WorldWideScience

Sample records for coordinated surface activities

  1. Coordinated surface activities in Variovorax paradoxus EPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Glenn A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variovorax paradoxus is an aerobic soil bacterium frequently associated with important biodegradative processes in nature. Our group has cultivated a mucoid strain of Variovorax paradoxus for study as a model of bacterial development and response to environmental conditions. Colonies of this organism vary widely in appearance depending on agar plate type. Results Surface motility was observed on minimal defined agar plates with 0.5% agarose, similar in nature to swarming motility identified in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We examined this motility under several culture conditions, including inhibition of flagellar motility using Congo Red. We demonstrated that the presence of a wetting agent, mineral, and nutrient content of the media altered the swarming phenotype. We also demonstrated that the wetting agent reduces the surface tension of the agar. We were able to directly observe the presence of the wetting agent in the presence and absence of Congo Red, and found that incubation in a humidified chamber inhibited the production of wetting agent, and also slowed the progression of the swarming colony. We observed that swarming was related to both carbon and nitrogen sources, as well as mineral salts base. The phosphate concentration of the mineral base was critical for growth and swarming on glucose, but not succinate. Swarming on other carbon sources was generally only observed using M9 salts mineral base. Rapid swarming was observed on malic acid, d-sorbitol, casamino acids, and succinate. Swarming at a lower but still detectable rate was observed on glucose and sucrose, with weak swarming on maltose. Nitrogen source tests using succinate as carbon source demonstrated two distinct forms of swarming, with very different macroscopic swarm characteristics. Rapid swarming was observed when ammonium ion was provided as nitrogen source, as well as when histidine, tryptophan, or glycine was provided. Slower swarming was observed

  2. Coordinated surface activities in Variovorax paradoxus EPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, W David; Pehl, Michael J; Gregory, Glenn A; Orwin, Paul M

    2009-06-12

    Variovorax paradoxus is an aerobic soil bacterium frequently associated with important biodegradative processes in nature. Our group has cultivated a mucoid strain of Variovorax paradoxus for study as a model of bacterial development and response to environmental conditions. Colonies of this organism vary widely in appearance depending on agar plate type. Surface motility was observed on minimal defined agar plates with 0.5% agarose, similar in nature to swarming motility identified in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We examined this motility under several culture conditions, including inhibition of flagellar motility using Congo Red. We demonstrated that the presence of a wetting agent, mineral, and nutrient content of the media altered the swarming phenotype. We also demonstrated that the wetting agent reduces the surface tension of the agar. We were able to directly observe the presence of the wetting agent in the presence and absence of Congo Red, and found that incubation in a humidified chamber inhibited the production of wetting agent, and also slowed the progression of the swarming colony. We observed that swarming was related to both carbon and nitrogen sources, as well as mineral salts base. The phosphate concentration of the mineral base was critical for growth and swarming on glucose, but not succinate. Swarming on other carbon sources was generally only observed using M9 salts mineral base. Rapid swarming was observed on malic acid, d-sorbitol, casamino acids, and succinate. Swarming at a lower but still detectable rate was observed on glucose and sucrose, with weak swarming on maltose. Nitrogen source tests using succinate as carbon source demonstrated two distinct forms of swarming, with very different macroscopic swarm characteristics. Rapid swarming was observed when ammonium ion was provided as nitrogen source, as well as when histidine, tryptophan, or glycine was provided. Slower swarming was observed with methionine, arginine, or tyrosine. Large

  3. Surface normals and barycentric coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullineux Glen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The normal to a triangular parametric surface is investigated where the parameters used are barycentric coordinates. Formulae for the normal are obtained for non-rational and rational surfaces.

  4. Coordination and standardization of federal sedimentation activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glysson, G. Douglas; Gray, John R.

    1997-01-01

    In August 1964, the Bureau of the Budget issued Circular A-67 to set forth guidelines for the coordination of water-data acquisition activities throughout the Federal government. The U.S. Department of the Interior was assigned the task of implementing Circular A-67, which in turn redelegated this responsibility to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Delegation of the lead responsibility for water-data coordination to the USGS occurred because of its historical role as the primary agency for water-data acquisition in the United States. To provide overall leadership for implementing the provisions of Circular A-67, the USGS established the Office of Water Data Coordination in the Water Resources Division (WRD). In addition, regional and district offices of the WRD were delegated responsibility for coordinating water data within their geographic areas of responsibility. On December 10, 1991, the Office of Management and Budget issued OMB Number Memorandum M-92-01, which expands the USGS's coordination role to encompass all water information. This includes data critical to water resources in the following categories: - surface- and ground-water quality and quantity,

  5. Cohesion and coordination effects on transition metal surface energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvireta, Judit; Vega, Lorena; Viñes, Francesc

    2017-10-01

    Here we explore the accuracy of Stefan equation and broken-bond model semiempirical approaches to obtain surface energies on transition metals. Cohesive factors are accounted for either via the vaporization enthalpies, as proposed in Stefan equation, or via cohesive energies, as employed in the broken-bond model. Coordination effects are considered including the saturation degree, as suggested in Stefan equation, employing Coordination Numbers (CN), or as the ratio of broken bonds, according to the bond-cutting model, considering as well the square root dependency of the bond strength on CN. Further, generalized coordination numbers CN bar are contemplated as well, exploring a total number of 12 semiempirical formulations on the three most densely packed surfaces of 3d, 4d, and 5d Transition Metals (TMs) displaying face-centered cubic (fcc), body-centered cubic (bcc), or hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystallographic structures. Estimates are compared to available experimental surface energies obtained extrapolated to zero temperature. Results reveal that Stefan formula cohesive and coordination dependencies are only qualitative suited, but unadvised for quantitative discussion, as surface energies are highly overestimated, favoring in addition the stability of under-coordinated surfaces. Broken-bond cohesion and coordination dependencies are a suited basis for quantitative comparison, where square-root dependencies on CN to account for bond weakening are sensibly worse. An analysis using Wulff shaped averaged surface energies suggests the employment of broken-bond model using CN to gain surface energies for TMs, likely applicable to other metals.

  6. Coordinated Voltage Control of Active Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a centralized coordinated voltage control method for active distribution network to solve off-limit problem of voltage after incorporation of distributed generation (DG. The proposed method consists of two parts, it coordinated primal-dual interior point method-based voltage regulation schemes of DG reactive powers and capacitors with centralized on-load tap changer (OLTC controlling method which utilizes system’s maximum and minimum voltages, to improve the qualified rate of voltage and reduce the operation numbers of OLTC. The proposed coordination has considered the cost of capacitors. The method is tested using a radial edited IEEE-33 nodes distribution network which is modelled using MATLAB.

  7. Update of technical coordinating committee activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Technical Coordinating Committee has its origins in the earliest days of implementing the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act. Between 1982 and 1985, individuals in several of the states felt that coordination among the states would be beneficial to all by affording states a cost-effective method for sharing ideas, discussing alternatives, and presenting solutions to common problems. At the current time, the committee comprises members from each of the sited states. Various compacts, federal agencies, and industry groups participate in committee activities. The Low-Level Management Program provides support for the committee through the provision of logistical support and limited manpower allocation. Activities of the committee have recently focused on waste treatment and minimization technologies. The committee also has worked diligently to see the review of the 3RSTAT computer code completed. The committee has taken a position on various regulatory proposals the past year. The committee expects to continue its work until new sites are brought online.

  8. New polypyridine anchoring ligands for coordination complexes and surface functionalization

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    This PhD thesis focuses on the synthesis of new polypyridine anchoring ligands and several dfferent applications. The ligands consist of a coordinating part, a flexible linker and an anchoring group. Due to the fact that different anchoring groups were used, the ligands can be applied for several types of surface-materials. Using these anchoring ligands, several coordination complexes were synthesized. Ruthenium-based complexes, bearing an ion-sensitive ligand, were tested towards...

  9. Coordination of breathing with nonrespiratory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Donald; Leiter, James C

    2012-04-01

    Many articles in this section of Comprehensive Physiology are concerned with the development and function of a central pattern generator (CPG) for the control of breathing in vertebrate animals. The action of the respiratory CPG is extensively modified by cortical and other descending influences as well as by feedback from peripheral sensory systems. The central nervous system also incorporates other CPGs, which orchestrate a wide variety of discrete and repetitive, voluntary and involuntary movements. The coordination of breathing with these other activities requires interaction and coordination between the respiratory CPG and those governing the nonrespiratory activities. Most of these interactions are complex and poorly understood. They seem to involve both conventional synaptic crosstalk between groups of neurons and fluid identity of neurons as belonging to one CPG or another: neurons that normally participate in breathing may be temporarily borrowed or hijacked by a competing or interrupting activity. This review explores the control of breathing as it is influenced by many activities that are generally considered to be nonrespiratory. The mechanistic detail varies greatly among topics, reflecting the wide variety of pertinent experiments.

  10. Coordination of autophagy with other cellular activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan WANG; Zheng-hong QIN

    2013-01-01

    The cell biological phenomenon of autophagy has attracted increasing attention in recent years,partly as a consequence of the discovery of key components of its cellular machinery.Autophagy plays a crucial role in a myriad of cellular functions.Autophagy has its own regulatory mechanisms,but this process is not isolated.Autophagy is coordinated with other cellular activities to maintain cell homeostasis.Autophagy is critical for a range of human physiological processes.The multifunctional roles of autophagy are explained by its ability to interact with several key components of various cell pathways.In this review,we focus on the coordination between autophagy and other physiological processes,including the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS),energy homeostasis,aging,programmed cell death,the immune responses,microbial invasion and inflammation.The insights gained from investigating autophagic networks should increase our understanding of their roles in human diseases and their potential as targets for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Pyridine coordination chemistry for molecular assemblies on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Graham; Lahav, Michal; van der Boom, Milko E

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Since the first description of coordination complexes, many types of metal-ligand interactions have creatively been used in the chemical sciences. The rich coordination chemistry of pyridine-type ligands has contributed significantly to the incorporation of diverse metal ions into functional materials. Here we discuss molecular assemblies (MAs) formed with a variety of pyridine-type compounds and a metal containing cross-linker (e.g., PdCl2(PhCN2)). These MAs are formed using Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition from solution that allows for precise fitting of the assembly properties through molecular programming. The position of each component can be controlled by altering the assembly sequence, while the degree of intermolecular interactions can be varied by the level of π-conjugation and the availability of metal coordination sites. By setting the structural parameters (e.g., bond angles, number of coordination sites, geometry) of the ligand, control over MA structure was achieved, resulting in surface-confined metal-organic networks and oligomers. Unlike MAs that are constructed with organic ligands, MAs with polypyridyl complexes of ruthenium, osmium, and cobalt are active participants in their own formation and amplify the growth of the incoming molecular layer. Such a self-propagating behavior for molecular systems is rare, and the mechanism of their formation will be discussed. These exponentially growing MAs are capable of storing metal salts that can be used during the buildup of additional molecular layers. Various parameters influencing the film growth mechanism will be presented, including (i) the number of binding sites and geometry of the organic ligands, (ii) the metal and the structure of the polypyridyl complexes, (iii) the influence of the metal cross-linker (e.g., second or third row transition metals), and (iv) the deposition conditions. By systematic variation of these parameters, switching between linear and exponential growth could

  12. Functional link between surface low-coordination sites and the electrochemical durability of Pt nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Dong Young; Shin, Heejong; Yoo, Ji Mun; Lee, Kug-Seung; Lee, Nam-Suk; Kang, Kisuk; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2016-12-01

    A promising strategy for achieving enhanced catalytic activity involves the use of nanoscale electrocatalysts; however, their low stability remains a major challenge. Among the various performance-degradation mechanisms, atomic dissolution is known to cause severe nanoparticle deactivation. To date, the factors influencing these catalysts' durability are not understood. Herein, we assess the role of low-coordination surface sites, focusing on the atomic dissolution of Pt nanoparticles. The density of low-coordination sites was finely controlled, and no significant size change occurred. Based on our findings, we suggest that the initial low-coordination sites trigger metal dissolution, which subsequently accelerates Pt dissolution. We believe that controlling the surface coordination number can open new routes for the design of highly durable nanoscale electrocatalysts.

  13. A framework for predicting surface areas in microporous coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnobrich, Jennifer K; Koh, Kyoungmoo; Sura, Kush N; Matzger, Adam J

    2010-04-20

    A predictive tool termed the linker to metal cluster (LiMe) ratio is introduced as a method for understanding surface area in microporous coordination polymers (MCPs). Calibrated with geometric accessible surface area computations, the LiMe ratio uses molecular weight of building block components to indicate the maximum attainable surface area for a given linker and metal cluster combination. MOF-5 and HKUST-1 are used as prototypical structures to analyze MCPs with octahedral M(4)O(CO(2)R)(6) and paddlewheel M(2)(CO(2)R)(4) metal clusters. Insight into the effects of linker size, geometry, number of coordinating groups, and framework interpenetration is revealed through the LiMe ratio analysis of various MCPs. Experimental surface area deviation provides indication that a material may suffer from incomplete guest removal, structural collapse, or interpenetration. Because minimal data input are required, the LiMe ratio surface area analysis is suggested as a quick method for experimental verification as well as a guide for the design of new materials.

  14. Multifunctionality of organometallic quinonoid metal complexes: surface chemistry, coordination polymers, and catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Bok; Pike, Robert D; Sweigart, Dwight A

    2013-11-19

    rhodium complex showed catalytic activity in Suzuki-Miyaura type reaction. As a result of the excellent stability of the homogeneous catalyst [(quinone)Rh(COD)](-) in water, we also successfully demonstrated catalyst recycling in 1,2- and 1,4-addition reactions. The compound [(quinone)Ir(COD)](-) showed significantly poorer catalytic activity in 1,4-addition reactions. Following upon the excellent coordination ability of the quinonoid rhodium complexes to metal centers, we synthesized organometallic coordination polymer nanocatalysts and silica gel-supported quinonoid rhodium catalysts, the latter using a surface sol-gel technique. The resulting heterogeneous catalysts showed activity in the stereospecific polymerization of phenylacetylene.

  15. Coordinating Learning Agents for Active Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ranging from robocup soccer [26, 27], to rover coordination [19], to trading agents [25, 43], to air traffic management [32]. What makes this problem...Bazzan, A. and Ossowski, S. (eds.), Applications of Agent Technology in Traffic and Transportation ( Springer , 2005). [19] Mataric, M. J., Coordination...of Complex Systems ( Springer , 2004). September 16, 2009 16:40 WSPC/169-ACS 00230 472 K. Tumer and N. Khani [24] Pynadath, D. and Tambe, M., The

  16. Fluctuations of collective coordinates and convexity theorems for energy surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Giraud, B G; Sami, T

    2016-01-01

    Constrained energy minimizations of a many-body Hamiltonian return energy landscapes e(b) where b= representes the average value(s) of one (or several) collective operator(s), B, in an "optimized" trial state Phi_b, and e = is the average value of the Hamiltonian in this state Phi_b. It is natural to consider the uncertainty, Delta e, given that Phi_b usually belongs to a restricted set of trial states. However, we demonstrate that the uncertainty, Delta b, must also be considered, acknowledging corrections to theoretical models. We also find a link between fluctuations of collective coordinates and convexity properties of energy surfaces.

  17. COORDINATION POLYMERIZATION OF BENZOTRIAZOLE ON THE SURFACE OF METALLIC COPPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Gi; DAI Qinpin; DING Jianfu; WU Peiyi

    1989-01-01

    The coordination polymerization of benzotriazole with metallic copper has been investigated by infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. We found that benzotriazole could react with copper (0) under mild conditions to form bis ( benzotriazolato ) copper (Ⅱ) and benzotriazolato copper(Ⅰ)which covered the surface of copper metal in the shape of polymeric materials. Since benzotriazole is of great interest as a ligand in that its presence in many biological system with metal ions ,and is considered as a corrosion inhibitor, this work will be in favour of the study of protective corrosion.

  18. 23 CFR 450.208 - Coordination of planning process activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination of planning process activities. 450.208... Coordination of planning process activities. (a) In carrying out the statewide transportation planning process... planning process shall (to the maximum extent practicable) be consistent with the development of applicable...

  19. Meta-Coordination Activities: Exploring Articulation Work in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Coordination of distributed activities is central to organizational work. The effective functioning of organizations hinges on their ability to manage interdependencies both within (intra-) and between (inter-) various departments. However, more than just the management of these individual dependencies is required for smooth coordination in…

  20. Rapid and enhanced activation of microporous coordination polymers by flowing supercritical CO.sub.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzger, Adam J.; Liu, Baojian; Wong-Foy, Antek G.

    2016-07-19

    Flowing supercritical CO.sub.2 is used to activate metal organic framework materials (MOF). MOFs are activated directly from N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) thus avoiding exchange with a volatile solvent. Most MCPs display increased surface areas directly after treatment although those with coordinatively unsaturated metal centers benefit from additional heating.

  1. Destruction of Invariant Surfaces and Magnetic Coordinates for Perturbed Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.R. Hudson

    2003-11-20

    Straight-field-line coordinates are constructed for nearly integrable magnetic fields. The coordinates are based on the robust, noble-irrational rotational-transform surfaces, whose existence is determined by an application of Greene's residue criterion. A simple method to locate these surfaces is described. Sequences of surfaces with rotational-transform converging to low order rationals maximize the region of straight-field-line coordinates.

  2. Physical Activity Predicts Performance in an Unpracticed Bimanual Coordination Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P.; Serbruyns, Leen; Swinnen, Stephan P.

    2017-01-01

    Practice of a given physical activity is known to improve the motor skills related to this activity. However, whether unrelated skills are also improved is still unclear. To test the impact of physical activity on an unpracticed motor task, 26 young adults completed the international physical activity questionnaire and performed a bimanual coordination task they had never practiced before. Results showed that higher total physical activity predicted higher performance in the bimanual task, controlling for multiple factors such as age, physical inactivity, music practice, and computer games practice. Linear mixed models allowed this effect of physical activity to be generalized to a large population of bimanual coordination conditions. This finding runs counter to the notion that generalized motor abilities do not exist and supports the existence of a “learning to learn” skill that could be improved through physical activity and that impacts performance in tasks that are not necessarily related to the practiced activity. PMID:28265253

  3. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A.M. F.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  4. Generating optical freeform surfaces considering both coordinates and normals of discrete data points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Wu, Xiaofei; Yang, Tong; Jin, Guofan

    2014-11-01

    Through direct design methods, both coordinates and normals of discrete data points on a freeform surface are usually obtained, but traditionally the freeform surface is generated by only fitting the coordinates. In this paper, a novel generating method that fits both the coordinates and the normals is proposed based on the mathematical multiobjective optimization theory. This new method is suited for generating some freeform polynomial surfaces. Two design examples are introduced, and their optical performance is significantly improved when applying the new method compared with the traditional method. This new method is validated to be effective, and it is widely useful as long as the coordinates and the normals are provided in advance.

  5. RssAB signaling coordinates early development of surface multicellularity in Serratia marcescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Huan Tsai

    Full Text Available Bacteria can coordinate several multicellular behaviors in response to environmental changes. Among these, swarming and biofilm formation have attracted significant attention for their correlation with bacterial pathogenicity. However, little is known about when and where the signaling occurs to trigger either swarming or biofilm formation. We have previously identified an RssAB two-component system involved in the regulation of swarming motility and biofilm formation in Serratia marcescens. Here we monitored the RssAB signaling status within single cells by tracing the location of the translational fusion protein EGFP-RssB following development of swarming or biofilm formation. RssAB signaling is specifically activated before surface migration in swarming development and during the early stage of biofilm formation. The activation results in the release of RssB from its cognate inner membrane sensor kinase, RssA, to the cytoplasm where the downstream gene promoters are located. Such dynamic localization of RssB requires phosphorylation of this regulator. By revealing the temporal activation of RssAB signaling following development of surface multicellular behavior, our findings contribute to an improved understanding of how bacteria coordinate their lifestyle on a surface.

  6. Fabrication of a PANI/CPs composite material: a feasible method to enhance the photocatalytic activity of coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-Xin; Cui, Zhong-Ping; Qi, Ji; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2013-03-21

    To improve the photocatalytic activity of a coordination polymer in the visible light region, polyaniline (PANI) was loaded onto its surface through a facile in situ chemical oxidation polymerization process. The resulting PANI loaded coordination polymer composite materials with excellent stability exhibit significantly higher photocatalytic activities than the pure coordination polymer photocatalyst on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. This enhancement can be ascribed to the introduction of PANI on the surface of the coordination polymer, which leads to efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs as well as a significant expansion of the photoresponse region. Finally, we discussed the influence of acidity on the morphology and photocatalytic activity of the composite material. An optimal condition to obtain the PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material with excellent photocatalytic activity has been obtained.

  7. A new redox-active coordination polymer with cobalticinium dicarboxylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Mitsuru; Hayakawa, Yuri; Miyazawa, Makoto; Oyama, Aiko; Unoura, Kei; Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki; Naito, Tetsuyoshi; Maeda, Kenji; Uchida, Fumio

    2004-09-20

    A new two-dimensional coordination polymer with cobalticinium 1,1'-dicarboxylate (ccdc) incorporated in the framework has been prepared, the ccdc functioning as unique monoanionic dicarboxylate ligands. The compound shows a high redox activity based on the ccdc units.

  8. Interaction of Waves, Surface Currents, and Turbulence: the Application of Surface-Following Coordinate Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Surface waves comprise an important aspect of the interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean, so a dynamically consistent framework for modelling atmosphere-ocean interaction must take account of surface waves, either implicitly or explicitly. In order to calculate the effect of wind forcing on waves and currents, and vice versa, it is necessary to employ a consistent formulation of the energy and momentum balance within the airflow, wave field, and water column. It is very advantageous to apply surface-following coordinate systems, whereby the steep gradients in mean flow properties near the air-water interface in the cross-interface direction may be resolved over distances which are much smaller than the height of the waves themselves. We may account for the waves explicitly by employing a numerical spectral wave model, and applying a suitable theory of wave-mean flow interaction. If the mean flow is small compared with the wave phase speed, perturbation expansions of the hydrodynamic equations in a Lagrangian or generalized Lagrangian mean framework are useful: for stronger flows, such as for wind blowing over waves, the presence of critical levels where the mean flow velocity is equal to the wave phase speed necessitates the application of more general types of surface-following coordinate system. The interaction of the flow of air and water and associated differences in temperature and the concentration of various substances (such as gas species) gives rise to a complex boundary-layer structure at a wide range of vertical scales, from the sub-millimetre scales of gaseous diffusion, to several tens of metres for the turbulent Ekman layer. The balance of momentum, heat, and mass is also affected significantly by breaking waves, which act to increase the effective area of the surface for mass transfer, and increase turbulent diffusive fluxes via the conversion of wave energy to turbulent kinetic energy.

  9. Faceting of curved surfaces using the curvature coordinate system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    In many situations, a curved surface has to be approximated by a facetted surface, i.e., as a network with planar meshes. Most often this is done by triangulation of the surface. Points are chosen on the surface and the points are connected by straight lines so that these lines make a network...... this is by tangent faceting. Tangent points are chosen on the surface and the tangent planes at these points are connected along lines of intersection so that these lines make a network with planar meshes and so that no normal to the curved surface intersect more than one facet. The result is a faceted surface...... of triangular meshes and so that no normal to the curved surface intersect more than one mesh/facet. The result is a faceted surface, with vertices, edges and triangular facets. But faceting a curved surface can also be done using planes as the basic geometrical element instead of points. One way of doing...

  10. Euro-VO - Coordination of Virtual Observatory activities in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Genova, Francoise; Arviset, Christophe; Lawrence, Andy; Pasian, Fabio; Solano, Enrique; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The European Virtual Observatory Euro-VO has been coordinating European VO activities through a series of projects co-funded by the European Commission over the last 15 years. The bulk of VO work in Europe is ensured by the national VO initiatives and those of intergovernmental agencies. VO activities at the European level coordinate the work in support of the three "pillars" of the Virtual Observatory: support to the scientific community, take-up by the data providers, and technological activities. Several Euro-VO projects have also provided direct support to selected developments and prototyping. This paper explains the methodology used by Euro-VO over the years. It summarizes the activities which were performed and their evolutions at different stages of the development of the VO, explains the Euro-VO role with respect to the international and national levels of VO activities, details the lessons learnt for best practices for the coordination of the VO building blocks, and the liaison with other European i...

  11. Surface Active Components: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Shafiei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant or surface active components are produced by many different microorganisms. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic (generally hydrocarbon moieties that partition preferentially a within the interface between fluid phases with some other degrees of polarity and hydrogen bonding including oil/water or air/water interfaces. These properties render surfactants able to reducing surface and interfacial tension and forming microemulsion where hydrocarbons can solubilize in water or where water can solubilize in hydrocarbons, the majority of surfactants have gained importance in the fields of enhanced oil recovery, environmental bioremediation, food processing and pharmaceuticals. However, large-scale production of these molecules has not been realized as a result of low yields in production processes and high recovery and purification costs. This review article represents a classification of biosurfactant in addition to their microbial origin and effect of some nutrition and environmental factor for high production of biosurfactant. The nitrogen, carbon sources and environmental factors can make a difference key to the regulating biosurfactants synthesis Fascination with microbial surfactants have been steadily increasing recently because of advantages over the chemical surfactants for example environmentally friendly nature, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability, higher selectivity and specific gravity at extreme temperature, pH and salinity. For this reason the demand of biosurfactant are increasing day by day.

  12. Development of a high-precision selenodetic coordinate system for the physical surface of the Moon based on LED beacons on its surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirenin, A. M.; Mazurova, E. M.; Bagrov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents a mathematical algorithm for processing an array of angular measurements of light beacons on images of the lunar surface onboard a polar artificial lunar satellite (PALS) during the Luna-Glob mission and coordinate-time referencing of the PALS for the development of reference selenocentric coordinate systems. The algorithm makes it possible to obtain angular positions of point light beacons located on the surface of the Moon in selenocentric celestial coordinates. The operation of measurement systems that determine the position and orientation of the PALS during its active existence have been numerically simulated. Recommendations have been made for the optimal use of different types of measurements, including ground radio trajectory measurements, navigational star sensors based on the onboard star catalog, gyroscopic orientation systems, and space videos of the lunar surface.

  13. The Weierstrass–Enneper Representation using Hodographic Coordinates on a Minimal Surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rukmini Dey

    2003-05-01

    In this paper we obtain the general solution to the minimal surface equation, namely its local Weierstrass–Enneper representation, using a system of hodographic coordinates. This is done by using the method of solving the Born–Infeld equations by Whitham. We directly compute conformal coordinates on the minimal surface which give the Weierstrass–Enneper representation. From this we derive the hodographic coordinate $ρ \\in D \\subset \\mathbb{C}$ and its complex conjugate which enables us to write the Weierstrass–Enneper representation in a new way.

  14. Twinning in fcc lattice creates low-coordinated catalytically active sites in porous gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajčí, Marian; Kameoka, Satoshi; Tsai, An-Pang

    2016-08-28

    We describe a new mechanism for creation of catalytically active sites in porous gold. Samples of porous gold prepared by de-alloying Al2Au exhibit a clear correlation between the catalytic reactivity towards CO oxidation and structural defects in the fcc lattice of Au. We have found that on the stepped {211} surfaces quite common twin boundary defects in the bulk structure of porous gold can form long close-packed rows of atoms with the coordination number CN = 6. DFT calculations confirm that on these low-coordinated Au sites dioxygen chemisorbs and CO oxidation can proceed via the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism with the activation energy of 37 kJ/mol or via the CO-OO intermediate with the energy barrier of 19 kJ/mol. The existence of the twins in porous gold is stabilized by the surface energy.

  15. Competition between Hydrogen Bonds and Coordination Bonds Steered by the Surface Molecular Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liangliang; Sun, Qiang; Bao, Meiling; Ma, Honghong; Yuan, Chunxue; Xu, Wei

    2017-04-25

    In addition to the choices of metal atoms/molecular linkers and surfaces, several crucial parameters, including surface temperature, molecular stoichiometric ratio, electrical stimulation, concentration, and solvent effect for liquid/solid interfaces, have been demonstrated to play key roles in the formation of on-surface self-assembled supramolecular architectures. Moreover, self-assembled structural transformations frequently occur in response to a delicate control over those parameters, which, in most cases, involve either conversions from relatively weak interactions to stronger ones (e.g., hydrogen bonds to coordination bonds) or transformations between the comparable interactions (e.g., different coordination binding modes or hydrogen bonding configurations). However, intermolecular bond conversions from relatively strong coordination bonds to weak hydrogen bonds were rarely reported. Moreover, to our knowledge, a reversible conversion between hydrogen bonds and coordination bonds has not been demonstrated before. Herein, we have demonstrated a facile strategy for the regulation of stepwise intermolecular bond conversions from the metal-organic coordination bond (Cu-N) to the weak hydrogen bond (CH···N) by increasing the surface molecular coverage. From the DFT calculations we quantify that the loss in intermolecular interaction energy is compensated by the increased molecular adsorption energy at higher molecular coverage. Moreover, we achieved a reversible conversion from the weak hydrogen bond to the coordination bond by decreasing the surface molecular coverage.

  16. Coordinating complex decision support activities across distributed applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge-based technologies have been applied successfully to automate planning and scheduling in many problem domains. Automation of decision support can be increased further by integrating task-specific applications with supporting database systems, and by coordinating interactions between such tools to facilitate collaborative activities. Unfortunately, the technical obstacles that must be overcome to achieve this vision of transparent, cooperative problem-solving are daunting. Intelligent decision support tools are typically developed for standalone use, rely on incompatible, task-specific representational models and application programming interfaces (API's), and run on heterogeneous computing platforms. Getting such applications to interact freely calls for platform independent capabilities for distributed communication, as well as tools for mapping information across disparate representations. Symbiotics is developing a layered set of software tools (called NetWorks! for integrating and coordinating heterogeneous distributed applications. he top layer of tools consists of an extensible set of generic, programmable coordination services. Developers access these services via high-level API's to implement the desired interactions between distributed applications.

  17. Global structure search for molecules on surfaces: Efficient sampling with curvilinear coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautgasser, Konstantin; Panosetti, Chiara; Palagin, Dennis; Reuter, Karsten; Maurer, Reinhard J

    2016-08-28

    Efficient structure search is a major challenge in computational materials science. We present a modification of the basin hopping global geometry optimization approach that uses a curvilinear coordinate system to describe global trial moves. This approach has recently been shown to be efficient in structure determination of clusters [C. Panosetti et al., Nano Lett. 15, 8044-8048 (2015)] and is here extended for its application to covalent, complex molecules and large adsorbates on surfaces. The employed automatically constructed delocalized internal coordinates are similar to molecular vibrations, which enhances the generation of chemically meaningful trial structures. By introducing flexible constraints and local translation and rotation of independent geometrical subunits, we enable the use of this method for molecules adsorbed on surfaces and interfaces. For two test systems, trans-β-ionylideneacetic acid adsorbed on a Au(111) surface and methane adsorbed on a Ag(111) surface, we obtain superior performance of the method compared to standard optimization moves based on Cartesian coordinates.

  18. Global structure search for molecules on surfaces: Efficient sampling with curvilinear coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautgasser, Konstantin; Panosetti, Chiara; Palagin, Dennis; Reuter, Karsten; Maurer, Reinhard J.

    2016-08-01

    Efficient structure search is a major challenge in computational materials science. We present a modification of the basin hopping global geometry optimization approach that uses a curvilinear coordinate system to describe global trial moves. This approach has recently been shown to be efficient in structure determination of clusters [C. Panosetti et al., Nano Lett. 15, 8044-8048 (2015)] and is here extended for its application to covalent, complex molecules and large adsorbates on surfaces. The employed automatically constructed delocalized internal coordinates are similar to molecular vibrations, which enhances the generation of chemically meaningful trial structures. By introducing flexible constraints and local translation and rotation of independent geometrical subunits, we enable the use of this method for molecules adsorbed on surfaces and interfaces. For two test systems, trans-β-ionylideneacetic acid adsorbed on a Au(111) surface and methane adsorbed on a Ag(111) surface, we obtain superior performance of the method compared to standard optimization moves based on Cartesian coordinates.

  19. Path optimization by a variational reaction coordinate method. II. Improved computational efficiency through internal coordinates and surface interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, Adam B; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2016-05-14

    Reaction path optimization is being used more frequently as an alternative to the standard practice of locating a transition state and following the path downhill. The Variational Reaction Coordinate (VRC) method was proposed as an alternative to chain-of-states methods like nudged elastic band and string method. The VRC method represents the path using a linear expansion of continuous basis functions, allowing the path to be optimized variationally by updating the expansion coefficients to minimize the line integral of the potential energy gradient norm, referred to as the Variational Reaction Energy (VRE) of the path. When constraints are used to control the spacing of basis functions and to couple the minimization of the VRE with the optimization of one or more individual points along the path (representing transition states and intermediates), an approximate path as well as the converged geometries of transition states and intermediates along the path are determined in only a few iterations. This algorithmic efficiency comes at a high per-iteration cost due to numerical integration of the VRE derivatives. In the present work, methods for incorporating redundant internal coordinates and potential energy surface interpolation into the VRC method are described. With these methods, the per-iteration cost, in terms of the number of potential energy surface evaluations, of the VRC method is reduced while the high algorithmic efficiency is maintained.

  20. Classification of physical activities based on body-segments coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradet, Laetitia; Marin, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    Numerous innovations based on connected objects and physical activity (PA) monitoring have been proposed. However, recognition of PAs requires robust algorithm and methodology. The current study presents an innovative approach for PA recognition. It is based on the heuristic definition of postures and the use of body-segments coordination obtained through external sensors. The first part of this study presents the methodology required to define the set of accelerations which is the most appropriate to represent the particular body-segments coordination involved in the chosen PAs (here walking, running, and cycling). For that purpose, subjects of different ages and heterogeneous physical conditions walked, ran, cycled, and performed daily activities at different paces. From the 3D motion capture, vertical and horizontal accelerations of 8 anatomical landmarks representative of the body were computed. Then, the 680 combinations from up to 3 accelerations were compared to identify the most appropriate set of acceleration to discriminate the PAs in terms of body segment coordinations. The discrimination was based on the maximal Hausdorff Distance obtained between the different set of accelerations. The vertical accelerations of both knees demonstrated the best PAs discrimination. The second step was the proof of concept, implementing the proposed algorithm to classify PAs of new group of subjects. The originality of the proposed algorithm is the possibility to use the subject's specific measures as reference data. With the proposed algorithm, 94% of the trials were correctly classified. In conclusion, our study proposed a flexible and extendable methodology. At the current stage, the algorithm has been shown to be valid for heterogeneous subjects, which suggests that it could be deployed in clinical or health-related applications regardless of the subjects' physical abilities or characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-assembly of metal-organic coordination structures on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei; Gao, Zi'Ang; Lin, Nian

    2016-08-01

    Metal-organic coordination structures are materials comprising reticular metal centers and organic linkers in which the two constituents bind with each other via metal-ligand coordination interaction. The underlying chemistry is more than a century old but has attracted tremendous attention in the last two decades owing to the rapidly development of metal-organic (or porous coordination) frameworks. These metal-coordination materials exhibit extraordinarily versatile topologies and many potential applications. Since 2002, this traditionally three-dimensional chemistry has been extended to two-dimensional space, that is, to synthesize metal-organic coordination structures directly on solid surfaces. This endeavor has made possible a wide range of so-called surface-confined metal-organic networks (SMONs) whose topology, composition, property and function can be tailored by applying the principle of rational design. The coordination chemistry manifests unique characteristics at the surfaces, and in turn the surfaces provide additional control for design structures and properties that are inaccessible in three-dimensional space. In this review, our goal is to comprehensively cover the progress made in the last 15 years in this rapidly developing field. The review summarizes (1) the experimental and theoretical techniques used in this field including scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, density functional theory, and Monte Carlo and kinetic Monte Carlo simulation; (2) molecular ligands, metal atoms, substrates, and coordination motifs utilized for synthesizing SMON; (3) representative SMON structures with different topologies ranging from finite-size discrete clusters to one-dimensional chains, two-dimensional periodical frameworks and random networks; and (4) the properties and potential applications of SMONs. We conclude the review with some perspectives.

  2. A series of Ti(IV)/Ti(III) coordination polymers: structures and surface photoelectric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Li; Liu, Dong-Wei; Jin, Jing; Chi, Yu-Xian; Niu, Shu-Yun

    2012-02-01

    Three titanium coordination polymers, {[Ti(SO(4))(2)(H(2)O)]·0.5bipy·2H(2)O}(n)1, {[Ti1(SO(4))(2)(H(2)O)]·[Ti2(SO(4))(2)(H(2)O)]·bipy·5H(2)O}(n)2 and [Ti(tea)](n)3 (bipy=4,4'-bipyridine, H(3)tea=triethanolamine) were synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-Vis absorption spectra, TG analysis, X-ray single crystal diffraction and surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS). The surface photoelectric properties of titanium coordination polymers were discussed emphatically by the SPS. The results of single crystal diffraction indicate that polymers 1 and 2 possess 1D infinite structure bridged by SO(4)(2-) groups and coordinated water molecules and further connected into supramolecular structures by hydrogen bonds. Polymer 3 possesses 2D infinite structure bridged by weak sub-coordinated Ti-O bonds. The results of SPS show that there are obvious photovoltage responses in the range of 300-500 nm, which indicates that they possess photoelectric conversion ability. The SPS of three titanium polymers were analyzed comparatively. It is found that the valence of central metal ions, coordination micro-environment and kinds of coordination atoms influence the results of the SPS. The SPS is associated with UV-Vis absorption spectra.

  3. A series of Ti(IV)/Ti(III) coordination polymers: Structures and surface photoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Li; Liu, Dong-Wei; Jin, Jing; Chi, Yu-Xian; Niu, Shu-Yun

    2012-02-01

    Three titanium coordination polymers, {[Ti(SO 4) 2(H 2O)]·0.5bipy·2H 2O} n1, {[Ti1(SO 4) 2(H 2O)]·[Ti2(SO 4) 2(H 2O)]·bipy·5H 2O} n2 and [Ti(tea)] n3 (bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine, H 3tea = triethanolamine) were synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-Vis absorption spectra, TG analysis, X-ray single crystal diffraction and surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS). The surface photoelectric properties of titanium coordination polymers were discussed emphatically by the SPS. The results of single crystal diffraction indicate that polymers 1 and 2 possess 1D infinite structure bridged by SO 42- groups and coordinated water molecules and further connected into supramolecular structures by hydrogen bonds. Polymer 3 possesses 2D infinite structure bridged by weak sub-coordinated Ti-O bonds. The results of SPS show that there are obvious photovoltage responses in the range of 300-500 nm, which indicates that they possess photoelectric conversion ability. The SPS of three titanium polymers were analyzed comparatively. It is found that the valence of central metal ions, coordination micro-environment and kinds of coordination atoms influence the results of the SPS. The SPS is associated with UV-Vis absorption spectra.

  4. 75 FR 2595 - Proposed Information Collection (Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT) Activity: Comment... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT)...

  5. 75 FR 15496 - Agency Information Collection (Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT)) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT)) Activity Under OMB Review...).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT) Patient Satisfaction Survey, VA...

  6. Surface topography characterization using an atomic force microscope mounted on a coordinate measuring machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, H.N; Kofod, N

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the construction, testing and use of an integrated system for topographic characterization of fine surfaces on parts having relatively big dimensions. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was mounted on a manual three-coordinate measuring machine (CMM) achieving free positioning...

  7. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Curriculum Coordination Centers? 412.30 Section 412.30 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... NETWORK FOR CURRICULUM COORDINATION IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION What Conditions Must Be Met After An Award? § 412.30 What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination...

  8. Active Free Surface Density Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelen, S.

    2016-10-01

    Percolation problems were occupied to many physical problems after their establishment in 1957 by Broadbent and Hammersley. They can be used to solve complex systems such as bone remodeling. Volume fraction method was adopted to set some algorithms in the literature. However, different rate of osteoporosis could be observed for different microstructures which have the same mass density, mechanical stimuli, hormonal stimuli and nutrition. Thus it was emphasized that the bone might have identical porosity with different specific surfaces. Active free surface density of bone refers the used total area for its effective free surface. The purpose of this manuscript is to consolidate a mathematical approach which can be called as “active free surface density maps” for different surface patterns and derive their formulations. Active free surface density ratios were calculated for different Archimedean lattice models according to Helmholtz free energy and they were compared with their site and bond percolation thresholds from the background studies to derive their potential probability for bone remodeling.

  9. Enhanced Raman spectroscopic study of the coordination chemistry of malononitrile on copper surfaces - Removal of nu(C=N) degeneracy through pi-coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, B. H.; Lee, Y. G.; Frazier, D. O.

    1985-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the molecular interactions of malononitrile with copper electrode surfaces. The doubly degenerate CN stretching frequency at 2263/cm is removed when malononitrile adsorbs on copper. Two nu(CN) bands are observed at 2096 and 2204/cm at -0.6 V(SCE). The result shows that only one CN group is pi-coordinated with Cu, which contributes to the observed large shift (-167/cm) in nu(CN). The other CN group is not coordinated to the metal surface.

  10. A putatively novel form of spontaneous coordination in neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermer-Vazquez, Raymond; Hermer-Vazquez, Linda; Srinivasan, Sridhar

    2009-04-06

    We simultaneously recorded local field potentials from three sites along the olfactory-entorhinal axis in rats lightly anesthetized with isoflurane, as part of another experiment. While analyzing the initial data from that experiment with spectrograms, we discovered a potentially novel form of correlated neural activity, with near-simultaneous occurrence across the three widely separated brain sites. After validating their existence further, we named these events Synchronous Frequency Bursts (SFBs). Here we report our initial investigations into their properties and their potential functional significance. In Experiment 1, we found that SFBs have highly regular properties, consisting of brief (approximately 250 ms), high amplitude bursts of LFP energy spanning frequency ranges from the delta band (1-4 Hz) to at least the low gamma band (30-50 Hz). SFBs occurred almost simultaneously across recording sites, usually with onsets sites. While the SFBs had fairly typical, exponentially decaying power spectral density plots, their coherence structure was unusual, with high peaks in several narrow frequency ranges and little coherence in other bands. In Experiment 2, we found that SFBs occurred far more often under light anesthesia than deeper anesthetic states, and were especially prevalent as the animals regained consciousness. Finally, in Experiment 3 we showed that SFBs occur simultaneously at a significant rate across brain sites from putatively different functional subsystems--olfactory versus motor pathways. We suggest that SFBs do not carry information per se, but rather, play a role in coordinating activity in different frequency bands, potentially brain-wide, as animals progress from sleep or anesthesia toward full consciousness.

  11. Structural and chemical control in assembly of multicomponent metal-organic coordination networks on a surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ziliang; Lin, Nian

    2010-08-11

    Surface-supported supramolecular self-assembly has been used to generate multicomponent two-dimensional metal-organic coordination networks on a Au(111) surface. The networks consist of linker ligands of 4',4''''-(1,4-phenylene)bis(2,2':6',2''-terpyridine) and nodal ligands of 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin that are connected by pyridine-Fe-terpyridine motifs. Scanning tunneling microscopy revealed the coexistence of two polymorphic types of network structures (rhombus and Kagome). Through control of the dosage of the constituent ligands, homogeneous structural phases were obtained selectively. In particular, the rhombus structure could be converted into the more complex and more open Kagome structure by inclusion of guest molecules. Finally, coordination networks providing structural and chemical homogeneity were realized by judiciously choosing the dosages of the constituent ligands and the chemical substitution of the porphyrin ligands.

  12. Effect of the atmosphere on the color coordinates of sunlit surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Cornelius J.; Viljoen, Johan W.

    2016-02-01

    Aerosol attenuation in the atmosphere has a relatively weak spectral variation compared to molecular absorption. However, the solar spectral irradiance differs considerably for the sun at high zenith angles versus the sun at low zenith angles. The perceived color of a sunlit object depends on the object's spectral reflectivity as well as the irradiance spectrum. The color coordinates of the sunlit object, hence also the color balance in a scene, shift with changes in the solar zenith angle. The work reported here does not claim accurate color measurement. With proper calibration mobile phones may provide reasonably accurate color measurement, but the mobile phones used for taking these pictures and videos are not scientific instruments and were not calibrated. The focus here is on the relative shift of the observed colors, rather than absolute color. The work in this paper entails the theoretical analysis of color coordinates of surfaces and how they change for different colored surfaces. Then follows three separate investigations: (1) Analysis of a number of detailed atmospheric radiative transfer code (Modtran) runs to show from the theory how color coordinates should change. (2) Analysis of a still image showing how the colors of two sample surfaces vary between sunlit and shaded areas. (3) Time lapse video recordings showing how the color coordinates of a few surfaces change as a function of time of day. Both the theoretical and experimental work shows distinct shifts in color as function of atmospheric conditions. The Modtran simulations demonstrate the effect from clear atmospheric conditions (no aerosol) to low visibility conditions (5 km visibility). Even under moderate atmospheric conditions the effect was surprisingly large. The experimental work indicated significant shifts during the diurnal cycle.

  13. Investigation of Supramolecular Coordination Self-Assembly and Polymerization Confined on Metal Surfaces Using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao

    derivatives. Firstly, we investigated the coordination self-assembly of a series of peripheral bromo-phenyl and pyridyl substituted porphyrins with Fe. The self-assembly of the porphyrin derivatives in which phenyl groups are substituted by bromo-phenyl results in coordination networks exhibiting identical structures to that of the parent compounds, but contained nanopores that are functionalized by bromine substitutes. Secondly, we studied a two-dimensional coordination networks formed by 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin and Fe. We discovered a novel coordination motif in which a pair of vertically aligned Fe atoms is ligated by four equatorial pyridyl groups. Lateral manipulation, vertical manipulation and tunneling spectroscopy were employed to characterize the networks. These novel coordination networks decorated with Br or vertically aligned Fe atoms may provide potential functions as nano-receptor, molecular magnetism or catalyst. Part III addresses the mechanism of on-surface Ullmann coupling reaction. We studied Pd- and Cu-catalyzed Ullmann coupling reactions between phenyl bromide functionalized porphyrin derivatives. We discovered that the reactions catalyzed by Pd or Cu can be described as a two-phase process that involves an initial activation followed by C-C bond formation. Analysis of rate constants of the Pd-catalyzed reactions allowed us to determine its activation energy as (0.41 +/- 0.03) eV. These results provide a quantitative understanding of on-surface Ullmann coupling reaction. Part IV addresses the on-surface self-assembly driven by a combination of coordination bonds and covalent bonds. Firstly, we utilized metal-directed template to control the on-surface polymerization process. Taking advantage of efficient topochemical enhancement owing to the conformation flexibility of the Cu-pyridyl bonds, macromolecular porphyrin structures that exhibit a narrow size distribution were synthesized. The results reveal that the polymerization process profited

  14. Metal-Organic Coordination Network Thin Film by Surface-Induced Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laokroekkiat, Salinthip; Hara, Mitsuo; Nagano, Shusaku; Nagao, Yuki

    2016-07-01

    The growth of metal-organic coordination network thin films on surfaces has been pursued extensively and intensively to manipulate the molecular arrangement. For this study, the oriented multilayer thin films based on porphyrinic nanoarchitecture were synthesized toward metal-organic coordination networks using surface-induced assembly (SIA). Nanoscale molecular thin films were prepared at room temperature using cobalt(II) ion and porphyrin building blocks as precursors. Stepwise growth with a highly uniform layer was characterized using UV-vis, AFM, IR, and XPS studies. The grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray reflectivity results remarkably suggested a periodic structure in in-plane direction with constant and high mass density (ca. 1.5 g/cm(3)) throughout the multilayer formation. We propose that orientation of the porphyrin macrocycle plane with a hexagonal packed model by single anchoring mode was tilted approximately 60° with respect to the surface substrate. It is noteworthy that the well-organized structure of porphyrin-based macrocyclic framework on the amine-terminated surface substrate can be achieved efficiently using a simple SIA approach under mild synthetic conditions. The synthesized thin film provides a different structure from that obtained using bulk synthesis. This result suggests that the SIA technique can control not only the film thickness but also the structural arrangement on the surface. This report of our research provides insight into the ordered porphyrin-based metal-organic coordination network thin films, which opens up opportunities for exploration of unique thin film materials for diverse applications.

  15. Generalized Radar 4-COORDINATES and Equal-Time Cauchy Surfaces for Arbitrary Accelerated Observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, David; Lusanna, Luca

    All existing 4-coordinate systems centered on the world-line of an accelerated observer are only locally defined, as for Fermi coordinates both in special and general relativity. As a consequence, it is not known how non-inertial observers can build equal-time surfaces which (a) correspond to a conventional observer-dependent definition of synchronization of distant clocks, and (b) are good Cauchy surfaces for Maxwell equations. Another type of coordinate singularities generating the same problems are those connected to the relativistic rotating coordinate systems used in the treatment of the rotating disk and the Sagnac effect. We show that the use of Hamiltonian methods based on 3+1 splittings of space-time allows one to define as many observer-dependent globally defined radar 4-coordinate systems as nice foliations of space-time with space-like hyper-surfaces admissible according to Møller (for instance, only the differentially rotating relativistic coordinate system, but not the rigidly rotating ones of non-relativistic physics, are allowed). All these conventional notions of an instantaneous 3-space for an arbitrary observer can be empirically defined by introducing generalizations of the Einstein ½ convention for clock synchronization in inertial frames. Each admissible 3+1 splitting has two naturally associated congruences of time-like observers: as a consequence every 3+1 splitting gives rise to non-rigid non-inertial frames centered on any one of these observers. Only for Eulerian observers are the simultaneity leaves orthogonal to the observer world-line. When there is a Lagrangian description of an isolated relativistic system, its reformulation as a parametrized Minkowski theory allows one to show that all the admissible synchronization conventions are gauge equivalent, as also happens in the canonical metric and tetrad gravity, where, however, the chrono-geometrical structure of space-time is dynamically determined. The framework developed in this

  16. Coordination of physicians' operational activities : a Contingency perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, Manda; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of three different dimensions of customer-induced uncertainty and task uncertainty on the mix of physicians' coordination practices. Design/methodology/approach - An improvement and research project are combined resulting in 16 case st

  17. Coordinate metrology of a primary surface composite panel from the Large Millimeter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, David M.; Lucero Álvarez, Maribel; Cabrera Cuevas, Lizeth; Leon-Huerta, Andrea; Arizmendi Reyes, Edgar; Icasio Hernández, Octavio; Castro Santos, David; Hernández Ríos, Emilio; Tecuapetla Sosa, Esteban; Tzile Torres, Carlos; Viliesid Alonso, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) is a single-dish fully-steerable radio telescope presently operating with a 32.5 m parabolic primary reflector, in the process of extension to 50 m. The project is managed by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) in México, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA. A laminated surface panel from the LMT primary reflector has been subjected to a surface measurement assay at Mexico's National Metrology Center (CENAM). Data obtained using a coordinate measuring machine and laser tracker owned by CENAM is compared with measurements using an identical model laser tracker and the photogrammetry technique, the latter systems owned and operated by the LMT. All measurements were performed within the controlled metrology environment at CENAM. The measurement exercise is intended to prepare the groundwork for converting this spare surface panel into a calibrated work-piece. The establishment of a calibrated work-piece provides quality assurance for metrology through measurement traceability. It also simplifies the evaluation of measurement uncertainty for coordinate metrology procedures used by the LMT project during reflector surface qualification.

  18. Surface topography characterization using an atomic force microscope mounted on a coordinate measuring machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, H.N; Kofod, N

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the construction, testing and use of an integrated system for topographic characterization of fine surfaces on parts having relatively big dimensions. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was mounted on a manual three-coordinate measuring machine (CMM) achieving free positioning o...... areas traced in single scans of 40 mu m x 40 mu m. The results show that surface mapping on industrial surfaces is possible using the Least Mean Square alignment provided by the AFM software....... values in the order of 1 nm. The positioning repeatability of the two horizontal axes of the CMM was determined to +/-1 mu m. Sets of four 20 mu m x 20 mu m areas were traced on fiat objects, combining the data into single 40 mu m x 40 mu m areas, and comparing the roughness values to those for the same...

  19. Simulation of a free-surface and seepage face using boundary-fitted coordinate system method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Kun; Leap, Darrell I.

    1997-09-01

    The boundary-fitted coordinate (BFC) system method is applied to simulate steady groundwater seepage with a free-surface and seepage face using the finite-difference method. The BFC system method eliminates the difficulty of fitting finite-difference grids to a changeable free-surface which is not known a priori but will be obtained as part of a solution. Also, grid generation with this approach is simpler than with the finite-element method. At each iterative sweep, the changeable free-surface becomes a part of the boundary-fitted grid lines, making boundary condition implementation easy and accurate. An example problem demonstrating the simulation procedure and numerical results compares very well with the analytical solution.

  20. Simulation of Surface Wave with Large Eddy Simulation in σ-Coordinate System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲玲

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model in the σ-coordinate system is developed to study the problem of waves. Turbulence effects are modeled by a subgrid-scale (SGS) model with the concept of large eddy simulation (LES). The σ-coordinate transformation is introduced to map the irregular physical domain of the wavy free surface and uneven bottom onto the regular computational domain of the shape of rectangular prism. The operator splitting method, which splits the solution procedure into the advection, diffusion, and propagation steps, is used to solve the modified Navier-Stokes Equation.The model is used to simulate the propagation of solitary wave and wave passing over a submerged breakwater. Numerical results are compared with available analytical solutions and experimental data in terms of velocity profiles, free surface displacement, and energy conservation. Good agreement is obtained. The method is proved to be of high accuracy and efficiency in simulating surface wave propagation and wave-structure interaction. It is suitable for the large and irregular physical domain, and requiring the non-uniform grid system. The present work provides a foundation for further studies of random waves, wave-structure interaction, wave-discharge interaction,etc.

  1. Coordinated path following of multiple underacutated marine surface vehicles along one curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Wang, Dan; Peng, Zhouhua

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the coordinated path following problem for a fleet of underactuated marine surface vehicles (MSVs) along one curve. The dedicated control design is divided into two tasks. One is to steer individual underactuated MSV to track the given spatial path, and the other is to force the vehicles dispersed on a parameterized path subject to the constraints of a communication network. Specifically, a robust individual path following controller is developed based on a line-of-sight (LOS) guidance law and a reduced-order extended state observer (ESO). The vehicle sideslip angle due to environmental disturbances can be exactly identified. Then, the vehicle coordination is achieved by a path variable containment approach, under which the path variables are evenly dispersed between two virtual leaders. Another reduced-order ESO is developed to identify the composite disturbance related to the speed of virtual leaders and neighboring vehicles. The proposed coordination design is distributed since the reference speed does not need to be known by all vehicles as a priori. The input-to-state stability of the closed-loop network system is established via cascade theory. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design method.

  2. Imaging metal-like monoclinic phase stabilized by surface coordination effect in vanadium dioxide nanobeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zejun; Wu, Jiajing; Hu, Zhenpeng; Lin, Yue; Chen, Qi; Guo, Yuqiao; Liu, Yuhua; Zhao, Yingcheng; Peng, Jing; Chu, Wangsheng; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2017-06-01

    In correlated systems, intermediate states usually appear transiently across phase transitions even at the femtosecond scale. It therefore remains an open question how to determine these intermediate states--a critical issue for understanding the origin of their correlated behaviour. Here we report a surface coordination route to successfully stabilize and directly image an intermediate state in the metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide. As a prototype metal-insulator transition material, we capture an unusual metal-like monoclinic phase at room temperature that has long been predicted. Coordinate bonding of L-ascorbic acid molecules with vanadium dioxide nanobeams induces charge-carrier density reorganization and stabilizes metallic monoclinic vanadium dioxide, unravelling orbital-selective Mott correlation for gap opening of the vanadium dioxide metal-insulator transition. Our study contributes to completing phase-evolution pathways in the metal-insulator transition process, and we anticipate that coordination chemistry may be a powerful tool for engineering properties of low-dimensional correlated solids.

  3. Iron Coordination and Halogen-Bonding Assisted Iodosylbenzene Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegeberg, Christina; Poulsen de Sousa, David; McKenzie, Christine

    catalytic mixtures using soluble terminal oxygen transfer agents. Isolation of a reactive iron-terminal oxidant adduct, an unique Fe(III)-OIPh complex, is facilitated by strong stabilizing supramolecular halogen-bonding. L3-edge XANES suggests +1.6 for the average oxidation state for the iodine atom3...... in the iron(III)-coordinated PhIO. This represents a reduction of iodine relative to the original “hypervalent” (+3) PhIO. The equivalent of electron density must be removed from the {(tpena)Fe(III)O} moiety, however Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that the iron atom is not high valent....

  4. Surface Simplification of 3D Animation Models Using Robust Homogeneous Coordinate Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juin-Ling Tseng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of 3D surface simplification is to reduce the storage cost of 3D models. A 3D animation model typically consists of several 3D models. Therefore, to ensure that animation models are realistic, numerous triangles are often required. However, animation models that have a high storage cost have a substantial computational cost. Hence, surface simplification methods are adopted to reduce the number of triangles and computational cost of 3D models. Quadric error metrics (QEM has recently been identified as one of the most effective methods for simplifying static models. To simplify animation models by using QEM, Mohr and Gleicher summed the QEM of all frames. However, homogeneous coordinate problems cannot be considered completely by using QEM. To resolve this problem, this paper proposes a robust homogeneous coordinate transformation that improves the animation simplification method proposed by Mohr and Gleicher. In this study, the root mean square errors of the proposed method were compared with those of the method proposed by Mohr and Gleicher, and the experimental results indicated that the proposed approach can preserve more contour features than Mohr’s method can at the same simplification ratio.

  5. In vitro Biocompatibility of New Silver(I Coordination Compound Coated-Surfaces for Dental Implant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla S. Brunetto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation on implant materials causes a common problem: resistance to aggressive pharmacological agents as well as host defenses. Therefore, to reduce bacterial adhesion to implant surfaces we propose to use silver(I coordination networks as it is known that silver is the most powerful antimicrobial inorganic agent. As a model surface, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on gold Au(111 was used to permit permanent attachment of our silver(I coordination networks. The surface coatings showed typical nano-structured surfaces with a good biocompatibility for soft-tissue integration with fibroblast cells.

  6. Joint Coordination and Muscle Activities of Ballet Dancers During Tiptoe Standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hiroko; Fujii, Keisuke; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to investigate joint coordination of lower limbs in dancers during tiptoe standing and the relationship between joint coordination and muscle coactivation. Seven female ballet dancers performed tiptoe standing with six leg positions (fi e classical dance positions and one modern dance position) for 10 s. The kinematic data of the metatarsophalangeal (MP), ankle, knee, and hip joints was collected, and surface electromyography (EMG) of over 13 lower limb muscles was conducted. Principal component analysis was performed to determine joint coordination. MP-ankle and ankle-knee had in-phase coordination, whereas knee-hip showed anti-phase coordination in the sagittal plane. In addition, most EMG-EMG coherence around the MP and ankle joints was significant up to 50 Hz when these two joints swayed with in-phase. This suggests that different joint coordination patterns are associated with neural processing related to different muscle coactivation patterns. In conclusion, ballet dancers showed in-phase coordination from the MP to knee joints, which was associated with muscle coactivation to a higher frequency domain (up to 50 Hz) in comparison with anti-phase coordination.

  7. Relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination along childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Saraiva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The two main goals of this review were to understand how the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination are established along the motor development of children and adolescents, and how they would influence their future lives. The web based bibliographic database B-On was searched for peer-reviewed publications during the last decade (2000 to 2009. Search criteria included all articles on relationships between any two of the above named factors. Although different methodological designs and variables were found as markers for the same factor, overall results suggested the existence of a clear positive relationship among physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination from childhood to adolescence, with a special relevance for the relationship between physical activity and coordination. It was also noted a renewed interest on physical activity and motor coordination developmental characteristics and relationships as well as on their lifelong health effects.

  8. Invariant Surface EMG Feature Against Varying Contraction Level for Myoelectric Control Based on Muscle Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiayuan; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Li, Shunchong; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2015-05-01

    Variations in muscle contraction effort have a substantial impact on performance of pattern recognition based myoelectric control. Though incorporating changes into training phase could decrease the effect, the training time would be increased and the clinical viability would be limited. The modulation of force relies on the coordination of multiple muscles, which provides a possibility to classify motions with different forces without adding extra training samples. This study explores the property of muscle coordination in the frequency domain and found that the orientation of muscle activation pattern vector of the frequency band is similar for the same motion with different force levels. Two novel features based on discrete Fourier transform and muscle coordination were proposed subsequently, and the classification accuracy was increased by around 11% compared to the traditional time domain feature sets when classifying nine classes of motions with three different force levels. Further analysis found that both features decreased the difference among different forces of the same motion ) and maintained the distance among different motions p > 0.1). This study also provided a potential way for simultaneous classification of hand motions and forces without training at all force levels.

  9. Muscle activity during functional coordination training: implications for strength gain and rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Andersen, Lars Louis; Kirk, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if different types, body positions, and levels of progression of functional coordination exercises can provide sufficiently high levels of muscle activity to improve strength of the neck, shoulder, and trunk muscles. Nine untrained women were familiarized...... training can be performed with a muscle activity sufficient for strength gain. Functional coordination training may therefore be a good choice for prevention or rehabilitation of musculoskeletal pain or injury in the neck, shoulder, or trunk muscles....

  10. Surface active monomers synthesis, properties, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Borzenkov, Mykola

    2014-01-01

    This brief includes information on the background?of and development of synthesis of various types of surface active monomers. The authors explain the importance of utilization of surface active monomers for creation of surface active polymers? and the various biomedical applications of such compounds . This brief introduces techniques for the synthesis of novel types of surface active monomers, their colloidal and polymerizable properties and application for needs of medicine and biology.

  11. Spectral simulation of thermocapillary convection with a deformable free surface using boundary-fitted coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ikramuddin

    A Chebyshev-spectral collocation scheme has been developed to simulate thermocapillary convection processes in a differentially heated cavity with and without buoyancy effects. The time-dependent Navier- Stokes equations in primitive variables were solved with a semi-implicit scheme using the influence matrix technique. The deformable free surface was incorporated by means of a boundary-fitted coordinate (BFC) system. The BFC grid was generated by solving a system of elliptic equations. An iterative scheme based on finite difference methods was found to be sufficient for calculating a smooth distribution of grid-points for relatively low degrees of deformation of the free surface. The metrics of transformation, however, were calculated spectrally in order to achieve a high order of accuracy in the a posteriori mapping of the physical grid to the computational grid. The overall scheme was found to be efficient, economical, and capable of resolving the complex hydrodynamic and thermal structures in thermocapillarity driven flows with deformable free surfaces. The scheme was also modified to study problems with very high Marangoni numbers and non-deformable free surfaces, and later extended to three dimensions with periodic boundary conditions in order to explore the transitions to fully three dimensional phenomena that are anticipated in industrially relevant flow configurations.

  12. Retinal waves coordinate patterned activity throughout the developing visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackman, James B; Burbridge, Timothy J; Crair, Michael C

    2012-10-11

    The morphological and functional development of the vertebrate nervous system is initially governed by genetic factors and subsequently refined by neuronal activity. However, fundamental features of the nervous system emerge before sensory experience is possible. Thus, activity-dependent development occurring before the onset of experience must be driven by spontaneous activity, but the origin and nature of activity in vivo remains largely untested. Here we use optical methods to show in live neonatal mice that waves of spontaneous retinal activity are present and propagate throughout the entire visual system before eye opening. This patterned activity encompassed the visual field, relied on cholinergic neurotransmission, preferentially initiated in the binocular retina and exhibited spatiotemporal correlations between the two hemispheres. Retinal waves were the primary source of activity in the midbrain and primary visual cortex, but only modulated ongoing activity in secondary visual areas. Thus, spontaneous retinal activity is transmitted through the entire visual system and carries patterned information capable of guiding the activity-dependent development of complex intra- and inter-hemispheric circuits before the onset of vision.

  13. An orthogonal coordinate grid following the three-dimensional viscous flow over a concave surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenhart, J. R; Saric, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    Swept wings designed for laminar flow control exhibit both centrifugal and crossflow instabilities which produce streamwise vortices that can lead to early transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the presence of Tollmien-Schlichting waves. This paper outlines an iterative algorithm for generation of an orthogonal, curvilinear, coordinate grid following the streamlines of the three-dimensional viscous flow over a swept, concave surface. The governing equations for the metric tensor are derived from the Riemann-Christoffel tensor for an Euclidian geometry. Unit vectors along streamline, normal and binormal directions are determined. The governing equations are not solved directly, but are employed only as compatibility equations. The scale factor for the streamline coordinate is obtained by an iterative integration scheme on a 200 x 100 x 5 grid, while the other two scale factors are determined from definitions. Sample results are obtained which indicate that the compatibility equation error decreases linearly with grid step size. Grids smaller than 200 x 100 x 5 are found to be inadequate to resolve the grid curvature.

  14. A VERTICAL 2D MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR HYDRODYNAMIC FLOWS WITH FREE SURFACE IN σ COORDINATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Numerical models with hydrostatic pressure have been widely utilized in studying flows in rivers, estuaries and coastal areas. The hydrostatic assumption is valid for the large-scale surface flows where the vertical acceleration can be ignored, but for some particular cases the hydrodynamic pressure is important. In this paper, a vertical 2D mathematical model with non-hydrostatic pressure was implemented in the σ coordinate. A fractional step method was used to enable the pressure to be decomposed into hydrostatic and hydrodynamic components and the predictor-corrector approach was applied to integration in time domain. Finally, several computational cases were studied to validate the importance of contributions of the hydrodynamic pressure.

  15. Electronic friction near metal surfaces: a case where molecule-metal couplings depend on nuclear coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Dou, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    We derive an explicit form for the electronic friction as felt by a molecule near a metal surface for the general case that molecule-metal couplings depend on nuclear coordinates. Our work generalizes a previous study by von Oppen et al [Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, 3, 144, 2012], where we now go beyond the Condon approximation (i.e. molecule-metal couplings are not held constant). Using a non-equilibrium Green's function formalism in the adiabatic limit, we show that fluctuating metal-molecule couplings lead to new frictional damping terms and random forces, plus a correction to the potential of mean force. Numerical tests are performed and compared with a modified classical master equation; our results indicate that violating the Condon approximation can have a large effect on dynamics.

  16. Electronic friction near metal surfaces: A case where molecule-metal couplings depend on nuclear coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Wenjie; Subotnik, Joseph E.

    2017-03-01

    We derive an explicit form for the electronic friction as felt by a molecule near a metal surface for the general case that molecule-metal couplings depend on nuclear coordinates. Our work generalizes a previous study by von Oppen et al. [Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 3, 144 (2012)], where we now go beyond the Condon approximation (i.e., molecule-metal couplings are not held constant). Using a non-equilibrium Green's function formalism in the adiabatic limit, we show that fluctuating metal-molecule couplings lead to new frictional damping terms and random forces, plus a correction to the potential of mean force. Numerical tests are performed and compared with a modified classical master equation; our results indicate that violating the Condon approximation can have a large effect on dynamics.

  17. Modified Active Site Coordination in a Clinical Mutant of Sulfite Oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doonan, C.J.; Wilson, H.L.; Rajagopalan, K.V.; Garrett, R.M.; Bennett, B.; Prince, R.C.; George, G.N.

    2009-06-02

    The molybdenum site of the Arginine 160 {yields} Glutamine clinical mutant of the physiologically vital enzyme sulfite oxidase has been investigated by a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. We conclude that the mutant enzyme has a six-coordinate pseudo-octahedral active site with coordination of Glutamine O{sup {epsilon}} to molybdenum. This contrasts with the wild-type enzyme which is five-coordinate with approximately square-based pyramidal geometry. This difference in the structure of the molybdenum site explains many of the properties of the mutant enzyme which have previously been reported.

  18. Flexible coordination of stationary and mobile conversations with gaze: Resource allocation among multiple joint activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mayor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gaze is instrumental in coordinating face-to-face social interactions. But little is known about gaze use when social interactions co-occur with other joint activities. We investigated the case of walking while talking. We assessed how gaze gets allocated among various targets in mobile conversations, whether allocation of gaze to other targets affects conversational coordination, and whether reduced availability of gaze for conversational coordination affects conversational performance and content. In an experimental study, pairs were videotaped in four conditions of mobility (standing still, talking while walking along a straight-line itinerary, talking while walking along a complex itinerary, or walking along a complex itinerary with no conversational task. Gaze to partners was substantially reduced in mobile conversations, but gaze was still used to coordinate conversation via displays of mutual orientation, and conversational performance and content was not different between stationary and mobile conditions. Results expand the phenomena of multitasking to joint activities.

  19. The Surface Groups and Active Site of Fibrous Mineral Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Fa-qin; WAN Pu; FENG Qi-ming; SONG Gong-bao; PENG Tong-jiang; LI Ping; LI Guo-wu

    2004-01-01

    The exposed and transformed groups of fibrous brucite,wollastonite,chrysotile asbestos,sepiolite,palygorskite,clinoptilolite,crocidolite and diatomaceous earth mineral materials are analyzed by IR spectra after acid and alikali etching,strong mechanical and polarity molecular interaction.The results show the active sites concentrate on the ends in stick mineral materials and on the defect or hole edge in pipe mineral materials.The inside active site of mineral materials plays a main role in small molecular substance.The shape of minerals influence their distribution and density of active site.The strong mechanical impulsion and weak chemical force change the active site feature of minerals,the powder process enables minerals exposed more surface group and more combined types.The surface processing with the small polarity molecular or the brand of middle molecular may produce ionation and new coordinate bond,and change the active properties and level of original mineral materials.

  20. Intersegmental coordination while walking up inclined surfaces: age and ramp angle effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Jeremy W; Prentice, Stephen D

    2008-08-01

    The lower-limb segment elevation angles during human locomotion have been shown to co-vary in a manner such that they approximate a plane when plotted against each other over a gait cycle. This relationship has been described as the Planar Co-Variation Law and has been shown to be consistent across various modes of locomotion on level ground. The goal of this study is to determine whether the Planar Co-Variation Law will hold in situations where the orientation of the walking surface is altered and if aging will have an effect on this intersegmental coordination during these locomotor tasks. Nine healthy young females (mean age = 21.4), and nine older adult females (mean age = 73.3) were asked to complete walking trials on level ground, and walking up ramps with inclines of 3 degrees , 6 degrees , 9 degrees and 12 degrees while the kinematics of their lower limbs were measured. It was found that the Planar Co-Variation Law was held across all ramp incline conditions by both the young adult and older adult groups. It was found that the changes in intersegmental coordination required to walk up the ramp resulted in a unique orientation of the co-variation plane for both groups when walking up a particular incline. The results of this study indicate that the Planar Co-Variation Law will include situations where the walking surface is not level and provides further support to models of motor control that have been proposed where walking patterns for different modes of gait can be predicted based on the orientation of the co-variation plane.

  1. Co-ordinated regulation of plasmacytoid dendritic cell surface receptors upon stimulation with herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Philipp; Donhauser, Norbert; Pritschet, Kathrin; Ries, Moritz; Haupt, Sabrina; Kittan, Nicolai A; Korn, Klaus; Schmidt, Barbara

    2010-02-01

    Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) are crucial for innate and adaptive immune responses against viral infections, mainly through production of type I interferons. Evidence is accumulating that PDC surface receptors play an important role in this process. To investigate the PDC phenotype in more detail, a chip-based expression analysis of surface receptors was combined with respective flow cytometry data obtained from fresh PDC, PDC exposed to interleukin-3 (IL-3) and/or herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). CD156b, CD229, CD305 and CD319 were newly identified on the surface of PDC, and CD180 was identified as a new intracellular antigen. After correction for multiple comparisons, a total of 33 receptors were found to be significantly regulated upon exposure to IL-3, HSV-1 or IL-3 and HSV-1. These were receptors involved in chemotaxis, antigen uptake, activation and maturation, migration, apoptosis, cytotoxicity and costimulation. Infectious and ultraviolet-inactivated HSV-1 did not differentially affect surface receptor regulation, consistent with the lack of productive virus infection in PDC, which was confirmed by HSV-1 real-time polymerase chain reaction and experiments involving autofluorescing HSV-1 particles. Viral entry was mediated at least in part by endocytosis. Time-course experiments provided evidence of a co-ordinated regulation of PDC surface markers, which play a specific role in different aspects of PDC function such as attraction to inflamed tissue, antigen recognition and subsequent migration to secondary lymphatic tissue. This knowledge can be used to investigate PDC surface receptor functions in interactions with other cells of the innate and adaptive immune system, particularly natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

  2. Simulating Activities: Relating Motives, Deliberation and Attentive Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Activities are located behaviors, taking time, conceived as socially meaningful, and usually involving interaction with tools and the environment. In modeling human cognition as a form of problem solving (goal-directed search and operator sequencing), cognitive science researchers have not adequately studied "off-task" activities (e.g., waiting), non-intellectual motives (e.g., hunger), sustaining a goal state (e.g., playful interaction), and coupled perceptual-motor dynamics (e.g., following someone). These aspects of human behavior have been considered in bits and pieces in past research, identified as scripts, human factors, behavior settings, ensemble, flow experience, and situated action. More broadly, activity theory provides a comprehensive framework relating motives, goals, and operations. This paper ties these ideas together, using examples from work life in a Canadian High Arctic research station. The emphasis is on simulating human behavior as it naturally occurs, such that "working" is understood as an aspect of living. The result is a synthesis of previously unrelated analytic perspectives and a broader appreciation of the nature of human cognition. Simulating activities in this comprehensive way is useful for understanding work practice, promoting learning, and designing better tools, including human-robot systems.

  3. Characterization of machining quality attributes based on spindle probe, coordinate measuring machine, and surface roughness data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Liang Bill Tseng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of machining parameters as they relate to the quality characteristics of machined features. Two most important quality characteristics are set as the dimensional accuracy and the surface roughness. Before any newly acquired machine tool is put to use for production, it is important to test the machine in a systematic way to find out how different parameter settings affect machining quality. The empirical verification was made by conducting a Design of Experiment (DOE with 3 levels and 3 factors on a state-of-the-art Cincinnati Hawk Arrow 750 Vertical Machining Center (VMC. Data analysis revealed that the significant factor was the Hardness of the material and the significant interaction effect was the Hardness + Feed for dimensional accuracy, while the significant factor was Speed for surface roughness. Since the equally important thing is the capability of the instruments from which the quality characteristics are being measured, a comparison was made between the VMC touch probe readings and the measurements from a Mitutoyo coordinate measuring machine (CMM on bore diameters. A machine mounted touch probe has gained a wide acceptance in recent years, as it is more suitable for the modern manufacturing environment. The data vindicated that the VMC touch probe has the capability that is suitable for the production environment. The test results can be incorporated in the process plan to help maintain the machining quality in the subsequent runs.

  4. Self-surface charge exfoliation and electrostatically coordinated 2D hetero-layered hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min-Quan; Xu, Yi-Jun; Lu, Wanheng; Zeng, Kaiyang; Zhu, Hai; Xu, Qing-Hua; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2017-02-01

    At present, the technological groundwork of atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) hetero-layered structures realized by successive thin film epitaxial growth is in principle constrained by lattice matching prerequisite as well as low yield and expensive production. Here, we artificially coordinate ultrathin 2D hetero-layered metal chalcogenides via a highly scalable self-surface charge exfoliation and electrostatic coupling approach. Specifically, bulk metal chalcogenides are spontaneously exfoliated into ultrathin layers in a surfactant/intercalator-free medium, followed by unconstrained electrostatic coupling with a dissimilar transition metal dichalcogenide, MoSe2, into scalable hetero-layered hybrids. Accordingly, surface and interfacial-dominated photocatalysis reactivity is used as an ideal testbed to verify the reliability of diverse 2D ultrathin hetero-layered materials that reveal high visible-light photoreactivity, efficient charge transfer and intimate contact interface for stable cycling and storage purposes. Such a synthetic approach renders independent thickness and composition control anticipated to advance the development of `design-and-build' 2D layered heterojunctions for large-scale exploration and applications.

  5. Self-surface charge exfoliation and electrostatically coordinated 2D hetero-layered hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min-Quan; Xu, Yi-Jun; Lu, Wanheng; Zeng, Kaiyang; Zhu, Hai; Xu, Qing-Hua; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2017-01-01

    At present, the technological groundwork of atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) hetero-layered structures realized by successive thin film epitaxial growth is in principle constrained by lattice matching prerequisite as well as low yield and expensive production. Here, we artificially coordinate ultrathin 2D hetero-layered metal chalcogenides via a highly scalable self-surface charge exfoliation and electrostatic coupling approach. Specifically, bulk metal chalcogenides are spontaneously exfoliated into ultrathin layers in a surfactant/intercalator-free medium, followed by unconstrained electrostatic coupling with a dissimilar transition metal dichalcogenide, MoSe2, into scalable hetero-layered hybrids. Accordingly, surface and interfacial-dominated photocatalysis reactivity is used as an ideal testbed to verify the reliability of diverse 2D ultrathin hetero-layered materials that reveal high visible-light photoreactivity, efficient charge transfer and intimate contact interface for stable cycling and storage purposes. Such a synthetic approach renders independent thickness and composition control anticipated to advance the development of ‘design-and-build' 2D layered heterojunctions for large-scale exploration and applications. PMID:28146147

  6. Comparing Activity Patterns, Biological, and Family Factors in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutum, Monique Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Bundy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The association between motor proficiency and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) suggests children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be susceptible to inactivity-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare children with and without DCD on physical activity patterns, activity…

  7. Physical Activity and Fitness in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivilis, Irina; Hay, John; Cairney, John; Klentrou, Panagiota; Liu, Jian; Faught, Brent E.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by poor motor proficiency that interferes with a child's activities of daily living. Activities that most young children engage in such as running, walking, and jumping are important for the proper development of fitness and overall health. However, children…

  8. Can Gymnastic Teacher Predict Leisure Activity Preference among Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Hanna-Kassis, Amany; Rosenblum, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze: (1) whether significant differences exist between children with typical development and children with developmental coordination disorders (DCD) in their preference to participate in leisure activities (2) whether the teacher estimation of activity form (TEAF) evaluation predicts participation preference.…

  9. Coordination of fictive motor activity in the larval zebrafish is generated by non-segmental mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D Wiggin

    Full Text Available The cellular and network basis for most vertebrate locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs is incompletely characterized, but organizational models based on known CPG architectures have been proposed. Segmental models propose that each spinal segment contains a circuit that controls local coordination and sends longer projections to coordinate activity between segments. Unsegmented/continuous models propose that patterned motor output is driven by gradients of neurons and synapses that do not have segmental boundaries. We tested these ideas in the larval zebrafish, an animal that swims in discrete episodes, each of which is composed of coordinated motor bursts that progress rostrocaudally and alternate from side to side. We perturbed the spinal cord using spinal transections or strychnine application and measured the effect on fictive motor output. Spinal transections eliminated episode structure, and reduced both rostrocaudal and side-to-side coordination. Preparations with fewer intact segments were more severely affected, and preparations consisting of midbody and caudal segments were more severely affected than those consisting of rostral segments. In reduced preparations with the same number of intact spinal segments, side-to-side coordination was more severely disrupted than rostrocaudal coordination. Reducing glycine receptor signaling with strychnine reversibly disrupted both rostrocaudal and side-to-side coordination in spinalized larvae without disrupting episodic structure. Both spinal transection and strychnine decreased the stability of the motor rhythm, but this effect was not causal in reducing coordination. These results are inconsistent with a segmented model of the spinal cord and are better explained by a continuous model in which motor neuron coordination is controlled by segment-spanning microcircuits.

  10. Sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbasan Bülent

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder Subjects and methods 37 cases with developmental coordination disorder and 35 healthy age-matched peers were included in this study. Ayres Southern California Sensory Integration Test was used for evaluating the sensory integration and Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM was used for evaluating the activities of daily living. Results Significant differences were found in the visual shape perception, position in space, and design copying (p p p p p = 0.002 between the groups. Discussion Special education and rehabilitation programs including sensory integration therapy and motor performance will increase independence in the activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder.

  11. Supramolecular coordination and antimicrobial activities of constructed mixed ligand complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sonbati, A. Z.; Diab, M. A.; El-Bindary, A. A.; Abou-Dobara, M. I.; Seyam, H. A.

    2013-03-01

    A novel series of copper(II) and palladium(II) with 4-derivatives benzaldehyde pyrazolone (Ln) were synthesized. The mixed ligand complexes were prepared by using 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) as second ligand. The structure of these complexes was identified and confirm by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, UV-Vis, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy and magnetic moment measurements as well as thermal analysis. The ligand behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand through ON donor sites. ESR spectra show the simultaneous presence of a planar trans and a nearly planar cis isomers in the 1:2 ratio for all N,O complexes [Cu(Ln)2]Cl2ṡ2H2O. Schiff bases (Ln) were tested against bacterial species; namely two Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungal species (Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporium, Penicillium italicum and Alternaria alternata). The tested compounds have antibacterial activity against S. aureus, B. cereus and K. pneumoniae.

  12. DFT Study of Metal Atoms Adsorbed at Low-coordinated Sites of MgO (001) Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艺军; 章永凡; 陈文凯; 李俊篯

    2003-01-01

    The adsorption of metal atoms, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag and Au, at low-coordinated edge and corner oxygen sites of MgO (001) surface has been studied theoretically by using density functional method with cluster models embedded in a large array of point charges. For comparison, the interaction of metal atoms with perfect regular oxygen site of MgO (001) surface was also calculated. As regards these metal atoms adsorbed at perfect oxygen sites of MgO (001) surface, Cu, Ag and Au are very weakly bonded to the surface of MgO; Ni, Pd and Pt, on the other hand, exhibit strong interactions with perfect oxygen sites of MgO (001) surface; the large adsorption energy shows that there exist strong bonds formed between these metal atoms with surface oxygen sites. For the metal atoms adsorbed at edge and corner sites, the adsorption energy is much increased, consistent with our previous study of CO and Cl2 adsorption on MgO (001) surface. This illustrates that the low-coordinated sites, especially corner site, are more advantageous positions for those metal atoms adsorbed on MgO (001) surface. The Mulliken population analysis indicates that the electron transferred from MgO to the metal atoms were increased with the decrease of the coordination numbers, which may be one of the reasons for changing catalytic efficiency and selectivity of the metal particles supported by MgO.

  13. 'Unconventional' coordination chemistry by metal chelating fragments in a metalloprotein active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David P; Blachly, Patrick G; Marts, Amy R; Woodruff, Tessa M; de Oliveira, César A F; McCammon, J Andrew; Tierney, David L; Cohen, Seth M

    2014-04-01

    The binding of three closely related chelators: 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-thione (allothiomaltol, ATM), 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-thione (thiomaltol, TM), and 3-hydroxy-4H-pyran-4-thione (thiopyromeconic acid, TPMA) to the active site of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) has been investigated. Two of these ligands display a monodentate mode of coordination to the active site Zn(2+) ion in hCAII that is not recapitulated in model complexes of the enzyme active site. This unprecedented binding mode in the hCAII-thiomaltol complex has been characterized by both X-ray crystallography and X-ray spectroscopy. In addition, the steric restrictions of the active site force the ligands into a 'flattened' mode of coordination compared with inorganic model complexes. This change in geometry has been shown by density functional computations to significantly decrease the strength of the metal-ligand binding. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the mode of binding by small metal-binding groups can be significantly influenced by the protein active site. Diminishing the strength of the metal-ligand bond results in unconventional modes of metal coordination not found in typical coordination compounds or even carefully engineered active site models, and understanding these effects is critical to the rational design of inhibitors that target clinically relevant metalloproteins.

  14. Spatial coordination between stem cell activity and cell differentiation in the root meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubayidin, Laila; Di Mambro, Riccardo; Sozzani, Rosangela; Pacifici, Elena; Salvi, Elena; Terpstra, Inez; Bao, Dongping; van Dijken, Anja; Dello Ioio, Raffaele; Perilli, Serena; Ljung, Karin; Benfey, Philip N; Heidstra, Renze; Costantino, Paolo; Sabatini, Sabrina

    2013-08-26

    A critical issue in development is the coordination of the activity of stem cell niches with differentiation of their progeny to ensure coherent organ growth. In the plant root, these processes take place at opposite ends of the meristem and must be coordinated with each other at a distance. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis, the gene SCR presides over this spatial coordination. In the organizing center of the root stem cell niche, SCR directly represses the expression of the cytokinin-response transcription factor ARR1, which promotes cell differentiation, controlling auxin production via the ASB1 gene and sustaining stem cell activity. This allows SCR to regulate, via auxin, the level of ARR1 expression in the transition zone where the stem cell progeny leaves the meristem, thus controlling the rate of differentiation. In this way, SCR simultaneously controls stem cell division and differentiation, ensuring coherent root growth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship between segmental coordination, agility and physical activity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseo García Cantó

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor competence (MC may be related to youth physical activity (PA level. In the last few years, MC has been studied as a possible determinant of children PA level, but has not been widely studied in adolescents. To analyze the relationship between MC and PA level 533 adolescents (271 men and 261 women from the southeast of Spain were assessed. To register weekly PA was used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and for the MC, four coordination tests including throw and catch test, eye-hand and eye-foot coordination tests and agility circuit. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and binary logistic regression. The overall MC is consistently related with PA level. Eye-hand coordination test and the agility test define more accurately the tendency to high PA level. Programs to promote PA and focused on MC should be emphasized from early ages to adolescence.

  16. [Role of acetylcholine in coordination od spontaneous electrical activity of various areas of the rat uterus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, K V; Unanian, N G; Akopian, R R

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous electrical activity of myometrium was studied in areas of the uterine corpus, zone of its connection with uterine tube and cervix at intravenous administration of various acetylcholine concentrations. Under these conditions, changes of the frequency and amplitude characteristics of rhythmogenesis were studied both separately and in their combined active state. The presence of 10(-3) M acetylcholine in the animal blood creates the most optimal conditions for synchronization and coordination of activities of all studied uterus areas.

  17. Coordination modes and bonding of sulfur oxides on transition metal surfaces: combined ab initio and BOC-MP results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seller, Harrell; Shustorovich, Evgeny

    1996-02-01

    Binding energies for sulfur oxides, SO x, x = 1-3, have been determined for several coordination modes on silver, gold and palladium surfaces employing ab initio quantum chemical methods and the bond order conservation Morse potential (BOC-MP) method. SO 2 coordination was studied in the most detail. In general the agreement between the BOC-MP and ab initio binding energies is good for the (111) surfaces of silver and palladium with both methods predicting that, in the zero coverage limit, di-coordination via S,O and O,O will be more favorable energetically than mono-coordination via S. In the case of chemisorption on the Pd (110) surface the two methods agree well for the cases in which there are formulas for the BOC-MP binding energies. In going from the (111) surfaces to the (110) surfaces of silver and palladium the ab initio calculations predict that the preferred chemisorption site shifts from the bridge site to the hollow site. On the silver surfaces the net charge transferred to the adsorbate as judged from the Mulliken populations correlates roughly with the binding energy. No significant charge transfer was found on the palladium surfaces. Our SO 2 chemisorption calculations indicate that the work functions of the metal surfaces examined should increase upon mono-S adsorption, increase to a lesser extent upon di S,O adsorption and may even decrease upon di O,O adsorption. Ab initio calculations provide evidence of the existence of SO 2 surface dimers. The binding energy predicted by the BOC-MP model for SO 3 in the bridging site agrees well with the ab initio result for SO 3 di-coordinated in the long bridge of the Ag(110) surface. The methods yield similar predictions for the case of SO on silver. Our modeling provides a coherent picture consistent with many aspects of the experimental literature. We present some model predictions, particularly the di O,O coordination mode for SO 2, that require verification experimentally.

  18. Brain activation associated with motor imagery of coordination exercises and social abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Akito Azumane; Sudo, Michiko Mochizuki; Kirino, Eiji; Itoh, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were: (1) to investigate the brain activation associated with coordination exercises done by one person and those by two persons and (2) to examine the interrelationships between the brain activation and social abilities. We were interested in testing the hypothesis that viewing two-person coordination exercises evokes more sophisticated brain activation than viewing one-person coordination exercises. Thirty Japanese college students served as subjects. There were two sessions in this study: the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session and the social ability session. In the fMRI session, the subjects were instructed to imagine they were performing coordination exercises. Also, we examined the social abilities from the viewpoint of empathising. Empathising was measured by self-reports on the Systemising, Empathy and Autism Spectrum Quotients (SQ, EQ and AQ). Regarding brain activation, blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation was significant in specific areas such as the left cuneus (Brodmann area: BA 17) when the subjects imagined they were performing exercises involving two persons, as compared with the cases when they imagined they were performing exercises involving only one person. The fMRI results showed that exercises done by two persons require more sophisticated communication than those done by one person. Furthermore, the results of this study suggested that those with more autistic traits may undergo difficulties in the exercises done by two persons, especially in the case of playing a role as a follower.

  19. Using the cathode surface of straw tube for measuring the track coordinates along the wire

    CERN Document Server

    Baranov, V A; Kravchuk, N P; Korenchenko, A S; Kuchinskiy, N A; Khomutov, N V; Movchan, S A; Smirnov, V S; Zyazyulya, F E

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the coordinate detectors based on straw tubes are widely used in high energy physics. This is caused by a high accuracy of the radial coordinate measurement using the drift time and a small amount of matter in the way of the measured particles. So far, the remaining problem is the measurement of the coordinate along the wire. This paper proposes a method for measuring the hit coordinates along the wire in a straw tube detector using the signals from the cathodes of the detector.

  20. YAG laser welding with surface activating flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊丁; 张瑞华; 田中学; 中田一博; 牛尾诚夫

    2003-01-01

    YAG laser welding with surface activating flux has been investigated, and the influencing factors and mechanism are discussed. The results show that both surface activating flux and surface active element S have fantastic effects on the YAG laser weld shape, that is to obviously increase the weld penetration and D/W ratio in various welding conditions. The mechanism is thought to be the change of weld pool surface tension temperature coefficient, thus, the change of fluid flow pattern in weld pool due to the flux.

  1. Cation coordination reactions on nanocrystals: surface/interface, doping control and advanced photocatalysis applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiatao

    2016-10-01

    Abstract: Including the shape and size effect, the controllable doping, hetero-composite and surface/interface are the prerequisite of colloidal nanocrystals for exploring their optoelectronic properties, such as fluorescence, plasmon-exciton coupling, efficient electron/hole separation, and enhanced photocatalysis applications. By controlling soft acid-base coordination reactions between cation molecular complexes and colloidal nanocrystals, we showed that chemical thermodynamics could drive nanoscale monocrystalline growth of the semiconductor shell on metal nano-substrates and the substitutional heterovalent doping in semiconductor nanocrystals. We have demonstrated evolution of relative position of Au and II-VI semiconductor in Au-Semi from symmetric to asymmetric configuration, different phosphines initiated morphology engineering, oriented attachment of quantum dots into micrometer nanosheets with synergistic control of surface/interface and doing, which can further lead to fine tuning of plasmon-exciton coupling. Therefore, different hydrogen photocatalytic performance, Plasmon enhanced photocatalysis properties have been achieved further which lead to the fine tuning of plasmon-exciton coupling. Substitutional heterovalent doping here enables the tailoring of optical, electronic properties and photocatalysis applications of semiconductor nanocrystals because of electronic impurities (p-, n-type doping) control. References: (1) J. Gui, J. Zhang*, et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 3683. (2) Q. Zhao, J. Zhang*, etc., Adv. Mater. 2014, 26, 1387. (3) J. Liu, Q. Zhao, S. G. Wang*, J. Zhang*, etc., Adv. Mater. 2015, 27-2753-2761. (4) H. Qian, J. Zhang*, etc., NPG Asia Mater. (2015) 7, e152. (5) M. Ji, M. Xu, etc., J. Zhang*, Adv. Mater. 2016, in proof. (6) S. Yu, J. T. Zhang, Y. Tang, M. Ouyang*, Nano Lett. 2015, 15, 6282-6288. (7) J. Zhang, Y. Tang, K. Lee and M. Ouyang*, Science 2010, 327, 1634. (8) J. Zhang, Y. Tang, K. Lee, M. Ouyang*, Nature 2010, 466

  2. Allosteric activation of membrane-bound glutamate receptors using coordination chemistry within living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyonaka, Shigeki; Kubota, Ryou; Michibata, Yukiko; Sakakura, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Hideo; Numata, Tomohiro; Inoue, Ryuji; Yuzaki, Michisuke; Hamachi, Itaru

    2016-10-01

    The controlled activation of proteins in living cells is an important goal in protein-design research, but to introduce an artificial activation switch into membrane proteins through rational design is a significant challenge because of the structural and functional complexity of such proteins. Here we report the allosteric activation of two types of membrane-bound neurotransmitter receptors, the ion-channel type and the G-protein-coupled glutamate receptors, using coordination chemistry in living cells. The high programmability of coordination chemistry enabled two His mutations, which act as an artificial allosteric site, to be semirationally incorporated in the vicinity of the ligand-binding pockets. Binding of Pd(2,2‧-bipyridine) at the allosteric site enabled the active conformations of the glutamate receptors to be stabilized. Using this approach, we were able to activate selectively a mutant glutamate receptor in live neurons, which initiated a subsequent signal-transduction pathway.

  3. [Synthesis, structure and surface photovoltage spectrum of coordination supramolecule: [Cu(phen) (H2O)2. SO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Jin

    2008-02-01

    A novel transition metal coordination supramolecule [Cu(phen) (H2O)2.SO4] has been synthesized by hydrothermally method. The single crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction, and the complex was characterized by IR and UV-Vis-NIR spectra. The structure analysis indicates that there are a lot of hydrogen bonds in the crystal, which make the complex form a 1D double chain coordination supramolecule. Surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) technique was applied to detect surface electron behavior and study the photoelectric conversion capability of the complexes. SPS is a useful tool for surveying the charge change of solid material surface. Its sensitivity comes to 10(8) q x cm(-2), which exceeds that of conventional spectroscopy such as XPS and Auger spectroscopy by many orders of magnitude. But long time, the study of SPS has mainly focused on inorganic semiconductor and organic semiconductor. There are seldom reports about the coordination polymers and supramolecules. The results of surface photovoltage spectrum (SPS) indicate that the complex exhibit positive surface photovoltage responses in the range of 300-800 nm. The induced surface photovoltage spectrum (FISPS) proved that the complex possesses the characteristic of p-type semiconductor.

  4. Activities and Participation in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, L. C.; Cardoso, A. A.; Missiuna, C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review all literature published in peer reviewed journals from January 1995 to July 2008 in order to summarize and describe the activity limitations and participation restrictions of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Methods: Multiple databases were systematically searched for articles related to…

  5. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Gender, and Body Weight: Examining the Impact of Participation in Active Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight…

  6. Leg muscle activation during gait in Parkinson's disease : Adaptation and interlimb coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, [No Value; Zijlstra, W; Prokop, T; Berger, W

    1995-01-01

    Adaptation in leg muscle activity and coordination between lower limbs were studied during walking on a treadmill with split belts in one group of parkinsonian patients and one of age-matched healthy subjects. Four different belt speeds (0.25/0.5/0.75/1.0 m/sec) were applied in selected combinations

  7. 75 FR 44063 - Designation of the National Science and Technology Council to Coordinate Certain Activities Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Science and Technology Council to Coordinate Certain Activities Under the Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984 Memorandum for the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy By the authority... 107 and 108 of the Act to the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee, including...

  8. A control architecture to coordinate distributed generators and active power filters coexisting in a microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashempour, Mohammad M.; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a control architecture of distributed generators (DGs) inverters and shunt active power filters (APFs) in microgrids to compensate voltage harmonics in a coordinated way. For this, a hierarchical control structure is proposed that includes two control levels. The primary (local...

  9. A Control Architecture to Coordinate Distributed Generators and Active Power Filters Coexisting in a Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashempour, Mohammad M.; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a control architecture of distributed generators (DGs) inverters and shunt active power filters (APFs) in microgrids to compensate voltage harmonics in a coordinated way. For this, a hierarchical control structure is proposed that includes two control levels. The primary (local...

  10. Coordinated cell motility is regulated by a combination of LKB1 farnesylation and kinase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, S.; Hou, Y.; Zoine, J. T.; Saltz, J.; Zhang, C.; Chen, Z.; Cooper, L. A. D.; Marcus, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Cell motility requires the precise coordination of cell polarization, lamellipodia formation, adhesion, and force generation. LKB1 is a multi-functional serine/threonine kinase that associates with actin at the cellular leading edge of motile cells and suppresses FAK. We sought to understand how LKB1 coordinates these multiple events by systematically dissecting LKB1 protein domain function in combination with live cell imaging and computational approaches. We show that LKB1-actin colocalization is dependent upon LKB1 farnesylation leading to RhoA-ROCK-mediated stress fiber formation, but membrane dynamics is reliant on LKB1 kinase activity. We propose that LKB1 kinase activity controls membrane dynamics through FAK since loss of LKB1 kinase activity results in morphologically defective nascent adhesion sites. In contrast, defective farnesylation mislocalizes nascent adhesion sites, suggesting that LKB1 farnesylation serves as a targeting mechanism for properly localizing adhesion sites during cell motility. Together, we propose a model where coordination of LKB1 farnesylation and kinase activity serve as a multi-step mechanism to coordinate cell motility during migration. PMID:28102310

  11. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Sex, and Activity Deficit over Time: A Longitudinal Analysis of Participation Trajectories in Children with and without Coordination Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Hay, John A.; Veldhuizen, Scott; Missiuna, Cheryl; Faught, Brent E.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are known to participate in active play less than typically developing children. However, it is not known whether the activity deficit between children with and without DCD widens or diminishes over time. Method: Data were obtained from a large, prospective cohort study of children…

  12. Mechanism of Hydrophilicity by Radiation-Induced Surface Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Yoshio; Furuya, Masahiro; Takamasa, Tomoji; Okamoto, Koji

    When a metal oxide is irradiated by gamma rays, the irradiated surface becomes hydrophilic. This surface phenomenon is called as radiation-induced surface activation (RISA) hydrophilicity. In order to investigate gamma ray-induced and photoinduced hydrophilicity, the contact angles of water droplets on a titanium dioxide surface were measured in terms of irradiation intensity and time for gamma rays of cobalt-60 and for ultraviolet rays. Reciprocals of the contact angles increased in proportion to the irradiation time before the contact angles reached its super-hydrophilic state. The irradiation time dependency is equal to each other qualitatively. In addition, an effect of ambient gas was investigated. In pure argon gas, the contact angle remains the same against the irradiation time. This clearly indicates that certain humidity is required in ambient gas to take place of RISA hydrophilicity. A single crystal titanium dioxide (100) surface was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). After irradiation with gamma rays, a peak was found in the O1s spectrum, which indicates the adsorption of dissociative water to a surface 5-fold coordinate titanium site, and the formation of a surface hydroxyl group. We conclude that the RISA hydrophilicity is caused by chemisorption of the hydroxyl group on the surface.

  13. Towards surface-supported supramolecular architectures: tailored coordination assembly of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate and Fe on Cu(100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelder, Magalí A; Spillmann, Hannes; Dmitriev, Alexandre; Stepanow, Sebastian; Lin, Nian; Barth, Johannes V; Kern, Klaus

    2004-04-19

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the modular assembly of surface-supported metal-organic coordination systems with specific topologies and high structural stability formed by vapor deposition of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid molecules and iron atoms on a Cu(100) surface under ultra-high vacuum conditions. By making use of the two carboxylate moieties available for lateral linkage to Fe atoms, we succeeded in the fabrication of distinct Fe-carboxylate coordination architectures at the surface by carefully adjusting the ligand and metal concentration ratio and the temperature of the post-deposition annealing treatment. The mononuclear, 1D-polymeric and fully 2D-reticulated metallosupramolecular arrangements obtained were characterized in situ at the single-molecule level by scanning tunneling microscopy.

  14. Surface grafting of a dense and rigid coordination polymer based on tri-para-carboxy-polychlorotriphenylmethyl radical and copper acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Mugnaini, Verónica

    2013-01-01

    The step-by-step method is here presented as suitable to anchor on appropriately functionalized gold surfaces a metal-organic coordination polymer based on a non-planar trigonal tri-para-carboxy-polychlorotriphenylmethyl radical derivative and copper acetate. The structural characteristics of the grafted coordination polymer are derived during the step-wise growth from the real time changes in refractive index and oscillation frequency. The film thickness, as measured by scanning force microscopy, combined with the mass uptake value from the quartz crystal microbalance, are used to estimate an average density of the grafted metal-organic coordination polymer that suggests the formation of a dense and rather rigid thin film. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activities of Coordination Compounds of Aspartic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Aiyelabola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coordination compounds of aspartic acid were synthesized in basic and acidic media, with metal ligand M : L stoichiometric ratio 1 : 2. The complexes were characterized using infrared, electronic and magnetic susceptibility measurements, and mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds was determined against three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and one fungus. The results obtained indicated that the availability of donor atoms used for coordination was a function of the pH of the solution in which the reaction was carried out. This resulted in varying geometrical structures for the complexes. The compounds exhibited a broad spectrum of activity and in some cases better activity than the standard.

  16. Transformation of Coordinate Forms of Phosphate Adsorbed on Goethite Surfaces Under Conditions of Varying pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIEXIAO-LEI; WANGDIAN-FEN; 等

    1995-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) and automatic titrimeter were used to study the relation bewteen pH and the transformation of the coordinate forms of P on goethite surfaces.The results showed that for a given P concentration,increasing the pH of suspension could cause a fast transformation of monodentate complexes of phosphate ions on goethite surfaces to binuclear ones,When lowering the pH,additional adsorption of P occurred and the binuclear complexes reverted slowly to the monodentate ones,The dissociation and association of protons of the sorbed P caused by pH changes was considered to be a major reason leading to the transformation of the coordinate forms of P on the surfaces.The stability of binuclear surface complex of P was greater than that of monodentate omplex.The possible reactions on the interface of goethite and solutions with pH changes,and the reasons causing the different stabilities of the two coordinate P complexes are discussed in the paper.

  17. Immobilization of Active Bacteriophages on Polyhydroxyalkanoate Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chanchan; Sauvageau, Dominic; Elias, Anastasia

    2016-01-20

    A rapid, efficient technique for the attachment of bacteriophages (phages) onto polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) surfaces has been developed and compared to three reported methods for phage immobilization. Polymer surfaces were modified to facilitate phage attachment using (1) plasma treatment alone, (2) plasma treatment followed by activation by 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (sulfo-NHS), (3) plasma-initiated acrylic acid grafting, or (4) plasma-initiated acrylic acid grafting with activation by EDC and sulfo-NHS. The impact of each method on the surface chemistry of PHA was investigated using contact angle analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Each of the four treatments was shown to result in both increased hydrophilicity and in the modification of the surface functional groups. Modified surfaces were immersed in suspensions of phage T4 for immobilization. The highest level of phage binding was observed for the surfaces modified by plasma treatment alone. The change in chemical bond states observed for surfaces that underwent plasma treatment is suspected to be the cause of the increased binding of active phages. Plasma-treated surfaces were further analyzed through phage-staining and fluorescence microscopy to assess the surface density of immobilized phages and their capacity to capture hosts. The infective capability of attached phages was confirmed by exposing the phage-immobilized surfaces to the host bacteria Escherichia coli in both plaque and infection dynamic assays. Plasma-treated surfaces with immobilized phages displayed higher infectivity than surfaces treated with other methods; in fact, the equivalent initial multiplicity of infection was 2 orders of magnitude greater than with other methods. Control samples - prepared by immersing polymer surfaces in phage suspensions (without prior plasma treatment) - did not show any bacterial growth inhibition, suggesting they did not bind

  18. Embryo as an active granular fluid: stress-coordinated cellular constriction chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Michael; Gao, Guo-Jie; Thomas, Jeffrey; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    Mechanical stress plays an intricate role in gene expression in individual cells and sculpting of developing tissues. Motivated by our observation of the cellular constriction chains (CCCs) during the initial phase of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo, we propose an active granular fluid (AGF) model that provides valuable insights into cellular coordination in the apical constriction process. In our model, cells are treated as circular particles connected by a predefined force network, and they undergo a random constriction process in which the particle constriction probability P is a function of the stress exerted on the particle by its neighbors. We find that when P favors tensile stress, constricted particles tend to form chain-like structures. In contrast, constricted particles tend to form compact clusters when P favors compression. A remarkable similarity of constricted-particle chains and CCCs observed in vivo provides indirect evidence that tensile-stress feedback coordinates the apical constriction activity.

  19. Activation of interfacial enzymes at membrane surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Halperin, Avi;

    2006-01-01

    A host of water-soluble enzymes are active at membrane surfaces and in association with membranes. Some of these enzymes are involved in signalling and in modification and remodelling of the membranes. A special class of enzymes, the phospholipases, and in particular secretory phospholipase A2 (s......PLA2), are only activated at the interface between water and membrane surfaces, where they lead to a break-down of the lipid molecules into lysolipids and free fatty acids. The activation is critically dependent on the physical properties of the lipid-membrane substrate. A topical review is given...

  20. Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold G.

    2011-05-17

    An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.

  1. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface: versatile coordinators of cellular functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumova, S; Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    2000-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are complex molecules composed of a core protein with covalently attached glycosaminoglycan chains. While the protein part determines localization of the proteoglycan on the cell surfaces or in the extracellular matrix, the glycosaminoglycan component, heparan sulfate......, mediates interactions with a variety of extracellular ligands such as growth factors and adhesion molecules. Through these interactions, heparan sulfate proteoglycans participate in many events during cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation. We are determining the multitude...... of proteoglycan functions, as their intricate roles in many pathways are revealed. They act as coreceptors for growth factors, participate in signalling during cell adhesion, modulate the activity of a broad range of molecules, and partake in many developmental and pathological processes, including tumorigenesis...

  2. The loading of coordination complex modified polyoxometalate nanobelts on activated carbon fiber: a feasible strategy to obtain visible light active and highly efficient polyoxometalate based photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tingting; Xu, Xinxin; Li, Huili; Li, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xia; Ou, Jinzhao; Mei, Mingliang

    2015-02-01

    To enhance the photocatalytic properties of coordination complex modified polyoxometalates (CC/POMs) in the visible light region, its nanobelts (CC/POMNBs) were loaded on activated carbon fiber (ACF) through a simple colloidal blending process. The resulting coordination complex modified polyoxometalate nanobelts loaded activated carbon fiber composite materials (CC/POMNBs/ACF) exhibited dramatic photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. Optical and electrochemical methods illustrated the enhanced photocatalytic activity of CC/POMNBs/ACF, which originates from the high separation efficiency of the photogenerated electrons and holes on the interface of the CC/POMNBs and ACF, which results from the synergistic effects between them. In the composite material, the role of ACF could be described as a photosensitizer and a good electron transporter. Furthermore, the influence of the mass ratio between the CC/POMNBs and ACF on the photocatalytic performance of the resulting composite material was discussed, and an ideal value to obtain highly efficient photocatalysts was obtained. The results suggested that the loading of CC/POMNBs on the surface of ACF would be a feasible strategy to enhance their photocatalytic activity.

  3. Active video gaming improves body coordination in survivors of childhood brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Magnus; Sjölund, Anette; Broeren, Jürgen; Arvidsson, Daniel; Saury, Jean-Michel; Blomgren, Klas; Lannering, Birgitta; Emanuelson, Ingrid

    2016-10-01

    We investigated whether active video gaming (AVG) could bring about regular, enjoyable, physical exercise in children treated for brain tumours, what level of physical activity could be reached and if the children's physical functioning improved. Thirteen children, aged 7-17 years, were randomised to either AVG or waiting-list. After 10-12 weeks they crossed-over. Weekly Internet coaching sessions were used to sustain motivation and evaluate enjoyment. Energy expenditure (EE) levels were measured as Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET), using a multisensory activity monitor. Single-blinded assessments of physical functioning were done, using the Bruininks-Osteretsky Test of Motor Performance, second edition, evaluating participants before and after the intervention period, as well as comparing the randomisation groups after the first period. All patients completed the study. AVG sessions (mean duration 47 minutes) were performed on 72% of all days. Mean EE level during AVG sessions was 3.0 MET, corresponding to moderate physical activity. The Body Coordination score improved by 15% (p = 0.021) over the intervention period. In this group of childhood brain tumour survivors, home-based AVG, supported by a coach, was a feasible, enjoyable and moderately intense form of exercise that improved Body Coordination. Implications for Rehabilitation Childhood brain tumour survivors frequently have cognitive problems, inferior physical functioning and are less physically active compared to their healthy peers. Active video gaming (AVG), supported by Internet coaching, is a feasible home-based intervention in children treated for brain tumours, promoting enjoyable, regular physical exercise of moderate intensity. In this pilot study, AVG with Nintendo Wii improved Body Coordination.

  4. Activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder: dressing, personal hygiene, and eating skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Janet; Larkin, Dawne; Dewey, Deborah

    2008-04-01

    In order to understand how age, culture, and problems in motor coordination impact the performance of activities of daily living, we used focus groups and in-depth interviews with Australian and Canadian parents to examine activities of daily living of younger (5-7 years of age) and older (8-9 years of age) children with and without DCD. By comparison with their typically developing age group, children with DCD had more difficulty with dressing, personal hygiene, and eating skills. Difficulties with postural control and fine-motor skills were reported to contribute to poorer performance of activities of daily living. As expected, competence in the performance of activities of daily living improved in the older children with and without DCD and there were few differences in the performance of daily living tasks between typical children in Australia and Canada. Overall, the motor difficulties of children with DCD had a significant impact on performance of a wide range of daily activities.

  5. JCMT active surface control system: implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ian A.

    1998-05-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii is a 15 meter sub-millimeter telescope which operates in the 350 microns to 2 millimeter region. The primary antenna surface consists of 276 panels, each of which is positioned by 3 stepper motors. In order to achieve the highest possible surface accuracy we are embarking upon a project to actively control the position of the panels adjuster system is based on a 6809 micro connected to the control computer by a GPIB interface. This system is slow and inflexible and it would prove difficult to build an active surface control system with it. Part of the upgrade project is to replace the existing micro with a 68060 VME micro. The poster paper will describe how the temperature of the antenna is monitored with the new system, how a Finite Element Analyses package transforms temperature changes into a series of panel adjuster moves, and how these moves are then applied to the surface. The FEA package will run on a high end Sun workstation. A series of DRAMA tasks distributed between the workstation and the Baja 68060 VxWorks Active Surface Control System micro will control the temperature monitoring, FEA and panel adjustment activities. Users can interact with the system via a Tcl/TK based GUI.

  6. Coordinated activity of ventral tegmental neurons adapts to appetitive and aversive learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbok Kim

    Full Text Available Our understanding of how value-related information is encoded in the ventral tegmental area (VTA is based mainly on the responses of individual putative dopamine neurons. In contrast to cortical areas, the nature of coordinated interactions between groups of VTA neurons during motivated behavior is largely unknown. These interactions can strongly affect information processing, highlighting the importance of investigating network level activity. We recorded the activity of multiple single units and local field potentials (LFP in the VTA during a task in which rats learned to associate novel stimuli with different outcomes. We found that coordinated activity of VTA units with either putative dopamine or GABA waveforms was influenced differently by rewarding versus aversive outcomes. Specifically, after learning, stimuli paired with a rewarding outcome increased the correlation in activity levels between unit pairs whereas stimuli paired with an aversive outcome decreased the correlation. Paired single unit responses also became more redundant after learning. These response patterns flexibly tracked the reversal of contingencies, suggesting that learning is associated with changing correlations and enhanced functional connectivity between VTA neurons. Analysis of LFP recorded simultaneously with unit activity showed an increase in the power of theta oscillations when stimuli predicted reward but not an aversive outcome. With learning, a higher proportion of putative GABA units were phase locked to the theta oscillations than putative dopamine units. These patterns also adapted when task contingencies were changed. Taken together, these data demonstrate that VTA neurons organize flexibly as functional networks to support appetitive and aversive learning.

  7. 45 CFR 287.140 - With whom should the Tribe coordinate in the operation of its work activities and services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false With whom should the Tribe coordinate in the operation of its work activities and services? 287.140 Section 287.140 Public Welfare Regulations Relating... and Operations § 287.140 With whom should the Tribe coordinate in the operation of its work...

  8. Studying the role of protein dynamics in an SN2 enzyme reaction using free-energy surfaces and solvent coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Meseguer, Rafael; Martí, Sergio; Ruiz-Pernía, J. Javier; Moliner, Vicent; Tuñón, Iñaki

    2013-07-01

    Conformational changes are known to be able to drive an enzyme through its catalytic cycle, allowing, for example, substrate binding or product release. However, the influence of protein motions on the chemical step is a controversial issue. One proposal is that the simple equilibrium fluctuations incorporated into transition-state theory are insufficient to account for the catalytic effect of enzymes and that protein motions should be treated dynamically. Here, we propose the use of free-energy surfaces, obtained as a function of both a chemical coordinate and an environmental coordinate, as an efficient way to elucidate the role of protein structure and motions during the reaction. We show that the structure of the protein provides an adequate environment for the progress of the reaction, although a certain degree of flexibility is needed to attain the full catalytic effect. However, these motions do not introduce significant dynamical corrections to the rate constant and can be described as equilibrium fluctuations.

  9. How Do Soccer Players Adjust Their Activity in Team Coordination? An Enactive Phenomenological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Gesbert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how individual team members adjust their activity to the needs for collective behavior. To do so, we used an enactive phenomenological approach and explored how soccer players' lived experiences were linked to the active regulation of team coordination during eight offensive transition situations. These situations were defined by the shift from defensive to offensive play following a change in ball possession. We collected phenomenological data, which were processed in four steps. First, we reconstructed the diachronic and synchronic dynamics of the players' lived experiences across these situations in order to identify the units of their activity. Second, we connected each player's units of activity side-by-side in chronological order in order to identify the collective units. Each connection was viewed as a collective regulation mode corresponding to which and how individual units were linked at a given moment. Third, we clustered each collective unit using the related objectives within three modes of regulation—local (L, global (G, and mixed (M. Fourth, we compared the occurrences of these modes in relation to the observable key moments in the situations in order to identify typical patterns. The results indicated four patterns of collective regulation modes. Two distinct patterns were identified without ball possession: reorganize the play formation (G and M and adapt to the actions of putting pressure on the ball carrier (M. Once the ball was recovered, two additional patterns emerged: be available to get the ball out of the recovery zone (L and shoot for the goal (L and M. These results suggest that team coordination is a fluctuating phenomenon that can be described through the more or less predictable chaining between these patterns. They also highlight that team coordination is supported by several modes of regulation, including our proposal of a new mode of interpersonal regulation. We conclude that future research

  10. Chronophin coordinates cell leading edge dynamics by controlling active cofilin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme-Walker, Violaine; Seo, Ji-Yeon; Gohla, Antje; Fowler, Bruce; Bohl, Ben; DerMardirossian, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Cofilin, a critical player of actin dynamics, is spatially and temporally regulated to control the direction and force of membrane extension required for cell locomotion. In carcinoma cells, although the signaling pathways regulating cofilin activity to control cell direction have been established, the molecular machinery required to generate the force of the protrusion remains unclear. We show that the cofilin phosphatase chronophin (CIN) spatiotemporally regulates cofilin activity at the cell edge to generate persistent membrane extension. We show that CIN translocates to the leading edge in a PI3-kinase–, Rac1-, and cofilin-dependent manner after EGF stimulation to activate cofilin, promotes actin free barbed end formation, accelerates actin turnover, and enhances membrane protrusion. In addition, we establish that CIN is crucial for the balance of protrusion/retraction events during cell migration. Thus, CIN coordinates the leading edge dynamics by controlling active cofilin levels to promote MTLn3 cell protrusion. PMID:26324884

  11. MM99.50 - Surface Topography Characterization Using an Atomic Force Microscope Mounted on a Coordinate Measuring Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiffre, Leonardo De; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kofod, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the construction, testing and use of an integrated system for topographic characterization of fine surfaces on parts having relatively big dimensions. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was mounted on a manual three-coordinate measuring machine (CMM) achieving free positioning o...... areas traced in single scans of 40 mu m x 40 mu m. The results show that surface mapping on industrial surfaces is possible using the Least Mean Square alignment provided by the AFM software....... values in the order of 1 nm. The positioning repeatability of the two horizontal axes of the CMM was determined to +/-1 mu m. Sets of four 20 mu m x 20 mu m areas were traced on fiat objects, combining the data into single 40 mu m x 40 mu m areas, and comparing the roughness values to those for the same...

  12. Electron beam induced surface activation of oxide surfaces for nanofabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollnhals, Florian; Seiler, Steffen; Walz, Marie-Madeleine; Steinrueck, Hans-Peter; Marbach, Hubertus [Lehrstuhl fuer Physikalische Chemie II and Interdisciplinary Center for Molecular Materials (ICMM), Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Woolcot, Tom; Thornton, Geoff [London Centre for Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The controlled fabrication of structures on the nanoscale is a major challenge in science and engineering. Direct-write techniques like Electron Beam Induced Deposition (EBID) were shown to be suitable tools in this context. Recently, Electron Beam Induced Surface Activation (EBISA) has been introduced as a new focused electron beam technique. In EBISA, a surface, e.g. SiO{sub 2}, is irradiated by a focused electron beam, resulting in an activation of the exposed area. The activated area can then react and decompose precursor gases like iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO){sub 5}. This leads to a primary deposit, which continues to grow autocatalytically as long as Fe(CO){sub 5} is supplied, resulting in pure (> 90 % at.), crystalline iron nanostructures. We expand the use of this concept by exploring EBISA to produce metallic nanostructures on TiO{sub 2}(110) in UHV; atomistic insight into the process is obtained via Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and chemical insight via Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES).

  13. Shared investment projects and forecasting errors: setting framework conditions for coordination and sequencing data quality activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Leitner

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the impact of inaccurate forecasting on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. In particular, by setting up a computational multi-agent model of a stylized firm, we investigate the case of investment opportunities that are mutually carried out by organizational departments. The forecasts of concern pertain to the initial amount of money necessary to launch and operate an investment opportunity, to the expected intertemporal distribution of cash flows, and the departments' efficiency in operating the investment opportunity at hand. We propose a budget allocation mechanism for coordinating such distributed decisions The paper provides guidance on how to set framework conditions, in terms of the number of investment opportunities considered in one round of funding and the number of departments operating one investment opportunity, so that the coordination mechanism is highly robust to forecasting errors. Furthermore, we show that-in some setups-a certain extent of misforecasting is desirable from the firm's point of view as it supports the achievement of the corporate objective of value maximization. We then address the question of how to improve forecasting quality in the best possible way, and provide policy advice on how to sequence activities for improving forecasting quality so that the robustness of the coordination mechanism to errors increases in the best possible way. At the same time, we show that wrong decisions regarding the sequencing can lead to a decrease in robustness. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis and prove that-in particular for relatively good forecasters-most of our results are robust to changes in setting the parameters of our multi-agent simulation model.

  14. Shared investment projects and forecasting errors: setting framework conditions for coordination and sequencing data quality activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Stephan; Brauneis, Alexander; Rausch, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of inaccurate forecasting on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. In particular, by setting up a computational multi-agent model of a stylized firm, we investigate the case of investment opportunities that are mutually carried out by organizational departments. The forecasts of concern pertain to the initial amount of money necessary to launch and operate an investment opportunity, to the expected intertemporal distribution of cash flows, and the departments' efficiency in operating the investment opportunity at hand. We propose a budget allocation mechanism for coordinating such distributed decisions The paper provides guidance on how to set framework conditions, in terms of the number of investment opportunities considered in one round of funding and the number of departments operating one investment opportunity, so that the coordination mechanism is highly robust to forecasting errors. Furthermore, we show that-in some setups-a certain extent of misforecasting is desirable from the firm's point of view as it supports the achievement of the corporate objective of value maximization. We then address the question of how to improve forecasting quality in the best possible way, and provide policy advice on how to sequence activities for improving forecasting quality so that the robustness of the coordination mechanism to errors increases in the best possible way. At the same time, we show that wrong decisions regarding the sequencing can lead to a decrease in robustness. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis and prove that-in particular for relatively good forecasters-most of our results are robust to changes in setting the parameters of our multi-agent simulation model.

  15. Retinotopic maps, spatial tuning, and locations of human visual areas in surface coordinates characterized with multifocal and blocked FMRI designs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Henriksson

    Full Text Available The localization of visual areas in the human cortex is typically based on mapping the retinotopic organization with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The most common approach is to encode the response phase for a slowly moving visual stimulus and to present the result on an individual's reconstructed cortical surface. The main aims of this study were to develop complementary general linear model (GLM-based retinotopic mapping methods and to characterize the inter-individual variability of the visual area positions on the cortical surface. We studied 15 subjects with two methods: a 24-region multifocal checkerboard stimulus and a blocked presentation of object stimuli at different visual field locations. The retinotopic maps were based on weighted averaging of the GLM parameter estimates for the stimulus regions. In addition to localizing visual areas, both methods could be used to localize multiple retinotopic regions-of-interest. The two methods yielded consistent retinotopic maps in the visual areas V1, V2, V3, hV4, and V3AB. In the higher-level areas IPS0, VO1, LO1, LO2, TO1, and TO2, retinotopy could only be mapped with the blocked stimulus presentation. The gradual widening of spatial tuning and an increase in the responses to stimuli in the ipsilateral visual field along the hierarchy of visual areas likely reflected the increase in the average receptive field size. Finally, after registration to Freesurfer's surface-based atlas of the human cerebral cortex, we calculated the mean and variability of the visual area positions in the spherical surface-based coordinate system and generated probability maps of the visual areas on the average cortical surface. The inter-individual variability in the area locations decreased when the midpoints were calculated along the spherical cortical surface compared with volumetric coordinates. These results can facilitate both analysis of individual functional anatomy and comparisons of visual

  16. A σ-coordinate model for 3D free-surface flows using an unstructured finite-volume technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uh Zapata, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a numerical solution of three-dimensional free-surface flows using a σ-coordinate model, a projection method and an unstructured finite-volume technique. The coordinate transformation is used in order to overcome difficulties arising from free surface elevation and irregular geometry. The projection method consists to combine the momentum and continuity equations in order to establish a Poisson-type equation for the non-hydrostatic pressure. A cell-centered finite volume method with a triangular mesh in the horizontal direction is used to simulate the flows with free-surfaces, in which the average values of conserved variables are stored at the centre of each element. A parallel algorithm is also presented for the finite volume discretization of the 3D Navier-Stokes equations. The proposed parallel method is formulated by using a multi-color SOR method, a block domain decomposition and interprocessor data communication techniques with Message Passing Interface. The model has been validated by several benchmarks which numerical simulations are in good agreement with the corresponding analytical and existing experimental results.

  17. Mechanotransductive surfaces for reversible biocatalysis activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Damien; Vogt, Cédric; Hemmerlé, Joseph; Mutterer, Jérôme; Ball, Vincent; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Schaaf, Pierre; Lavalle, Philippe

    2009-09-01

    Fibronectin, like other proteins involved in mechanotransduction, has the ability to exhibit recognition sites under mechanical stretch. Such cryptic sites are buried inside the protein structure in the native fold and become exposed under an applied force, thereby activating specific signalling pathways. Here, we report the design of new active polymeric nanoassembled surfaces that show some similarities to these cryptic sites. These nanoassemblies consist of a first polyelectrolyte multilayer stratum loaded with enzymes and capped with a second polyelectrolyte multilayer acting as a mechanically sensitive nanobarrier. The biocatalytic activity of the film is switched on/off reversibly by mechanical stretching, which exposes enzymes through the capping barrier, similarly to mechanisms involved in proteins during mechanotransduction. This first example of a new class of biologically inspired surfaces should have great potential in the design of various devices aimed to trigger and modulate chemical reactions by mechanical action with applications in the field of microfluidic devices or mechanically controlled biopatches for example.

  18. Dual active surface heat flux gage probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-02-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  19. Phosphate adsorption on aluminum-coordinated functionalized macroporous–mesoporous silica: Surface structure and adsorption behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Weiya [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Taizhou University, Linhai 317000 (China); Li, Dan [Environmetal Engineering, School of Engineering and Information Technology, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia 6150 (Australia); Zhu, Yi; Xu, Kai; Li, Jianqiang [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Han, Boping [Institute of Hydrobiology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510460 (China); Zhang, Yuanming, E-mail: tzhangym@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Al-coordinated functionalized macroporous–mesoporous silica for phosphate removal. • It had the maximum adsorption capacity of 23.59 mg P/g. • Over 95% of the final adsorption capacity reached in the first 1 min. - Abstract: In this study, Al(III)-coordinated diamino-functionalized macroporous–mesoporous silica was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Because of well-defined and interconnecting macroporous–mesoporous networks, the resulting adsorbent (MM-SBA) exhibited a significantly better phosphate adsorption performance and faster removal rate, as compared with the mesoporous adsorbent (M-SBA). Based on the Freundlich and Langmuir models, the phosphate adsorption capacity and the maximum adsorption capacity of MM-SBA were 7.99 mg P/g and 23.59 mg P/g, respectively. In the kinetic study of MM-SBA, over 95% of its final adsorption capacity reached in the first 1 min; whereas that of M-SBA was less than 79%.

  20. Social Activity and Cognitive Functioning Over Time: A Coordinated Analysis of Four Longitudinal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social activity is typically viewed as part of an engaged lifestyle that may help mitigate the deleterious effects of advanced age on cognitive function. As such, social activity has been examined in relation to cognitive abilities later in life. However, longitudinal evidence for this hypothesis thus far remains inconclusive. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between social activity and cognitive function over time using a coordinated data analysis approach across four longitudinal studies. A series of multilevel growth models with social activity included as a covariate is presented. Four domains of cognitive function were assessed: reasoning, memory, fluency, and semantic knowledge. Results suggest that baseline social activity is related to some, but not all, cognitive functions. Baseline social activity levels failed to predict rate of decline in most cognitive abilities. Changes in social activity were not consistently associated with cognitive functioning. Our findings do not provide consistent evidence that changes in social activity correspond to immediate benefits in cognitive functioning, except perhaps for verbal fluency.

  1. Selection of head and whisker coordination strategies during goal-oriented active touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Joseph B; Ritt, Jason T

    2016-04-01

    In the rodent whisker system, a key model for neural processing and behavioral choices during active sensing, whisker motion is increasingly recognized as only part of a broader motor repertoire employed by rodents during active touch. In particular, recent studies suggest whisker and head motions are tightly coordinated. However, conditions governing the selection and temporal organization of such coordinated sensing strategies remain poorly understood. We videographically reconstructed head and whisker motions of freely moving mice searching for a randomly located rewarded aperture, focusing on trials in which animals appeared to rapidly "correct" their trajectory under tactile guidance. Mice orienting after unilateral contact repositioned their whiskers similarly to previously reported head-turning asymmetry. However, whisker repositioning preceded head turn onsets and was not bilaterally symmetric. Moreover, mice selectively employed a strategy we term contact maintenance, with whisking modulated to counteract head motion and facilitate repeated contacts on subsequent whisks. Significantly, contact maintenance was not observed following initial contact with an aperture boundary, when the mouse needed to make a large corrective head motion to the front of the aperture, but only following contact by the same whisker field with the opposite aperture boundary, when the mouse needed to precisely align its head with the reward spout. Together these results suggest that mice can select from a diverse range of sensing strategies incorporating both knowledge of the task and whisk-by-whisk sensory information and, moreover, suggest the existence of high level control (not solely reflexive) of sensing motions coordinated between multiple body parts. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Redox activity and multiple copper(I) coordination of 2His-2Cys oligopeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, DongWon; Alshahrani, Aisha A; Vytla, Yashodharani; Deeconda, Manogna; Serna, Victor J; Saenz, Robert F; Angel, Laurence A

    2015-02-01

    Copper binding motifs with their molecular mechanisms of selective copper(I) recognition are essential molecules for acquiring copper ions, trafficking copper to specific locations and controlling the potentially damaging redox activities of copper in biochemical processes. The redox activity and multiple Cu(I) binding of an analog methanobactin peptide-2 (amb2) with the sequence acetyl-His1-Cys2-Tyr3-Pro4-His5-Cys6 was investigated using ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry analyses. The Cu(II) titration of amb2 showed oxidation of amb2 via the formation of intra- and intermolecular Cys-Cys disulfide bridges and the multiple Cu(I) coordination by unoxidized amb2 or the partially oxidized dimer and trimer of amb2. The principal product of these reactions was [amb2 + 3Cu(I)](+) which probably coordinates the three Cu(I) ions via two bridging thiolate groups of Cys2 and Cys6 and the δN6 of the imidazole groups of His6, as determined by geometry optimized structures at the B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory. The products observed by IM-MS showed direct correlation to spectral changes associated with disulfide bond formation in the UV-Vis spectrophotometric study. The results show that IM-MS analysis is a powerful technique for unambiguously determining the major ion species produced during the redox and metal binding chemistry of oligopeptides.

  3. Dynamic Shift Coordinated Control Based on Motor Active Speed Synchronization with the New Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the inherent disadvantages that severely affect driving comfortability during the shift process in HEVs, a dynamic shift coordinated control based on motor active speed synchronization is proposed to improve shift quality by reduction of shift vibration. The whole control scheme is comprised of three phases, preparatory phase, speed regulation phase, and synchronization phase, which are implemented consecutively in order. The key to inhibiting impact and jerk depends on the speed regulation phase, where motor active speed synchronization is utilized to reach the minimum speed difference between the two ends of synchronizer. A new hybrid system with superior performances is applied to present the validity of the adopted control algorithm during upshift or downshift, which can represent planetary gear system and conventional AMT shift procedure, respectively. Bench test, simulation, and road test results show that, compared with other methods, the proposed dynamic coordinated control can achieve shifting control in real time to effectively improve gear-shift comfort and shorten power interruption transients, with robustness in both conventional AMT and planetary gear train.

  4. SATB1 packages densely-looped, transciptionally-active chromatinfor coordinated expression of cytokine genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Shutao; Lee, Charles C.; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi

    2006-05-23

    SATB1 is an important regulator of nuclear architecture that anchors specialized DNA sequences onto its cage-like network and recruits chromatin remodeling/modifying factors to control gene transcription. We studied the role of SATB1 in regulating the coordinated expression of Il5, Il4, and Il13 from the 200kb cytokine gene cluster region of mouse chromosome 11 during T-helper 2 (Th2)-cell activation. We show that upon cell activation, SATB1 is rapidly induced to form a unique transcriptionally-active chromatin structure that includes the cytokine gene region. Chromatin is folded into numerous small loops all anchored by SATB1, is histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9/14, and associated with Th2-specific factors, GATA3, STAT6, c-Maf, the chromatin-remodeling enzyme Brg-1, and RNA polymerase II across the 200kb region. Before activation, the chromatin displays some of these features, such as association with GATA3 and STAT6, but these were insufficient for cytokine gene expression. Using RNA interference (RNAi), we show that upon cell activation, SATB1 is not only required for chromatin folding into dense loops, but also for c-Maf induction and subsequently for Il4, Il5, and Il13 transcription. Our results show that SATB1 is an important determinant for chromatin architecture that constitutes a novel higher-order, transcriptionally-active chromatin structure upon Th2-cell activation.

  5. Active surfaces: Ferrofluid-impregnated surfaces for active manipulation of droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Karim; Mahmoudi, Seyed Reza; Abu-Dheir, Numan; Varanasi, Kripa

    2014-11-01

    Droplet manipulation and mobility on non-wetting surfaces is of practical importance for diverse applications ranging from micro-fluidic devices, anti-icing, dropwise condensation, and biomedical devices. The use of active external fields has been explored via electric, acoustic, and vibrational, yet moving highly conductive and viscous fluids remains a challenge. Magnetic fields have been used for droplet manipulation; however, usually, the fluid is functionalized to be magnetic, and requires enormous fields of superconducting magnets when transitioning to diamagnetic materials such as water. Here we present a class of active surfaces by stably impregnating active fluids such as ferrofluids into a textured surface. Droplets on such ferrofluid-impregnated surfaces have extremely low hysteresis and high mobility such that they can be propelled by applying relatively low magnetic fields. Our surface is able to manipulate a variety of materials including diamagnetic, conductive and highly viscous fluids, and additionally solid particles.

  6. Normal coordinate analysis and fungicidal activity study on anilazine and its related compound using spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeja Mol, Gilbert Pushpam; Arul Dhas, Deva Dhas; Hubert Joe, Isaac; Balachandran, Sreedharan

    2016-06-01

    The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of anilazine have been recorded in the range 400-4000 cm-1 and 50-3500 cm-1 respectively. The optimized geometrical parameters of the compound were calculated using B3LYP method with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. The distribution of the vibrational bands were carried out with the help of normal coordinate analysis (NCA). The 1H and 13C nuclear spectra have been recorded and chemical shifts of the molecule were also calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The UV-Visible spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 190-900 nm and the electronic properties were determined by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. Anilazine was screened for its antifungal activity. Molecular docking studies are conducted to predict its fungicidal activity.

  7. Platelet surface glutathione reductase-like activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, David W; Li, Mengru; Feinman, Richard D; Miller, Anna

    2004-09-01

    We previously found that reduced glutathione (GSH) or a mixture of GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) potentiated platelet aggregation. We here report that GSSG, when added to platelets alone, also potentiates platelet aggregation. Most of the GSSG was converted to GSH by a flavoprotein-dependent platelet surface mechanism. This provided an appropriate redox potential for platelet activation. The addition of GSSG to platelets generated sulfhydryls in the beta subunit of the alpha(IIb)beta(3) fibrinogen receptor, suggesting a mechanism for facilitation of agonist-induced platelet activation.

  8. Decipher the dynamic coordination between enzymatic activity and structural modulation at focal adhesions in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoying; Seong, Jihye; Wang, Yi; Chang, Shiou-Chi; Eichorst, John Paul; Ouyang, Mingxing; Li, Julie Y.-S.; Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao

    2014-07-01

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are dynamic subcellular structures crucial for cell adhesion, migration and differentiation. It remains an enigma how enzymatic activities in these local complexes regulate their structural remodeling in live cells. Utilizing biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we developed a correlative FRET imaging microscopy (CFIM) approach to quantitatively analyze the subcellular coordination between the enzymatic Src activation and the structural FA disassembly. CFIM reveals that the Src kinase activity only within the microdomain of lipid rafts at the plasma membrane is coupled with FA dynamics. FA disassembly at cell periphery was linearly dependent on this raft-localized Src activity, although cells displayed heterogeneous levels of response to stimulation. Within lipid rafts, the time delay between Src activation and FA disassembly was 1.2 min in cells seeded on low fibronectin concentration ([FN]) and 4.3 min in cells on high [FN]. CFIM further showed that the level of Src-FA coupling, as well as the time delay, was regulated by cell-matrix interactions, as a tight enzyme-structure coupling occurred in FA populations mediated by integrin αvβ3, but not in those by integrin α5β1. Therefore, different FA subpopulations have distinctive regulation mechanisms between their local kinase activity and structural FA dynamics.

  9. Ligand effects on the structural dimensionality and antibacterial activities of silver-based coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinyi; Ye, Junwei; Sun, Yuan; Bogale, Raji Feyisa; Zhao, Limei; Tian, Peng; Ning, Guiling

    2014-07-14

    Four Ag-based coordination polymers [Ag(Bim)] (1), [Ag2(NIPH)(HBim)] (2), [Ag6(4-NPTA)(Bim)4] (3) and [Ag2(3-NPTA)(bipy)0.5(H2O)] (4) (HBim = 1H-benzimidazole, bipy = 4,4'-bipyridyl, H2NIPH = 5-nitroisophthalic acid, H2NPTA = 3-/4-nitrophthalic acid) have been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction of Ag(i) salts with N-/O-donor ligands. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicated that these coordination polymers constructed from mononuclear or polynuclear silver building blocks exhibit three typical structure features from 1-D to 3-D frameworks. These compounds favour a slow release of Ag(+) ions leading to excellent and long-term antimicrobial activities, which is distinguished by their different topological structures, towards both Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). In addition, these compounds show good thermal stability and light stability under UV-vis and visible light, which are important characteristics for their further application in antibacterial agents.

  10. Distinct Structural Pathways Coordinate the Activation of AMPA Receptor-Auxiliary Subunit Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawe, G Brent; Musgaard, Maria; Aurousseau, Mark R P; Nayeem, Naushaba; Green, Tim; Biggin, Philip C; Bowie, Derek

    2016-03-16

    Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels adopt different gating modes to fine-tune signaling at central synapses. At glutamatergic synapses, high and low activity of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is observed when pore-forming subunits coassemble with or without auxiliary subunits, respectively. Whether a common structural pathway accounts for these different gating modes is unclear. Here, we identify two structural motifs that determine the time course of AMPAR channel activation. A network of electrostatic interactions at the apex of the AMPAR ligand-binding domain (LBD) is essential for gating by pore-forming subunits, whereas a conserved motif on the lower, D2 lobe of the LBD prolongs channel activity when auxiliary subunits are present. Accordingly, channel activity is almost entirely abolished by elimination of the electrostatic network but restored via auxiliary protein interactions at the D2 lobe. In summary, we propose that activation of native AMPAR complexes is coordinated by distinct structural pathways, favored by the association/dissociation of auxiliary subunits.

  11. Coordinated activation of premotor and ventromedial prefrontal cortices during vicarious reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Sotaro; Matsumoto, Madoka; Takahashi, Hidefumi; Yomogida, Yukihito; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    The vicarious reward we receive from watching likable others obtaining a positive outcome is a pervasive phenomenon, yet its neural correlates are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments to test the hypothesis that the brain areas responsible for action observation and reward processing work in a coordinated fashion during vicarious reward. In the first experiment (manipulation phase), the participant was instructed to cheer for a particular player in a two-player competitive game (Rock-Paper-Scissors). This manipulation made participants feel more unity with that player and resulted in unity-related activation in the premotor area during action observation. In the following main experiment, the participant witnessed the previously cheered-for or non-cheered-for player succeed in a new solitary game (a stopwatch game). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was activated when the cheered-for player succeeded in the game but not when the other player did. Interestingly, this vmPFC activation was functionally connected with premotor activation only during the cheered-for player's success. These results suggest that vicarious reward is processed in the vmPFC-premotor network, which is activated specifically by the success of the other person with whom the individual feels unity and closeness.

  12. Coordination of cardiac myofibrillar and sarcotubular activities in rats exercised by swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, E D; Solaro, R J

    1984-12-01

    We measured the functional activity of both myofibrils and fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum (FSR) in microsomal fractions and homogenates of hearts of sedentary rats and rats exercised by swimming 75 min twice daily for 8 wk. Ca2+ transport was measured under conditions that restricted uptake of Ca2+ to the SR vesicles in the homogenates or microsomal fractions. There was a significant increase in myosin Ca2+-ATPase activity of myofibrils prepared from hearts of swimmers, indicating that a "training effect" had occurred. The mean rate of Ca2+ transport and mean storage capacity were the same for SR vesicles in the homogenates and microsomal fractions from hearts of controls and swimmers. At the same free Ca2+ concentration, the velocity of Ca2+ transport by FSR in homogenate preparations was inversely related to the myofibrillar ATPase activity in a series of preparations from hearts of swimmers, but there was little correlation between the same activities measured in preparations from a series of sedentary rats. Our results suggest that the increase in the rate of relaxation of hearts from exercised rats is not due to an increase in the rate of Ca2+ transport by the SR but may be due to other factors, which include an increase in the rate of cross-bridge cycling or an alteration in the relation and coordination between cross-bridge cycling and SR Ca2+ transport activity.

  13. Increase of precision in re-establishment of coordinates during photographing through reflecting and refracting surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishkurno, V.V.; Krutenkova, A.P.; Kulikov, V.V.; Nikolaeva, L.P.; Radkevich, I.A.; Fedorets, V.S.

    1973-12-31

    BS>For photography of spark chambers placed under the magnet slit of the ITEF three-meter spectrometer, a mirror system was established. This system made it possible to equalize the optical track from one spark chamber occurring at a relatively large distance from another spark chamber and to reduce by six times the dimensions of the image on the film because of the elimination of the void space. Because of this it was possible to use narrow format 35 mm film with a standard small-angle objective and a commercial photo apparatus. By increasing the density of the data entry it was possible not only to substantially reduce the film expense but to increase the rate of film processing in the automatic scanning device. Photographing images through pairs of mirrors introduces supplementary errors in the results of the measurement of the spark coordinates. These errors are not small, but for cost reduction of the apparatus, mirrors of not very high quality were used. The correction system made it possible to introduce comparatively simple corrections to the mirror aberrations and to the distortions in the outer walls of the chamber. The precision obtained was practically the same as in direct photography of objects. (tr-auth)

  14. Step-height measurements on sand surfaces: A comparison between optical scanner and coordinate measuring machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohaghegh, Kamran; Yazdanbakhsh, Seyed Alireza; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2016-01-01

    the same routine to touch the different positions on the polygonised mesh. Each measurement was repeated 5 times. The results of step height measurements on sand surfaces showed a maximum error of ± 12 µm for CMM, while scanner shows only ± 4 µm. Generally speaking, optical step height values were measured...

  15. Cadmium Activates Multiple Signaling Pathways That Coordinately Stimulate Akt Activity to Enhance c-Myc mRNA Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiuan Tsai

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a known environmental carcinogen. Exposure of Cd leads to the activation of several proto-oncogenes in cells. We investigated here the mechanism of c-Myc expression in hepatic cells under Cd treatment. The c-Myc protein and mRNA levels increased in dose- and time-dependent manners in HepG2 cells with Cd treatment. This increase was due to an increase in c-Myc mRNA stability. To explore the mechanism involved in enhancing the mRNA stability, several cellular signaling factors that evoked by Cd treatment were analyzed. PI3K, p38, ERK and JNK were activated by Cd. However, ERK did not participate in the Cd-induced c-Myc expression. Further analysis revealed that mTORC2 was a downstream factor of p38. PI3K, JNK and mTORC2 coordinately activated Akt. Akt was phosphorylated at Thr450 in the untreated cells. Cd treatment led to additional phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473. Blocking any of the three signaling factors resulted in the reduction of phosphorylation level at all three Akt sites. The activated Akt phosphorylated Foxo1 and allowed the modified protein to translocate into the cytoplasm. We conclude that Cd-induced accumulation of c-Myc requires the activation of several signaling pathways. The signals act coordinately for Akt activation and drive the Foxo1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Reduction of Foxo1 in the nucleus reduces the transcription of its target genes that may affect c-Myc mRNA stability, resulting in a higher accumulation of the c-Myc proteins.

  16. Wear measurement by surface layer activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blatchley, C.

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of these projects was to demonstrate the capability for precisely but remotely measuring small increments of wear, erosion or corrosion in utility components using detectors mounted outside the system to monitor the presence of radionuclide surface markers. These gamma ray emitting markers are produced by surface layer activation (SLA) using a high energy particle beam from a Van de Graaff or cyclotron particle accelerator. The work was divided into three major projects: (1) determination of the feasibility of applying SLA based surface monitoring techniques to key power plant systems; (2) a field demonstration of SLA monitoring in steam turbine components subject to severe solid particle erosion; and (3) a field demonstration of SLA wear or corrosion monitoring of components in boiler auxiliaries. In the field tests, surface material removal was successfully measured from both selected systems, demonstrating the feasibility of the technique for long term diagnostic condition monitoring. Three bearing components in a boiler circulation pump were monitored almost continuously for a period of over 5 months until the pump was stopped due to electrical problems unrelated to the wear measurements. Solid particle erosion from two stop valve bypass valves was measured during a series of nine startup cycles. Both test demonstrations confirmed the earlier feasibility estimates and showed how SLA markers can be used to provide valuable diagnostic information to plant operators. 22 refs., 63 figs., 29 tabs.

  17. In vivo Study on Depressant Effects and Muscle Coordination Activity of Galphimia glauca Stem Methanol Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garige, Baba Shankar Rao; Keshetti, Srisailam; Vattikuti, Uma Maheshwara Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Galphimia glauca is an evergreen shrub found across peninsular India, belonging to family Malpighiaceae. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo depressant effects and muscle coordination activity of G. glauca stem methanol extract (GGSME). Materials and Methods: The stem methanol extract was administered in Swiss albino mice in 1 day to study the central nervous system (CNS) depressant and muscle coordination activity employing animal models such as sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep test, hole-board test, open field test, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions, picrotoxin-induced convulsions, grip strengthening test in mice, and Rota-rod test. Results: The LD50 of GGSME was found to be >2000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Mice treated with stem methanol extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, b.w. doses extended the sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg. b.w., i.p.). The stem methanol extract at 400 mg/kg dose showed a significant (P ≤ 0.001) dose-dependent decrease in the number of rears and head dipping number in the hole-board test. The extract exhibited a significant (P ≤ 0.001) effect on the ambulatory behavior of mice in the open field test and also extended the onset of seizures induced by PTZ (90 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and picrotoxin (10 mg/kg, b.w., i.p.). The extract also exhibited significant (P ≤ 0.001) effects on muscle coordination in rota-rod and grip strengthening test in mice. Conclusion: The study results conclude that the GGSME has a potential CNS depressant and muscle relaxant effects compared to the standard drugs. SUMMARY Anxiety is implicated in the number of psychiatric disordersIn vivo depressant activity is studied employing animal models like Sodium pentobarbital-.induced sleep test, Hole-board test, Open field test, Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions and Picrotoxin-induced convulsions tests.Muscle coordination activity is studied employing animal models like Grip strengthening

  18. Open Discussion Session: Challenges and Advancements in Coordinated Space Weather Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauristie, Kirsti

    2016-07-01

    Besides addressing the key questions in space weather research the Cospar/ILWS Roadmap presents also recommendations for teaming in the research environment and for collaboration between agencies and communities. Coordinated work of different research groups facilitate our efforts for a holistic view on the entire Sun-Earth system with its complicated feedback processes in different scale sizes. Seamless knowledge transfer from research to operational services is a crucial factor for the success of space weather research field. In this open discussion session we encourage the participants to share their views on most important challenges and advancements in our field, both in science and in collaboration. We also welcome comments on the roadmap recommendations and guidance for similar activities in the future.

  19. Effects of surface coordination on the temperature-programmed desorption of oxalate from goethite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boily, Jean F.; Szanyi, Janos; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2007-11-15

    The temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of weakly-bound, hydrogen-bonded and metal-bonded oxalate complexes at the goethite surface was investigated in the 300-900 K range with concerted Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) measurements (TPD-FTIR). These reactions took place with the concomitant dehydroxylation reaction of goethite to hematite and decarbonation of bulk-occluded carbonate. The measurements revealed three important stages of desorption. Stage I (300-440 K) corresponds to the desorption of weakly-and/or un-bound oxalate molecules in the goethite powder with a thermal decomposition reaction pathway characteristic of oxalic acid. Stage II (440-520 K) corresponds to a thermally-driven dehydration of hydrogen-bonded surface complexes, leading to a partial desorption via oxalic acid thermal decomposition pathways and to a partial conversion to metal-bonded surface complexes. This latter mechanism led to the increase in FTIR bands characteristic of these complexes. Finally, Stage III (520-660 K) corresponds to the thermal decomposition of the metal-bonded oxalate complex, proceeding through a 2 electron reduction pathway.

  20. Correlation between the structure and biological activity studies of supramolecular coordination azodye compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Abou-Dobara

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel bidentate azodye quinoline ligands were synthesized with various p-aromatic amines like p-(OCH3, CH3, H, Cl and NO2. Novel azodye (HLn and complexes [Cu(II/Ni(II] of these ligands have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, molar conductance and magnetic measurements, infrared and electronic spectral studies. Suitable structures have been proposed for these complexes. The synthesized ligands and their metal complexes were screened for their antimicrobial activity against four local bacterial species, two Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae as well as against four local fungal species; namely Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium italicum and Fusarium oxysporium. The tested compounds have good antibacterial activity against B. cereus, E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Very low effect was detected against S. aureus and F. oxysporium. We found that the results of antifungal activity of HLn revealed that the complexes are more toxic than ligands against fungi due to the transition metal involved in the coordination. Also Cu2+ complexes are more active than Ni2+ complexes against B. cereus, E. coli and K. pneumoniae. The size of the clear zone was in the following order p-(OCH3 < CH3 < H < Cl < NO2 as expected from Hammett’s constants σR.

  1. Developmental coordination disorder and level of physical activity in children: systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Capistrano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children with DCD may have difficulty in performing leisure activities, sports, in addition to problems in social interactions. Objective: To investigate the relationship between DCD and physical activity, as well as evaluate the research quality in the area. Method: It was conducted a search on four databases (PubMed, Bireme, Web of Science and Scopus, with the descriptors, in Portuguese and English languages: “motor activity” (“atividade motora”, “disorder of motor skills” (“transtorno das habilidades motoras”, “developmental coordination disorder” (“transtorno do desenvolvimento da coordenação”, “physical activity” (“atividade física” and “children” (“crianças”. Results: The analysis processes included the reading of titles, abstracts and full texts. The initial electronic search found 3303 manuscripts, of which 22 met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Regarding the level of physical activity in children with DCD only eleven studies approached the theme, while others used it as a mediating variable. Conclusion: Children with DCD showed a lower level of physical activity compared to their pairs, which makes the disorder, during the childhood, a risk factor for physical inactivity in adolescence .

  2. Using Wavelet Entropy to Demonstrate how Mindfulness Practice Increases Coordination between Irregular Cerebral and Cardiac Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sik, Hin Hung; Gao, Junling; Fan, Jicong; Wu, Bonnie Wai Yan; Leung, Hang Kin; Hung, Yeung Sam

    2017-05-10

    In both the East and West, traditional teachings say that the mind and heart are somehow closely correlated, especially during spiritual practice. One difficulty in proving this objectively is that the natures of brain and heart activities are quite different. In this paper, we propose a methodology that uses wavelet entropy to measure the chaotic levels of both electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) data and show how this may be used to explore the potential coordination between the mind and heart under different experimental conditions. Furthermore, Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) was used to identify the brain regions in which the EEG wavelet entropy was the most affected by the experimental conditions. As an illustration, the EEG and ECG were recorded under two different conditions (normal rest and mindful breathing) at the beginning of an 8-week standard Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) training course (pretest) and after the course (posttest). Using the proposed method, the results consistently showed that the wavelet entropy of the brain EEG decreased during the MBSR mindful breathing state as compared to that during the closed-eye resting state. Similarly, a lower wavelet entropy of heartrate was found during MBSR mindful breathing. However, no difference in wavelet entropy during MBSR mindful breathing was found between the pretest and posttest. No correlation was observed between the entropy of brain waves and the entropy of heartrate during normal rest in all participants, whereas a significant correlation was observed during MBSR mindful breathing. Additionally, the most well-correlated brain regions were located in the central areas of the brain. This study provides a methodology for the establishment of evidence that mindfulness practice (i.e., mindful breathing) may increase the coordination between mind and heart activities.

  3. GIT2 acts as a systems-level coordinator of neurometabolic activity and pathophysiological aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwen eMartin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging represents one of the most complicated and highly integrated somatic processes. Healthy aging is suggested to rely upon the coherent regulation of hormonal and neuronal communication between the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. The hypothalamus is one of the main structures in the body responsible for sustaining an efficient interaction between energy balance and neurological activity and therefore likely coordinates multiple systems in the aging process. We previously identified, in hypothalamic and peripheral tissues, the G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 2 (GIT2 as a stress response and aging regulator. As metabolic status profoundly affects aging trajectories we investigated the role of GIT2 in regulating metabolic activity. We found that genomic deletion of GIT2 alters hypothalamic transcriptomic signatures related to diabetes and metabolic pathways. Deletion of GIT2 reduced whole animal respiratory exchange ratios away from those related to primary glucose usage for energy homeostasis. GIT2 knockout (GIT2KO mice demonstrated lower insulin secretion levels, disruption of pancreatic islet beta cell mass, elevated plasma glucose and insulin resistance. High-dimensionality transcriptomic signatures from islets isolated from GIT2KO mice indicated a disruption of beta cell development. Additionally, GIT2 expression was prematurely elevated in pancreatic and hypothalamic tissues from diabetic-state mice (db/db, compared to age-matched wild type controls, further supporting the role of GIT2 in metabolic regulation and aging. We also found that the physical interaction of pancreatic GIT2 with the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 2 was diminished in db/db mice compared to wild type mice. Therefore GIT2 appears to exert a multidimensional ‘keystone’ role in regulating the aging process by coordinating somatic responses to energy deficits.

  4. A Wolf Pack Algorithm for Active and Reactive Power Coordinated Optimization in Active Distribution Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, H. M.; Jiang, X. J.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an active and reactive power dynamic optimization model for active distribution network (ADN), whose control variables include the output of distributed generations (DGs), charge or discharge power of energy storage system (ESS) and reactive power from capacitor banks. To solve the high-dimension nonlinear optimization model, a new heuristic swarm intelligent method, namely wolf pack algorithm (WPA) with better global convergence and computational robustness, is adapted so that the network loss minimization can be achieved. In this paper, the IEEE33-bus system is used to show the effectiveness of WPA technique compared with other techniques. Numerical tests on the modified IEEE 33-bus system show that WPA for active and reactive multi-period optimization of ADN is exact and effective.

  5. Activity Participation Intensity Is Associated with Skeletal Development in Pre-Pubertal Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, William W. N.; Guo, X.; Fong, Shirley S. M.; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed (1) to compare the skeletal maturity and activity participation pattern between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD); and (2) to determine whether activity participation pattern was associated with the skeletal development among children with DCD. Materials and methods: Thirty-three children…

  6. Transcriptional activation by pRB and its coordination with SWI/SNF recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Stephen; Beck, George R; Moran, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    A central question in cancer biology is why most tumor susceptibility genes are linked with only limited types of cancer. Human germ-line mutation of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene Rb1 is closely linked with just retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma, although the gene is universally expressed. Functional analysis of pRB and its close relatives, p107 and p130, has largely focused on their roles in repression of proliferation across all tissue types, but genetic evidence indicates an active requirement for pRB in osteoblast differentiation that correlates more directly with osteosarcoma susceptibility. Still, potential promoter targets of pRB and its role in normally differentiating osteoblasts remain insufficiently characterized. Here, an early marker of osteoblast differentiation, alkaline phosphatase, is identified as a direct promoter activation target of pRB. One role of pRB on this promoter is to displace the histone lysine demethylase KDM5A, thereby favoring trimethylation of H3K4, a promoter activation mark. A major new aspect of pRB-mediated transcriptional activation revealed in this promoter analysis is its role in recruitment of an activating SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. SWI/SNF is a critical coordinator of tissue-specific gene expression. In osteoblasts, SWI/SNF complexes containing the BRM ATPase repress osteoblast-specific genes to maintain the precursor state, whereas the alternative ATPase BRG1 distinguishes an activating SWI/SNF complex necessary for RNA polymerase-II recruitment. A switch from BRM to BRG1 on the alkaline phosphatase promoter marks the onset of differentiation and is accomplished in a precise two-step mechanism. Dissociation of BRM-containing SWI/SNF depends on p300, and association of BRG1-containing SWI/SNF depends on pRB.

  7. Mirror neuron activation in children with developmental coordination disorder: A functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jess E; Licari, Melissa K; Billington, Jac; Chen, Yihui; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa; Werner, Julie; Winsor, Anne M; Bynevelt, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal cortical areas that may contribute to the movement difficulties seen in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Specifically, we hypothesized that there may be a deficit in the mirror neuron system (MNS), a neural system that responds to both performed and observed actions. Using functional MRI, 14 boys with DCD (x=10.08 years ± 1.31, range=7.83-11.58 years) and 12 typically developing controls (x=10.10 years ± 1.15, range=8.33-12.00 years) were scanned observing, executing and imitating a finger sequencing task using their right hand. Cortical activations of mirror neuron regions, including posterior inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), ventral premotor cortex, anterior inferior parietal lobule and superior temporal sulcus were examined. Children with DCD had decreased cortical activation mirror neuron related regions, including the precentral gyrus and IFG, as well as in the posterior cingulate and precuneus complex when observing the sequencing task. Region of interest analysis revealed lower activation in the pars opercularis, a primary MNS region, during imitation in the DCD group compared to controls. These findings provide some preliminary evidence to support a possible MNS dysfunction in children with DCD.

  8. Thiol peroxidase-like activity of some intramolecularly coordinated diorganyl diselenides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sangit Kumar; Harkesh B Singh

    2005-11-01

    Several new diaryl diselenides having intramolecular coordinating groups have been synthesized by ortho-lithiation/Na2Se2 routes in good yield. Bis[2-(N-phenylferrocenecarboxamide)] diselenide (10), bis[2-(N-tert-butylferrocenecarboxamide)] diselenide (11), ()()-bis[2(--phenethylferrocenecarboxamide)] diselenide (12) were synthesized by the ortho-lithiation route. Bis[2-(N,N-dimethylaminomethylnaphthyl)] diselenide (13) was synthesized by lithium/bromide exchange reaction whereas bis(2,4-dinitrophenyl) diselenide (14) was prepared by the reaction of disodium diselenide with 2,4- dinitro-1-chlorobenzene. Thiol peroxidase-like activities of the diorganodiselenides have been evaluated by using H2O2 as substrate and PhSH as cosubstrate. Diselenides (13) and (14) with dimethylaminomethyl- or nitro-donor groups in close proximity to selenium, show much better thiol peroxidase-like activities compared to diselenides 10-12 with amide donor groups. Cyclic voltammetry study of diselenides 10-12 derived from redox-active ferrocenamide has been carried out.

  9. Mcm10 coordinates the timely assembly and activation of the replication fork helicase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Arnaiz, Patricia; Bruck, Irina; Kaplan, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Mcm10 is an essential replication factor that is required for DNA replication in eukaryotes. Two key steps in the initiation of DNA replication are the assembly and activation of Cdc45–Mcm2–7-GINS (CMG) replicative helicase. However, it is not known what coordinates helicase assembly with helicase activation. We show in this manuscript, using purified proteins from budding yeast, that Mcm10 directly interacts with the Mcm2–7 complex and Cdc45. In fact, Mcm10 recruits Cdc45 to Mcm2–7 complex in vitro. To study the role of Mcm10 in more detail in vivo we used an auxin inducible degron in which Mcm10 is degraded upon addition of auxin. We show in this manuscript that Mcm10 is required for the timely recruitment of Cdc45 and GINS recruitment to the Mcm2–7 complex in vivo during early S phase. We also found that Mcm10 stimulates Mcm2 phosphorylation by DDK in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicate that Mcm10 plays a critical role in coupling replicative helicase assembly with helicase activation. Mcm10 is first involved in the recruitment of Cdc45 to the Mcm2–7 complex. After Cdc45–Mcm2–7 complex assembly, Mcm10 promotes origin melting by stimulating DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2, which thereby leads to GINS attachment to Mcm2–7. PMID:26582917

  10. Experience dependent development of coordinated hippocampal spatial activity representing the similarity of related locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Annabelle C.; Karlsson, Mattias P.; Nathe, Ana R.; Carr, Margaret F.; Frank, Loren M.

    2010-01-01

    To learn we must identify and remember experiences uniquely but also generalize across experiences to extract common features. Hippocampal place cells can show similar firing patterns across locations, but the functional significance of this repetitive activity and the role of experience and learning in generating it are not understood. We therefore examined rat hippocampal place cell activity in the context of spatial tasks with multiple similar spatial trajectories. We found that, in environments with repeating elements, about half of the recorded place cells showed path equivalent firing where individual neurons are active in multiple similar locations. In contrast, place cells from animals performing a similar task in an environment with fewer similar elements were less likely to fire in a path equivalent manner. Moreover, in the environment with multiple repeating elements, path equivalence developed with experience in the task and increased path equivalence was associated with increased moment-by-moment correlations between pairs of path equivalent neurons. As a result, correlated firing among path equivalent neurons increased with experience. These findings suggest that coordinated hippocampal ensembles can encode generalizations across locations. Thus, path equivalent ensembles are well suited to encode similarities among repeating elements, providing a framework for associating specific behaviors with multiple locations, while neurons without this repetitive structure maintain a distinct population code. PMID:20810880

  11. Laterality of movement-related activity reflects transformation of coordinates in ventral premotor cortex and primary motor cortex of monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Kiyoshi

    2007-10-01

    The ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and the primary motor cortex (MI) of monkeys participate in various sensorimotor integrations, such as the transformation of coordinates from visual to motor space, because the areas contain movement-related neuronal activity reflecting either visual or motor space. In addition to relationship to visual and motor space, laterality of the activity could indicate stages in the visuomotor transformation. Thus we examined laterality and relationship to visual and motor space of movement-related neuronal activity in the PMv and MI of monkeys performing a fast-reaching task with the left or right arm, toward targets with visual and motor coordinates that had been dissociated by shift prisms. We determined laterality of each activity quantitatively and classified it into four types: activity that consistently depended on target locations in either head-centered visual coordinates (V-type) or motor coordinates (M-type) and those that had either differential or nondifferential activity for both coordinates (B- and N-types). A majority of M-type neurons in the areas had preferences for reaching movements with the arm contralateral to the hemisphere where neuronal activity was recorded. In contrast, most of the V-type neurons were recorded in the PMv and exhibited less laterality than the M-type. The B- and N-types were recorded in the PMv and MI and exhibited intermediate properties between the V- and M-types when laterality and correlations to visual and motor space of them were jointly examined. These results suggest that the cortical motor areas contribute to the transformation of coordinates to generate final motor commands.

  12. Surface activity of a monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Senner, Frank; Maeder, Karsten; Mueller, Robert

    2009-12-01

    The development of high concentration antibody formulations presents a major challenge for the formulation scientist, as physical characteristics and stability behavior change compared to low concentration protein formulations. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential correlation between surface activity and shaking stress stability of a model antibody-polysorbate 20 formulation. The surface activities of pure antibody and polysorbate 20 were compared, followed by a study on the influence of a model antibody on the apparent critical micelle concentration (CMC) of polysorbate 20 over a protein concentration range from 10 to 150 mg/mL. In a shaking stress experiment, the stability of 10, 75, and 150 mg/mL antibody formulations was investigated containing different concentrations of polysorbate 20, both below and above the CMC. The antibody increased significantly the apparent CMC of antibody-polysorbate 20 mixtures in comparison to the protein-free buffer. However, the concentration of polysorbate required for stabilization of the model antibody in a shaking stress experiment did not show dependence on the CMC. A polysorbate 20 level of 0.005% was found sufficient to stabilize both at low and high antibody concentration against antibody aggregation and precipitation.

  13. Eurocan plus report: feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The EUROCAN+PLUS Project, called for by the European Parliament, was launched in October 2005 as a feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities in Europe. Over the course of the next two years, the Project process organized over 60 large meetings and countless smaller meetings that gathered in total over a thousand people, the largest Europe-wide consultation ever conducted in the field of cancer research.Despite a strong tradition in biomedical science in Europe, fragmentation and lack of sustainability remain formidable challenges for implementing innovative cancer research and cancer care improvement. There is an enormous duplication of research effort in the Member States, which wastes time, wastes money and severely limits the total intellectual concentration on the wide cancer problem. There is a striking lack of communication between some of the biggest actors on the European scene, and there are palpable tensions between funders and those researchers seeking funds.It is essential to include the patients' voice in the establishment of priority areas in cancer research at the present time. The necessity to have dialogue between funders and scientists to establish the best mechanisms to meet the needs of the entire community is evident. A top priority should be the development of translational research (in its widest form), leading to the development of effective and innovative cancer treatments and preventive strategies. Translational research ranges from bench-to-bedside innovative cancer therapies and extends to include bringing about changes in population behaviours when a risk factor is established.The EUROCAN+PLUS Project recommends the creation of a small, permanent and independent European Cancer Initiative (ECI). This should be a model structure and was widely supported at both General Assemblies of the project. The ECI should assume responsibility for stimulating innovative cancer research and facilitating processes

  14. Does Titan have an Active Surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R.

    2009-12-01

    ammonia, a compound expected in Titan’s interior. This, combined with the previous evidence from VIMS and RADAR images, creates a strong case for Titan having a presently active surface, possibly due to cryovolcanism. Cassini encountered Titan at very close range on 2008-11-19-13:58 and again on 2008-12-05-12:38. These epochs are called T47 and T48. Comparison of earlier lower resolution data (T5) with the recent T47 and T48 data reveal changes of the surface reflectance and morphology in the Hotei region. This is the first evidence from VIMS that confirms the RADAR report that Hotei Reggio has morphology consistent with volcanic terrain. It has not escaped our attention that ammonia, in association with methane and nitrogen, the principal species of Titan’s atmosphere, closely replicates the environment at the time that live first emerged on earth. If Titan is currently active then these results raise the following questions: What is the full extent of current geologic activity? What are the ongoing processes? Are Titan’s chemical processes today supporting a prebiotic chemistry similar to that under which life evolved on Earth? This work done at JPL under contract with NASA. Refs: [1]R. M. Nelson et al., Icarus 199 (2009) 429-441. [2]R. M. Nelson et al., GRL, VOL. 36, L04202, doi:10.1029/2008GL036206, 2009. [3]S. D. Wall GRL, VOL. 36, L04203, doi:10.1029/2008GL036415, 2009

  15. Relationships between levels of motor coordination, attention and physical activity in children: The mediation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kokštejn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current findings suggest that physical activity of children with developmental difficulties may be limited by low level of motor coordination. Motor difficulties are often connected with children suffering from attention deficit disorder. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out the level of physical activity (PA in older school-age children with motor difficulties (MD in comparison with children without MD and to reveal possible mediate impact on attention between the level of motor skills and PA in children of this age. METHODS: Participants were divided into two groups: 15 children with MD (age 13.7 ± 1.6 years and 27 children without MD (age 13.3 ± 1.4 years. Motor functions were assessed by means of test battery MABC-2, weekly physical activity by means of Actigraph accelerometer and attention by both d2 and numeric square tests. To estimate the mediation of the attention level we have used Baron's & Kenny's (1986 analysis. RESULTS: In most of the indicators of PA, children with MD reached lower value than those without MD. The differences of statistical significance were found in the number of steps per week and weekdays (d = 0.50 and 0.64 respectively and in PA of a very high intensity (d =2 .00 in boys with and without MD. In girls with MD we have found out significantly less time spent in vigorous intensity PA (d = 0.86. The study results support the hypothesis of developmental motor deficits to be a risk factor for PA in older school-age children. Significant mediation effect of concentration of attention in the relationship between the level of motor skills and PA was observed in three cases - in the relationship between gross motor skills on the one hand, and energy expenditure per week and weekdays, and vigorous intensity PA per week on the other. The amount of mediation effect of attention concentration ranged between 12-22%. CONCLUSION: The study has indicated that children's participation in PA can be

  16. A redox-active porous coordination network film based on a Ru complex as a building block on an ITO electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, Takuya; Ozawa, Hiroaki; Mutoh, Yuichiro; Haga, Masa-Aki

    2013-12-01

    The combination of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and layer-by-layer (LbL) growth methods for the construction of a surface porous film has the potential to incorporate a wide range of chemical functionalities on a solid surface. A novel redox-active Ru complex with 2,6-bis(N-pyridylbenzimidazolyl)-pyridine ligands (Ru complex 1), in which four peripheral pyridine groups act as coordination sites, was used as a building block for a porous coordination network film. By using (4-pyridyl)phenylphosphonic acid as a SAM primer layer on an ITO surface, the Ru complex 1 was immobilized by the successive reaction of PdCl2 on the ITO electrode in the LbL growth method. Multilayer growth was monitored by UV-vis spectra and cyclic voltammetry, in which the linear increases of both absorbance and the peak current were observed. This result indicated that the regular accumulation of Ru complex 1 onto the ITO surface took place. The permselectivity of the present porous coordination network structure was examined using redox-active molecular probes with different sizes and charges such as ferrocene, trimethylaminomethylferrocene, the Os bis(2,6-bis(N-methylbenzimidazolyl)-pyridine) complex, and tetrathiofulvarene (TTF). With the Os complex and cationic ferrocene, only the catalytic peak was observed as a prewave of the adsorbed Ru(II/III) peak at +0.73 V. On the other hand, the oxidation peak of ferrocene was observed around 0 V vs. Fc(+)/Fc even for nine-layered films in addition to the adsorbed Ru(II/III) peak. From these results, not only molecular size but also electrostatic interaction plays an important role in the permeation into the Ru complex 1 porous network film.

  17. Effect of illuminating and viewing geometry on the color coordinates of samples with various surface textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billmeyer, F W; Marcus, R T

    1969-04-01

    Color measurements with several different illuminating/viewing geometries were carried out for samples with four different surface textures in four different colors: matte papers, glossy papers, ceramic or porcelain enamel tiles, and polished opaque glasses, with ISCC-NBS color designations moderate pink, pale orange-yellow, dark bluish-green, and dark gray. On a single instrument (Cary 14 spectrophotometer), three geometries were used: normal/diffuse (N/D), diffuse/normal (D/N) and normal/45 degrees (N/45). For comparison, measurements were also made on a GE spectrophotometer (GERS) using near-normal/diffuse geometry. All integrating sphere (diffuse) measurements were made with specular component both included and excluded. Specular gloss and goniophotometric reflectance measurements were made. For these samples, the Cary 14 N/D and GERS results are in good agreement, and the results with N/D and D/N geometries are essentially equivalent, but there is strong evidence of the serious problem of incomplete exclusion of the specular component with all of the integrating sphere geometries when operated in the specular-excluded mode, even with samples normally considered to be highly glossy or highly matte.

  18. Molecular weaving via surface-templated epitaxy of crystalline coordination networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengbang; Błaszczyk, Alfred; Fuhr, Olaf; Heissler, Stefan; Wöll, Christof; Mayor, Marcel

    2017-02-01

    One of the dream reactions in polymer chemistry is the bottom-up, self-assembled synthesis of polymer fabrics, with interwoven, one-dimensional fibres of monomolecular thickness forming planar pieces of textiles. We have made a major step towards realizing this goal by assembling sophisticated, quadritopic linkers into surface-mounted metal-organic frameworks. By sandwiching these quadritopic linkers between sacrificial metal-organic framework thin films, we obtained multi-heteroepitaxial, crystalline systems. In a next step, Glaser-Hay coupling of triple bonds in the quadritopic linkers yields linear, interwoven polymer chains. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that this topochemical reaction leaves the MOF backbone completely intact. After removing the metal ions, the textile sheets can be transferred onto different supports and imaged using scanning electron microscopy and atomic-force microscopy. The individual polymer strands forming the two-dimensional textiles have lengths on the order of 200 nm, as evidenced by atomic-force microscopy images recorded from the disassembled textiles.

  19. Small molecule regulation of self-association and catalytic activity in a supramolecular coordination complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuirk, C Michael; Stern, Charlotte L; Mirkin, Chad A

    2014-03-26

    Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of the first weak-link approach (WLA) supramolecular construct that employs the small molecule regulation of intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions for the in situ control of catalytic activity. A biaryl urea group, prone to self-aggregation, was functionalized with a phosphinoalkyl thioether (P,S) hemilabile moiety and incorporated into a homoligated Pt(II) tweezer WLA complex. This urea-containing construct, which has been characterized by a single crystal X-ray diffraction study, can be switched in situ from a rigid fully closed state to a flexible semiopen state via Cl(-) induced changes in the coordination mode at the Pt(II) structural node. FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy studies were used to demonstrate that while extensive urea self-association persists in the flexible semiopen complex, these interactions are deterred in the rigid, fully closed complex because of geometric and steric restraints. Consequently, the urea moieties in the fully closed complex are able to catalyze a Diels-Alder reaction between cyclopentadiene and methyl vinyl ketone to generate 2-acetyl-5-norbornene. The free urea ligand and the semiopen complex show no such activity. The successful incorporation and regulation of a hydrogen bond donating catalyst in a WLA construct open the doors to a vast and rapidly growing catalogue of allosteric catalysts for applications in the detection and amplification of organic analytes.

  20. Spectroscopic properties and the catalytic activity of new organo-lead supramolecular coordination polymer containing quinoxaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; Abdou, Safaa N.

    2015-01-01

    The 3D-supramolecular coordination polymer (SCP) 3∞[ Cu2(CN)3(Me3Pb)(qox)], 1, as the first example of the CuCN SCP containing the (Me3Pb) fragment, was explored to investigate its catalytic and photo-catalytic activities. The structure of 1 contains two chemically identical but crystallographically different [Cu2(CN)3ṡMe3Pbṡqox]2 units with four Cu(I) sites assuming distorted TP-3 geometry. Two non-linear chains of equal abundance are formed producing corrugated parallel chains which are connected laterally by quinoxaline creating 2D-layers which are arranged parallel in an (AB⋯AB⋯AB)n fashion forming 3D-network. IR, mass, electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra are also investigated. The SCP 1 is diamagnetic and exhibits good catalytic and photo-catalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The reaction is first order with respect to MB dye. The irradiation of the reaction with UV-light enhanced the rate of MB mineralization. The efficiency of recycled the 1 and the mechanism of degradation of MB dye were investigated.

  1. Relationship between Coordination Structure and Biological Activity of Copper(Ⅱ) Nicotinate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qiang; LI Qing-Lu; HUANG Zhi-Jian; LI Jian-Sheng; LI Ru

    2006-01-01

    The copper(Ⅱ) complexes of pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (nicotinic acid) and pyridine-2-carboxylic acid (isonicotinic acid) were synthesized, and their structures were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectrum, powder X-ray diffraction and so on. The results show that under experimental conditions, the ligands of synthesized copper nicotinate and copper isonicotinate are coordinated simultaneity with copper(Ⅱ) via the nitrogen of pyridine group and an oxygen of carboxylic acid group to form bidentate chelates. The crystal of copper nicotinate with two six-membered chelate rings belongs to monoclinic system, while that of copper isonicotinate having two five-membered chelate rings is of triclinic system. The tests show that the biological activities, such as the improvement of feed utilization, growth, anti-oxidation ability of organism and disease-resistant power, are different when copper nicotinate, copper inicotinate, copper-lysine chelate, copper-methionine chelate and copper sulphate are added in pig's feed, respectively. Due to its higher biological activity, less pollution and lower toxicity,copper nicotinate has wide potential applications as a feed additive.

  2. Embedded active surfaces for volume visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Ross T.; Chen, David

    1994-05-01

    We propose a new technique for use in the visualization of sparse, fuzzy, or noisy 3D data. This technique incorporates the methods of deformable or active models that have been developed in 2D computer vision. In this paper we generalize such models to 3D in a manner that is both practical and mathematically elegant, and we thereby avoid many of the problems associated with previous attempts to generalize deformable models. When generalizing to 3D, deformable models have several drawbacks-- including their acute sensitivity to topology, parameterization, and initial conditions--which limit their effectiveness. Many of these problems stem from the underlying parameterization of the model. This paper presents an implicit representation of deformable models. The implicit representation is an embedding of objects as level sets of grayscale functions which serve as templates. The evolution equation associated with the energy minimization process for a model has an analogous partial differential equation which governs the behavior of the corresponding grayscale template. We show that the 'active blobs' associated with the embedding of active models have several useful properties. First, they are topologically flexible. Second, grayscale images represent families of models. Third, when surfaces are embedded as grayscale images, they are described by a natural scale space. This scale space provides the ability to solve these equations in a multi-scale manner. Several 2D examples of technique are presented, as well as some visualization results from 3D ultrasound.

  3. Coordinative modulation of human zinc transporter 2 gene expression through active and suppressive regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu-Ju; Liu, Ya-Chuan; Lin, Meng-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Lin, Lih-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Zinc transporter 2 (ZnT2) is one of the cellular factors responsible for Zn homeostasis. Upon Zn overload, ZnT2 reduces cellular Zn by transporting it into excretory vesicles. We investigated the molecular mechanism that regulates human ZnT2 (hZnT2) gene expression. Zn induces hZnT2 expression in dose- and time-dependent manners. Overexpression of metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) increases hZnT2 transcription, whereas depletion of MTF-1 reduces hZnT2 expression. There are five putative metal response elements (MREs) within 1kb upstream of the hZnT2 gene. A serial deletion of the hZnT2 promoter region (from 5' to 3') shows that the two MREs proximal to the gene are essential for Zn-induced promoter activity. Further mutation analysis concludes that the penultimate MRE (MREb) supports the metal-induced promoter activity. The hZnT2 promoter has also a zinc finger E-box binding homeobox (ZEB) binding element. Mutation or deletion of this ZEB binding element elevates the basal and Zn-induced hZnT2 promoter activities. Knockdown of ZEB1 mRNA enhances the hZnT2 transcript level in HEK-293 cells. In MCF-7 (ZEB-deficient) cells, expression of ZEB proteins attenuates the Zn-induced hZnT2 expression. However, expressions of MTF-1 target genes such as human ZnT1 and metallothionein IIA were not affected. Our study shows the expression of the hZnT2 gene is coordinately regulated via active and suppressive modulators.

  4. A Longitudinal Electromyography Study of Complex Movements in Poststroke Therapy. 2: Changes in Coordinated Muscle Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Hesam-Shariati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor control is achieved through the coordinated activation of groups of muscles, or “muscle synergies.” Muscle synergies change after stroke as a consequence of the motor deficit. We investigated the pattern and longitudinal changes in upper limb muscle synergies during therapy in a largely unconstrained movement in patients with a broad spectrum of poststroke residual voluntary motor capacity. Electromyography (EMG was recorded using wireless telemetry from 6 muscles acting on the more-affected upper body in 24 stroke patients at early and late therapy during formal Wii-based Movement Therapy (WMT sessions, and in a subset of 13 patients at 6-month follow-up. Patients were classified with low, moderate, or high motor-function. The Wii-baseball swing was analyzed using a non-negative matrix factorization (NMF algorithm to extract muscle synergies from EMG recordings based on the temporal activation of each synergy and the contribution of each muscle to a synergy. Motor-function was clinically assessed immediately pre- and post-therapy and at 6-month follow-up using the Wolf Motor Function Test, upper limb motor Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and Motor Activity Log Quality of Movement scale. Clinical assessments and game performance demonstrated improved motor-function for all patients at post-therapy (p < 0.01, and these improvements were sustained at 6-month follow-up (p > 0.05. NMF analysis revealed fewer muscle synergies (mean ± SE for patients with low motor-function (3.38 ± 0.2 than those with high motor-function (4.00 ± 0.3 at early therapy (p = 0.036 with an association trend between the number of synergies and the level of motor-function. By late therapy, there was no significant change between groups, although there was a pattern of increase for those with low motor-function over time. The variability accounted for demonstrated differences with motor-function level (p < 0.05 but not time. Cluster

  5. The European radioecology alliance: encouraging the coordination and integration of research activities in radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); European Radioecology Alliance Association, French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN, 31 Avenue de la Division Leclerc, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Currivan, Lorraine [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland - RPII (Ireland); Gariel, Jean-Christophe [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France); Hardeman, Frank [SCK.CEN (Belgium); Howard, Brenda [Natural Environment Research Council - NERC, UK (United Kingdom); Lukashenko, Sergey [Kazakhstan Republic Institute of Nuclear Physics - NNCRK (Kazakhstan); Lund, Ingemar [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority - SSM (Sweden); Sabatier, Laure [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA (France); Sachs, Susanne [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf - HZDR (Germany); Salomaa, Sisko [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK (Finland); Smith, James [University of Portsmouth - UoP (United Kingdom); Steiner, Martin [Federal Office for Radiation Protection - BfS (Germany); Strand, Per [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Tschiersch, Jochen [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - HMGU (Germany); Hinton, Thomas [Strategy for Allied Radioecology - STAR Coordinator, IRSN (France); Vandenhove, Hildegarde [COordination and iMplementation of a pan-European instrumenT for radioecology - COMET Coordinator, SCK.CEN (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The European Radioecology Alliance was established in 2009 with a firm conviction from its eight founding European organizations that joining forces would enhance the competence of radioecology science in Europe. The main objective of the Radioecology Alliance is to progressively strengthen the coordination and integration of research in the field of radioecology at national, European and international level. The integration of the European radioecology community will be a key aspect facing the upcoming EURATOM Horizon 2020 framework programme. In 2012, the Radioecology Alliance was officially constituted as an Association, and in June 2013 grew from 8 to 14 members from 10 different countries (Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Kazakhstan, Norway, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom). Within the framework of the Radioecology Alliance, a Network of Excellence in Radioecology STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) was created in 2011 with financial support of the EC FP7. More recently, the project COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) has been also funded by the EC to strengthen the pan-European research initiative on the radiation impact on man and the environment by facilitating the integration of the Research and Development activities in radioecology. The Radioecology Alliance, in close collaboration with STAR in the first phase, and more recently with COMET, has developed for the first time a Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) on Radioecology. The SRA identifies three challenges: (1) To predict human and wildlife exposure more robustly by quantifying the key processes that most influence radionuclide transfers; (2) To determine ecological consequences under realistic exposure conditions and (3) To improve human and environmental protection by integrating radioecology. Within these 3 challenges, 15 research lines have been identified. After a consultation process which included not only the scientific community

  6. Scanning compound surfaces with no existing CAD model by using laser probe of a coordinate measuring machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Chenggang

    1992-09-01

    In recent years, the manufacturing of parts with compound surfaces relies more and more on computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) because of the ever increasing complexity of surface features. For a standard CIM cycle, it starts from a computer aided design (CAD) model which was designed previously be experienced mechanical drafters. The CAD model is then interpreted as numerical controlled (NC) machining codes according to which the part is finally manufactured, this is usually referred to as the normal manufacturing process in Figure 1. However, in many cases, a CAD model of a part is not always readily available to begin the CIM cycle. For instance, in automobile industry, the development of new car models takes a long time from concept to model because of the tedious manual digitization process. Also, in some other cases, the mechanical design of a product may need frequent modification, such as ship hulls, aeroplane fuselages, wings and turbine blades, etc. This was traditionally done by copymilling of a master model. In a computer aided manufacturing (CAM) environment, a mathematical model or representation of a part is required to begin a CIM cycle. The automation of the whole manufacturing system requires a rapid part modeling tool. Fortunately, this becomes possible with the advent of recent development in optical sensing devices and many non-contact sensing techniques. Before a part model is established, surface digitization should first be implemented so that enough measurement points can be fitted later, and this is the most important step of the reverse engineering process as in Figure 1. And also, it is obvious that the efficiency and accuracy of the surface modeling relies heavily on the efficiency and accuracy of the surface digitization. The present paper aims at achieving surface digitization accurately and rapidly with a coordinate measurement machine (CMM) and an inexpensive laser range-finding probe. By making full use of the control system of

  7. Dopamine D1 receptor activation maintains motor coordination in injured rats but does not accelerate the recovery of the motor coordination deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Luna, Alberto; Gálvez-Rosas, Arturo; Alfaro-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Reyes-Legorreta, Celia; Garza-Montaño, Paloma; González-Piña, Rigoberto; Bueno-Nava, Antonio

    2017-08-31

    The sensorimotor cortex and the striatum are interconnected by the corticostriatal pathway, suggesting that cortical injury alters the striatal function that is associated with skilled movements and motor learning, which are functions that may be modulated by dopamine (DA). In this study, we explored motor coordination and balance in order to investigate whether the activation of D1 receptors (D1Rs) modulates functional recovery after cortical injury. The results of the beam-walking test showed motor deficit in the injured group at 24, 48 and 96h post-injury, and the recovery time was observed at 192h after cortical injury. In the sham and injured rats, systemic administration of the D1R antagonist SCH-23390 (1mg/kg) alone at 24, 48, 96 and 192h significantly (P<0.01) increased the motor deficit, while administration of the D1R agonist SKF-38393 alone (2, 3 and 4mg/kg) at 24, 48, 96 and 192h post-injury did not produce a significant difference; however, the co-administration of SKF-38393 and SCH-23390 prevented the antagonist-induced increase in the motor deficit. The cortical+striatal injury showed significantly increased the motor deficit at 24, 48, 96 and 192h post-injury (P<0.01) but did not show recovery at 192h. In conclusion, the administration of the D1R agonist did not accelerate the motor recovery, but the activation of D1Rs maintained motor coordination, confirming that an intact striatum may be necessary for achieving recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An upstream activator of transcription coordinately increases the level and epigenetic stability of gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, Wendy; Fiering, Steven; Groudine, Mark; Martin, David I. K.

    1996-01-01

    The mouse metallothionein-I (mMT-I) promoter is activated by the metal response element-binding transcription factor (MTF), which binds metal response elements (MREs) when stimulated with heavy metals. We analyzed eight K562 erythroleukemia cell clones, each carrying a single integrated copy of an mMT-I/β-geo construct, using a system that can independently assess the level of β-geo expression and the rate at which it is silenced. In these clones, basal expression and rate of silencing vary widely and independently with integration site. This implies that the rates of transcription and of silencing are separate properties determined by interaction of the regulatory elements of the transgene with the site of integration. Induction of the mMT-I promoter with zinc both increases expression level and strongly retards silencing of β-geo expression. At a given integration site, expression level and silencing are affected coordinately by induction. Taken together with earlier studies of distant metal-responsive elements, these results suggest that distance from the promoter may determine whether a factor can increase transcription rate. Stimulation of an MRE can both increase transcription and overcome repressive effects of chromatin; we suggest that these functions are linked. PMID:8943035

  9. BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 coordinates organ determinacy and axial polarity in Arabidopsis by directly activating ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous organ formation is a hallmark of plant development that requires organ-specific gene activity to establish determinacy and axial patterning, yet the molecular mechanisms that coordinate these events remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the organ-specific BTB-POZ domain proteins BL...

  10. Effects of experimentally induced pain and fear of pain on trunk coordination and back muscle activity during walking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoth, C.J.C.; Daffertshofer, A.; Meijer, O.G.; Moseley, G.; Wuisman, P.I.J.M.; Beek, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of experimentally induced pain and fear of pain on trunk coordination and erector spinae EMG activity during gait. DESIGN: In 12 healthy subjects, hypertonic saline (acute pain) and isotonic saline (fear of pain) were injected into erector spinae muscle, and unpredi

  11. Distributive Education--Fashion Merchandising Wardrobe Coordination. Kit No. 76. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tant, Barbara

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on wardrobe coordination are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of distributive education (fashion merchandising). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational…

  12. Effects of experimentally induced pain and fear of pain on trunk coordination and back muscle activity during walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoth, Claudine J.C.; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Meijer, Onno G.; Lorimer Moseley, G.; Wuisman, Paul I.J.M.; Beek, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effects of experimentally induced pain and fear of pain on trunk coordination and erector spinae EMG activity during gait. Design. In 12 healthy subjects, hypertonic saline (acute pain) and isotonic saline (fear of pain) were injected into erector spinae muscle, and unpredi

  13. EXEL; Experience for Children in Learning. Parent-Directed Activities to Develop: Oral Expression, Visual Discrimination, Auditory Discrimination, Motor Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Polly; Millman, Joan

    The activities collected in this handbook are planned for parents to use with their children in a learning experience. They can also be used in the classroom. Sections contain games designed to develop visual discrimination, auditory discrimination, motor coordination and oral expression. An objective is given for each game, and directions for…

  14. Perceived athletic competence and physical activity in children with developmental coordination disorder who are clinically referred, and control children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordstar, Johannes J.; Stuive, Ilse; Herweijer, Hester; Holty, Lian; Oudenampsen, Chantal; Schoemaker, Marina M.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between perceived athletic competence (PAC) and physical activity (PA) in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is still unclear. This study investigated differences in PAC and PA between, and within, a group of children with DCD that were clinically referred (n =

  15. Perceived athletic competence and physical activity in children with developmental coordination disorder who are clinically referred, and control children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordstar, Johannes J.; Stuive, Ilse; Herweijer, Hester; Holty, Lian; Oudenampsen, Chantal; Schoemaker, Marina M.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between perceived athletic competence (PAC) and physical activity (PA) in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is still unclear. This study investigated differences in PAC and PA between, and within, a group of children with DCD that were clinically referred (n =

  16. Association of Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Dysfunction With Disrupted Coordinated Brain Activity in Schizophrenia: Relationship With Impaired Cognition, Behavioral Disorganization, and Global Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ursu, Stefan; Minzenberg, Michael J; Walters, Ryan; Wendelken, Carter; Ragland, J. Daniel; Carter, Cameron S; Yoon, Jong H

    2008-01-01

    ... of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia patients is associated with disrupted coordinated activity between this prefrontal region and a distributed brain network that supports cognitive control. Method...

  17. Coordination chemistry and biological activity of 5'-OH modified quinoline-B12 derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenka, Karel; Brandl, Helmut; Spingler, Bernhard; Zelder, Felix

    2011-10-14

    The consequences of structural modifications at the 5'-OH ribofuranotide moiety of quinoline modified B12 derivatives are discussed in regard of the coordination chemistry, the electrochemical properties and the biological behaviour of the compound.

  18. Multiple Coordination Exchanges for Room-Temperature Activation of Open-Metal Sites in Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jinhee; Choi, Jae Sun; Hwang, Sunhyun; Yun, Won Seok; Song, Dahae; Lee, JaeDong; Jeong, Nak Cheon

    2017-07-26

    The activation of open coordination sites (OCSs) in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), i.e., the removal of solvent molecules coordinated at the OCSs, is an essential step that is required prior to the use of MOFs in potential applications such as gas chemisorption, separation, and catalysis because OCSs often serve as key sites in these applications. Recently, we developed a "chemical activation" method involving dichloromethane (DCM) treatment at room temperature, which is considered to be a promising alternative to conventional thermal activation (TA), because it does not require the application of external thermal energy, thereby preserving the structural integrity of the MOFs. However, strongly coordinating solvents such as N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N-diethylformamide (DEF), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are difficult to remove solely with the DCM treatment. In this report, we demonstrate a multiple coordination exchange (CE) process executed initially with acetonitrile (MeCN), methanol (MeOH), or ethanol (EtOH) and subsequently with DCM to achieve the complete activation of OCSs that possess strong extracoordination. Thus, this process can serve as an effective "chemical route" to activation at room temperature that does not require applying heat. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has demonstrated the activation of OCSs using this multiple CE process, although MeOH and/or DCM has been popularly used in pretreatment steps prior to the TA process. Using MOF-74(Ni), we demonstrate that this multiple CE process can safely activate a thermally unstable MOF without inflicting structural damage. Furthermore, on the basis of in situ (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) and Raman studies, we propose a plausible mechanism for the activation behavior of multiple CE.

  19. Enhanced Catalysis Activity in a Coordinatively Unsaturated Cobalt-MOF Generated via Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hai-Yun; Yao, Ru-Xin; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2015-07-06

    Hydrothermal reaction of Co(NO3)2 and terphenyl-3,2",5",3'-tetracarboxyate (H4tpta) generated Co3(OH)2 chains based 3D coordination framework Co3(OH)2(tpta)(H2O)4 (1) that suffered from single-crystal-to-single-crystal dehydration by heating at 160 °C and was transformed into dehydrated Co3(OH)2(tpta) (1a). During the dehydration course, the local coordination environment of part of the Co atoms was transformed from saturated octahedron to coordinatively unsaturated tetrahedron. Heterogenous catalytic experiments on allylic oxidation of cyclohexene show that dehydrated 1a has 6 times enhanced catalytic activity than as-synthesized 1 by using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) as oxidant. The activation energy for the oxidation of cylcohexene with 1a catalyst was 67.3 kJ/mol, far below the value with 1 catalysts, which clearly suggested that coordinatively unsaturated Co(II) sites in 1a have played a significant role in decreasing the activation energy. It is interestingly found that heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of cyclohexene in 1a not only gives the higher conversion of 73.6% but also shows very high selectivity toward 2-cyclohexene-1-one (ca. 64.9%), as evidenced in high turnover numbers (ca. 161) based on the open Co(II) sites of 1a catalyst. Further experiments with a radical trap indicate a radical chain mechanism. This work demonstrates that creativity of coordinatively unsaturated metal sites in MOFs could significantly enhance heterogeneous catalytic activity and selectivity.

  20. Coordinate activation of inflammatory gene networksalveolar destruction and neonatal death in AKNA deficient mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbin Ma; Woong-Kyung Suh; Hitoshi Okada; Tak W Mak; Yang Zhou; Michael R Blackburn; Hector Martinez-Valdez; Blanca Ortiz-Quintero; Roberto Rangel; Morgan R McKeller; Sara Herrera-Rodriguez; Eliseo F Castillo; Kimberly S Schluns; Mary Hall; Huiyuan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression can be regulated by chromatin modifiers,transcription factors and proteins that modulate DNA architecture.Among the latter,AT-hook transcription factors have emerged as multifaceted regulators that can activate or repress broad A/T-rich gene networks.Thus,alterations of AT-hook genes could affect the transcription of multiple genes causing global cell dysfunction.Here we report that targeted deletions of mouse AKNA,a hypothetical AT-hook-like transcription factor,sensitize mice to pathogen-induced inflammation and cause sudden neonatal death.Compared with wild-type littermates,AKNA KO mice appeared weak,failedto thrive and most died by postnatal day 10.Systemic inflammation,predominantly in the lungs,was accompanied by enhanced leukocyte infiltration and alveolar destruction.Cytologic,immunohistochemical and molecular analyses revealed CD11b+Gr1+ neutrophils as major tissue infiltrators,neutrophilic granule protein,cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide and S100A8/9 as neutrophil-specific chemoattracting factors,interleukin-1β and interferon-γ as proinflammatory mediators,and matrix metalloprotease 9 as a plausible proteolytic trigger of alveolar damage.AKNA KO bone marrow transplants in wildtype recipients reproduced the severe pathogen-induced reactions and confirmed the involvement of neutrophils in acute inflammation.Moreover,promoter/reporter experiments showed that AKNA could act as a gene repressor.Our results support the concept of coordinated pathway-specific gene regulation functions modulating the intensity of inflammatory responses,reveal neutrophils as prominent mediators of acute inflammation and suggest mechanisms underlying the triggering of acute and potentially fatal immune reactions.

  1. Computational evaluation of sub-nanometer cluster activity of singly exposed copper atom with various coordinative environment in catalytic CO2 transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Ramasamy; Thamaraichelvan, Arunachalam; Ganesan, Tharumeya Kuppusamy; Viswanathan, Balasubramanian

    2017-02-01

    Metal cluster, at sub-nanometer level has a unique property in the activation of small molecules, in contrast to that of bulk surface. In the present work, singly exposed active site of copper metal cluster at sub-nanometer level was designed to arrive at the energy minimised configurations, binding energy, electrostatic potential map, frontier molecular orbitals and partial density of states. The ab initio molecular dynamics was carried out to probe the catalytic nature of the cluster. Further, the stability of the metal cluster and its catalytic activity in the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to CO were evaluated by means of computational hydrogen electrode via calculation of the free energy profile using DFT/B3LYP level of theory in vacuum. The activity of the cluster is ascertained from the fact that the copper atom, present in a two coordinative environment, performs a more selective conversion of CO2 to CO at an applied potential of -0.35 V which is comparatively lower than that of higher coordinative sites. The present study helps to design any sub-nano level metal catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 to various value added chemicals.

  2. Toddlers actively reorganize their whole body coordination to maintain walking stability while carrying an object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Hao; Miranda, Daniel L; Chistolini, Trevor L; Goldfield, Eugene C

    2016-10-01

    Balanced walking involves freely swinging the limbs like pendula. However, children immediately begin to carry objects as soon as they can walk. One possibility for this early skill development is that whole body coordination during walking may be re-organized into loosely coupled collections of body parts, allowing children to use their arms to perform one function, while the legs perform another. Therefore, this study examines: 1) how carrying an object affects the coordination of the arms and legs during walking, and 2) if carrying an object influences stride length and width. Ten healthy toddlers with 3-12 months of walking experience were recruited to walk barefoot while carrying or not carrying a small toy. Stride length, width, speed, and continuous relative phase (CRP) of the hips and of the shoulders were compared between carrying conditions. While both arms and legs demonstrated destabilization and stabilization throughout the gait cycle, the arms showed a reduction in intra-subject coordination variability in response to carrying an object. Carrying an object may modify the function of the arms from swinging for balance to maintaining hold of an object. The observed period-dependent changes of the inter-limb coordination of the hips and of the shoulders also support this interpretation. Overall, these findings support the view that whole-body coordination patterns may become partitioned in particular ways as a function of task requirements.

  3. Nitrate reducing activity pervades surface waters during upwelling.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; Halarnekar, R.; Malik, A.; Vijayan, V.; Varik, S.; RituKumari; Jineesh V.K.; Gauns, M.U.; Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Nitrate reducing activity (NRA) is known to be mediated by microaerophilic to anaerobic bacteria and generally occurs in the sub-surface waters. However, we hypothesize that NRA could become prominent in the surface waters during upwelling. Hence...

  4. Flexibility and Coordination among Acts of Visualization and Analysis in a Pattern Generalization Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Per; Juter, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at exploring processes of flexibility and coordination among acts of visualization and analysis in students' attempt to reach a general formula for a three-dimensional pattern generalizing task. The investigation draws on a case-study analysis of two 15-year-old girls working together on a task in which they are asked to calculate…

  5. Coordinated Active Power Dispatch for a Microgrid via Distributed Lambda Iteration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Z. Q. Chen, Michael; Cao, Jinde

    2017-01-01

    A novel distributed optimal dispatch algorithm is proposed for coordinating the operation of multiple micro units in a microgrid, which has incorporated the distributed consensus algorithm in multi-agent systems and the -iteration optimization algorithm in economic dispatch of power systems. Spec...

  6. Design of superhydrophobic porous coordination polymers through the introduction of external surface corrugation by the use of an aromatic hydrocarbon building unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Koya Prabhakara; Higuchi, Masakazu; Sumida, Kenji; Furukawa, Shuhei; Duan, Jingui; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate a new approach to superhydrophobic porous coordination polymers by incorporating an anisotropic crystal morphology featuring a predominant surface that is highly corrugated and terminated by aromatic hydrocarbon moieties. The resulting low-energy surface provides particularly promising hydrophobic properties without the need for postsynthetic modifications or surface processing that would block the porosity of the framework. Consequently, hydrophobic organic molecules and water vapor are able to penetrate the surface and be densely accommodated within the pores, whereas bulk water is repelled as a result of the exterior surface corrugation derived from the aromatic surface groups. This study provides a new strategy for the design and development of superhydrophobic porous materials. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF A Ca (II COORDINATION POLYMER BASED ON 3-AMINO-2-PYRAZINECARBOXYLIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XI-SHI TAI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new Ca(II coordination polymer has been obtained by reaction of Ca(ClO42·H2O with 3-amino-2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid in CH3CH2OH/H2O. It was characterized by IR, 1HNMR, thermal analysis and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. X-ray analysis reveals that each Ca(II center is seven-coordination with a N2O5 distorted pentagonal bipyramidal coordination environment. The Ca(II ions are linked through the O atoms of 3-amino-2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid ligands to form 1D chain structure. And then a 3D network structure is constructed by hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking. The antitumor activity of 3-amino-2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid ligand and its Ca(II coordination polymer against human intestinal adenocarcinoma HCT-8 cells, lung adenocarcinoma HCT-116 cells and human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells line have been investigated.

  8. Curved Surface Fitting in the Application of the GPS Coordinate Transformation%曲面拟合在 GPS 坐标转换中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕红涛; 左海玉; 方广杰

    2015-01-01

    GPS由于其高精度、速度快、全天候的特点,在工程测量及城市工程网的建立、更新和改造中广泛应用。但是GPS测量结果为WGS-84坐标,而实际应用的坐标系往往是1954北京坐标系和1980西安坐标系。本文针对GPS坐标转换过程中由于利用公共点求解转换参数,而将原有坐标系中系统误差引入转换过程中的情况,探讨将曲面拟合法应用到坐标转换中来处理转换残差的可行性,并通过工程实例证明了该方法可行。%Because the technology of GPS position has the prominent advantages of high precision, fast speed and all-weather, it is widely used in the engineering survey and setting-up, upgrading and transforming of the urban engineering work.However, the GPS measurement result in the WGS -84 coordinate, and the practical application of the coordinate system is often BJ -54 coordinate system and the Xi’ an 80 coordinate system. In this paper, aims at the use of public point of solving the transformation parameters in the process of GPS coordinates conversion, and introducing system error in the original coordinate system to the process of transforma-tion, to explore the feasibility of application of curved surface fitting method in coordinate transformation to deal with the transformation residual, and through the engineering example proves the feasibility of this method.

  9. Development of a database for prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis: Summary report of the third research coordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, Richard M.; Firestone, Richard B.; Pavi, ???

    2003-04-01

    The main discussions and conclusions from the Third Co-ordination Meeting on the Development of a Database for Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis are summarized in this report. All results were reviewed in detail, and the final version of the TECDOC and the corresponding software were agreed upon and approved for preparation. Actions were formulated with the aim of completing the final version of the TECDOC and associated software by May 2003.

  10. Coordination and conformational isomers in mononuclear iron complexes with pertinence to the [FeFe] hydrogenase active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthaber, Andreas; Karnahl, Michael; Tschierlei, Stefanie; Streich, Daniel; Stein, Matthias; Ott, Sascha

    2014-03-21

    A series of six mononuclear iron complexes of the type [Fe(X-bdt)(P(R)2N(Ph)2)(CO)] (P(R)2N(Ph)2 = 1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphaoctane, bdt = benzenedithiolate with X = H, Cl2 or Me and R = Ph, Bn, Cyc or tert-Bu) was prepared. This new class of penta-coordinate iron complexes contains a free coordination site and a pendant base as essential structural features of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase active site. The bidentate nature of the P(R)2N(Ph)2 ligands was found to be crucial for the preferential formation of coordinatively unsaturated penta-coordinate complexes, which is supported by first principle calculations. IR-spectroscopic data suggest the presence of coordination isomers around the metal center, as well as multiple possible conformers of the P(R)2N(Ph)2 ligand. This finding is further corroborated by X-ray crystallographic and computational studies. (31)P{(1)H}-NMR- and IR-spectroscopic as well as electrochemical measurements show that the electronic properties of the complexes are strongly, and independently, influenced by the P-substituents at the P(R)2N(Ph)2 ligand as well as by modifications of the bdt bridge. These results illustrate the advantages of this modular platform, which allows independent and selective tuning through site specific modifications. Potential catalytic intermediates, namely singly reduced and protonated complexes, have been further investigated by spectroscopic methods and exhibit remarkable stability. Finally, their general capacity for electro-catalytic reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen was verified.

  11. Structure dependence of Pt surface activated ammonia oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santen, R A van; Offermans, W K [Schuit Institute of Catalysis, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Ricart, J M; Novell-Leruth, G [Department of Chemical Physics and Inorganic Chemistry, University Rovira I Virgili, C/ Marcel.lI Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Perez-RamIrez, J [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ) and Catalan, Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Avinguda Paisos Catalans 16, 43007, Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: r.a.v.santen@tue.nl

    2008-06-01

    Computational advances that enable the prediction of the structures and the energies of surface reaction intermediates are providing essential information to the formulation of theories of surface chemical reactivity. In this contribution this is illustrated for the activation of ammonia by coadsorbed oxygen and hydroxyl on the Pt(111), Pt(100), and Pt(211) surfaces.

  12. The planning and organisation of action and activities of daily living in developmental coordination disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Elisabeth L.

    2005-01-01

    By the time typical children reach infant school they have in place key movement skills such as running, hopping, jumping, throwing, kicking and writing (Gallahue & Ozmun, 1995; Haywood & Getchell, 2001). While these skills will continue to be refined throughout childhood, they reveal that children possess sophisticated movement planning, organisation and execution skills even at this young age. In this chapter the potential cognitive explanations for developmental coordination disorder, a di...

  13. Sperm cell surface dynamics during activation and fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerke, A.

    2013-01-01

    Before the sperm cell can reach the oocyte it needs to be activated and to undergo a series of preparative steps. The sperm surface dynamics was studied in relation to this activation process and the modifications and removal of sperm surface components havebeen investigated. Bicarbonate-induced rad

  14. Periodic regularities in bonding, coordination modes and reactivity of sulfur oxides on transition metal surfaces: Combined BOC-MP and ab initio results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shustorovich, E. [Blue Planet Technologies Co., New York, NY (United States); Sellers, H. [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A combination of theoretical methods (BOC-MP and high quality ab initio calculations) has been employed to understand the nature of bonding, coordination modes and reactivity of sulfur oxides on metal fcc (111), (100), (110) surfaces along the periodic series Cu, Pt, Pd and Ni. The emphasis was on the molecular chemisorption of SO{sub 2} and its dissociative pathways: S + 20 <--- SO + O <--- SO{sub 2} --- > SO{sub 3} --- > SO{sub 4}. M

  15. Active Power and DC-link Voltage Coordinative Control for Cascaded DC-AC Converter with Bidirectional Power Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Yanjun; Chen, Zhe; Deng, Fujin;

    2015-01-01

    Two stage cascaded converters are widely used in DC/AC hybrid systems to achieve the bidirectional power transmission. The topology of dual active bridge cascaded with inverter (DABCI) is commonly used in this application. This paper proposes a coordinative control method for DABCI and it’s able...... to reduce the DC-link voltage fluctuation between the DAB and inverter, then reduce the stress on the switching devices, as well as improve the system dynamic performance. In the proposed control method, the DAB and inverter are coordinated to control the DC-link voltage and the power......, and this responsibility sharing control can effectively suppress the impact of the power variation on the DC-link voltage, without sacrificing stability. The proposed control method is also effective for DABCI in unidirectional power transmission. The effectiveness of the propose control has been validated by both...

  16. Surface dielectric relaxation: probing technique and its application to thermal activation dynamics of polymer surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masashi

    2010-09-01

    For dynamic analyses of a polymer surface, a dielectric relaxation measurement technique with parallel electrodes placed away from the surface was developed. In this technique, a liquid heating medium was filled in the space between the polymer surface and the electrodes. The construction that maintains the surface can clarify the physical interactions between the liquid and the bare surface and controlling the temperature of the liquid reveals the thermal activation property of the surface. The dielectric relaxation spectrum of the surface convoluted into the bulk and liquid spectra can be obtained by a reactance analysis and the surface spectrum is expressed with an equivalent resistance-capacitance parallel circuit. On the basis of the electromechanical analogy, the electric elements can be converted into mechanical elements that indicate the viscoelasticity of the polymer surface. Using these measurement and analysis techniques, the electric and mechanical properties of the surface of a gelatinized chloroprene rubber sample were analyzed.

  17. An implicit evolution scheme for active contours and surfaces based on IIR filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibasis, Konstantinos K; Asvestas, Pantelis A; Kechriniotis, Aristides I; Matsopoulos, George K

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we present an approach for implementing an implicit scheme for the numerical solution of the partial differential equation of the evolution of an active contour/surface. The proposed scheme is applicable to any variant of the traditional active contour (AC), irrespectively of the calculation of the image-based force field and it is readily applicable to explicitly parameterized active surfaces (AS). The proposed approach is formulated as an infinite impulse response (IIR) filtering of the coordinates of the contour/surface points. The poles of the filter are determined by the parameters controlling the shape of the active contour/surface. We show that the proposed IIR-based implicit evolution scheme has very low complexity. Furthermore, the proposed scheme is numerically stable, thus it allows the convergence of the AC/AS with significantly fewer iterations than the explicit evolution scheme. It also possesses the separability property along the two parameters of the AS, thus it may be applied to deformable surfaces, without the need to store and invert large sparse matrices. We implemented the proposed IIR-based implicit evolution scheme in the Vector Field Convolution (VFC) AC/AS using synthetic and clinical volumetric data. We compared the segmentation results with those of the explicit AC/AS evolution, in terms of accuracy and efficiency. Results show that the VFC AC/AS with the proposed IIR-based implicit evolution scheme achieves the same segmentation results with the explicit scheme, with considerably less computation time.

  18. Coordination between the electrical activity of developing indirect flight muscles and the firing activity of a population of neurosecretory cells in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimoto, Satoshi; Nohara, Rika; Ichikawa, Toshio

    2006-05-01

    The developing indirect flight muscles of pharate moths are characterized by a rhythmic discharge of a long bout of flight-pattern-like muscle potentials in the absence of contractions. The electrical activity of the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs) in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, was discernible as a cluster of many series of muscle potentials that last for several minutes on day 4 of the pupal period. The duration of the active phases and the period of rhythmic activity gradually increased to a peak value on day 7 or 8 and then declined until the end of the pupal period. Mean duration of the active phases (+/-SD) and the mean period of the rhythmic activity (+/-SD) at the peak were 38.7+/-8.7 min and 74.5+/-7.3 min, respectively. The rhythmic electrical activity of immature DLMs was closely coordinated with the rhythmic (bursting) activity of a population of neurosecretory cells that are known to produce pheromone-biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and its related peptides, which belong to the multifunctional peptide family, pyrokinin/PBAN. The DLMs always became active a few minutes after the neurosecretory cells, and the timing of onset of these two activities appeared to be strictly regulated by a neural mechanism. The implication of the coordinated activity for development and maturation of imaginal tissues, including the flight motor system, and possible functions of the neuropeptides in this development are discussed.

  19. Coordination of Tongue Activity During Swallowing in Mouth-breathing Children

    OpenAIRE

    Knösel, Michael; Klein, Sabine; Bleckmann, Annalen; Engelke, Wilfried

    2011-01-01

    Habitual mouth breathing is often accompanied by habitual anterior tongue thrust, instead of a lip closure, in order to create the anterior seal necessary for the initiation of physiological deglutition. We tested the null hypothesis of no significant influence of oral maneuver and the use of oral screens on tongue coordination and position during deglutition in 29 subjects (age = 6-16; mean = 9.69 years; 13/16 female/male) with habitual open-mouth posture using intraoral polysensography. The...

  20. Surface enhanced Raman optical activity (SEROA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, Salim; Blanch, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    Raman optical activity (ROA) directly monitors the stereochemistry of chiral molecules and is now an incisive probe of biomolecular structure. ROA spectra contain a wealth of information on tertiary folding, secondary structure and even the orientation of individual residues in proteins and nucleic...

  1. Participation in Physical Activity, Fitness, and Risk for Obesity in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, S A; Katz, N; Weintraub, N; Steinhart, S; Raz-Silbiger, S; Munoz, M; Lifshitz, N

    2015-12-01

    Decreased physical activity has been linked to poor fitness and obesity, resulting in increased risk for health concerns. The objective is to study the relationships between children's motor coordination and their physical activity, sedentary behaviour, fitness and weight status in a cross-cultural study in the United States and Israel. Participants included 118 children 6-11 years of age: 53 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and 65 typical children. The US sample included 31 DCD children and 44 typical children. The Israeli sample included 22 DCD children and 21 typical children. Participants were assessed on Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, strength test of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 and Six-minute Walk Test and wore an accelerometer. Parents completed physical activity questionnaires and demographic information. Body mass index was calculated based on height and weight. Testing took place in two sessions. Findings are that in both Israel and the United States, children with DCD demonstrated significantly reduced physical activity, increased sedentary behaviour, poorer fitness and increased overweight compared with typical children. No significant differences were found for country. With relevance to clinical practice, fitness and obesity are major concerns for children with DCD in both countries. Inclusion of occupational therapy in health promotion for this population is critical. Additional studies with testers blind to group, larger samples and other countries are recommended.

  2. Dynamic Associations of Change in Physical Activity and Change in Cognitive Function: Coordinated Analyses of Four Longitudinal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Lindwall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study used a coordinated analyses approach to examine the association of physical activity and cognitive change in four longitudinal studies. A series of multilevel growth models with physical activity included both as a fixed (between-person and time-varying (within-person predictor of four domains of cognitive function (reasoning, memory, fluency, and semantic knowledge was used. Baseline physical activity predicted fluency, reasoning and memory in two studies. However, there was a consistent pattern of positive relationships between time-specific changes in physical activity and time-specific changes in cognition, controlling for expected linear trajectories over time, across all four studies. This pattern was most evident for the domains of reasoning and fluency.

  3. Coordination of tongue activity during swallowing in mouth-breathing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösel, Michael; Klein, Sabine; Bleckmann, Annalen; Engelke, Wilfried

    2012-09-01

    Habitual mouth breathing is often accompanied by habitual anterior tongue thrust, instead of a lip closure, in order to create the anterior seal necessary for the initiation of physiological deglutition. We tested the null hypothesis of no significant influence of oral maneuver and the use of oral screens on tongue coordination and position during deglutition in 29 subjects (age = 6-16; mean = 9.69 years; 13/16 female/male) with habitual open-mouth posture using intraoral polysensography. The target parameters for swallowing were swallowing-associated nasal airflow interruption (NAI) and coordination of tongue-palate contact during NAI. Conventional myofunctional maneuvers could be facilitated and made more efficient, in terms of increasing the numbers of favorable early tongue-palate contacts typical of somatic swallowing, if accompanied by the application of an oral screen. Habitual open-mouth breathing does not necessarily coincide with distinctively pronounced proportions of late tongue-palate contact.

  4. Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) grafted halloysite nanotubes as a molecular host matrix for luminescent ions prepared by surface-initiated RAFT polymerization and coordination chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Md. Rafiqul; Bach, Long Giang; Lim, Kwon Taek, E-mail: ktlim@pknu.ac.kr

    2013-07-01

    A fluorescent nanohybrid complex comprising of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), and europium ions (Eu{sup 3+}) was synthesized by the combination of surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (SI-RAFT) polymerization and coordination chemistry. Initially, PHEMA was grafted from the HNTs by SI-RAFT and then reacted with succinic anhydride to provide carboxyl acid groups on the external layers of HNTs-g-PHEMA nanohybrids. The subsequent coordination of the nanohybrids with Eu{sup 3+} ions afforded photoluminescent Eu{sup 3+} tagged HNTs-g-PHEMA nanohybrid complexes (HNTs-g-PHEMA-Eu{sup 3+}). The structure, morphology, and fluorescence properties of the Eu{sup 3+} coordinated nanohybrid complexes were investigated by respective physical and spectral studies. FT-IR, XPS, and EDS analyses suggested the formation of the HNTs-g-PHEMA-Eu{sup 3+} nanohybrids. FE-SEM images indicated the immobilization of polymer layers on HNTs. TGA scans further demonstrated the grafting of PHEMA onto HNTs surface. The optical properties of HNTs-g-PHEMA-Eu{sup 3+} nanohybrid complexes were investigated by photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  5. Graphene oxide coated coordination polymer nanobelt composite material: a new type of visible light active and highly efficient photocatalyst for Cr(VI) reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Gui-Mei; Zhang, Bin; Xu, Xin-Xin; Fu, Yan-Hong

    2015-06-28

    A visible light active photocatalyst was synthesized successfully by coating graphene oxide (GO) on a coordination polymer nanobelt (CPNB) using a simple colloidal blending process. Compared with neat CPNB, the resulting graphene oxide coated coordination polymer nanobelt composite material (GO/CPNB) exhibits excellent photocatalytic efficiency in the reduction of K2Cr2O7 under visible light irradiation. In the composite material, GO performs two functions. Firstly, it cuts down the band gap (E(g)) of the photocatalyst and extends its photoresponse region from the ultraviolet to visible light region. Secondly, GO exhibits excellent electron transportation ability that impedes its recombination with holes, and this can enhance photocatalytic efficiency. For GO, on its surface, the number of functional groups has a great influence on the photocatalytic performance of the resulting GO/CPNB composite material and an ideal GO"coater" to obtain a highly efficient GO/CPNB photocatalyst has been obtained. As a photocatalyst that may be used in the treatment of Cr(VI) in wastewater, GO/CPNB exhibited outstanding stability during the reduction of this pollutant.

  6. A REVIEW OF OXYGEN-CONTAINING SURFACE GROUPS AND SURFACE MODIFICATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yongwen; LI Zhong; XI Hongxia; XIA Qibin

    2004-01-01

    This review focused on the recent reports related to the function, characterization and modification of oxygen-containing surface groups of activated carbon (AC). The Oxygen-containing surface groups were briefly described, and the most frequently used techniques for characterization of the oxygen-containing surface groups on ACs were also briefly stated. A detailed discussion of the effects of the oxygen-containing surface groups on the adsorptive capacity of AC was given. The recent progresses in modification of the oxygen-containing surface groups of AC were also reviewed.

  7. An Improved Surface Simplification Method for Facial Expression Animation Based on Homogeneous Coordinate Transformation Matrix and Maximum Shape Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juin-Ling Tseng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial animation is one of the most popular 3D animation topics researched in recent years. However, when using facial animation, a 3D facial animation model has to be stored. This 3D facial animation model requires many triangles to accurately describe and demonstrate facial expression animation because the face often presents a number of different expressions. Consequently, the costs associated with facial animation have increased rapidly. In an effort to reduce storage costs, researchers have sought to simplify 3D animation models using techniques such as Deformation Sensitive Decimation and Feature Edge Quadric. The studies conducted have examined the problems in the homogeneity of the local coordinate system between different expression models and in the retainment of simplified model characteristics. This paper proposes a method that applies Homogeneous Coordinate Transformation Matrix to solve the problem of homogeneity of the local coordinate system and Maximum Shape Operator to detect shape changes in facial animation so as to properly preserve the features of facial expressions. Further, root mean square error and perceived quality error are used to compare the errors generated by different simplification methods in experiments. Experimental results show that, compared with Deformation Sensitive Decimation and Feature Edge Quadric, our method can not only reduce the errors caused by simplification of facial animation, but also retain more facial features.

  8. Enhanced diffusion due to active swimmers at a solid surface

    CERN Document Server

    Miño, Gaston; Darnige, Thierry; Hoyos, Mauricio; Dauchet, Jeremy; Dunstan, Jocelyn; Soto, Rodrigo; Wang, Yang; Rousselet, Annie; Clement, Eric

    2010-01-01

    We consider two systems of active swimmers moving close to a solid surface, one being a living population of wild-type \\textit{E. coli} and the other being an assembly of self-propelled Au-Pt rods. In both situations, we have identified two different types of motion at the surface and evaluated the fraction of the population that displayed ballistic trajectories (active swimmers) with respect to those showing random-like behavior. We studied the effect of this complex swimming activity on the diffusivity of passive tracers also present at the surface. We found that the tracer diffusivity is enhanced with respect to standard Brownian motion and increases linearly with the activity of the fluid, defined as the product of the fraction of active swimmers and their mean velocity. This result can be understood in terms of series of elementary encounters between the active swimmers and the tracers.

  9. New Concept of C–H and C–C Bond Activation via Surface Organometallic Chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Samantaray, Manoja

    2015-08-18

    In this chapter we describe the recent applications of well-defined oxidesupported metal alkyls/alkylidenes/alkylidynes and hydrides of group IV, V, and VI transition metals in the field of C–H and C–C bond activation. The activation of ubiquitous C–H and C–C bonds of paraffin is a long-standing challenge because of intrinsic low reactivity. There are many concepts derived from surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC): surface organometallic fragments are always intermediates in heterogeneous catalysis. The study of their synthesis and reactivity is a way to rationalize mechanism of heterogeneous catalysis and to achieve structure activity relationship. By surface organometallic chemistry one can enter any catalytic center by a reaction intermediate leading in fine to single site catalysts. With surface organometallic chemistry one can coordinate to the metal which can play a role in different elementary steps leading for example to C–H activation and Olefin metathesis. Because of the development of SOMC there is a lot of space for the improvement of homogeneous catalysis. After the 1997 discovery of alkane metathesis using silica-supported tantalum hydride by Basset et al. at low temperature (150ºC) the focus in this area was shifted to the discovery of more and more challenging surface complexes active in the application of C–H and C–C bond activation. Here we describe the evolution of well-defined metathesis catalyst with time as well as the effect of support on catalysis. We also describe here which metal–ligand combinations are responsible for a variety of C–H and C–C bond activation.

  10. Enhanced surface plasmon polariton propagation induced by active dielectrics

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasopoulos, C.; Mattheakis, M.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2013-01-01

    We present numerical simulations for the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons in a dielectric-metal-dielectric waveguide using COMSOL multiphysics software. We show that the use of an active dielectric with gain that compensates metal absorption losses enhances substantially plasmon propagation. Furthermore, the introduction of the active material induces, for a specific gain value, a root in the imaginary part of the propagation constant leading to infinite propagation of the surface pl...

  11. A novel family of green ionic liquids with surface activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HaiBo; ZHOU XiaoHai; DONG JinFeng; ZHANG GaoYong; WANG CunXin

    2007-01-01

    Ionic liquids have many unique properties as a new and remarkable class of environmental benign solvents, which promises widespread applications in industry and other areas. However, the ionic liquids with surface activity are rarely reported. In this work, a series of novel ionic liquids was synthesized by using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and alkyl bromide. The physical properties of this family of ionic liquids have been characterized, which shows that these compounds have ionic liquids characteristics,surface activity and biocompatibility.

  12. Understanding physical activity and motivations for children with developmental coordination disorder: an investigation using the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Matthew Y W; Cairney, John; Hay, John A; Faught, Brent E

    2013-11-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition, affecting approximately 5-6% of children. Previous research has consistently found children with DCD being less physically active compared to typically-developing (TD) children; however, the psychosocial factors associated with physical activity for children with DCD are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine how theory-based physical activity cognitions impacts physical activity behaviors for children with and without DCD. Participants included a sample of boys (N=61, Mage=13.25 ±.46) with DCD (n=19) and without DCD (n=42), drawn from a larger prospective cohort study. A questionnaire with psychosocial measures was first administered, and accelerometers were used to assess their physical activity behavior over the subsequent week. Findings indicate that DCD was significantly associated with lower physical activity (F(1,58)=6.51, p<.05), and poorer physical activity cognitions (F(4,56) Wilks Lambda=2.78, p<.05). Meditational analyses found attitudes (B=.23, p<.05) and subjective norms (B=.31, p<.05) partially mediating the relationship between DCD and physical activity. Overall, this study further confirms that the activity deficit that exists among boys with DCD, and that the relationship is partially mediated through some physical activity cognitions. Interventions should target the perceived approval of influential people, and the personal evaluations of physical activity for boys with motoric difficulties. These findings further emphasizes the discrepancy in physical activity that exist between boys with DCD and TD boys, and highlight the need to better understand the psychological factors related to physical activity for children with DCD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Methylene bridge regulated geometrical preferences of ligands in cobalt(III) coordination chemistry and phenoxazinone synthase mimicking activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, Anangamohan; Shyamal, Milan; Saha, Amrita; Mandal, Tarun Kanti

    2014-04-14

    Two new azide bound cobalt(III) complexes, [Co(L(1))(N3)3] (fac-1) and [Co(L(2))(N3)3] (mer-2), where L(1) is bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine and L(2) is (2-pyridylmethyl)(2-pyridylethyl)amine, derived from tridentate reduced Schiff-base ligands have been reported. Interestingly, a methylene bridge regulated preferential coordination mode of ligands is noticed in their crystal structures: it is found in a facial arrangement in fac-1 and has a meridional disposition in mer-2. Both complexes show phenoxazinone synthase-like activity and the role of the structural factor on the catalytic activity is also explored. Moreover, the easily reducible cobalt(III) center in mer-2 favors the oxidation of o-aminophenol. The ESI-MS positive spectra together with UV-vis spectroscopy clearly suggest the formation of a catalyst-substrate adduct by substitution of the coordinated azide ions in the catalytic cycle.

  14. Reprogramming metabolism by histone methyltransferase NSD2 drives endocrine resistance via coordinated activation of pentose phosphate pathway enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjian; Duan, Zhijian; Nugent, Zoann; Zou, June X; Borowsky, Alexander D; Zhang, Yanhong; Tepper, Clifford G; Li, Jian Jian; Fiehn, Oliver; Xu, Jianzhen; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Murphy, Leigh C; Chen, Hong-Wu

    2016-08-10

    Metabolic reprogramming such as the aerobic glycolysis or Warburg effect is well recognized as a common feature of tumorigenesis. However, molecular mechanisms underlying metabolic alterations for tumor therapeutic resistance are poorly understood. Through gene expression profiling analysis we found that histone H3K36 methyltransferase NSD2/MMSET/WHSC1 expression was highly elevated in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cell lines and clinical tumors. IHC analysis indicated that NSD2 protein overexpression was associated with the disease recurrence and poor survival. Ectopic expression of NSD2 wild type, but not the methylase-defective mutant, drove endocrine resistance in multiple cell models and xenograft tumors. Mechanistically, NSD2 was recruited to and methylated H3K36me2 at the promoters of key glucose metabolic enzyme genes. Its overexpression coordinately up-regulated hexokinase 2 (HK2) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), two key enzymes of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), as well as TP53-induced glycolysis regulatory phosphatase TIGAR. Consequently, NSD2-driven tamoxifen-resistant cells and tumors displayed heightened PPP activity, elevated NADPH production, and reduced ROS level, without significantly altered glycolysis. These results illustrate a coordinated, epigenetic activation of key glucose metabolic enzymes in therapeutic resistance and nominate methyltransferase NSD2 as a potential therapeutic target for endocrine resistant breast cancer.

  15. Evidence of a central pattern generator regulating spermathecal muscle activity in Locusta migratoria and its coordination with oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rosa; Lange, Angela B

    2011-03-01

    Electrophysiological recordings were conducted to determine the control of spermathecal contractions during oviposition of interrupted egg-laying locusts, Locusta migratoria. Following transection of the central nervous system below the metathoracic ganglion, rhythmic patterned bursting was detected by extracellular recordings of the nerve N2B2 that innervates the muscles of the spermatheca. Subsequent transections at more posterior regions of the ventral nerve cord revealed more robust rhythmic bursting in N2B2. This rhythmic bursting pattern was found to be coordinated with bursting in the ventral opener nerve (N2B1) that innervates the ventral opener muscle. This muscle controls the ventral ovipositor valves. Electromyographic recordings from the spermathecal muscle and ventral opener muscle confirmed a rhythmic bursting pattern resulting in an increase in muscle activity. Taken together, the results indicate that there is probably a central pattern generator (CPG), which is regulated by descending inhibition, that controls the spermathecal muscle activity. This CPG appears to be located within the VIIth and VIIIth abdominal ganglia, and was found to integrate with the CPG that regulates oviposition digging in locusts. These results provide further insight into the intricate coordination and control of reproductive tissues underlying reproductive behaviours in locusts.

  16. Mixed ligand coordination polymers with flexible bis-imidazole linker and angular sulfonyldibenzoate: Crystal structure, photoluminescence and photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisht, Kamal Kumar; Rachuri, Yadagiri [Analytical Discipline and Centralized Instrument Facility, CSIR—Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar-364 002, Gujarat (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR—Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar-364 002, Gujarat (India); Parmar, Bhavesh [Analytical Discipline and Centralized Instrument Facility, CSIR—Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar-364 002, Gujarat (India); Suresh, Eringathodi, E-mail: esuresh@csmcri.org [Analytical Discipline and Centralized Instrument Facility, CSIR—Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar-364 002, Gujarat (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR—Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar-364 002, Gujarat (India)

    2014-05-01

    Four ternary coordination polymers (CPs) namely, ([Ni(SDB)(BITMB)(H{sub 2}O)]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (CP1), ([Cd(SDB)(BITMB) (H{sub 2}O)]·(THF)(H{sub 2}O)){sub n} (CP2), ([Zn{sub 2}(SDB){sub 2}(BITMB)]·(THF){sub 2}){sub n} (CP3) and ([Co{sub 2}(SDB){sub 2}(BITMB)]·(Dioxane){sub 3}){sub n} (CP4) composed of angular dicarboxylate SDB (4,4'-sulfonyldibenzoate) and N-donor BITMB (1,3-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-2,4,6-trimethyl benzene) have been synthesized by solvothermal reactions and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and other physico-chemical techniques. CP1 possesses one-dimensional ribbon type metal–organic motifs glued together by H-bonds and π⋯π interactions, whereas CP2–CP4, exhibit non-interpenetrated sql networks supported by weak supramolecular interactions. Structural diversity of these CPs can be attributed to the coordination geometry adopted by the metal nodes, versatile coordination modes of SDB and conformational flexibility of BITMB. Solid state luminescence properties of CP1–CP4 were explored. Photocatalytic performance of all CPs for the decomposition of metanil yellow by dilute hydrogen peroxide in the presence of visible light was also investigated. 25–83% dye removal from aqueous solutions in the presence of CP1–CP4 was observed. - Graphical abstract: Four new ternary transition metal CPs have been hydrothermally prepared and their structural aspects as well as photocatalytic activity for decolourization of metanil yellow (MY) dye have been investigated. - Highlights: • Four ternary coordination polymers containing Ni, Cd, Zn and Co center are prepared. • Crystal structure and thermal stability of all four CPs has been described. • PL and diffuse reflectance spectra of synthesized CPs have also been examined. • Band gap values suggest semiconducting behavior of prepared CPs. • Photocatalytic activity of CPs for oxidative degradation of metanil yellow is studied.

  17. XPS-Characterization of Heterometallic Coordination Compounds with Optically Active Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Ávila-Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The heterometallic optical complexes [Cu2Co(S,S(+cpse3(H2O3]·4H2O (1 and [Cu2Ni(S,S(+cpse3(H2O3]·10H2O (2 were obtained from the mononuclear copper(II compound by the addition of nickel(II or cobalt(II chlorides, where (H2cpse is the acetyl amino alcohol derivative N-[2-hydroxy-1(R-methyl-2(R-phenylethyl]-N-methylglycine. In comparison with the homotrinuclear copper(II compound [Cu3(S,S(+cpse3(H2O3]·8H2O reported previously, the substitution of a copper(II atom by one cobalt(II ion gave place to a heterotrinuclear compound 1, which presents ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic behaviour. When substituting a copper(II by a nickel(II ion, the trinuclear compound 2 showed an antiferromagnetic coupling. The magnetic behaviour of the heterotrinuclear compounds is driven by the nature of the metal ion which was introduced in the copper(II triangular array. The ligand and its coordination compounds were characterized by IR, UV-Vis-NIR. Their chemical was confirmed by photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS.

  18. Rac1-Rab11-FIP3 regulatory hub coordinates vesicle traffic with actin remodeling and T-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Jérôme; Del Río-Iñiguez, Iratxe; Lasserre, Rémi; Agüera-Gonzalez, Sonia; Cuche, Céline; Danckaert, Anne; McCaffrey, Mary W; Di Bartolo, Vincenzo; Alcover, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    The immunological synapse generation and function is the result of a T-cell polarization process that depends on the orchestrated action of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton and of intracellular vesicle traffic. However, how these events are coordinated is ill defined. Since Rab and Rho families of GTPases control intracellular vesicle traffic and cytoskeleton reorganization, respectively, we investigated their possible interplay. We show here that a significant fraction of Rac1 is associated with Rab11-positive recycling endosomes. Moreover, the Rab11 effector FIP3 controls Rac1 intracellular localization and Rac1 targeting to the immunological synapse. FIP3 regulates, in a Rac1-dependent manner, key morphological events, like T-cell spreading and synapse symmetry. Finally, Rab11-/FIP3-mediated regulation is necessary for T-cell activation leading to cytokine production. Therefore, Rac1 endosomal traffic is key to regulate T-cell activation.

  19. Building-up novel coordination polymer with Zn(II) porphyrin dimer: Synthesis, structures, surface morphology and effect of axial ligands

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sk Asif Ikbal; Sanfaori Brahma; Avinash Dhamija; Sankar Prasad Rath

    2014-09-01

    Highly flexible Zn(II)1,2-bis(meso-octaethylporphyrin)ethane (1) has been used as host in which two porphyrin rings are found to be face-to-face in non-coordinating solvents. Upon addition of one relatively smaller 4,4′-dipyridine (L1) and one extended N,N′-bispyridine-4-yl-methylene ethylenediamine (L2) guest ligands, the syn conformation of 1 is switched to the anti complexes 1·(L1)2 and 1·L2, respectively. Single crystal X-ray structures of all the complexes are reported in which a stable one-dimensional coordination polymer is produced only in 1·L2 that is, to the best of our knowledge, the first structural report of 1D-coordination polymer with porphyrin dimer. Solution structures of the complexes along with binding studies in solution between 1 and L have also been investigated. The morphology of the polymeric complex 1·L2 on silicon wafer surface was examined by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in which the crystalline islands of well defined facets of size ranging from 200-550 nm perimeter and a height of 20-40 nm have been observed.

  20. Coordinate increase of telomerase activity and c-Myc expression in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Xin Zhang; Yan-Hong Gu; Zhi-Quan Zhao; Shun-Fu Xu; Hong-Ji Zhang; Hong-Di Wang; Bo Hao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To detect the telomerase activity and c-Myc expression in gastric diseases and to examine the relation between these values and Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) as a risk factor for gastric cancer.METHODS: One hundred and seventy-one gastric samples were studied to detect telomerase activity using a telomerase polymerase chain reaction enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELTSA), and c-Myc expression using immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: The telomerase activity and c-Myc expression were higher in cancers (87.69% and 61.54%) than in noncancerous tissues. They were higher in chronic atrophic gastritis with severe intestinal metaplasia (52.38% and 47.62%) than in chronic atrophic gastritis with mild intestinal metaplasia (13.33% and 16.67%). Tn chronic atrophic gastritis with severe intestinal metaplasia, the telomerase activity and c-Myc expression were higher in cases with -H pylori infection (67.86% and 67.86%) than in those without infection (21.43%and 7.14%). c-Myc expression was higher in gastric cancer with H pylori infection (77.27%) than in that without infection (28.57%). The telomerase activity and c-Nyc expression were coordinately up-regulated in H pylori infected gastric cancer and chronic atrophic gastritis with severe intestinal metaplasia.CONCLUSION: H pylori infection may influence both telomerase activity and c-Myc expression in gastric diseases,especially in chronic atrophic gastritis.

  1. The detection of intestinal spike activity on surface electroenterograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye-Lin, Y; Garcia-Casado, J; Martinez-de-Juan, J L; Prats-Boluda, G [Instituto interuniversitario de investigacion en bioingenierIa y tecnologIa orientada al ser humano (I3BH), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, Ed. 8E, Acceso N, 2a, planta 46022 Valencia (Spain); Ponce, J L [Department of Surgery, Hospital Universitario La Fe de Valencia, Avenida Campanar n0. 51, 46009 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: yiye@eln.upv.es, E-mail: jgarciac@eln.upv.es, E-mail: jlmartinez@eln.upv.es, E-mail: geprabo@eln.upv.es, E-mail: drjlponce@ono.com

    2010-02-07

    Myoelectrical recording could provide an alternative technique for assessing intestinal motility, which is a topic of great interest in gastroenterology since many gastrointestinal disorders are associated with intestinal dysmotility. The pacemaker activity (slow wave, SW) of the electroenterogram (EEnG) has been detected in abdominal surface recordings, although the activity related to bowel contractions (spike bursts, SB) has to date only been detected in experimental models with artificially favored electrical conductivity. The aim of the present work was to assess the possibility of detecting SB activity in abdominal surface recordings under physiological conditions. For this purpose, 11 recording sessions of simultaneous internal and external myolectrical signals were conducted on conscious dogs. Signal analysis was carried out in the spectral domain. The results show that in periods of intestinal contractile activity, high-frequency components of EEnG signals can be detected on the abdominal surface in addition to SW activity. The energy between 2 and 20 Hz of the surface myoelectrical recording presented good correlation with the internal intestinal motility index (0.64 {+-} 0.10 for channel 1 and 0.57 {+-} 0.11 for channel 2). This suggests that SB activity can also be detected in canine surface EEnG recording.

  2. Coordinated Regulation of Tissue Type Plasminogen Activator and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type-1 Gene Expression in Hypophysectomized Rat Ovaries During GnRHa-Induced Ovulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘以训; 刘奎; 彭晓蓉; T.Ny

    1994-01-01

    In this study we have demonstrated that both granulosa and theca-interstitial cells of hy-pophysectomized rat ovaries are capable of synthesizing tPA and PAI-1.Injection of a GnRH agonist canmarkedly induce these gene expressions in the ovary in a cell-specific and time-coordinated manner,so that asurge of tPA mRNA and its activity in both granulosa and theca-interstitial cells was obtained just prior toovulation.Theca-interstitial cells make PAI-1 become the most active in the ovary.Both the amount PAI-1mRNA and its activity in the cells reach the maximum level 6 h before the tPA peak.By contrast,granulosacells produce only a little amount of PAI-1 (most increase tPA activity),and both PAI-1 mRNA and activityin the cells reach the maximum after ovulation.The coordinated regulation of tPA and PAI-1 in the ovarymay fine-tune the peak of tPA activity which may be important for the regulation of the ovulatory process.The changes of tPA and PAI-1 in the ovarian cells of hypophysectomized rats during GnRHa-induced ovula-tion are similar to that in intact rats during hCG-induced ovulation,suggesting that the ovulatory process canbe modulated by different regulatory signals mediated by influencing the coordinated expression of both tPAand PAI-1.

  3. Coordination chemistry of a pi-extended, rigid and redox-active tetrathiafulvalene-fused Schiff-base ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Cai; Liu, Shi-Xia; Keene, Tony D; Neels, Antonia; Mereacre, Valeriu; Powell, Annie K; Decurtins, Silvio

    2008-04-21

    A pi-extended, redox-active tetradentate tetrathiafulvalene-fused salphen [salphen = N,N'-phenylenebis(salicylideneimine)] compound (L) was prepared via a direct Schiff-base condensation of the corresponding diamine-tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) precursor with salicylaldehyde. Its chelating coordination ability has been demonstrated by the formation of the corresponding transition metal complexes in the presence of M(OAc)2.nH2O (M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II)) and FeCl3.6H2O. Three complexes have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis showing that the TTF-salphen ligand coordinates to the metal ions in a planar mode through the nitrogen and oxygen atoms in a N2O2 cis-configuration. In the case of Fe(III), a dinuclear oxo-bridged Fe(III) complex is formed. These paramagnetic complexes are promising building blocks for the construction of dual functional materials due to their unique structural features (planarity and rigidity) as well as their inherent redox properties.

  4. Surface activity, lipid profiles and their implications in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The profiles of lipids in normal and cancerous tissues may differ revealing information about cancer development and progression. Lipids being surface active, changes in lipid profiles can manifest as altered surface activity profiles. Langmuir monolayers offer a convenient model for evaluating surface activity of biological membranes. Aims: The aims of this study were to quantify phospholipids and their effects on surface activity of normal and cancerous human cervical tissues as well as to evaluate the role of phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin (SM in cervical cancer using Langmuir monolayers. Methods and Materials: Lipid quantification was done using thin layer chromatography and phosphorus assay. Surface activity was evaluated using Langmuir monolayers. Monolayers were formed on the surface of deionized water by spreading tissue organic phase corresponding to 1 mg of tissue and studying their surface pressure-area isotherms at body temperature. The PC and SM contents of cancerous human cervical tissues were higher than those of the normal human cervical tissues. Role of PC and SM were evaluated by adding varying amounts of these lipids to normal cervical pooled organic phase. Statistical analysis: Student′s t-test (p < 0.05 and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used. Results: Our results reveals that the phosphatidylglycerol level in cancerous cervical tissue was nearly five folds higher than that in normal cervical tissue. Also PC and sphingomyelin SM were found to be the major phospholipid components in cancerous and normal cervical tissues respectively. The addition of either 1.5 µg DPPC or 0.5 µg SM /mg of tissue to the normal organic phase changed its surface activity profile to that of the cancerous tissues. Statistically significant surface activity parameters showed that PC and SM have remarkable roles in shifting the normal cervical lipophilic surface activity towards that of cancerous lipophilic

  5. Synthesis and surface active properties of cationic surface active agents from crude rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Dougdoug, W. I. A.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Cationic surfactants of 2-hidroxy-3-(2- alkylamidopolyethyl amino propane-1-triethylammonium hydroxides (ix-xuia-d were prepared from fatty acids (ia-d [palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic acid] and mixed fatty acids of crude rice bran oil ie [RBO]. The reaction of these acids with ethylenediamine, diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine andletraethylenepentamine (iia-d produced (iii-viia-d. The produced amidopolyethylamine (iii-viia-d reacted with 2-epoxypropylenetriethylammonium chloride (viii to give the cationic surfactants (ix-xiiia-d . The produced derivatives were purified and characterized by microanalysis, molecular weight determination, infra-red (IR, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectra. The surface active properties and inhibition efficiency of the prepared cationic surfactants were determined.

    Se han preparado tensioactivos catiónicos de hidróxidos de! 2-hidroxi-3-(2-alquilamidopolietilamino propano-1;trietilamonio (ix-xiiia-d a partir de los ácidos grasos (ia-d [ácido palmítico, esteárico, oleico y linoleico] y mezclas de ácidos grasos de aceite de germen de arroz crudo ie [RBO]. La reacción de estos ácidos con etilenodiamina, dietilenotriamina, trietilenotetramina y tetraetilenopentamina (iia-d produjo los compuestos (iv-viia-d . Los amidopolietilaminos producidos (iii-viia-d reaccionaron con el cloruro de 2-epoxipropilenotrietilamonio (viii para dar los tensioactivos catiónicos (ix-xiiia-d. Los derivados producidos se purificaron y caracterizaron por microanálisis, determinación del peso molecular, espectros de infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear de protón (1H NMR. Se determinaron las propiedades tensioactivas y la eficacia de inhibición de los tensioactivos cati

  6. Vertical 2D Modeling of Free Surface Flow with Hydrodynamic Pressure Using SIMPLE Arithmetic in σ Coordinates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴修广; 沈永明; 郑永红

    2004-01-01

    A numerical model for shallow water flow has been developed based on the unsteady Reynolds-averaged NavierStokes equations with the hydrodynamic pressure instead of hydrostatic pressure assumption. The equations are transformed into the σ-coordinate system and the eddy viscosity is calculated with the standard k - e turbulence model. The control volume method is used to discrete the equations, and the boundary conditions at the bed for shallow water models only include vertical diffusion terms expressed with wall functions. And the semi-implicit method for pressure linked equation arithmetic is adopted to solve the equations. The model is applied to the 2D vertical plane flow of a curent over two steep-sided trenches for which experiment data are available for comparison and good agreement is obtained. And the model is used to predicting the flow in a channel with a steep-sided submerged breakwater at the bottom, and the streamline is drawn.

  7. Active video gaming improves body coordination in survivors of childhood brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabel, M.; Sjölund, A.; Broeren, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether active video gaming (AVG) could bring about regular, enjoyable, physical exercise in children treated for brain tumours, what level of physical activity could be reached and if the children’s physical functioning improved. Methods: Thirteen children, aged 7–17 years......-blinded assessments of physical functioning were done, using the Bruininks–Osteretsky Test of Motor Performance, second edition, evaluating participants before and after the intervention period, as well as comparing the randomisation groups after the first period. Results: All patients completed the study. AVG...... compared to their healthy peers. Active video gaming (AVG), supported by Internet coaching, is a feasible home-based intervention in children treated for brain tumours, promoting enjoyable, regular physical exercise of moderate intensity. In this pilot study, AVG with Nintendo Wii improved Body...

  8. Hedgehog signal activation coordinates proliferation and differentiation of fetal liver progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Yoshikazu [Laboratory of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Itoh, Tohru, E-mail: itohru@iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Miyajima, Atsushi [Laboratory of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2009-09-10

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays crucial roles in development and homeostasis of various organs. In the adult liver, it regulates proliferation and/or viability of several types of cells, particularly under injured conditions, and is also implicated in stem/progenitor cell maintenance. However, the role of this signaling pathway during the normal developmental process of the liver remains elusive. Although Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the ventral foregut endoderm from which the liver derives, the expression disappears at the onset of the liver bud formation, and its possible recurrence at the later stages has not been investigated. Here we analyzed the activation and functional relevance of Hh signaling during the mouse fetal liver development. At E11.5, Shh and an activation marker gene for Hh signaling, Gli1, were expressed in Dlk{sup +} hepatoblasts, the fetal liver progenitor cells, and the expression was rapidly decreased thereafter as the development proceeded. In the culture of Dlk{sup +} hepatoblasts isolated from the E11.5 liver, activation of Hh signaling stimulated their proliferation and this effect was cancelled by a chemical Hh signaling inhibitor, cyclopamine. In contrast, hepatocyte differentiation of Dlk{sup +} hepatoblasts in vitro as manifested by the marker gene expression and acquisition of ammonia clearance activity was significantly inhibited by forced activation of Hh signaling. Taken together, these results demonstrate the temporally restricted manner of Hh signal activation and its role in promoting the hepatoblast proliferation, and further suggest that the pathway needs to be shut off for the subsequent hepatic differentiation of hepatoblasts to proceed normally.

  9. Coordinating Etk/Bmx activation and VEGF upregulation to promote cell survival and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Cindy H; Chen, Kai-Yun; Deng, Hong-Tao; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Hosoya, Ken-ichi; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Ann, David K

    2002-12-12

    Etk/Bmx, a member of the Tec family of non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is characterized by an N-terminal PH domain and has recently been shown to be involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, motility and apoptosis. Since VEGF and the activation of its signaling pathway have been implicated in modulating a variety of biological responses, we characterized the role of Etk-dependent signaling pathways involved in the upregulation of VEGF expression, and explored the functional implications of this enhancement in sustaining cell proliferation and survival. Using Northern and Western analyses, transient transfections, and pharmacological agents, we demonstrate that Etk activation alone is sufficient to transcriptionally induce VEGF expression, independent of the previously identified hypoxia response element (HRE), in both Pa-4 epithelial and TR-BBB endothelial cells under normoxia. In addition, Etk utilizes both MEK/ERK and PI3-K/Pak1 signaling pathways in concert to activate VEGF transcription. Functionally, Etk activation elicits a profound stimulatory effect on TR-BBB cell proliferation and formation of capillary-like networks in Matrigel containing reduced levels of growth factors. Finally, antisense oligonucleotides against either endogenous VEGF or Etk abrogate the proliferation of Etk-activated TR-BBB cells, and exogenous VEGF treatment stimulates endogenous Etk tyrosine phosphorylation in HUVECs. Taken together, these results indicate that VEGF is both an Etk downstream target gene and an Etk upstream activator, constituting a reciprocal Etk-VEGF autoregulatory loop. These findings, to our knowledge, are the first delineation of a network of positive feedforward signaling pathways that converge on the Etk-VEGF axis, causally associating Etk-mediation of VEGF induction with enhanced cellular processes in both epithelial and endothelial cells.

  10. Concurrent inhibition of kit- and FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling: coordinated suppression of mast cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina M; Beaven, Michael A; Iwaki, Shoko

    2008-01-01

    Although primarily required for the growth, differentiation, and survival of mast cells, Kit ligand (stem cell factor) is also required for optimal antigen-mediated mast cell activation. Therefore, concurrent inhibition of Kit- and FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling would be an attractive approach fo...

  11. Advancing science and policy through a coordinated international study of physical activity and built environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Sallis, James F; Owen, Neville

    2013-01-01

    National and international strategies to increase physical activity emphasize environmental and policy changes that can have widespread and long-lasting impact. Evidence from multiple countries using comparable methods is required to strengthen the evidence base for such initiatives. Because some...

  12. Collisionally-activated dissociation in hyperthermal surface ionization of cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Shai; Danon, Albert; Amirav, Aviv

    1992-03-01

    Cholesterol in a hydrogen-seeded supersonic molecular beam was scattered from a continuously oxidized rhenium foil. The hyperthermal surface scattering exhibited efficient molecular ionization with a controlled amount of molecular ion dissociation. At 5.3 eV incident molecular kinetic energy the hyperthermal surface ionization mass spectrum was dominated by the parent molecular ion. Upon the increase of the molecular kinetic energy, a gradual increase in the degree of ion dissociation was observed. At 22eV incident kinetic energy the parent ion was completely dissociated and the mass spectrum was dominated by an extensive consecutive fragmentation. An efficient kinetic-vibrational energy transfer was observed, and it is extimated to be over 18% of the available incident kinetic energy. The implication for surface collisionally-activated dissociation of polyatomic ions is discussed. Rhenium oxide is suggested as an optimal surface for this purpose, as well as for the hyperthermal surface ionization of neutral species.

  13. TLR9-dependent recognition of MCMV by IPC and DC generates coordinated cytokine responses that activate antiviral NK cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Anne; French, Anthony R; Barchet, Winfried; Fischer, Jens A A; Dzionek, Andrzej; Pingel, Jeanette T; Orihuela, Michael M; Akira, Shizuo; Yokoyama, Wayne M; Colonna, Marco

    2004-07-01

    Natural interferon-producing cells (IPC) respond to viruses by secreting type I interferon (IFN) and interleukin-12 (IL-12). Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 mediates IPC recognition of some of these viruses in vitro. However, whether TLR9-induced activation of IPC is necessary for an effective antiviral response in vivo is not clear. Here, we demonstrate that IPC and dendritic cells (DC) recognize murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) through TLR9. TLR9-mediated cytokine secretion promotes viral clearance by NK cells that express the MCMV-specific receptor Ly49H. Although depletion of IPC leads to a drastic reduction of the IFN-alpha response, this allows other cell types to secrete IL-12, ensuring normal IFN-gamma and NK cell responses to MCMV. We conclude that the TLR9/MyD88 pathway mediates antiviral cytokine responses by IPC, DC, and possibly other cell types, which are coordinated to promote effective NK cell function and MCMV clearance.

  14. Response surface optimisation for activation of bentonite with microwave irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rožić Ljiljana S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the statistical design of the experimental method was applied on the acid activation process of bentonite with microwave irradiation. The influence of activation parameters (time, acid normality and microwave heating power on the selected process response of the activated bentonite samples was studied. The specific surface area was chosen for the process response, because the chemical, surface and structural properties of the activated clay determine and limit its potential applications. The relationship of various process parameters with the specific surface area of bentonite was examined. A mathematical model was developed using a second-order response surface model (RSM with a central composite design incorporating the above mentioned process parameters. The mathematical model developed helped in predicting the variation in specific surface area of activated bentonite with time (5-21 min, acid normality (2-7 N and microwave heating power (63-172 W. The calculated regression models were found to be statistically significant at the required range and presented little variability. Furthermore, high values of R2 (0.957 and R2 (adjusted (0.914 indicate a high dependence and correlation between the observed and the predicted values of the response. These high values also indicate that about 96% of the result of the total variation can be explained by this model. In addition, the model shows that increasing the time and acid normality improves the textural properties of bentonites, resulting in increased specific surface area. This model also can be useful for setting an optimum value of the activation parameters for achieving the maximum specific surface area. An optimum specific surface area of 142 m2g-1 was achieved with an acid normality of 5.2 N, activation time of 7.38 min and microwave power of 117 W. Acid activation of bentonite was found to occur faster with microwave irradiation than with conventional heating. Microwave

  15. Non-Surface Activity of Cationic Amphiphilic Diblock Copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Rati Ranjan; Yamada, Tasuku; Matsuoka, Hideki, E-mail: ratiranjan@immt.res.in, E-mail: matsuoka@star.polym.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Polymer Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2011-09-19

    Cationic amphiphilic diblock copolymers containing quaternized poly (2-vinylpyridine) chain as a hydrophilic segment (PIp-b-PNMe2VP) were synthesized by living anionic polymerization. By IR measurement, we confirmed the quaternization of the polymer (PIp-b-PNMe2VP), and determined the degree of quaternization by conductometric titration. The surface tension experiment showed that the polymers are non-surface active in nature. The foam formation of the polymer solutions was also investigated with or without added salt. Almost no foam formation behavior was observed without added salt, while a little foam was observed in the presence of 1M NaCl. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the diblock copolymers with 3 different chain lengths was measured by the static light scattering method. The cmc values obtained in this study were much lower than the values obtained for anionic non-surface active diblock polymers studied previously. The hydrodynamic radii of the polymer micelle increased slightly in the presence of 1 M NaCl. The transmission electron microscopic images revealed spherical micelles in pure water. In the presence of salt, the cmc values increased as was the case for anionic polymers, which is unlike conventional surfactant systems but consistent with non-surface active anionic block copolymers. The microviscosity of the micelle core was evaluated using Coumarin-153 as a fluorescent anisotropy probe using steady-sate fluorescence depolarization. Non-surface activity has been proved to be universal for ionic amphiphilic block copolymers both for anionic and cationic. Hence, the origin of non-surface activity is not the charged state of water surface itself, but should be an image charge repulsion at the air/water interface.

  16. Fuzzy robust path tracking strategy of an active pelagic trawl system with coordinated ship and winch regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英龙; 周华; 赵勇刚; 侯交义

    2014-01-01

    A fuzzy robust path tracking strategy of an active pelagic trawl system with ship and winch regulation is proposed. First, nonlinear mathematic model of the pelagic trawl system was derived using Lagrange equation and further simplified as a low order model for the convenience of controller design. Then, an active path tracking strategy of pelagic trawl system was investigated to improve the catching efficiency of the target fish near the sea bottom. By means of the active tracking control, the pelagic trawl net can be positioned dynamically to follow a specified trajectory via the coordinated winch and ship regulation. In addition, considering the system nonlinearities, modeling uncertainties and the unknown exogenous disturbance of the trawl system model, a nonlinear robust H2/H∞controller based on Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model was presented, and the simulation comparison with linear robust H2/H∞controller and PID method was conducted for the validation of the nonlinear fuzzy robust controller. The nonlinear simulation results show that the average tracking error is 0.4 m for the fuzzy robust H2/H∞control and 125.8 m for the vertical and horizontal displacement, respectively, which is much smaller than linear H2/H∞ controller and the PID controller. The investigation results illustrate that the fuzzy robust controller is effective for the active path tracking control of the pelagic trawl system.

  17. Electromyographic activity of hand muscles in a motor coordination game: effect of incentive scheme and its relation with social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censolo, Roberto; Craighero, Laila; Ponti, Giovanni; Rizzo, Leonzio; Canto, Rosario; Fadiga, Luciano

    2011-03-25

    A vast body of social and cognitive psychology studies in humans reports evidence that external rewards, typically monetary ones, undermine intrinsic motivation. These findings challenge the standard selfish-rationality assumption at the core of economic reasoning. In the present work we aimed at investigating whether the different modulation of a given monetary reward automatically and unconsciously affects effort and performance of participants involved in a game devoid of visual and verbal interaction and without any perspective-taking activity. Twelve pairs of participants were submitted to a simple motor coordination game while recording the electromyographic activity of First Dorsal Interosseus (FDI), the muscle mainly involved in the task. EMG data show a clear effect of alternative rewards strategies on subjects' motor behavior. Moreover, participants' stock of relevant past social experiences, measured by a specifically designed questionnaire, was significantly correlated with EMG activity, showing that only low social capital subjects responded to monetary incentives consistently with a standard rationality prediction. Our findings show that the effect of extrinsic motivations on performance may arise outside social contexts involving complex cognitive processes due to conscious perspective-taking activity. More importantly, the peculiar performance of low social capital individuals, in agreement with standard economic reasoning, adds to the knowledge of the circumstances that makes the crowding out/in of intrinsic motivation likely to occur. This may help in improving the prediction and accuracy of economic models and reconcile this puzzling effect of external incentives with economic theory.

  18. HYSCORE Analysis of the Effects of Substrates on Coordination of Water to the Active Site Iron in Tyrosine Hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, John; Eser, Bekir E; Mannikko, Donald; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2015-06-23

    Tyrosine hydroxylase is a mononuclear non-heme iron monooxygenase found in the central nervous system that catalyzes the hydroxylation of tyrosine to yield L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. Catalysis requires the binding of tyrosine, a tetrahydropterin, and O₂ at an active site that consists of a ferrous ion coordinated facially by the side chains of two histidines and a glutamate. We used nitric oxide as a surrogate for O₂ to poise the active site iron in an S = ³/₂ {FeNO}⁷ form that is amenable to electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The pulsed EPR method of hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) spectroscopy was then used to probe the ligands at the remaining labile coordination sites on iron. For the complex formed by the addition of tyrosine and nitric oxide, TyrH/NO/Tyr, orientation-selective HYSCORE studies provided evidence of the coordination of one H₂O molecule characterized by proton isotropic hyperfine couplings (A(iso) = 0.0 ± 0.3 MHz) and dipolar couplings (T = 4.4 and 4.5 ± 0.2 MHz). These data show complex HYSCORE cross peak contours that required the addition of a third coupled proton, characterized by an A(iso) of 2.0 MHz and a T of 3.8 MHz, to the analysis. This proton hyperfine coupling differed from those measured previously for H₂O bound to {FeNO}⁷ model complexes and was assigned to a hydroxide ligand. For the complex formed by the addition of tyrosine, 6-methyltetrahydropterin, and NO, TyrH/NO/Tyr/6-MPH₄, the HYSCORE cross peaks attributed to H₂O and OH⁻ for the TyrH/NO/Tyr complex were replaced by a cross peak due to a single proton characterized by an A(iso) of 0.0 MHz and a dipolar coupling (T = 3.8 MHz). This interaction was assigned to the N₅ proton of the reduced pterin.

  19. Effects of Surface Treatment of Activated Carbon on Its Surface and Cr(VI) Adsorption Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Jin; Jang, Yu Sin [Advanced Materials Division., Korea Research Institute of Chimical Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In this work, the effect of surface treatments on activated carbons (ACs) has been studied in the context of gas and liquid adsorption behaviors. The chemical solutions used in this experiment were 35% sodium hydroxide, and these were used for the acidic and basic treatments, respectively. The surface properties have been determined by pH, acid-base values, and FT-IR. The adsorption isotherms of Cr(VI) ion on activated carbons have been studied with the 5 mg/l concentration at ambient temperature. N{sub 2} adsorption isotherm characteristics, which include the specific surface area, micro pore volume, and microporosity, were determined by BET and Boer's-plot methods. In case of the acidic treatment of activated carbons, it was observed that the adsorption of Cr(VI) ion was more effective due to the increase acid value (or acidic functional group) of activated carbon surfaces. However, the basic treatment on activated carbons was caused no significant effects, probably due to the decreased specific surface area and total pore volume. 27 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Advancing science and policy through a coordinated international study of physical activity and built environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Sallis, James F; Owen, Neville;

    2013-01-01

    National and international strategies to increase physical activity emphasize environmental and policy changes that can have widespread and long-lasting impact. Evidence from multiple countries using comparable methods is required to strengthen the evidence base for such initiatives. Because some...... environment and policy changes could have generalizable effects and others may depend on each country's context, only international studies using comparable methods can identify the relevant differences....

  1. ACTIVE POWER LOSSES IN LONG LINES DURING COORDINATED, LIMITING AND MALFUNCTION BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimsky V.X.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Exact formulas for calculation of limiting values of transmitted capacity and efficiency of lines of a variable voltage with active loading on the reception end are resulted. Critical resistance and losses of capacity are determined depending on length Air-lines of an electricity transmission of a class of a voltage 500 … 750 kV. Emergency operation in the loaded electricity transmission is investigated.

  2. An upstream activator of transcription coordinately increases the level and epigenetic stability of gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Magis, Wendy; Fiering, Steven; Groudine, Mark; Martin, David I. K.

    1996-01-01

    The mouse metallothionein-I (mMT-I) promoter is activated by the metal response element-binding transcription factor (MTF), which binds metal response elements (MREs) when stimulated with heavy metals. We analyzed eight K562 erythroleukemia cell clones, each carrying a single integrated copy of an mMT-I/β-geo construct, using a system that can independently assess the level of β-geo expression and the rate at which it is silenced. In these clones, basal expression ...

  3. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  4. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  5. A novel family of green ionic liquids with surface activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ionic liquids have many unique properties as a new and remarkable class of environmental benign solvents,which promises widespread applications in industry and other areas. However,the ionic liq-uids with surface activity are rarely reported. In this work,a series of novel ionic liquids was synthe-sized by using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and alkyl bromide. The physical properties of this family of ionic liquids have been characterized,which shows that these compounds have ionic liquids characteristics,surface activity and biocompatibility.

  6. AMP-activated protein kinase and coordination of hepatic fatty acid metabolism of starved/carbohydrate-refed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assifi, Murwarid M; Suchankova, Gabriela; Constant, Scarlet; Prentki, Marc; Saha, Asish K; Ruderman, Neil B

    2005-11-01

    Acute increases in the concentration of malonyl-CoA play a pivotal role in mediating the decrease in fatty acid oxidation that occurs in many tissues during refeeding after a fast. In this study, we assess whether such increases in malonyl-CoA in liver could be mediated by malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD), as well as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In addition, we examine how changes in the activity of ACC, MCD, and other enzymes that govern fatty acid and glycerolipid synthesis relate temporally to alterations in the activities of the fuel-sensing enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Rats starved for 48 h and refed a carbohydrate chow diet for 1, 3, 12, and 24 h were studied. Refeeding caused a 40% decrease in the activity of the alpha1-isoform of AMPK within 1 h, with additional decreases in AMPKalpha1 activity and a decrease in AMPKalpha2 occurring between 1 and 24 h. At 1 h, the decrease in AMPK activity was associated with an eightfold increase in the activity of the alpha1-isoform of ACC and a 30% decrease in the activity of MCD, two enzymes thought to be regulated by AMPK. Also, the concentration of malonyl-CoA was increased by 50%. Between 1 and 3 h of refeeding, additional increases in the activity of ACC and decreases in MCD were observed, as was a further twofold increase in malonyl-CoA. Increases in the activity (60%) and abundance (12-fold) of fatty acid synthase occurred predominantly between 3 and 24 h and increases in the activity of mitochondrial sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) and acyl-CoA:diaclyglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) at 12 and 24 h. The results strongly suggest that early changes in the activity of MCD, as well as ACC, contribute to the increase in hepatic malonyl-CoA in the starved-refed rat. They also suggest that the changes in these enzymes, and later occurring increases in enzymes regulating fatty acid and glycerolipid synthesis, could be coordinated by AMPK.

  7. Brachialis muscle activity can be assessed with surface electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudenmann, Didier; Taube, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The brachialis muscle (BR) represents an important elbow flexor and its activity has so far mainly been measured with intramuscular electromyography (EMG). The aim of this study was to examine whether the activity of the BR can be assessed with surface EMG without interference from the biceps brachii (BB). With eight subjects we measured surface EMG of the arm flexor synergists, BR, BB, and brachioradialis (BRR) during two isometric voluntary contraction types: (1) pure elbow flexion and (2) elbow flexion with a superimposed forearm supination. Since the BR and BB have a distinct biomechanical function, an individual activity of the BR can be expected for the second contraction type, if the BR can be assessed independently from the BB. The correlation coefficients between EMG amplitudes and flexion force (supination torque) were determined. During pure flexion the activities of all synergists were similarly correlated with the flexion force (r = 0.96 ± 0.02). During flexion+supination the activity of the BR was distinct from the activity of the BB, with a 14% higher correlation for the BR with the flexion force and a 40-64% lower correlation with the supination torque. The BB predicted supination torque substantially better than the BR and BRR (r = 0.93 ± 0.02). The current results demonstrate that the activity of the BR can be assessed with surface EMG as it was distinct from the BB during flexion+supination but predicted flexion force equally well as BB during the pure flexion contraction.

  8. Coordinated Respiratory Motor Activity in Nerves Innervating the Upper Airway Muscles in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Satoshi; Nakayama, Kiyomi; Nakamura, Shiro; Mochizuki, Ayako; Iijima, Takehiko; Inoue, Tomio

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining the patency of the upper airway during breathing is of vital importance. The activity of various muscles is related to the patency of the upper airway. In the present study, we examined the respiratory motor activity in the efferent nerves innervating the upper airway muscles to determine the movements of the upper airway during respiration under normocapnic conditions (pH = 7.4) and in hypercapnic acidosis (pH = 7.2). Experiments were performed on arterially perfused decerebrate rats aged between postnatal days 21-35. We recorded the efferent nerve activity in a branch of the cervical spinal nerve innervating the infrahyoid muscles (CN), the hypoglossal nerve (HGN), the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) with the phrenic nerve (PN). Inspiratory nerve discharges were observed in all these nerves under normocapnic conditions. The onset of inspiratory discharges in the CN and HGN was slightly prior to those in the SLN and RLN. When the CO2 concentration in the perfusate was increased from 5% to 8% to prepare for hypercapnic acidosis, the peak amplitudes of the inspiratory discharges in all the recorded nerves were increased. Moreover, hypercapnic acidosis induced pre-inspiratory discharges in the CN, HGN, SLN, and RLN. The onset of pre-inspiratory discharges in the CN, HGN, and SLN was prior to that of discharges in the RLN. These results suggest that the securing of the airway that occurs a certain time before dilation of the glottis may facilitate ventilation and improve hypercapnic acidosis.

  9. Allosteric interactions coordinate catalytic activity between successive metabolic enzymes in the tryptophan synthase bienzyme complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzović, P S; Ngo, K; Dunn, M F

    1992-04-21

    Tryptophan synthase from enteric bacteria is an alpha 2 beta 2 bienzyme complex that catalyzes the final two reactions in the biosynthesis of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) from 3-indole-D-glycerol 3'-phosphate (IGP) and L-serine (L-Ser). The bienzyme complex exhibits reciprocal ligand-mediated allosteric interactions between the heterologous subunits [Houben, K., & Dunn, M. F. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 2421-2429], but the relationship between allostery and catalysis had not been completely defined. We have utilized rapid-scanning stopped-flow (RSSF) UV-visible spectroscopy to study the relationship between allostery and catalysis in the alpha beta-reaction catalyzed by the bienzyme complex from Salmonella typhimurium. The pre-steady-state spectral changes that occur when L-Ser and IGP are mixed simultaneously with the alpha 2 beta 2 complex show that IGP binding to the alpha-site accelerates the formation of alpha-aminoacrylate [E(A-A)] from L-Ser at the beta-site. Through the use of L-Ser analogues, we show herein that the formation of the E(A-A) intermediate is the chemical signal which triggers the conformational transition that activates the alpha-subunit. beta-subunit ligands, such as L-Trp, that react to form covalent intermediates at the beta-site, but are incapable of E(A-A) formation, do not stimulate the activity of the alpha-subunit. Titration experiments show that the affinity of G3P and GP at the alpha-site is dependent upon the nature of the chemical intermediate present at the beta-active site.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Surface activation of dyed fabric for cellulase treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimper, Christian B; Ibanescu, Constanta; Bechtold, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Surface activation of fabric made from cellulose fibres, such as viscose, lyocell, modal fibres and cotton, can be achieved by printing of a concentrated NaOH-containing paste. From the concentration of reducing sugars formed in solution, an increase in intensity of the cellulase hydrolysis by a factor of six to eight was observed, which was mainly concentrated at the activated parts of the fabric surface. This method of local activation is of particular interest for modification of materials that have been dyed with special processes to attain an uneven distribution of dyestuff within the yarn cross-section, e.g., indigo ring-dyed denim yarn for jeans production. Fabrics made from regenerated cellulose fibres were used as model substrate to express the effects of surface activation on indigo-dyed material. Wash-down experiments on indigo-dyed denim demonstrated significant colour removal from the activated surface at low overall weight loss of 4-5%. The method is of relevance for a more eco-friendly processing of jeans in the garment industry.

  11. Coordinated Observations of X-ray and High-Resolution EUV Active Region Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Sabrina; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The recently-launched High-resolution Coronal imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket provided the highest resolution images of coronal loops and other small-scale structures in the 193 Angstrom passband to date. With just 5 minutes of observations, the instrument recorded a variety of dynamic coronal events -- including even a small B-class flare. We will present our results comparing these extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations with X-ray imaging from Hinode/XRT as well as EUV AIA data to identify sources of hot plasma rooted in the photosphere and track their affect on the overall topology and dynamics of the active region.

  12. Evaluating Physical Activity Using Accelerometry in Children at Risk of Developmental Coordination Disorder in the Presence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerg, Sally; Cairney, John; Hay, John; Rempel, Lynn; Mahlberg, Nadilein; Faught, Brent E.

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is compromised in children and adolescents with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Approximately half of all children with DCD suffer from attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD); a cohort often considered more physically active than typically developing youth. Accelerometry is an effective method of assessing…

  13. Epithelial Histone Deacetylase 3 Instructs Intestinal Immunity by Coordinating Local Lymphocyte Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Navabi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal tissues are constantly in direct contact with diverse beneficial and pathogenic microbes, highlighting the need for orchestrating complex microbial signals to sustain effective host defense. Here, we show an essential role for intestinal epithelial cell expression of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3 in responding to pathogenic microbes and activating protective innate immunity. Mice lacking HDAC3 in intestinal epithelial cells were more susceptible to Citrobacter rodentium when under tonic stimulation by the commensal microbiota. This impaired host defense reflected significantly decreased IFNγ production by intraepithelial CD8+ T cells early during infection. Further, HDAC3 was necessary for infection-induced epithelial expression of the IFNγ-inducing factor IL-18, and administration of IL-18 restored IFNγ activity to resident CD8+ T cells and reduced infection. Thus, HDAC3 mediates communication between intestinal epithelial cells and resident lymphocytes, revealing that epithelial priming by an epigenetic modifier may direct mucosal regulation of host defense against pathogenic microbes.

  14. Probing the orientations of coordination complex molecules onto the surface of ZnO nanoparticles by means of surface enhanced Raman scattering, UV–vis and DFT methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Om; Gautam, Priyanka; Singh, Ranjan K., E-mail: ranjanksingh65@rediffmail.com

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The adsorption geometry of three complex molecules onto the surface of ZnO nanoparticles is investigated by Raman, SERS and UV–vis techniques. • All the three complex molecules are adsorbed in flat-on geometry. • On the adsorption onto the ZnO NPs, the fluorescence background of Raman spectra of Zn complex is quenched. - Abstract: The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a highly surface sensitive technique to study inter-surface properties of biological, organic, and inorganic materials. It is a precise technique to determine the adsorption geometry/orientation of the molecules as the intensity enhancement of the SERS bands depends on the adsorption geometry/orientation of molecules on SERS substrate. In the present work, Ni, Cu and Zn complexes of (Z)-N′(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl) acetimidate were synthesized and adsorbed on ZnO nanoparticles. The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), UV–vis and DFT techniques were applied to investigate the possible adsorption geometries of the complexes on ZnO. Consequently, it was found that the orientation of all three complex molecules is flat-on onto the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. The fluorescence background of Raman spectra of Zn complex is quenched and its geometry is isomerized after the adsorption onto the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. The adsorbed Cu complex on ZnO NPs absorbed UV radiations efficiently.

  15. Immune complement activation is attenuated by surface nanotopography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwing H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mats Hulander1, Anders Lundgren1, Mattias Berglin1, Mattias Ohrlander2, Jukka Lausmaa3,4, Hans Elwing1 1Department of Cell and Molecular Biology/Interface Biophysics, University of Gothenburg, Medicinaregatan 9E, Gothenburg, 2Bactiguard AB, Stockholm, 3SP Technical Research Institute, Boras, 4Biomatcell, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: The immune complement (IC is a cell-free protein cascade system, and the first part of the innate immune system to recognize foreign objects that enter the body. Elevated activation of the system from, for example, biomaterials or medical devices can result in both local and systemic adverse effects and eventually loss of function or rejection of the biomaterial. Here, the researchers have studied the effect of surface nanotopography on the activation of the IC system. By a simple nonlithographic process, gold nanoparticles with an average size of 58 nm were immobilized on a smooth gold substrate, creating surfaces where a nanostructure is introduced without changing the surface chemistry. The activation of the IC on smooth and nanostructured surfaces was viewed with fluorescence microscopy and quantified with quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring in human serum. Additionally, the ability of pre-adsorbed human immunoglobulin G (IgG (a potent activator of the IC to activate the IC after a change in surface hydrophobicity was studied. It was found that the activation of the IC was significantly attenuated on nanostructured surfaces with nearly a 50% reduction, even after pre-adsorption with IgG. An increase in surface hydrophobicity blunted this effect. The possible role of the curvature of the nanoparticles for the orientation of adsorbed IgG molecules, and how this can affect the subsequent activation of the IC, are discussed. The present findings are important for further understanding of how surface nanotopography affects complex protein

  16. CDK1-Cyclin B1 Activates RNMT, Coordinating mRNA Cap Methylation with G1 Phase Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aregger, Michael; Kaskar, Aneesa; Varshney, Dhaval; Fernandez-Sanchez, Maria Elena; Inesta-Vaquera, Francisco A; Weidlich, Simone; Cowling, Victoria H

    2016-03-03

    The creation of translation-competent mRNA is dependent on RNA polymerase II transcripts being modified by addition of the 7-methylguanosine (m7G) cap. The factors that mediate splicing, nuclear export, and translation initiation are recruited to the transcript via the cap. The cap structure is formed by several activities and completed by RNMT (RNA guanine-7 methyltransferase), which catalyzes N7 methylation of the cap guanosine. We report that CDK1-cyclin B1 phosphorylates the RNMT regulatory domain on T77 during G2/M phase of the cell cycle. RNMT T77 phosphorylation activates the enzyme both directly and indirectly by inhibiting interaction with KPNA2, an RNMT inhibitor. RNMT T77 phosphorylation results in elevated m7G cap methyltransferase activity at the beginning of G1 phase, coordinating mRNA capping with the burst of transcription that occurs following nuclear envelope reformation. RNMT T77 phosphorylation is required for the production of cohort of proteins, and inhibiting T77 phosphorylation reduces the cell proliferation rate. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Akt1 signaling coordinates BMP signaling and β-catenin activity to regulate second heart field progenitor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen; Zhao, Xia; Jin, Hengwei; Tao, Lichan; Zhu, Jingai; Wang, Huijuan; Hemmings, Brian A; Yang, Zhongzhou

    2015-02-15

    Second heart field (SHF) progenitors exhibit continued proliferation and delayed differentiation, which are modulated by FGF4/8/10, BMP and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PTEN-Akt signaling regulates the stem cell/progenitor cell homeostasis in several systems, such as hematopoietic stem cells, intestinal stem cells and neural progenitor cells. To address whether PTEN-Akt signaling is involved in regulating cardiac progenitors, we deleted Pten in SHF progenitors. Deletion of Pten caused SHF expansion and increased the size of the SHF derivatives, the right ventricle and the outflow tract. Cell proliferation of cardiac progenitors was enhanced, whereas cardiac differentiation was unaffected by Pten deletion. Removal of Akt1 rescued the phenotype and early lethality of Pten deletion mice, suggesting that Akt1 was the key downstream target that was negatively regulated by PTEN in cardiac progenitors. Furthermore, we found that inhibition of FOXO by Akt1 suppressed the expression of the gene encoding the BMP ligand (BMP7), leading to dampened BMP signaling in the hearts of Pten deletion mice. Cardiac activation of Akt also increased the Ser552 phosphorylation of β-catenin, thus enhancing its activity. Reducing β-catenin levels could partially rescue heart defects of Pten deletion mice. We conclude that Akt signaling regulates the cell proliferation of SHF progenitors through coordination of BMP signaling and β-catenin activity.

  18. Factor H-related proteins determine complement-activating surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsi, Mihály; Tortajada, Agustin; Uzonyi, Barbara; Goicoechea de Jorge, Elena; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago

    2015-06-01

    Complement factor H-related proteins (FHRs) are strongly associated with different diseases involving complement dysregulation, which suggests a major role for these proteins regulating complement activation. Because FHRs are evolutionarily and structurally related to complement inhibitor factor H (FH), the initial assumption was that the FHRs are also negative complement regulators. Whereas weak complement inhibiting activities were originally reported for these molecules, recent developments indicate that FHRs may enhance complement activation, with important implications for the role of these proteins in health and disease. We review these findings here, and propose that FHRs represent a complex set of surface recognition molecules that, by competing with FH, provide improved discrimination of self and non-self surfaces and play a central role in determining appropriate activation of the complement pathway.

  19. Activating transcription factor 1 directs Mhem atheroprotective macrophages through coordinated iron handling and foam cell protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Joseph J; Johns, Michael; Kampfer, Theresa; Nguyen, Aivi T; Game, Laurence; Schaer, Dominik J; Mason, Justin C; Haskard, Dorian O

    2012-01-06

    Intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) drives atherosclerosis through the dual metabolic stresses of cholesterol-enriched erythrocyte membranes and pro-oxidant heme/iron. When clearing tissue hemorrhage, macrophages are typically seen storing either iron or lipid. We have recently defined hemorrhage-associated macrophages (HA-mac) as a plaque macrophage population that responds adaptively to IPH. This study aimed to define the key transcription factor(s) involved in HO-1 induction by heme. To address this question, we used microarray analysis and transfection with siRNA and plasmids. To maintain physiological relevance, we focused on human blood-derived monocytes. We found that heme stimulates monocytes through induction of activating transcription factor 1 (ATF-1). ATF-1 coinduces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and Liver X receptor beta (LXR-β). Heme-induced HO-1 and LXR-β were suppressed by knockdown of ATF-1, and HO-1 and LXR-β were induced by ATF-1 transfection. ATF-1 required phosphorylation for full functional activity. Expression of LXR-β in turn led to induction of other genes central to cholesterol efflux, such as LXR-α and ABCA1. This heme-directed state was distinct from known macrophage states (M1, M2, Mox) and, following the same format, we have designated them Mhem. These results show that ATF-1 mediates HO-1 induction by heme and drives macrophage adaptation to intraplaque hemorrhage. Our definition of an ATF-1-mediated pathway for linked protection from foam cell formation and oxidant stress may have therapeutic potential.

  20. Plasmas and atom beam activation of the surface of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Santos, C; Yubero, F; Cotrino, J; Barranco, A; Gonzalez-Elipe, A R [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-Univ. Sevilla), Avda Americo Vespucio 49, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: arge@icmse.csic.es

    2008-11-21

    Wetting properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and low-density polyethylene polymers have been investigated after treatment with a microwave (MW) plasma discharge at low pressure and a dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure. Experiments have also been carried out in situ with an atom source installed in an x-ray photoemission spectrometer (XPS). The water contact angle measured on both polymers experienced a significant decrease after activation, but a progressive recovery up to different values after ageing. Standard chemical analysis by XPS showed that the plasma and oxygen beam treatments produced an increase in the concentration of -C(O){sub x} functional groups at the outermost surface layers of the treated polymers. Besides, the oxygen distribution between the topmost surface layer and the bulk has been obtained by non-destructive XPS peak shape analysis. Atomic force microscopy analysis of the surface topography showed that, except for PET treated with the MW plasma and the atom beam, the surface roughness increased after the plasma treatments. Wetting angle variations, oxygen content and distribution, surface roughness and evolution of these properties with time are comparatively discussed by taking into account the basic processes that each type of activation procedure induces in the outmost surface layers of the treated polymers.

  1. Active screen plasma nitriding enhances cell attachment to polymer surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaklamani, Georgia, E-mail: g.kaklamani@bham.ac.uk [University of Birmingham, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, School of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Bowen, James; Mehrban, Nazia [University of Birmingham, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, School of Chemical Engineering, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Dong, Hanshan [University of Birmingham, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, School of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Grover, Liam M. [University of Birmingham, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, School of Chemical Engineering, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Stamboulis, Artemis [University of Birmingham, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, School of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    Active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) is a well-established technique used for the surface modification of materials, the result of which is often a product with enhanced functional performance. Here we report the modification of the chemical and mechanical properties of ultra-high molecular weight poly(ethylene) (UHMWPE) using 80:20 (v/v) N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} ASPN, followed by growth of 3T3 fibroblasts on the treated and untreated polymer surfaces. ASPN-treated UHMWPE showed extensive fibroblast attachment within 3 h of seeding, whereas fibroblasts did not successfully attach to untreated UHMWPE. Fibroblast-coated surfaces were maintained for up to 28 days, monitoring their metabolic activity and morphology throughout. The chemical properties of the ASPN-treated UHMWPE surface were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, revealing the presence of C-N, C=N, and C≡N chemical bonds. The elastic modulus, surface topography, and adhesion properties of the ASPN-treated UHMWPE surface were studied over 28 days during sample storage under ambient conditions and during immersion in two commonly used cell culture media.

  2. Active Finger Recognition from Surface EMG Signal Using Bayesian Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Nozomu; Hoashi, Yuki; Konishi, Yasuo; Mabuchi, Kunihiko; Ishigaki, Hiroyuki

    This paper proposed an active finger recognition method using Bayesian filter in order to control a myoelectric hand. We have previously proposed a finger joint angle estimation method based on measured surface electromyography (EMG) signals and a linear model. However, when we estimate 2 or more finger angles by this estimation method, the estimation angle of the inactive finger is not accurate. This is caused by interference of surface EMG signal. To solve this interference problem, we proposed active finger recognition method from the amplitude spectrum of surface EMG signal using Bayesian filter. To confirm the effectiveness of this recognition method, we developed a myoelectric hand simulator that implements proposed recognition algorithm and carried out real-time recognition experiment.

  3. Active multispectral near-IR detection of small surface targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.N. de; Winkel, J.; Roos, M.

    2001-01-01

    The detection and identification of small surface targets with Electro-Optical sensors is seriously hampered by ground clutter, leading to false alarms and reduced detection probabilities. Active ground illumination can improve the detection performance of EO sensors compared to passive skylight ill

  4. MICROORGANISMS’ SURFACE ACTIVE SUBSTANCES ROLE IN HYDROCARBONS BIODEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оlga Vasylchenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Existing data and publications regarding oil, hydrocarbon biodegradation, metabolism, and bioremediation were analyzed. Search of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria which are producers of biosurfactants was provided, types of microbial surfactants and their physiological role were analyzed and ordered. The study of factors affecting the surface active properties of producers’ cultures was done.

  5. Design parameters for measurements of local catalytic activity on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Martin; Johannessen, Tue; Jørgensen, Jan Hoffmann;

    2006-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics in combination with experiments is used to characterize a gas sampling device for measurements of the local catalytic activity on surfaces. The device basically consists of a quartz capillary mounted concentrically inside an aluminum tube. Reactant gas is blown toward...

  6. RAFT microemulsion polymerization with surface-active chain transfer agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hedok, Ibrahim Adnan

    The work described in this dissertation focuses on enhancing the polymer nanoparticle synthesis using RAFT (reversible-addition fragmentation chain transfer) in microemulsion polymerization in order to achieve predetermined molecular weight with narrow molecular weight polydispersity. The hypothesis is that the use of an amphiphilic chain transfer agent (surface-active CTA) will confine the CTA to the surface of the particle and thermodynamically favor partitioning of the CTA between micelles and particles throughout the polymerization. Thus, the CTA diffusion from micelles to polymer particles would be minimized and the breadth of the CTA per particle distribution would remain low. We report the successful improved synthesis of poly(butyl acrylate), poly(ethyl acrylate), and poly(styrene) nanoparticles using the RAFT microemulsion polymerization with surface-active CTA. The polymerization kinetics, polymer characteristics and latex size experimental data are presented. The data analysis indicates that the CTA remains partitioned between the micelles and particles by the end of the polymerization, as expected. We also report the synthesis of well-defined core/shell poly(styrene)/poly(butyl acrylate) nanoparticle, having polydispersity index value of 1.1, using semi-continuous microemulsion polymerization with the surface-active CTA. The surface-active CTA restricts the polymerization growth to the surface of the particle, which facilitates the formation of a shell block co-polymers with each subsequent second monomer addition instead of discrete homopolymers. This synthesis method can be used to create a wide range of core/shell polymer nanoparticles with well-defined morphology, given the right feeding conditions.

  7. Preparation, Surface and Pore Structure of High Surface Area Activated Carbon Fibers from Bamboo by Steam Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Ma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High surface area activated carbon fibers (ACF have been prepared from bamboo by steam activation after liquefaction and curing. The influences of activation temperature on the microstructure, surface area and porosity were investigated. The results showed that ACF from bamboo at 850 °C have the maximum iodine and methylene blue adsorption values. Aside from the graphitic carbon, phenolic and carbonyl groups were the predominant functions on the surface of activated carbon fiber from bamboo. The prepared ACF from bamboo were found to be mainly type I of isotherm, but the mesoporosity presented an increasing trend after 700 °C. The surface area and micropore volume of samples, which were determined by application of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and t-plot methods, were as high as 2024 m2/g and 0.569 cm3/g, respectively. It was also found that the higher activation temperature produced the more ordered microcrystalline structure of ACF from bamboo.

  8. Surface functional groups and redox property of modified activated carbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xianglan; Deng Shengfu; Liu Qiong; Zhang Yan; Cheng Lei

    2011-01-01

    A series of activated carbons (ACs) were prepared using HNO3, H2O2 and steam as activation agents with the aim to introduce functional groups to carbon surface in the ACs preparation process. The effects of concentration of activation agent, activation time on the surface functional groups and redox property of ACs were characterized by Temperature Program Desorption (TPD) and Cyclic Voitammetry (CV). Results showed that lactone groups of ACs activated by HNO3 increase with activation time, and the carboxyl groups increase with the concentration of HNO3. Carbonyl/quinine groups of ACs activated by H2O2 increase with the activation time and the concentration of H2O2, although the acidic groups decrease with the concentration of H2O2. The redox property reflected by CV at 0 and 0.5 V is different with any kinds of oxygen functional groups characterized by TPD, but it is consistent with the SO2 catalytic oxidization/oxidation properties indicated by TPR.

  9. Poisson Coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Ying; Hu, Shi-Min

    2013-02-01

    Harmonic functions are the critical points of a Dirichlet energy functional, the linear projections of conformal maps. They play an important role in computer graphics, particularly for gradient-domain image processing and shape-preserving geometric computation. We propose Poisson coordinates, a novel transfinite interpolation scheme based on the Poisson integral formula, as a rapid way to estimate a harmonic function on a certain domain with desired boundary values. Poisson coordinates are an extension of the Mean Value coordinates (MVCs) which inherit their linear precision, smoothness, and kernel positivity. We give explicit formulas for Poisson coordinates in both continuous and 2D discrete forms. Superior to MVCs, Poisson coordinates are proved to be pseudoharmonic (i.e., they reproduce harmonic functions on n-dimensional balls). Our experimental results show that Poisson coordinates have lower Dirichlet energies than MVCs on a number of typical 2D domains (particularly convex domains). As well as presenting a formula, our approach provides useful insights for further studies on coordinates-based interpolation and fast estimation of harmonic functions.

  10. Synthesis, spectroscopic, coordination and biological activities of some organometallic complexes derived from thio-Schiff base ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hussein, Azza A.; Linert, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Two series of mono- and binuclear complexes cyclic or acyclic thio-ferocine Schiff base ligands, derived from the condensation of 2-aminobenzenthiol (L) with monoacetyl ferrocene in the molar ratio 1:1 or in the molar ratio 1:2 for diacetyl ferocine have been prepared. The condensation reactions yield the corresponding Schiff Base ligands, HLa-Maf and H2Lb-Daf. The chelation of the ligands to metal ions occurs through the sulfur of the thiol group as well as the nitrogen atoms of the azomethine group of the ligands. HLa-Maf acts as monobasic bidentate or dibasic tetradentate, while H2Lb-Daf behaves as twice negatively cargend tetradentate ligand. The structures of these ligands were elucidated by elemental analysis, infrared, ultraviolet-visible spectra, as well as 1H NMR spectra. Reactions of the Schiff bases ligands with ruthenium(III), oxovanadium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) afforded the corresponding transition metal complexes. The properties of the newly prepared complexes were analyse by elemental analyses, infrared, electronic spectra, 1H NMR as well as the magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurement. The metal complexes exhibits different geometrical arrangements such as octahedral and square pyramidal coordination. Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes were tested against two pathogenic bacteria as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as one kind of fungi to study their biological activity. All the complexes exhibit antibacterial and antifungal activities against these organisms.

  11. Neural signatures of social conformity: A coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Luo, Yi; Feng, Chunliang

    2016-12-01

    People often align their behaviors with group opinions, known as social conformity. Many neuroscience studies have explored the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying social conformity. Here we employed a coordinate-based meta-analysis on neuroimaging studies of social conformity with the purpose to reveal the convergence of the underlying neural architecture. We identified a convergence of reported activation foci in regions associated with normative decision-making, including ventral striatum (VS), dorsal posterior medial frontal cortex (dorsal pMFC), and anterior insula (AI). Specifically, consistent deactivation of VS and activation of dorsal pMFC and AI are identified when people's responses deviate from group opinions. In addition, the deviation-related responses in dorsal pMFC predict people's conforming behavioral adjustments. These are consistent with current models that disagreement with others might evoke "error" signals, cognitive imbalance, and/or aversive feelings, which are plausibly detected in these brain regions as control signals to facilitate subsequent conforming behaviors. Finally, group opinions result in altered neural correlates of valuation, manifested as stronger responses of VS to stimuli endorsed than disliked by others.

  12. BADERI: an online database to coordinate handsearching activities of controlled clinical trials for their potential inclusion in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Hernandez, Hector; Urrútia, Gerard; Barajas-Nava, Leticia A; Buitrago-Garcia, Diana; Garzón, Julieth Vanessa; Martínez-Zapata, María José; Bonfill, Xavier

    2017-06-13

    Systematic reviews provide the best evidence on the effect of health care interventions. They rely on comprehensive access to the available scientific literature. Electronic search strategies alone may not suffice, requiring the implementation of a handsearching approach. We have developed a database to provide an Internet-based platform from which handsearching activities can be coordinated, including a procedure to streamline the submission of these references into CENTRAL, the Cochrane Collaboration Central Register of Controlled Trials. We developed a database and a descriptive analysis. Through brainstorming and discussion among stakeholders involved in handsearching projects, we designed a database that met identified needs that had to be addressed in order to ensure the viability of handsearching activities. Three handsearching teams pilot tested the proposed database. Once the final version of the database was approved, we proceeded to train the staff involved in handsearching. The proposed database is called BADERI (Database of Iberoamerican Clinical Trials and Journals, by its initials in Spanish). BADERI was officially launched in October 2015, and it can be accessed at www.baderi.com/login.php free of cost. BADERI has an administration subsection, from which the roles of users are managed; a references subsection, where information associated to identified controlled clinical trials (CCTs) can be entered; a reports subsection, from which reports can be generated to track and analyse the results of handsearching activities; and a built-in free text search engine. BADERI allows all references to be exported in ProCite files that can be directly uploaded into CENTRAL. To date, 6284 references to CCTs have been uploaded to BADERI and sent to CENTRAL. The identified CCTs were published in a total of 420 journals related to 46 medical specialties. The year of publication ranged between 1957 and 2016. BADERI allows the efficient management of handsearching

  13. Electromyographic activity of hand muscles in a motor coordination game: effect of incentive scheme and its relation with social capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Censolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A vast body of social and cognitive psychology studies in humans reports evidence that external rewards, typically monetary ones, undermine intrinsic motivation. These findings challenge the standard selfish-rationality assumption at the core of economic reasoning. In the present work we aimed at investigating whether the different modulation of a given monetary reward automatically and unconsciously affects effort and performance of participants involved in a game devoid of visual and verbal interaction and without any perspective-taking activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve pairs of participants were submitted to a simple motor coordination game while recording the electromyographic activity of First Dorsal Interosseus (FDI, the muscle mainly involved in the task. EMG data show a clear effect of alternative rewards strategies on subjects' motor behavior. Moreover, participants' stock of relevant past social experiences, measured by a specifically designed questionnaire, was significantly correlated with EMG activity, showing that only low social capital subjects responded to monetary incentives consistently with a standard rationality prediction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings show that the effect of extrinsic motivations on performance may arise outside social contexts involving complex cognitive processes due to conscious perspective-taking activity. More importantly, the peculiar performance of low social capital individuals, in agreement with standard economic reasoning, adds to the knowledge of the circumstances that makes the crowding out/in of intrinsic motivation likely to occur. This may help in improving the prediction and accuracy of economic models and reconcile this puzzling effect of external incentives with economic theory.

  14. Microstructure and surface properties of lignocellulosic-based activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, P., E-mail: pegonzal@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Centeno, T.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon-CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Urones-Garrote, E. [Centro Nacional de Microscopia Electronica, Universidad Complutense, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Avila-Brande, D.; Otero-Diaz, L.C. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activated carbons were produced by KOH activation at 700 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed nanostructure consists of highly disordered graphene-like layers with sp{sup 2} bond content Almost-Equal-To 95%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Textural parameters show high surface area ( Almost-Equal-To 1000 m{sup 2}/g) and pore width of 1.3-1.8 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific capacitance reaches values as high as 161 F/g. - Abstract: Low cost activated carbons have been produced via chemical activation, by using KOH at 700 Degree-Sign C, from the bamboo species Guadua Angustifolia and Bambusa Vulgaris Striata and the residues from shells of the fruits of Castanea Sativa and Juglans Regia as carbon precursors. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs show the conservation of the precursor shape in the case of the Guadua Angustifolia and Bambusa Vulgaris Striata activated carbons. Transmission electron microscopy analyses reveal that these materials consist of carbon platelet-like particles with variable length and thickness, formed by highly disordered graphene-like layers with sp{sup 2} content Almost-Equal-To 95% and average mass density of 1.65 g/cm{sup 3} (25% below standard graphite). Textural parameters indicate a high porosity development with surface areas ranging from 850 to 1100 m{sup 2}/g and average pore width centered in the supermicropores range (1.3-1.8 nm). The electrochemical performance of the activated carbons shows specific capacitance values at low current density (1 mA/cm{sup 2}) as high as 161 F/g in the Juglans Regia activated carbon, as a result of its textural parameters and the presence of pseudocapacitance derived from surface oxygenated acidic groups (mainly quinones and ethers) identified in this activated carbon.

  15. Regulatory review and confidence building in post-closure safety assessments and safety cases for near surface disposal facilities, IAEA ASAM coordinated research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfadhel, M.B. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Waste and Geosciences Div., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: Benbelfadhelm@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca; Bennett, D.G. [Galson Science Limited, Oakham (United Kingdom); Gonzales, A. [Iberdrola Ingeniera y Consultoria, Madrid (Spain); Metcalf, P. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nys, V. [Association Vincotte Nucleaire, Brussels (Belgium); Simeonov, G. [Nuclear Regulatory Agency, Sofia (Bulgaria); Zeleznik, N. [ARAO-Agency of Radwaste Management, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-07-01

    The IAEA successfully concluded a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) called ISAM, which focused on the development of an Improved Safety Assessment Methodology for near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities (1997-2002). In November 2002, and as an extension of ISAM, the IAEA launched a new CRP called ASAM, designed to test the Application of the Safety Assessment Methodology by considering a range of near surface disposal facilities. The ASAM work programme is being implemented by three application working groups and two cross-cutting working groups. The application working groups are testing the applicability of the ISAM methodology by assessing an existing disposal facility in Hungary, a copper mine in South Africa, and a hypothetical facility containing heterogenous wastes, such as disused sealed sources. The first cross-cutting working group is addressing a number of technical issues that are common to all near-surface disposal facilities, while the second group, the Regulatory Review Working Group (RRWG) is developing guidance on how to gain confidence in safety assessments and safety cases, and on how to conduct regulatory reviews of safety assessments. This paper provides a brief overview of the work being conducted by the Regulatory Review Working Group. (author)

  16. Surface active complexes formed between keratin polypeptides and ionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fang; Lu, Zhiming; Tucker, Ian; Hosking, Sarah; Petkov, Jordan; Lu, Jian R

    2016-12-15

    Keratins are a group of important proteins in skin and hair and as biomaterials they can provide desirable properties such as strength, biocompatibility, and moisture regaining and retaining. The aim of this work is to develop water-soluble keratin polypeptides from sheep wool and then explore how their surface adsorption behaves with and without surfactants. Successful preparation of keratin samples was demonstrated by identification of the key components from gel electrophoresis and the reproducible production of gram scale samples with and without SDS (sodium dodecylsulphate) during wool fibre dissolution. SDS micelles could reduce the formation of disulphide bonds between keratins during extraction, reducing inter-molecular crosslinking and improving keratin polypeptide solubility. However, Zeta potential measurements of the two polypeptide batches demonstrated almost identical pH dependent surface charge distributions with isoelectric points around pH 3.5, showing complete removal of SDS during purification by dialysis. In spite of different solubility from the two batches of keratin samples prepared, very similar adsorption and aggregation behavior was revealed from surface tension measurements and dynamic light scattering. Mixing of keratin polypeptides with SDS and C12TAB (dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide) led to the formation of keratin-surfactant complexes that were substantially more effective at reducing surface tension than the polypeptides alone, showing great promise in the delivery of keratin polypeptides via the surface active complexes. Neutron reflection measurements revealed the coexistence of surfactant and keratin polypeptides at the interface, thus providing the structural support to the observed surface tension changes associated with the formation of the surface active complexes.

  17. THE EFFECT OF STANUM (IV AND GERMANІUM (IV COORDINATION COMPOUNDS ON Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis ІМV В-7465 PEPTIDASES ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidialkova N. А.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to investigate the influence of stanum (IV and germanium (IV coordination compounds on peptidases 1 and 2 of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis ІМV В-7465 activity. The study of coordination compounds effect on peptidase activity was carried out by complexes with the enzymes incubation and residual activity to the collagen, elastin and fibrin determination. It was revealed the regularity in the influence of different structure complex compounds on peptidases of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis ІМV В-7465 activity. The stanum (IV complexes with salicyloylhydrazones of aromatic aldehydes increase collagenase and elastase activities. Substituents replacement in aldehyde fragment of stanum (IV with isonicotinoylhydrazones of aromatic aldehydes complexes by the less polar ones contributed to increase of elastase activity of both enzymes while an absence of substituents enables to increase peptidase 2 fibrinolytic activity. The complexes of germanіum (IV with isonicotinoylhydrazone of salicylic aldehyde which contain Zn and Co, increased collagenase activity of the peptidase 1 as well as elastase and fibrinolytic activities of the peptidase 2. In general, all tested complexes may be considered as peptidase effectors of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis ІМV В-7465. A difference of complexes effect on activities of the both enzymes is due to the characteristics of the structure of coordination compounds.

  18. Activating piezoelectric crystal surface by silanization for microgravimetric immunobiosensor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, C R; Mishra, G C

    1996-01-01

    The development of a microgravimetric immunobiosensor using a piezoelectric quartz crystal as a detector requires a stable and reproducible immobilization method for ligand binding. The method of silanization using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) has been widely used for activating the carrier surface. In the present study, APTES deposition on a piezoelectric crystal surface was studied under various solvent conditions. A fluorescence method, using fluorescence isothiocyanate as a dye, was demonstrated for the quantification of amino groups on the silanized piezoelectric crystal surface. The optimum binding conditions of APTES deposition on a piezoelectric crystal surface were incorporated for the covalent immobilization of protein on the crystal surface in developing a stable and sensitive microgravimetric immunobiosensor. Determination of immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration was performed using APTES modified piezoelectric crystals coated with protein G. The resonant frequency shift, resulting from the formation of protein G-IgG complex on the crystal surface, correlated with the concentration of IgG in the range 10 ng/ml to 0.1 mg/ml. The APTES modified, protein G coated crystal were found to be quite stable and did not show a significant loss of sensitivity even after 12 weeks of storage at 4 degrees C in a desiccator.

  19. Coordination Processes in International Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    to coordinate relatively elaborate agreements due to the strength of its coordination as far as professional or technical and political activities (excepting the ILO budget) are concerned. In other more clear-cut or 'simple' policy areas such as the ILO budget, the EU coordination is weak: this contrast...

  20. Direct instrumental identification of catalytically active surface sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfisterer, Jonas H. K.; Liang, Yunchang; Schneider, Oliver; Bandarenka, Aliaksandr S.

    2017-09-01

    The activity of heterogeneous catalysts—which are involved in some 80 per cent of processes in the chemical and energy industries—is determined by the electronic structure of specific surface sites that offer optimal binding of reaction intermediates. Directly identifying and monitoring these sites during a reaction should therefore provide insight that might aid the targeted development of heterogeneous catalysts and electrocatalysts (those that participate in electrochemical reactions) for practical applications. The invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) and the electrochemical STM promised to deliver such imaging capabilities, and both have indeed contributed greatly to our atomistic understanding of heterogeneous catalysis. But although the STM has been used to probe and initiate surface reactions, and has even enabled local measurements of reactivity in some systems, it is not generally thought to be suited to the direct identification of catalytically active surface sites under reaction conditions. Here we demonstrate, however, that common STMs can readily map the catalytic activity of surfaces with high spatial resolution: we show that by monitoring relative changes in the tunnelling current noise, active sites can be distinguished in an almost quantitative fashion according to their ability to catalyse the hydrogen-evolution reaction or the oxygen-reduction reaction. These data allow us to evaluate directly the importance and relative contribution to overall catalyst activity of different defects and sites at the boundaries between two materials. With its ability to deliver such information and its ready applicability to different systems, we anticipate that our method will aid the rational design of heterogeneous catalysts.

  1. Surface Cleaning or Activation?Control of Surface Condition Prior to Thermo-Chemical Heat Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brigitte Haase; Juan Dong; Jens Heinlein

    2004-01-01

    Actual heat treatment processes must face increasing specifications with reference to process quality, safety and results in terms of reproducibility and repeatability. They can be met only if the parts' surface condition is controlled during manufacturing and, especially, prior to the treatment. An electrochemical method for the detection of a steel part's surface condition is presented, together with results, consequences, and mechanisms concerning surface pre-treatment before the thermochemical process. A steel surface's activity or passivity can be detected electrochemically, independently from the chemical background. The selected method was the recording of potential vs. time curves at small constant currents, using a miniaturized electrochemical cell, a (nearly) non-destructive electrolyte and a potentio-galvanostatic setup. The method enables to distinguish types of surface contamination which do not interfere with the thermochemical process, from passive layers which do and must be removed. Whereas some types of passive layers can be removed using conventional cleaning processes and agents, others are so stable that their effects can only be overcome by applying an additional activation pre-treatment, e.g. oxynitriding.

  2. Surface and Adsorption Properties of Activated Carbon Fabric Prepared from Cellulosic Polymer: Mixed Activation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhati, Surendra; Mahur, J. S.; Choubey, O. N. [Barkatullah Univ., Bhopal (India); Dixit, Mahur Savita [Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopla (India)

    2013-02-15

    In this study, activated carbon fabric was prepared from a cellulose-based polymer (viscose rayon) via a combination of physical and chemical activation (mixed activation) processes by means of CO{sub 2} as a gasifying agent and surface and adsorption properties were evaluated. Experiments were performed to investigate the consequence of activation temperature (750, 800, 850 and 925 .deg. C), activation time (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes) and CO{sub 2} flow rate (100, 200, 300 and 400 mL/min) on the surface and adsorption properties of ACF. The nitrogen adsorption isotherm at 77 K was measured and used for the determination of surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume, mesopore volume and pore size distribution using BET, t-plot, DR, BJH and DFT methods, respectively. It was observed that BET surface area and TPV increase with rising activation temperature and time due to the formation of new pores and the alteration of micropores into mesopores. It was also found that activation temperature dominantly affects the surface properties of ACF. The adsorption of iodine and CCl{sub 4} onto ACF was investigated and both were found to correlate with surface area.

  3. ARF2 coordinates with PLETHORAs and PINs to orchestrate ABA-mediated root meristem activity in Arabidopsis .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promchuea, Sujittra; Zhu, Yujuan; Chen, Zhizhong; Zhang, Jing; Gong, Zhizhong

    2017-01-01

    Multiple hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin, regulate cell division and differentiation of Arabidopsis root meristems. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 (ARF2) functions as a negative regulator of ABA responses, as seed germination and primary root growth of arf2 mutants are hypersensitive to ABA. In this study, we found that ABA treatment reduced the expression levels of the PIN-FORMEDs (PIN) auxin efflux carriers, PIN1, PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7, to a greater extent in the root meristems of arf2-101 mutant than in the wild type. Also, arf2-101 pin1 and arf2-101 pin4 double mutants show less ABA-induced inhibition of root meristem activity than the arf2-101 mutants. Furthermore, ARF2 positively mediates the transcripts of transcription factor PLETHORA 1 (PLT1) gene but negatively mediates PLT2 at protein level in root meristems. Using a dexamethasone (DEX)-inducible transgenic line, Pro35S:PLT2-GR, we showed that PLT2 greatly promotes cell division and completely inhibits cell differentiation in root meristems of the arf2-101 mutant once PLT2 is induced by DEX, which can be partially reversed by ABA treatment, suggesting that ABA regulates root meristem activity in both ARF2-dependent and independent pathways. Our results uncover a complex regulatory architecture in which ARF2 coordinates with PLTs and PINs to orchestrate ABA-mediated regulation of root meristem activity in Arabidopsis. © 2016 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Antitumor Activity of Mixed Ligand Coordination Compound of Copper with Norfloxacin and 1, 10-Phen, [Cu (NFLX)(phen)(H2O)] NO3 ·3H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Ping WANG; Li Cheng YAN; Long Guan ZHU

    2003-01-01

    The mixed ligand coordination compound of copper with norfloxacin (NFLX) and 1, 10-phen has been synthesized and characterized by means of X-ray single crystal diffraction. The structure features of the coordination compound are described. Antibacterial activities of the coordination compound have been tested against different microorganisms. The antitumor activities of the coordination compound on leukemia HL-60 cell line and liver cancer BEL-7402 cell line have been measured, respectively. The results indicated that the coordination compound has strong inhibitory effect on HL-60 and BEL-7402 cell lines.

  5. Motor ability and weight status are determinants of out-of-school activity participation for children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S M; Lee, Velma Y L; Chan, Nerita N C; Chan, Rachel S H; Chak, Wai-Kwong; Pang, Marco Y C

    2011-01-01

    According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, participation in everyday activities is integral to normal child development. However, little is known about the influence of motor ability and weight status on physical activity participation in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). This study aimed to (1) compare motor performance, weight status and pattern of out-of-school activity participation between children with DCD and those without; and (2) identify whether motor ability and weight status were determinants of participation patterns among children with DCD. We enrolled 81 children with DCD (boys, n = 63; girls, n = 18; mean age, 8.07 ± 1.5 years) and 67 typically developing children (boys, n = 48; girls, n = 19; mean age, 8.25 ± 1.6 years). Participation patterns (diversity, intensity, companionship, location, and enjoyment) were evaluated with the Children Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. Motor ability was evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, second edition (MABC-2). Other factors that may influence participation such as age, gender, and body weight were also recorded. Analysis of variance was used to compare outcome variables of the two groups, and significant determinants of activity participation were identified by multiple regression analysis. Children with DCD participated in fewer activities (i.e., limited participation diversity) and participated less frequently (i.e., limited participation intensity) than their typically developing peers; however, companionship, location of participation, and enjoyment level did not differ between the two groups. Children in the DCD group demonstrated significantly worse motor ability as assessed by the MABC-2. Further, a greater proportion of children in the DCD group were in the overweight/obese category compared with their typically developing peers. After accounting for the

  6. Particle surface area and bacterial activity in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; von Ahnen, Mathis; Fernandes, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Suspended particles in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) provide surface area that can be colonized by bacteria. More particles accumulate as the intensity of recirculation increases thus potentially increasing the bacterial carrying capacity of the systems. Applying a recent, rapid, culture......-independent fluorometric detection method (Bactiquant®) for measuring bacterial activity, the current study explored the relationship between total particle surface area (TSA, derived from the size distribution of particles >5 μm) and bacterial activity in freshwater RAS operated at increasing intensity of recirculation......-up water; corresponding to 0.32 m3 make-up water kg−1 feed). This was likely due to the accumulation of dissolved nutrients sustaining free-living bacterial populations, and/or accumulation of suspended colloids and fine particles less than 5 μm in diameter, which were not characterized in the study...

  7. Investigation into the surface active groups of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-cai; XUE Han-ling; Deng Jun; Wen Hu; ZHANG Xing-hai

    2001-01-01

    The oxidation heat of coal is the direct reason leading to coal spontaneous combustion.When coal is exposed in oxygen atmosphere, the physical adsorption and chemisorption happened, and then which resulting chemical reaction followed heat between coal and oxygen. Owing to the complexity and uncertain of molecular structure of coal, it was only reduced that bridge bonds, side chains and O2-containing functional groups in coal may be prone to oxidation in last year, but not to deeply investigate into the structures and the type of the active radicals. In this paper, according to the last achievements in coal structure research, the hypomethylether bond,hypoalkyl bond of α-carbon atom with hydroxyl and α-carbon atom with hypomethy side chain and hypomettyl bonds linking up two aromatic hydrocarbon in bridge bonds, and methoxy, aldehyde and alkyls of α-carbon atom with hydroxy in side bonds are inferred to be free radical easily to lead to oxidize coal under the ambient temperature and pressure. The order from strong to week of oxide activation of the seven surface active groups is aldehyde side chains, hypomethylether bonds, hypoalkyl bonds of α-carbon atom with hydroxyl, hypoalkyl bonds of α-carbon atom with hypomethyl, hypomethyl bonds linking up two aromatic hydrocarbon, methoxy, alkyls side chains of α-carbon atom with hydroxyl. Because of the two unsaturated molecular tracks of C2, unpaired eleotron clouds of the part of surface active groups of coal enter molecular tracks of O2 to lead to chemisorb on the conjugate effect and induced effect of surface active groups, and then chemical reaction followed heat happens in them. On the basis of change of bond energy, weighted average method is adopted to count the reactionheat value of each mol CO, CO2 and H2O. The property of coal spontaneous combustion is different for the different number and oxidability of the active structure in the coal resulting in the different oxidation heat.

  8. Changes in brain activation during the acquisition of a multifrequency bimanual coordination task: from the cognitive stage to advanced levels of automaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttemans, Veerle; Wenderoth, Nicole; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2005-04-27

    Little is known about activation changes reflecting overlearning, i.e., extensive motor training beyond asymptotic performance. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to trace the neural shifts from an initial to a skilled (learning) and finally overlearned stage (automatization). Scanning occurred before training (PRE) and after 1 (MID) and 2 weeks (POST) of intensive practice on a new bimanual coordination task (>10,500 cycles). Kinematics revealed major improvements between PRE and MID sessions, whereas MID to POST session performance leveled off, indicative of learning and automatization, respectively. Imaging findings showed that activation decreased in bilateral opercular areas, bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the right ventral premotor and supramarginal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate sulcus during the learning stage and in the supplementary motor area during the automatization stage. These changes are hypothesized to reflect decreases in attention-demanding sensory processing, as well as suppression of preferred coordination tendencies as a prelude to acquiring new coordination modes. Conversely, learning-related increases were observed in the primary motor cortex (M1), posterior cingulate zone (PCZ), putamen, and right anterior cerebellum. Importantly, both M1 and PCZ activation decreased again to initial level (PRE) during automated performance (POST). Only the putamen and anterior cerebellum remained more activated across both learning and automatization stages, supporting their crucial role in long-term motor memory formation for coordination tasks.

  9. How do persons with chronic low back pain speed up and slow down? Trunk-pelvis coordination and lumbar erector spinae activity during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoth, Claudine J.C.; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Meijer, Onno G.; Beek, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    In healthy walking, the timing between trunk and pelvic rotations, as well as erector spinae (ES) activity varies systematically with walking velocity, whereas a comparable velocity-dependent adaptation of trunk-pelvis coordination is often reduced or absent in persons with low back pain (LBP). Base

  10. Influence of Steam Activation on Pore Structure and Acidity of Zeolite Beta: An Al K Edge XANES Study of Aluminum Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Bokhoven, J.A. van; Kunkeler, P.J.; Bekkum, H. van

    2002-01-01

    The effect of steam activation on the aluminum coordination in zeolite NH{4}-beta was investigated by means of quantitative analysis of Al K edge XANES spectra. Framework tetrahedral aluminum is converted to octahedral aluminum after calcination and steaming, a process that, at the same time,

  11. A systematic review of instruments for assessment of capacity in activities of daily living in children with developmental co-ordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linde, B W; van Netten, J J; Otten, E; Postema, K; Geuze, R H; Schoemaker, M M

    2015-01-01

    Children with developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) face evident motor difficulties in activities of daily living (ADL). Assessment of their capacity in ADL is essential for diagnosis and intervention, in order to limit the daily consequences of the disorder. The aim of this study is to systema

  12. Differences in movement-related cortical activation patterns underlying motor performance in children with and without developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangelinan, Melissa M; Hatfield, Bradley D; Clark, Jane E

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral deficits in visuomotor planning and control exhibited by children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have been extensively reported. Although these functional impairments are thought to result from "atypical brain development," very few studies to date have identified potential neurological mechanisms. To address this knowledge gap, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 6- to 12-yr-old children with and without DCD (n = 14 and 20, respectively) during the performance of a visuomotor drawing task. With respect to motor performance, typically developing (TD) children exhibited age-related improvements in key aspects of motor planning and control. Although some children with DCD performed outside this TD landscape (i.e., age-related changes within the TD group), the group developmental trajectory of the children with DCD was similar to that of the TD children. Despite overall similarities in performance, engagement of cortical resources in the children with DCD was markedly different from that in their TD counterparts. While the patterns of activation are stable in TD children across the age range, the young children with DCD exhibited less engagement of motor cortical brain areas and the older children with DCD exhibited greater engagement of motor cortical brain areas than their TD peers. These results suggest that older children with DCD may employ a compensatory strategy in which increased engagement of relevant motor resources allows these children to perform comparably to their TD peers. Moreover, the magnitude of activation was related to several kinematic measures, particularly in children with DCD, suggesting that greater engagement in motor resources may underlie better behavioral performance.

  13. Quasi-plane-hypothesis of strain coordination for RC beams seismically strengthened with externally-bonded or near-surface mounted fiber reinforced plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhenhua; Zeng, Xiantao; Liu, Hanlong; Zhou, Fengjun

    2013-03-01

    The application of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP), including carbon FRP and glass FRP, for structural repair and strengthening has grown due to their numerous advantages over conventional materials such as externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) and near-surface mounted (NSM) strengthening techniques. This paper summarizes the results from 21 reinforced concrete beams strengthened with different methods, including externally-bonded and near-surface mounted FRP, to study the strain coordination of the FRP and steel rebar of the RC beam. Since there is relative slipping between the RC beam and the FRP, the strain of the FRP and steel rebar of the RC beam satisfy the quasi-plane-hypothesis; that is, the strain of the longitudinal fiber that parallels the neutral axis of the plated beam within the scope of the effective height ( h 0) of the cross section is in direct proportion to the distance from the fiber to the neutral axis. The strain of the FRP and steel rebar satisfies the equation: ɛ FRP= βɛ steel, and the value of β is equal to 1.1-1.3 according to the test results.

  14. System for measuring the coordinates of tire surfaces in transient conditions when rolling over obstacles: description of the system and performance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Paolo; Di Giuseppe, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the development of a system for measuring surface coordinates (commonly known as "shape measurements") which is able to give the temporal evolution of the position of the tire sidewall in transient conditions (such as during braking, when there are potholes or when the road surface is uneven) which may or may not be reproducible. The system is based on the well-known technique of projecting and observing structured light using a digital camera with an optical axis which is slanted with respect to the axis of the projector. The transient nature of the phenomenon has led to the development of specific innovative solutions as regards image processing algorithms. This paper briefly describes the components which make up the measuring system and presents the results of the measurements carried out on the drum bench. It then analyses the performance of the measuring system and the sources of uncertainty which led to the development of the system for a specific dynamic application: impact with an obstacle (cleat test). The measuring system guaranteed a measurement uncertainty of 0.28 mm along the Z axis (the axial direction of the tire) with a measurement range of 250(X) x 80(Y) x 25(Z) mm(3), with the tire rolling at a speed of up to 30 km/h.

  15. Synthesis, structural characterization and antitumor activity of a Ca(II) coordination polymer based on 4-formyl-1,3-benzenedisulfonate-2-furoic acid hydrazide ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Xi-Shi; Wang, Xin

    2017-03-01

    A new Ca(II) coordination polymer, {[CaL(H2O)4] · (H2O)4} n (L = 4-formyl-1,3-benzenedisulfonate-2-furoic acid hydrazide) has been prepared by one-pot synthesis method. And it was characterized by elemental analysis, IR and thermal analysis. The result of X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis shows that the Ca(II) complex molecules form one-dimensional chain structure by the bridging oxygen atoms. The anti-tumor activity of L ligand and the Ca(II) coordination polymer has also been studied.

  16. Coordinate regulation of fibronectin matrix assembly by the plasminogen activator system and vitronectin in human osteosarcoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKeown-Longo Paula J

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasminogen activators are known to play a key role in the remodeling of bone matrix which occurs during tumor progression, bone metastasis and bone growth. Dysfunctional remodeling of bone matrix gives rise to the osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions seen in association with metastatic cancers. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of these lesions are not well understood. Studies were undertaken to address the role of the plasminogen activator system in the regulation of fibronectin matrix assembly in the osteoblast-like cell line, MG-63. Results Treatment of MG-63 cells with P25, a peptide ligand for uPAR, resulted in an increase in assembly of fibronectin matrix which was associated with an increase in the number of activated β1 integrins on the cell surface. Overexpression of uPAR in MG-63 cells increased the effect of P25 on fibronectin matrix assembly and β1 integrin activation. P25 had no effect on uPAR null fibroblasts, confirming a role for uPAR in this process. The addition of plasminogen activator inhibitor Type I (PAI-1 to cells increased the P25-induced fibronectin polymerization, as well as the number of activated integrins. This positive regulation of PAI-1 on fibronectin assembly was independent of PAI-1's anti-proteinase activity, but acted through PAI-1 binding to the somatomedin B domain of vitronectin. Conclusion These results indicate that vitronectin modulates fibronectin matrix assembly in osteosarcoma cells through a novel mechanism involving cross-talk through the plasminogen activator system.

  17. Fabrication of Bioactive Surfaces by Functionalization of Electroactive and Surface-Active Block Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotunde Olubi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofunctional block copolymers are becoming increasingly attractive materials as active components in biosensors and other nanoscale electronic devices. We have described two different classes of block copolymers with biofuctional properties. Biofunctionality for block copolymers is achieved through functionalization with appropriate biospecific ligands. We have synthesized block copolymers of electroactive poly(3-decylthiophene and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate by atom transfer radical polymerization. The block copolymers were functionalized with the dinitrophenyl (DNP groups, which are capable of binding to Immunoglobulin E (IgE on cell surfaces. The block copolymers were shown to be redox active. Additionally, the triblock copolymer of α, ω-bi-biotin (poly(ethylene oxide-b-poly (styrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide was also synthesized to study their capacity to bind fluorescently tagged avidin. The surface-active property of the poly(ethylene oxide block improved the availability of the biotin functional groups on the polymer surfaces. Fluorescence microscopy observations confirm the specific binding of biotin with avidin.

  18. Modifications of laccase activities of copper efflux oxidase, CueO by synergistic mutations in the first and second coordination spheres of the type I copper center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Kunishige; Kogi, Hiroki; Tsujimura, Seiya; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2013-02-15

    The redox potential of type I copper in the Escherichia coli multicopper oxidase CueO was shifted in the positive or negative direction as a result of the single, double, and triple mutations in the first and second coordination spheres: the formation of the NH···S(-)(Cys500 ligand) hydrogen bond, the breakdown of the NH(His443 ligand)···O(-)(Asp439) hydrogen bond, and the substitution of the Met510 ligand for the non-coordinating Leu or coordinating Gln. Laccase activities of CueO were maximally enhanced 140-fold by virtue of the synergistic effect of mild mutations at and at around the ligand groups to type I copper.

  19. An Extended Polyanion Activation Surface in Insulin Degrading Enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Suk Song

    Full Text Available Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE is believed to be the major enzyme that metabolizes insulin and has been implicated in the degradation of a number of other bioactive peptides, including amyloid beta peptide (Aβ, glucagon, amylin, and atrial natriuretic peptide. IDE is activated toward some substrates by both peptides and polyanions/anions, possibly representing an important control mechanism and a potential therapeutic target. A binding site for the polyanion ATP has previously been defined crystallographically, but mutagenesis studies suggest that other polyanion binding modes likely exist on the same extended surface that forms one wall of the substrate-binding chamber. Here we use a computational approach to define three potential ATP binding sites and mutagenesis and kinetic studies to confirm the relevance of these sites. Mutations were made at four positively charged residues (Arg 429, Arg 431, Arg 847, Lys 898 within the polyanion-binding region, converting them to polar or hydrophobic residues. We find that mutations in all three ATP binding sites strongly decrease the degree of activation by ATP and can lower basal activity and cooperativity. Computational analysis suggests conformational changes that result from polyanion binding as well as from mutating residues involved in polyanion binding. These findings indicate the presence of multiple polyanion binding modes and suggest the anion-binding surface plays an important conformational role in controlling IDE activity.

  20. Osteogenic activity of titanium surfaces with nanonetwork structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing H

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Helin Xing,1,2 Satoshi Komasa,3 Yoichiro Taguchi,4 Tohru Sekino,5 Joji Okazaki3 1Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China; 2Graduate School of Dentistry (Removable Prosthodontics and Occlusion, 3Department of Removable Prosthodontics and Occlusion, 4Department of Periodontology, Osaka Dental University, Hirakata, Osaka, Japan; 5Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan Background: Titanium surfaces play an important role in affecting osseointegration of dental implants. Previous studies have shown that the titania nanotube promotes osseointegration by enhancing osteogenic differentiation. Only relatively recently have the effects of titanium surfaces with other nanostructures on osteogenic differentiation been investigated. Methods: In this study, we used NaOH solutions with concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, and 12.5 M to develop a simple and useful titanium surface modification that introduces the nanonetwork structures with titania nanosheet (TNS nanofeatures to the surface of titanium disks. The effects of such a modified nanonetwork structure, with different alkaline concentrations on the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs, were evaluated. Results: The nanonetwork structures with TNS nanofeatures induced by alkali etching markedly enhanced BMMSC functions of cell adhesion and osteogenesis-related gene expression, and other cell behaviors such as proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, extracellular matrix deposition, and mineralization were also significantly increased. These effects were most pronounced when the concentration of NaOH was 10.0 M. Conclusion: The results suggest that nanonetwork structures with TNS nanofeatures improved BMMSC proliferation and induced BMMSC osteogenic differentiation. In addition, the surfaces formed

  1. Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Antitumor Activity of a Ca(II Coordination Polymer Based on 1,6-Naphthalenedisulfonate and 4,4′-Bipyridyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xishi Tai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel Ca(II coordination polymer, [CaL(4,4′-bipyridyl(H2O4]n (L = 1,6-naphthalenedisulfonate, was synthesized by reaction of calcium perchlorate with 1,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid disodium salt and 4,4′-bipyridyl in CH3CH2OH/H2O. It was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, molar conductivity and thermogravimetric analysis. X-ray crystallography reveals that the Ca(II coordination polymer belongs to the orthorhombic system, with space group P212121. The geometry of the Ca(II ion is a distorted CaNO6 pengonal bipyramid, arising from its coordination by four water molecules, one nitrogen atom of 4,4′-bipyridyl molecule, and two oxygen atoms from two L ligands. The complex molecules form a helical chain by self-assembly. The antitumor activity of 1,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid disodium salt and the Ca(II coordination polymer against human hepatoma smmc-7721 cell line and human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line reveals that the Ca(II coordination polymer inhibits cell growth of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line with IC50 value of 27 μg/mL, and is more resistive to human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line as compared to 1,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid disodium salt.

  2. Coatings and surface modifications imparting antimicrobial activity to orthopedic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargupta, Roli; Bok, Sangho; Darr, Charles M; Crist, Brett D; Gangopadhyay, Keshab; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra; Sengupta, Shramik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on an orthopedic implant surface is one of the worst possible outcomes of orthopedic intervention in terms of both patient prognosis and healthcare costs. Making the problem even more vexing is the fact that infections are often caused by events beyond the control of the operating surgeon and may manifest weeks to months after the initial surgery. Herein, we review the costs and consequences of implant infection as well as the methods of prevention and management. In particular, we focus on coatings and other forms of implant surface modification in a manner that imparts some antimicrobial benefit to the implant device. Such coatings can be classified generally based on their mode of action: surface adhesion prevention, bactericidal, antimicrobial-eluting, osseointegration promotion, and combinations of the above. Despite several advances in the efficacy of these antimicrobial methods, a remaining major challenge is ensuring retention of the antimicrobial activity over a period of months to years postoperation, an issue that has so far been inadequately addressed. Finally, we provide an overview of additional figures of merit that will determine whether a given antimicrobial surface modification warrants adoption for clinical use.

  3. Synthesis, surface-active properties, and antimicrobial activities of new double-chain gemini surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murguía, Marcelo C; Vaillard, Victoria A; Sánchez, Victoria G; Conza, José Di; Grau, Ricardo J

    2008-01-01

    A novel series of neutral and cationic dimeric surfactants were prepared involving ketalization reaction, Williamson etherification, and regioselective oxirane ring opening with primary and tertiary alkyl amines. The critical micelle concentration (CMC), effectiveness of surface tension reduction (gamma(CMC)), surface excess concentration (Gamma), and area per molecule at the interface (A) were determined and values indicate that the cationic series is characterized by good surface-active and self-aggregation properties. For the first time, we reported the antimicrobial activities against representative bacteria and fungi for dimeric compounds. The antimicrobial activity was found to be dependent on the target microorganism (Gram-positive bacteria > fungi > Gram-negative bacteria), as well as both the neutral or ionic nature (cationic > neutral) and alkyl chain length (di-C(12) > di-C(18) > di-C(8)) of the compounds. The cationic di-C(12) derivative was found to have equipotent activity to that of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) used as standard.

  4. Neutrophil bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus adherent on biological surfaces. Surface-bound extracellular matrix proteins activate intracellular killing by oxygen-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann, M.; Jaconi, M E; Dahlgren, C; Waldvogel, F A; Stendahl, O; Lew, D P

    1990-01-01

    The activation patterns of surface adherent neutrophils are modulated via interaction of extracellular matrix proteins with neutrophil integrins. To evaluate neutrophil bactericidal activity, Staphylococcus aureus adherent to biological surfaces were incubated with neutrophils and serum, and the survival of surface bacteria was determined. When compared to albumin-coated surfaces, the bactericidal activity of neutrophils adherent to purified human extracellular matrix was markedly enhanced (m...

  5. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Although the incident on 19th September brought an untimely, temporary close to the exciting and successful commissioning of CMS with beam, activity at point 5 resumed with barely reduced intensity once underground access was restored. The preliminary steps were to re-fill the beamipe to atmospheric pressure with pure neon gas, to de-classify the cavern for radiological risks and to get agreement for formally deferring screening and tracing of material extracted from UXC. As planned, attention was then focused on completing commissioning of the solenoid, whose progression towards nominal 3.8 Tesla operating field had been interrupted a few shifts from its conclusion. Additional mechanical restraints and shielding structures needed to be installed to control the effects of field escaping from the return yoke and finding other pathways between the magnet poles. Certain pumps, sensors, lights and cameras, absent during the extensive “MTCC” surface testing in 2006, needed to be protected, w...

  6. Guest-induced modification of a magnetically active ultramicroporous, gismondine-like, copper(II) coordination network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jorge A R; Barea, Elisa; Rodríguez-Diéguez, Antonio; Salas, Juan M; Ania, Conchi O; Parra, José B; Masciocchi, Norberto; Galli, Simona; Sironi, Angelo

    2008-03-26

    A novel ultramicroporous coordination polymer, namely [Cu(F-pymo)2(H2O)1.25]n (1, F-pymo = 5-fluoropyrimidin-2-olate), has been prepared and structurally characterized. 1 displays a zeolitic gismondine (GIS) topology, with ca. 2.9 A wide helical channels which, in the thermally activated counterpart (1'), account for a 13% void volume and are responsible for the observed selective solid-gas adsorption properties toward H2, N2, and CO2. At 77 K 1' behaves as a molecular sieve, selectively adsorbing H2 over N2, possibly due to size-exclusion reasons. At variance, although CO2 molecules are slightly larger than the pore size, they are readily incorporated by 1' at temperatures as high as 433 K. Variable-temperature X-ray powder diffraction (TXRPD) studies, in the temperature range 303-473 K, show that dehydration is reversible and has almost negligible effects on the network. At variance, the uptake of CO2 occurs through a transient phase and channels expansion. While the gas storage capacity of 1' is not very high-H2, 0.56 wt % and 0.010 kg H2/L at 90 K and 900 Torr, and CO2, 7.6 wt % at 273 K and 900 Torr-the guest molecules achieve very high densities, comparable to that of the liquid for H2 (0.023 vs 0.021 molecules A-3) and to that of the solid for CO2 (0.014 vs 0.022 molecules A-3). In addition, we have also studied the effect of the perturbation exerted by the guest molecules on its magnetic properties. The results show that while dehydration of 1 has negligible effect on its spin-canted antiferromagnetic behavior, CO2 incorporation in the pores is responsible for an increment of the transition temperature at which the weak ferromagnetic ordering takes place from 22 to 29 K.

  7. Self-activated, self-limiting reactions on Si surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Per; Hvam, Jeanette; Bahari, Ali

    mechanism for the direct growth of ultrathin films (0-3 nm) of oxides and nitrides under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Neutral oxygen and a microwave excited nitrogen plasma interact directly with Si surfaces kept at different temperatures during the reaction. The gas pressures are around 10-6 Torr......The direct thermally activated reactions of oxygen and ammonia with Si surfaces in furnaces have been used for a very long time in the semiconductor industry for the growth of thick oxides and nitride layers respectively. The oxidation mechanism was described in the Deal-Grove model as a diffusion......, and the temperatures vary from room temperature to 10000C.The growth is in these cases self-limiting, with the optimal oxide thickness around 0.7-0.8 nm, at 5000C, and up to a few nm for nitride. The self-limiting oxide case was recently predicted by Alex Demkov in a structural optimization to minimise the total...

  8. The forgotten guidelines: cross-sectional analysis of participation in muscle strengthening and balance & co-ordination activities by adults and older adults in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Tessa; Fitzsimons, Claire; Kelly, Paul; Mutrie, Nanette

    2016-10-21

    In 2011, the UK physical activity guidelines were updated to include recommendations for muscle strengthening and balance & coordination (at least two sessions of relevant activities per week). However, monitoring and policy efforts remain focussed on aerobic activity. This study aimed to assess differences by gender and age in the a) prevalence of muscle strengthening and balance & co-ordination guidelines, and b) participation in guideline-specific activities. The sample for the muscle strengthening analyses was 10,488 adult (16-64 years) and 3857 older adult (≥65 years) 2012-2014 Scottish Health Survey respondents. The balance & co-ordination analyses used only the older adult responses. Differences by gender and (where possible) age in guideline prevalence and activity participation were assessed using logistic regression and t-tests. Thirty-one percent of men and 24 % of women met the muscle strengthening guideline, approximately half that of published figures for aerobic physical activity. Nineteen percent of older men and 12 % of older women met the balance & co-ordination guidelines. The oldest age groups were less likely to meet both guidelines compared to the youngest age groups. Differences by gender were only evident for muscle strengthening: more men met the guidelines than women in all age groups, with the largest difference amongst 16-24 year olds (55 % men compared with 40 % women). Participation in relevant activities differed by gender for both guidelines. 'Workout at gym' was the most popular activity to improve muscle strength for men (18 % participated), while swimming was for women (15 % participated). Golf was the most popular activity to improve balance & co-ordination for older men (11 % participated) and aerobics was for older women (6 % participated). Participation decreased in most muscle strengthening activities for both men and women. One exception was golf, where participation levels were as high amongst older men as in

  9. Coordinated activation of candidate proto-oncogenes and cancer testes antigens via promoter demethylation in head and neck cancer and lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epigenetic alterations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of solid tumors, however, proto-oncogenes activated by promoter demethylation have been sporadically reported. We used an integrative method to analyze expression in primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC and pharmacologically demethylated cell lines to identify aberrantly demethylated and expressed candidate proto-oncogenes and cancer testes antigens in HNSCC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We noted coordinated promoter demethylation and simultaneous transcriptional upregulation of proto-oncogene candidates with promoter homology, and phylogenetic footprinting of these promoters demonstrated potential recognition sites for the transcription factor BORIS. Aberrant BORIS expression correlated with upregulation of candidate proto-oncogenes in multiple human malignancies including primary non-small cell lung cancers and HNSCC, induced coordinated proto-oncogene specific promoter demethylation and expression in non-tumorigenic cells, and transformed NIH3T3 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Coordinated, epigenetic unmasking of multiple genes with growth promoting activity occurs in aerodigestive cancers, and BORIS is implicated in the coordinated promoter demethylation and reactivation of epigenetically silenced genes in human cancers.

  10. Self-activated, self-limiting reactions on Si surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Per; Hvam, Jeanette; Bahari, Ali

    The direct thermally activated reactions of oxygen and ammonia with Si surfaces in furnaces have been used for a very long time in the semiconductor industry for the growth of thick oxides and nitride layers respectively. The oxidation mechanism was described in the Deal-Grove model as a diffusion...... limited transport of oxygen to the oxide/silicon interface. For thin oxides the deal-Grove growth rate is initially constant, but for ultrathin oxides (a couple of nm thick) this is not true and the Deal-Grove model does not explain the mechanism. In a series of recent reports we have found a new...

  11. Perspective of surface active agents in baking industry: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Asif; Arshad, Nazish; Ahmed, Zaheer; Bhatti, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zahoor, Tahir; Anjum, Nomana; Ahmad, Hajra; Afreen, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Different researchers have previously used surfactants for improving bread qualities and revealed that these compounds result in improving the quality of dough and bread by influencing dough strength, tolerance, uniform crumb cell size, and improve slicing characteristics and gas retention. The objective of this review is to highlight the areas where surfactants are most widely used particularly in the bread industries, their role and mechanism of interaction and their contribution to the quality characteristics of the dough and bread. This review reveals some aspects of surface-active agents regarding its role physiochemical properties of dough that in turn affect the bread characteristics by improving its sensory quality and storage stability.

  12. Does a physiotherapy programme of gross motor training influence motor function and activities of daily living in children presenting with developmental coordination disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonill S. Maharaj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD lack motor coordination and have difficulty performing motor skills and activities of daily living. Research shows these children do not outgrow their motor difficulties and without intervention do not improve. Physiotherapy is relevant for these children, but due to limited clinical protocols for DCD the aim of this study was to determine the effect of a gross motor training programme for 6–12-year-old children with DCD.Methods: This randomised pre-test, post-test study recruited 64 children with scores of 15th percentile or below using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC. The children were divided equally into an intervention group receiving 8 weeks of gross motor training for core stability, strengthening exercises, balance and coordination with task-specific activities for 30 min per week, while the control group continued with general therapy and activities of daily living. The M-ABC and Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ were used to assess each child before and after 8 weeks.Results: Sixty children completed the study, with 43 males and 17 females (mean age 10.02 years, SD = 2.10. There were no adverse reactions to the programme and M-ABC scores for the intervention programme improved by 6.46%, ball skills (3.54% and balance (4.80% compared with the control (0.17% and (0.15%, respectively. There were significant (p < 0.05 improvements in DCDQ scores, but teachers allocated lower scores than parents.Conclusion: This study supports 8 weeks of gross motor training which can be a beneficial intervention for physiotherapists to improve gross motor function for DCD.Keywords: Developmental, co-ordination, skills, motor

  13. Conceptual Study on Crew-Robot Coordinated Exploration on Lunar Surface%月面人机联合探测概念研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志贤; 果琳丽; 戚发轫

    2014-01-01

    Crew-Robot coordinated exploration is not only the basis of manned lunar exploration , but also the precondition for designing mission modes and spacecraft systems of manned lunar explora -tion.Considering the background of manned lunar exploration and lunar base missions in the future , the requirements of Crew-Robot coordinated exploration were discussed and typical activities in dif-ferent lunar exploration phases were summarized .The scheme design of this novel research field was presented , the system composition for different missions were designed and the key technologies were analyzed .They could serve as a reference for the future manned lunar exploration mission .%月面人机联合探测是载人月球探测任务的基础,是制定载人登月任务模式、设计登月飞行器系统方案的前提。以未来载人登月和月球基地任务为背景,对月面人机联合探测的需求进行了分析,梳理了不同阶段月面典型作业活动,并以此为基础,对月面人机联合探测系统方案进行了论证,设计了面向不同任务的系统组成,分析了月面人机联合探测关键技术,为后续开展有人参与的月球探测任务提供参考。

  14. Coupled 3D Time-Dependent Wave-Packet Approach in Hyperspherical Coordinates: The D(+)+H2 Reaction on the Triple-Sheeted DMBE Potential Energy Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sandip; Sahoo, Tapas; Adhikari, Satrajit; Sharma, Rahul; Varandas, António J C

    2015-12-17

    We implement a coupled three-dimensional (3D) time-dependent wave packet formalism for the 4D reactive scattering problem in hyperspherical coordinates on the accurate double many body expansion (DMBE) potential energy surface (PES) for the ground and first two singlet states (1(1)A', 2(1)A', and 3(1)A') to account for nonadiabatic processes in the D(+) + H2 reaction for both zero and nonzero values of the total angular momentum (J). As the long-range interactions in D(+) + H2 contribute significantly due to nonadiabatic effects, the convergence profiles of reaction probabilities for the reactive noncharge transfer (RNCT), nonreactive charge transfer (NRCT), and reactive charge transfer (RCT) processes are shown for different collisional energies with respect to the helicity (K) and total angular momentum (J) quantum numbers. The total and state-to-state cross sections are presented as a function of the collision energy for the initial rovibrational state v = 0, j = 0 of the diatom, and the calculated cross sections compared with other theoretical and experimental results.

  15. Structural variability, Hirshfeld surface analysis and properties of three Zn(II) coordination polymers based on flexible bis(thiabendazole) and aromatic dicarboxylate co-ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hai-Ning; Liu, Ce; Hao, Zeng-Chuan; Cui, Guang-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Three zinc(II) coordination polymers (CPs), {[Zn(L)0.5(tbta)]·0.5 L·2.5H2O}n (1), {[Zn(L)0.5(mip)]·H2O}n (2) and {[Zn(L)0.5(npht)(H2O)]·0.5H2O}n (3) (L = 1,4-bis(thiabendazole)butane, H2tbta = tetrabromoterephthalic acid, H2mip = 5-methylisophthalic acid, H2npht = 3-nitrophthalic acid) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that CP 1 shows a 2D honeycomb-like (6, 3) network. CP 2 displays a hybrid helical chain, and further assembled into a 2D supramolecular layer via weak Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding interactions, whereas CP 3 is a right-handed helical chain and finally extended into a 3D supramolecular structure by classical Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking interactions. Further, the Hirshfeld surfaces, fingerprint plots, fluorescence properties and catalytic performances of three CPs for the degradation of methyl orange dye in a Fenton-like process have been investigated.

  16. Programme news: agencies report on their activities in nutrition. How is interagency coordination in countries actually meant to work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    United Nations Administrative Committee on Coordination representatives have been urged to establish thematic groups to facilitate interagency coordination in their countries. By 1996, there were only six countries--Angola, Kuwait, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, and North Korea--that had not yet established such groups. In addition to information exchange and networking, thematic groups have focused on joint programming, development of sector plans, and resource mobilization. Four clusters of themes exist: food security and agriculture, health and population, poverty, and HIV. Remaining is a need to operationalize technical strategies and agency agendas, translate cross-sectoral priorities into sectoral priorities, and evaluate ongoing programs.

  17. Structural characterization of S100A15 reveals a novel zinc coordination site among S100 proteins and altered surface chemistry with functional implications for receptor binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Jill I

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background S100 proteins are a family of small, EF-hand containing calcium-binding signaling proteins that are implicated in many cancers. While the majority of human S100 proteins share 25-65% sequence similarity, S100A7 and its recently identified paralog, S100A15, display 93% sequence identity. Intriguingly, however, S100A7 and S100A15 serve distinct roles in inflammatory skin disease; S100A7 signals through the receptor for advanced glycation products (RAGE in a zinc-dependent manner, while S100A15 signals through a yet unidentified G-protein coupled receptor in a zinc-independent manner. Of the seven divergent residues that differentiate S100A7 and S100A15, four cluster in a zinc-binding region and the remaining three localize to a predicted receptor-binding surface. Results To investigate the structural and functional consequences of these divergent clusters, we report the X-ray crystal structures of S100A15 and S100A7D24G, a hybrid variant where the zinc ligand Asp24 of S100A7 has been substituted with the glycine of S100A15, to 1.7 Å and 1.6 Å resolution, respectively. Remarkably, despite replacement of the Asp ligand, zinc binding is retained at the S100A15 dimer interface with distorted tetrahedral geometry and a chloride ion serving as an exogenous fourth ligand. Zinc binding was confirmed using anomalous difference maps and solution binding studies that revealed similar affinities of zinc for S100A15 and S100A7. Additionally, the predicted receptor-binding surface on S100A7 is substantially more basic in S100A15 without incurring structural rearrangement. Conclusions Here we demonstrate that S100A15 retains the ability to coordinate zinc through incorporation of an exogenous ligand resulting in a unique zinc-binding site among S100 proteins. The altered surface chemistry between S100A7 and S100A15 that localizes to the predicted receptor binding site is likely responsible for the differential recognition of distinct

  18. Determining Adequate Averaging Periods and Reference Coordinates for Eddy Covariance Measurements of Surface Heat and Water Vapor Fluxes over Mountainous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ying Chen Ming-Hsu Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two coordinate rotation approaches (double and planar-fit rotations and no rotation, in association with averaging periods of 15 - 480 min, were applied to compute surface heat and water vapor fluxes using the eddy covariance approach. Measurements were conducted in an experimental watershed, the Lien-Hua-Chih (LHC watershed, located in central Taiwan. For no rotation and double rotation approaches, an adequate averaging period of 15 or 30 min was suggested for better energy closure and small variations on energy closure fractions. For the planar-fit rotation approach, an adequate averaging period of 60 or 120 min was recommended, and a typical averaging period of 30 min is not superior to that of 60 or 120 min in terms of better energy closure and small variations on energy closure fractions. The Ogive function analysis revealed that the energy closure was improved with the increase of averaging time by capturing sensible heat fluxes at low-frequency ranges during certain midday hours at LHC site. Seasonal variations of daily energy closure fractions, high in dry season and low in wet season, were found to be associated with the surface dryness and strength of turbulent development. The mismatching of flux footprint areas among flux sensors was suggested as the cause of larger CF variations during the dry seasons as that indicated by the footprint analysis showing scattered source areas. During the wet season, the underestimation of turbulent fluxes by EC observations at the LHC site was attributed to weak turbulence developments as the source area identified by the footprint analysis was closer to the flux tower than those scattered in dry season.

  19. Cytotoxic activity, X-ray crystal structures and spectroscopic characterization of cobalt(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) coordination compounds with 2-substituted benzimidazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guadarrama, Obdulia; López-Sandoval, Horacio; Sánchez-Bartéz, Francisco; Gracia-Mora, Isabel; Höpfl, Herbert; Barba-Behrens, Noráh

    2009-09-01

    Herein we present the synthesis, structural and spectroscopic characterization of coordination compounds of cobalt(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) with 2-methylbenzimidazole (2mbz), 2-phenylbenzimidazole (2phbz), 2-chlorobenzimidazole (2cbz), 2-benzimidazolecarbamate (2cmbz) and 2-guanidinobenzimidazole (2gbz). Their cytotoxic activity was evaluated using human cancer cell lines, PC3 (prostate), MCF-7 (breast), HCT-15 (colon), HeLa (cervic-uterine), SKLU-1 (lung) and U373 (glioblastoma), showing that the zinc(II) and copper(II) compounds [Zn(2mbz)(2)Cl(2)].0.5H(2)O, [Zn(2cmbz)(2)Cl(2)].EtOH, [Cu(2cmbz)Br(2)].0.7H(2)O and [Cu(2gbz)Br(2)] had significant cytotoxic activity. The isostructural cobalt(II) complexes showed not significant activity. The cytotoxic activity is related to the presence of halides in the coordination sphere of the metal ion. Recuperation experiments with HeLa cells, showed that the cells recuperated after removing the copper(II) compounds and, on the contrary, the cells treated with the zinc(II) compounds did not. These results indicate that the mode of action of the coordination compounds is different.

  20. Temporal coordination of olfactory cortex sharp-wave activity with up- and downstates in the orbitofrontal cortex during slow-wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onisawa, Naomi; Manabe, Hiroyuki; Mori, Kensaku

    2017-01-01

    During slow-wave sleep, interareal communications via coordinated, slow oscillatory activities occur in the large-scale networks of the mammalian neocortex. Because olfactory cortex (OC) areas, which belong to paleocortex, show characteristic sharp-wave (SPW) activity during slow-wave sleep, we examined whether OC SPWs in freely behaving rats occur in temporal coordination with up- and downstates of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) slow oscillation. Simultaneous recordings of local field potentials and spike activities in the OC and OFC showed that during the downstate in the OFC, the OC also exhibited downstate with greatly reduced neuronal activity and suppression of SPW generation. OC SPWs occurred during two distinct phases of the upstate of the OFC: early-phase SPWs occurred at the start of upstate shortly after the down-to-up transition in the OFC, whereas late-phase SPWs were generated at the end of upstate shortly before the up-to-down transition. Such temporal coordination between neocortical up- and downstates and olfactory system SPWs was observed between the prefrontal cortex areas (OFC and medial prefrontal cortex) and the OC areas (anterior piriform cortex and posterior piriform cortex). These results suggest that during slow-wave sleep, OC and OFC areas communicate preferentially in specific time windows shortly after the down-to-up transition and shortly before the up-to-down transition.

  1. Exotic high activity surface patterns in PtAu nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2013-05-09

    The structure and chemical ordering of PtAu nanoclusters of 79, 135, and 201 atoms are studied via a combination of a basin hopping atom-exchange technique (to locate the lowest energy homotops at fixed composition), a symmetry orbit technique (to find the high symmetry isomers), and density functional theory local reoptimization (for determining the most stable homotop). The interatomic interactions between Pt and Au are derived from the empirical Gupta potential. The lowest energy structures show a marked tendency toward PtcoreAushell chemical ordering by enrichment of the more cohesive Pt in the core region and of Au in the shell region. We observe a preferential segregation of Pt atoms to (111) facets and Au atoms to (100) facets of the truncated octahedron cluster motif. Exotic surface patterns are obtained particularly for Pt-rich compositions, where Pt atoms are being surrounded by Au atoms. These surface arrangements boost the catalytic activity by creating a large number of active sites. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Overview From a technical perspective, CMS has been in “beam operation” state since 6th November. The detector is fully closed with all components operational and the magnetic field is normally at the nominal 3.8T. The UXC cavern is normally closed with the radiation veto set. Access to UXC is now only possible during downtimes of LHC. Such accesses must be carefully planned, documented and carried out in agreement with CMS Technical Coordination, Experimental Area Management, LHC programme coordination and the CCC. Material flow in and out of UXC is now strictly controlled. Access to USC remains possible at any time, although, for safety reasons, it is necessary to register with the shift crew in the control room before going down.It is obligatory for all material leaving UXC to pass through the underground buffer zone for RP scanning, database entry and appropriate labeling for traceability. Technical coordination (notably Stephane Bally and Christoph Schaefer), the shift crew and run ...

  3. [Coordination and donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, J; Lorente, M

    2006-01-01

    The progressive incorporation of organ transplants as a therapeutic resource resulted in organisational adaptation and overall transplant management, leading to the emergence of the figure of the transplant coordinator in the mid-1980s. In Spain, the National Organisation of Transplants (Organización Nacional de Transplantes - ONT) was created, establishing a system - called the "Spanish model" - based on a network of coordinators at three levels: national, the autonomous community and the hospital. This organisational structure is a point of reference at the world level. The prevalence of the Intensive Medicine specialisation amongst hospital transplant coordinators is remarkable. The majority of organs proceed from brain-dead patients with beating hearts and this requires the infrastructure offered by intensive care units. The functions of the coordinator can be summarised in guaranteeing a synchrony of all the elements and teams that come together in an organisational chain that has come to be called the "process of donation". Schematically, the crucial points that the hospital coordinator develops are the following: - Detection of the potential donor. - Maintenance of the donor. - Diagnosis of brain death. - Family consent. - Preparation of the hospital logistics. - Helping the relatives. - Direct involvement in the Program of Guarantee of Quality. - Person of reference in any activity related to the transplant. It would be desirable to achieve the creation of transplant coordination teams, with univocal messages, professionalism and a permanent input of the so-called "human factor", which is so necessary and also so close to the transplant world.

  4. Overcoming the Limitations of C-H Activation with Strongly Coordinating N-Heterocycles by Cobalt Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Lorion, Mélanie M; Ackermann, Lutz

    2016-08-22

    Strongly coordinating nitrogen heterocycles, including pyrimidines, oxazolines, pyrazoles, and pyridines, were fully tolerated in cobalt-catalyzed C-H amidations by imidate assistance. Structurally complex quinazolines are thus accessible in a step-economic manner. Our findings also establish the relative powers of directing groups in cobalt(III)-catalyzed C-H functionalization for the first time.

  5. Synthesis, Coordination Chemistry, and Cooperative Activation of H2 with Ruthenium Complexes of ProtonResponsive METAMORPhos Ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G. Terrade; M. Lutz; J.I. van der Vlugt; J.N.H. Reek

    2014-01-01

    The synthetic scope of proton-responsive sulfonamidophosphorus (METAMORPhos) ligands is expanded and design principles for the selective formation of particular tautomers, ion pairs, or double condensation products are elucidated. These systems have been introduced in the coordination sphere of Ru f

  6. Synthesis, coordination chemistry, and cooperative activation of H 2 with ruthenium complexes of proton-responsive METAMORPhos ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terrade, Frédéric G.; Lutz, Martin; Van Der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar; Reek, Joost N H

    2014-01-01

    The synthetic scope of proton-responsive sulfonamidophosphorus (METAMORPhos) ligands is expanded and design principles for the selective formation of particular tautomers, ion pairs, or double condensation products are elucidated. These systems have been introduced in the coordination sphere of Ru f

  7. Active Aerothermoelastic Control of Hypersonic Double-wedge Lifting Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laith K Abbas; Chen Qian; Piergiovanni Marzocca; Gürdal Zafer; Abdalla Mostafa

    2008-01-01

    Designing reentry space vehicles and high-speed aireraft requires special attention to the nonlinear thermoelastic and aerodynamic instability of their structural components. The thermal effects are important since temperature environment brings dramatic influences on the static and dynamic behaviors of flight structures in supersonic/hypersonic regimes and is likely to cause instability, catastrophic failure and oscillations resulting in structural failure due to fatigue. In order to understand the dynamic behaviors of these "hot"structures, a double-wedge lifting surface with combining freeplay and cubic structural nonlinearities in both plunging and pitching degrees-of-freedom operating in supersonic/hypersonic flight speed regimes has been analyzed. A third order piston theory aerodynamic isused to estimate the applied nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads. Also considered is the loss of torsiunal stiffness that may be incurredby lifting surfaces subject to axial stresses induced by aerodynamic heating. The aerodynamic heating effects are estimated based on theadiabatic wall temperature due to high speed airstreams. As a recently emerging technology, the active aerothermoelastic control isaimed at providing solutions to a large number of problems involving the aeronautica Faerospace flight vehicle structures. To preventsuch damaging phenomena from occurring, an application of linear and nonlinear active control methods on both flutter boundary andpost-flutter behavior has been fulfilled. In this paper, modeling issues as well as numerical simulation have been presented and pertinent conclusions outlined. It is evidenced that a serious loss of torsional stiffness may induce the dynamic instability; however active controlcan be used to expand the flutter boundary and convert unstable limit cycle oscillations (LCO) into the stable LCO and/or to shift the transition between these two states toward higher flight Mach numbers.

  8. The coating of conducting copolymer on coordination polymer nanorod: A visible light active p-n heterojunction photocatalyst for H2 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuan; Mei, Ming-liang; Xu, Xin-xin; Wang, Lin-shan

    2016-06-01

    A visible light active p-n heterojunction photocatalyst was synthesized successfully through in-situ chemical oxidation copolymerization of aniline (ANI) and diphenylamine-4-sulfonate (DPAS) with the existence of coordination polymer nanorod (CPNR) under initiation of ammonium persulfate (APS). Compared with neat coordination polymer nanorod, the resulted p-n heterojunction photocatalyst exhibits higher H2 generationrate under visible light irradiation. In this heterojunction photocatalyst, as a p-type semiconductor possessing suitable energy levels with coordination polymer nanorod, poly-(aniline-co-N-(4-sulfophenyl)-aniline) (PAPSA) forms p-n heterojunction with n-type coordination polymer nanorod, the inner electric field of p-n heterojunction accelerates the separation of electrons and holes, which enhances H2 production performance. Furthermore, the influence of concentration ratio between DPAS and ANI on photocatalytic property of the p-n heterojunction photocatalyst was discussed and a reasonable condition to fabricate photocatalyst with high H2 generationrate had been obtained. During photocatalytic water splitting H2 generation, the p-n heterojunction photocatalyst exhibited outstanding stability.

  9. The Ice Nucleation Activity of Surface Modified Soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, Thomas; Witek, Lorenz; Felgitsch, Laura; Hitzenberger, Regina; Grothe, Hinrich

    2017-04-01

    The ice nucleation efficiency of many important atmospheric particles remains poorly understood. Since soot is ubiquitous in the Earth's troposphere, they might have the potential to significantly impact the Earth's climate (Finlayson-Pitts and Pitts, 2000; Seinfeld and Pandis, 1998). Here we present the ice nucleation activity (INA) in immersion freezing mode of different types of soot. Therefor a CAST (combustion aerosol standard) generator was used to produce different kinds of soot samples. The CAST generator combusts a propane-air-mixture and deposits thereby produced soot on a polyvinyl fluoride filter. By varying the propane to air ratio, the amount of organic portion of the soot can be varied from black carbon (BC) with no organic content to brown carbon (BrC) with high organic content. To investigate the impact of functional sites of ice nuclei (IN), the soot samples were exposed to NO2 gas for a certain amount of time (30 to 360 minutes) to chemically modify the surface. Immersion freezing experiments were carried out in a unique reaction gadget. In this device a water-in-oil suspension (with the soot suspended in the aqueous phase) was cooled till the freezing point and was observed through a microscope (Pummer et al., 2012; Zolles et al., 2015) It was found that neither modified nor unmodified BC shows INA. On the contrary, unmodified BrC shows an INA at -32˚ C, which can be increased up to -20˚ C. The INA of BrC depends on the duration of NO2- exposure. To clarify the characteristics of the surface modifications, surface sensitive analysis like infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were carried out. Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. and Pitts, J. N. J.: Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere, Elsevier, New York, 2000. Pummer, B. G., Bauer, H., Bernardi, J., Bleicher, S., and Grothe, H.: Suspendable macromolecules are responsible for ice nucleation activity of birch and conifer pollen, Atmos Chem Phys, 12, 2541-2550, 2012. Seinfeld, J

  10. Airway surface liquid contains endogenous DNase activity which can be activated by exogenous magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenecker J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The removal of highly viscous mucus from the airways is an important task in the treatment of chronic lung disease like in cystic fibrosis. The inhalation of recombinant human DNase-I (rhDNase-I is used to facilitate the removal of tenacious airway secretions in different lung diseases and especially in CF. Little is known about endogenous DNase activity in the airway surface liquid. Therefore, we analysed bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL and exhaled breath condensate (EBC for the presence of endogenous DNase activity. Methods The degradation of plasmid DNA by BAL from patients who had diagnostic bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage was analyzed. In a group of CF patients and healthy control volunteers the exhaled breath condensate was obtained and also analyzed for the ability to degrade plasmid DNA. In addition, the ability of magnesium to activate endogenous DNase activity in BAL and exhaled breath condensate was investigated. Results The analyzed BAL samples degraded plasmid DNA only after preincubation with magnesium. When analyzing the exhaled breath condensate the samples obtained from the healthy volunteers showed no DNase activity even after preincubation with magnesium, whereas in one of the two samples obtained from CF patients we found a DNase activity after preincubation with magnesium. Conclusion Increasing the magnesium concentration in the airway surface liquid by aerosolisation of magnesium solutions or oral magnesium supplements could improve the removal of highly viscous mucus in chronic lung disease by activating endogenous DNase activity.

  11. Substrate integrated ferrite phase shifters and active frequency selective surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Cahill, B M

    2002-01-01

    There are two distinct parts to this thesis; the first investigates the use of ferrite tiles in the construction of printed phase shifting transmission lines, culminating in the design of two compact electromagnetic controlled beam steered patch and slot antenna arrays. The second part investigates the use of active frequency selective surfaces (AFSS), which are later used to cover a uPVC constructed enclosure. Field intensity measurements are taken from within the enclosure to determine the dynamic screening effectiveness. Trans Tech G-350 Ferrite is investigated to determine its application in printed microstrip and stripline phase shifting transmission lines. 50-Ohm transmission lines are constructed using the ferrite tile and interfaced to Rogers RT Duroid 5870 substrate. Scattering parameter measurements are made under the application of variable magnetic fields to the ferrite. Later, two types of planar microwave beam steering antennas are constructed. The first uses the ferrites integrated into the Dur...

  12. Surface EMG based muscle activity analysis for aerobic cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Venkatesh; Jayaraman, Srinivasan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we determined the muscle activity of aerobic cyclist on biceps brachii medial, trapezius medial, latissimus dorsi medial, and erector spinae muscles bilaterally during 30 min of cycling. Thirteen male volunteers were chosen and placed in two groups (with and without low back pain (LBP)). Surface electromyography (sEMG) was recorded bilaterally from selected muscle groups for 30 min of cycling for each subject. Statistical tests were performed to determine the difference in fatigue, using mean power frequency difference. LBP group showed a significantly higher fatigue (p<0.05) in left biceps brachii medial when compared to the control group. High fatigue in the back muscles in the LBP group was not found; however, when linear regression was performed for these individuals, the data showed a possibility of worsening in their condition due to 30 min of cycling.

  13. Guiding catalytically active particles with chemically patterned surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Uspal, W E; Dietrich, S; Tasinkevych, M

    2016-01-01

    Catalytically active Janus particles suspended in solution create gradients in the chemical composition of the solution along their surfaces, as well as along any nearby container walls. The former leads to self-phoresis, while the latter gives rise to chemi-osmosis, providing an additional contribution to self-motility. Chemi-osmosis strongly depends on the molecular interactions between the diffusing chemical species and the wall. We show analytically, using an approximate "point-particle" approach, that by chemically patterning a planar substrate one can direct the motion of Janus particles: the induced chemi-osmotic flows can cause particles to either "dock" at the chemical step between the two materials, or to follow a chemical stripe. These theoretical predictions are confirmed by full numerical calculations. Generically, docking occurs for particles which tend to move away from their catalytic caps, while stripe-following occurs in the opposite case. Our analysis reveals the physical mechanisms governi...

  14. Operational Assessment of Apollo Lunar Surface Extravehicular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew James; Claybrook, Austin; Greenlund, Suraj; Marquez, Jessica J.; Feigh, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying the operational variability of extravehicular activity (EVA) execution is critical to help design and build future support systems to enable astronauts to monitor and manage operations in deep-space, where ground support operators will no longer be able to react instantly and manage execution deviations due to the significant communication latency. This study quantifies the operational variability exhibited during Apollo 14-17 lunar surface EVA operations to better understand the challenges and natural tendencies of timeline execution and life support system performance involved in surface operations. Each EVA (11 in total) is individually summarized as well as aggregated to provide descriptive trends exhibited throughout the Apollo missions. This work extends previous EVA task analyses by calculating deviations between planned and as-performed timelines as well as examining metabolic rate and consumables usage throughout the execution of each EVA. The intent of this work is to convey the natural variability of EVA operations and to provide operational context for coping with the variability inherent to EVA execution as a means to support future concepts of operations.

  15. Effect of Pd(II and Ni(II coordination compounds with 4-amino-3-mercapto-5-methyl-1,2,4-triazole on the mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Orysyk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pd(II and Ni(II complex compounds: [Pd(AMMT2]Cl2 (1, [Pd(AMMT4]Cl2 (2 and [Ni(AMMT2(H2O2](NO32 (3 with 4-amino-3-mercapto-5-methyl-1,2,4-triazole (AMMT have been synthesized. The spectral characteristics of 1, 2 were studied by 1H (13C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction studies established that all complexes contain the AMMT molecule, which are coordinated to the central metal ion in the thione tautomeric form. At the ratio M : L = 1 : 2 ligand is coordinated in bidentate chelate manner by the nitrogen of amino- and sulfur of mercapto group (compounds 1, 3. But the molar ratio M : L = 1 : 4 leads to monodentate coordination of AMMT molecules only by sulfur of mercaptogroup (complex 2. Vacant coordination sites of the metal ion are occupied by water molecules (complex 3. The screening of complexes 1−3 and starting compounds [АММТ, K2PdCl4 (4, Ni(NO32∙6H2O (5] by their mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity have been performed by us for the first time, resulting in established that the Pd(II complexes (1, 2, Pd(II salt (4 and AMMT normalize the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases of cancer HeLa cells, identified by MTT-test. In contrast, the Ni(II complex (3 and Ni(II salt (5 do not stimulate the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases. It has been found, that all investigated compounds do not affect on the cell cycle and the level of apoptotic cells as well as do not show a toxic effect. Thus, these results indicate that AMMT and Pd(II complexes may be used as modifiers of mitochondrial respiration, which dysfunction is particularly evident in the tumor cells.

  16. Differences in movement-related cortical activation patterns underlying motor performance in children with and without developmental coordination disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral deficits in visuomotor planning and control exhibited by children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have been extensively reported. Although these functional impairments are thought to result from “atypical brain development,” very few studies to date have identified potential neurological mechanisms. To address this knowledge gap, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 6- to 12-yr-old children with and without DCD (n = 14 and 20, respectively) during the perfo...

  17. Preparation and surface characterization of HMDI-activated 316L stainless steel for coronary artery stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, T-W; Chen, M-H; Lin, F-H

    2008-06-01

    Poor compatibility between blood and metallic coronary artery stents is one reason for arterial restenosis. Immobilization of anticoagulant agents on the stent's surface is feasible for improving compatibility. We examined possible surface-coupling agents for anticoagulant agent immobilization. Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) and 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTS) were examined as surface-coupling agents to activate 316L stainless steel (e.g., stent material). The activated surface was characterized using Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscope (AFM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) assay. In FTIR analysis, HMDI and APTS were both covalently linked to 316L stainless steel. In AFM analysis, it was found that the HMDI-activated surface was smoother than the APTS-activated one. In SPR test, the shift of SPR angle for the APTS-activated surface was much higher than that for the HMDI-activated surface after being challenged with acidic solution. TNBS assay was used to determine the amount of immobilized primary amine groups. The HMDI-activated surface was found to consist of about 1.32 micromol/cm(2) amine group, whereas the APTS-activated surface consisted of only 0.89 micromol/cm(2) amine group. We conclude that the HMDI-activated surface has more desirable surface characteristics than the APTS-activated surface has, such as chemical stability and the amount of active amine groups.

  18. Mixed ligand coordination polymers with flexible bis-imidazole linker and angular sulfonyldibenzoate: Crystal structure, photoluminescence and photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Kamal Kumar; Rachuri, Yadagiri; Parmar, Bhavesh; Suresh, Eringathodi

    2014-05-01

    Four ternary coordination polymers (CPs) namely, {[Ni(SDB)(BITMB)(H2O)]·H2O}n (CP1), {[Cd(SDB)(BITMB) (H2O)]·(THF)(H2O)}n (CP2), {[Zn2(SDB)2(BITMB)]·(THF)2}n (CP3) and {[Co2(SDB)2(BITMB)]·(Dioxane)3}n (CP4) composed of angular dicarboxylate SDB (4,4'-sulfonyldibenzoate) and N-donor BITMB (1,3-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-2,4,6-trimethyl benzene) have been synthesized by solvothermal reactions and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and other physico-chemical techniques. CP1 possesses one-dimensional ribbon type metal-organic motifs glued together by H-bonds and π⋯π interactions, whereas CP2-CP4, exhibit non-interpenetrated sql networks supported by weak supramolecular interactions. Structural diversity of these CPs can be attributed to the coordination geometry adopted by the metal nodes, versatile coordination modes of SDB and conformational flexibility of BITMB. Solid state luminescence properties of CP1-CP4 were explored. Photocatalytic performance of all CPs for the decomposition of metanil yellow by dilute hydrogen peroxide in the presence of visible light was also investigated. 25-83% dye removal from aqueous solutions in the presence of CP1-CP4 was observed.

  19. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience At the end of the first full-year running period of LHC, CMS is established as a reliable, robust and mature experiment. In particular common systems and infrastructure faults accounted for <0.6 % CMS downtime during LHC pp physics. Technical operation throughout the entire year was rather smooth, the main faults requiring UXC access being sub-detector power systems and rack-cooling turbines. All such problems were corrected during scheduled technical stops, in the shadow of tunnel access needed by the LHC, or in negotiated accesses or access extensions. Nevertheless, the number of necessary accesses to the UXC averaged more than one per week and the technical stops were inevitably packed with work packages, typically 30 being executed within a few days, placing a high load on the coordination and area management teams. It is an appropriate moment for CMS Technical Coordination to thank all those in many CERN departments and in the Collaboration, who were involved in CMS techni...

  20. Surface Pourbaix diagrams and oxygen reduction activity of Pt, Ag and Ni(111) surfaces studied by DFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heine Anton; Rossmeisl, Jan; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2008-01-01

    (ORR) on the different surface structures and calculate the free energy of the intermediates. We estimate their catalytic activity for ORR by determining the highest potential at which all ORR reaction steps reduce the free energy. We obtain self-consistency in the sense that the surface is stable...... but not in acidic PEM fuel cells. Based on density functional theory calculations we investigate the electrochemically most stable surface structures as a function of pH and electrostatic potential for Pt(111), Ag(111) and Ni(111), and we construct surface Pourbaix diagrams. We study the oxygen reduction reaction...... of the reactive surface. Oxygen absorbed on the surface shifts the reactivity towards the weak binding region, which in turn increases the activity. The oxidation state of the surface and the ORR potential are constant versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). The dissolution potential in acidic solution...

  1. International Assistance for Low-Emission Development Planning: Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) Inventory of Activities and Tools--Preliminary Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, S.; Benioff, R.

    2011-05-01

    The Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) is a voluntary network of international practitioners supporting low-emission planning in developing countries. The network seeks to improve quality of support through sharing project information, tools, best practices and lessons, and by fostering harmonized assistance. CLEAN has developed an inventory to track and analyze international technical support and tools for low-carbon planning activities in developing countries. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the inventory to help identify trends in assistance activities and tools available to support developing countries with low-emission planning.

  2. Silver-free activation of ligated gold(I) chlorides: the use of [Me3NB12Cl11]- as a weakly coordinating anion in homogeneous gold catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Michael; Huber, Florian; Bolli, Christoph; Jenne, Carsten; Kirsch, Stefan F

    2015-01-12

    Phosphane and N-heterocyclic carbene ligated gold(I) chlorides can be effectively activated by Na[Me3NB12Cl11] (1) under silver-free conditions. This activation method with a weakly coordinating closo-dodecaborate anion was shown to be suitable for a large variety of reactions known to be catalyzed by homogeneous gold species, ranging from carbocyclizations to heterocyclizations. Additionally, the capability of 1 in a previously unknown conversion of 5-silyloxy-1,6-allenynes was demonstrated.

  3. Ebselen protects against behavioral and biochemical toxicities induced by 3-nitropropionic acid in rats: correlations between motor coordination, reactive species levels, and succinate dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Ethel A; Bortolatto, Cristiani F; Jesse, Cristiano R; Luchese, Cristiane

    2014-12-01

    The protective effect of ebselen was investigated against 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced behavioral and biochemical toxicities in rats. Ebselen (10 or 25 mg/kg, intragastrically) was administered to rats 30 min before 3-NP (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) once a day for a period of 4 days. Locomotor activity, motor coordination, and body weight gain were determined. The striatal content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (AA), and protein carbonyl as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities was determined 24 h after the last dose of 3-NP. Na(+)/ K(+)-ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and δ-aminolevulinic dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activities were also determined. The results demonstrated that ebselen at a dose of 25 mg/kg, but not at 10 mg/kg, protected against (1) a decrease in locomotor activity, motor coordination impairment, and body weight loss; (2) striatal oxidative damage, which was characterized by an increase in ROS levels, protein carbonyl content, and GR activity, an inhibition of CAT and GPx activities, and a decrease in GSH levels; and (3) an inhibition of SDH and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities, induced by 3-NP. GST activity and AA levels were not modified by ebselen or 3-NP. Ebselen was not effective against the inhibition of δ-ALA-D activity induced by 3-NP. The results revealed a significant correlation between SDH activity and ROS levels, and SDH activity and latency to fall (rotarod test). The present study highlighted the protective effect of ebselen against 3-NP-induced toxicity in rats.

  4. Occurrence of Surface Active Agents in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Olkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the specific structure of surfactants molecules they are applied in different areas of human activity (industry, household. After using and discharging from wastewater treatment plants as effluent stream, surface active agents (SAAs are emitted to various elements of the environment (atmosphere, waters, and solid phases, where they can undergo numerous physic-chemical processes (e.g., sorption, degradation and freely migrate. Additionally, SAAs present in the environment can be accumulated in living organisms (bioaccumulation, what can have a negative effect on biotic elements of ecosystems (e.g., toxicity, disturbance of endocrine equilibrium. They also cause increaseing solubility of organic pollutants in aqueous phase, their migration, and accumulation in different environmental compartments. Moreover, surfactants found in aerosols can affect formation and development of clouds, which is associated with cooling effect in the atmosphere and climate changes. The environmental fate of SAAs is still unknown and recognition of this problem will contribute to protection of living organisms as well as preservation of quality and balance of various ecosystems. This work contains basic information about surfactants and overview of pollution of different ecosystems caused by them (their classification and properties, areas of use, their presence, and behavior in the environment.

  5. Passive and active EO sensing of small surface vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvall, Ove; Berglund, Folke; Allard, Lars; Öhgren, Johan; Larsson, Hâkan; Amselem, Elias; Gustafsson, Frank; Repasi, Endre; Lutzmann, Peter; Göhler, Benjamin; Hammer, Marcus; McEwen, Kennedy; McEwan, Ken

    2015-10-01

    The detection and classification of small surface targets at long ranges is a growing need for naval security. This paper will present an overview of a measurement campaign which took place in the Baltic Sea in November 2014. The purpose was to test active and passive EO sensors (10 different types) for the detection, tracking and identification of small sea targets. The passive sensors were covering the visual, SWIR, MWIR and LWIR regions. Active sensors operating at 1.5 μm collected data in 1D, 2D and 3D modes. Supplementary sensors included a weather station, a scintillometer, as well as sensors for positioning and attitude determination of the boats. Three boats in the class 4-9 meters were used as targets. After registration of the boats at close range they were sent out to 5-7 km distance from the sensor site. At the different ranges the target boats were directed to have different aspect angles relative to the direction of observation. Staff from IOSB Fraunhofer in Germany and from Selex (through DSTL) in UK took part in the tests beside FOI who was arranging the trials. A summary of the trial and examples of data and imagery will be presented.

  6. Potential therapeutic applications of microbial surface-active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Fracchia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous investigations of microbial surface-active compounds or biosurfactants over the past two decades have led to the discovery of many interesting physicochemical and biological properties including antimicrobial, anti-biofilm and therapeutic among many other pharmaceutical and medical applications. Microbial control and inhibition strategies involving the use of antibiotics are becoming continually challenged due to the emergence of resistant strains mostly embedded within biofilm formations that are difficult to eradicate. Different aspects of antimicrobial and anti-biofilm control are becoming issues of increasing importance in clinical, hygiene, therapeutic and other applications. Biosurfactants research has resulted in increasing interest into their ability to inhibit microbial activity and disperse microbial biofilms in addition to being mostly nontoxic and stable at extremes conditions. Some biosurfactants are now in use in clinical, food and environmental fields, whilst others remain under investigation and development. The dispersal properties of biosurfactants have been shown to rival that of conventional inhibitory agents against bacterial, fungal and yeast biofilms as well as viral membrane structures. This presents them as potential candidates for future uses in new generations of antimicrobial agents or as adjuvants to other antibiotics and use as preservatives for microbial suppression and eradication strategies.

  7. Strong effect of copper(II) coordination on antiproliferative activity of thiosemicarbazone-piperazine and thiosemicarbazone-morpholine hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Felix; Dömötör, Orsolya; Chugunova, Anastasia; Nagy, Nóra V; Filipović, Lana; Radulović, Siniša; Enyedy, Éva A; Arion, Vladimir B

    2015-05-21

    In this study, 2-formylpyridine thiosemicarbazones and three different heterocyclic pharmacophores were combined to prepare thiosemicarbazone–piperazine mPip-FTSC (HL1) and mPip-dm-FTSC (HL2), thiosemicarbazone–morpholine Morph-FTSC (HL3) and Morph-dm-FTSC (HL4), thiosemicarbazone–methylpyrrole-2-carboxylate hybrids mPyrr-FTSC (HL5) and mPyrr-dm-FTSC (HL6) as well as their copper(II) complexes [CuCl(mPipH-FTSC-H)]Cl (1 + H)Cl, [CuCl(mPipH-dm-FTSC-H)]Cl (2 + H)Cl, [CuCl(Morph-FTSC-H)] (3), [CuCl(Morph-dm-FTSC-H)] (4), [CuCl(mPyrr-FTSC-H)(H2O)] (5) and [CuCl(mPyrr-dm-FTSC-H)(H2O)] (6). The substances were characterized by elemental analysis, one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy (HL1–HL6), ESI mass spectrometry, IR and UV–vis spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction (1–5). All compounds were prepared in an effort to generate potential antitumor agents with an improved therapeutic index. In addition, the effect of structural alterations with organic hybrids on aqueous solubility and copper(II) coordination ability was investigated. Complexation of ligands HL2 and HL4 with copper(II) was studied in aqueous solution by pH-potentiometry, UV–vis spectrophotometry and EPR spectroscopy. Proton dissociation processes of HL2 and HL4 were also characterized in detail and microscopic constants for the Z/E isomers were determined. While the hybrids HL5, HL6 and their copper(II) complexes 5 and 6 proved to be insoluble in aqueous solution, precluding antiproliferative activity studies, the thiosemicarbazone–piperazine and thiosemicarbazone–morpholine hybrids HL1–HL4, as well as copper(II) complexes 1–4 were soluble in water enabling cytotoxicity assays. Interestingly, the metal-free hybrids showed very low or even a lack of cytotoxicity (IC50 values > 300 μM) in two human cancer cell lines HeLa (cervical carcinoma) and A549 (alveolar basal adenocarcinoma), whereas their copper(II) complexes were cytotoxic showing IC50 values from 25.5 to 65.1

  8. Pulsed supersonic molecular beam for characterization of chemically active metal-organic complexes at surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Amanda M.

    Metal-organic coordination networks (MOCNs) at surfaces consist of a complex of organic ligands bound to an atomic metal center. The MOCNs, when chosen appropriately, can form highly-ordered arrays at surfaces. Ultra-high vacuum surface studies allow control of surface composition and provide 2D growth restrictions, which lead to under-coordinated metal centers. These systems provide an opportunity to tailor the chemical function of the metal centers due to the steric restrictions imposed by the surface. Tuning the adsorption/desorption energy at a metal center and developing a cooperative environment for catalysis are the key scientific questions that motivate the construction of a molecular beam surface analysis system. Characterization of the created systems can be performed utilizing a pulsed supersonic molecular beam (PSMB) in unison with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A PSMB allows for the highly controlled delivery of reactants with well-defined energy to a given platform making it possible to elucidate detailed chemical tuning information. In this thesis, a summary of prior theoretical molecular beam derivations is provided. Design considerations and an overview of the construction procedure for the current molecular beam apparatus, including initial characterization experiments, are presented. By impinging an Ar beam on a Ag(111) surface, the location of the specular angle (˜65°) and rough sample perimeter coordinates were determined. Additionally, surface analysis experiments, mainly Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), were performed to investigate the oxidation of epitaxial graphene on the SiC(0001) surface utilizing an oxygen cracking method. The AES experiments are described in detail and highlight the challenges that were faced when several different graphene samples were used for the oxygen adsorption/desorption experiments.

  9. Integration of plasma-assisted surface chemical modification, soft lithography, and protein surface activation for single-cell patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q.; Komvopoulos, K.

    2010-07-01

    Surface patterning for single-cell culture was accomplished by combining plasma-assisted surface chemical modification, soft lithography, and protein-induced surface activation. Hydrophilic patterns were produced on Parylene C films deposited on glass substrates by oxygen plasma treatment through the windows of polydimethylsiloxane shadow masks. After incubation first with Pluronic F108 solution and then serum medium overnight, surface seeding with mesenchymal stem cells in serum medium resulted in single-cell patterning. The present method provides a means of surface patterning with direct implications in single-cell culture.

  10. Effect of activation agents on the surface chemical properties and desulphurization performance of activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Flue gas pollution is a serious environmental problem that needs to be solved for the sustainable development of China.The surface chemical properties of carbon have great influence on its desulphurization performance.A series of activated carbons (ACs) were prepared using HNO3,H2O2,NH3·H2O and steam as activation agents with the aim to introduce functional groups to carbon surface in the ACs preparation process.The ACs were physically and chemically characterized by iodine and SO2 adsorption,ultimate analysis,Boehm titration,and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR).Results showed that the iodine number and desulphurization capacity of NH3·H2O activated carbon (AC-NH3) increase with both activation time,and its desulphurization capacity also increases with the concentration of activation agent.However,HNO3 activated carbon (AC-HNO3) and H2O2 activated carbon (AC-H2O2) exhibit more complex behavior.Only their iodine numbers increase monotonously with activation time.Compared with steam activated AC (AC-H2O),the nitrogen content increases 0.232% in AC-NH3 and 0.077% in AC-HNO3.The amount of total basic site on AC-HNO3 is 0.19 mmol·g-1 higher than that on AC-H2O.H2O2 activation introduces an additional 0.08 mmol·g-1 carboxyl groups to AC surface than that introduced by steam activation.The desulphurization capacity of ACs in simulate flue gas desulphurization decreases as follows: AC-NH3 > AC-HNO3 > AC-H2O2 > AC-H2O.This sequence is in accord with the SO2 catalytic oxidation/oxidation ratio in the absence of oxygen and the oxidation property reflected by TPR.In the presence of oxygen,all adsorbed SO2 on ACs can be oxidized into SO3.The desulphurization capacity increases differently according to the activation agents;the desulphurization capacity of AC-NH3 and AC-HNO3 improves by 4.8 times,yet AC-H2O increases only by 2.62 as compared with the desulphurization of corresponding ACs in absence of oxygen.

  11. Coordination Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Cuff, Paul; Cover, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We develop elements of a theory of cooperation and coordination in networks. Rather than considering a communication network as a means of distributing information, or of reconstructing random processes at remote nodes, we ask what dependence can be established among the nodes given the communication constraints. Specifically, in a network with communication rates between the nodes, we ask what is the set of all achievable joint distributions p(x1, ..., xm) of actions at the nodes on the network. Several networks are solved, including arbitrarily large cascade networks. Distributed cooperation can be the solution to many problems such as distributed games, distributed control, and establishing mutual information bounds on the influence of one part of a physical system on another.

  12. Spectroelectrochemical studies of nuclease-active zinc(II) coordination compounds from the ligands Hpyramol and Hpyrimol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozalp-Yaman, Seniz, E-mail: seniz@atilim.edu.t [Atilim University, Engineering Faculty, Chemistry Group, 06836 Ankara (Turkey); Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Hoog, Paul de; Maheswari, Palanisamy Uma; Casellas, Helene [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Golobic, Amalija; Kozlevcar, Bojan [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Askerceva 5, P.O. Box 537, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gamez, Patrick; Reedijk, Jan [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2010-12-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of four zinc(II) coordination compounds from the ligands 4-methyl-2-(2-pyridylmethyl)aminophenol (Hpyramol) and 4-methyl-2-(2-pyridylmethylene)aminophenol (Hpyrimol) with chloride or acetate as counter-ions has been studied by in situ spectroelectrochemistry in dimethylformamide (DMF). Low-temperature EPR studies of electrolyte solutions of all zinc compounds indicate the presence of a phenoxyl radical with a g-value in the range 2.070-2.099, which is illustrative for an electron delocalization over the metal centre. The final product of this oxidative process is shown to be a benzoquinone methide derivative.

  13. Effects of an aqueous extract of Orbignya phalerata Mart on locomotor activity and motor coordination in mice and as antioxidant in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A P dos S; Cerqueira, G S; Nunes, L C C; de Freitas, R M

    2012-03-01

    The antioxidant activities of aqueous extract (AE) of Orbignya phalerata were assessed in vitro as well as its effect on locomotor activity and motor coordination in mice. AE does not possesses a strong antioxidant potential according to the scavenging assays; it also did not present scavenger activity in vitro. Following oral administration, AE (1, 2 and 3 g/kg) did not significantly change the motor activity of animals when compared with the control group, up to 24 h after administration and did not alter the remaining time of the animals on the Rota-rod apparatus. Further studies currently in progress will enable us to understand the mechanisms of action of the aqueous extract of Orbignya phalerata widely used in Brazilian flok medicine.

  14. Novel Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes coordinated by 2-arylaminomethyl-1H-benzimidazole: Molecular structures, spectral, DFT studies and evaluation of biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, Nour T.; Abo El-Ghar, Maha F.; Mansour, Ahmed M.

    2013-03-01

    [NiL1,2Cl2(OH2)3]·zH2O and [ZnL1,2(CH3CO2)2] (L1 = (1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-N-phenyl amine, z = 0 and L2 = 2-[(1H-Benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-amino]-benzoic acid methyl ester, z = 1) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by a variety of physico-chemical techniques. The central Ni(II) ion is coordinated by only the pyridine-type nitrogen (Npy) of benzimidazole ring, three water molecules and two chlorido ligands forming a distorted octahedral geometry. Five coordinated zinc complexes were obtained, where the coordination sphere of zinc ion is made up of secondary amino group (NHsec), Npy and two acetate groups, one acts as a unidentate and the other as a bidentate. A theoretical DFT/UB3LYP method combined with LANL2DZ basis set shows that all the metal-ligand bonds are of the L → M type. Electronic structures have been calculated using TD-DFT method. The antibacterial activity of NiL2 complexes decreases by the introduction of COOCH3 group in the ortho-position of the aniline moiety.

  15. Copper(II) coordination polymers: tunable structures and a different activation effect of hydrogen peroxide for the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Wu, Dongqing; Zhao, Bei; Han, Xiao; Wu, Jie; Hou, Hongwei; Fan, Yaoting

    2015-01-21

    By tuning the synthesis conditions, based on a conformation-sensitive ligand, 1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazole-1-methylene)-2,3,5,6-tetramethyl benzene (btmx) and Cu(NO3)2·3H2O/CuCl2·2H2O, we have obtained three Cu(ii) coordination polymers with diverse structures, namely, {[Cu(btmx)2(H2O)]·2NO3}n (), {[Cu(btmx)2(Cl)2]·5H2O}n () and [Cu(btmx)(Cl)2]n (). Complex exhibits a novel 2D → 3D interpenetrating structure with a point symbol of 6(3). Complex features an irregular 2D grid with (4(4)·6(2)) topology. The structure of complex is a 1D double chain structure. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra and TG curves of these complexes are also presented and discussed. Moreover, under visible light, the coordination polymers , , and display a different activation effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the photocatalytic decomposition of methyl orange (MO), which indicates that the coordination polymers may have bright prospects in the field of photocatalytic degradation of dyes.

  16. Model-based inverse estimation for active contraction stresses of tongue muscles using 3D surface shape in speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Narihiko; Ii, Satoshi; Yoshinaga, Tsukasa; Nozaki, Kazunori; Wada, Shigeo

    2017-09-14

    This paper presents a novel inverse estimation approach for the active contraction stresses of tongue muscles during speech. The proposed method is based on variational data assimilation using a mechanical tongue model and 3D tongue surface shapes for speech production. The mechanical tongue model considers nonlinear hyperelasticity, finite deformation, actual geometry from computed tomography (CT) images, and anisotropic active contraction by muscle fibers, the orientations of which are ideally determined using anatomical drawings. The tongue deformation is obtained by solving a stationary force-equilibrium equation using a finite element method. An inverse problem is established to find the combination of muscle contraction stresses that minimizes the Euclidean distance of the tongue surfaces between the mechanical analysis and CT results of speech production, where a signed-distance function represents the tongue surface. Our approach is validated through an ideal numerical example and extended to the real-world case of two Japanese vowels, /ʉ/ and /ɯ/. The results capture the target shape completely and provide an excellent estimation of the active contraction stresses in the ideal case, and exhibit similar tendencies as in previous observations and simulations for the actual vowel cases. The present approach can reveal the relative relationship among the muscle contraction stresses in similar utterances with different tongue shapes, and enables the investigation of the coordination of tongue muscles during speech using only the deformed tongue shape obtained from medical images. This will enhance our understanding of speech motor control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Impact of the equatorial coordination sphere on the rate of reduction, lipophilicity and cytotoxic activity of platinum(IV) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfer, Doris; Varbanov, Hristo P; Hejl, Michaela; Jakupec, Michael A; Roller, Alexander; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2017-09-01

    The impact of the equatorial coordination sphere on the reduction behavior (i.e. rate of reduction) of platinum(IV) complexes with axial carboxylato ligands was studied. Moreover, the influence of equatorial ligands on the stability, lipophilicity and cytotoxicity of platinum(IV) compounds was evaluated. For this purpose, a series of platinum(IV) complexes featuring axial carboxylato ligands (succinic acid monoesters) was synthesized; anionic carboxylato (OAc(-), oxalate) and halido (Cl(-), Br(-), I(-)) ligands served as leaving groups and am(m)ine carrier ligands were provided by monodentately (isopropylamine, ammine+cyclohexaneamine) or bidentately (ethane-1,2-diamine) coordinating am(m)ines. All platinum(IV) products were fully characterized based on elemental analysis, high resolution mass spectrometry and multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C, (15)N, (195)Pt) NMR spectroscopy as well as by X-ray diffraction in some cases. The rate of reduction in the presence of ascorbic acid was determined by NMR spectroscopy and the lipophilicity of the complexes was investigated by analytical reversed phase HPLC measurements. Cytotoxic properties were studied by means of a colorimetric microculture assay in three human cancer cell lines derived from cisplatin sensitive ovarian teratocarcinoma (CH1/PA-1) as well as cisplatin insensitive colon carcinoma (SW480) and non-small cell lung cancer (A549). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Guiding catalytically active particles with chemically patterned surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspal, William; Popescu, Mihail; Dietrich, Siegfried; Tasinkevych, Mykola

    Catalytically active Janus particles in solution create gradients in the chemical composition of the solution along their surfaces, as well as along any nearby container walls. The former leads to self-phoresis, while the latter gives rise to chemi-osmosis, providing an additional contribution to self-motility. Chemi-osmosis strongly depends on the molecular interactions between the diffusing chemical species and the wall. We show analytically, using an approximate ``point-particle'' approach, that by chemically patterning a planar substrate (e.g., by adsorbing two different materials) one can direct the motion of Janus particles: the induced chemi-osmotic flows can cause particles to either ``dock'' at a chemical step between the two materials, or to follow a chemical stripe. These theoretical predictions are confirmed by full numerical calculations. Generically, docking occurs for particles which tend to move away from their catalytic caps, while stripe-following occurs in the opposite case. Our analysis reveals the physical mechanisms governing this behavior.

  19. Surface-active substances in atmospheric aerosol: an electrochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Frka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We characterised surface-active substances (SASs in aqueous extract of atmospheric aerosols by using phase sensitive alternating current voltammetry. The electrochemical method has mainly been used for the quantification of surfactants in sea water but has not been applied to atmospheric aerosols yet. The advantage of the method is its simplicity and sensitivity that enables direct analysis of aerosol extracts without the need for sample concentration. Aerosol samples were collected at Middle Adriatic Martinska station influenced by different air masses as well as from urban (Zagreb, Croatia and rural (K-puszta, Hungary areas from late spring to early autumn in 2010. The highest SAS concentrations, expressed in equivalents of T-X-100, ranging from 0.34 to 0.91 µg m−3 were detected in urban samples. The SAS concentrations obtained for marine, regional and continental samples ranged from 0.14 to 0.31, 0.18 to 0.42 and 0.07 to 0.28 µg m−3, respectively. The SAS concentrations in K-puszta aerosols ranged from 0.13 to 0.46 µg m−3. Investigation of humic-like substances isolated from K-puszta samples (2008 confirmed their significant surfactant nature. Different SAS chemistry was noticed for urban and non-urban samples. Investigations at different pH revealed anionic character of SASs in aerosol samples.

  20. Assessing the Antimicrobial Activity of Polyisoprene Based Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Badawy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been an intense research effort in the last decades in the field of biofouling prevention as it concerns many aspects of everyday life and causes problems to devices, the environment, and human health. Many different antifouling and antimicrobial materials have been developed to struggle against bacteria and other micro- and macro-organism attachment to different surfaces. However the “miracle solution” has still to be found. The research presented here concerns the synthesis of bio-based polymeric materials and the biological tests that showed their antifouling and, at the same time, antibacterial activity. The raw material used for the coating synthesis was natural rubber. The polyisoprene chains were fragmented to obtain oligomers, which had reactive chemical groups at their chain ends, therefore they could be modified to insert polymerizable and biocidal groups. Films were obtained by radical photopolymerization of the natural rubber derived oligomers and their structure was altered, in order to understand the mechanism of attachment inhibition and to increase the efficiency of the anti-biofouling action. The adhesion of three species of pathogenic bacteria and six strains of marine bacteria was studied. The coatings were able to inhibit bacterial attachment by contact, as it was verified that no detectable leaching of toxic molecules occurred.

  1. Activity in the lunar surface: Transient Lunar Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    AF, Cruz Roa

    2013-01-01

    Transient Lunar Phenomena (TLP) observed on the surface of the moon, are of high rarity, low repetition rate and very short observation times, resulting in that there is little information about this topic. This necessitates the importance of studying them in detail. They have been observed as very bright clouds of gases of past geological lunar activity. According its duration, there have been registered in different colors (yellow, orange, red). Its size can vary from a few to hundreds of kilometers. The TLP Usually occur in certain locations as in some craters (Aristarchus, Plato, Kepler, etc.) and at the edges of lunar maria (Sea of Fecundity, Alps hills area, etc.). The exposure time of a TLP can vary from a few seconds to a little more than one hour. In this paper, a literature review of the TLP is made to build a theory from the existing reports and scientific hypotheses, trying to unify and synthesize data and concepts that are scattered by different lunar research lines. The TLP need to be explained ...

  2. Smart Cylindrical Dome Antenna Based on Active Frequency Selective Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongyu Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed a beamforming antenna, which is realized using an omnidirectional antenna in the center surrounded by a cylindrical smart dome. The smart dome is made of 16 active frequency selective surface columns of which the amplitude and phase response can be continuously tuned by varying the bias voltages of the employed varactors. Thus, the performance of the proposed antenna could achieve higher gain, better nulling level, and more agility than many switch methods-based cylindrical reconfigurable antennas. Moreover, in order to overcome the unavailable analytical synthesis caused by complex mutual coupling between columns, we develop a genetic algorithm based optimization system and conducted a serial of experiments to evaluate the high-gain, nulling, continuously steering, and frequency-invariant ability. The results show that, during the frequency tunable range of the AFSS (2.0 GHz to 2.7 GHz, the antenna can offer an additional gain of up to 6.57 dB and nulling level of −56.41 dBi. For the high-gain modes, the −3 dB beam widths are 26°–34°, which offers enhanced angular resolution compared with other reported beam-sweeping work. Furthermore, the radiation pattern is continuously steerable.

  3. Chemically crosslinked nanogels of PEGylated poly ethyleneimine (L-histidine substituted) synthesized via metal ion coordinated self-assembly for delivery of methotrexate: Cytocompatibility, cellular delivery and antitumor activity in resistant cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolmaali, Samira Sadat, E-mail: s.abolmaali@gmail.com [Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology Department, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71345 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tamaddon, Ali Mohammad, E-mail: amtamadon@gmail.com [Center for Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71345 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Samaneh, E-mail: samaneh.mohammadi1986@gmail.com [Center for Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71345 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amoozgar, Zohreh, E-mail: zohreh_amoozgar@dfci.harvard.edu [Department of Cancer Immunology and Aids, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Dinarvand, Rasoul, E-mail: dinarvand@tums.ac.ir [Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-01

    Self-assembled nanogels were engineered by forming Zn{sup 2+}-coordinated micellar templates of PEGylated poly ethyleneimine (PEG-g-PEI), chemical crosslinking and subsequent removal of the metal ion. Creation of stable micellar templates is a crucial step for preparing the nanogels. To this aim, imidazole moieties were introduced to the polymer by Fmoc-L-histidine using carbodiimide chemistry. It was hypothesized the nanogels loaded with methotrexate (MTX), a chemotherapeutic agent, circumvent impaired carrier activity in HepG2 cells (MTX-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma). So, the nanogels were post-loaded with MTX and characterized by {sup 1}H-NMR, FTIR, dynamic light scattering-zeta potential, atomic force microscopy, and drug release experiments. Cellular uptake and the antitumor activity of MTX-loaded nanogels were investigated by flow cytometry and MTT assay. Discrete, spherical and uniform nanogels, with sizes about 77–83 nm and a relatively high drug loading (54 ± 4% w/w), showed a low polydispersity and neutral surface charges. The MTX-loaded nanogels, unlike empty nanogels, lowered viability of HepG2 cells; the nanogels demonstrated cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis comparably higher than MTX as free drug that was shown to be through i) cellular uptake of the nanogels by clathrin-mediated transport and ii) endosomolytic activity of the nanogels in HepG2 cells. These findings indicate the potential antitumor application of this preparation, which has to be investigated in-vivo. - Highlights: • Nanogel synthesis through chemical crosslinking of the transition metal ion coordinated polymer self-assembly • An enhanced cytocompatibility if compared to unmodified polymer • A noticeable endocytic cellular internalization and endosomolytic activity • A specific antitumor cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in resistant tumor cells.

  4. Gender differential effects of developmental exposure to methyl-mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls 126 or 153, or its combinations on motor activity and coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauli, Omar; Piedrafita, Blanca; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente

    2013-09-06

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylmercury (MeHg) are persistent organic pollutants accumulating in the food chain. Pre- and neonatal exposure to these neurotoxicants may affect brain development and lead to long-lasting alterations in cerebral function, which can result in motor alterations in youth and/or adulthood. Some neurotoxicants induce gender specific effects. The aims of the present work were to: (1) assess the effects of developmental exposure to MeHg, PCB 153 or PCB 126 on spontaneous locomotor and vertical activity and motor coordination when the rats are 2-month old; (2) assess whether perinatal exposure to combinations of MeHg with PCB153 or PCB126 alter the effects of the individual neurotoxicants; (3) follow the progression of motor alterations when the rats are 3-, 5- and 7-month old; (4) assess if the effects are similar or different in males and females. Pregnant rats were treated with MeHg (0.5mg/kgday); PCB126 (100ng/kgday) or PCB153 (1mg/kgday) or with combinations of MeHg with each PCB, administered in food from gestational day 7 until weaning at post-natal day 21. PCB 126 impaired motor coordination at 2 months in males but not in females. PCB 153 impaired coordination both in males and females. Combinations of MeHg with PCB153 or PCB126 did not affect motor coordination, indicating that MeHg counteracts the effects of the PBCs. The combination of MeHg and PCB153 induces hypolocomotion at 2 months but hyperactivity at 7 months while the individual compounds did not induce any effect. PCB126 induced gender selective effects, reducing locomotor activity at 2 months in females but not in males. The combination of MeHg and PCB126 behaves as PCB126 alone. All compounds and combinations tested induce gender-selective alterations in vertical activity. The effects on locomotor and vertical activity change with age in the same rats. At 2 months all compounds and combinations reduce vertical activity in females but not in males. At 7 months

  5. Evidence of antibacterial activity on titanium surfaces through nanotextures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddiki, O.; Harnagea, C.; Levesque, L.; Mantovani, D.; Rosei, F.

    2014-07-01

    Nosocomial infections (Nis) are a major concern for public health. As more and more of the pathogens responsible for these infections are antibiotic resistant, finding new ways to overcome them is a major challenge for biomedical research. We present a method to reduce Nis spreading by hindering bacterial adhesion in its very early stage. This is achieved by reducing the contact interface area between the bacterium and the surface by nanoengineering the surface topography. In particular, we studied the Escheria Coli adhesion on titanium surfaces exhibiting different morphologies, that were obtained by a combination of mechanical polishing and chemical etching. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) characterization revealed that the titanium surface is modified at both micro- and nano-scale. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the surfaces have the same composition before and after piranha treatment, consisting mainly of TiO2. Adhesion tests showed a significant reduction in bacterial accumulation on nanostructured surfaces that had the lowest roughness over large areas. SEM images acquired after bacterial culture on different titanium substrates confirmed that the polished titanium surface treated one hour in a piranha solution at a temperature of 25 °C has the lowest bacterial accumulation among all the surfaces tested. This suggests that the difference observed in bacterial adhesion between the different surfaces is due primarily to surface topography.

  6. Evidence of antibacterial activity on titanium surfaces through nanotextures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seddiki, O.; Harnagea, C. [INRS – Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Levesque, L.; Mantovani, D. [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering (CRC-I), Dept Min-Met-Materials Engineering and Research Center CHU-Quebec, Laval University, Quebec City (Canada); Rosei, F., E-mail: rosei@emt.inrs.ca [INRS – Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Center for Self-Assembled Chemical Structures, McGill University, H3A 2K6 Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Nosocomial infections (Nis) are a major concern for public health. As more and more of the pathogens responsible for these infections are antibiotic resistant, finding new ways to overcome them is a major challenge for biomedical research. We present a method to reduce Nis spreading by hindering bacterial adhesion in its very early stage. This is achieved by reducing the contact interface area between the bacterium and the surface by nanoengineering the surface topography. In particular, we studied the Escheria Coli adhesion on titanium surfaces exhibiting different morphologies, that were obtained by a combination of mechanical polishing and chemical etching. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) characterization revealed that the titanium surface is modified at both micro- and nano-scale. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the surfaces have the same composition before and after piranha treatment, consisting mainly of TiO{sub 2}. Adhesion tests showed a significant reduction in bacterial accumulation on nanostructured surfaces that had the lowest roughness over large areas. SEM images acquired after bacterial culture on different titanium substrates confirmed that the polished titanium surface treated one hour in a piranha solution at a temperature of 25 °C has the lowest bacterial accumulation among all the surfaces tested. This suggests that the difference observed in bacterial adhesion between the different surfaces is due primarily to surface topography.

  7. Morphology and optical properties of aluminum oxide formed into oxalic electrolyte with addition surface active agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarkin, B.; Stsiapanau, A.; Zhilinski, V.; Chernik, A.; Bezborodov, V.; Kozak, G.; Danilovich, S.; Smirnov, A.

    2016-08-01

    The article discusses the results of investigations of porous films of alumina, formed into oxalic electrolyte with addition surface active agents, in particular, ordering structure, roughness of a surface, the optical transparency of the electrolyte concentration and surface active agents. Also discusses the features of the formation of porous films of temperature and IR radiation.

  8. Understanding the effect of steps, strain, poisons, and alloying: Methane activation on Ni surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Greeley, Jeffrey Philip; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    that variations in epsilon(d) can be used to quantitatively describe variations in the activation energy when the surface structure is changed, when the coverage of carbon is changed, when the surface is strained, when the surface is alloyed, and when the surface is poisoned by sulfur. The d-band center is...

  9. Chemical surface tuning electrocatalysis of redox-active nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Nan; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    This work focuses on electron transfer (ET) and electrocatalysis of inorganic hybrid Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs, 6 nm) immobilized on different chemical surfaces. Through surface self-assembly chemistry, we have enabled to tune chemical properties of the electrode surface. Stable immobili......This work focuses on electron transfer (ET) and electrocatalysis of inorganic hybrid Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs, 6 nm) immobilized on different chemical surfaces. Through surface self-assembly chemistry, we have enabled to tune chemical properties of the electrode surface. Stable...... distance, with a decay factor (β) of ca. 0.9, 1.1, 1.3 per CH2, respectively. This feature suggests a tunneling mechanism adopted by the nanoparticles, resembling that for metalloproteins in a similar assembly. High-efficient electrocatalysis towards the reduction of H2O2 is observed, and possible...

  10. Mechanistic Investigation into Olefin Epoxidation with H2O2 Catalyzed by Aqua‐Coordinated Sandwich‐Type Polyoxometalates: Role of the Noble Metal and Active Oxygen Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Chenggang; Liu, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aqua‐coordinated sandwich‐type polyoxometalates (POMs), {[WZnTM2(H2O)2](ZnW9O34)2}n− (TM=RhIII, PdII, and PtII), catalyze olefin epoxidation with hydrogen peroxide and have been well established, and they present an advance toward the utilization of olefins. To elucidate the epoxidation mechanism, we systematically performed density functional calculations. The reaction proceeds through a two‐step mechanism: activation of H2O2 and oxygen transfer. The aqua‐coordinated complexes show two distinct H2O2 activation pathways: “two‐step” and “concerted”. The concerted processes are more facile and proceed with similar and rate‐determining energy barriers at the Rh‐, Pd‐, and Pt‐containing transition states, which agrees well with the experimental results. Next, the resulting TM−OH−(μ‐OOH) intermediate transfers an O atom to olefin to form an epoxide. The higher reactivity of the Rh‐containing POM is attributed to more interactions between the Rh and hydroperoxo unit. We also calculated all active oxygen positions to locate the most favorable pathway. The higher reactivity of the two‐metal‐bonded oxygen position is predominantly ascribed to its lower stereoscopic hindrance. Furthermore, the presence of one and two explicit water solvent molecules significantly reduces the energy barriers, making these sandwich POMs very efficient for the olefin epoxidation with H2O2. PMID:27777840

  11. Toward a theory of coordinating: Creating coordinating mechanisms in practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jarzabkowski, P; Le, J. K.; Feldman, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a practice perspective to study coordinating as dynamic activities that are continuously created and modified in order to enact organizational relationships and activities. It is based on the case of Servico, an organization undergoing a major restructuring of its value chain in response to a change in government regulation. In our case, the actors iterate between the abstract concept of a coordinating mechanism referred to as end-to-end management and its performance in pract...

  12. High surface area activated carbon prepared from cassava peel by chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryanto, Y; Hartono, S B; Irawaty, W; Hindarso, H; Ismadji, S

    2006-03-01

    Cassava is one of the most important commodities in Indonesia, an agricultural country. Cassava is one of the primary foods in our country and usually used for traditional food, cake, etc. Cassava peel is an agricultural waste from the food and starch processing industries. In this study, this solid waste was used as the precursor for activated carbon preparation. The preparation process consisted of potassium hydroxide impregnation at different impregnation ratio followed by carbonization at 450-750 degrees C for 1-3 h. The results revealed that activation time gives no significant effect on the pore structure of activated carbon produced, however, the pore characteristic of carbon changes significantly with impregnation ratio and carbonization temperature. The maximum surface area and pore volume were obtained at impregnation ratio 5:2 and carbonization temperature 750 degrees C.

  13. Coordination geometries of Zn(II) and Cd(II) in phosphotriesterase: Influence of water molecules in the active site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krauss, M; Olsen, Lars; Antony, J

    2002-01-01

    Models of the metal ion binding sites of native ZnZn and of cadmium-substituted ZnCd and CdCd phosphotriesterase, including full amino acid side chains, were geometry optimized with quantum mechanical methods, with effective fragment potentials (EFP) representing the protein environment surrounding...... performed to analyze the experimentally determined chemical shifts at 212 and 116 ppm, respectively, for the CdCd enzyme. The calculated isotropic shieldings correlate with the coordination number of the metal ions, indicating that the CdCd enzyme has one more ligand at the high shift site than at the low...... shift site. Theoretically, a number of energetically close structures are found for the CdCd structure. Formally, one of these agrees with the X-ray structure and is supported by the NMR assignment. For the hybrid ZnCd enzyme, the most stable theoretical structure is Cd1Zn2, with the metal bound...

  14. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial of the impact of virtual reality games on motor competence, physical activity, and mental health in children with developmental coordination disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Straker, Leon M; Campbell, Amity C; Jensen, Lyn M; Metcalf, Deborah R; Smith, Anne J; Abbott, Rebecca A; Pollock, Clare M; Piek, Jan P

    2011-01-01

    .... However new virtual reality (VR) game interfaces may provide motor experiences that enhance motor development and lead to an increase in motor coordination and better physical activity and mental health outcomes...

  15. Enterprise Coordination on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Petrie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises are now connected internally and externally to other Enterprises via the Internet in ways that are increasingly difficult to manage, especially as these interconnections become more dynamic. Current methods of coordinating the effects of change as they propagate through these networks of connections are not likely to scale. What is needed is a new paradigm for how the Internet supports such coordination. Indeed, the Internet should and could provide fundamental coordination functions that are missing today. In this paper, we describe how such a “Coordinated Internet” would work (this paper is an expanded version of [1]. The key functionality of a Coordinated Internet would be that the Internet actively watches what people do (analogous to search completion on desktops today, correlates these activities, and actively notifies people when and how their current tasks affect and are affected by the activities of other people. This would be accomplished by standard coordination functions implemented as a common Internet layer that can be used as a utility by more specialized applications. Such a Coordinated Internet would revolutionize enterprise management, for all enterprises, large and small, corporate and personal. For example, static workflows would become obsolete for all but the the most routine processes. Some solutions provide existence proofs of such a coordination substrate, such as the Redux solution in concurrent engineering, which we describe herein. However, foundational research remains to be done in the new field of Coordination Engineering in order to reach the goal of a future Internet in which coordination functions are fundamental.

  16. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial of the impact of virtual reality games on motor competence, physical activity, and mental health in children with developmental coordination disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straker Leon M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A healthy start to life requires adequate motor development and physical activity participation. Currently 5-15% of children have impaired motor development without any obvious disorder. These children are at greater risk of obesity, musculoskeletal disorders, low social confidence and poor mental health. Traditional electronic game use may impact on motor development and physical activity creating a vicious cycle. However new virtual reality (VR game interfaces may provide motor experiences that enhance motor development and lead to an increase in motor coordination and better physical activity and mental health outcomes. VR games are beginning to be used for rehabilitation, however there is no reported trial of the impact of these games on motor coordination in children with developmental coordination disorder. Methods This cross-over randomised and controlled trial will examine whether motor coordination is enhanced by access to active electronic games and whether daily activity, attitudes to physical activity and mental health are also enhanced. Thirty children aged 10-12 years with poor motor coordination (≤ 15th percentile will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no active electronic games' and 'active electronic games'. Each child will participate in both conditions for 16 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is motor coordination, assessed by kinematic and kinetic motion analysis laboratory measures. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour will be assessed by accelerometry, coordination in daily life by parent report questionnaire and attitudes to physical activity, self-confidence, anxiety and depressed mood will be assessed by self report questionnaire. A sample of 30 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 5 point difference in motor coordination on the MABC-2 TIS scale (mean 17, sd = 5. Discussion This is the first trial to

  17. A Krebs Cycle Component Limits Caspase Activation Rate through Mitochondrial Surface Restriction of CRL Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aram, Lior; Braun, Tslil; Braverman, Carmel; Kaplan, Yosef; Ravid, Liat; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Arama, Eli

    2016-04-04

    How cells avoid excessive caspase activity and unwanted cell death during apoptotic caspase-mediated removal of large cellular structures is poorly understood. We investigate caspase-mediated extrusion of spermatid cytoplasmic contents in Drosophila during spermatid individualization. We show that a Krebs cycle component, the ATP-specific form of the succinyl-CoA synthetase β subunit (A-Sβ), binds to and activates the Cullin-3-based ubiquitin ligase (CRL3) complex required for caspase activation in spermatids. In vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that this interaction occurs on the mitochondrial surface, thereby limiting the source of CRL3 complex activation to the vicinity of this organelle and reducing the potential rate of caspase activation by at least 60%. Domain swapping between A-Sβ and the GTP-specific SCSβ (G-Sβ), which functions redundantly in the Krebs cycle, show that the metabolic and structural roles of A-Sβ in spermatids can be uncoupled, highlighting a moonlighting function of this Krebs cycle component in CRL activation.

  18. Resonance Raman Optical Activity and Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Optical Activity analysis of Cytochrome C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Christian; Abdali, Salim; White, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    High quality Resonance Raman (RR) and resonance Raman Optical Activity (ROA) spectra of cytochrome c were obtained in order to perform full assignment of spectral features of the resonance ROA spectrum. The resonance ROA spectrum of cytochrome c revealed a distinct spectral signature pattern due...... to resonance enhanced skeletal porphyrin vibrations, more pronounced than any contribution from the protein back-bone. Combining the intrinsic resonance enhancement of cytochrome c with surface plasmon enhancement by colloidal silver particles, the Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS) and Chiral...... Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (ChERS) spectra of the protein were successfully obtained at very low concentration (as low as 1 µM). The assignment of spectral features was based on the information obtained from the RR and resonance ROA spectra. Excellent agreement between RR and SERRS spectra is reported...

  19. View-Invariant Object Category Learning, Recognition, and Search: How Spatial and Object Attention are Coordinated Using Surface-Based Attentional Shrouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazl, Arash; Grossberg, Stephen; Mingolla, Ennio

    2009-01-01

    How does the brain learn to recognize an object from multiple viewpoints while scanning a scene with eye movements? How does the brain avoid the problem of erroneously classifying parts of different objects together? How are attention and eye movements intelligently coordinated to facilitate object learning? A neural model provides a unified…

  20. Mutagenic and genotoxic activity of chosen dyes and surface active compounds used in the textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybojewska, B; Barański, B; Spiechowicz, E; Szymczak, W

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the mutagenic and genotoxic properties of ten dyes and four surface active compounds using Salmonella/microsome assay and the micronucleus test. Five of the investigated dyes (Acid Blue 7, Acid Green 16, Direct Black 19:1, Basic Red 22, Basic Orange 28) possessed mutagenic activity with regard to test strains of Salmonella. In addition, all of them increased the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of mice. Three other compounds (Acid Blue 62, Direct Yellow 12, Direct Red 81), which were not mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay, were genotoxic in the micronucleus test. The other two dyes (Reactive Blue 13, Acid Red 213), as well as tested surface active compounds, did not exert mutagenic and genotoxic effects, and therefore, it is most probable that they do not have carcinogenic properties. Besides, it was noted that Acid Blue 62, Direct Black 19:1, Direct Red 81 and Basic Orange 28 cause a significant decrease in the ratio polychromatic to normochromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of mice, which means that, at the doses used in the experiment, they are toxic to the erythrocyte series cells of bone marrow. The other compounds under consideration have no such effect.

  1. Improvement of silicon direct bonding using surfaces activated by hydrogen plasma treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, W B; Lee Jae Sik; Sung, M Y

    2000-01-01

    The plasma surface treatment, using hydrogen gas, of silicon wafers was studied as a pretreatment for silicon direct bonding. Chemical reactions of the hydrogen plasma with the surfaces were used for both surface activation and removal of surface contaminants. Exposure of the silicon wafers to the plasma formed an active oxide layer on the surface. This layer was hydrophilic. The surface roughness and morphology were examined as functions of the plasma exposure time and power. The surface became smoother with shorter plasma exposure time and lower power. In addition, the plasma surface treatment was very efficient in removing the carbon contaminants on the silicon surface. The value of the initial surface energy, as estimated by using the crack propagation method, was 506 mJ/M sup 2 , which was up to about three times higher than the value for the conventional direct bonding method using wet chemical treatments.

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II Coordination Compounds with Nitrogen, Oxygen Containing Schiff Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. RAI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of complexes of the type [M(EHPQH2X2] where M = Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II, EHPQH=2-ethyl, [3(hydroxypropyl]-3, 1 4H quinazoline -4-hydrazone, X= Cl-, Br-, I- and No-3 -. The geometry of the complexes have been elucidated in the light of molar mass, elemental analysis, IR, electronic Spectra, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility. The measured molar conductance value indicates that the complexes are nonelectrolytic in nature. The above observation indicates that Schiff bases EHPQH behave as bidentate ligand and coordination proposes through azomethine N and oxygen atom of alcoholic group of ligand. The remaining coordination sites are satisfied by negative ion such as Ci-, Br-, I- and NB-. The geometry of the Co(II and Ni(II were proposed to be octahedral in geometry whereas Cu(II complexes were proposed to be distorted octahedral. The Schiff bases and its complexes have been evaluated for their antibacterial activity. The complexes show enhanced antibacterial activity than ligand.

  3. Coordination behavior of new bis Schiff base ligand derived from 2-furan carboxaldehyde and propane-1,3-diamine. Spectroscopic, thermal, anticancer and antibacterial activity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G; Zayed, Ehab M; Hindy, Ahmed M M

    2015-06-15

    Novel bis Schiff base ligand, [N1,N3-bis(furan-2-ylmethylene)propane-1,3-diamine], was prepared by the condensation of furan-2-carboxaldehyde with propane-1,3-diamine. Its conformational changes on complexation with transition metal ions [Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Fe(III)] have been studied on the basis of elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, spectral (infrared, (1)H NMR, electronic), magnetic and thermogravimetric studies. The conductance data of the complexes revealed their electrolytic nature suggesting them as 1:2 (for bivalent metal ions) and 1:3 (for Fe(III) ion) electrolytes. The complexes were found to have octahedral geometry based on magnetic moment and solid reflectance measurements. Thermal analysis data revealed the decomposition of the complexes in successive steps with the removal of anions, coordinated water and bis Schiff base ligand. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated using Coats-Redfern equation. The Anticancer screening studies were performed on human colorectal cancer (HCT), hepatic cancer (HepG2) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. The antimicrobial activity of all the compounds was studied against Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) and Gram positive (Bacillus vulgaris and Staphylococcus pyogones) bacteria. It was observed that the coordination of metal ion has a pronounced effect on the microbial activities of the bis Schiff base ligand. All the metal complexes have shown higher antimicrobial effect than the free bis Schiff base ligand.

  4. Coordination polymers of Fe(iii) and Al(iii) ions with TCA ligand: distinctive fluorescence, CO2 uptake, redox-activity and oxygen evolution reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Barun; Sappati, Subrahmanyam; Singh, Santosh K; Kurungot, Sreekumar; Ghosh, Prasenjit; Ballav, Nirmalya

    2016-04-28

    Fe and Al belong to different groups in the periodic table, one from the p-block and the other from the d-block. In spite of their different groups, they have the similarity of exhibiting a stable 3+ oxidation state. Here we have prepared Fe(iii) and Al(iii) based coordination polymers in the form of metal-organic gels with the 4,4',4''-tricarboxyltriphenylamine (TCA) ligand, namely Fe-TCA and Al-TCA, and evaluated some important physicochemical properties. Specifically, the electrical conductivity, redox-activity, porosity, and electrocatalytic activity (oxygen evolution reaction) of the Fe-TCA system were noted to be remarkably higher than those of the Al-TCA system. As for the photophysical properties, almost complete quenching of the fluorescence originating from TCA was observed in case of the Fe-TCA system, whereas for the Al-TCA system a significant retention of fluorescence with red-shifted emission was observed. Quantum mechanical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were performed to unravel the origin of such discriminative behaviour of these coordination polymer systems.

  5. Nanorods of a new metal-biomolecule coordination polymer showing novel bidirectional electrocatalytic activity and excellent performance in electrochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiao; Zhou, Bo; Yao, Jie; Jiang, Xiao-Qing

    2015-05-15

    Metal organic coordination polymers (CPs), as most attractive multifunctional materials, have been studied extensively in many fields. However, metal-biomolecule CPs and CPs' electrochemical properties and applications were studied much less. We focus on this topic aiming at electrochemical biosensors with excellent performance and high biocompatibility. A new nanoscaled metal-biomolecule CP, Mn-tyr, containing manganese and tyrosine, was synthesized hydrothermally and characterized by various techniques, including XRD, TEM, EDS, EDX mapping, elemental analysis, XPS, and IR. Electrode modified with Mn-tyr showed novel bidirectional electrocatalytic ability toward both reduction and oxidation of H2O2, which might be due to Mn. With the assistance of CNTs, the sensing performance of Mn-tyr/CNTs/GCE was improved to a much higher level, with high sensitivity of 543 mA mol(-1) L cm(-2) in linear range of 1.00×10(-6)-1.02×10(-4) mol L(-1), and detection limit of 3.8×10(-7) mol L(-1). Mn-tyr/CNTs/GCE also showed fast response, high selectivity, high steadiness and reproducibility. The excellent performance implies that the metal-biomolecule CPs are promising candidates for using in enzyme-free electrochemical biosensing.

  6. Coordinated Activation of Cellulose and Repression of Lignin Biosynthesis Pathways in Rice1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambavaram, Madana M.R.; Krishnan, Arjun; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan R.; Pereira, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose from plant biomass is the largest renewable energy resource of carbon fixed from the atmosphere, which can be converted into fermentable sugars for production into ethanol. However, the cellulose present as lignocellulosic biomass is embedded in a hemicellulose and lignin matrix from which it needs to be extracted for efficient processing. Here, we show that expression of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transcription factor, SHINE (SHN), in rice (Oryza sativa), a model for the grasses, causes a 34% increase in cellulose and a 45% reduction in lignin content. The rice AtSHN lines also exhibit an altered lignin composition correlated with improved digestibility, with no compromise in plant strength and performance. Using a detailed systems-level analysis of global gene expression in rice, we reveal the SHN regulatory network coordinating down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis and up-regulation of cellulose and other cell wall biosynthesis pathway genes. The results thus support the development of nonfood crops and crop wastes with increased cellulose and low lignin with good agronomic performance that could improve the economic viability of lignocellulosic crop utilization for biofuels. PMID:21205614

  7. Flexible porous coordination polymer of Ni(II) for developing nanoparticles through acid formation and redox activity of the framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rashmi A.

    2017-10-01

    Immobilization of the nanoparticles (NPs) in a two dimensional porous coordination polymer (PCP) is currently an emerging field for a number of applications. But still it is a great challenge to fabricate any specified metal NPs in a single network. Herein the synthesis of Au, Pd, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mg, Li, Fe/Cu, Zn/Mg etc, NPs in a highly flexible PCP of Ni(II); {[Ni3(TBIB)2(BTC)2(H2O)6]·5C2H5OH·9H2O}n [TBIB = 1,3,5-tri(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)benzene, H3BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid] have been reported. This universal host is able to grow mixed metal NPs from mixed metal precursors. Monodentate carboxylate groups of BTC linker act as anchoring sites for the metal ions of the metal precursors. This is the main driving force to grow NPs within the cavities along with the high flexibility of this polymer at room temperature. Mechanism involves acid formation followed by redox reaction to synthesize metal NPs explained by EPR and FTIR. Paramagnetic properties have been shown by as-synthesized Fe NPs integrated framework at room temperature under applied magnetic field up to 17,500 Oe.

  8. BASIC SURFACE MARKERS OF FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY T-LYMPHOCYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Litvinova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In present review article, an effort is undertaken to consolidate current opinions on the most significant surface antigens of immunocompetent cells, and to evaluate their relative roles in regulation of cellular homeostasis and development of pathological conditions.

  9. Luminescence labeling and dynamics of growth active crystal surface structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Theresa Vivian

    One aspect of the multifaceted proposal by A. G. Cairns-Smith (CS), that imperfect crystals have the capacity to act as primitive genes by transferring the disposition of their imperfections from one crystal to another, is investigated. An experiment was designed in a model crystalline system unrelated to the composition of the pre-biotic earth but suited to a well-defined test. Plates of potassium hydrogen phthalate were studied in order to ascertain whether, according to CS, parallel screw dislocations could serve as an information store with cores akin to punches in an old computer card. Evidence of screw dislocations was obtained from their associated growth hillocks through differential interference contrast microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and luminescence labeling of hillocks in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Inheritance was evaluated by the corresponding patterns of luminescence developed in 'daughter' crystals grown from seed in the presence of fluorophores. The dispositions and evolution of growth active hillock patterns were quantified by fractal correlation analysis and statistical analysis. Along the way, we came to realize that transferring information encoded in the disposition of screw dislocations is complicated by several factors that lead to 'mutations' in the information stored in the pattern of defects. These observations forced us to confront the fundamental mechanisms that give rise to screw dislocations. It became clear that inter-hillock correlations play a significant role in the appearance of new dislocations through growth, and cause the overall pattern of hillocks to be non-random. Tendencies for clustering and correlations along various crystallographic directions were observed. Investigations into the dye-crystal surface chemistries and interactions with hillock steps also ensued through a combination of experimental techniques and force-field calculations. It was established that certain dye molecules not

  10. Magnetic activity at Mars - Mars Surface Magnetic Observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Menvielle, M.; Merayo, José M.G.

    2012-01-01

    We use the extensive database of magnetic observations from the Mars Global Surveyor to investigate magnetic disturbances in the Martian space environment statistically, both close to and far from crustal anomalies. We discuss the results in terms of possible ionospheric and magnetospheric currents...... a magnetic experiment at the martian surface, the Mars Surface Magnetic Observatory (MSMO) including the science objectives, science experiment requirements, instrument and basic operations. We find the experiment to be feasible within the constraints of proposed stationary landing platforms....

  11. Motor coordination: a local hub for coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Ronald L

    2014-03-31

    A local interneuron of a crayfish central pattern generator serves as a hub that integrates ascending and descending coordinating information and passes it on to a local oscillatory microcircuit to coordinate a series of segmental appendages known as swimmerets.

  12. Evolution of anatase surface active sites probed by in situ sum-frequency phonon spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yue; Chen, Shiyou; Li, Yadong; Gao, Yi; Yang, Deheng; Shen, Yuen Ron; Liu, Wei-Tao

    2016-09-01

    Surface active sites of crystals often govern their relevant surface chemistry, yet to monitor them in situ in real atmosphere remains a challenge. Using surface-specific sum-frequency spectroscopy, we identified the surface phonon mode associated with the active sites of undercoordinated titanium ions and conjoint oxygen vacancies, and used it to monitor them on anatase (TiO2) (101) under ambient conditions. In conjunction with theory, we determined related surface structure around the active sites and tracked the evolution of oxygen vacancies under ultraviolet irradiation. We further found that unlike in vacuum, the surface oxygen vacancies, which dominate the surface reactivity, are strongly regulated by ambient gas molecules, including methanol and water, as well as weakly associated species, such as nitrogen and hydrogen. The result revealed a rich interplay between prevailing ambient species and surface reactivity, which can be omnipresent in environmental and catalytic applications of titanium dioxides.

  13. Akt Phosphorylation and PI (3, 4, 5) P3 Binding Coordinately Inhibit the Tumor Suppressive Activity of Merlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Johnson KC, Eckman MS, & Jacks T (2002) Merlin phosphorylation by p21-activated kinase 2 and effects of phosphorylation on merlin localization. J...J. L., Johnson, K. C., Eckman , M. S. & Jacks, T. Merlin phosphorylation by p21-activated kinase 2 and effects of phosphorylation on merlin

  14. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2010-01-01

    Overview Once again, the bulk of this article reviews the intense activity of a recently completed shutdown, which, although quite unforeseeable until a few weeks before it started, proved by its success that our often advertised capability to conduct major maintenance within a two month period is real. Although safely completed, on-time to remarkable precision, the activity was not without incident, and highlighted our dependence on many experienced, specialist teams and their precise choreography. Even after the yoke was safely closed, magnet re-commissioning and beampipe pumpdown showed new and thought-provoking behaviour. The struggle to maintain adequate technical resources will be a pre-occupation over the coming months, in parallel with the start of truly sustained operation, for which various procedures are still being put in place. Planning for future shutdowns must now become a high priority, with many working groups and task forces already in existence to prepare infrastructure improvements and to...

  15. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Shutdown critical path: progress and prospects The 2008-09 CMS shutdown is proceeding as intended.  The first two phases, in which the dominant activity (besides heavy logistics) was maintenance and repair of the barrel muon and alignment systems on all wheels and disks (but particularly YB0), have been finished successfully and on time. The yoke wheels at both ends are once again closed over the vactank. Phase 3 is in full swing and has reached maximum complexity, with work-intensity and associated risks similar those encountered in summer 2008. The status going into this CMS week is that the forward pixel tracker at the +z end (FPIX+) has been extracted and transported for maintenance, while the installation of preshower ES+, taking place in parallel, has reached the stage where the active “dee” elements are installed and the drum structures have just been moved back along the beampipe and re-mated to the electromagnetic endcaps. The phase 3 activity requires the large &l...

  16. Coordinated Volt/Var Control in Distribution Systems with Distributed Generations Based on Joint Active and Reactive Powers Dispatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abouzar Samimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant control schemes in optimal operation of distribution networks is Volt/Var control (VVC. Owing to the radial structure of distribution systems and distribution lines with a small X/R ratio, the active power scheduling affects the VVC issue. A Distribution System Operator (DSO procures its active and reactive power requirements from Distributed Generations (DGs along with the wholesale electricity market. This paper proposes a new operational scheduling method based on a joint day-ahead active/reactive power market at the distribution level. To this end, based on the capability curve, a generic reactive power cost model for DGs is developed. The joint active/reactive power dispatch model presented in this paper motivates DGs to actively participate not only in the energy markets, but also in the VVC scheme through a competitive market. The proposed method which will be performed in an offline manner aims to optimally determine (i the scheduled active and reactive power values of generation units; (ii reactive power values of switched capacitor banks; and (iii tap positions of transformers for the next day. The joint active/reactive power dispatch model for daily VVC is modeled in GAMS and solved with the DICOPT solver. Finally, the plausibility of the proposed scheduling framework is examined on a typical 22-bus distribution test network over a 24-h period.

  17. Effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on surface activity and surface rheology of type I collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezwoń, Aleksandra; Chromińska, Ilona; Frączyk, Tomasz; Wojciechowski, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    We describe the adsorption behaviour and rheological properties of a calf skin type I collagen, and of its hydrolysates obtained using a Clostridium histolyticum collagenase (CHC) under moderate conditions (pH 7, 37°C). The effect of CHC concentration (2×10(-9)-2×10(-6)M) and incubation time (35-85min) was studied and optimised to achieve the highest decrease of surface tension and the highest dilational surface viscoelasticity of the adsorbed layers. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to characterise the hydrolysis products. The results show that even simple modifications (heat treatment, pH change, partial hydrolysis) of collagen enhances its surface properties, especially in terms of surface dilational elasticity modulus. The use of low enzyme concentration (CHC-to-collagen molar ratio of 4×10(-3)) and short incubation time (<45min) results in moderately hydrolysed products with the highest ability to lower surface tension (γ=53.9mNm(-1)) forming highly elastic adsorbed layers (surface dilational elasticity, E'=74.5mNm(-1)).

  18. Features of surface topography and the geological activity of Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    According to the data "New Horizons" of the spacecraft, researchers were able to specify the diameter of Pluto-2374 km. Its surface temperature in the equatorial region varies from 33 to 55 K over the planet's orbital period around the Sun in ~248 years. Presumably the surface of Pluto has a rocky base covered with a mantle of water ice, of frozen methane, nitrogen, ammonia and CO. Due to the large eccentricity of the orbit of Pluto, as it approaches the Sun, the ice melts, and the atmosphere is formed mainly of nitrogen and methane; while removing of the planet from the Sun - the atmosphere freezes out again.

  19. New form of geodetic coordinate system taking two length quantity as coordinate parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yimin SHI; Ziyang ZHU; Yeming FAN

    2009-01-01

    A new form of geodetic coordinate system based on geodesic coordinates instead of geodetic long-itude and latitude was proposed. The vertical and horizontal geodesic coordinates measured with length were defined as coordinate parameters, but the two families of coordinate curves were still meridians and parallel circles. The first fundamental form on the ellipsoidal surface and its three coefficients were deduced by the geodesic coordinate. The formula for the latitudinal scale factor of length for geodetic parallel lines was derived, by which the obtained result conformed to that standard value calculated from geodetic latitude, and it is applicable in the range of 400 km from north to south. Therefore, it lays the foundation for establishing the differential equation and differential relationship based on this type of coordinate parameters; and consequently, it is convenient and accurate enough to operate on the ellipsoidal surface in this new form of geodetic coordinate system.

  20. Neutrophil bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus adherent on biological surfaces. Surface-bound extracellular matrix proteins activate intracellular killing by oxygen-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, M; Jaconi, M E; Dahlgren, C; Waldvogel, F A; Stendahl, O; Lew, D P

    1990-09-01

    The activation patterns of surface adherent neutrophils are modulated via interaction of extracellular matrix proteins with neutrophil integrins. To evaluate neutrophil bactericidal activity, Staphylococcus aureus adherent to biological surfaces were incubated with neutrophils and serum, and the survival of surface bacteria was determined. When compared to albumin-coated surfaces, the bactericidal activity of neutrophils adherent to purified human extracellular matrix was markedly enhanced (mean survival: 34.2% +/- 9.0% of albumin, P less than 0.0001) despite similar efficient ingestion of extracellular bacteria. Enhancement of killing was observed when surfaces were coated with purified constituents of extracellular matrix, i.e., fibronectin, fibrinogen, laminin, vitronectin, or type IV collagen. In addition to matrix proteins, the tetrapeptide RGDS (the sequence recognized by integrins) crosslinked to surface bound albumin was also active (survival: 74.5% +/- 5.5% of albumin, P less than 0.02), and fibronectin-increased killing was inhibited by soluble RGDS. Chemiluminescence measurements and experiments with CGD neutrophils revealed that both oxygen-dependent and -independent bactericidal mechanisms are involved. In conclusion, matrix proteins enhance intracellular bactericidal activity of adherent neutrophils, presumably by integrin recognition of RGDS-containing ligands. These results indicate a role for extracellular matrix proteins in the enhancement of the host defense against pyogenic infections.

  1. Coordinated regulation of Myc trans-activation targets by Polycomb and the Trithorax group protein Ash1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodliffe, Julie M; Cole, Michael D; Wieschaus, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Background The Myc oncoprotein is a transcriptional regulator whose function is essential for normal development. Myc is capable of binding to 10% of the mammalian genome, and it is unclear how a developing embryo controls the DNA binding of its abundant Myc proteins in order to avoid Myc's potential for inducing tumorigenesis. Results To identify chromatin binding proteins with a potential role in controlling Myc activity, we established a genetic assay for dMyc activity in Drosophila. We conducted a genome-wide screen using this assay, and identified the Trithorax Group protein Ash1 as a modifier of dMyc activity. Ash1 is a histone methyltransferase known for its role in opposing repression by Polycomb. Using RNAi in the embryo and Affymetrix microarrays, we show that ash1 RNAi causes the increased expression of many genes, suggesting that it is directly or indirectly required for repression in the embryo, in contrast to its known role in maintenance of activation. Many of these genes also respond similarly upon depletion of Pc and pho transcripts, as determined by concurrent microarray analysis of Pc and pho RNAi embryos, suggesting that the three are required for low levels of expression of a common set of targets. Further, many of these overlapping targets are also activated by Myc overexpression. We identify a second group of genes whose expression in the embryo requires Ash1, consistent with its previously established role in maintenance of activation. We find that this second group of Ash1 targets overlaps those activated by Myc and that ectopic Myc overcomes their requirement for Ash1. Conclusion Genetic, genomic and chromatin immunoprecipitation data suggest a model in which Pc, Ash1 and Pho are required to maintain a low level of expression of embryonic targets of activation by Myc, and that this occurs, directly or indirectly, by a combination of disparate chromatin modifications. PMID:17519021

  2. Coordinated regulation of Myc trans-activation targets by Polycomb and the Trithorax group protein Ash1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Michael D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Myc oncoprotein is a transcriptional regulator whose function is essential for normal development. Myc is capable of binding to 10% of the mammalian genome, and it is unclear how a developing embryo controls the DNA binding of its abundant Myc proteins in order to avoid Myc's potential for inducing tumorigenesis. Results To identify chromatin binding proteins with a potential role in controlling Myc activity, we established a genetic assay for dMyc activity in Drosophila. We conducted a genome-wide screen using this assay, and identified the Trithorax Group protein Ash1 as a modifier of dMyc activity. Ash1 is a histone methyltransferase known for its role in opposing repression by Polycomb. Using RNAi in the embryo and Affymetrix microarrays, we show that ash1 RNAi causes the increased expression of many genes, suggesting that it is directly or indirectly required for repression in the embryo, in contrast to its known role in maintenance of activation. Many of these genes also respond similarly upon depletion of Pc and pho transcripts, as determined by concurrent microarray analysis of Pc and pho RNAi embryos, suggesting that the three are required for low levels of expression of a common set of targets. Further, many of these overlapping targets are also activated by Myc overexpression. We identify a second group of genes whose expression in the embryo requires Ash1, consistent with its previously established role in maintenance of activation. We find that this second group of Ash1 targets overlaps those activated by Myc and that ectopic Myc overcomes their requirement for Ash1. Conclusion Genetic, genomic and chromatin immunoprecipitation data suggest a model in which Pc, Ash1 and Pho are required to maintain a low level of expression of embryonic targets of activation by Myc, and that this occurs, directly or indirectly, by a combination of disparate chromatin modifications.

  3. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Austin Ball

    2013-01-01

      Since the last report, much visible progress has been made, as the LS1 programme approaches the halfway point. From early October, technical and safety shift-crew have been present around the clock, allowing detectors to stay switched on overnight, ensuring that safety systems are operational and instructions for non-expert shift-crew are clear. LS1 progress Throughout the summer, whilst the solenoid vacuum tank and YB0 surfaces were accessible, an extensive installation programme took place to prepare for Tracker colder operation and the PLT installation, in 2014, the Phase 1 Pixel Tracker installation, in 2016–’17, and the HCAL Phase 1 upgrade completion, ending in LS2. This included pipework for N2 or dry air to flush the Tracker bulkhead region, many sensors to monitor temperature and dew point in the Tracker and its service channels, heating wires outside the Tracker cooling bundles, supports for the new vacuum-jacketed, concentric, CO2 Pixel cooling lines, the PLT cool...

  4. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Zeuner and A. Ball

    2013-01-01

    LS1 overview In general the LS1 project is progressing well and the workflow is holding to the original December 2012 schedule within two–three weeks, acceptable at this stage, with about 400 work packages already completed. In particular, the critical logistic configuration planned for summer 2013, giving simultaneous access to both ends of the vacuum tank interior and the exterior, plus the YE1 nose zones, was achieved significantly before the deadline at the end of June. The safety awareness of all those working on the CMS detector is currently very satisfactory and the general atmosphere at Point 5 is good, despite many concurrent activities and inevitable last minute adjustments to the day-to-day planning. LS1 services infrastructure work The “once-in-ten years” maintenance of the water-cooling infrastructure has been completed successfully by EN department teams; underground circuits were available again from 12 June. In the shadow of this activity, consolidation and m...

  5. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Austin Ball

    Introduction Underground installation of the initial CMS detector is almost complete. During this CMS week the detector will reach the minimum necessary condition allowing closure for beam. Configuration for pixel, BCM and endcap ECAL installation will then follow, with the installation of one or both endcap ECAL beingdependent on the actual date when beams may be expected through point 5. As we approach the culmination of 9 years of assembly at Cessy, it is appropriate to pay tribute once again to the continuing dedication and flexibility of all the CERN, collaboration and contractor teams working at point 5, including recently our colleagues from AT/VAC. There is every indication that the legacy of their hard work will be a superb scientific instrument. Safety The final burst of assembly activity in the UXC before closing for beam will involve the familiar worksite risks of heavy manipulation, restricted workspaces, multiple activity and work at height, now amplified by the presence of the very fragile be...

  6. THE COORDINATION COMPOUNDS OF COBALT (II, III WITH DITHIOCARBAMIC ACID DERIVATIVES — MODIFICATORS OF HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Varbanets

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloride, bromide and isothiocyanate complexes of cobalt(II with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulfenamides (1–(12, and also complexes of cobalt(II, Ш with derivatives of morpholine-4-carbodithioic acid (13–(18 have been used as modificators of enzymes of hydrolytic action — Bacillus thurin-giensis ІМВ В-7324 peptidases, Bacillus subtilis 147 and Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae 80428 amylases, Eupenicillium erubescens 248 and Cryptococcus albidus 1001 rhamnosidases. It was shown that cobalt (II, Ш compounds influence differently on the activity of enzymes tested, exerted both inhibitory and stimulatory action. It gives a possibility to expect that manifestation of activity by complex molecule depends on ligand and anion presence — Cl–, Br– or NCS–. The high activating action of cobalt(II complexes with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulphenamides (1–(12 on elastase and fibrinolytic activity of peptidases compared to tris(4-morpholinecarbodithioatocobalt(ІІІ (14 and products of its interaction with halogens (15–(17, causes inhibitory effect that is probably due to presence of a weekly S–N link, which is easy subjected to homolytic breaking. The studies of influences of cobalt(II complexes on activity of C. аlbidus and E. еrubescens ?-Lrhamnosidases showed, that majority of compounds inhibits of its activity, at that the most inhibitory effect exerts to C. аlbidus enzyme.To sum up, it is possible to state that character of influence of cobalt(II complexes with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulphenamides, and also cobalt(II, Ш complexes with derivatives of morpholine-4-carbodithioic acid varies depending on both strain producer and enzyme tested. The difference in complex effects on enzymes tested are due to peculiarities of building and functional groups of their active centers, which are also responsible for binding with modificators.

  7. Synthetic light-activated molecular switches and motors on surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsonis, Nathalie; Lubomska, Monika; Pollard, Michael M.; Feringa, Ben L.; Rudolf, Petra

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in synthetic methods and analysis techniques provide a basis for the construction and characterization of organized arrays of molecular switches and motors on surfaces. Among them, molecular systems that can be controlled by light are particularly promising because of their ease of a

  8. Surface plasmon polariton modulator with optimized active layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    A multilayered waveguide, which supports surface plasmon polaritons, is considered as an absorption modulator. The waveguide core consists of a silicon nitride layer and ultrathin layer with the varied carrier density embedded between two silver plates, which also serve as electrodes. Under...

  9. Prevalence of Bimolecular Routes in the Activation of Diatomic Molecules with Strong Chemical Bonds (O2, NO, CO, N2) on Catalytic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbitts, David; Iglesia, Enrique

    2015-05-19

    Dissociation of the strong bonds in O2, NO, CO, and N2 often involves large activation barriers on low-index planes of metal particles used as catalysts. These kinetic hurdles reflect the noble nature of some metals (O2 activation on Au), the high coverages of co-reactants (O2 activation during CO oxidation on Pt), or the strength of the chemical bonds (NO on Pt, CO and N2 on Ru). High barriers for direct dissociations from density functional theory (DFT) have led to a consensus that "defects", consisting of low-coordination exposed atoms, are required to cleave such bonds, as calculated by theory and experiments for model surfaces at low coverages. Such sites, however, bind intermediates strongly, rendering them unreactive at the high coverages prevalent during catalysis. Such site requirements are also at odds with turnover rates that often depend weakly on cluster size or are actually higher on larger clusters, even though defects, such as corners and edges, are most abundant on small clusters. This Account illustrates how these apparent inconsistencies are resolved through activations of strong bonds assisted by co-adsorbates on crowded low-index surfaces. Catalytic oxidations occur on Au clusters at low temperatures in spite of large activation barriers for O2 dissociation on Au(111) surfaces, leading to proposals that O2 activation requires low-coordination Au atoms or Au-support interfaces. When H2O is present, however, O2 dissociation proceeds with low barriers on Au(111) because chemisorbed peroxides (*OOH* and *HOOH*) form and weaken O-O bonds before cleavage, thus allowing activation on low-index planes. DFT-derived O2 dissociation barriers are much lower on bare Pt surfaces, but such surfaces are nearly saturated with CO* during CO oxidation. A dearth of vacant sites causes O2* to react with CO* to form *OOCO* intermediates that undergo O-O cleavage. NO-H2 reactions occur on Pt clusters saturated with NO* and H*; direct NO* dissociation requires vacant

  10. Enzymatic activity induced by interactions with a nanofabricated hydrophobic Si surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Katsuhiko

    2013-07-01

    The binding of peptides of 2-10 glycine residues (2-10Gly) to papain on nanofabricated hydrophobic Si surfaces was investigated by molecular dynamics and docking simulations. 5Gly, 7Gly, 9Gly, and 10Gly were distributed on sites near the active center of papain on the Si surface, while 6-10Gly were distributed on sites near the active center of free papain. The Si surface changed the substrate specificity of papain, and modification of this surface should allow full control of substrate specificity. Molecular surgery of proteins in cells may be realized using papain on specially designed surfaces.

  11. A Model of Irregular Impurity at the Surface of Nanoparticle and Catalytic Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.V.Blinova; V.V.Gusarov; I.Yu.Popov

    2012-01-01

    A problem of nanocatalyst improvement is considered. The existence of irregularities at the surface of nanoparticle leads to the increasing of the surface/volume ratio and, correspondingly, to the improvement of the catalytic activity. But this impurity gives one an additional effect due to the change of the electronic density at the surface. We suggest simple model for the description of this effect. The model allows one to find the discrete spectrum of the Schrdinger operator for nanoparticle. Due to this impurity induced bound states the electron density increases near the surface. It leads to the increase of the catalytic activity of nanoparticles with surface impurities.

  12. Core-shell hybrid nanomaterial based on prussian blue and surface active maghemite nanoparticles as stable electrocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Massimiliano; Baratella, Davide; Salviulo, Gabriella; Polakova, Katerina; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Tucek, Jiri; Kaslik, Josef; Zboril, Radek; Vianello, Fabio

    2014-02-15

    A novel core-shell nanomaterial based on prussian blue (PB) coating on peculiar surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs), was developed. The synthetic process involves the direct crystallization of Fe(II)(CN)6(4-) onto the surface of SAMNs by simple incubation in water at controlled pH, demonstrating the presence of under-coordinated Fe(III) on nanoparticle surface. The coating reaction occurs in a narrow pH range and the synthetic procedure was optimized. The resulting SAMN@PB hybrid nanostructures were characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Mössbauer, UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The nanomaterial, characterized by high stability in alkaline media, behave as excellent electro-catalyst for hydrogen peroxide reduction. The stability of SAMN@PB hybrid has been investigated as a function of pH, showing excellent stability up to pH 9.0 and demonstrating the feasibility of SAMNs, superficially derivatized with prussian blue, to produce an efficient and extremely stable nanostructured material. This maghemite supported nanostructured prussian blue was applied to develop a sensor, based on a simple carbon paste electrode, which was able to catalyze the electro-reduction of hydrogen peroxide, in aqueous solutions, buffered at pH 7.0, at low applied potentials (0.0 V vs. SCE). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiple short windows of calcium-dependent protein kinase 4 activity coordinate distinct cell cycle events during Plasmodium gametogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hanwei; Klages, Natacha; Baechler, Bastien; Hillner, Evelyn; Yu, Lu; Pardo, Mercedes; Choudhary, Jyoti; Brochet, Mathieu

    2017-05-08

    Malaria transmission relies on the production of gametes following ingestion by a mosquito. Here, we show that Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase 4 controls three processes essential to progress from a single haploid microgametocyte to the release of eight flagellated microgametes in Plasmodium berghei. A myristoylated isoform is activated by Ca(2+) to initiate a first genome replication within twenty seconds of activation. This role is mediated by a protein of the SAPS-domain family involved in S-phase entry. At the same time, CDPK4 is required for the assembly of the subsequent mitotic spindle and to phosphorylate a microtubule-associated protein important for mitotic spindle formation. Finally, a non-myristoylated isoform is essential to complete cytokinesis by activating motility of the male flagellum. This role has been linked to phosphorylation of an uncharacterised flagellar protein. Altogether, this study reveals how a kinase integrates and transduces multiple signals to control key cell-cycle transitions during Plasmodium gametogenesis.

  14. Coordinate activation of Shh and PI3K signaling in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma: new therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filbin, Mariella Gruber; Dabral, Sukriti K; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F; Ramkissoon, Shakti; Kung, Andrew L; Pak, Ekaterina; Chung, Jarom; Theisen, Matthew A; Sun, Yanping; Franchetti, Yoko; Sun, Yu; Shulman, David S; Redjal, Navid; Tabak, Barbara; Beroukhim, Rameen; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Jean; Dorsch, Marion; Buonamici, Silvia; Ligon, Keith L; Kelleher, Joseph F; Segal, Rosalind A

    2013-11-01

    In glioblastoma, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is frequently activated by loss of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). However, it is not known whether inhibiting PI3K represents a selective and effective approach for treatment. We interrogated large databases and found that sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling is activated in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma. We demonstrate that the SHH and PI3K pathways synergize to promote tumor growth and viability in human PTEN-deficient glioblastomas. A combination of PI3K and SHH signaling inhibitors not only suppressed the activation of both pathways but also abrogated S6 kinase (S6K) signaling. Accordingly, targeting both pathways simultaneously resulted in mitotic catastrophe and tumor apoptosis and markedly reduced the growth of PTEN-deficient glioblastomas in vitro and in vivo. The drugs tested here appear to be safe in humans; therefore, this combination may provide a new targeted treatment for glioblastoma.

  15. Bismuth Ferrite for Active Control of Surface Plasmon Polariton Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We propose and investigate several layouts of m etal-insulator-metal waveguide with active core which can be utilized for dynamic switching in photonic integrated circuits. The active material, bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3), is sandwiched between metal plates and changes i ts refractive index through ...

  16. Note: A single-chamber tool for plasma activation and surface functionalization in microfabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Adam J.; Scherrer, Joseph R.; Reiserer, Ronald S., E-mail: ron.reiserer@vanderbilt.edu [Vanderbilt Institute for Integrative Biosystems Research and Education and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present a simple apparatus for improved surface modification of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices. A single treatment chamber for plasma activation and chemical/physical vapor deposition steps minimizes the time-dependent degradation of surface activation that is inherent in multi-chamber techniques. Contamination and deposition irregularities are also minimized by conducting plasma activation and treatment phases in the same vacuum environment. An inductively coupled plasma driver allows for interchangeable treatment chambers. Atomic force microscopy confirms that silane deposition on PDMS gives much better surface quality than standard deposition methods, which yield a higher local roughness and pronounced irregularities in the surface.

  17. Mitotic aberrations induced by carbaryl reflect tyrosine kinase inhibition with coincident up-regulation of serine/threonine protein phosphatase activity: implications for coordination of karyokinesis and cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renglin, A; Härmälä-Brasken, A S; Eriksson, J E; Onfelt, A

    1999-05-01

    The insecticide carbaryl and its metabolite 1-naphthol cause partial uncoupling of karyokinesis and cytokinesis in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts; karyokinesis is blocked in metaphase, the microtubules of the spindle depolymerize and the chromosomes and spindle remnants become displaced to the periphery of the cell. A high frequency of these disturbed cells elongate and a smaller fraction initiate a cleavage furrow. Here, we attempt to determine the potential targets for carbaryl and 1-naphthol in cytokinesis-specific signalling, led by the fact that the potential protein phosphatase inhibitor 1-naphthyl phosphate was previously identified in treated cells. We found that the typical cytological pattern induced by carbaryl and 1-naphthol could be obtained with tyrphostins, specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors, indicating that the carbaryl-induced effects could be due to tyrosine kinase inhibition. This was confirmed by tyrosine kinase assays showing that carbaryl, 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol were equally efficient at inhibiting tyrosine kinase activity as tyrphostin B44(-). As tyrosine kinases can act as regulatory factors in determining dephosphorylation rates, the activities of type-1 (PP1) and type-2A (PP2A) serine/threonine protein phosphatases were also determined. There was a clear up-regulation of the overall PP1/PP2A activities in cells treated with carbaryl, 1-naphthol or tyrphostin B44(-). This stimulation was shown to be indirect because these compounds had no effect on the activity of purified human PP1 in the test tube. 2-Naphthol, which has been found to be less efficient with regard to displacement of chromatin, did not cause up-regulation, but a significant decrease in PP1/PP2A activity. We suggest that a net decrease in tyrosine kinase activity in combination with a net increase in PP1/PP2A activity is a precondition for cell elongation and cytokinesis in mammalian cells and that the corresponding enzymes are targets in the network of activities

  18. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of strontium(II) coordination. II. Sorption and precipitation at kaolinite, amorphous silica, and goethite surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, N.; Carroll, S.A.; Roberts, S.; O' Day, P.A.

    2000-02-15

    Sorption of dissolved strontium on kaolinite, amorphous silica, and goethite was studied as a function of pH, aqueous strontium concentration, the presence or absence of atmospheric CO{sub 2} or dissolved phosphate, and aging over a 57-day period. Selected sorption samples ([Sr(a1)]{sub i} {approximately} 0.5--1 x 10{sup {minus}3}m) were examined with synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at low (13--23 K) and room temperatures to determine the local molecular coordination around strontium.

  19. Coordination of intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscle activity as a function of wrist joint angle during two-digit grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jamie A; Bobich, Lisa R; Santello, Marco

    2010-04-26

    Fingertip forces result from the activation of muscles that cross the wrist and muscles whose origins and insertions reside within the hand (extrinsic and intrinsic hand muscles, respectively). Thus, tasks that involve changes in wrist angle affect the moment arm and length, hence the force-producing capabilities, of extrinsic muscles only. If a grasping task requires the exertion of constant fingertip forces, the Central Nervous System (CNS) may respond to changes in wrist angle by modulating the neural drive to extrinsic or intrinsic muscles only or by co-activating both sets of muscles. To distinguish between these scenarios, we recorded electromyographic (EMG) activity of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the thumb and index finger as a function of wrist angle during a two-digit object hold task. We hypothesized that changes in wrist angle would elicit EMG amplitude modulation of the extrinsic and intrinsic hand muscles. In one experimental condition we asked subjects to exert the same digit forces at each wrist angle, whereas in a second condition subjects could choose digit forces for holding the object. EMG activity was significantly modulated in both extrinsic and intrinsic muscles as a function of wrist angle (both pmuscles. We conclude that the CNS controlled both extrinsic and intrinsic muscles as a muscle synergy. These findings are discussed within the theoretical frameworks of synergies and common neural input across motor nuclei of hand muscles. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. NLRP3 activation and mitosis are mutually exclusive events coordinated by NEK7, a new inflammasome component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hexin; Wang, Ying; Li, Xiaohong; Zhan, Xiaoming; Tang, Miao; Fina, Maggy; Su, Lijing; Pratt, David; Bu, Chun Hui; Hildebrand, Sara; Lyon, Stephen; Scott, Lindsay; Quan, Jiexia; Sun, Qihua; Russell, Jamie; Arnett, Stephanie; Jurek, Peter; Chen, Ding; Kravchenko, Vladimir V; Mathison, John C; Moresco, Eva Marie Y; Monson, Nancy L; Ulevitch, Richard J; Beutler, Bruce

    2016-03-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome responds to microbes and danger signals by processing and activating proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. We found here that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was restricted to interphase of the cell cycle by NEK7, a serine-threonine kinase previously linked to mitosis. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome required NEK7, which bound to the leucine-rich repeat domain of NLRP3 in a kinase-independent manner downstream of the induction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). This interaction was necessary for the formation of a complex containing NLRP3 and the adaptor ASC, oligomerization of ASC and activation of caspase-1. NEK7 promoted the NLRP3-dependent cellular inflammatory response to intraperitoneal challenge with monosodium urate and the development of experimental autoimmune encephalitis in mice. Our findings suggest that NEK7 serves as a cellular switch that enforces mutual exclusivity of the inflammasome response and cell division.

  1. Toward Interagency Coordination FY '75 Federal Research and Development Activities Pertaining to Early Childhood. Fifth Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Thomas W.; Mann, Ada Jo

    This report provides an overview of the federally-funded early childhood research activities of fiscal year 1975. In order to assess the directions in which federal research programs are moving, ongoing research projects are analyzed both within individual agencies and within the federal government as a whole. The first chapter reviews the…

  2. Influence of the π-coordinated arene on the anticancer activity of ruthenium(II) carbohydrate organometallic complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Meier, Samuel M; Nazarov, Alexey A; Risse, Julie; Legin, Anton; Casini, Angela; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hartinger, Christian G

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of a series of Ru(II)(arene) complexes with carbohydrate-derived phosphite ligands and various arene co-ligands is described. The arene ligand has a strong influence on the in vitro anticancer activity of this series of compounds, which correlates fairly well

  3. Influence of the π-coordinated arene on the anticancer activity of ruthenium(II) carbohydrate organometallic complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Meier, Samuel M; Nazarov, Alexey A; Risse, Julie; Legin, Anton; Casini, Angela; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hartinger, Christian G

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of a series of Ru(II)(arene) complexes with carbohydrate-derived phosphite ligands and various arene co-ligands is described. The arene ligand has a strong influence on the in vitro anticancer activity of this series of compounds, which correlates fairly well

  4. Use of surface electromyography to estimate neck muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerich, C M; Joines, S M; Hermans, V; Moon, S D

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the use of surface electromyography (sEMG) for the study of the neck musculature in response to work and workplace design during light work and semi-static tasks. The paper also draws upon basic research and biomechanical modeling in order to provide methodological recommendations for the use of surface electromyography in this region of the body and to identify areas which require further investigation. The paper includes review and discussion of electrode site location, methods of normalization, data reliability, and factors that can affect sEMG signals from this region, including noise, physiologic artifact, stress, visual deficiencies, and pain. General guidance for maximum exertions with the neck musculature, for sEMG normalization or other purposes, is also included.

  5. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Document Server

    Austin Ball

    The 2008-9 CMS shutdown has reached its final phase. The yoke is closed again and the HFs are being prepared for lifting to beam height. Assuming no last minute problems occur, the detector will be ready for magnetic field tests by the end of June. The commitment of all the teams involved has ensured that an ambitious programme of work, including several tasks unforeseen in November 08, is nevertheless concluding on-time and successfully. All efforts are now being made to be ready for the CRAFT09 exercise. The way to proceed after CRAFT will depend on the LHC re-start schedule (to be clarified around the end of June). Options will be discussed during this CMS week. Shutdown 2008-9 Sub-Detectors As a reminder, the major shutdown activities on the detector components are listed below; details on each point can be found elsewhere in this bulletin. •    Installation and check-out of the Preshower detector on both endcaps •    Mainten...

  6. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Austin Ball

    Summary of progress since last CMS week. Ten years of construction work have been completed. CMS is closed, in very close to the ideal low luminosity configuration, and performed well in the first tests with LHC beam. Behind this encouraging news is the story of a summer of intense commitment by many teams (from the collaboration and 3 CERN departments) working together, against the clock and despite many minor setbacks, to ensure that the experiment was ready to play a leading role in the excitement of September 10. Following beampipe bakeout and refill with pure neon, a magnificent effort by the ECAL group and the pt 5 technical crew made it possible to install and commission all 4 ECAL endcap Dees before the end of August. In the shadow of this activity, the barrel and forward pixel trackers and part of the beam monitoring were installed within the vac tank. The pt 5 technical teams then succeeded in safely removing the 20t installation tables and their support blocks from beneath the already installed ...

  7. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2013-01-01

    For the reporting period, the CMS common systems and infrastructure worked well, without failures that caused significant data losses. One more disconnection of the magnet cold box occurred in the shadow of interruptions in data taking, caused by a series of technical faults. The recognition during 2012 that re-connection can only safely be done at around 2 T implies a minimum magnet recovery time of 12 hours and raises serious concerns about the number of ramping cycles of the magnet these incidents cause. This has triggered studies of how to make the cryo-system of the magnet more robust against failures. The proton-proton run ended just before the end-of-year CERN closure, during which CASTOR was installed on the negative end of CMS and both ZDC calorimeters were installed in TAN absorbers the LHC tunnel, in preparation for the heavy-ion run. The installation of CASTOR was an excellent “engineering test” of procedures for working in an activated environment. Despite some technical pr...

  8. Adsorption of atrazine on hemp stem-based activated carbons with different surface chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lupul, Iwona; Yperman, Jan; Carleer, Robert; Gryglewicz, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    Surface-modified hemp stem-based activated carbons (HACs) were prepared and used for the adsorption of atrazine from aqueous solution, and their adsorption performance was examined. A series of HACs were prepared by potassium hydroxide activation of hemp stems, followed by subsequent modification by thermal annealing, oxidation with nitric acid and amination. The resultant HACs differed in surface chemistry, while possessing similar porous structure. The surface group characteristics were exa...

  9. Coordination Chemistry of Polyaromatic Thiosemicarbazones 2: Synthesis and Biological Activity of Zinc, Cobalt, and Copper Complexes of 1-(Naphthalene-2-ylethanone Thiosemicarbazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Andre LeBlanc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel thiosemicarbazone from 2-acetonaphthone (represented as acnTSC has been synthesized and its basic coordination chemistry with zinc(II, cobalt(II, and copper(II explored. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and various spectroscopic techniques and are best formulated as [M(acnTSC2Cl2] with the metal likely in an octahedral environment. The anticancer activity of the complexes was determined against a panel of human colon cancer cells (HCT-116 and Caco-2. The compounds bind to DNA via an intercalative mode with binding constants of 9.7×104 M-1, 1.8×105 M-1, and 9.5×104 M-1 for the zinc, cobalt, and copper complexes, respectively.

  10. SYNTHESIS AND ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF COPPER, NICKEL AND COBALT COORDINATION COMPOUNDS WITH 1-(2-HYDROXYPHENYLETHANONE N(4-ALLYL-3-THIOSEMICARBAZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilii GRAUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the synthesis of the ligand 1-(2-hydroxyphenylethanone N(4-allyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (H2L and six coordination compounds of copper, nickel and cobalt with this ligand. The structure of thiosemicarbazone H2L was studied using 1H and 13С NMR spectroscopy. The synthesized coordination compounds were studied using elemental analysis, gravimetric analysis of water content, molar conductivity, and magnetochemistry. For H2L the antitumor activity towards human leukemia HL-60 cells and cervical cancer HeLa cells was determined. It was established that the substitution of hydrogen atom with methyl group in the azomethinic fragment leads to the growth of antitumor activity.SINTEZA ŞI ACTIVITATEA ANTITUMORALĂ A COMPUŞILOR COMPLECŞI AI CUPRULUI, NICHELULUI ŞI COBALTULUI CU N(4-ALIL-3-TIOSEMICARBAZONA 1-(2-HIDROXIFENILETANONEILucrarea conţine descrierea sintezei N(4-alil-3-tiosemicarbazonei 1-(2-hidroxifeniletanonei (H2L şi a şase compuşi coordinativi ai cuprului, nichelului şi cobaltului cu acest ligand. Structura tiosemicarbazonei H2L a fost stabilită în baza datelor spectroscopiei RMN 1H şi 13C. Compuşi coordinativi au fost studiaţi cu ajutorul analizei elementale, analizei gravimetrice a conţinutului de apă, conductivitaţii molare şi magnetochimiei. Pentru H2L a fost determinată activitatea antitumorală faţă de celulele leucemiei umane HL-60 şi ale cancerului cervical HeLa. S-a stabilit că înlocuirea atomului de hidrogen cu o grupare metil în fragmentul azomethinic conduce la creşterea activitaţii antitumorale.

  11. Study of the processes of adsorption of amine-containing surface-active substance on the surface of Aluminum powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Dyuryagina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Equilibrium characteristics of adsorption on a surface of a pigment depending on concentration factors and temperature of the dispersive environment are defined. Kinetic laws of superficial activity of binary, threefold homogeneous and heterogeneous modeling systems are studied. The estimation of mechanisms of process of adsorption is carried out.

  12. Selective metallization of polymers using laser induced surface activation (LISA)—characterization and optimization of porous surface topography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Grave, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Laser induced selective activation (LISA) is a molded interconnected devices technique for selective metallization of polymers. On the working piece, only the laser-machined area can be metalized in the subsequent plating. The principle of the technology is introduced. Surface analysis was perfor...

  13. A one-dimensional copper(II) coordination polymer incorporating succinate and N,N-diethylethylenediamine ligands: crystallographic analysis, vibrational and surface features, and DFT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Fatih; Kansiz, Sevgi; Uçar, İbrahim

    2017-07-01

    Transition metal atoms can be bridged by aliphatic dicarboxylate ligands to produce chains, layers and frameworks. The reaction of copper sulfate with succinic acid (H2succ) and N,N-diethylethylenediamine (deed) in basic solution produces the complex catena-poly[[[(N,N-diethylethylenediamine-κ(2)N,N')copper(II)]-μ-succinato-κ(2)O(1):O(4)] tetrahydrate], {[Cu(C4H4O4)(C6H16N2)]·4H2O}n or {[Cu(succ)(deed)]·4H2O}n. Each carboxylate group of the succinate ligand coordinates to a Cu(II) atom in a monodentate fashion, giving rise to a square-planar coordination environment. The succinate ligands bridge the Cu(II) centres to form one-dimensional polymeric chains. Hydrogen bonds between the ligands and water molecules link these chains into sheets that lie in the ab plane. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to support the experimental data. From these calculations, a good linear correlation was observed between the experimental and theoretically predicted structural and spectroscopic parameters (R(2) ∼ 0.97).

  14. Understanding Emergent Dynamics: Using a Collective Activity Coordinate of a Neural Network to Recognize Time-Varying Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfield, John J

    2015-10-01

    In higher animals, complex and robust behaviors are produced by the microscopic details of large structured ensembles of neurons. I describe how the emergent computational dynamics of a biologically based neural network generates a robust natural solution to the problem of categorizing time-varying stimulus patterns such as spoken words or animal stereotypical behaviors. The recognition of these patterns is made difficult by their substantial variation in cadence and duration. The neural circuit behaviors used are similar to those associated with brain neural integrators. In the larger context described here, this kind of circuit becomes a building block of an entirely different computational algorithm for solving complex problems. While the network behavior is simulated in detail, a collective view is essential to understanding the results. A closed equation of motion for the collective variable describes an algorithm that quantitatively accounts for many aspects of the emergent network computation. The feedback connections and ongoing activity in the network shape the collective dynamics onto a reduced dimensionality manifold of activity space, which defines the algorithm and computation actually performed. The external inputs are weak and are not the dominant drivers of network activity.

  15. Is the effect of surface modifying molecules on antibacterial activity universal for a given material?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Alexander; Liu, Fangzhou; Leung, Yu Hang; Ma, Angel P. Y.; Djurišić, Aleksandra B.; Leung, Frederick C. C.; Chan, Wai Kin; Lee, Hung Kay

    2014-08-01

    Antibacterial activity of nanomaterials is strongly dependent on their properties, and their stability and toxicity can be varied using surface coatings. We investigated the effect of different surface modifying molecules on the antibacterial properties of two ZnO nanoparticle samples. We found that the starting surface properties of the nanoparticles have significant effects on the attachment of the surface modifying molecules and consequent antibacterial activity. Two out of five investigated surface modifying molecules not only had a significant difference in the magnitude of their effect on different nanoparticles, but also resulted in the opposite effects on two ZnO nanoparticle samples (an enhancement of antibacterial activity for one and a reduction of antibacterial activity for the other ZnO sample). This indicates that no general rule on the effect of a specific molecule on the toxicity of a metal oxide nanoparticle can be derived without knowing the nanoparticle properties, due to the fact that surface modifier attachment onto the surface is affected by the initial surface properties.Antibacterial activity of nanomaterials is strongly dependent on their properties, and their stability and toxicity can be varied using surface coatings. We investigated the effect of different surface modifying molecules on the antibacterial properties of two ZnO nanoparticle samples. We found that the starting surface properties of the nanoparticles have significant effects on the attachment of the surface modifying molecules and consequent antibacterial activity. Two out of five investigated surface modifying molecules not only had a significant difference in the magnitude of their effect on different nanoparticles, but also resulted in the opposite effects on two ZnO nanoparticle samples (an enhancement of antibacterial activity for one and a reduction of antibacterial activity for the other ZnO sample). This indicates that no general rule on the effect of a specific

  16. TRAF1 Coordinates Polyubiquitin Signaling to Enhance Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1-Mediated Growth and Survival Pathway Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Greenfeld

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV encoded oncoprotein Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1 signals through two C-terminal tail domains to drive cell growth, survival and transformation. The LMP1 membrane-proximal TES1/CTAR1 domain recruits TRAFs to activate MAP kinase, non-canonical and canonical NF-kB pathways, and is critical for EBV-mediated B-cell transformation. TRAF1 is amongst the most highly TES1-induced target genes and is abundantly expressed in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. We found that TRAF1 expression enhanced LMP1 TES1 domain-mediated activation of the p38, JNK, ERK and canonical NF-kB pathways, but not non-canonical NF-kB pathway activity. To gain insights into how TRAF1 amplifies LMP1 TES1 MAP kinase and canonical NF-kB pathways, we performed proteomic analysis of TRAF1 complexes immuno-purified from cells uninduced or induced for LMP1 TES1 signaling. Unexpectedly, we found that LMP1 TES1 domain signaling induced an association between TRAF1 and the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC, and stimulated linear (M1-linked polyubiquitin chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes. LMP1 or TRAF1 complexes isolated from EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid B cell lines (LCLs were highly modified by M1-linked polyubiqutin chains. The M1-ubiquitin binding proteins IKK-gamma/NEMO, A20 and ABIN1 each associate with TRAF1 in cells that express LMP1. TRAF2, but not the cIAP1 or cIAP2 ubiquitin ligases, plays a key role in LUBAC recruitment and M1-chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes, implicating the TRAF1:TRAF2 heterotrimer in LMP1 TES1-dependent LUBAC activation. Depletion of either TRAF1, or the LUBAC ubiquitin E3 ligase subunit HOIP, markedly impaired LCL growth. Likewise, LMP1 or TRAF1 complexes purified from LCLs were decorated by lysine 63 (K63-linked polyubiqutin chains. LMP1 TES1 signaling induced K63-polyubiquitin chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes, and TRAF2 was identified as K63-Ub chain target. Co-localization of M1- and K63

  17. TRAF1 Coordinates Polyubiquitin Signaling to Enhance Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1-Mediated Growth and Survival Pathway Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Greenfeld

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV encoded oncoprotein Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1 signals through two C-terminal tail domains to drive cell growth, survival and transformation. The LMP1 membrane-proximal TES1/CTAR1 domain recruits TRAFs to activate MAP kinase, non-canonical and canonical NF-kB pathways, and is critical for EBV-mediated B-cell transformation. TRAF1 is amongst the most highly TES1-induced target genes and is abundantly expressed in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. We found that TRAF1 expression enhanced LMP1 TES1 domain-mediated activation of the p38, JNK, ERK and canonical NF-kB pathways, but not non-canonical NF-kB pathway activity. To gain insights into how TRAF1 amplifies LMP1 TES1 MAP kinase and canonical NF-kB pathways, we performed proteomic analysis of TRAF1 complexes immuno-purified from cells uninduced or induced for LMP1 TES1 signaling. Unexpectedly, we found that LMP1 TES1 domain signaling induced an association between TRAF1 and the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC, and stimulated linear (M1-linked polyubiquitin chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes. LMP1 or TRAF1 complexes isolated from EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid B cell lines (LCLs were highly modified by M1-linked polyubiqutin chains. The M1-ubiquitin binding proteins IKK-gamma/NEMO, A20 and ABIN1 each associate with TRAF1 in cells that express LMP1. TRAF2, but not the cIAP1 or cIAP2 ubiquitin ligases, plays a key role in LUBAC recruitment and M1-chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes, implicating the TRAF1:TRAF2 heterotrimer in LMP1 TES1-dependent LUBAC activation. Depletion of either TRAF1, or the LUBAC ubiquitin E3 ligase subunit HOIP, markedly impaired LCL growth. Likewise, LMP1 or TRAF1 complexes purified from LCLs were decorated by lysine 63 (K63-linked polyubiqutin chains. LMP1 TES1 signaling induced K63-polyubiquitin chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes, and TRAF2 was identified as K63-Ub chain target. Co-localization of M1- and K63

  18. Inter-joint coordination of posture on a seesaw device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, Frédéric; García-Massó, Xavier; Paillard, Thierry

    2017-06-01

    Even though specific adjustments of the multi-joint control of posture have been observed when posture is challenged, multi-joint coordination on a seesaw device has never been accurately assessed. The current study was conducted in order to investigate the multi-joint coordination when subjects were standing on either a seesaw device or on a stable surface, with the eyes open or closed. Eighteen healthy active subjects were recruited. A principal component analysis and a Self-Organizing Maps analysis were performed on the joint angles in order to detect and characterize dominant coordination patterns. Intermuscular EMG coherence was analysed in order to assess the neurophysiological mechanisms associated with these coordination patterns. The results illustrated a multi-joint organization of posture on both stable ground and on the seesaw, with a higher variability among the individual postural responses observed when standing on the seesaw. These findings challenge the classical assumption of ankle mechanisms as dominating control on seesaw devices and confirm that inter-joint coordination in postural control is strongly modulated by stance conditions. When standing on the seesaw without vision, a decrease in intermuscular coherence was observed without any impact on the joint coordination patterns, likely due to an increase dependence on proprioceptive information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Terrestrial Coordinate Systems and Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A terrestrial reference system (TRS) is a spatial reference system corotating with the Earth in its DIURNAL MOTION in space. In such a system, the positions of points anchored on the Earth's solid surface have coordinates which have only small variations with time, as a result of geophysical effects (tectonic or tidal deformations; see TECTONICS, EARTH'S INTERIOR, TIDES). A terrestrial reference ...

  20. Hematite Surface Activation by Chemical Addition of Tin Oxide Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Waldemir M; Souza, Flavio L

    2016-09-05

    In this study, the effect of tin (Sn(4+) ) modification on the surface of hematite electrodes synthesized by an aqueous solution route at different times (2, 5, 10, 18, and 24 h) is investigated. As confirmed from X-ray diffraction results, the as-synthesized electrode exhibits an oxyhydroxide phase, which is converted into a pure hematite phase after being subjected to additional thermal treatment at 750 °C for 30 min. The tin-modified hematite electrode is prepared by depositing a solution of Sn(4+) precursor on the as-synthesized electrode, followed by thermal treatment under the same abovementioned conditions. This modification results in an enhancement of the photocurrent response for all hematite electrodes investigated and attains the highest values of around 1.62 and 2.3 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 and 1.4 V versus RHE, respectively, for electrodes obtained in short synthesis times (2 h). Contact angle measurements suggest that the deposition of Sn(4+) on the hematite electrode provides a more hydrophilic surface, which favors a chemical reaction at the interface between the electrode and electrolyte. This result generates new perspectives for understanding the deposition of Sn(4+) on the hematite electrode surface, which is in contrast with several studies previously reported; these studies state that the enhancement in photocurrent density is related to either the induction of an increased donor charge density or shift in the flat-band potential, which favors charge separation.

  1. Influence of soluble surface-active organic material on droplet activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhidong

    1997-06-01

    The growth of droplets from inorganic salt aerosols, i.e., NaCl or (NH4)2SO4, by water vapor condensation can be predicted from Kohler theory, which accounts for the droplet curvature (Kelvin) effect and solute (Raoult) effect. Atmospheric aerosol particles, however, are also rich in organic materials, some of which are water soluble surfactants. Very limited research has been carried out to study the influence of soluble surfactants on droplet activation. This research has explored the effect of soluble surfactants on droplet activation both theoretically and experimentally. Particles containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) have been selected as surrogate of atmospheric surfactant aerosols. Both experimental and model simulation reach consistent results. It is concluded that SDS can lower critical supersaturation of particles that contain SDS through surface tension depression (lowering Kelvin effect). However, due to its high molecular weight (Mw = 288), SDS lowers the Raoult effect, leading to overall higher critical supersaturation than that of same dry size of pure NaCl particles. The osmotic coefficient of NaCl, Φ sal, and of SDS, Φ SDS, have also been calculated utilizing the measured S c and published σ data. It appears that the presence of SDS in an initially dry particle alters Φ SDS such that it increases in value and approaches ideal behavior as the proportion of SDS decreases. Since the critical droplet radius is larger for smaller SDS% in the mixture, the corresponding SDS bulk concentration is even more dilute, which is consistent with ideal solution behavior. Both theoretical and experimental approaches also show that despite the a depression, S c of a particle that contains SDS is always higher than that of a pure NaCl particle with the same dry size. The degree of this deviation increases with increasing SDS% in the mixtures, indicating an increase in hydrophobicity with increasing SDS% in the initially dry particles. The lowering of Raoult

  2. Giant and switchable surface activity of liquid metal via surface oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Mohammad Rashed; Eaker, Collin B.; Bowden, Edmond F.; Dickey, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to control the interfacial energy of a liquid metal via electrochemical deposition (or removal) of an oxide layer on its surface. Unlike conventional surfactants, this approach can tune the interfacial tension of a metal significantly (from ∼7× that of water to near zero), rapidly, and reversibly using only modest voltages. These properties can be harnessed to induce previously unidentified electrohydrodynamic phenomena for manipulating liquid metal alloys based on gallium...

  3. Surface Modification of Fly Ash for Active Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash based effective solid base catalyst (KF/Al2O3/fly ash473, KF/Al2O3/fly ash673, and KF/Al2O3/fly ash873 was synthesized by loading KF over chemically and thermally activated fly ash. The chemical activation was done by treating fly ash with aluminum nitrate via precipitation method followed by thermal activation at 650°C to increase the alumina content in fly ash. The increased alumina content was confirmed by SEM-EDX analysis. The alumina enriched fly ash was then loaded with KF (10 wt% and calcined at three different temperatures 473 K, 673 K and 873 K. The amount of loaded KF was monitored by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM-EDX, TEM and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were tested in the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of benzaldehyde and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde with 2′-hydroxyacetophenone to produce 2′-hydroxychalcone and 4-methoxy-2′-hydroxychalcone respectively. Higher conversion (83% of benzaldehyde and (89% of 4-methoxybenzaldehyde reveals that among these heterogeneous catalysts KF/Al2O3/fly ash673 is very active.

  4. Limitations of Radar Coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Bini, Donato; Lusanna, Luca; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2004-01-01

    The construction of a radar coordinate system about the world line of an observer is discussed. Radar coordinates for a hyperbolic observer as well as a uniformly rotating observer are described in detail. The utility of the notion of radar distance and the admissibility of radar coordinates are investigated. Our results provide a critical assessment of the physical significance of radar coordinates.

  5. Study on the correlation between the surface active species of Pd/cordierite monolithic catalyst and its catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Hengcheng, E-mail: hengchengliao@seu.edu.cn; Zuo, Peiyuan; Liu, Miaomiao

    2016-09-15

    Two Pd-loading routes and three Pd-precursor matters were adopted to prepare Pd/(Ce,Y)O{sub 2}/γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/cordierite monolithic catalyst. The surface active species on the catalyst were characterized by XPS, and its catalytic activity for methane combustion was tested, and the dynamics of the catalytic combustion reaction was also discussed. Pd-loading route and Pd-precursor mass have a significant influence on the catalytic activity and surface active species. The sol dipping method is more advanced than the aqueous solution impregnating method. PN-sol catalyst, by sol dipping combined with Pd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}-precursor, has the best catalytic activity. The physical reason is the unique active Pd phase coexisting with active PdO phase on the surface, and thus the Pd3d{sub 5/2} binding energy of surface species and apparent activation energy of combustion reaction are considerably decreased. The catalytic activity index, Pd3d{sub 5/2} binding energy and apparent activation energy are highly tied each other with exponential relations.

  6. Enrichment of Conserved Synaptic Activity-Responsive Element in Neuronal Genes Predicts a Coordinated Response of MEF2, CREB and SRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tornos, Fernanda M.; San Aniceto, Iñigo; Cubelos, Beatriz; Nieto, Marta

    2013-01-01

    A unique synaptic activity-responsive element (SARE) sequence, composed of the consensus binding sites for SRF, MEF2 and CREB, is necessary for control of transcriptional upregulation of the Arc gene in response to synaptic activity. We hypothesize that this sequence is a broad mechanism that regulates gene expression in response to synaptic activation and during plasticity; and that analysis of SARE-containing genes could identify molecular mechanisms involved in brain disorders. To search for conserved SARE sequences in the mammalian genome, we used the SynoR in silico tool, and found the SARE cluster predominantly in the regulatory regions of genes expressed specifically in the nervous system; most were related to neural development and homeostatic maintenance. Two of these SARE sequences were tested in luciferase assays and proved to promote transcription in response to neuronal activation. Supporting the predictive capacity of our candidate list, up-regulation of several SARE containing genes in response to neuronal activity was validated using external data and also experimentally using primary cortical neurons and quantitative real time RT-PCR. The list of SARE-containing genes includes several linked to mental retardation and cognitive disorders, and is significantly enriched in genes that encode mRNA targeted by FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein). Our study thus supports the idea that SARE sequences are relevant transcriptional regulatory elements that participate in plasticity. In addition, it offers a comprehensive view of how activity-responsive transcription factors coordinate their actions and increase the selectivity of their targets. Our data suggest that analysis of SARE-containing genes will reveal yet-undescribed pathways of synaptic plasticity and additional candidate genes disrupted in mental disease. PMID:23382855

  7. Enrichment of conserved synaptic activity-responsive element in neuronal genes predicts a coordinated response of MEF2, CREB and SRF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M Rodríguez-Tornos

    Full Text Available A unique synaptic activity-responsive element (SARE sequence, composed of the consensus binding sites for SRF, MEF2 and CREB, is necessary for control of transcriptional upregulation of the Arc gene in response to synaptic activity. We hypothesize that this sequence is a broad mechanism that regulates gene expression in response to synaptic activation and during plasticity; and that analysis of SARE-containing genes could identify molecular mechanisms involved in brain disorders. To search for conserved SARE sequences in the mammalian genome, we used the SynoR in silico tool, and found the SARE cluster predominantly in the regulatory regions of genes expressed specifically in the nervous system; most were related to neural development and homeostatic maintenance. Two of these SARE sequences were tested in luciferase assays and proved to promote transcription in response to neuronal activation. Supporting the predictive capacity of our candidate list, up-regulation of several SARE containing genes in response to neuronal activity was validated using external data and also experimentally using primary cortical neurons and quantitative real time RT-PCR. The list of SARE-containing genes includes several linked to mental retardation and cognitive disorders, and is significantly enriched in genes that encode mRNA targeted by FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein. Our study thus supports the idea that SARE sequences are relevant transcriptional regulatory elements that participate in plasticity. In addition, it offers a comprehensive view of how activity-responsive transcription factors coordinate their actions and increase the selectivity of their targets. Our data suggest that analysis of SARE-containing genes will reveal yet-undescribed pathways of synaptic plasticity and additional candidate genes disrupted in mental disease.

  8. Effects of steam activation on the pore structure and surface chemistry of activated carbon derived from bamboo waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Juan; Xing, Zhen-Jiao; Duan, Zheng-Kang; Li, Meng; Wang, Yin

    2014-10-01

    The effects of steam activation on the pore structure evolution and surface chemistry of activated carbon (AC) obtained from bamboo waste were investigated. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms revealed that higher steam activation temperatures and/or times promoted the creation of new micropores and widened the existing micropores, consequently decreasing the surface area and total pore volume. Optimum conditions included an activation temperature of 850 °C, activation time of 120 min, and steam flush generated from deionized water of 0.2 cm3 min-1. Under these conditions, AC with a BET surface area of 1210 m2 g-1 and total pore volume of 0.542 cm-3 g-1was obtained. Changes in surface chemistry were determined through Boehm titration, pH measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results revealed the presence of a large number of basic groups on the surface of the pyrolyzed char and AC. Steam activation did not affect the species of oxygen-containing groups but changed the contents of these species when compared with pyrolyzed char. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the surface morphology of the products. AC obtained under optimum conditions showed a monolayer adsorption capacity of 330 mg g-1 for methylene blue (MB), which demonstrates its excellent potential for MB adsorption applications.

  9. Effects of steam activation on the pore structure and surface chemistry of activated carbon derived from bamboo waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan-Juan [School of Chemical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 36102 (China); Xing, Zhen-Jiao [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 36102 (China); Duan, Zheng-Kang [School of Chemical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Meng Li [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 36102 (China); Wang, Yin, E-mail: yinwang@iue.ac.cn [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 36102 (China)

    2014-10-01

    The effects of steam activation on the pore structure evolution and surface chemistry of activated carbon (AC) obtained from bamboo waste were investigated. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms revealed that higher steam activation temperatures and/or times promoted the creation of new micropores and widened the existing micropores, consequently decreasing the surface area and total pore volume. Optimum conditions included an activation temperature of 850 °C, activation time of 120 min, and steam flush generated from deionized water of 0.2 cm{sup 3} min{sup −1}. Under these conditions, AC with a BET surface area of 1210 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and total pore volume of 0.542 cm{sup −3} g{sup −1}was obtained. Changes in surface chemistry were determined through Boehm titration, pH measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results revealed the presence of a large number of basic groups on the surface of the pyrolyzed char and AC. Steam activation did not affect the species of oxygen-containing groups but changed the contents of these species when compared with pyrolyzed char. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the surface morphology of the products. AC obtained under optimum conditions showed a monolayer adsorption capacity of 330 mg g{sup −1} for methylene blue (MB), which demonstrates its excellent potential for MB adsorption applications.

  10. Transport of Optically Active Particles from the Surface Mixed Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-30

    aragonite in the form of abundant coccoliths and coccospheres, and occasional forams, pteropods and larval gastropods . The δ18O signature of the 2003... APPLICATIONS These experiments were designed to identify the major loss terms of optically-active particles. This indeed was accomplished. Such

  11. comparison of sorption capacity and surface area of activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    plant, but information about the use of Jatropha seed husk, which is about 39% of ... to carbon was carried out by burning in a limited air supply in a burning ... activated carbon prepared from samples of coconut shell, maize cob, orange peels, ...

  12. Influence of anodic surface treatment of activated carbon on adsorption and ion exchange properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.J.; Kim, K.D.

    1999-10-01

    The effect of anodic surface treatment of activated carbon on adsorption and ion exchange characteristics was investigated in the condition of 35 wt% NaOH electrolyte for 60 s. The acid and base values were determined by a titration technique, and surface and pore structures were studied in terms of BET volumetric measurement with N{sub 2} adsorption. The ion exchange capacity of the anodized activated carbons was characterized by a dry weight capacity technique. It was observed that an increase in current intensity leads to an increase in the surface functional groups of activated carbons, resulting in increasing pH, acid-base values, and anion-cation exchange capacities, without significant change of surface and pore structures (i.e., specific surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume, and average pore diameter). Also, anodically treated activated carbons are more effectively evaluated on the base value or cation exchange capacity than on the oppose properties in this electrolytic system.

  13. Identification of fungi isolated from banana rachis and characterization of their surface activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Castillo, L; Prieto-Correa, E; Jiménez-Junca, C

    2017-03-01

    Filamentous fungi are an unexplored source for the production of biosurfactants, but over a decade one of the most surface active molecules called hydrophobins was discovered. There are few techniques to determine the surface activity of fungi without any kind of manipulation that can affect the final results. In this work, we identified 33 strains of filamentous fungi isolated from banana rachis which may have potential in producing biosurfactants. Further, the production of surface active compounds by the strains was measured by two techniques. First, the surface tension of supernatants was evaluated in liquid cultures of the strains. We found that three strains belonging to the genus Fusarium, Penicillium and Trichoderma showed activity in the reduction of surface tension, which indicate a putative production of biosurfactants. Second, we measured the contact angle between the drop of water and the solid culture of strains to determine the surface activity of cells, classifying the strains as hydrophilic or hydrophobic. These techniques can be used as a quantitative measurement of the surface activity of fungi without cell manipulation. Biosurfactants are an alternative to petrochemical derivatives, and filamentous fungi are a promising source of these molecules. This work identified 33 strains of filamentous fungi in agroindustrial wastes. This is important because these results open the opportunity of finding new biosurfactants (hydrophobins) with unique properties. We propose the evaluation of surface tension in the supernatant as a quantitative screening to determine the production of biosurfactants from the strains of fungi. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Influence of the π-coordinated arene on the anticancer activity of ruthenium(II carbohydrate organometallic complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad eHanif

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of a series of RuII(arene complexes with carbohydrate-derived phosphite ligands and various arene co-ligands is described. The arene ligand has a strong influence on the in vitro anticancer activity of this series of compounds, which correlates fairly well with cellular accumulation. The most lipophilic compound bearing a biphenyl moiety and a cyclohexylidene-protected carbohydrate is the most cytotoxic with unprecedented IC50 values for the compound class in three human cancer cell lines. This compound shows reactivity to the DNA model nucleobase 9-ethylguanine, but does not alter the secondary structure of plasmid DNA indicating that other biological targets are responsible for its cytotoxic effect.

  15. Distribution of networks generating and coordinating locomotor activity in the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro: a lesion study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, O; Kiehn, O

    1996-01-01

    The isolated spinal cord of the newborn rat contains networks that are able to create a patterned motor output resembling normal locomotor movements. In this study, we sought to localize the regions of primary importance for rhythm and pattern generation using specific mechanical lesions. We used...... ventral root recordings to monitor neuronal activity and tested the ability of various isolated parts of the caudal thoraciclumbar cord to generate rhythmic bursting in a combination of 5-HT and NMDA. In addition, pathways mediating left/right and rostrocaudal burst alternation were localized. We found...... decreased in the caudal direction, but the rhythm-generating network was found to be distributed over the entire lumbar region and to extend into the caudal thoracic region. The pathways mediating left/ right alternation exist primarily in the ventral commissure. As with the rhythmogenic ability...

  16. Endogenous chloride channels of insect sf9 cells. Evidence for coordinated activity of small elementary channel units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Gabriel, S. E.; Stutts, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    ) openings interrupted by similar long closures. In the open state, channels exhibited fast burst-like closures. Since the patches normally contained more than a single channel, it was not possible to measure open and closed dwell-time distributions for comparing single-Cl- channel activity with the kinetic....../150) of approximately 3.5 pS and approximately 35 pS, respectively. All states reversed near the same membrane potential, and they exhibited similar halide ion selectivity, P1 > PCl approximately PBr. Accordingly, Cl- current amplitudes larger than current flow through the smallest channel unit resolved seem to result...... from simultaneous open/shut events of two or more channel units....

  17. Coordinating talk and practical action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae; Streeck, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how talk and practical action are coordinated during one type of activity involving professional communication: the service-assessment sequence in hair salons. During this activity, a practical inspection of the haircut must be coupled with sequentially produced verbal act...

  18. Evolution of High Cellulolytic Activity in Symbiotic Streptomyces through Selection of Expanded Gene Content and Coordinated Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Book

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of cellulose degradation was a defining event in the history of life. Without efficient decomposition and recycling, dead plant biomass would quickly accumulate and become inaccessible to terrestrial food webs and the global carbon cycle. On land, the primary drivers of plant biomass deconstruction are fungi and bacteria in the soil or associated with herbivorous eukaryotes. While the ecological importance of plant-decomposing microbes is well established, little is known about the distribution or evolution of cellulolytic activity in any bacterial genus. Here we show that in Streptomyces, a genus of Actinobacteria abundant in soil and symbiotic niches, the ability to rapidly degrade cellulose is largely restricted to two clades of host-associated strains and is not a conserved characteristic of the Streptomyces genus or host-associated strains. Our comparative genomics identify that while plant biomass degrading genes (CAZy are widespread in Streptomyces, key enzyme families are enriched in highly cellulolytic strains. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that cellulolytic strains express a suite of multi-domain CAZy enzymes that are coregulated by the CebR transcriptional regulator. Using targeted gene deletions, we verify the importance of a highly expressed cellulase (GH6 family cellobiohydrolase and the CebR transcriptional repressor to the cellulolytic phenotype. Evolutionary analyses identify complex genomic modifications that drive plant biomass deconstruction in Streptomyces, including acquisition and selective retention of CAZy genes and transcriptional regulators. Our results suggest that host-associated niches have selected some symbiotic Streptomyces for increased cellulose degrading activity and that symbiotic bacteria are a rich biochemical and enzymatic resource for biotechnology.

  19. Evolution of High Cellulolytic Activity in Symbiotic Streptomyces through Selection of Expanded Gene Content and Coordinated Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Adam J; Lewin, Gina R; McDonald, Bradon R; Takasuka, Taichi E; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Doering, Drew T; Suh, Steven; Raffa, Kenneth F; Fox, Brian G; Currie, Cameron R

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of cellulose degradation was a defining event in the history of life. Without efficient decomposition and recycling, dead plant biomass would quickly accumulate and become inaccessible to terrestrial food webs and the global carbon cycle. On land, the primary drivers of plant biomass deconstruction are fungi and bacteria in the soil or associated with herbivorous eukaryotes. While the ecological importance of plant-decomposing microbes is well established, little is known about the distribution or evolution of cellulolytic activity in any bacterial genus. Here we show that in Streptomyces, a genus of Actinobacteria abundant in soil and symbiotic niches, the ability to rapidly degrade cellulose is largely restricted to two clades of host-associated strains and is not a conserved characteristic of the Streptomyces genus or host-associated strains. Our comparative genomics identify that while plant biomass degrading genes (CAZy) are widespread in Streptomyces, key enzyme families are enriched in highly cellulolytic strains. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that cellulolytic strains express a suite of multi-domain CAZy enzymes that are coregulated by the CebR transcriptional regulator. Using targeted gene deletions, we verify the importance of a highly expressed cellulase (GH6 family cellobiohydrolase) and the CebR transcriptional repressor to the cellulolytic phenotype. Evolutionary analyses identify complex genomic modifications that drive plant biomass deconstruction in Streptomyces, including acquisition and selective retention of CAZy genes and transcriptional regulators. Our results suggest that host-associated niches have selected some symbiotic Streptomyces for increased cellulose degrading activity and that symbiotic bacteria are a rich biochemical and enzymatic resource for biotechnology.

  20. Synthesis, crystal structure determination of two-dimensional supramolecular co-ordination polymer of silver(I) with 1,2-Bis(phenylthio)ethane and its Hirshfeld surface analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul K Mudsainiyan; Amanpreet K Jassal; Meenu Arora; Sukhvinder K Chawla

    2015-05-01

    The 2-D polymeric complex (I) has the formula [Ag(phSE)(NO3)]n, which has been crystallized from methanol-acetonitrile mixture and characterized by elemental analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In this polymer, each Ag(I) ion occupies distorted trigonal pyramidal geometry coordinating with two sulphur atoms from two different ligands and two oxygen atoms from two NO33 groups. Each NO3 acts as a bridging ligand coordinating through its two oxygen atoms to different Ag(I) ions. The Ag(I) ion and NO3 group are in plane with torsion angle 176.43°. All the ligands adopt anti-conformation but the relative orientation of two -S-C-C-S units is perpendicular to one another such that two phenyl rings attached to the two sulphur atoms coordinating to a particular Ag ion lie on the same side. Each NO3 bridges two neighbouring Ag ions belonging to two different -S-Ag-S-C-C-S-Ag-S- tapes running along -axis where two phenyl rings are not parallel to each other to reduce the steric hindrance and maximize packing. The adjacent chains are fused to form 2D sheet by bridging both through bidentate phSE ligand and NO3 anion stacking in plane. The structure consists of 4-c uninodal net where Point symbol for Ag (I) ion and net is (44.62) with sql type topology. X-ray diffraction analysis and Hirshfeld surface analysis give rise to comparable results but in Hirshfeld surface analysis, twothird times more close contacts are obtained. The fingerprint plots demonstrate that these weak non-bonding interactions are important for stabilizing the crystal packing.

  1. Hydrogen transfer reactions in viscous media — Potential and free energy surfaces in solvent–solute coordinates and their kinetic implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wiebe, Heather; Prachnau, Melissa; Weinberg, Noham

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional potential energy and free energy surfaces are obtained using quantum mechanical and molecular dynamics calculations for four hydrogen transfer reactions in n-hexane solvent: the methyl–methane, n-propyl–n-propane, n-pentyl...

  2. Effect of Activating Agent on the Preparation of Bamboo-Based High Surface Area Activated Carbon by Microwave Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongying; Wu, Jian; Srinivasakannan, Chandrasekar; Peng, Jinhui; Zhang, Libo

    2016-06-01

    The present work attempts to convert bamboo into a high surface area activated carbon via microwave heating. Different chemical activating agents such as KOH, NaOH, K2CO3 and Na2CO3 were utilized to identify a most suitable activating agent. Among the activating agents tested KOH was found to generate carbon with the highest porosity and surface area. The effect of KOH/C ratio on the porous nature of the activated carbon has been assessed. An optimal KOH/C ratio of 4 was identified, beyond which the surface area as well as the pore volume were found to decrease. At the optimized KOH/C ratio the surface area and the pore volume were estimated to be 3,441 m2/g and 2.093 ml/g, respectively, with the significant proportion of which being microporous (62.3%). Activated carbon prepared under the optimum conditions was further characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Activated carbons with so high surface area and pore volume are very rarely reported, which could be owed to the nature of the precursor and the optimal conditions of mixture ratio adopted in the present work.

  3. New bimetallic dicyanidoargentate(I)-based coordination compounds: Synthesis, characterization, biological activities and DNA-BSA binding affinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Nesrin; Aydın, Ali; Karadağ, Ahmet; Yanar, Yusuf; Maaşoğlu, Yelis; Şahin, Ertan; Tekin, Şaban

    2017-02-01

    Four compounds -two (2 and 3) completely new- of composition [Ni(edbea)Ag3(CN)5] (1), [Cu(edbea)Ag2(CN)4]·H2O (2), [Cd(edbea)Ag3(CN)5]·H2O (3) and [Cd(edbea)2] [Ag(CN)2]2·H2O (4) {edbea; 2,2‧-(ethylenedioxy)bis (ethylamine)}, were synthesized and characterized using elemental, FT-IR, X-Ray (4), thermal, variable temperature magnetic measurement (1 and 2) and biological techniques. The DNA/BSA binding affinities of 2 and 3 were evaluated by UV-Vis spectrophotometric titrations, ethidium bromide exchange experiments and electrophoretic mobility measurements. Compounds 1 and 4 have previously been characterized and shown to reduce the proliferation and migration of tumor cells. For the sake of clarity, 1 precise mechanism of action on microbial organisms and temperature magnetic measurement were determined. The crystallographic analyses showed that 4 was built up of [Cd(edbea)2]II cations and [Ag2(CN)4]II anions. Complexes demonstrated a remarkable antibacterial (1-4), antifungal (1-4) and antiproliferative activities (2 and 3) to ten human bacterial pathogens, four plant pathogenic fungi or three tumor cells (HeLa, HT29, and C6), respectively. Therefore, our results strongly confirm that cell proliferation, cell morphology, Bcl-2, P53 changes and apoptosis can be related to the pharmacological effects of the complexes as suitable candidate for clinical trials.

  4. Enzymatic activity in the surface microlayer and subsurface water in the harbour channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perliński, Piotr; Mudryk, Zbigniew J.; Antonowicz, Józef

    2017-09-01

    Hydrolytic activity of eight extracellular enzymes was determined spectrofluorimetric method in the surface microlayer and subsurface water in the harbour channel in Ustka. The ranking order of the potential enzyme activity rates in the studied water layers was as follows: lipase > phosphatase > aminopeptidase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase > xylanase > cellulase > chitinase. The level of activity of all studied hydrolases was higher in the surface microlayer than subsurface water. No clear gradients in the level of enzymatic activity were determined along the horizontal profile of the studied channel. Activity of extracellular enzymes was strongly influenced by the season.

  5. United States Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal program. Special projects research and coordination assistance. Final report, 1 December 1978-30 October 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorfman, M.H.; Morton, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    Work for the period, December 1, 1978 through October 31, 1980, is documented. The following activities are covered: project technical coordination assistance and liaison; technical assistance for review and evaluation of proposals and contract results; technical assistance for geopressured-geothermal test wells; technical assistance, coordination, and planning of surface utilization program; legal research; and special projects. (MHR)

  6. Lanthanide Metal-Organic Frameworks with Six-Coordinated Ln(III) Ions and Free Functional Organic Sites for Adsorptions and Extensive Catalytic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Zhu, Min; Xia, Li; Wu, Yunlong; Hua, Hui; Xie, Jimin

    2016-07-01

    Three chelating-amino-functionalized lanthanide metal-organic frameworks, Y-DDQ, Dy-DDQ and Eu-DDQ, were synthesized with a flexible dicarboxylate ligand based on quinoxaline (H2DDQ = N, N‧-dibenzoic acid-2,3-diaminoquinoxaline). The three-dimensional framework is constructed by the H2DDQ linkers connecting the zigzag ladders, showing a net of sra topology. In the structures, one kind of Ln(III) ions metal centers are six-coordinated and thus can potentially behave as open metal sites (OMSs), while the free chelating amino groups can act as free functional organic sites (FOSs). The N2 and Ar adsorption behaviors indicate that these Ln-DDQ exhibits stable microporous frameworks with high surface area after remove of the solvents. Owing to presence of OMSs and FOSs, these MOFs show good ability of CO2, dyes captures and Lewis acid catalyst for cyanosilylation reaction. In view of the existing FOSs in the framework, Pd NPs were immobilized onto the MOFs through graft interactions between free chelating amino groups and metal ions precursor using postsynthetic modification. The well dispersed Pd@Ln-DDQs exhibit efficient and recyclable catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, and they can also act as an excellent catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions with the exposed Pd NPs.

  7. Promoter activity 5′ of Dbeta2 is coordinated by E47, Runx1, and GATA-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Ruth E.; Sikes, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    V(D)J recombination involves the stepwise assembly of B and T cell receptor genes as lymphocytes progress through the early stages of development. While the mechanisms that restrict each step in recombination to its appropriate developmental stage are largely unknown, they share many of the components that regulate transcription. For example, enhancer-dependent modifications in histone acetylation and methylation are essential for both germline transcription and rearrangement of antigen receptor genes. Promoters positioned proximal to individual D and J gene segments in Tcra, Tcrb, Tcrd, IgH, and Igk also contribute to antigen receptor gene assembly, though their effects appear more localized than those of enhancers. Tcrb assembly initiates with D-to-J joining at each of two D-J-C gene segment clusters in DN1/2 thymocytes. DJ joints are fused with Vβ elements to complete Tcrb recombination in DN3 cells. We have previously shown that Dβ2 is flanked by upstream and downstream promoters, with the 5′ promoter being held inactive until D-to-J recombination deletes the NFκB-dependent 3′ promoter. We now report that activity of the 5′ promoter reflects a complex interplay between Runx1, GATA-3, and E47 transcription factors. In particular, while multiple E47 and Runx1 binding sites clustered near the Dβ2 5′RS and overlapping inr elements define the core 5′PDβ2, they act in concert with an array of upstream GATA-3 sites to overcome the inhibitory effects of a 110 bp distal polypurine·polypyrimidine (R·Y) tract. The dependence of 5′PDβ2 on E47 is consistent with the reported role of E proteins in post-DN1 thymocyte development and V-to-DJβ recombination. PMID:19592096

  8. Analysis of solvent nucleophile isotope effects: evidence for concerted mechanisms and nucleophilic activation by metal coordination in nonenzymatic and ribozyme-catalyzed phosphodiester hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Adam G; Anderson, Vernon E; Harris, Michael E

    2004-08-17

    Heavy atom isotope effects are a valuable tool for probing chemical and enzymatic reaction mechanisms; yet, they are not widely applied to examine mechanisms of nucleophilic activation. We developed approaches for analyzing solvent (18)O nucleophile isotope effects ((18)k(nuc)) that allow, for the first time, their application to hydrolysis reactions of nucleotides and nucleic acids. Here, we report (18)k(nuc) for phosphodiester hydrolysis catalyzed by Mg(2+) and by the Mg(2+)-dependent RNase P ribozyme and deamination by the Zn(2+)-dependent protein enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA). Because ADA incorporates a single solvent molecule into the product inosine, this reaction can be used to monitor solvent (18)O/(16)O ratios in complex reaction mixtures. This approach, combined with new methods for analysis of isotope ratios of nucleotide phosphates by whole molecule mass spectrometry, permitted determination of (18)k(nuc) for hydrolysis of thymidine 5'-p-nitrophenyl phosphate and RNA cleavage by the RNase P ribozyme. For ADA, an inverse (18)k(nuc) of 0.986 +/- 0.001 is observed, reflecting coordination of the nucleophile by an active site Zn(2+) ion and a stepwise mechanism. In contrast, the observed (18)k(nuc) for phosphodiester reactions were normal: 1.027 +/- 0.013 and 1.030 +/- 0.012 for the Mg(2+)- and ribozyme-catalyzed reactions, respectively. Such normal effects indicate that nucleophilic attack occurs in the rate-limiting step for these reactions, consistent with concerted mechanisms. However, these magnitudes are significantly less than the (18)k(nuc) observed for nucleophilic attack by hydroxide (1.068 +/- 0.007), indicating a "stiffer" bonding environment for the nucleophile in the transition state. Kinetic analysis of the Mg(2+)-catalyzed reaction indicates that a Mg(2+)-hydroxide complex is the catalytic species; thus, the lower (18)k(nuc), in large part, reflects direct metal ion coordination of the nucleophilic oxygen. A similar value for the RNase P

  9. Active surface model improvement by energy function optimization for 3D segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimifar, Zohreh; Mohaddesi, Mahsa

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes an optimized and efficient active surface model by improving the energy functions, searching method, neighborhood definition and resampling criterion. Extracting an accurate surface of the desired object from a number of 3D images using active surface and deformable models plays an important role in computer vision especially medical image processing. Different powerful segmentation algorithms have been suggested to address the limitations associated with the model initialization, poor convergence to surface concavities and slow convergence rate. This paper proposes a method to improve one of the strongest and recent segmentation algorithms, namely the Decoupled Active Surface (DAS) method. We consider a gradient of wavelet edge extracted image and local phase coherence as external energy to extract more information from images and we use curvature integral as internal energy to focus on high curvature region extraction. Similarly, we use resampling of points and a line search for point selection to improve the accuracy of the algorithm. We further employ an estimation of the desired object as an initialization for the active surface model. A number of tests and experiments have been done and the results show the improvements with regards to the extracted surface accuracy and computational time of the presented algorithm compared with the best and recent active surface models.

  10. THE EFFECT OF ACTIVATED CARBON SURFACE MOISTURE ON LOW TEMPERATURE MERCURY ADSORPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments with elemental mercury (Hg0) adsorption by activated carbons were performed using a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor at room temperature (27 degrees C) to determine the role of surface moisture in capturing Hg0. A bituminous-coal-based activated carbon (BPL) and an activ...

  11. Activation of the carbon-fluorine bonds in coordination compounds; Activacion de enlaces carbon-fluor en compuestos de coordinacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrens, H. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Activation of the carbon-fluorine bond is of upmost importance in several chemical processes. In search of synthetic alternatives to promote C-F bond cleavage in arylic systems, several square planar palladium and platinum compounds bearing fluorothiolates and fluorophosphines have been studied. In this paper molecular structures are shown for the following compounds trans-((SC{sub 6}F{sub 5})(P(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2}(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}))(Pd({mu}-SC{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2} Pd(SC{sub 6}F{sub 5})(P(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2} (C{sub 6}H{sub 5})), cis ((SC{sub 6}F{sub 5}) P(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2} (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}) Pt({mu}-SC{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2} Pt(SC{sub 6}F{sub 5}) P(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2} (C{sub 6}H{sub 5})), trans Pd ({mu}-SC{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2} Pt(SC{sub 6}F{sub 5})(P(C{sub 6}F{sub 5})(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2})), Pt (SC{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2} (C{sub 6}F{sub 5}SC{sub 6}F{sub 4} P(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}))((SC{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2} Pt ({mu}-(SC{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2} Pt(SC{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2}){sup 2-} , (SC{sub 6}HF{sub 4}){sub 2} Pt({mu}-SC{sub 6}HF{sub 4}){sub 2} Pt(SC{sub 6}HF{sub 4}){sub 2}){sup 2-} and ((SC{sub 6}F{sub 4}CF{sub 3}-4){sub 2} Pt (SC{sub 6}F{sub 4}CF{sub 3}-4){sub 2}){sup 2-} . (Author)

  12. Scorpionate-type coordination in MFU-4l metal-organic frameworks: small-molecule binding and activation upon the thermally activated formation of open metal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denysenko, Dmytro; Grzywa, Maciej; Jelic, Jelena; Reuter, Karsten; Volkmer, Dirk

    2014-06-01

    Postsynthetic metal and ligand exchange is a versatile approach towards functionalized MFU-4l frameworks. Upon thermal treatment of MFU-4l formates, coordinatively strongly unsaturated metal centers, such as zinc(II) hydride or copper(I) species, are generated selectively. Cu(I)-MFU-4l prepared in this way was stable under ambient conditions and showed fully reversible chemisorption of small molecules, such as O2, N2, and H2, with corresponding isosteric heats of adsorption of 53, 42, and 32 kJ mol(-1), respectively, as determined by gas-sorption measurements and confirmed by DFT calculations. Moreover, Cu(I)-MFU-4l formed stable complexes with C2H4 and CO. These complexes were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The demonstrated hydride transfer to electrophiles and strong binding of small gas molecules suggests these novel, yet robust, metal-organic frameworks with open metal sites as promising catalytic materials comprising earth-abundant metal elements.

  13. A facile reflux procedure to increase active surface sites form highly active and durable supported palladium@platinum bimetallic nanodendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Li, Yingjun; Liu, Baocang; Xu, Guangran; Zhang, Geng; Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    A series of well-dispersed bimetallic Pd@Pt nanodendrites uniformly supported on XC-72 carbon black are fabricated by using different capping agents. These capping agents are essential for the branched morphology control. However, the surfactant adsorbed on the nanodendrites surface blocks the access of reactant molecules to the active surface sites, and the catalytic activities of these bimetallic nanodendrites are significantly restricted. Herein, a facile reflux procedure to effectively remove the capping agent molecules without significantly affecting their sizes is reported for activating supported nanocatalysts. More significantly, the structure and morphology of the nanodendrites can also be retained, enhancing the numbers of active surface sites, catalytic activity and stability toward methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation reactions. The as-obtained hot water reflux-treated Pd@Pt/C catalyst manifests superior catalytic activity and stability both in terms of surface and mass specific activities, as compared to the untreated catalysts and the commercial Pt/C and Pd/C catalysts. We anticipate that this effective and facile removal method has more general applicability to highly active nanocatalysts prepared with various surfactants, and should lead to improvements in environmental protection and energy production.

  14. Probing S4 and S5 segment proximity in mammalian hyperpolarization-activated HCN channels by disulfide bridging and Cd2+ coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Damian C; Turbendian, Harma K; Valley, Matthew T; Zhou, Lei; Riley, John H; Siegelbaum, Steven A; Tibbs, Gareth R

    2009-06-01

    We explored the structural basis of voltage sensing in the HCN1 hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel by examining the relative orientation of the voltage sensor and pore domains. The opening of channels engineered to contain single cysteine residues at the extracellular ends of the voltage-sensing S4 (V246C) and pore-forming S5 (C303) domains is inhibited by formation of disulfide or cysteine:Cd(2+) bonds. As Cd(2+) coordination is promoted by depolarization, the S4-S5 interaction occurs preferentially in the closed state. The failure of oxidation to catalyze dimer formation, as assayed by Western blotting, indicates the V246C:C303 interaction occurs within a subunit. Intriguingly, a similar interaction has been observed in depolarization-activated Shaker voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels at depolarized potentials but such an intrasubunit interaction is inconsistent with the X-ray crystal structure of Kv1.2, wherein S4 approaches S5 of an adjacent subunit. These findings suggest channels of opposite voltage-sensing polarity adopt a conserved S4-S5 orientation in the depolarized state that is distinct from that trapped upon crystallization.

  15. A Coordination Chemistry Approach for Lithium-Ion Batteries: The Coexistence of Metal and Ligand Redox Activities in a One-Dimensional Metal-Organic Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gaihua; Yang, Hao; Li, Fengcai; Cheng, Fangyi; Shi, Wei; Chen, Jun; Cheng, Peng

    2016-05-16

    We demonstrate herein the use of a one-dimensional metal-organic material as a new type of electrode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in place of the classic porous three-dimensional materials, which are subject to the size of the channel for lithium-ion diffusion and blocking of the windows of the framework by organic solvents during the charging and discharging processes. Introducing a one-dimensional coordination compound can keep organic active substances insoluble in the electrolyte during the charging and discharging processes, providing a facile and general new system for further studies. The results show that both the aromatic ligand and the metal center can participate in lithium storage simultaneously, illustrating a new energy storage mechanism that has been well-characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. In addition, the fact that the one-dimensional chains are linked by weak hydrogen bonds rather than strong π-π stacking interactions or covalent bonds is beneficial for the release of capacity entirely without the negative effect of burying the active sites.

  16. Coordination chemistry for antibacterial materials: a monolayer of a Cu(2+) 2,2'-bipyridine complex grafted on a glass surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavicini, Piersandro; Dacarro, Giacomo; Grisoli, Pietro; Mangano, Carlo; Patrini, Maddalena; Rigoni, Federica; Sangaletti, Luigi; Taglietti, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    A propyltrimethoxysilane-modified 2,2'-bipyridine ligand is synthesized and its acetonitrile solutions are used to prepare monolayers of the molecule on glass surfaces. Absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrate that the modified glass surfaces bind Cu(2+) with a 1:1 ratio with respect to the 2,2'-bipyridine moieties under the chosen preparative conditions, producing materials bearing 0.016 μg cm(-2) of copper. Although in trace amounts, the bound Cu(2+) cations exert a significant microbicidal effect against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  17. Role of HMW kininogen in surface-mediated activation of Factor XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, T; Sugo, T; Kato, H; Iwanaga, S

    1983-01-01

    We have shown that bovine HMW kininogen remarkably accelerates the activation of Factor XII and prekallikrein in the presence of kaolin, adsorbing on kaolin through the fragment 1.2 region and forming a complex with prekallikrein through the light chain region (Sugo et al., 1980; Ikari et al., 1981). The present study was undertaken to examine the role of HMW kininogen in the activation of Factor XII and prekallikrein with other negatively-charged surfaces. The activation system used here was as follows; (1) Activation of prekallikrein by Factor XII, (2) Activation of Factor XII by plasma kallikrein and (3) Activation of prekallikrein by Factor XIIa. Among a variety of foreign surfaces, amylose sulfate and sulfatide were the most efficient in the activation reaction of Factor XII and prekallikrein. Bovene HMW kininogen accelerated all the three reactions triggered by these surfaces. However, the accelerating effect of HMW kininogen on the activation of Factor XII by plasma kallikrein was very weak, when amylose sulfate or sulfatide was used as surface. The three reactions were highly dependent on the amounts of HMW kininogen and surfaces contained in the reaction mixtures. Excess amount of them inhibited these reactions. Among the various fragments, which were prepared from HMW kininogen digests with plasma and urinary kallikreins (Sugo et al., 1980), a large fragment consisting of fragment 1.2 and light chain accelerated the reactions. Thus both fragment 1.2 and the light chain region in HMW kininogen were essential for these activation reactions.

  18. Seeing Beyond the Surface, Understanding and Tracking Fraudulent Cyber Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Longe, O B; Kourouma, M; Wada, F; Isabalija, R

    2010-01-01

    The malaise of electronic spam mail that solicit illicit partnership using bogus business proposals (popularly called 419 mails) remained unabated on the internet despite concerted efforts. In addition to these are the emergence and prevalence of phishing scams that use social engineering tactics to obtain online access codes such as credit card number, ATM pin numbers, bank account details, social security number and other personal information (22). In an age where dependence on electronic transaction is on the increase, the web security community will have to devise more pragmatic measures to make the cyberspace safe from these demeaning ills. Understanding the perpetrators of internet crimes and their mode of operation is a basis for any meaningful effort towards stemming these crimes. This paper discusses the nature of the criminals engaged in fraudulent cyberspace activities with special emphasis on the Nigeria 419 scam mails. Based on a qualitative analysis and experiments to trace the source of electro...

  19. Nisin-activated hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces: assessment of peptide adsorption and antibacterial activity against some food pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Layal; Jama, Charafeddine; Mamede, Anne-Sophie; Boukla, Samir; Dhulster, Pascal; Chihib, Nour-Eddine

    2013-12-01

    An effective antimicrobial packaging or food contact surface should be able to kill or inhibit micro-organisms that cause food-borne illnesses. Setting up such systems, by nisin adsorption on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, is still a matter of debate. For this purpose, nisin was adsorbed on two types of low-density polyethylene: the hydrophobic native film and the hydrophilic acrylic acid-treated surface. The antibacterial activity was compared for those two films and it was highly dependent on the nature of the surface and the nisin-adsorbed amount. The hydrophilic