subsistance agriculture. The influence of large-scale climatic precursors such as ENSO, the Caribbean Low-Level Jet (CLLJ), low frequency signals from the Pacific and Caribbean and some intra-seasonal signals such as the MJO are evaluated. Previous work by the authors identified a connection between the CLLJ and CADC precipitation. This connection is more complex than a simple rain-shadow effect, and instead it was suggested that convection at the exit of the jet in the Costa-Rica and Nicaragua Caribbean coasts and consequent subsidence in the Pacific could be playing a role in this connection. During summer, when the CLLJ is stronger than normal, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (located mainly in the Pacific) displaces to a more southern position, and vice-versa, suggesting a connection between these two processes that has not been fully explained yet. The role of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool also needs more research. All this is important, as it suggest a working hypothesis that during summer, the effect of the Caribbean wind strength may be responsible for the dry climate of the CADC. Another previous analysis by the authors was based on downscaled precipitation and temperature from GCMs and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The data was later used in a hydrological model. Results showed a negative trend in reanalysis' runoff for 1980-2012 in San José (Costa Rica) and Tegucigalpa (Honduras). This highly significant drying trend

  17. Venom of the crotaline snake Atropoides nummifer (jumping viper) from Guatemala and Honduras: comparative toxicological characterization, isolation of a myotoxic phospholipase A(2) homologue and neutralization by two antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, E; Saravia, P; Angulo, Y; Arce, V; Lomonte, B; Chávez, J J; Velásquez, R; Thelestam, M; Gutiérrez, J M

    2001-06-01

    A comparative study was performed on the venoms of the crotaline snake Atropoides nummifer from Guatemala and Honduras. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, under reducing conditions, revealed a highly similar pattern of these venoms, and between them and the venom of the same species from Costa Rica. Similar patterns were also observed in ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Shephadex C-25, in which a highly basic myotoxic fraction was present. This fraction was devoid of phospholipase A(2) activity and strongly reacted, by enzyme-immunoassay, with an antiserum against Bothrops asper myotoxin II, a Lys-49 phospholipase A(2) homologue. A basic myotoxin of 16 kDa was isolated to homogeneity from the venom of A. nummifer from Honduras, showing amino acid composition and N-terminal sequence similar to those of Lys-49 phospholipase A(2) variants previously isolated from other crotaline snake venoms. Guatemalan and Honduran A. nummifer venoms have a qualitatively similar toxicological profile, characterized by: lethal; hemorrhagic; myotoxic; edema-forming; coagulant; and defibrinating activities, although there were significant quantitative variations in some of these activities between the two venoms. Neutralization of toxic activities by two commercially-available antivenoms in the region was studied. Polyvalent antivenom produced by Instituto Clodomiro Picado was effective in the neutralization of: lethal; hemorrhagic; myotoxic; coagulant; defibrinating; and phospholipase A(2) activities, but ineffective against edema-forming activity. On the other hand, MYN polyvalent antivenom neutralized: hemorrhagic; myotoxic; coagulant; defibrinating; and phospholipase A(2) activities, albeit with a lower potency than Instituto Clodomiro Picado antivenom. MYN antivenom failed to neutralize lethal and edema-forming activities of A. nummifer venoms.

  18. Central bank Financial Independence

    OpenAIRE

    J.Ramon Martinez-Resano

    2004-01-01

    Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have effects on its income statement. A financially independent central bank exhibits ...

  19. Description of Histiostoma Conjuncta (New Comb.) (Acari: Anoetidae), An Associate of Central American Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Woodring; John C. Moser

    1975-01-01

    The adult female and male plus the tritonymph of Histiostoma conjuncta (Woodring and Moser, 1970) (new comb.) and described. The species is known to be associated with various pine bark beetles from Honduras, Guatemala, and Louisiana.

  20. Factores de riesgo relacionados al uso de drogas ilegales: perspectiva crítica de familiares y personas cercanas en un centro de salud público en San Pedro Sula, Honduras Fatores de risco relacionados ao uso de drogas ilegais, perspectiva crítica de familiares e pessoas próximas, em um centro da saúde público em San Pedro Sula, Honduras Risk factors related to the use of illegal drugs: the critial perspective of drug users' relatives and acquaintances at a public health center in San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Magdalena Rodríguez Funes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio, se presentan datos cuantitativos del estudio multicéntrico, multimétodos, de corte transversal realizado en un centro de salud público en San Pedro Sula, en Honduras. Su objetivo es describir la perspectiva crítica que tienen los familiares o personas, que se consideran afectadas por tener a alguien cercano que usa o ha usado drogas ilegales, con relación a factores de riesgo. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante una encuesta con 100 entrevistados. La mayor parte de las personas informantes eran mujeres pobres con baja escolaridad. Los consumidores eran en su mayoría hombres con edad promedio de 23,3 años. La droga más usada fue la marihuana (78% seguida de crack/cocaína (72%, pegamento/inhalantes (27%, alucinógenos (éxtasis/LSD (3%, anfetaminas/estimulantes (1% y heroína (1%. Los factores de riesgo identificados fueron la experiencia previa con alcohol/tabaco, el tener amigos/amigas que usan drogas, la falta de conocimiento, la baja autoestima , la edad, entre otros factores personales, familiares y sociales. Se concluye que es necesario fortalecer las medidas de prevención y protección.São apresentados, aqui, dados quantitativos de um estudo multicêntrico, multimétodos, de corte transversal, realizado em um centro de saúde pública em San Pedro Sula, Honduras. O objetivo foi descrever a perspectiva crítica dos membros da família ou pessoas que se sentem afetadas por terem alguém próximo que usa ou usou drogas ilegais, em relação aos fatores de risco. Os dados foram coletados através de questionário aplicado em 100 indivíduos. A maioria era composta por mulheres pobres, com pouca escolaridade. Os consumidores eram majoritariamente varões, com idade média de 23,3 anos. A droga mais utilizada foi a maconha (78%, seguida por crack/cocaína (72%, cola/inalantes (27%, alucinógenos (ecstasy/LSD (3%, anfetaminas/estimulantes (1%, heroína (1%. Entre os fatores de risco identificados estão: experi

  1. Central venous catheter - flushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during cancer treatment Bone marrow transplant - discharge Central venous catheter - dressing change Peripherally inserted central catheter - flushing Sterile technique Surgical wound care - open Review Date 9/22/2016 Updated by: ...

  2. NIDDK Central Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Central Repository stores biosamples, genetic and other data collected in designated NIDDK-funded clinical studies. The purpose of the NIDDK Central...

  3. Central Neuropathic Pain Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, James C; Sandroni, Paola

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pain is common in patients with neurologic complications of a central nervous system insult such as stroke. The pain is most commonly musculoskeletal or related to obligatory overuse of neurologically unaffected limbs. However, neuropathic pain can result directly from the central nervous system injury. Impaired sensory discrimination can make it challenging to differentiate central neuropathic pain from other pain types or spasticity. Central neuropathic pain may also begin months to years after the injury, further obscuring recognition of its association with a past neurologic injury. This review focuses on unique clinical features that help distinguish central neuropathic pain. The most common clinical central pain syndromes-central poststroke pain, multiple sclerosis-related pain, and spinal cord injury-related pain-are reviewed in detail. Recent progress in understanding of the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain is reviewed, and pharmacological, surgical, and neuromodulatory treatments of this notoriously difficult to treat pain syndrome are discussed.

  4. Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is inflammation of ... CNS (PACNS). What is the cause of CNS Vasculitis? How the vessels in the brain become inflamed ...

  5. A spatio-temporal analysis of forest loss related to cocaine trafficking in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesnie, Steven E.; Tellman, Beth; Wrathall, David; McSweeney, Kendra; Nielsen, Erik; Benessaiah, Karina; Wang, Ophelia; Rey, Luis

    2017-05-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that criminal activities associated with drug trafficking networks are a progressively important driver of forest loss in Central America. However, the scale at which drug trafficking represents a driver of forest loss is not presently known. We estimated the degree to which narcotics trafficking may contribute to forest loss using an unsupervised spatial clustering of 15 spatial and temporal forest loss patch metrics developed from global forest change data. We distinguished anomalous forest loss from background loss patches for each country exhibiting potential ‘narco-capitalized’ signatures which showed a statistically significant dissimilarity from other patches in terms of size, timing, and rate of forest loss. We also compared annual anomalous forest loss with the number of cocaine shipments and volume of cocaine seized, lost, or delivered at country- and department-level. For Honduras, results from linear mixed effects models showed a highly significant relationship between anomalous forest loss and the timing of increased drug trafficking (F = 9.90, p = 0.009) that also differed significantly from temporal patterns of background forest loss (t-ratio = 2.98, p = 0.004). Other locations of high forest loss in Central America showed mixed results. The timing of increased trafficking was not significantly related to anomalous forest loss in Guatemala and Nicaragua, but significantly differed in patch size compared to background losses. We estimated that cocaine trafficking could account for between 15% and 30% of annual national forest loss in these three countries over the past decade, and 30% to 60% of loss occurred within nationally and internationally designated protected areas. Cocaine trafficking is likely to have severe and lasting consequences in terms of maintaining moist tropical forest cover in Central America. Addressing forest loss in these and other tropical locations will require a stronger

  6. Overcoming Information Limitations for the Prescription of an Environmental Flow Regime for a Central American River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Esselman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower dam construction is expanding rapidly in Central America because of the increasing demand for electricity. Although hydropower can provide a low-carbon source of energy, dams can also degrade socially valued riverine and riparian ecosystems and the services they provide. Such degradation can be partially mitigated by the release of environmental flows below dams. However, environmental flows have been applied infrequently to dams in Central America, partly because of the lack of information on the ecological, social, and economic aspects of rivers. This paper presents a case study of how resource and information limitations were addressed in the development of environmental flow recommendations for the Patuca River in Honduras below a proposed hydroelectric dam. To develop flow recommendations, we applied a multistep process that included hydrological analysis and modeling, the collection of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK during field trips, expert consultation, and environmental flow workshops for scientists, water managers, and community members. The final environmental flow recommendation specifies flow ranges for different components of river hydrology, including low flows for each month, high-flow pulses, and floods, in dry, normal, and wet years. The TEK collected from local and indigenous riverine communities was particularly important for forming hypotheses about flow-dependent ecological and social factors that may be vulnerable to disruption from dam-modified river flows. We show that our recommended environmental flows would have a minimal impact on the dam's potential to generate electricity. In light of rapid hydropower development in Central America, we suggest that environmental flows are important at the local scale, but that an integrated landscape perspective is ultimately needed to pursue hydropower development in a manner that is as ecologically sustainable as possible.

  7. Neglected tropical diseases in Central America and Panama: review of their prevalence, populations at risk and impact on regional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2014-08-01

    A review of the literature since 2009 reveals a staggering health and economic burden resulting from neglected tropical diseases in Panama and the six countries of Central America (referred to collectively here as 'Central America'). Particularly at risk are the 10.2million people in the region who live on less than $2 per day, mostly in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Indigenous populations are especially vulnerable to neglected tropical diseases. Currently, more than 8million Central American children require mass drug treatments annually (or more frequently) for their intestinal helminth infections, while vector-borne diseases are widespread. Among the vector-borne parasitic infections, almost 40% of the population is at risk for malaria (mostly Plasmodium vivax infection), more than 800,000 people live with Chagas disease, and up to 39,000 people have cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, an important recent success story is the elimination of onchocerciasis from Central America. Dengue is the leading arbovirus infection with 4-5million people affected annually and hantavirus is an important rodent-borne viral neglected tropical disease. The leading bacterial neglected tropical diseases include leptospirosis and trachoma, for which there are no disease burden estimates. Overall there is an extreme dearth of epidemiological data on neglected tropical diseases based on active surveillance as well as estimates of their economic impact. Limited information to date, however, suggests that neglected tropical diseases are a major hindrance to the region's economic development, in both the most impoverished Central American countries listed above, as well as for Panama and Costa Rica where a substantial (but largely hidden) minority of people live in extreme poverty.

  8. Distribución espacial de impactos de eventos hidrometeorológicos en América Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Pérez-Briceño

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available América Central está expuesta a la ocurrencia de eventos hidrometeorológicos a lo largo del año y los impactos que estos pueden provocar van a estar mayormente localizados en áreas donde las variables tanto naturales como sociales conlleven a una situación de emergencia. La distribución temporal anual de los impactos estudiados en este trabajo está asociada a la ocurrencia de tres fenómenos meteorológicos: los ciclones tropicales, las ondas del este y los frentes fríos. Para este análisis se recopilaron datos de impactos de desastres de bases de datos como DesInventar y EM-DAT para seis países: Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica y Panamá. En Costa Rica también se usó la base de eventos hidrometeorológicos extremos y sus impactos del Instituto Meteorológico Nacional (IMN. Las series temporales son heterogéneas y abarcan eventos desde 1900 hasta el año 2014. Se trabajó a escala de municipio o cantón con el fin de evaluar la distribución espacial de los impactos. El estudio mostró que los lugares con la mayor población, como es el caso de las capitales: Ciudad de Guatemala (Guatemala, Distrito Central (Honduras, San Salvador (El Salvador, Managua (Nicaragua, San José (Costa Rica, Ciudad de Panamá (Panamá tienen la mayor correlación con la ocurrencia de impactos, esto posiblemente responde a la mayor cantidad de población expuesta viviendo en las ciudades; sin embargo se tuvo que verificar con los datos ya que la distribución de las amenazas no corresponde con la distribución de la población. En estos análisis, las variables climáticas no son las únicas que condicionan la generación de un impacto, por lo que se acompaña de una correlación no paramétrica con variables socioeconómicas como pobreza, salud e Índice de Desarrollo Humano, para llegar a conclusiones más robustas acerca de las causas de los mismos.

  9. Central Laboratories Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....

  10. Data on medicinal plants used in Central America to manage diabetes and its sequelae (skin conditions, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, urinary problems and vision loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Giovannini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article is related to the review article “Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: a review” (Giovannini et al., 2016 [1]. We searched publications on the useful plants of Central America in databases and journals by using selected relevant keywords. We then extracted reported uses of medicinal plants within the disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunction, vision loss, and nerve damage. The following countries were included in our definition of Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Data were compiled in a bespoke Access database. Plant names from the published sources were validated against The Plant List (TPL, (The Plant List, 2013 [2] and accepted names and synonyms were extracted. In total, the database includes 607 plant names obtained from the published sources which correspond to 537 plant taxa, 9271 synonyms and 1055 use reports.

  11. Estimation and comparison of benefits due to feeding hay and silage during the dry season on commercial dual-purpose cattle production systems in Honduras and Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, A.D.; Holmann, F.; Argel, P.; Ordoñez, J.C.; Chaves, J.

    2006-01-01

    Smallholders with dual-purpose cattle production systems in most Central America experience a shortage of forages during the dry season (4-8 month. As a result, substantially lower milk production and weight gain occurs. Dual-purpose operations seeking to maximize milk and beef production in the dry

  12. Relações econômicas internacionais, isomorfismo institucional e democracia na América Latina: explicando as convergências (inesperadas? entre Uruguai, Brasil e Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawisson Belém Lopes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, on cherche à saisir la logique sous-jacente à la relation triangulaire entre les forces économiques internationales, les réformes structurelles de l'État et la démocratie en Amérique Latine, d'après les résultats diffusés dans le document "La démocratie en Amérique Latine: vers une démocratie de citoyennes et citoyens" (PNUD, 2004. Les données concernant trois pays - Uruguay, Brésil et Honduras - sont analysées attentivement. On cherche à vérifier deux hypothèses: 1 en Amérique Latine, les réformes structurelles de l'État ont été soumises à la dynamique de l'économie internationale; et 2 la démocratie possible en Amérique Latine est formaliste puisqu'elle n'empêche pas le choix rationnel des agents économiques, guidés par le marché. Les résultats de l'analyse sont discutés à la lumière des théories politiques et des relations internationales.

  13. Central Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or hands. Central pain syndrome often begins shortly after the causative injury or damage, but may be delayed by months or even years, especially if it is related to post-stroke pain. × Definition Central pain syndrome is a neurological ...

  14. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  15. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  16. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Blattner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is a common cause of progressive permanent apical alopecia. This unique form of alopecia includes entities previously know as "hot comb alopecia," "follicular degeneration syndrome," "pseudopelade" in African Americans and "central elliptical pseudopelade" in Caucasians. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and the condition occurs in all races.

  17. On-and offshore tephrostratigraphy and -chronology of the southern Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindlbeck, J. C.; Kutterolf, S.; Hemming, S. R.; Wang, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Including the recently drilled CRISP sites (IODP Exp. 334&344) the deep sea drilling programs have produced 69 drill holes at 29 Sites during 9 Legs at the Central American convergent margin, where the Cocos plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate. The CAVA produced numerous plinian eruptions in the past. Although abundant in the marine sediments, information and data regarding large late Cenozoic explosive eruptions from Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala remain very sparse and discontinuous on land. We have established a tephrostratigraphy from recent through Miocene times from the unique archive of ODP/IODP sites offshore Central America in which we identify tephra source regions by geochemical fingerprinting using major and trace element glass shard compositions. Here we present first order correlations of ­~500 tephra layers between multiple holes at a single site as well as between multiple sites. We identified ashes supporting Costa Rican (~130), Nicaraguan (17) and Guatemalan (27) sources as well as ~150 tephra layers from the Galápagos hotspot. Within our marine record we also identified well-known marker beds such as the Los Chocoyos tephra from Atitlán Caldera in Guatemala and the Tiribi Tuff from Costa Rica but also correlations to 15 distinct deposits from known Costa Rican and Nicaraguan eruptions within the last 4.1 Ma. These correlations, together with new radiometric age dates, provide the base for an improved tephrochronostratigraphy in this region. Finally, the new marine record of explosive volcanism offshore southern CAVA provides insights into the eruptive history of long-living volcanic complexes (e.g., Barva, Costa Rica) and into the distribution and frequency of large explosive eruptions from the Galápagos hotspot. The integrated approach of Ar/Ar age dating, correlations with on land deposits from CAVA, biostratigraphic ages and sediment accumulation rates improved the age models for the drilling sites.

  18. Petroleum geology of Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America, from Guatemala to Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrutton, M.E.; Escalante, G.F.

    1986-07-01

    Exploration for hydrocarbons along the Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America has been limited and spasmodic. Less than 100 exploration wells have been drilled, with nearly 50 of these being in the Santa Elena, Progreso, and Guayas basins in Ecuador. Shows have been reported in some wells, and a few oil seeps are known. The only commercial production established to date has been from the Santa Elena Peninsula in Ecuador in the extreme south of the study area. Understanding of the geology in this part of the continental margin is incomplete at best. This paper reviews present-day knowledge in an attempt to define the sedimentary basins better, to characterize their structure and stratigraphy, and to assess their petroleum prospects. The area of continental margin reviewed is to the north, located northwest of the trench system where oceanic crust of the Cocos plate subducts under the Caribbean plate, and to the south, where the northern part of the Nazca plate collides with the South American plate. This plate tectonic setting forms the framework on which local structural and sedimentary events have created a series of relatively small trench-slope and forearc basins in what is now the coastal plain and adjacent offshore area of Central and South America, south or west of a line of mountain ranges with active volcanism. Sedimentary fill is generally of Tertiary age. The basins and subbasins recognized and described include: in Ecuador - Guayas, Santa Elena, Progreso, Valdivia, Bajo Grande, Manta, Muisne-Esmeraldas, and Borbon; in Colombia - Choco-Pacific; in Panama - Gulf of Panama basin complex (Santiago, Tonosi, Sambu), and Burica-Chiriqui; in Costa Rica - Terraba and Coronado/Tempisque; in Nicaragua - San Juan del Sur; and in the Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala - the Pacific coastal basin.

  19. Imaging central pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Greenspan, Joel D; Kim, Jong H; Coghill, Robert C; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Ohara, Shinji; Lenz, Frederick A

    2007-06-01

    Anatomic, functional, and neurochemical imaging studies have provided new investigative tools in the study of central pain. High-resolution imaging studies allow for precise determination of lesion location, whereas functional neuroimaging studies measure pathophysiologic consequences of injury to the central nervous system. Additionally, magnetic resonance spectroscopy evaluates lesion-induced neurochemical changes in specific brain regions that may be related to central pain. The small number of studies to date precludes definitive conclusions, but the recent findings provide information that either supports or refutes current hypotheses and can serve to generate new ideas.

  20. The central peak revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirane, G.

    1995-10-27

    The central peak in SrTiO{sub 3} was first observed by Riste and his collaborators in 1971. This was one of the key discoveries leading to an understanding of the dynamics of phase transitions. The most recent discovery of two length scales in SrTiO{sub 3} motivated a reinvestigation of the soft phonon and associated central peak by neutron scattering. These recent experiments shed new light on the nature of the central peak. It is now well established to be strongly sample dependent and it originates from defects in bulk crystals.

  1. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  2. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  3. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  4. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  5. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  6. Central oxygen pipeline failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetic and critical care staff play a governing role in the comprehension of a ... complete central oxygen pipeline failure occurred throughout. Tygerberg Hospital. ..... emergency stations and at plant room emergency supply manifolds.

  7. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E;

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities ...

  8. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  9. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  10. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  11. Gangs in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-17

    Citizen Security held in July 2008 indicated that Guatemala now has the second highest murder rate in Central America (roughly 45 per 100,000 people...training regional security forces.48 In recent years, the U.S. Southern Command has taken a leading role in discussing the problem of citizen security in...the results CRS-19 51 “Memo: The Merida Initiative and Citizen Security in Mexico and Central America,” Washington Office on Latin America, March 2008

  12. Zoonotic and infectious disease surveillance in Central America: Honduran feral cats positive for toxoplasma, trypanosoma, leishmania, rickettsia, and Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Michael; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    A recent zoonotic and infectious disease field surveillance study in Honduras resulted in the discovery of Toxoplasma, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Rickettsia, and Lyme disease with statistically high prevalence rates in a group of feral cats. All five diseases--Toxoplasmosis, Trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Rickettsiosis, and Lyme disease--were confirmed in this group of cats having close contact to local civilians and U.S. personnel. These diseases are infectious to other animals and are known to infect humans as well. In the austere Central and South American sites that Special Operations Forces (SOF) medics are deployed, the living conditions and close quarters are prime environments for the potential spread of infectious and zoonotic disease. This study?s findings, as with previous veterinary disease surveillance studies, emphasize the critical need for continual and aggressive surveillance for zoonotic and infectious disease present within animals in specific areas of operation (AO). The importance to SOF is that a variety of animals may be sentinels, hosts, or direct transmitters of disease to civilians and service members. These studies are value-added tools to the U.S. military, specifically to a deploying or already deployed unit. The SOF medic must ensure that this value-added asset is utilized and that the findings are applied to assure Operational Detachment-Alpha (SFOD-A) health and, on a bigger scale, U.S. military force health protection and local civilian health. © 2010.

  13. Notes from the field: hospitalizations for respiratory disease among unaccompanied children from Central America - multiple States, June-July 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyangoma, Edith N; Arriola, Carmen Sofia; Hagan, Jose; Socias, Christina; Tomczyk, Sara; Watkins, Louise Francois; Westercamp, Matthew; Kim, Curi

    2014-08-15

    During October 2013-June 2014, approximately 54,000 unaccompanied children, mostly from the Central American countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras, were identified attempting entry into the United States from Mexico, exceeding numbers reported in previous years. Once identified in the United States, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, an agency of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, processes the unaccompanied children and transfers them to the Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR), an office of the Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. ORR cares for the children in shelters until they can be released to a sponsor, typically a parent or relative, who can care for the child while their immigration case is processed. In June 2014, in response to the increased number of unaccompanied children, U.S. Customs and Border Protection expanded operations to accommodate children at a processing center in Nogales, Arizona. ORR, together with the U.S. Department of Defense, opened additional large temporary shelters for the children at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas; U.S. Army Garrison Ft. Sill, Oklahoma; and Naval Base Ventura County, California.

  14. Sindicalismo y gobierno. Una agenda para el diálogo en torno a la reforma educativa. El caso de Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Posas, Mario

    2003-01-01

    La reforma educativa iniciada en la década del 90 ha venido cumpliendo algunas de las metas propuestas. La mayoría de ellas, sin embargo, tienen que ver con cuestiones de cobertura y con modificaciones institucionales. Se ha avanzado, por ejemplo, en la cobertura de la educación pre-primaria y de la educación secundaria, se ha introducido la educación bilingüe e intercultural, se ha reestructurado el nivel central de la Secretaria de Educación...

  15. La migración infantil indocumentada de Centroamérica, un desafío a la reformulación de la política migratoria de Estados Unidos. Estudio de caso de Honduras (2010-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Forero Padilla, Fabian Enrique

    2016-01-01

    El siguiente estudio de caso analiza la influencia de la llegada de la migración infantil indocumentada centroamericana en la reformulación de la política migratoria de Estados Unidos en el período 2010-2014. Enfocándose en el caso de Honduras para dar a conocer y analizar las causas que crean las dinámicas migratorias por parte de los menores, este trabajo analiza como la llegada de estas poblaciones genera ciertos efectos en el proceso de toma de decisión de las políticas internas de los Es...

  16. DISEÑO, CONSTRUCCIÓN Y VALIDACIÓN DE UN INSTRUMENTO PARA LA EVALUACIÓN DE LAS COMPETENCIAS DE LOS DOCENTES (IECOD) DESDE LA PERSPECTIVA DEL ALUMNO, EN EL INSTITUTO SUPERIOR TECNOLÓGICO JESÚS DE NAZARETH, SAN PEDRO DE SULA, HONDURAS. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón-Víquez, Luis Diego

    2013-01-01

    La investigación que se presenta a continuación es de corte cuantitativo con un enfoque empírico analítico.Se describe el proceso del diseño, construcción y validación de un Instrumento para la Evaluación de las Competencias de los Docentes (IECOD) desde la perspectiva del alumno en el Instituto Superior Tecnológico Jesús de Nazareth de San Pedro de Sula, Honduras. El instrumento se diseñó con la intención de evaluar cinco competencias, que fueron visualizadas como fundamentalespara el desemp...

  17. Inorganic particles in the skin of inhabitants of volcanic areas of Central America: their possible immunomodulatory influence in leishmaniasis and leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convit, J; Ulrich, M; Castillo, J; De Lima, H; Pérez, M; Caballero, N; Hung, J; Arana, B; Pérez, P

    2006-08-01

    We have evaluated biopsies from patients with atypical nodular and typical ulcerated lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis, from leishmanin reactions and skin from normal individuals from Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala for the presence of inorganic particles using confocal microscopy with a polarised light source and conventional histopathological techniques. Analysis by semiquantitative confocal microscopy permitted the demonstration of significantly larger numbers of particles in atypical lesions. Silica and aluminium, important components of these particles, were less abundant in particles from normal skin. The histology of these atypical lesions, characterised by 'naked' sarcoidal granulomas with epithelioid differentiation but very few lymphocytes, was very similar to the histological reaction observed after 14 days in persisting inflammation at leishmanin skin test sites. The presence of these unusual lesions in areas of Central American countries characterised by the presence of large amounts of volcanic ash, as well the unexpectedly low prevalence of leprosy in Central America, suggest that environmental factors may contribute significantly to the frequency and clinical manifestations of these infections. Among possible environmental features, the presence of inorganic particles with immunomodulatory properties in the skin may be a significant factor.

  18. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  19. Programa de ejercicios físicos y educación diabetológica para diabéticos tipo II, Danlí, El Paraiso, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul O. Figueroa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación posee un enfoque cuantitativo con alcance correlacional de carácter experimental (cuasi-experimento la cual se refirió a los ejercicios físicos, los cuales son considerados muy beneficiosos para los pacientes aquejados de diabetes mellitus tipo 2, constituyéndose en uno de los pilares fundamentales en el tratamiento de esta enfermedad. Esta problemática no es ajena a los pacientes que asisten al HRGA y al IHSS de la ciudad de Danlí, Honduras, los cuales según el diagnóstico ejecutado a los efectos de esta investigación, se pudo comprobar afectaciones de control metabólico. El objetivo fue analizar los resultados de la aplicación de un programa de ejercicios físicos y educación diabetológica para mejorar el control metabólico y la calidad de vida de los pacientes. La muestra seleccionada es no probabilística por cuota, algunos criterios para su selección se pusieron de manifiesto y consta de 30 personas del IHSS y 30 personas del HRGA. En el estudio se utilizaron planteamientos hipotéticos de corte causal. La aplicación del programa de ejercicios contribuyó en gran medida a mejorar la calidad de vida de los pacientes del grupo experimental en comparación al grupo control tanto en lo físico, médico, psicológico y educacional. Generando una la relación de HDL con el LDL la cual es adecuada con respecto a la probabilidad que presenta que es de 0.5629 manifestando que el que se someta al Programa ya referido, disminuye el riesgo coronario.

  20. Dinámica del nitrógeno y el fósforo del suelo bajo tres sistemas de uso de la tierra en laderas de Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracely Castro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Se condujo un estudio para determinar el efecto de los principios de manejo del Sistema Agroforestal Quesungual (SAQ en la dinámica de nitrógeno (N y fósforo (P del suelo y el impacto de estos en su productividad en el sur-occidente de Honduras, Centroamérica. Se compararon cinco sistemas: (1 tala-y-quema (TQ; (2, 3 & 4 SAQ de <2, 5-7 y <10 años, respectivamente; y (5 bosque secundario. Prácticas locales fueron aplicadas para producir maíz, Zea mays, y frijol, Phaseolus vulgaris, con (101 kg N + 55 kg P /ha en maíz, y 46 kg N + 51 kg P /ha en frijol y sin fertilización. Las evaluaciones incluyeron descomposición y liberación de nutrientes de la biomasa, mineralización aeróbica de N, fraccionamiento secuencial de P, fraccionamiento por tamaño-densidad de materia orgánica del suelo, y rendimiento. Similitudes en la dinámica del N indican que el SAQ y TQ son igualmente eficientes proveyendo N, aunque en el SAQ como resultado de procesos biológicos. Los reservorios de P fueron más dinámicos y favorables en el SAQ, con menos flujos hacia formas no-disponibles. Basado en la disponibilidad de nutrientes y el rendimiento, el SAQ es una opción factible al sistema TQ en agroecosistemas de pequeña escala.

  1. Exploiting social influence to magnify population-level behaviour change in maternal and child health: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of network targeting algorithms in rural Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Holly B; Stafford, Derek; Hughes, D Alex; Keegan, Thomas; Negron, Rennie; Broome, Jai; McKnight, Mark; Nicoll, Liza; Nelson, Jennifer; Iriarte, Emma; Ordonez, Maria; Airoldi, Edo; Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Despite global progress on many measures of child health, rates of neonatal mortality remain high in the developing world. Evidence suggests that substantial improvements can be achieved with simple, low-cost interventions within family and community settings, particularly those designed to change knowledge and behaviour at the community level. Using social network analysis to identify structurally influential community members and then targeting them for intervention shows promise for the implementation of sustainable community-wide behaviour change. Methods and analysis We will use a detailed understanding of social network structure and function to identify novel ways of targeting influential individuals to foster cascades of behavioural change at a population level. Our work will involve experimental and observational analyses. We will map face-to-face social networks of 30 000 people in 176 villages in Western Honduras, and then conduct a randomised controlled trial of a friendship-based network-targeting algorithm with a set of well-established care interventions. We will also test whether the proportion of the population targeted affects the degree to which the intervention spreads throughout the network. We will test scalable methods of network targeting that would not, in the future, require the actual mapping of social networks but would still offer the prospect of rapidly identifying influential targets for public health interventions. Ethics and dissemination The Yale IRB and the Honduran Ministry of Health approved all data collection procedures (Protocol number 1506016012) and all participants will provide informed consent before enrolment. We will publish our findings in peer-reviewed journals as well as engage non-governmental organisations and other actors through venues for exchanging practical methods for behavioural health interventions, such as global health conferences. We will also develop a ‘toolkit’ for practitioners to

  2. Dinámica del nitrógeno y el fósforo del suelo bajo tres sistemas de uso de la tierra en laderas de Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asakawa Neuza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Se condujo un estudio para determinar el efecto de los principios de manejo del Sistema Agroforestal Quesungual (SAQ en la dinámica de nitrógeno (N y fósforo (P del suelo y el impacto de estos en su productividad en el sur-occidente de Honduras, Centroamérica. Se compararon cinco sistemas: (1 tala- y-quema (TQ; (2, 3 & 4 SAQ de <2, 5-7 y <10 años, respectivamente; y (5 bosque secundario. Prácticas locales fueron aplicadas para producir maíz, Zea mays, y frijol, Phaseolus vulgaris, con (101 kg N +

    55 kg P /ha en maíz, y 46 kg N + 51 kg P /ha en frijol y sin fertilización. Las evaluaciones incluyeron descomposición y liberación de nutrientes de la biomasa, mineralización aeróbica de N, fraccionamiento secuencial de P, fraccionamiento por tamaño-densidad de materia orgánica del suelo, y rendimiento. Similitudes en la dinámica del N indican que el SAQ y TQ son igualmente eficientes proveyendo N, aunque en el SAQ como resultado de procesos biológicos. Los reservorios de P fueron más dinámicos y favorables en el SAQ, con menos flujos hacia formas no-disponibles. Basado en la disponibilidad de nutrientes y el rendimiento, el SAQ es una opción factible al sistema TQ en agroecosistemas de pequeña escala.

  3. The Naive Central Banker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Carvalho Griebeler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been in some countries a trend of assigning other functions to central banks besides price stability. The most suggested function to be added to monetary authority’s obligations is to pursue economic growth or full employment. In this paper we characterize the behavior and analyse the optimal monetary policy of, what we call, a naive central banker. We describe the naive behavior as one that does face the inflation-unemployment trade-off, but it tries to minimize both variables simultaneously. Our findings, both under discretion and commitment, indicate that the naive central banker delivers lower expected inflation and inflation variance than the benchmark behavior whenever the economy is rigid enough. However, the degree of conservativeness also affects this result, such that the less conservative the naive policymaker, the more rigidity is necessary.

  4. SOCRATES Invades Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Slowinski

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to explore the current reality faced by higher education students in Central and Eastern Europe and to draw out the implications of this current reality for policy makers in the future. In the article, I explore the influence of transnational corporations' training programs on education as it currently pertains to Central and Eastern European higher education and employment. In addition, multinational corporate entities exercise influence on European Union policy through the role of lobby organizations and activities. I explore the influence of these practices on education with an emphasis on the emerging importance of Western language skills. In addition, I focus on the European Union and its efforts to expand into Central and Eastern Europe in order to provide a focal point for analysis.

  5. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  6. Glueballs A central mystery

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Frank E.

    2000-01-01

    Glueball candidates and qqbar mesons have been found to be produced with different momentum and angular dependences in the central region of pp collisions. This talk illustrates this phenomenon and explains the phi and t dependences of mesons with JPC = 0++,0-+, 1++, 2++ and 2-+. For production of 0++ and 2++ mesons the analysis reveals a systematic behaviour in the data that appears to distinguish between qqbar and non-qqbar or glueball candidates. An explanation is given for the absence of 0-+ glueball candidates in central production at present energies and the opportunity for their discovery at RHIC is noted.

  7. Several Centuries of Centrality

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    As Carolyn Bertozzi mentioned in her inaugural editorial, the relationship of “Central Science” to “Chemistry” became popularized over 40 years ago with the publication of the first edition of Brown and LeMay’s Chemistry: The Central Science, now in its 13th edition. Yet as late as 2003, Prof. Sason Shaik at The Hebrew University claimed “popularization of chemistry remains scant.” He goes on to share [his] “own experience of popularizing chemistry by delivering the following universal messag...

  8. Glueballs A central mystery

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Francis Edwin

    2000-01-01

    Glueball candidates and qqbar mesons have been found to be produced with different momentum and angular dependences in the central region of pp collisions. This talk illustrates this phenomenon and explains the phi and t dependences of mesons with JPC = 0++,0-+, 1++, 2++ and 2-+. For production of 0++ and 2++ mesons the analysis reveals a systematic behaviour in the data that appears to distinguish between qqbar and non-qqbar or glueball candidates. An explanation is given for the absence of 0-+ glueball candidates in central production at present energies and the opportunity for their discovery at RHIC is noted.

  9. Retiring the central executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    Reasoning, problem solving, comprehension, learning and retrieval, inhibition, switching, updating, or multitasking are often referred to as higher cognition, thought to require control processes or the use of a central executive. However, the concept of an executive controller begs the question of what is controlling the controller and so on, leading to an infinite hierarchy of executives or "homunculi". In what is now a QJEP citation classic, Baddeley [Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5-28] referred to the concept of a central executive in cognition as a "conceptual ragbag" that acted as a placeholder umbrella term for aspects of cognition that are complex, were poorly understood at the time, and most likely involve several different cognitive functions working in concert. He suggested that with systematic empirical research, advances in understanding might progress sufficiently to allow the executive concept to be "sacked". This article offers an overview of the 1996 article and of some subsequent systematic research and argues that after two decades of research, there is sufficient advance in understanding to suggest that executive control might arise from the interaction among multiple different functions in cognition that use different, but overlapping, brain networks. The article concludes that the central executive concept might now be offered a dignified retirement.

  10. Central nervous system tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos; Riascos, Roy; Figueroa, Ramon; Gupta, Rakesh K

    2014-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has shown a resurgence in nonendemic populations in recent years and accounts for 8 million deaths annually in the world. Central nervous system involvement is one of the most serious forms of this infection, acting as a prominent cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The rising number of cases in developed countries is mostly attributed to factors such as the pandemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and increased migration in a globalized world. Mycobacterium TB is responsible for almost all cases of tubercular infection in the central nervous system. It can manifest in a variety of forms as tuberculous meningitis, tuberculoma, and tubercular abscess. Spinal infection may result in spondylitis, arachnoiditis, and/or focal intramedullary tuberculomas. Timely diagnosis of central nervous system TB is paramount for the early institution of appropriate therapy, because delayed treatment is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important that physicians and radiologists understand the characteristic patterns, distribution, and imaging manifestations of TB in the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered the imaging modality of choice for the study of patients with suspected TB. Advanced imaging techniques including magnetic resonance perfusion and diffusion tensor imaging may be of value in the objective assessment of therapy and to guide the physician in the modulation of therapy in these patients.

  11. Central Dogma Goes Digital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihan; Elowitz, Michael B

    2016-03-17

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Tay and colleagues (Albayrak et al., 2016) describe a new technique to digitally quantify the numbers of protein and mRNA in the same mammalian cell, providing a new way to look at the central dogma of molecular biology.

  12. Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bano, Shahina; Chaudhary, Vikas; Yadav, Sachchidanand

    2012-01-01

    Central nervous system tuberculosis is a rare presentation of active tuberculosis and accounts for about 1% of cases (1). The three clinical categories include meningitis, intracranial tuberculomas, and spinal tuberculous arachnoiditis. We report a case of a young man who presented with active pulmonary tuberculosis in addition to tuberculous meningitis and the presence of numerous intracranial tuberculomas.

  13. The central noradrenergic system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-27

    Jul 27, 2006 ... The majority of central noradrenergic neurons are situated in the brainstem where they .... stimuli and to speed-up information processing.4. The influence of .... single unit activity in the locus coeruleus. Life Sci 1980;27:2231.

  14. Central venous line - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A central venous line (CVL) is a long, soft, plastic tube that is put into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A CVL USED? A CVL is often put in when a baby cannot get a ... (MCC). A CVL can be used to give nutrients or medicines to a ...

  15. CMS Central Hadron Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, Howard S.

    2001-01-01

    We present a description of the CMS central hadron calorimeter. We describe the production of the 1996 CMS hadron testbeam module. We show the results of the quality control tests of the testbeam module. We present some results of the 1995 CMS hadron testbeam.

  16. Ecodesign in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes and analyses the change process started by the Ecodesign project in Central America, executed between 1998 and 2002. The project started using the concept and praxis developed in Europe. Nine ecodesign projects were performed in industry, and ecodesign was introduced to cou

  17. Company activities - central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayling, G.

    2007-06-15

    The first section of the article gives an overview of exploration and new developments in the field of gold, nickel, diamond and opal mining in central Queensland. The second part looks at coal, coal seam gas and petroleum exploration and development projects in the area. 1 fig.

  18. Channeling the Central Dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Ronald L

    2014-05-21

    How do neurons and networks achieve their characteristic electrical activity, regulate this activity homeostatically, and yet show population variability in expression? In this issue of Neuron, O'Leary et al. (2014) address some of these thorny questions in this theoretical analysis that starts with the Central Dogma.

  19. Multicultural Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Eric D.

    This article addresses the multicultural aspect of Central Asia in response to the discussion on diversity in U.S. classrooms. Many areas of the world are more diverse than the U.S., and these areas experience successes and failures with many of the same issues the U.S. is currently struggling with. Comparing the U.S. diversity debate with similar…

  20. Central areolar choroidal dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, C.J.F.; Klevering, B.J.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Zonneveld-Vrieling, M.N.; Theelen, T.; Hollander, A.I. den; Hoyng, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics, follow-up data and molecular genetic background in a large group of patients with central areolar choroidal dystrophy (CACD). DESIGN: Retrospective case series study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred three patients with CACD from the Netherlands. METHODS

  1. Testing for central symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, John; Gan, Zhuojiong

    2016-01-01

    Omnibus tests for central symmetry of a bivariate probability distribution are proposed. The test statistics compare empirical measures of opposite regions. Under rather weak conditions, we establish the asymptotic distribution of the test statistics under the null hypothesis; it follows that they a

  2. Do Central Banks Need Capital?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Stella

    1997-01-01

    Central banks may operate perfectly well without capital as conventionally defined. A large negative net worth, however, is likely to compromise central bank independence and interfere with its ability to attain policy objectives. If society values an independent central bank capable of effectively implementing monetary policy, recapitalization may become essential. Proper accounting practice in determining central bank profit or loss and rules governing the transfer of the central bank’s ope...

  3. Induced, endogenous and exogenous centrality

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Martin G.; Stephen P. Borgatti

    2010-01-01

    Centrality measures are based upon the structural position an actor has within the network. Induced centrality, sometimes called vitality measures, take graph invariants as an overall measure and derive vertex level measures by deleting individual nodes or edges and examining the overall change. By taking the sum of standard centrality measures as the graph invariant we can obtain measures which examine how much centrality an individual node contributes to the centrality of the other nodes in...

  4. Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum from Central America with new country records for other New World Trichiini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew B T

    2016-01-01

    Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum, 1840 are described: Trigonopeltastes arborfloricola sp. n. from Nicaragua, Trigonopeltastes formidulosus sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes henryi sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes mombachoensis sp. n. from Nicaragua, and Trigonopeltastes warneri sp. n. from Belize and Guatemala. An updated key to species of Trigonopeltastes is presented. Trigonopeltastes nigrinus Bates, 1889 and Trigonopeltastes carus Bates, 1889 are placed in synonymy with Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841, syn. n.. The males of Trigonopeltastes aurovelutinus Curoe, 2011 and Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889 are described for the first time. New country records are given for the following: Giesbertiolus ornatus Howden, 1988: Costa Rica; Paragnorimus sambucus Howden, 1970: Guatemala; Trichiotinus bibens (Fabricius, 1775): Canada; Trigonopeltastes archimedes Schaum, 1841: Guatemala and Costa Rica; Trigonopeltastes frontalis Bates, 1889: Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes glabellus Howden, 1988: Guatemala; Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841: Honduras; Trigonopeltastes sallaei sallaei Bates, 1889: Guatemala and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889: Mexico; Trigonopeltastes variabilis Howden, 1968: Honduras.

  5. Central simple Poisson algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yucai; XU Xiaoping

    2004-01-01

    Poisson algebras are fundamental algebraic structures in physics and symplectic geometry. However, the structure theory of Poisson algebras has not been well developed. In this paper, we determine the structure of the central simple Poisson algebras related to locally finite derivations, over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero.The Lie algebra structures of these Poisson algebras are in general not finitely-graded.

  6. [Central neurocytoma: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, M; Mansour, A; Feknous, S; Yassi, F; Smati, S; Belhouchet, S; Lankar, A

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we report one case of central neurocytoma treated in our department. It is a benign tumor of the lateral ventricles of the brain with neuronal differentiation. The clinical symptoms mainly consisted in intracranial hypertension syndrome. Immunohistochemical studies are necessary for the histopathological diagnosis. The treatment of choice is surgical. To guarantee good progression, complete ablation is necessary. The clinical progression, radiological aspects, treatment, histopathology, and postoperative progression will be discussed.

  7. Centrality Measures in Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Francis; Tebaldi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    We show that although the prominent centrality measures in network analysis make use of different information about nodes' positions, they all process that information in an identical way: they all spring from a common family that are characterized by the same simple axioms. In particular, they are all based on a monotonic and additively separable treatment of a statistic that captures a node's position in the network.

  8. Central corneal abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bijsterveld, O P

    1976-05-01

    Central corneal abscess developed in the experimental animal after inoculation of biologically active staphylococcal strains in a paracentral epithelial lesion of the cornea. These abscesses did not ulcerate, developed only with high inocula, occurred more frequently in immunized rabbits. A serpiginous type of ulceration did not develop at the site of the initial epithelial lesion nor at any other place in the cornea. Histologically, the lesions consisted of densely packed polymorphonuclear leukocytes between the corneal lamellae.

  9. FNAL central email systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Pasetes, Ray; Hill, Kevin; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The FNAL Email System is the primary point of entry for email destined for an employee or user at Fermilab. This centrally supported system is designed for reliability and availability. It uses multiple layers of protection to help ensure that: (1) SPAM messages are tagged properly; (2) All mail is inspected for viruses; and (3) Valid mail gets delivered. This system employs numerous redundant subsystems to accomplish these tasks.

  10. Central core disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbluth Heinz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Central core disease (CCD is an inherited neuromuscular disorder characterised by central cores on muscle biopsy and clinical features of a congenital myopathy. Prevalence is unknown but the condition is probably more common than other congenital myopathies. CCD typically presents in infancy with hypotonia and motor developmental delay and is characterized by predominantly proximal weakness pronounced in the hip girdle; orthopaedic complications are common and malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS is a frequent complication. CCD and MHS are allelic conditions both due to (predominantly dominant mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1 gene, encoding the principal skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel (RyR1. Altered excitability and/or changes in calcium homeostasis within muscle cells due to mutation-induced conformational changes of the RyR protein are considered the main pathogenetic mechanism(s. The diagnosis of CCD is based on the presence of suggestive clinical features and central cores on muscle biopsy; muscle MRI may show a characteristic pattern of selective muscle involvement and aid the diagnosis in cases with equivocal histopathological findings. Mutational analysis of the RYR1 gene may provide genetic confirmation of the diagnosis. Management is mainly supportive and has to anticipate susceptibility to potentially life-threatening reactions to general anaesthesia. Further evaluation of the underlying molecular mechanisms may provide the basis for future rational pharmacological treatment. In the majority of patients, weakness is static or only slowly progressive, with a favourable long-term outcome.

  11. West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  12. Distributed Assessment of Network Centrality

    CERN Document Server

    Wehmuth, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method for the Distributed Assessment of Network CEntrality (DANCE) in complex networks. DANCE attributes to each node a volume-based centrality computed using only localized information, thus not requiring knowledge of the full network topology. We show DANCE is simple, yet efficient, in assessing node centrality in a distributed way. Our proposal also provides a way for locating the most central nodes, again using only the localized information at each node. We also show that the node rankings based on DANCE's centrality and the traditional closeness centrality correlate very well. This is quite useful given the vast potential applicability of closeness centrality, which is however limited by its high computational costs. We experimentally evaluate DANCE against a state-of-the-art proposal to distributively assess network centrality. Results attest that DANCE achieves similar effectiveness in assessing network centrality, but with a significant reduction in the associated costs for practical ap...

  13. Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of the Central African Republic is on: geography; the people; history and political conditions; government; the economy; foreign relations; and relations with the US. The population of the Central African Republic totaled 2.7 million in 1985 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 134/1000 with life expectancy at 49 years. The Central African Republic is at almost the precise center of Africa, about 640 km from the nearest ocean. More than 70% of the population live in rural areas. There are more than 80 ethnic groups, each with its own language. The precolonial history of the area was marked by successive waves of migration, of which little is known. These migrations are responsible for the complex ethnic and linguistic patterns today. United with Chad in 1906, it formed the Oubangui-Chari-Chad colony. In 1910, it became 1 of the 4 territories of the Federation of French Equatorial Africa, along with Chad, Congo, and Gabon. After World War II, the French Constitution of 1946 inaugurated the first of a series of reforms that led eventually to complete independence for all French territories in western and equatorial Africa. The nation became an autonomous republic within the newly established French Community on December 1, 1958, and acceded to complete independence as the Central Africa Republic on August 13, 1960. The government is made up of the executive and the judicial branches. The constitution and legislature remain suspended. All executive and legislative powers, as well as judicial oversight, are vested in the chief of state. The Central African Republic is 1 of the world's least developed countries, with an annual per capita income of $310. 85% of the population is engaged in subsistence farming. Diamonds account for nearly 1/3 of export earnings; the industrial sector is limited. The US terminated bilateral assistance programs in 1979, due to the human rights violations of the Bokassa regime, but modest

  14. Central effects of fingolimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Vítor T; Fonseca, Joaquim

    2014-08-01

    Introduccion. El fingolimod, un modulador del receptor de la esfingosina-1-fosfato (S1P) dotado de un mecanismo de accion novedoso, fue el primer tratamiento oral aprobado para la esclerosis multiple remitente recurrente. Su union a los receptores S1P1 de los linfocitos promueve la retencion selectiva de los linfocitos T virgenes y de memoria central en los tejidos linfoides secundarios, lo que impide su salida hacia el sistema nervioso central (SNC). Asimismo, el fingolimod atraviesa con facilidad la barrera hematoencefalica, y diversos estudios le atribuyen un efecto neuroprotector directo en el SNC. Objetivo. Revisar la informacion disponible acerca de los efectos centrales del fingolimod. Desarrollo. El desequilibrio entre los procesos lesivos y reparadores constituye un reflejo de la desmielinizacion cronica, la degeneracion axonal y la gliosis, y parece contribuir a la discapacidad que la esclerosis multiple acarrea. La facilidad con la que el fingolimod atraviesa la barrera hematoencefalica le permite actuar directamente sobre los receptores S1P localizados en las celulas del SNC. Una vez en el interior del SNC, ocupa los receptores S1P de los oligodendrocitos y de sus celulas precursoras, de los astrocitos, los microgliocitos y las neuronas, fomentando la remielinizacion, la neuroproteccion y los procesos endogenos de regeneracion. La eficacia evidenciada en los ensayos clinicos concuerda con un mecanismo de accion que incluiria efectos directos sobre las celulas del SNC. Conclusiones. Los datos disponibles indican que la eficacia del fingolimod en el tratamiento de la esclerosis multiple se debe a su ambivalencia como molecula inmunomoduladora y moduladora directa de los receptores S1P del SNC. Tanto es asi que estudios recientes le atribuyen efectos neuroprotectores en varios modelos que suscitan expectativas en torno a su posible aplicacion terapeutica en la enfermedad de Alzheimer, el paludismo cerebral y el neuroblastoma, asi como en la neuroproteccion

  15. Central venous catheter - dressing change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during cancer treatment Bone marrow transplant - discharge Central venous catheter - flushing Peripherally inserted central catheter - flushing Sterile technique Surgical wound care - open Review Date 9/17/2016 Updated by: ...

  16. [Central anticholinergic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Urretavizcaya, P; Cenoz Osinaga, J C; Jáuregui Garía, M L; Gállego Culleré, J

    1991-10-01

    Two new cases of anticolinergic central syndrome are described. The first case, a 8 year old girl, suffered a severe encefalopathy after topical application of mydriatic cholirio as an aid in a rutine study of ocular refraction. The second case, 67 year old man presented a severe neurological picture after accidental intake of a silvester plantground (Atropa belladonna). His neurological condition returned quickly to normal whith administration of physostigmine. Differents aspects of the etiology, clinical picture and diagnosis are discussed with special emphasis in patients with delirium or acute confusional states. Finally, attention is drawn in the necessity of a properly use of anticholinergic drugs overcoat in aged or children.

  17. Central osteosclerosis with trichothiodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeling, Emma L.; Brady, Angela F. [North West Thames Regional Genetics Service, Kennedy-Galton Centre, Level 8 V, North West London Hospitals NHS Trust, Watford Road, HAI 3UJ, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Cruwys, Michele [Department of Paediatrics, Hillingdon Hospital, Hillingdon, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Suri, Mohnish [Clinical Genetics Service, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Aylett, Sarah E. [Neurosciences Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare, autosomal recessive, multisystem disorder associated with defects in nucleotide excision repair. We report a 7-year-old boy with TTD due to mutation in the XPD gene. The patient has classic features of this condition, including brittle, sulphur-deficient hair, ichthyosis, growth retardation and developmental delay. In addition, he has radiological evidence of progressive central osteosclerosis. Although similar radiological findings have previously been reported in a small number of patients, this association is not widely recognised. We review the radiological findings in this and other similar cases and discuss the natural history of these bony changes. (orig.)

  18. Centralized vs. De-centralized Multinationals and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs - here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax...... manipulation instrument -, we show that (de-)centralized decisions are more profitable when tax differentials are (small) large.Keywords: Centralized vs. de-centralized decisions, taxes, MNEs.JEL-Classification: H25, F23, L23....

  19. Two new species of Urocleidoides Mizelle et Price, 1964 (Monogenoidea) from the gill lamellae of profundulids and poeciliids from Central America and southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo Antonio

    2015-09-07

    During investigations of gill ectoparasites (Platyhelminthes) parasitising freshwater fish from Central America (Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Panama) and southeastern Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas), the following dactylogyrid monogenoidean were found: Urocleidoides simonae sp. n. from Profundulus punctatus (Günther) (type host), Profundulus balsanus Ahl, Profundulus guatemalensis (Günther), Profundulus kreiseri Matamoros, Shaefer, Hernández et Chakrabarty, Profundulus labialis (Günther), Profundulus oaxacae (Meek), Profundulus sp. 1 and Profundulus sp. 2 (all Profundulidae); Urocleidoides vaginoclaustroides sp. n. from Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculata (Heckel) (type host) and Poeciliopsis retropinna (Regan) (both Poeciliidae); and Urocleidoides vaginoclaustrum Jogunoori, Kritsky et Venkatanarasaiah, 2004 from P. labialis, Profundulus portillorum Matamoros et Shaefer and Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel (Poeciliidae). Urocleidoides simonae sp. n. differs from all other congeneric species in having anchors with well-differentiated roots, curved elongate shaft and short point. Urocleidoides vaginoclaustroides sp. n. most closely resembles U. vaginoclaustrum, but differs from this species mainly in the shape of its anchors (i.e. evenly curved shaft and short point vs curved shaft and elongate point extending just past the tip of the superficial anchor root). The complexity of potential hosts for species of Urocleidoides and their effect on its distribution on profundulid and poeciliid fishes are briefly discussed.

  20. Feature Centrality and Property Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristidis, Constantinos; Sloman, Steven; Stevenson, Rosemary; Over, David

    2004-01-01

    A feature is central to a concept to the extent that other features depend on it. Four studies tested the hypothesis that people will project a feature from a base concept to a target concept to the extent that they believe the feature is central to the two concepts. This centrality hypothesis implies that feature projection is guided by a…

  1. en los pivotes centrales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Roque Rodés

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión y comentarios sobre las ventajas y limitantes del empleo del LEPA (Low Enery Precision Aplication en los sistemas de riego de pivotes centrales. Estos sistemas o filosofía de manejo del agua para condiciones de escasez o mala calidad del líquido es una alternativa viable para la producción de alimentos. Introducida en la década del 80 en las planicies del sur de Texas, donde la alta evaporación del agua y la necesidad de regar grandes áreas con pivotes centrales obligaba a la búsqueda de una alternativa para incrementar al máximo la eficiencia de aplicación del riego. Aún en fase de estudio e introducción en Cuba para áreas específicas, puede ser una solución de incremento de los rendimientos de los cultivos, empleando menos agua y aguas con calidad limitada

  2. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, David A; Olsen, Elise A

    2008-01-01

    A progressive scarring alopecia of the central scalp is commonly seen in young to middle-aged females of African descent. It usually starts at the vertex or mid top of the scalp and gradually spreads centrifugally, hence, the unifying term of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia. The clinical pattern is suggestive of female pattern alopecia, but a lack of follicular pores indicative of scarring is present. It can progress for years before slowly burning out. The etiology is unknown but genetic factors may be important. It is often associated with a history of traumatic hairstyling involving heat, traction, and chemicals. However, most patients of African descent without this disorder have similar styling habits. Nonetheless, avoidance of physical and chemical trauma to the scalp hair, the use of suitable shampoos and conditioners, and the encouragement of natural hairstyles may be helpful. Any infection should be treated. Topical or intralesional corticosteroids and systemic antibiotics may be useful and topical minoxidil should be tried with the hope of preventing further scarring and encouraging regrowth of recovering follicles. Current research into the etiology of this disorder will help to foster much-needed clinical trials of therapeutic agents.

  3. Central Sumatra enjoys success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongsosantiko, A.

    1977-05-02

    The Sihapas group contains the most prolific oil producing zones in the Central Sumatra Basin. It represents the transgressive, coarse clastic sequence deposited during the early Miocene. Some of these sandstone grade laterally into siltstones and shales of the Telisa Formation, believed to be a major source of rock for Central Sumatra oil. Recent exploratory wells drilled between the mountain front and coastal plain areas have provided more data for stratigraphic studies. These have resulted in subdivision of the lower Miocene transgressive sequence into discrete rock-stratigraphic units. The former Sihapas Formation has subsequently been elevated to group rank and now consists of several formations with the Duri Formation as the uppermost sand unit. This study covers Caltex's areas of operation, which includes the area between the Kampar River of the south, the Barumum River to the north, the Malacca Straits to the east, and the Barisan Mt. to the west. A basic map shows the regional scene, while a stratigraphic chart shows the lithology.

  4. Centrality Measures in Urban Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Crucitti, P; Porta, S; Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito; Porta, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Centrality has revealed crucial for understanding the structural order of complex relational networks. Centrality is also relevant for various spatial factors affecting human life and behaviors in cities. We present a comprehensive study of centrality distributions over geographic networks of urban streets. Four different measures of centrality, namely closeness, betweenness, straightness and information, are compared over eighteen 1-square-mile samples of different world cities. Samples are represented by primal geographic graphs, i.e. valued graphs defined by metric rather than topologic distance where intersections are turned into nodes and streets into edges. The spatial behavior of centrality indexes over the networks is investigated graphically by means of colour-coded maps. The results indicate that a spatial analysis, that we term Multiple Centrality Assessment(MCA), grounded not a single but on a set of different centrality indices, allows an extended comprehension of the city structure, nicely captu...

  5. Orden monetario y bancos centrales Monetary order and Central Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aglietta Michel

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el enfoque evolucionista e institucionalista de la economía de las convenciones francesa, este trabajo analiza el surgimiento histórico de la banca central y la creación institucional del 'arte de la banca central'. El artículo estudia los modelos formales del orden monetario, la banca libre y la banca central, y analiza los eventos históricos que llevaron a que el Banco de Inglaterra inventara el arte de manejar los bancos centrales en conjunción con el aprendizaje colectivo e institucional que lo hizo posible. Aglietta muestra que la banca central no es una creación del Estado sino una creación institucional endógena al sistema de mercado.With the evolutionist and institutionalist focus of the economics of the French conventions, this paper analyzes the historical rise of the central bank and the institutional creation of the 'art of the central bank'. The article studies formal models of the monetary order, free banking and the central bank, and analyzes the historie events that led to the Bank of England inventing the art of managing the central banks, in conjunction with the collective and institutional learning that made it possible. Aglietta shows that the central bank is not a creation of the State, but rather aninstitutional creation endogenous to the market system.

  6. UA1 central detector

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6125 sense wires allowed a spectacular 3-D interactive display of reconstructed physics events to be produced.

  7. UA2 central calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA2 central calorimeter measured the energy of individual particles created in proton-antiproton collisions. Accurate calibration allowed the W and Z masses to be measured with a precision of about 1%. The calorimeter had 24 slices like this one, each weighing 4 tons. The slices were arranged like orange segments around the collision point. Incoming particles produced showers of secondary particles in the layers of heavy material. These showers passed through the layers of plastic scintillator, generating light which was taken by light guides (green) to the data collection electronics. The amount of light was proportional to the energy of the original particle. The inner 23 cm of lead and plastic sandwiches measured electrons and photons; the outer 80 cm of iron and plastic sandwiches measured strongly interacting hadrons. The detector was calibrated by injecting light through optical fibres or by placing a radioactive source in the tube on the bottom edge.

  8. [Agrarian movements, development alternatives and food security in Central America: scenarios of transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Rojas, R

    1991-01-01

    This article, based on personal experiences with a network of organizations of small and medium agricultural producers in Central America, aims to present the views of peasant organizations concerning agrarian problems in the region. The 3 major sections of work define the place of peasant agriculture in the traditional agrarian structure and the new problems resulting from the structural adjustment programs of the 1980s; separately describe the new peasant movements emerging in Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, identifying common themes an efforts at international collaboration; and explore the positions of the peasant organizations on the optimal strategies for agricultural development and agrarian change. Agriculture remains the backbone of the Central American economies. But because the economic model in the region is 1 of accumulation characterized by dependency, concentration of capital, and social marginalization, the agrarian structure is at the basis of social tensions. Efforts to develop peasant agriculture and to give small producers access to marketing and credit services have been weak and sporadic. The new peasant movements are less inclined than those of the past to employ tactics of confrontation in their efforts to secure access to land and better working conditions. The new movement is the expression of small market producers sometimes grouped into associations who are oriented to production of basic foodstuffs for the internal market. A new concern with adaptation and negotiation is evident. The new organizations have in common a belief in their ability to propose new solutions to regional problems. Their views are founded on a positive assessment of the ability of peasant agriculture to produce food and add dynamism to the regional economy after barriers to credit, technological progress, and modernization in general are removed. Signs of increased cooperation are evident between peasant organizations and other groups

  9. 不同施肥处理对湿加松早期生长及感病指数的影响%Effects of different fertilizing treatments on early growth and disease-infected indices of Slash×Honduras Caribbean pine hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文周

    2011-01-01

    调查了福建省德化葛坑国有林场4种不同施肥处理后,2、3、4年生湿加松树高、胸(地)径和病害指数变化情况。结果表明,(1)不同施肥处理对湿加松早期树高、胸(地)径和松感病指数均产生显著影响,各生长年度树高、胸(地)径生长大小依次为:施氮磷钾复合肥与硼砂〉施氮磷肥与硼砂〉施氮磷肥〉对照(不施肥),而感病指数大小则为:对照(不施肥)〉施氮磷肥〉施氮磷肥与硼砂〉施氮磷钾复合肥与硼砂;(2)湿加松感病指数与树高、胸(地)径均呈显著的负相关。由此表明适当的施肥管理可以促进湿加松早期树高、胸(地)径的生长和提高其抗病害能力。%Dynamics of the height,diameter at breast height,ground diameter,and disease-infected indices of 2,3 and 4 years old Slash×Honduras Caribbean pine hybrids in 4 different fertilizing treatments were investigated in Gekeng National Forest,Dehua County,Fujian Province.(1)The effects of different fertilizing treatments on the height,diameter at breast height,ground diameter and disease-infected indices at early growth stages of Slash×Honduras Caribbean pine hybrids were significant.In the years of growth,the sequence of growing height,diameter at breast height and ground diameter was applying NPK compound fertilizer and boraxapplying NP fertilizer and boraxapplying NP fertilizerthe control(no fertilizer),meanwhile the sequence of disease-infected indices was the control(no fertilizer)applying NP fertilizerapplying NP fertilizer and boraxapplying NPK compound fertilizer and borax.(2)The disease-infected indices were significantly negatively correlated with the height,diameter at breast height and ground diameter in Slash×Honduras Caribbean pine hybrids.Therefore,proper fertilizing management could promote the growth of height,diameter at breast height and ground diameter and improve the disease resistance at

  10. Localidad y globalización en la dinámica migratoria hacia los Estados Unidos desde áreas urbano - marginales y rurales: el caso de los municipios de El Progreso y El Negrito en el departamento de Yoro, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Barahona

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available ESTE INFORME SE ENFOCA EN EL FENÓMENO MIGRATORIO HACIA LOS Estados Unidos desde los municipios de El Progreso y El Negrito, en el departamento hondureño de Yoro. Destaca las tendencias y consecuencias principales de dicho fenómeno, los sectores de población a los cuales afecta y las características significativas del contexto social, económico y político en el que éste se produce. Se exploran algunos datos relevantes contenidos en la base de datos –en proceso de construcción– del Equipo de Reflexión, Investigación y Comunicación de la Compañía de Jesús en Honduras (ERIC-SJ.

  11. Mapping agricultural landscapes and characterizing adaptive capacity in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, M. B.; Imbach, P. A.; Bouroncle, C.; Donatti, C.; Leguia, E.; Martinez, M.; Medellin, C.; Saborio-Rodriguez, M.; Shamer, S.; Zamora, J.

    2013-12-01

    One of the key challenges in developing adaptation strategies for smallholder farmers in developing countries is that of a data-poor environment, where spatially-explicit information about where the most vulnerable smallholder communities are located is lacking. Developing countries tend to lack consistent and reliable maps on agricultural land use, and have limited information available on smallholder adaptive capacity. We developed a novel participatory and expert mapping process to overcome these barriers and develop detailed national-scale maps that allow for a characterization of unique agricultural landscapes based on profiles of adaptive capacity for smallholder agriculture in each area. This research focuses specifically on the Central American nations of Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras, where our focus is on coffee and basic grains as the two main cropping systems. Here we present the methodology and results of a series of in-depth interviews and participatory mapping sessions with experts working within the broader agricultural sector in each country. We held individual interviews and mapping sessions with approximately thirty experts from each country, and used a detailed survey instrument for each mapping session to both spatially identify distinct agricultural landscapes, and to further characterize each area based on specific farm practices and social context. The survey also included a series of questions to help us assess the relative adaptive capacity of smallholder agriculture within each landscape. After all expert mapping sessions were completed in each country we convened an expert group to assist in both validating and refining the set of landscapes already defined. We developed a characterization of adaptive capacity by aggregating indicators into main assets-based criteria (e.g. land tenure, access to credit, access to technical assistance, sustainable farm practices) derived from further expert weighting of indicators through an online

  12. Central nervous system stimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A J

    2000-03-01

    Three major types of CNS stimulant are currently abused in sport: amphetamine, cocaine and caffeine. Each drug type has its own characteristic mechanism of action on CNS neurones and their associated receptors and nerve terminals. Amphetamine is widely abused in sports requiring intense anaerobic exercise where it prolongs the tolerance to anaerobic metabolism. It is addictive, and chronic abuse causes marked behavioural change and sometimes psychosis. Major sports abusing amphetamine are cycling, American football, ice-hockey and baseball. Cocaine increases tolerance to intense exercise, yet most of its chronic effects on energy metabolism are negative. Its greatest effects seem to be as a central stimulant and the enhancement of short-term anaerobic exercise. It is highly addictive and can cause cerebral and cardiovascular fatalities. Caffeine enhances fatty acid metabolism leading to glucose conservation, which appears to benefit long-distance endurance events such as skiing. Caffeine is also addictive, and chronic abuse can lead to cardiac damage. Social abuse of each of the three drugs is often difficult to distinguish from their abuse in sport.

  13. Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    The central disorders of hypersomnolence are characterized by severe daytime sleepiness, which is present despite normal quality and timing of nocturnal sleep. Recent reclassification distinguishes three main subtypes: narcolepsy type 1, narcolepsy type 2, and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH), which are the focus of this review. Narcolepsy type 1 results from loss of hypothalamic hypocretin neurons, while the pathophysiology underlying narcolepsy type 2 and IH remains to be fully elucidated. Treatment of all three disorders focuses on the management of sleepiness, with additional treatment of cataplexy in those patients with narcolepsy type 1. Sleepiness can be treated with modafinil/armodafinil or sympathomimetic CNS stimulants, which have been shown to be beneficial in randomized controlled trials of narcolepsy and, quite recently, IH. In those patients with narcolepsy type 1, sodium oxybate is effective for the treatment of both sleepiness and cataplexy. Despite these treatments, there remains a subset of hypersomnolent patients with persistent sleepiness, in whom alternate therapies are needed. Emerging treatments for sleepiness include histamine H3 antagonists (eg, pitolisant) and possibly negative allosteric modulators of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor (eg, clarithromycin and flumazenil). PMID:26149554

  14. [MANAGEMENT OF CENTRAL HYPERSOMNIAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Lopez, Régis

    2016-06-01

    Central hypersomnias include narcolepsy type 1, type 2 and idiopathic hypersomnia with daytime sleepiness excessive in the foreground of the clinical symptoms. Despite major advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of the narcolepsy type 1 with a low level of hypocretin-1 in cerebrospinal fluid, its current management is only symptomatic. The current management is also only symptomatic for type 2 narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia with an unknown pathophysiology. Treatment options may vary from a single drug targeting several symptoms or several drugs treating a specific symptom. The treatment of daytime sleepiness is based on modafinil in first intention. Other psychostimulants such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and exceptionally dextro-amfetamine may be considered. In narcolepsy type 1, antidepressants such as inhibitors of the reuptake of serotonin and noradrenaline will be considered to improve cataplexy. Sodium oxybate is an effective treatment on sleepiness, cataplexy and bad night sleep in narcolepsy. The management for other symptoms or comorbidities should be considered it necessary such as hallucinations, sleep paralysis, the disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, cardiovascular disease and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Important therapeutic perspectives are to be expected concerning new psychostimulant and anticataplectiques, but mainly on immune-based therapies administered as early as possible after disease onset and on hypocretin replacement therapy for patients with severe symptoms.

  15. Honors in Honduras: Engaged Learning in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folds-Bennett, Trisha; Twomey, Mary Pat

    2013-01-01

    A significant challenge in honors education is providing experiences through which students deeply engage ideas and content so that their analytical abilities and core beliefs and values are transformed. The College of Charleston Honors College aimed to stimulate critical thinking and examination of core values through a more holistic approach to…

  16. Honduras - Agricultural Public Goods Grant Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — In this report, the economic rates of return have been reviewed and recalculated for the projects that were concluded or that registered a considerable level of...

  17. Minimum wages, globalization and poverty in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Gindling, T. H.; Terrell, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    To be competitive in the global economy, some argue that Latin American countries need to reduce or eliminate labour market regulations such as minimum wage legislation because they constrain job creation and hence increase poverty. On the other hand, minimum wage increases can have a direct positive impact on family income and may therefore help to reduce poverty. We take advantage of a complex minimum wage system in a poor country that has been exposed to the forces of globalization to test...

  18. Honduras - Transportation and Farm to Market Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation of the Transport Project and Farm to Market Roads Activity aimed to answer whether or not improved conditions throughout the road network: • Lowered...

  19. Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  20. Dublin South Central (DSC)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, Clodagh S M

    2010-12-01

    Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular risk factors, do not generally have outcomes of cardiovascular or other vascular disease during childhood. Historically, pediatric medicine has not aggressively screened for or treated cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy children. However, studies such as the P-Day Study (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth), and the Bogalusa Heart Study, indicate that healthy children at remarkably young ages can have evidence of significant atherosclerosis. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, can we expect more health problems related to the consequences of pediatric dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and atherosclerosis in the future? For many years, medications have been available and used in adult populations to treat dyslipidemia. In recent years, reports of short-term safety of some of these medications in children have been published. However, none of these studies have detailed long-term follow-up, and therefore none have described potential late side-effects of early cholesterol-lowering therapy, or potential benefits in terms of reduction of or delay in cardiovascular or other vascular end-points. In 2007, the American Heart Association published a scientific statement on the use of cholesterol-lowering therapy in pediatric patients. In this review paper, we discuss some of the current literature on cholesterol-lowering therapy in children, including the statins that are currently available for use in children, and some of the cautions with using these and other cholesterol-lowering medications. A central tenet of this review is that medications are not a substitute for dietary and lifestyle interventions, and that even in children on cholesterol-lowering medications, physicians should take every opportunity to encourage children and their parents to make healthy diet and lifestyle choices.