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  1. Alcoholic Hepatitis Markedly Decreases the Capacity for Urea Synthesis.

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    Emilie Glavind

    Full Text Available Data on quantitative metabolic liver functions in the life-threatening disease alcoholic hepatitis are scarce. Urea synthesis is an essential metabolic liver function that plays a key regulatory role in nitrogen homeostasis. The urea synthesis capacity decreases in patients with compromised liver function, whereas it increases in patients with inflammation. Alcoholic hepatitis involves both mechanisms, but how these opposite effects are balanced remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate how alcoholic hepatitis affects the capacity for urea synthesis. We related these findings to another measure of metabolic liver function, the galactose elimination capacity (GEC, as well as to clinical disease severity.We included 20 patients with alcoholic hepatitis and 7 healthy controls. The urea synthesis capacity was quantified by the functional hepatic nitrogen clearance (FHNC, i.e., the slope of the linear relationship between the blood α-amino nitrogen concentration and urea nitrogen synthesis rate during alanine infusion. The GEC was determined using blood concentration decay curves after intravenous bolus injection of galactose. Clinical disease severity was assessed by the Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score.The FHNC was markedly decreased in the alcoholic hepatitis patients compared with the healthy controls (7.2±4.9 L/h vs. 37.4±6.8 L/h, P<0.01, and the largest decrease was observed in those with severe alcoholic hepatitis (4.9±3.6 L/h vs. 9.9±4.9 L/h, P<0.05. The GEC was less markedly reduced than the FHNC. A negative correlation was detected between the FHNC and MELD score (rho = -0.49, P<0.05.Alcoholic hepatitis markedly decreases the urea synthesis capacity. This decrease is associated with an increase in clinical disease severity. Thus, the metabolic failure in alcoholic hepatitis prevails such that the liver cannot adequately perform the metabolic up-regulation observed in other stressful

  2. Relatedness decreases and reciprocity increases cooperation in Norway rats.

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    Schweinfurth, Manon K; Taborsky, Michael

    2018-03-14

    Kin selection and reciprocity are two mechanisms underlying the evolution of cooperation, but the relative importance of kinship and reciprocity for decisions to cooperate are yet unclear for most cases of cooperation. Here, we experimentally tested the relative importance of relatedness and received cooperation for decisions to help a conspecific in wild-type Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus ). Test rats provided more food to non-kin than to siblings, and they generally donated more food to previously helpful social partners than to those that had refused help. The rats thus applied reciprocal cooperation rules irrespective of relatedness, highlighting the importance of reciprocal help for cooperative interactions among both related and unrelated conspecifics. © 2018 The Author(s).

  3. Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein Decreases Lipid Droplet Turnover

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    Harris, Charles; Herker, Eva; Farese, Robert V.; Ott, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Steatosis is a frequent complication of hepatitis C virus infection. In mice, this condition is recapitulated by the expression of a single viral protein, the nucleocapsid core. Core localizes to the surface of lipid droplets (LDs) in infected liver cells through a process dependent on host diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), an enzyme that synthesizes triglycerides in the endoplasmic reticulum. Whether DGAT1 also plays a role in core-induced steatosis is uncertain. Here, we show that mouse embryonic fibroblasts isolated from DGAT1−/− mice are protected from core-induced steatosis, as are livers of DGAT1−/− mice expressing core, demonstrating that the steatosis is DGAT1-dependent. Surprisingly, core expression did not increase DGAT1 activity or triglyceride synthesis, thus excluding the possibility that core activates DGAT1 to cause steatosis. Instead, we find that DGAT1-dependent localization of core to LDs is a prerequisite for the steatogenic properties of the core. Using biochemical and immunofluorescence microscopy techniques, we show that the turnover of lipids in core-coated droplets is decreased, providing a physiological mechanism for core-induced steatosis. Our results support a bipartite model in which core first requires DGAT1 to gain access to LDs, and then LD-localized core interferes with triglyceride turnover, thus stabilizing lipid droplets and leading to steatosis. PMID:21984835

  4. Increased hepatic glycogen synthetase and decreased phosphorylase in trained rats

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    Galbo, H; Saugmann, P; Richter, Erik

    1979-01-01

    Rats were either physically trained by a 12 wk swimming program or were freely eating or weight matched, sedentary controls. Trained rats had a higher relative liver weight and total hepatic glycogen synthetase (EC 2.4.1.11) activity and a lower phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1) activity than the other...

  5. Hepatic encephalopathy is associated with decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism and blood flow, not increased ammonia uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Gitte; Keiding, Susanne; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO(2)) and blood flow (CBF) in patients with cirrhosis with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). It remains unclear, however, whether these disturbances are associated with HE or with cirrhosis itself and how they may relate to arterial blood...... associated with HE rather than the liver disease as such. The changes in CMRO(2) and CBF could not be linked to blood ammonia concentration or CMRA....

  6. Three conazoles increase hepatic microsomal retinoic acid metabolism and decrease mouse hepatic retinoic acid levels in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.-J.; Padgett, William T.; Moore, Tanya; Winnik, Witold; Lambert, Guy R.; Thai, Sheau-Fung; Hester, Susan D.; Nesnow, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with cancer-preventative properties (Ward et al., Toxicol. Pathol. 2006; 34:863-78). The goals of this study were to examine effects of propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil, three triazole-containing conazoles, on the microsomal metabolism of atRA, the associated hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) involved in atRA metabolism, and their effects on hepatic atRA levels in vivo. The in vitro metabolism of atRA was quantitatively measured in liver microsomes from male CD-1 mice following four daily intraperitoneal injections of propiconazole (210 mg/kg/d), triadimefon (257 mg/kg/d) or myclobutanil (270 mg/kg/d). The formation of both 4-hydroxy-atRA and 4-oxo-atRA were significantly increased by all three conazoles. Propiconazole-induced microsomes possessed slightly greater metabolizing activities compared to myclobutanil-induced microsomes. Both propiconazole and triadimefon treatment induced greater formation of 4-hydroxy-atRA compared to myclobutanil treatment. Chemical and immuno-inhibition metabolism studies suggested that Cyp26a1, Cyp2b, and Cyp3a, but not Cyp1a1 proteins were involved in atRA metabolism. Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a11 genes were significantly over-expressed in the livers of both triadimefon- and propiconazole-treated mice while Cyp26a1, Cyp2c65 and Cyp1a2 genes were over-expressed in the livers of either triadimefon- or propiconazole-treated mice, and Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a13 genes were over-expressed in the livers of myclobutanil-treated mice. Western blot analyses indicated conazole induced-increases in Cyp2b and Cyp3a proteins. All three conazoles decreased hepatic atRA tissue levels ranging from 45-67%. The possible implications of these changes in hepatic atRA levels

  7. Ezetimibe decreased nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score but not hepatic steatosis.

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    Lee, Hyo Young; Jun, Dae Won; Kim, Hyun Jung; Oh, Hyunwoo; Saeed, Waqar Khalid; Ahn, Hyeongsik; Cheung, Ramsey C; Nguyen, Mindie H

    2018-03-20

    A number of clinical trials reported varying effects of cholesterol lowering agents in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. We, therefore, assessed the changes in hepatic steatosis and NAFLD activity score (NAS) after treatment with cholesterol lowering agents in NAFLD patients by metaanalysis. The Cochrane Library, the MEDLINE, and the Embase databases were searched until May 2015, without any language restrictions, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies (NRSs). Additional references were obtained from review of bibliography of relevant articles. The quality of evidence was assessed using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation guidelines. Three RCTs (n = 98) and two NRSs (n = 101) met our study inclusion criteria (adult, NAFLD, liver biopsy). Liver biopsy was performed in all five studies, but only the three studies reported NAS. Ezetimibe significantly decreased NAS (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.57 to -0.03) but not hepatic steatosis in RCT (SMD, -0.1; 95% CI, -0.53 to 0.32), while the effect was significant for both NAS and intrahepatic content in NRSs (SMD, -3.0; 95% CI, -6.9 to 0.91). Ezetimibe decreased NAS without improving hepatic steatosis.

  8. Vasopressin and nitroglycerin decrease portal and hepatic venous pressure and hepato-splanchnic blood flow.

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    Wisén, E; Svennerholm, K; Bown, L S; Houltz, E; Rizell, M; Lundin, S; Ricksten, S-E

    2018-03-26

    Various methods are used to reduce venous blood pressure in the hepato-splanchnic circulation, and hence minimise blood loss during liver surgery. Previous studies show that combination of vasopressin and nitroglycerin reduces portal pressure and flow in patients with portal hypertension, and in this study we investigated this combination in patients with normal portal pressure. In all, 13 patients were studied. Measurements were made twice to confirm baseline (C1 and BL), during vasopressin infusion 4.8 U/h (V), and during vasopressin infusion combined with nitroglycerin infusion (V + N). Portal venous pressure (PVP), hepatic venous pressure (HVP), central haemodynamics and arterial and venous blood gases were obtained at each measuring point, and portal (splanchnic) and hepato-splanchnic blood flow changes were calculated. Vasopressin alone did not affect PVP, whereas HVP increased slightly. In combination with nitroglycerin, PVP decreased from 10.1 ± 1.6 to 8.9 ± 1.3 mmHg (P HVP decreased from 7.9 ± 1.9 to 6.2 ± 1.3 mmHg (P = 0.001). Vasopressin reduced portal blood flow by 47 ± 19% and hepatic venous flow by 11 ± 18%, respectively. Addition of nitroglycerin further reduced portal- and hepatic flow by 55 ± 13% and 30 ± 13%, respectively. Vasopressin alone had minor effects on central haemodynamics, whereas addition of nitroglycerin reduced cardiac index (3.2 ± 0.7 to 2.7 ± 0.5; P < 0.0001). The arterial-portal vein lactate gradient was unaffected. The combination of vasopressin and nitroglycerin decreases portal pressure and hepato-splanchnic blood flow, and could be a potential treatment to reduce bleeding in liver resection surgery. © 2018 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Vitamin E decreases extra-hepatic menaquinone-4 concentrations in rats fed menadione or phylloquinone.

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    Farley, Sherry M; Leonard, Scott W; Labut, Edwin M; Raines, Hannah F; Card, David J; Harrington, Dominic J; Mustacich, Debbie J; Traber, Maret G

    2012-06-01

    The mechanism for increased bleeding and decreased vitamin K status accompanying vitamin E supplementation is unknown. We hypothesized that elevated hepatic α-tocopherol (α-T) concentrations may stimulate vitamin K metabolism and excretion. Furthermore, α-T may interfere with the side chain removal of phylloquinone (PK) to form menadione (MN) as an intermediate for synthesis of tissue-specific menaquinone-4 (MK-4). In order to investigate these hypotheses, rats were fed phylloquinone (PK) or menadione (MN) containing diets (2 μmol/kg) for 2.5 weeks. From day 10, rats were given daily subcutaneous injections of either α-T (100 mg/kg) or vehicle and were sacrificed 24 h after the seventh injection. Irrespective of diet, α-T injections decreased MK-4 concentrations in brain, lung, kidney, and heart; and PK in lung. These decreases were not accompanied by increased excretion of urinary 5C- or 7C-aglycone vitamin K metabolites, however, the urinary α-T metabolite (α-CEHC) increased ≥ 100-fold. Moreover, α-T increases were accompanied by downregulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 expression and modified expression of tissue ATP-binding cassette transporters. Thus, in rats, high tissue α-T depleted tissue MK-4 without significantly increasing urinary vitamin K metabolite excretion. Changes in tissue MK-4 and PK levels may be a result of altered regulation of transporters. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Heterozygous deficiency of endoglin decreases insulin and hepatic triglyceride levels during high fat diet.

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    Daniel Beiroa

    Full Text Available Endoglin is a transmembrane auxiliary receptor for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta that is predominantly expressed on proliferating endothelial cells. It plays a wide range of physiological roles but its importance on energy balance or insulin sensitivity has been unexplored. Endoglin deficient mice die during midgestation due to cardiovascular defects. Here we report for first time that heterozygous endoglin deficiency in mice decreases high fat diet-induced hepatic triglyceride content and insulin levels. Importantly, these effects are independent of changes in body weight or adiposity. At molecular level, we failed to detect relevant changes in the insulin signalling pathway at basal levels in liver, muscle or adipose tissues that could explain the insulin-dependent effect. However, we found decreased triglyceride content in the liver of endoglin heterozygous mice fed a high fat diet in comparison to their wild type littermates. Overall, our findings indicate that endoglin is a potentially important physiological mediator of insulin levels and hepatic lipid metabolism.

  11. PPARβ/δ modulates ethanol-induced hepatic effects by decreasing pyridoxal kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudarzi, Maryam; Koga, Takayuki; Khozoie, Combiz; Mak, Tytus D.; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Jr, Albert J. Fornace; Peters, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Because of the significant morbidity and lethality caused by alcoholic liver disease (ALD), there remains a need to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms that can be targeted to prevent and treat ALD. Toward this goal, minimally invasive biomarker discovery represents an outstanding approach for these purposes. The mechanisms underlying ALD include hepatic lipid accumulation. As the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) has been shown to inhibit steatosis, the present study examined the role of PPARβ/δ in ALD coupling metabolomic, biochemical and molecular biological analyses. Wild-type and Pparβ/δ-null mice were fed either a control or 4% ethanol diet and examined after 4–7 months of treatment. Ethanol fed Pparβ/δ-null mice exhibited steatosis after short-term treatment compared to controls, the latter effect appeared to be due to increased activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c). The wild-type and Pparβ/δ-null mice fed the control diet showed clear differences in their urinary metabolomic profiles. In particular, metabolites associated with arginine and proline metabolism, and glycerolipid metabolism, were markedly different between genotypes suggesting a constitutive role for PPARβ/δ in the metabolism of these amino acids. Interestingly, urinary excretion of taurine was present in ethanol-fed wild-type mice but markedly lower in similarly treated Pparβ/δ-null mice. Evidence suggests that PPARβ/δ modulates pyridoxal kinase activity by altering K m , consistent with the observed decreased in urinary taurine excretion. These data collectively suggest that PPARβ/δ prevents ethanol-induced hepatic effects by inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis, modulation of amino acid metabolism, and altering pyridoxal kinase activity

  12. Decreasing mitochondrial fission alleviates hepatic steatosis in a murine model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

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    Galloway, Chad A; Lee, Hakjoo; Brookes, Paul S; Yoon, Yisang

    2014-09-15

    Mitochondria produce the majority of cellular ATP through oxidative phosphorylation, and their capacity to do so is influenced by many factors. Mitochondrial morphology is recently suggested as an important contributor in controlling mitochondrial bioenergetics. Mitochondria divide and fuse continuously, which is affected by environmental factors, including metabolic alterations. Underscoring its bioenergetic influence, altered mitochondrial morphology is reported in tissues of patients and in animal models of metabolic dysfunction. In this study, we found that mitochondrial fission plays a vital role in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The development of hepatic steatosis, oxidative/nitrative stress, and hepatic tissue damage, induced by a high-fat diet, were alleviated in genetically manipulated mice suppressing mitochondrial fission. The alleviation of steatosis was recapitulated in primary hepatocytes with the inhibition of mitochondrial fission. Mechanistically, our study indicates that fission inhibition enhances proton leak under conditions of free fatty acid incubation, implicating bioenergetic change through manipulating mitochondrial fission. Taken together, our results suggest a mechanistic role for mitochondrial fission in the etiology of NAFLD. The efficacy of decreasing mitochondrial fission in the suppression of NAFLD suggests that mitochondrial fission represents a novel target for therapeutic treatment of NAFLD. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Soy compared with milk protein in a Western diet changes fecal microbiota and decreases hepatic steatosis in obese OLETF rats.

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    Panasevich, Matthew R; Schuster, Colin M; Phillips, Kathryn E; Meers, Grace M; Chintapalli, Sree V; Wankhade, Umesh D; Shankar, Kartik; Butteiger, Dustie N; Krul, Elaine S; Thyfault, John P; Rector, R Scott

    2017-08-01

    Soy protein is effective at preventing hepatic steatosis; however, the mechanisms are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that soy vs. dairy protein-based diet would alter microbiota and attenuate hepatic steatosis in hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats. Male OLETF rats were randomized to "Western" diets containing milk protein isolate (MPI), soy protein isolate (SPI) or 50:50 MPI/SPI (MS) (n=9-10/group; 21% kcal protein) for 16 weeks. SPI attenuated (Pcontent, and hepatic 16:1 n-7 and 18:1 n-7 PUFA concentrations) (Pbacterial 16S rRNA analysis revealed SPI-intake elicited increases (P<.05) in Lactobacillus and decreases (P<.05) in Blautia and Lachnospiraceae suggesting decreases in fecal secondary bile acids in SPI rats. SPI and MS exhibited greater (P<.05) hepatic Fxr, Fgfr4, Hnf4a, HmgCoA reductase and synthase mRNA expression compared with MPI. Overall, dietary SPI compared with MPI decreased hepatic steatosis and diacylglycerols, changed microbiota populations and altered bile acid signaling and cholesterol homeostasis in a rodent model of obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Decreased insulin response in dairy cows following a four-day fast to induce hepatic lipidosis.

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    Oikawa, S; Oetzel, G R

    2006-08-01

    Negative energy balance has been implicated in the development of fatty liver, insulin resistance, and impaired health in dairy cows. A 4-d fasting model previously was reported to increase liver triglycerides more than 2.5-fold. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate insulin response in this fasting model. Nonlactating, nonpregnant Holstein cows were fasted for 4 d (6 cows) or fed continuously as control cows (4 cows). Samples were collected 5 d before fasting, during fasting, and immediately after the 4-d fast, 8 d after the fast, and 16 d after the fast. Fasted cows had greater liver triglyceride content (49.4 vs. 16.2 mg/g, wet-weight basis) at the end of the fasting period compared with control cows. Fasted cows also had increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations (1.24 vs. 0.21 mmol/L) and increased plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations at the end of the fasting period. Liver triglyceride, plasma NEFA, and plasma BHBA in fasted cows returned to prefasting concentrations by the end of the experiment. Plasma glucose concentrations were not affected by fasting. Plasma insulin concentrations were decreased (6.3 vs. 14.1 microU/mL) and insulin-stimulated blood glucose reduction was decreased (24.9 vs. 48.6%) in the fasted cows compared with control cows at the end of the fast, indicating reduced insulin response. Insulin response was negatively correlated with plasma NEFA and liver triglycerides. Decreased insulin response may be an important complication of negative energy balance and hepatic lipidosis.

  15. Hepatitis

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    ... most common types of viral hepatitis. What Is Hepatitis A? For kids, hep A is the most common ... they recover, it does not come back. Can Hepatitis A Be Prevented? The following will help keep people ...

  16. Novel PPARα agonist MHY553 alleviates hepatic steatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation and decreasing inflammation during aging.

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    Kim, Seong Min; Lee, Bonggi; An, Hye Jin; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Kyung Chul; Noh, Sang-Gyun; Chung, Ki Wung; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Kyung Mok; Kim, Do Hyun; Kim, Su Jeong; Chun, Pusoon; Lee, Ho Jeong; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Chung, Hae Young

    2017-07-11

    Hepatic steatosis is frequently observed in obese and aged individuals. Because hepatic steatosis is closely associated with metabolic syndromes, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and inflammation, numerous efforts have been made to develop compounds that ameliorate it. Here, a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α agonist, 4-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)benzene-1,3-diol (MHY553) was developed, and investigated its beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis using young and old Sprague-Dawley rats and HepG2 cells.Docking simulation and Western blotting confirmed that the activity of PPARα, but not that of the other PPAR subtypes, was increased by MHY553 treatment. When administered orally, MHY553 markedly ameliorated aging-induced hepatic steatosis without changes in body weight and serum levels of liver injury markers. Consistent with in vivo results, MHY553 inhibited triglyceride accumulation induced by a liver X receptor agonist in HepG2 cells. Regarding underlying mechanisms, MHY553 stimulated PPARα translocation into the nucleus and increased mRNA levels of its downstream genes related to fatty acid oxidation, including CPT-1A and ACOX1, without apparent change in lipogenesis signaling. Furthermore, MHY553 significantly suppresses inflammatory mRNA expression in old rats. In conclusion, MHY553 is a novel PPARα agonist that improved aged-induced hepatic steatosis, in part by increasing β-oxidation signaling and decreasing inflammation in the liver. MHY553 is a potential pharmaceutical agent for treating hepatic steatosis in aging.

  17. Liver Stiffness Decreases Rapidly in Response to Successful Hepatitis C Treatment and Then Plateaus.

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    Sweta Chekuri

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of a sustained virological response (SVR to hepatitis C virus (HCV treatment on liver stiffness (LS.LS, measured by transient elastography (FibroScan, demographic and laboratory data of patients treated with interferon (IFN-containing or IFN-free regimens who had an SVR24 (undetectable HCV viral load 24 weeks after the end of treatment were analyzed using two-tailed paired t-tests, Mann-Whitney Wilcoxon Signed-rank tests and linear regression. Two time intervals were investigated: pre-treatment to SVR24 and SVR24 to the end of follow-up. LS scores ≥ 12.5 kPa indicated LS-defined cirrhosis. A p-value below 0.05 was considered statistically significant.The median age of the patients (n = 100 was 60 years [IQR (interquartile range 54-64; 72% were male; 60% were Caucasian; and 42% had cirrhosis pre-treatment according to the FibroScan measurement. The median LS score dropped from 10.40 kPa (IQR: 7.25-18.60 pre-treatment to 7.60 kPa (IQR: 5.60-12.38 at SVR24, p <0.01. Among the 42 patients with LS-defined cirrhosis pre-treatment, 25 (60% of patients still had LS scores ≥ 12.5 kPa at SVR24, indicating the persistence of cirrhosis. The median change in LS was similar in patients receiving IFN-containing and IFN-free regimens: -1.95 kPa (IQR: -5.75 --0.38 versus -2.40 kPa (IQR: -7.70 --0.23, p = 0.74. Among 56 patients with a post-SVR24 LS measurement, the LS score changed by an additional -0.90 kPa (IQR: -2.98-0.5 during a median follow-up time of 1.17 (IQR: 0.88-1.63 years, which was not a statistically significant decrease (p = 0.99.LS decreased from pre-treatment to SVR24, but did not decrease significantly during additional follow-up. Earlier treatment may be needed to reduce the burden of liver disease.

  18. Decreased hepatic contents of coenzyme A molecular species in mice after subchronic mild social defeat stress.

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    Kubota, Yoshifumi; Goto, Tatsuhiko; Hagiya, Yuki; Chohnan, Shigeru; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Social stress may precipitate psychiatric disorders such as depression, which is related to the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. We have evaluated the effects of social stress on central and peripheral metabolism using a model of depression in mice. In the present study, we focused on coenzyme A (CoA) molecular species [i.e. non-esterified CoA (CoASH), acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA] which play important roles in numerous metabolic pathways, and we analyzed changes in expression of these molecules in the hypothalamus and liver of adult male mice (C57BL/6J) subjected to 10 days of subchronic mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) with ICR mice as aggressors. Mice (n = 12) exposed to showed hyperphagia- and polydipsia-like symptoms and increased body weight gain compared with control mice which were not affected by exposure to ICR mice (n = 12). To elucidate the underlying metabolic features in the sCSDS model, acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and CoASH tissue levels were analyzed using the acyl-CoA cycling method. The levels of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA, which decreases feeding behavior, were not influenced by sCSDS. However, sCSDS reduced levels of acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and total CoA (sum of the three CoA molecular species) in the liver. Hence, hyperphagia-like symptoms in sCSDS mice evidently occurred independently of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA, but might consequently lead to down-regulation of hepatic CoA via altered expression of nudix hydrolase 7. Future studies should investigate the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the down-regulation of liver CoA pools in sCSDS mice.

  19. Fermented Moringa oleifera Decreases Hepatic Adiposity and Ameliorates Glucose Intolerance in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

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    Joung, Hyunchae; Kim, Bobae; Park, Hyunjoon; Lee, Kyuyeon; Kim, Hee-Hoon; Sim, Ho-Cheol; Do, Hyun-Jin; Hyun, Chang-Kee; Do, Myoung-Sool

    2017-05-01

    Metabolic diseases, such as glucose intolerance and nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD), are primary risk factors for life-threatening conditions such as diabetes, heart attack, stroke, and hepatic cancer. Extracts from the tropical tree Moringa oleifera show antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. Fermentation can further improve the safety and nutritional value of certain foods. We investigated the efficacy of fermented M. oleifera extract (FM) against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance and hepatic lipid accumulation and investigated the underlying mechanisms by analyzing expression of proteins and genes involved in glucose and lipid regulation. C57BL/6 mice were fed with normal chow diet (ND) or HFD supplemented with distilled water (DW, control), nonfermented M. oleifera extract (NFM), or FM for 10 weeks. Although body weights were similar among HFD-fed treatment groups, liver weight was decreased, and glucose tolerance test (GTT) results improved in the FM group compared with DW and NFM groups. Hepatic lipid accumulation was also lower in the FM group, and expressions of genes involved in liver lipid metabolism were upregulated. In addition, HFD-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity in quadriceps muscles were decreased by FM. Finally, proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression was decreased by FM in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, and quadriceps of HFD-fed mice. FMs may decrease glucose intolerance and NAFLD under HFD-induced obesity by decreasing ER stress, oxidative stress, and inflammation.

  20. Decrease in seroprevalence of Hepatitis A after the implementation of nationwide disposable tableware use in Taiwan

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    Kan Wei-Chih

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan is an endemic area of viral hepatitis, including hepatitis A, which is transmitted mainly from the fecal-oral route. In order to reduce the transmission through food intake, the government implemented a policy of nationwide disposal tableware use in public eating places in 1982. We conducted a study to estimate the seroprevalence of Hepatitis A in a group of workers in Taiwan in 2005, determine the risk factors, and compare seroprevalence to published estimates in Taiwan to evaluate changes in the seroprevalence after the implementation of the nationwide disposal tableware use. Methods We recruited workers of an industrial park during their annual health examinations in 2005 and measured their anti-hepatitis A virus IgG titer using microparticle enzyme immunoassay. We compared the seroprevalence across different birth cohorts within the study population and also analyzed data from previous studies. Results The overall sero-positive rate was 22.0% in the 11,777 participants. The rate was much lower among those who were covered by the program since birth (born after 1982 in comparison with those who were not (2.7% vs. 25.3%, p Conclusions Data from both the current and previous studies in different time periods supported the effectiveness of disposal tableware in preventing the transmission of hepatitis A.

  1. Decreasing prevalence of Hepatitis B and absence of Hepatitis C Virus infection in the Warao indigenous population of Venezuela

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    Blanco, Ruth Y.; Loureiro, Carmen L.; Sulbarán, Yoneira F.; Maes, Mailis; de Waard, Jacobus H.; Rangel, Héctor R.

    2018-01-01

    Prevalence and molecular epidemiology studies for hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus are scarce in Warao Amerindians from Venezuela, where an epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has recently been documented. To carry out a molecular epidemiology analysis of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus in Warao individuals from the Delta Amacuro State of Venezuela. A total of 548 sera were tested for serological and molecular markers for HBV and HCV. The prevalence of active infection (presence of HBV surface antigen, HBsAg), exposure to HBV (presence of Antibody to HBV core antigen, anti-HBc) and anti-HCV, was 1.8%, 13% and 0% respectively. HBV exposure was significantly lower in men below 18 years old and also lower than rates previously reported in other Amerindian communities from Venezuela. Thirty one percent (31%, 25/80) of individuals without evidence of HBV infection exhibited anti-HBs titer ≥ 10U.I / ml, being significantly more frequent in individuals younger than 20 years. A higher HBV exposure was observed among HIV-1 positive individuals (33% vs 11%, p <0.005). A high prevalence of occult HBV infection was also observed (5.6%, 11/195). Phylogenetic analysis of S gene and complete HBV genomes showed that F3 is the only circulating subgenotype, different from the F2 subgenotype found in 1991 in this population. These results suggest a recent introduction of subgenotype F3, with a low divergence among the isolates. These results highlight the importance of molecular epidemiology studies for viral control, and support the effectiveness of vaccination in reducing transmission of HBV. PMID:29799873

  2. Clofibrate improves glucose tolerance in fat-fed rats but decreases hepatic glucose consumption capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustafson, LA; Kuipers, F; Wiegman, C; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA; Meijer, AJ

    2002-01-01

    Background/Aims: High-fat (HF) diets cause glucose intolerance. Fibrates improve glucose tolerance. We have tried to obtain information on possible hepatic mechanisms contributing to this effect. Methods: Rats were fed a HF diet, isocaloric with the control diet, for 3 weeks without or with

  3. Maternal high fat diet is associated with decreased plasma n-3 fatty acids and fetal hepatic apoptosis in nonhuman primates.

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    Wilmon F Grant

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR, we found significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and total n-3 FA's in HFD maternal and fetal plasma. Furthermore, the HFD fetal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio was elevated and was significantly correlated to the maternal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio and maternal hyperinsulinemia. Hepatic apoptosis was also increased in the HFD fetal liver. Switching HFD females to a CTR diet during a subsequent pregnancy normalized fetal DHA, n-3 FA's and fetal hepatic apoptosis to CTR levels. Breast milk from HFD dams contained lower levels of eicosopentanoic acid (EPA and DHA and lower levels of total protein than CTR breast milk. This study links chronic maternal consumption of a HFD with fetal hepatic apoptosis and suggests that a potentially pathological maternal fatty acid milieu is replicated in the developing fetal circulation in the nonhuman primate.

  4. Intraportal nicotine infusion in rats decreases hepatic blood flow through endothelin-1 and both endothelin A and endothelin B receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Yoneda, Masashi; Shimada, Tadahito; Kurosawa, Mieko; Terano, Akira

    2004-01-01

    Smoking has been demonstrated to aggravate liver injury. Nicotine, a major pharmacological component of tobacco smoke, affects a multitude of functions. Smoking and nicotine induce synthesis of endothelin (ET)-1. The effect of intraportal infusion of nicotine on hepatic circulation and an involvement of ET-1 and ET receptor in the action of nicotine were investigated in rats. Nicotine (0-100 μg/kg/h) was infused into the portal vein of urethane-anesthetized rats, and changes of hepatic blood flow were evaluated. Intraportal infusion of nicotine dose-dependently decreased hepatic blood flow and increased portal pressure without any alteration of heart rate or arterial blood pressure. This action of intraportal nicotine was completely abolished by pretreatment of ET-1 antibody. Either BQ485 (ET A receptor antagonist) or BQ788 (ET B receptor antagonist) partially reversed the effect of nicotine, and combination of BQ788 and BQ485 completely abolished it. These findings suggest that nicotine inhibits hepatic circulation through ET-1, and ET A and ET B receptor

  5. A decrease in hepatic microRNA-9 expression impairs gluconeogenesis by targeting FOXO1 in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Caifeng; Chen, Jinfeng; Li, Min; Xuan, Wenying; Su, Dongming; You, Hui; Huang, Yujie; Chen, Nuoqi; Liang, Xiubin

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNA-9 (miR-9) is involved in the regulation of pancreatic beta cell function. However, its role in gluconeogenesis is still unclear. Our objective was to investigate the role of miR-9 in hepatic glucose production (HGP). MiR-9 expression was measured in livers of high-fat diet (HFD) mice and ob/ob mice. The methylation status of the miR-9-3 promoter regions in hepatocytes was determined by the methylation-specific PCR procedure. The binding activity of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b on the miR-9-3 promoter was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and quantitative real-time PCR assays. HGP was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and pyruvate tolerance tests were also performed. Reduced miR-9 expression and hypermethylation of the miR-9-3 promoter were observed in the livers of obese mice. Further study showed that the binding of DNMT1, but not of DNMT3a and DNMT3b, to the miR-9-3 promoter was increased in hepatocytes from ob/ob mice. Knockdown of DNMT1 alleviated the decrease in hepatic miR-9 expression in vivo and in vitro. Overexpression of hepatic miR-9 improved insulin sensitivity in obese mice and inhibited HGP. In addition, deletion of hepatic miR-9 led to an increase in random and fasting blood glucose levels in lean mice. Importantly, silenced forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) expression reversed the gluconeogenesis and glucose production in hepatocytes induced by miR-9 deletion. Our observations suggest that the decrease in miR-9 expression contributes to an inappropriately activated gluconeogenesis in obese mice.

  6. Reduction of VLDL secretion decreases cholesterol excretion in niemann-pick C1-like 1 hepatic transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Marshall

    Full Text Available An effective way to reduce LDL cholesterol, the primary risk factor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is to increase cholesterol excretion from the body. Our group and others have recently found that cholesterol excretion can be facilitated by both hepatobiliary and transintestinal pathways. However, the lipoprotein that moves cholesterol through the plasma to the small intestine for transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE is unknown. To test the hypothesis that hepatic very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL support TICE, antisense oligonucleotides (ASO were used to knockdown hepatic expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP, which is necessary for VLDL assembly. While maintained on a high cholesterol diet, Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 hepatic transgenic (L1Tg mice, which predominantly excrete cholesterol via TICE, and wild type (WT littermates were treated with control ASO or MTP ASO. In both WT and L1Tg mice, MTP ASO decreased VLDL triglyceride (TG and cholesterol secretion. Regardless of treatment, L1Tg mice had reduced biliary cholesterol compared to WT mice. However, only L1Tg mice treated with MTP ASO had reduced fecal cholesterol excretion. Based upon these findings, we conclude that VLDL or a byproduct such as LDL can move cholesterol from the liver to the small intestine for TICE.

  7. The Hepatitis C Genotype 1 Paradox: Cost per Treatment Is Increasing, but Cost per Cure Is Decreasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Shafran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant attention has been focused on the perceived increase in the cost of antiviral treatment for hepatitis C genotype 1 infection since the approval of the first direct-acting antiviral agents in 2011. Using Canadian list prices, the present analysis points out a paradox: while the cost per antiviral regimen is increasing, the cost per cure is decreasing, especially with interferon-free therapy. In a publicly funded health care system, the lowest cost per cure is a more valuable measure of value for public money than the cost per regimen.

  8. The hepatitis C genotype 1 paradox: cost per treatment is increasing, but cost per cure is decreasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafran, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Significant attention has been focused on the perceived increase in the cost of antiviral treatment for hepatitis C genotype 1 infection since the approval of the first direct-acting antiviral agents in 2011. Using Canadian list prices, the present analysis points out a paradox: while the cost per antiviral regimen is increasing, the cost per cure is decreasing, especially with interferon-free therapy. In a publicly funded health care system, the lowest cost per cure is a more valuable measure of value for public money than the cost per regimen.

  9. Decreased Hepatitis B vaccine response in pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and morphea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Deepa P; Treat, James R; Castelo-Socio, Leslie

    2017-08-16

    Multiple groups of patients have been recognized for having high rates of non-responders to the Hepatitis B vaccine including those with HIV, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic kidney disease. These patients are at increased risk for infection due to both the nature of their underlying diseases and the immunosuppressive drugs they are commonly prescribed. Identification of groups with high non-response rates is essential in order to establish vaccination guidelines and prevent serious infections in already susceptible patients. We thus aimed to assess the rate of antibody response to the HBV vaccine in patients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, or morphea prior to starting immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Decreased blood hepatitis B surface antibody levels linked to e-waste lead exposure in preschool children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xijin [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jian [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Guo, Pi [Department of Public Health, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Fu, Tingzao; Dai, Yifeng [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Lin, Stanley L. [Department of Pathophysiology and Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Huo, Xia, E-mail: xhuo@stu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Secondary exploratory analyses displayed a correlation of blood Pb to HBsAb levels. • Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze two-phase data. • Children from an e-waste area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers. • Nearly 50% of Pb-exposed children fail to develop sufficient HBV immunity. • Different vaccination strategies are required for in e-waste areas. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental contaminant that can profoundly affect the immune system in vaccinated children. To explore the association between blood Pb and HBsAb levels in children chronically exposed to Pb, we measured hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titers, to reflect the immune response in the children of Guiyu, an electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) recycling area well known for environmental Pb contamination. We performed secondary exploratory analyses of blood Pb levels and plasma HBsAb titers in samples, taken in two phases between 2011 and 2012, from 590 children from Guiyu (exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group). Children living in the exposed area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers compared with children from the reference area. At each phase, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) showed that HBsAb titers were significantly negatively associated with child blood Pb levels. This work shows that a decreased immune response to hepatitis B vaccine and immune system might have potential harm to children with chronic Pb exposure. Importantly, nearly 50% of chronically exposed children failed to develop sufficient immunity to hepatitis in response to vaccination. Thus different vaccination strategies are needed for children living under conditions of chronic Pb exposure.

  11. Decreased blood hepatitis B surface antibody levels linked to e-waste lead exposure in preschool children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xijin; Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Pi; Fu, Tingzao; Dai, Yifeng; Lin, Stanley L.; Huo, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Secondary exploratory analyses displayed a correlation of blood Pb to HBsAb levels. • Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze two-phase data. • Children from an e-waste area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers. • Nearly 50% of Pb-exposed children fail to develop sufficient HBV immunity. • Different vaccination strategies are required for in e-waste areas. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental contaminant that can profoundly affect the immune system in vaccinated children. To explore the association between blood Pb and HBsAb levels in children chronically exposed to Pb, we measured hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titers, to reflect the immune response in the children of Guiyu, an electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) recycling area well known for environmental Pb contamination. We performed secondary exploratory analyses of blood Pb levels and plasma HBsAb titers in samples, taken in two phases between 2011 and 2012, from 590 children from Guiyu (exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group). Children living in the exposed area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers compared with children from the reference area. At each phase, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) showed that HBsAb titers were significantly negatively associated with child blood Pb levels. This work shows that a decreased immune response to hepatitis B vaccine and immune system might have potential harm to children with chronic Pb exposure. Importantly, nearly 50% of chronically exposed children failed to develop sufficient immunity to hepatitis in response to vaccination. Thus different vaccination strategies are needed for children living under conditions of chronic Pb exposure

  12. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces Decrease Hepatitis A Virus and Human Norovirus Surrogate Titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Snehal S; Dice, Lezlee; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extract is known to have antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and antimicrobial properties. However, their effects against foodborne viruses are currently unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa against human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1)) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) at 37 °C over 24 h. Individual viruses (~5 log PFU/ml) were incubated with 40 or 100 mg/ml of aqueous hibiscus extract (HE; pH 3.6), protocatechuic acid (PCA; 3 or 6 mg/ml, pH 3.6), ferulic acid (FA; 0.5 or 1 mg/ml; pH 4.0), malic acid (10 mM; pH 3.0), or phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Each treatment was replicated thrice and plaque assayed in duplicate. FCV-F9 titers were reduced to undetectable levels after 15 min with both 40 and 100 mg/ml HE. MNV-1 was reduced by 1.77 ± 0.10 and 1.88 ± 0.12 log PFU/ml after 6 h with 40 and 100 mg/ml HE, respectively, and to undetectable levels after 24 h by both concentrations. HAV was reduced to undetectable levels by both HE concentrations after 24 h. PCA at 3 mg/ml reduced FCV-F9 titers to undetectable levels after 6 h, MNV-1 by 0.53 ± 0.01 log PFU/ml after 6 h, and caused no significant change in HAV titers. FA reduced FCV-F9 to undetectable levels after 3 h and MNV-1 and HAV after 24 h. Transmission electron microscopy showed no conclusive results. The findings suggest that H. sabdariffa extracts have potential to prevent foodborne viral transmission.

  13. CXCL10 Decreases GP73 Expression in Hepatoma Cells at the Early Stage of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Golgi protein 73 (GP73, which is up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, has recently been identified as a novel serum marker for HCC diagnosis. Several reports also noted the increased levels of GP73 expression in chronic liver disease in patients with acute hepatitis of various etiologies, chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and alcoholic liver disease. The molecular mechanisms of GP73 expression in HCV related liver disease still need to be determined. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of HCV infection on GP73 expression. GP73 was highly expressed in Huh7, Hep3B, 293T and HUVEC cells, and was low-expressed in HepG2 cells. HCV infection led to down-regulation of GP73 in Huh7 and HepG2/CD81 cells at the early stage of infection. CXCL10 decreased GP73 expression in Huh7 and HepG2 cells. Up-regulation of GP73 was noted in hepatocytes with cytopathic effect at advanced stage of HCV infection, and further research is needed to determine the unknown factors affecting GP73 expression. In conclusion, our study provided additional evidence for the roles of GP73 in liver disease.

  14. Decreased liver triglyceride content in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during gestation and lactation: role of hepatic triglyceride utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Rani J; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Browne, Veron; Mendez-Garcia, Claudia; Yablonski, Elizabeth; Pontiggia, Laura; D'Mello, Anil P

    2015-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated that protein restriction throughout gestation and lactation reduces liver triglyceride content in adult rat offspring. However, the mechanisms mediating the decrease in liver triglyceride content are not understood. The aim of the current study was to use a new group of pregnant animals and their offspring and determine the contribution of increased triglyceride utilization via the hepatic fatty-acid oxidation and triglyceride secretory pathways to the reduction in liver triglyceride content. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received either a control or a low protein diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were weaned onto laboratory chow on day 28 and killed on day 65. Liver triglyceride content was reduced in male, but not female, low-protein offspring, both in the fed and fasted states. The reduction was accompanied by a trend towards higher liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a activity, suggesting increased fatty-acid transport into the mitochondrial matrix. However, medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase activity within the mitochondrial matrix, expression of nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α, and plasma levels of β-hydroxybutyrate were similar between low protein and control offspring, indicating a lack of change in fatty-acid oxidation. Hepatic triglyceride secretion, assessed by blocking peripheral triglyceride utilization and measuring serum triglyceride accumulation rate, and the activity of microsomal transfer protein, were similar between low protein and control offspring. Because enhanced triglyceride utilization is not a significant contributor, the decrease in liver triglyceride content in male low-protein offspring is likely due to alterations in liver fatty-acid transport or triglyceride biosynthesis. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Decreased hepatic RBP4 secretion is correlated with reduced hepatic glucose production but is not associated with insulin resistance in patients with liver cirrhosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahr, Matthias J.; Boeker, Klaus H. W.; Manns, Michael P.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    Patients with liver cirrhosis have a high incidence of insulin resistance and diabetes. This study was designed to determine circulating levels and hepatic production of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) in relation to parameters of hepatic and systemic metabolism in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  16. Soy compared with milk protein in a western diet changes fecal microbiota and decreases hepatic steatosis in obese OLETF rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy protein is effective at preventing hepatic steatosis; however, the mechanisms are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that soy versus dairy protein-based diet would alter microbiota and attenuate hepatic steatosis in hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Male OLETF ...

  17. The metabolic sensors FXRα, PGC-1α, and SIRT1 cooperatively regulate hepatitis B virus transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtil, Claire; Enache, Liviu S; Radreau, Pauline; Dron, Anne-Gaëlle; Scholtès, Caroline; Deloire, Alexandre; Roche, Didier; Lotteau, Vincent; André, Patrice; Ramière, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome transcription is highly dependent on liver-enriched, metabolic nuclear receptors (NRs). Among others, NR farnesoid X receptor α (FXRα) enhances HBV core promoter activity and pregenomic RNA synthesis. Interestingly, two food-withdrawal-induced FXRα modulators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and deacetylase SIRT1, have been found to be associated with HBV genomes ex vivo. Whereas PGC-1α induction was shown to increase HBV replication, the effect of SIRT1 on HBV transcription remains unknown. Here, we showed that, in hepatocarcinoma-derived Huh-7 cells, combined activation of FXRα by GW4064 and SIRT1 by activator 3 increased HBV core promoter-controlled luciferase expression by 25-fold, compared with a 10-fold increase with GW4064 alone. Using cell lines differentially expressing FXRα in overexpression and silencing experiments, we demonstrated that SIRT1 activated the core promoter in an FXRα- and PGC-1α-dependent manner. Maximal activation (>150-fold) was observed in FXRα- and PGC-1α-overexpressing Huh-7 cells treated with FXRα and SIRT1 activators. Similarly, in cells transfected with full-length HBV genomes, maximal induction (3.5-fold) of core promoter-controlled synthesis of 3.5-kb RNA was observed in the same conditions of transfection and treatments. Thus, we identified a subnetwork of metabolic factors regulating HBV replication, strengthening the hypothesis that transcription of HBV and metabolic genes is similarly controlled.

  18. Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2) is decreased with viral infection and regulates pro-labour mediators OA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liong, Stella; Lim, Ratana; Barker, Gillian; Lappas, Martha

    2017-07-01

    Intrauterine infection caused by viral infection has been implicated to contribute to preterm birth. Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2) regulates inflammation in non-gestational tissues in response to viral infection. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of: (i) viral dsRNA analogue polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) on HAVCR2 expression; and (ii) HAVCR2 silencing by siRNA (siHAVCR2) in primary amnion and myometrial cells on poly(I:C)-induced inflammation. In human foetal membranes and myometrium, HAVCR2 mRNA and protein expression was decreased when exposed to poly(I:C). Treatment of primary amnion and myometrial cells with poly(I:C) significantly increased the expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL1A, IL1B and IL6; the expression of chemokines CXCL8 and CCL2; the expression and secretion of adhesion molecules ICAM1 and VCAM1; and PTGS2 and PTGFR mRNA expression and the release of prostaglandin PGF 2α . This increase was significantly augmented in cells transfected with siHAVCR2. Furthermore, mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL4 and IL10 was significantly decreased. Collectively, our data suggest that HAVCR2 regulates cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins and cell adhesion molecules in the presence of viral infection. This suggests a potential for HAVCR2 activators as therapeutics for the management of preterm birth associated with viral infections. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. High alanine aminotransferase is associated with decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity and predicts the development of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Stefan, Norbert; Lindsay, Robert S

    2002-01-01

    -sectionally associated with obesity and whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance and prospectively associated with a decline in hepatic insulin sensitivity and the development of type 2 diabetes. Our findings indicate that high ALT is a marker of risk for type 2 diabetes and suggest a potential role of the liver...... with prospective changes in liver or whole-body insulin sensitivity and/or insulin secretion and whether these elevated enzymes predict the development of type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians. We measured ALT, AST, and GGT in 451 nondiabetic (75-g oral glucose tolerance test) Pima Indians (aged 30 +/- 6 years, body fat...... 33 +/- 8%, ALT 45 +/- 29 units/l, AST 34 +/- 18 units/l, and GGT 56 +/- 40 units/l [mean +/- SD]) who were characterized for body composition (hydrodensitometry or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), whole-body insulin sensitivity (M), and hepatic insulin sensitivity (hepatic glucose output [HGO...

  20. Hepatic nuclear sterol regulatory binding element protein 2 abundance is decreased and that of ABCG5 increased in male hamsters fed plant sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Scott V; Rideout, Todd C; Jones, Peter J H

    2010-07-01

    The effect of dietary plant sterols on cholesterol homeostasis has been well characterized in the intestine, but how plant sterols affect lipid metabolism in other lipid-rich tissues is not known. Changes in hepatic cholesterol homeostasis in response to high dietary intakes of plant sterols were determined in male golden Syrian hamsters fed hypercholesterolemia-inducing diets with and without 2% plant sterols (wt:wt; Reducol, Forbes Meditech) for 28 d. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations, cholesterol biosynthesis and absorption, and changes in the expression of sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2) and liver X receptor-beta (LXRbeta) and their target genes were measured. Plant sterol feeding reduced plasma total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol concentrations 43% (P 6-fold (P = 0.029) and >2-fold (P sterol-fed hamsters compared with controls. Plant sterol feeding also increased fractional cholesterol synthesis >2-fold (P sterol feeding increased hepatic protein expression of cytosolic (inactive) SREBP2, decreased nuclear (active) SREBP2, and tended to increase LXRbeta (P = 0.06) and ATP binding cassette transporter G5, indicating a differential modulation of the expression of proteins central to cholesterol metabolism. In conclusion, high-dose plant sterol feeding of hamsters changes hepatic protein abundance in favor of cholesterol excretion despite lower hepatic cholesterol concentrations and higher cholesterol fractional synthesis.

  1. Changes in duration of action of rocuronium following decrease in hepatic blood flow during pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic gynaecological surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Wen; Liu, Yu; Wang, Yun; Lang, Ren; Yue, Yun; Wu, An-Shi

    2017-03-20

    A moderate insufflation pressure and deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) have been recommended in laparoscopic surgery in consideration of the possible reduction in splanchnic perfusion due to the CO 2 -pneumoperitoneum. Since the liver is the major organ for rocuronium metabolism, the question of whether NMB of rocuronium would change with the variation of liver perfusion during pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic surgery merits investigation. In this prospective study, a total of sixty female patients scheduled for either selective laparoscopic gynaecological surgery (group laparoscopy) or laparotomy for gynaecological surgery (group control) were analyzed. Rocuronium was administered with closed-loop feedback infusion system, which was also applied to monitor NMB complied with good clinical research practice (GCRP). The onset time, clinical duration, and recovery index were measured. Hepatic blood flow was assessed by laparoscopic intraoperative ultrasonography before insufflation/after entering the abdominal cavity (T1), 5 min after insufflation in the Trendelenburg position/5 min after skin incision (T2), 15 min after insufflation in the Trendelenburg position/15 min after skin incision (T3), 30 min after insufflation in the Trendelenburg position/30 min after skin incision (T4), and 5 min after deflation/before closing the abdomen (T5) in group laparoscopy/group control respectively. The relationship between the clinical duration of rocuronium and portal venous blood flow was analyzed using linear or quadratic regression. The clinical duration and RI of rocuronium were both prolonged significantly in group laparoscopy (36.8 ± 8.3 min; 12.8 ± 5.5 min) compared to group control (29.0 ± 5.8 min; 9.8 ± 4.0 min) (P rocuronium and portal venous blood flow (Y = 51.800-0.043X + (1.86E-005) X 2 ; r 2  = 0.491; P Rocuronium-induced NMB during laparoscopic gynaecological surgery might be prolonged due to the decrease in portal

  2. Experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease results in decreased hepatic uptake transporter expression and function in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Craig D.; Lickteig, Andrew J.; Augustine, Lisa M.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Besselsen, David G.; Erickson, Robert P.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of diagnoses ranging from simple fatty liver (SFL), to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aimed to determine the effect of moderate and severe NAFLD on hepatic transporter expression and function in vivo. Rats were fed a

  3. Atorvastatin dose-dependently decreases hepatic lipase activity in type 2 diabetes: effect of sex and the LIPC promoter variant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.I.L. Berk-Planken (Ingrid); N. Hoogerbrugge (Nicoline); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); A.H. Bootsma (Aart); H. Jansen (Hans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Hepatic lipase (HL) is involved in the metabolism of several lipoproteins and may contribute to the atherogenic lipid profile in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the effect of cholesterol synthesis inhibitors on HL activity in relation to sex and the

  4. Decrease in Anti-HBs Antibodies over Time in Medical Students and Healthcare Workers after Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Sahana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatitis B is one of the most important occupational hazards among healthcare workers (HCWs. This study aimed to measure the anti-HBs titres among the medical students and HCWs vaccinated against hepatitis B virus and to determine the association between anti-HBs levels and time since vaccination. Materials and Methods. In this cross-sectional study, medical students and healthcare workers who had received all three doses of hepatitis B vaccination and completed at least six months after vaccination since the last dose were included. 3 ml blood was collected from subjects (n=340 and anti-HBs titre was estimated using ELISA. Results. A total of 340/400 subjects were aged between 18 and 60 years; 204 were females and 136 males. The median and interquartile range for time since vaccination were 5 and 5 years, respectively. Duration since vaccination was ≤5 years in 223 (65.5%, 6–10 years in 84 (24.7%, and >10 years in 33 (9.70%; among them, antibody titres were >10 mIU/ml in 94.1%, 79.7%, and 72.7% subjects, respectively. There was significant decline in antibody titres as duration of postvaccination increased. Conclusion. The proportion of subjects who were unprotected after 5 and 10 years after vaccination were 20% and 27%, respectively. The need for a booster dose can be made mandatory at least for healthcare professionals.

  5. The interactive effects of a gradual temperature decrease and long-term food deprivation on cardiac and hepatic blood flows in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L H; Dzialowski, E; Huggett, D B

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which the fish liver is perfused with blood. Transonic® flow probes were therefore implanted around the ventral aorta and hepatic vein(s) to record baseline blood flows in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) previously held under two different feeding regimes (food-deprived or fed to satiation, 8-12 weeks). Fish from both groups were exposed to a gradual temperature decrease (12°C to 5°C) and physical disturbance. Cardiac output (Q), stroke volume (Sv) and hepatic venous blood flow (HVBF) were significantly reduced in food-deprived trout at 12°C. Heart rate was not significantly affected by nutritional status, but was significantly reduced when temperature was decreased to 5°C. Physically disturbing each fish at 12°C and 5°C showed that the performance capacity of the heart was not affected by food deprivation as the capacity to increase Q and Sv was not reduced in the food-deprived group. Overall this study showed that food deprivation in rainbow trout reduced cardiac and hepatic blood flows. However, long-term food deprivation did not affect the capacity of the heart to acutely increase performance. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Direct-acting antiviral therapy decreases hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence rate in cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virlogeux, Victor; Pradat, Pierre; Hartig-Lavie, Kerstin; Bailly, François; Maynard, Marianne; Ouziel, Guillaume; Poinsot, Domitille; Lebossé, Fanny; Ecochard, Marie; Radenne, Sylvie; Benmakhlouf, Samir; Koffi, Joseph; Lack, Philippe; Scholtes, Caroline; Uhres, Anne-Claire; Ducerf, Christian; Mabrut, Jean-Yves; Rode, Agnès; Levrero, Massimo; Combet, Christophe; Merle, Philippe; Zoulim, Fabien

    2017-08-01

    Arrival of direct-acting antiviral agents against hepatitis C virus with high-sustained virological response rates and very few side effects has drastically changed the management of hepatitis C virus infection. The impact of direct-acting antiviral exposure on hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after a first remission in patients with advanced fibrosis remains to be clarified. 68 consecutive hepatitis C virus patients with a first hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis and under remission, subsequently treated or not with a direct-acting antiviral combination, were included. Clinical, biological and virological data were collected at first hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis, at remission and during the surveillance period. All patients were cirrhotic. Median age was 62 years and 76% of patients were male. Twenty-three patients (34%) were treated with direct-acting antivirals and 96% of them achieved sustained virological response. Median time between hepatocellular carcinoma remission and direct-acting antivirals initiation was 7.2 months (IQR: 3.6-13.5; range: 0.3-71.4) and median time between direct-acting antivirals start and hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence was 13.0 months (IQR: 9.2-19.6; range: 3.0-24.7). Recurrence rate was 1.7/100 person-months among treated patients vs 4.2/100 person-months among untreated patients (P=.008). In multivariate survival analysis, the hazard ratio for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after direct-acting antivirals exposure was 0.24 (95% confidence interval: 0.10-0.55; PHepatocellular carcinoma recurrence rate was significantly lower among patients treated with direct-acting antivirals compared with untreated patients. Given the potential impact of our observation, large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm these results. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. P0525 : N-Acetylated alpha smooth muscle actin levels are increased in hepatic fibrosis but decreased in hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.J.; Nielsen, Signe Holm; Hansen, N.U.B.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha Smooth Muscle Actin (a-SMA) is upregulated together with extracellular matrix (ECM) during activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells (HSCs) in fibrosis. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) remove acetylations and regulate the expression of genes, which is associated with cancers. There is a close...... relationship between cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and markers enabling identification of patients in risk of developing HCC with cirrhosis is a major unmet clinical need. We developed an ELISA for the assessment of acetylated a-SMA (Aca- SMA) in serum. The objective was to investigate...

  8. Potent PPARα activator derived from tomato juice, 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid, decreases plasma and hepatic triglyceride in obese diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-il Kim

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for development of several obesity-related diseases. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates energy metabolism. Previously, we reported that 9-oxo-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (9-oxo-ODA is presented in fresh tomato fruits and acts as a PPARα agonist. In addition to 9-oxo-ODA, we developed that 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-oxo-ODA, which is an isomer of 9-oxo-ODA, is present only in tomato juice. In this study, we explored the possibility that 13-oxo-ODA acts as a PPARα agonist in vitro and whether its effect ameliorates dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis in vivo. In vitro luciferase assay experiments revealed that 13-oxo-ODA significantly induced PPARα activation; moreover, the luciferase activity of 13-oxo-ODA was stronger than that of 9-oxo-ODA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is a precursor of 13-oxo-ODA and is well-known as a potent PPARα activator. In addition to in vitro experiment, treatment with 13-oxo-ODA decreased the levels of plasma and hepatic triglycerides in obese KK-Ay mice fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, our findings indicate that 13-oxo-ODA act as a potent PPARα agonist, suggesting a possibility to improve obesity-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis.

  9. Apple Polyphenols Decrease Atherosclerosis and Hepatic Steatosis in ApoE-/- Mice through the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhe-Rong; Li, Jin-You; Dong, Xin-Wei; Tan, Zhong-Ju; Wu, Wei-Zhen; Xie, Qiang-Min; Yang, Yun-Mei

    2015-08-24

    In this study, we examined the effects of apple polyphenols (APs) on hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis and endothelial function and investigated the potential mechanisms. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a western-type diet and orally treated with APs (100 mg/kg) or atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in the aortic sinuses and, and hepatic lipidosis were measured. The treatment with APs or atorvastatin induced a remarkable reduction in the atherosclerotic lesions and hepatic steatosis and decreased the levels of low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, CCL-2 and VCAM-1 levels in the plasma. Conversely, the APs significantly increased the plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and markedly up-regulated the glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in liver tissues. Moreover, the APs treatment modulated lipid metabolism by up-regulating the transcription of associated hepatic genes including PPARα, while down-regulating the transcription of SCAP and its downstream genes associated with lipid synthesis in the liver. Histological assessment showed that the APs treatment also reduced the macrophage infiltration in the aortic root plaque and the inflammatory cells infiltrations to the liver tissues. Moreover, we confirmed that the APs treatment greatly reduced the ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction and monocyte adhesion to rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs). Mechanistically, the APs treatment suppressed the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway, and consequently, reduced CCL-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. Our results suggest that the APs are a beneficial nutritional supplement for the attenuation of atherosclerosis.

  10. Apple Polyphenols Decrease Atherosclerosis and Hepatic Steatosis in ApoE−/− Mice through the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Rong Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the effects of apple polyphenols (APs on hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis and endothelial function and investigated the potential mechanisms. ApoE−/− mice were fed a western-type diet and orally treated with APs (100 mg/kg or atorvastatin (10 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in the aortic sinuses and, and hepatic lipidosis were measured. The treatment with APs or atorvastatin induced a remarkable reduction in the atherosclerotic lesions and hepatic steatosis and decreased the levels of low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, CCL-2 and VCAM-1 levels in the plasma. Conversely, the APs significantly increased the plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and markedly up-regulated the glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in liver tissues. Moreover, the APs treatment modulated lipid metabolism by up-regulating the transcription of associated hepatic genes including PPARα, while down-regulating the transcription of SCAP and its downstream genes associated with lipid synthesis in the liver. Histological assessment showed that the APs treatment also reduced the macrophage infiltration in the aortic root plaque and the inflammatory cells infiltrations to the liver tissues. Moreover, we confirmed that the APs treatment greatly reduced the ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction and monocyte adhesion to rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs. Mechanistically, the APs treatment suppressed the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway, and consequently, reduced CCL-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. Our results suggest that the APs are a beneficial nutritional supplement for the attenuation of atherosclerosis.

  11. In nondiabetic, human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipodystrophy, hepatic insulin extraction and posthepatic insulin clearance rate are decreased in proportion to insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hansen, Birgitte R

    2005-01-01

    In healthy, nondiabetic individuals with insulin resistance, fasting insulin is inversely correlated to the posthepatic insulin clearance rate (MCRi) and the hepatic insulin extraction (HEXi). We investigated whether similar early mechanisms to facilitate glucose homeostasis exist in nondiabetic...... > .1). Our data suggest that HEXi and MCRi are decreased in proportion to the degree of insulin resistance in nondiabetic HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy....... insulin clearance rate was estimated as the ratio of posthepatic insulin appearance rate to steady-state plasma insulin concentration during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (40 mU.m-2 .min-1). Posthepatic insulin appearance rate during the clamp was calculated, taking into account the remnant...

  12. Decreasing trend of seroprevalence of hepatic amoebiasis in tertiary care hospital of North India: 2010–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Agrawal

    2018-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS: This decrease may be attributed to several factors such as increase in awareness, improved hygienic practices, use of safe drinking water, better socioeconomic condition, and perhaps early treatment sought for intestinal amoebiasis.

  13. GLAMOR - Or How We Achieved A Common Understanding On The Decrease Of Glass Dissolution Kinetics Through International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Iseghem, Pierre; Aerstens, Marc; Gin, Stephane; Grambow, Bernd; Strachan, Denis M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Wicks, George G.; McMenamin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the EC funded GLAMOR project was to achieve a common understanding of the processes that control the decrease of the dissolution rate of high-level waste glass in water when silica becomes saturated. Is affinity control or a protective layer dominating? The following steps were taken: (1) review of the literature, (2) selection ofselect an experimental dataset, and selection of the models r(t) and GM2003, and (3) application apply by the GLAMOR partners of the models to the datasets. The main focus has beenwas on dissolution tests in pure water at different values of surface-to-volume and pH. Some of the main conclusions were: (1) both affinity and protective layer concepts must be considered in the interpretation of the rate decreasing stage, (2) the residual dissolution rate observed beyond the silica saturation stage is far more important in view of the long-term performance of the glass, and deserves more attention in future R and D. In the GLAMOR final report, we also discussed in detail the modeling parameters, such as the silica saturation concentration, the silica diffusion coefficient, the silica retention factor in the reaction layer, and the water diffusion coefficient.

  14. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation in obese cats alters carnitine metabolism and decreases ketosis during fasting and induced hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Géraldine; Paragon, Bernard M; Milliat, Fabien; Lutton, Claude

    2002-02-01

    This study was designed to determine whether dietary carnitine supplement could protect cats from ketosis and improve carnitine and lipid metabolism in experimental feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL). Lean spayed queens received a diet containing 40 (CL group, n = 7) or 1000 (CH group, n = 4) mg/kg of L-carnitine during obesity development. Plasma fatty acid, beta-hydroxybutyrate and carnitine, and liver and muscle carnitine concentrations were measured during experimental induction of FHL and after treatment. In control cats (CL group), fasting and FHL increased the plasma concentrations of fatty acids two- to threefold (P 10-fold (from a basal 0.22 +/- 0.03 to 1.70 +/- 0.73 after 3 wk fasting and 3.13 +/- 0.49 mmol/L during FHL). In carnitine-supplemented cats, these variables increased significantly (P < 0.0001) only during FHL (beta-hydroxybutyrate, 1.42 +/- 0.17 mmol/L). L-Carnitine supplementation significantly increased plasma, muscle and liver carnitine concentrations. Liver carnitine concentration increased dramatically from the obese state to FHL in nonsupplemented cats, but not in supplemented cats, which suggests de novo synthesis of carnitine from endogenous amino acids in control cats and reversible storage in supplemented cats. These results demonstrate the protective effect of a dietary L-carnitine supplement against fasting ketosis during obesity induction. Increasing the L-carnitine level of diets in cats with low energy requirements, such as after neutering, and a high risk of obesity could therefore be recommended.

  15. AGE-modified basement membrane cooperates with Endo180 to promote epithelial cell invasiveness and decrease prostate cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Gronau, Julian H; Breit, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical strain imposed by age-related thickening of the basal lamina and augmented tissue stiffness in the prostate gland coincides with increased cancer risk. Here we hypothesized that the structural alterations in the basal lamina associated with age can induce mechanotransduction pathways...... in prostate epithelial cells (PECs) to promote invasiveness and cancer progression. To demonstrate this, we developed a 3D model of PEC acini in which thickening and stiffening of basal lamina matrix was induced by advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-dependent non-enzymatic crosslinking of its major......(Δ) (Ex2-6/) (Δ) (Ex2-6) mice, with constitutively exposed CTLD2 and decreased survival of men with early (non-invasive) prostate cancer with high epithelial Endo180 expression and levels of AGE. These findings indicate that AGE-dependent modification of the basal lamina induces invasive behaviour...

  16. Targeted deletion of C1q/TNF-related protein 9 increases food intake, decreases insulin sensitivity, and promotes hepatic steatosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhikui; Lei, Xia; Petersen, Pia S; Aja, Susan; Wong, G William

    2014-04-01

    Transgenic overexpression of CTRP9, a secreted hormone downregulated in obesity, confers striking protection against diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the physiological relevance of this adiponectin-related plasma protein remains undefined. Here, we used gene targeting to establish the metabolic function of CTRP9 in a physiological context. Mice lacking CTRP9 were obese and gained significantly more body weight when fed standard laboratory chow. Increased food intake, due in part to upregulated expression of hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides, contributed to greater adiposity in CTRP9 knockout mice. Although the frequency of food intake remained unchanged, CTRP9 knockout mice increased caloric intake by increasing meal size and decreasing satiety ratios. The absence of CTRP9 also resulted in peripheral tissue insulin resistance, leading to increased fasting insulin levels, impaired hepatic insulin signaling, and reduced insulin tolerance. Increased expression of lipogenic genes, combined with enhanced caloric intake, contributed to hepatic steatosis in CTRP9 knockout mice. Loss of CTRP9 also resulted in reduced skeletal muscle AMPK activation and mitochondrial content. Together, these results provide the genetic evidence for a physiological role of CTRP9 in controlling energy balance via central and peripheral mechanisms.

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ...

  18. Adding a purple corn extract in rats supplemented with chia oil decreases gene expression of SREBP-1c and retains Δ5 and Δ6 hepatic desaturase activity, unmodified the hepatic lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna Gallegos, Sixto; Torres Arrunátegui, Génesis; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Villanueva Espinoza, María Elena

    2018-05-01

    Flavonoids upregulate gene expression of PPAR-α and underregulate the gene expression of SREBP-1c, and their intake increases the plasmatic concentration of n-3 LC-PUFAs. However, the biological mechanisms underlying these effects have not been elucidated. In this work, the effect of oral supplementation of ALA from chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil and anthocyanins from a purple corn extract (PCE) on gene expression of SREBP-1c, PPAR-α and Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases (Δ5D and Δ6D), the activity of these enzymes in the liver as well as the hepatic lipid profile were evaluated in thirty-six female Sprague Dawley rats whose diet was supplemented with olive oil (OL), chia oil (CH), olive oil and PCE (OL + PCE) or chia oil and PCE (CH + PCE). Gene expression of PPAR-α was significantly higher when supplemented with CH and CH + PCE, SREBP-1c gene expression was higher when supplemented with chia oil. CH supplementation enhanced Δ5D expression whereas no significant differences between treatments were observed concerning Δ6D gene expression. Activities of both desaturases were increased by including olive oil (OL + PCE and OL), and they were found to be higher in CH + PCE respect to CH for both enzymes. The ALA and n-3 LCPUFAs hepatic content was higher with CH, decreasing the levels of AA and n-6 LCPUFAs. It is concluded that the joint action of flavonoids such as anthocyanins and ALA show an anti-adipogenic effect. Desaturase activity was inhibited by ALA and kept by the anthocyanins from PCE, thus anthocyanins would exert a protective effect on the desaturase activity but they would not affect on its gene expression, however, high doses of ALA increased the production of its metabolites, masking the effect of PCE. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Autophagy induced by purple pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) extract triggered a cooperative effect on inducing the hepatic stellate cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardin, Cristiane C; Martins, Leo A M; Parisi, Mariana M; Vieira, Moema Queiroz; Terra, Silvia R; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia M; Borojevic, Radovan; Vizzotto, Márcia; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Guma, Fátima Costa Rodrigues

    2017-04-01

    Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are the major source of collagen I in liver fibrosis. Eugenia uniflora L. is a tree species that is widely distributed in South America. E. uniflora L. fruit-popularly known as pitanga-has been shown to exert beneficial properties. Autophagy contributes to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and survival under stress situation, but it has also been suggested to be an alternative cell death pathway. Mitochondria play a pivotal role on signaling cell death. Mitophagy of damaged mitochondria is an important cell defense mechanism against organelle-mediated cell death signaling. We previously found that purple pitanga extract induced mitochondrial dysfunction, cell cycle arrest, and death by apoptosis and necrosis in GRX cells, a well-established activated HSC line. We evaluated the effects of 72-h treatment with crescent concentrations of purple pitanga extract (5 to 100 μg/mL) on triggering autophagy in GRX cells, as this is an important mechanism to cells under cytotoxic conditions. We found that all treated cells presented an increase in the mRNA expression of autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7). Concomitantly, flow cytometry and ultrastructural analysis of treated cells revealed an increase of autophagosomes/autolysosomes that consequentially led to an increased mitophagy. As purple pitanga extract was previously found to be broadly cytotoxic to GRX cells, we postulated that autophagy contributes to this scenario, where cell death seems to be an inevitable fate. Altogether, the effectiveness on inducing activated HSC death can make purple pitanga extract a good candidate on treating liver fibrosis.

  20. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreases hepatic cytochrome P-450, especially CYP2B1/2B2, and simultaneously induces heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Miura, Natsuko; Tokuda, Yuki; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the decrease in hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) content in ascorbic acid deficiency was investigated in scurvy-prone ODS rats. First, male ODS rats were fed a diet containing sufficient ascorbic acid (control) or a diet without ascorbic acid (deficient) for 18 days, with or without the intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) complex IV subunit I protein, and simultaneously increased heme oxygenase-1 protein in microsomes and mitochondria. Next, heme oxygenase-1 inducers, that is lipopolysaccharide and hemin, were administered to phenobaribital-treated ODS rats fed sufficient ascorbic acid. The administration of these inducers decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial COX complex IV subunit I protein. These results suggested that the stimulation of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression by ascorbic acid deficiency caused the decrease in CYP content in liver.

  1. In nondiabetic, human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipodystrophy, hepatic insulin extraction and posthepatic insulin clearance rate are decreased in proportion to insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hansen, Birgitte R

    2005-01-01

    In healthy, nondiabetic individuals with insulin resistance, fasting insulin is inversely correlated to the posthepatic insulin clearance rate (MCRi) and the hepatic insulin extraction (HEXi). We investigated whether similar early mechanisms to facilitate glucose homeostasis exist in nondiabetic...... endogenous insulin secretion, which was estimated by deconvolution of C-peptide concentrations. Hepatic extraction of insulin was calculated as 1 minus the ratio of fasting posthepatic insulin delivery rate to fasting endogenous insulin secretion rate. Compared with controls, LIPO displayed increased fasting...... insulin (130%, P Hepatic extraction of insulin was similar between groups (LIPO, 55%; controls, 57%; P > .8). In LIPO, HEXi and MCRi correlated inversely with fasting insulin (r = -0.56, P

  2. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workshops Follow Us Home Health Information Liver Disease Hepatitis (Viral) Hepatitis C Related Topics English English Español Section Navigation Hepatitis (Viral) What Is Viral Hepatitis? Hepatitis A Hepatitis B ...

  3. Decreased hepatic response to glucagon, adrenergic agonists, and cAMP in glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis in tumor-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazi, Giuliana R; Frasson, Isabele G; Miksza, Daniele R; de Morais, Hely; de Fatima Silva, Flaviane; Bertolini, Gisele L; de Souza, Helenir M

    2018-05-15

    The response to glucagon and adrenaline in cancer cachexia is poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate the response to glucagon, adrenergic agonists (α and β) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) on glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis in liver perfusion of Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats with advanced cachexia. Liver ATP content was also investigated. Rats without tumor (healthy) were used as controls. Agonists α (phenylephrine) and β (isoproterenol) adrenergic, instead of adrenaline, and cAMP, the second messenger of glucagon and isoproterenol, were used in an attempt to identify mechanisms involved in the responses. Glucagon (1 nM) stimulated glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and inhibited glycolysis in the liver of healthy and tumor-bearing rats, but their effects were lower in tumor-bearing rats. Isoproterenol (20 µM) stimulated glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis in healthy rats and had virtually no effect in tumor-bearing rats. cAMP (9 µM) also stimulated glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and inhibited glycolysis in healthy rats but had practically no effect in tumor-bearing rats. Phenylephrine (2 µM) stimulated glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and inhibited glycolysis and these effects were also lower in tumor-bearing rats than in healthy. Liver ATP content was lower in tumor-bearing rats. In conclusion, tumor-bearing rats with advanced cachexia showed a decreased hepatic response to glucagon, adrenergic agonists (α and β), and cAMP in glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis, which may be due to a reduced rate of regulatory enzyme phosphorylation caused by the low ATP levels in the liver. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A cooperative interaction between nontranslated RNA sequences and NS5A protein promotes in vivo fitness of a chimeric hepatitis C/GB virus B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Warter

    Full Text Available GB virus B (GBV-B is closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV, infects small non-human primates, and is thus a valuable surrogate for studying HCV. Despite significant differences, the 5' nontranslated RNAs (NTRs of these viruses fold into four similar structured domains (I-IV, with domains II-III-IV comprising the viral internal ribosomal entry site (IRES. We previously reported the in vivo rescue of a chimeric GBV-B (vGB/III(HC containing HCV sequence in domain III, an essential segment of the IRES. We show here that three mutations identified within the vGB/III(HC genome (within the 3'NTR, upstream of the poly(U tract, and NS5A coding sequence are necessary and sufficient for production of this chimeric virus following intrahepatic inoculation of synthetic RNA in tamarins, and thus apparently compensate for the presence of HCV sequence in domain III. To assess the mechanism(s underlying these compensatory mutations, and to determine whether 5'NTR subdomains participating in genome replication do so in a virus-specific fashion, we constructed and evaluated a series of chimeric subgenomic GBV-B replicons in which various 5'NTR subdomains were substituted with their HCV homologs. Domains I and II of the GBV-B 5'NTR could not be replaced with HCV sequence, indicating that they contain essential, virus-specific RNA replication elements. In contrast, domain III could be swapped with minimal loss of genome replication capacity in cell culture. The 3'NTR and NS5A mutations required for rescue of the related chimeric virus in vivo had no effect on replication of the subgenomic GBneoD/III(HC RNA in vitro. The data suggest that in vivo fitness of the domain III chimeric virus is dependent on a cooperative interaction between the 5'NTR, 3'NTR and NS5A at a step in the viral life cycle subsequent to genome replication, most likely during particle assembly. Such a mechanism may be common to all hepaciviruses.

  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Related Liver Disease Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Autoimmune Hepatitis Benign Liver Tumors Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis of the ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of ...

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns ... are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver ...

  7. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...... can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort....

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ...

  9. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  10. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... in their blood (sometimes referred to as the hepatitis B viral load) and an unusually high level of a ...

  11. Restriction on an energy-dense diet improves markers of metabolic health and cellular aging in mice through decreasing hepatic mTOR activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Anke; Campbell, Graeme; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Rimbach, Gerald; Huebbe, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) on a normal low-fat diet improves metabolic health and may prolong life span. However, it is still uncertain whether restriction of an energy-dense, high-fat diet would also be beneficial and mitigate age-related processes. In the present study, we determined biomarkers of metabolic health, energy metabolism, and cellular aging in obesity-prone mice subjected to 30% DR on a high-fat diet for 6 months. Dietary-restricted mice had significantly lower body weights, less adipose tissue, lower energy expenditure, and altered substrate oxidation compared to their ad libitum-fed counterparts. Hepatic major urinary proteins (Mup) expression, which is linked to glucose and energy metabolism, and biomarkers of metabolic health, including insulin, glucose, cholesterol, and leptin/adiponectin ratio, were likewise reduced in high-fat, dietary-restricted mice. Hallmarks of cellular senescence such as Lamp2a and Hsc70 that mediate chaperone-mediated autophagy were induced and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling mitigated upon high-fat DR. In contrast to DR applied in low-fat diets, anti-oxidant gene expression, proteasome activity, as well as 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation were not changed, suggesting that high-fat DR may attenuate some processes associated with cellular aging without the induction of cellular stress response or energy deprivation.

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice ... diseases. What are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty ...

  13. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Today Enroll in 123 What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary ...

  15. Cooperativity in virus neutralization by human monoclonal antibodies to two adjacent regions located at the amino terminus of hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Zhenyong; Wang, Wenyan; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    A challenge for hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine development is defining conserved epitopes that induce protective antibodies against this highly diverse virus. An envelope glycoprotein (E2) segment located at amino acids (aa) 412 to 423 contains highly conserved neutralizing epitopes. While...... at higher concentrations. However, the overall effect was additive neutralization. A similar pattern was observed when these antibodies were combined to block E2 binding to the HCV coreceptor, CD81. These findings demonstrate that both of these E2 regions participate in epitopes mediating virus...... (HCVcc) with various activities. Although nonneutralizing HC33 HMAbs were isolated, they had lower binding affinities than neutralizing HC33 HMAbs. These antibodies could be converted to neutralizing antibodies by affinity maturation. Unidirectional competition for binding to E2 was observed between HC33...

  16. Hepatic encephalopathy associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillitteri, C A; Craig, L E

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy has been listed as a differential for llamas displaying neurologic signs, but it has not been histopathologically described. This report details the neurologic histopathologic findings associated with 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis with concurrent neurologic signs and compares them to 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis in the absence of neurologic signs and 3 cases without hepatic lipidosis. Brain from all 3 llamas displaying neurologic signs contained Alzheimer type II cells, which were not detected in either subset of llamas without neurologic signs. Astrocytic immunohistochemical staining intensity for glial fibrillary acid protein was decreased in llamas with neurologic signs as compared to 2 of 3 llamas with hepatic lipidosis and without neurologic signs and to 2 of 3 llamas without hepatic lipidosis. Immunohistochemical staining for S100 did not vary between groups. These findings suggest that hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas.

  17. Blood lipids analysis in patients with hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Jianhong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlationship between blood hepatic fibrosis markers and blood lipids levels. Methods: Serum hepatic fibrosis markers (HA, PC III, IV-C, LN) levels were determined with RIA and serum lipids (TG, TCh HDL; LDL, apoA1, apoB) were measured with biochemical methods in 98 patients with hepatitis in various stages and 50 controls. Liver biopsy was done in all the hepatitis patients. Results: Hepatic fibrosis was classified into 5 grades (S0-S4) according to the pathology shown in the biopsy specimen. The serum lipid levels decreased along with the increase of severity of fibrosis from S0 to S4. Levels in S4 patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels increased and lipids levels decreased along with the progress of hepatitis from acute to cirrhosis. (authors)

  18. Hepatitis C: Managing Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  19. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred ... disease is. It’s important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic ...

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Help ALF Improve This ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic Encephalopathy is a brain disorder that develops in some individuals with liver ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ...

  3. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...

  4. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  5. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  8. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... suggest medicines to help relieve your symptoms. The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent HAV. Good hygiene can also ...

  9. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  10. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  11. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  12. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  13. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  14. Computed tomography in hepatic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Federle, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with hepatic injury from blunt upper abdominal trauma were examined by computed tomography (CT). The spectrum of CT findings was recorded, and the size of the hepatic laceration and the associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs nonoperative). While the need for surgery correlated roughly with the size of the hepatic laceration, the size of the associated hemoperitoneum was an important modifying factor. Fifteen patients with hepatic lacerations but little or no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. CT seems to have significant advantages over hepatic scintigraphy, angiography, and diagnostic peritoneal lavage. By combining inforamtion on the clinical state of the patient and CT findings, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased

  15. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ...

  17. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  18. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Chapter 3 - Hepatitis E Hepatitis C Deborah Holtzman INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis C virus ( ... mother to child. Map 3-05. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  19. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 - Helminths, Soil-Transmitted Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Hepatitis A Noele P. Nelson INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis A ... hepatitis/HAV Table 3-02. Vaccines to prevent hepatitis A VACCINE TRADE NAME (MANUFACTURER) AGE (Y) DOSE ...

  20. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Parents / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The ...

  1. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis A Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Francisco Averhoff INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis B virus ( ... progression of disease. Map 3-04. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  2. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  3. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment Choice Program ... Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories FAQs For Health Care Providers Provider ...

  4. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured foreign cooperation particularly in the frame of the Slovak Republic is membership in the IAEA, as well as cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD NEA), cooperation with European Union in the frame of PHARE programmes, and intergovernmental cooperation and cooperation among nuclear regulatory authorities. With respect to an international importance, prestige and a wide-scope possibilities of a technical assistance , either a direct one (expert assessments, technology supplies, work placement, scientific trips, training courses) or indirect one (participation at various conferences, seminars, technical committees, etc), the most important cooperation with the IAEA in Vienna. In 1994, the Slovak Republic, was elected to the Board Governors, the represent the group of Eastern European countries. The Slovak Government entrusted the NRA SR's Chairman with representing the Slovak Republic in the Board of Governors. Owing to a good name of Slovakia was elected to the one of two Vice-Chairmen of the Board of Governors at the 882-nd session on the Board. IAEA approved and developed 8 national projects for Slovakia in 1995. Generally, IAEA is contracting scientific contracts with research institutes, nuclear power plants and other organizations. Slovak organizations used these contracts as complementary funding of their tasks. In 1995, there were 12 scientific contracts in progress, or approved respectively. Other international activities of the NRA SR, international co-operations as well as foreign affairs are reported

  5. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yellow color. Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech (hepatic encephalopathy). A damaged liver has trouble removing toxins from your body. The ... of toxins can damage your brain. Severe hepatic encephalopathy can result in ... of the liver frequently leads to liver failure. Kidney failure. A ...

  6. Hepatic blood flow with colloidal 198Au in the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marian, L.; Szantay, V.

    1975-01-01

    Tracer quantities of colloidal 198 Au were used to estimate the hepatic blood flow in normal children and in children with active or progressive chronic hepatitis and also to obtain scintigrams of the liver. In active chronic hepatitis a significant decrease in HBF values was observed, suggesting that the method may be used as a diagnostic criterion which is superior to hepatic scintigraphy. In progressive chronic hepatitis HBF values even lower than those in active hepatitis were observed. Together with more characteristic clinical findings and abnormal results of biochemical function tests, they underline the value of the method in estimating the severity and the evolution of the disease. (orig.) [de

  7. Appetite - decreased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of appetite; Decreased appetite; Anorexia ... Any illness can reduce appetite. If the illness is treatable, the appetite should return when the condition is cured. Loss of appetite can cause weight ...

  8. Hepatitis B X-interacting protein promotes cisplatin resistance and regulates CD147 via Sp1 in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Ma, Xiangdong; Yang, Hong; Hua, Wei; Chen, Biliang; Cai, Guoqing

    2017-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is the highest mortality rate of all female reproductive malignancies. Drug resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in malignant tumors. Hepatitis B X-interacting protein acts as an oncoprotein, regulates cell proliferation, and migration in breast cancer. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of hepatitis B X-interacting protein on resistance to cisplatin in human ovarian cancer cell lines. The mRNA and protein levels of hepatitis B X-interacting protein were detected using RT-PCR and Western blotting in cisplatin-resistant and cisplatin-sensitive tissues, cisplatin-resistant cell lines A2780/CP and SKOV3/CP, and cisplatin-sensitive cell lines A2780 and SKOV3. Cell viability and apoptosis were measured to evaluate cellular sensitivity to cisplatin in A2780/CP cells. Luciferase reporter gene assay was used to determine the relationship between hepatitis B X-interacting protein and CD147. The in vivo function of hepatitis B X-interacting protein on tumor burden was assessed in cisplatin-resistant xenograft models. The results showed that hepatitis B X-interacting protein was highly expressed in ovarian cancer of cisplatin-resistant tissues and cells. Notably, knockdown of hepatitis B X-interacting protein significantly reduced cell viability in A2780/CP compared with cisplatin treatment alone. Hepatitis B X-interacting protein and cisplatin cooperated to induce apoptosis and increase the expression of c-caspase 3 as well as the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. We confirmed that hepatitis B X-interacting protein up-regulated CD147 at the protein expression and transcriptional levels. Moreover, we found that hepatitis B X-interacting protein was able to activate the CD147 promoter through Sp1. In vivo, depletion of hepatitis B X-interacting protein decreased the tumor volume and weight induced by cisplatin. Taken together, these results indicate that hepatitis B X-interacting protein promotes cisplatin resistance and regulated CD147 via Sp1 in

  9. Prevention of hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Estera Kowalska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B (Hepatitis B is a hepatitis B virus (HBV -based liver disease. This virus has an affinity for liver cells, it can cause both acute and chronic viral infections of varying severity. The consequences of chronic HBV infection can be cirrhosis and liver cancer. In Poland in 1989 a preventive program was implemented to reduce HBV infection. Universal vaccinations have been introduced to reduce the prevalence of Type B hepatitis B from 40.3 / 100,000 in 1989 to 7/100 in 2000. In the last 20 years in Poland there has been huge progress in the prevention and suppression of HBV infections. Decrease in the incidence of hepatitis B is mainly the result of the introduction of compulsory vaccination and improving hygiene procedures and improve sanitation aimed at aborting the pathways of the virus. However, still a large part of society is not immune on HBV infection acting potential group of the risk of infection. In addition, in the era of a growing group of followers. movements of the anti vaccine it is necessary to continue to promote knowledge of HBV and the efficacy and safety of vaccination.

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to continue to work to my full capacity? Will I be able to drive? Patient Stories Angie M. Caregiver for Brother Charles DiAngelo Hepatic Encephalopathy Jason Dedmon Alcohol-related Cirrhosis ...

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your body when your liver isn’t working well, it may affect your brain and cause HE. ... it apparent that the liver is not doing well. These could be the symptoms of Hepatic Encephalopathy ( ...

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bad. It sends the good things – such as vitamins and nutrients – into your bloodstream for your body ... for Wife Joyce O. Caregiver for Mother Lynette K. Hepatic Encephalopathy Samantha W. Caregiver for Husband Stan ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if ... with continuous treatment, HE can usually be controlled. So it’s important to tell your doctor about any ...

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... build-up and painful swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more ... build up and painful swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites) Bruising and bleeding easily Enlarged ...

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment ... treatment. Being a fully-informed participant in your medical care is an important factor in staying as ...

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2018 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you ... team evaluates the person’s overall physical and mental health, plan to pay for transplant related medical expenses, ...

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to Give Contact Us Privacy ...

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... responsible for the daily needs of another person. Caregivers can be a friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as ...

  1. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... viral load (the amount of HCV in your blood), imaging tests, and biopsy results. Treatment is especially important for people who are showing signs liver fibrosis or scarring. Medicines used to treat hepatitis C ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that can be corrected . It may also occur as part of a chronic problem from liver disease ... worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that ...

  3. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute liver failure requires a stay in the hospital for monitoring and treatment. Some people with acute liver failure may need a liver transplant. Prevention The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent infection with the virus. The vaccine is typically given ...

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer Your Time The Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate ... problem from liver disease that gets worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers How You Can Help OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer ... Hepatic Encephalopathy is a short-term problem that can be corrected . It may also occur as part ...

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People ALF Near You Events ALF Blogs Financial Information Policies Advocacy Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers ... and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more information about cirrhosis of the liver and symptoms, call ...

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (NAFLD) & Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Autoimmune Hepatitis Bile duct disease such as Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) ... spleen (splenomegaly) Stone-like particles in gallbladder and bile duct (gallstones) Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) Chronic liver ...

  8. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hepatitis is the most common form in North America. Type 1 can occur at any age; however, ... eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® Research & Funding Current Funding Opportunities Research ...

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering to Your Treatment Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My Loved Ones Resources Find ...

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... Site Map © COPYRIGHT 2017 AMERICAN LIVER FOUNDATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Your Liver Overview

    The Faces ...

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  12. Hepatitis B Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  13. What Is Hepatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Posters: Eliminate hepatitis World Hepatitis Day 2017 ...

  14. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  15. Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination for individuals with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapko, Michael K; Yee, Helen S; Monto, Alexander; Dominitz, Jason A

    2010-02-17

    The incidence of hepatitis A infection in the United States has decreased dramatically in recent years because of childhood immunization programs. A decision analysis of the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination for adults with hepatitis C was conducted. No vaccination strategy is cost-effective for adults with hepatitis C using the recent lower anticipated hepatitis A incidence, private sector costs, and a cost-effectiveness criterion of $100,000/QALY. Vaccination is cost-effective only for individuals who have cleared the hepatitis C virus when Department of Veterans Affairs costs are used. The recommendation to vaccinate adults with hepatitis C against hepatitis A should be reconsidered. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Branched-chain amino acids for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Koretz, R L; Kjaergard, L L

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  17. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  18. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  19. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  20. Hepatitis B & C and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Services HIV SERVICES LOCATOR Locator Search Search Hepatitis B & C Topics Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis ... Infections Sexually Transmitted Diseases Smoking Women's Health Issues Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection People ...

  1. Building up active membership in cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Sergaki, P.; Dijk, van G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Active membership is crucial for agricultural cooperatives as it engenders better performance. It even is the key for cooperative competitiveness. Active membership, however, decreases in many cooperatives. Thus, it is important to know what galvanizes members to become active members. The

  2. Interorganizational Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    Administrative Services Officer , Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs, Office of the Chief Financial Officer , Office of the Chief ...Nations. • Clarifies the role of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Transition Initiatives and its relationship...Centralize interorganizational cooperation within the command group. Under this model, the chief of staff or a special staff officer within the command

  3. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färkkilä, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is chronic liver disease with two subtypes, type 1 with anti nuclear or smooth muscle antibodies and type 2 with LKM1 or LC1 antibodies, and both with hypergammaglobulinemia and typical histology. Prevalence of AIH is between 10 to 17 per 100000 in Europe. Up to 20-40 % of cases present with acute hepatitis. Budesonide can be used as a first line induction therapy in non-cirrhotic patients, and tiopurines, mercaptopurine or mycophenolic acid as maintenance therapies. Patients not responding to conventional therapy can be treated with ciclosporin, tacrolimus or rituximab or finally with liver transplantation.

  4. Histidine Augments the Suppression of Hepatic Glucose Production by Central Insulin Action

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Kumi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Inaba, Yuka; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Kido, Yoshiaki; Asahara, Shun-ichiro; Matsuda, Tomokazu; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Maeda, Akifumi; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Mukai, Chisato; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Ota, Tsuguhito; Nakabayashi, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Glucose intolerance in type 2 diabetes is related to enhanced hepatic glucose production (HGP) due to the increased expression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes. Previously, we revealed that hepatic STAT3 decreases the expression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes and suppresses HGP. Here, we show that increased plasma histidine results in hepatic STAT3 activation. Intravenous and intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of histidine-activated hepatic STAT3 reduced G6Pase protein and mRNA le...

  5. Viral hepatitis vaccination during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yueyuan; Jin, Hui; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Bei; Liu, Pei

    2016-04-02

    Viral hepatitis is a serious global public health problem. It is also a common cause of jaundice and gestational complications in pregnant women. Moreover, infected mothers can transmit the virus to their fetus or neonate, which may increase disease burden and decrease quality of life. To date, commercial vaccines have been developed for hepatitis A, B, and E and are available to the general population. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices currently accepts emergency vaccination against hepatitis A and B during pregnancy due to benefits that overweight the potential risks. While there are limited data from trials with limited numbers of samples that suggest the efficacy or safety of hepatitis B and E vaccines in pregnant women, additional data are necessary to provide evidence of vaccination during pregnancy.

  6. Hepatic resection and regeneration. Past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsuse, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic surgery has been performed on condition that the liver regenerates after hepatic resection, and the development of liver anatomy due to Glisson, Rex, and Couinaud has thrown light on hepatic surgery Understanding of feeding and drainage vessels became feasible for systemic hepatic resection; however, it seems to have been the most important problem to control the bleeding during hepatic resection. New types of devices such as cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) and Microwave coagulation were exploited to control blood loss during hepatic surgery. Pringle maneuver for exclusion feeding vessels of the liver and the decrease of central venous pressure during anesthesia enabled further decrease of blood loss. Nowadays, 3D-CT imaging may depict feeding and drainage vessels in relation to liver mass, and surgeons can simulate hepatic surgery in virtual reality before surgery, allowing hepatectomy to be performed without blood transfusion. Thus, hepatic resection has been a safe procedure, but there's been a significant research on how much of the liver can be resected without hepatic failure. A prediction scoring system based on ICGR15, resection rates, and age is mostly reliable in some criteria. Even if hepatectomy is performed with a good prediction score, the massive bleeding and associated infection may induce postoperative hepatic failure, while the criteria of postoperative hepatic failure have not yet established. Hepatic failure is supposed to be induced by the apoptosis of mature hepatocytes and necrosis originated from microcirculation disturbance of the liver. Prostaglandin E1 for the improvement of microcirculation, steroid for the inhibition of cytokines inducing apoptosis, and blood purification to exclude cytokines have been tried separately or concomitantly. New therapeutic approaches, especially hepatic regeneration from the stem cell, are expected. (author)

  7. Hepatitis E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-e","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... E: recognition, investigation and control”. The manual gives information about the epidemiology, clinical manifestations of the disease, ...

  8. Hepatic haemangioma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    successful usage of transhepatic compression sutures using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pledgets and selective ligation of large feeding vessels from right hepatic artery. Surgical resection may not be technically safe or possible in certain cases due to the massive or diffuse nature of the lesion, proximity to vascular ...

  9. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which can lower your chances of developing serious health problems. Your doctor may recommend screening for hepatitis B if you ... see a doctor who specializes in liver diseases. Doctors can treat the health problems related to cirrhosis with medicines, surgery, and other ...

  10. Chronic hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infection by four diagnostic systems: first generation and second generation. ELlSA, second generation recombinant immunoblot assay and nested polymerase chain reaction analysis. HepatoJogy 1992; 16: 300-305. 14. Van der Poel CL, ... Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. Alcoholic hepatitis. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  11. Radiogenic hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, G; Woellgens, P; Haase, W [Katharinenhospital, Stuttgart (F.R. Germany). Strahlenklinik

    1976-08-01

    The article is about a patient who developed hepatitis after post-operative radiotherapy of a hypernephroma on the right side with /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. radiation. The scintigraph showed a normal-sized liver with parenchymal defects. Therapy consisted of anti-emetics and vitamin preparations.

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lipase Deficiency Liver Cancer Liver Cysts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Primary Biliary Cholangitis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis What ... B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) & Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Autoimmune Hepatitis ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. These toxins build up and can travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic Encephalopathy often ...

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... damages your liver over many years – such as long-term alcohol abuse or chronic hepatitis – can cause ... treated. It’s important to continue treatment for as long as necessary to keep HE from coming back. ...

  15. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salles José Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  16. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Salles

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  17. Counter-attack on viral hepatitis. [Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prozesky, O W [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medical Virology; Jupp, P G; Joubert, J J; Taylor, M B; Grabow, W O.K.

    1985-07-01

    The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B.

  18. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis B KidsHealth / For Teens / Hepatitis B What's in ... Prevented? Print en español Hepatitis B What Is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is an infection of the ...

  19. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated against hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from ...

  20. Congenital Hepatic Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Recinos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hepatic cyst is a rare and nonsymptomatic condition in infants and children. Its incidence is 2.5% in the postnatal life with a much lower incidence in the prenatal period. Incidental finding on antenatal imaging is the most common presentation. We present a case of a newborn in whom fetal ultrasound detected a cyst within the fetal liver. Postnatal imaging revealed a liver cyst in the right lobe of the liver, with no other intrahepatic structure affected. Liver function tests were abnormal, but the patient was asymptomatic. Posterior follow-up imaging showed a minor decrease in size. Management of congenital hepatic cyst is usually conservative, done with periodic ultrasound monitoring. However, surgical treatment is the mainstay of treatment when hydrops, progressive enlargement, hemorrhage, torsion, or compression of adjacent structures occurs. Malignant transformation can occur, but it is extremely rare. Partial or total removal of the cyst is the preferred treatment in neonates with a large lesion.

  1. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  2. AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHepatitis autoimun merupakan penyakit inflamasi hati yang berat dengan penyebab pasti yang tidak diketahui yang mengakibatkan morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Semua usia dan jenis kelamin dapat dikenai dengan insiden tertinggi pada anak perempuan usia prepubertas, meskipun dapat didiagnosis pada usia 6 bulan. Hepatitis autoimun dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 2 bagian berdasarkan adanya antibodi spesifik: Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA dengan anti-actin specificity dan/atau Anti Nuclear Antibody (ANA pada tipe 1 dan Liver-Kidney Microsome antibody (LKM1 dan/atau anti-liver cytosol pada tipe 2. Gambaran histologisnya berupa “interface hepatitis”, dengan infiltrasi sel mononuklear pada saluran portal, berbagai tingkat nekrosis, dan fibrosis yang progresf. Penyakit berjalan secara kronik tetapi keadaan yang berat biasanya menjadi sirosis dan gagal hati.Tipe onset yang paling sering sama dengan hepatitis virus akut dengan gagal hati akut pada beberapa pasien; sekitar sepertiga pasien dengan onset tersembunyi dengan kelemahan dan ikterik progresif ketika 10-15% asimptomatik dan mendadak ditemukan hepatomegali dan/atau peningkatan kadar aminotransferase serum. Adanya predominasi perempuan pada kedua tipe. Pasien LKM1 positif menunjukkan keadaan lebih akut, pada usia yang lebih muda, dan biasanya dengan defisiensi Immunoglobulin A (IgA, dengan durasi gejala sebelum diagnosis, tanda klinis, riwayat penyakit autoimun pada keluarga, adanya kaitan dengan gangguan autoimun, respon pengobatan dan prognosis jangka panjang sama pada kedua tipe.Kortikosteroid yang digunakan secara tunggal atau kombinasi azathioprine merupakan terapi pilihan yang dapat menimbulkan remisi pada lebih dari 90% kasus. Strategi terapi alternatif adalah cyclosporine. Penurunan imunosupresi dikaitkan dengan tingginya relap. Transplantasi hati dianjurkan pada penyakit hati dekom-pensata yang tidak respon dengan pengobatan medis lainnya.Kata kunci : hepatitis Autoimmune

  3. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    2004-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterised histologically by interface hepatitis, and serologically by the presence of non-organ and liver specific autoantibodies and increased levels of immunoglobulin G. Its onset is often ill-defined, frequently mimicing acute hepatitis. AIH usually responds to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted as soon as diagnosis is made. Two types of AIH are recognized according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1 AIH) or liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibody (LKM1, type 2 AIH). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age and commonly have immunoglobulin A deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment and long-term prognosis are similar in the 2 groups. Susceptibility to AIH type 1 is conferred by possession of HLA DR3 and DR4, while to AIH type 2 by possession of HLA DR7. Liver damage is likely to derive from an immune reaction to liver cell antigens, possibly triggered by a mechanism of molecular mimicry, where immune responses to external pathogens, e.g. viruses, become directed towards structurally similar self-components. In AIH this process would be perpetuated by impairment in immune regulation.

  4. Hepatic Complications of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Elissa; Bakshi, Neeru; Watters, Ashlie; Rosen, Hugo R; Mehler, Philip S

    2017-11-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) has the highest mortality rate of all psychiatric illnesses due to the widespread organ dysfunction caused by the underlying severe malnutrition. Starvation causes hepatocyte injury and death leading to a rise in aminotransferases. Malnutrition-induced hepatitis is common among individuals with AN especially as body mass index decreases. Acute liver failure associated with coagulopathy and encephalopathy can rarely occur. Liver enzymes may also less commonly increase as part of the refeeding process due to hepatic steatosis and can be distinguished from starvation hepatitis by the finding of a fatty liver on ultrasonography. Individuals with AN and starvation-induced hepatitis are at increased risk of hypoglycemia due to depleted glycogen stores and impaired gluconeogenesis. Gastroenterology and hepatology consultations are often requested when patients with AN and signs of hepatitis are hospitalized. It should be noted that additional laboratory testing, imaging, or liver biopsy all have low diagnostic yield, are costly, and potentially invasive, therefore, not generally recommended for diagnostic purposes. While the hepatitis of AN can reach severe levels, a supervised increase in caloric intake and a return to a healthy body weight often quickly lead to normalization of elevated aminotransferases caused by starvation.

  5. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B

    1992-01-01

    The Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions received 1100 reports of suspected drug-induced hepatic injury during the decade 1978-1987. The causal relationship between drug and hepatic injury was classified as definite in 57 (5.2%) reports, probable in 989 (89.9%) reports, possible in 50 (4.......5%) reports and unclassifiable in four (0.4%) reports. Hepatic injuries accounted for 5.9% of all adverse drug reactions reported, and 14.7% of the lethal adverse drug reactions. A total of 47.2% were classified as acute cytotoxic, 16.2% as acute cholestatic and 26.9% as abnormal hepatic function. In 52 (4.......7%) cases the hepatic injury was lethal; only 14 (1.3%) cases were chronic. Halothane accounted for 25% of the cases. The incidence of halothane-induced hepatic injury is decreasing, and only one lethal case has been reported since 1981. Next to halothane, sulfasalazine was the drug most often suspected...

  6. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  7. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Cdo to take care of their liver? People with Hepatitis C should not use alcohol or street drugs, as these can hurt the liver. Some other products can also hurt people with Hepatitis C, even if they appear to ...

  8. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  9. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. Are you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed ...

  10. Transboundary cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauber, D.

    2006-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants near national borders requires a close bilateral co-operation to cope with accidents having off-site radiological impacts. For example in 1978 such an agreement was signed by the German and Swiss government. The accident at the Chernobyl NPP changed the international co-operation in the framework of international consequence management. International conventions were agreed to insure a timely notification and international assistance in case of an accident with transboundary effects. In order to fulfill these conventions several procedures were introduced. In addition, bilateral agreements were signed also with countries which are not operating nuclear power plants near national borders. Since then no accident took place that would have required any notification. However, following the experience the expectations to these networks have changed considerably and hence sustainable development is required to cope with new challenges such as long term consequences management, new radiological threats, faster international assistance, media and public concerns, and technical evolution of communications systems. (author)

  11. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  12. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Congenital syphylitic hepatitis: a case report with multiple imaging modalities (syphilitic hepatitis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyman, S; Rosenberg, H K; Mandell, G A; Golden, D A

    1983-11-14

    A case of syphilitic hepatitis is described with no evidence of mass effect on the ultrasonic and computerized tomographic study, but with discrete areas of decreased uptake on liver scan suggestive of space-occupying lesion. This is the second instance in the literature of the incongruence of the liver scan and the other imaging modalities in syphilitic hepatitis.

  14. Congenital syphylitic hepatitis: a case report with multiple imaging modalities (syphilitic hepatitis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, S.; Rosenberg, H.K.; Mandell, G.A.; Golden, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    A case of syphilitic hepatitis is described with no evidence of mass effect on the ultrasonic and computerized tomographic study, but discrete areas of decreased uptake on liver scan suggestive of space-occupying lesion. This is the second instance in the literature of the incongruence of the liver scan and the other imaging modalities in syphilitic hepatitis. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of hepatic volume and effective blood flow with radioactive colloids: Evaluation of development in liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M.; Uchino, H.; Kyoto Univ.

    1982-01-01

    Changes in hepatic volume and the blood flow effectively perfusing the liver parenchyma were studied as an assessment of the severity of liver diseases. Hepatic effective blood flow was estimated as the hepatic fractional clearance of radioactive colloids, obtained from the disappearance rate multiplied by the fraction of injected dose taken up by the liver. The hepatic fractional clearance was normal or not markedly decreased in patients with acute hepatitis which had developed favorably, but was severely decreased in patients with fulminant hepatitis. In liver diseases, the ratio of hepatic volume to fractional clearance was found to increase as the clearance decreased. In subjects with normal clearance, hepatic fractional clearance was correlated significantly with liver volume, indicating that hepatic effective blood flow is proportional to parenchymal volume in an unanesthetized, resting state. In biopsied cases changes in volume and blood flow accorded well with changes indicated by morphological criteria. In chronic persistent hepatitis, effective hepatic blood flow is not diminished. However, hepatic blood flow were observed between the cirrhosis or chronic aggressive hepatitis, and normal control groups. Extension of chronic inflammatory infiltration into the parenchyma distinguishes chronic aggressive hepatitis from chronic persistent hepatitis. Architecture is often disturbed in the former. These changes should be accompanied by disturbance of microcirculation. The present study indicates that the decrease in effective hepatic blood flow in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis has two aspects: one is a summation of microcirculatory disturbances, and the other is a decrease in liver cell mass. (orig.)

  16. Hepatitis A virus infection suppresses hepatitis C virus replication and may lead to clearance of HCV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deterding, Katja; Tegtmeyer, Björn; Cornberg, Markus; Hadem, Johannes; Potthoff, Andrej; Böker, Klaus H W; Tillmann, Hans L; Manns, Michael P; Wedemeyer, Heiner

    2006-12-01

    The significance of hepatitis A virus (HAV) super-infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C had been a matter of debate. While some studies suggested an incidence of fulminant hepatitis A of up to 35%, this could not be confirmed by others. We identified 17 anti-HCV-positive patients with acute hepatitis A from a cohort of 3170 anti-HCV-positive patients recruited at a single center over a period of 12 years. Importantly, none of the anti-HCV-positive patients had a fulminant course of hepatitis A. HCV-RNA was detected by PCR in 84% of the anti-HCV-positive/anti-HAV-IgM-negative patients but only in 65% of anti-HCV-positive patients with acute hepatitis A (p=0.03), indicating suppression of HCV replication during hepatitis A. Previous HAV infection had no effect on HCV replication. After recovery from hepatitis A, an increased HCV replication could be demonstrated for 6 out of 9 patients with serial quantitative HCV-RNA values available while 2 patients remained HCV-RNA negative after clearance of HAV throughout follow-up of at least 2 years. HAV super-infection is associated with decreased HCV-RNA replication which may lead to recovery from HCV in some individuals. Fulminant hepatitis A is not frequent in patients with chronic hepatitis C recruited at a tertiary referral center.

  17. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common causes of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV are common ... gov/ mmwr/ preview/ mmwrhtml/ rr5516a1. htm? s_ cid= rr5516a1_ e. The Numbers • • Of people with HIV in the ...

  18. Hypervariable region 1 deletion and required adaptive envelope mutations confer decreased dependency on scavenger receptor class B type I and low-density lipoprotein receptor for hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentoe, Jannick; Serre, Stéphanie B N; Ramirez, Santseharay

    2014-01-01

    -deleted viruses. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-specific HCV neutralization was similar for H77, J6, and S52 viruses with and without HVR1. In conclusion, HVR1 and HVR1-related adaptive envelope mutations appeared to be involved in LDLr and SR-BI dependency, respectively. Also, LDLr served Apo....../S733F), S52(ΔHVR1/A369V), and S52(A369V), but not for J6(ΔHVR1). Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) dependency was decreased for HVR1-deleted viruses, but not for H77(N476D/S733F) and S52(A369V). Soluble LDLr neutralization revealed strong inhibition of parental HCV but limited effect against HVR1...

  19. Decrease of PECAM-1-gene-expression induced by proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and IFN-α is reversed by TGF-β in sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatic mononuclear phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadori Giuliano

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim The mechanisms of transmigration of inflammatory cells through the sinusoids are still poorly understood. This study aims to identify in vitro conditions (cytokine treatment which may allow a better understanding of the changes in PECAM (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1-gene-expression observed in vivo. Methods and results In this study we show by immunohistochemistry, that there is an accumulation of ICAM-1 (intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and ED1 positive cells in necrotic areas of livers of CCl4-treated rats, whereas there are few PECAM-1 positive cells observable. After the administration of CCl4, we could detect an early rise of levels of IFN-γ followed by an enhanced TGF-β protein level. As shown by Northern blot analysis and surface protein expression analysed by flow cytometry, IFN-γ-treatment decreased PECAM-1-gene-expression in isolated SECs (sinusoidal endothelial cells and mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs in parallel with an increase in ICAM-1-gene-expression in a dose and time dependent manner. In contrast, TGF-β-treatment increased PECAM-1-expression. Additional administration of IFN-γ to CCl4-treated rats and observations in IFN-γ-/- mice confirmed the effect of IFN-γ on PECAM-1 and ICAM-1-expression observed in vitro and increased the number of ED1-expressing cells 12 h after administration of the toxin. Conclusion The early decrease of PECAM-1-expression and the parallel increase of ICAM-1-expression following CCl4-treatment is induced by elevated levels of IFN-γ in livers and may facilitate adhesion and transmigration of inflammatory cells. The up-regulation of PECAM-1-expression in SECs and MNPs after TGF-β-treatment suggests the involvement of PECAM-1 during the recovery after liver damage.

  20. 3,3′,4,4′,5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) Decreases Hepatic and Systemic Ratios of Epoxide to Diol Metabolites of Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Yang, Jun; Morisseau, Christophe; Robertson, Larry W.; Hammock, Bruce; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of the homeostasis of oxygenated regulatory lipid mediators (oxylipins), potential markers of exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, such as 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), is associated with a range of diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Here we test the hypothesis that PCB 126 exposure alters the levels of oxylipins in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (5-weeks old) were treated over a 3-month period every 2 weeks with intraperitoneal injections of PCB 126 in corn oil (cumulative doses of 0, 19.8, 97.8, and 390 µg/kg b.w.; 6 injections total). PCB 126 treatment caused a reduction in growth rates at the highest dose investigated, a dose-dependent decrease in thymus weights, and a dose-dependent increase in liver weights. Liver PCB 126 levels increased in a dose-dependent manner, while levels in plasma were below or close to the detection limit. The ratios of several epoxides to diol metabolites formed via the cytochrome P450 (P450) monooxygenase/soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathway from polyunsaturated fatty acids displayed a dose-dependent decrease in the liver and plasma, whereas levels of oxylipins formed by other metabolic pathways were generally not altered by PCB 126 treatment. The effects of PCB 126 on epoxide-to-diol ratios were associated with an increased CYP1A activity in liver microsomes and an increased sEH activity in liver cytosol and peroxisomes. These results suggest that oxylipins are potential biomarkers of exposure to PCB 126 and that the P450/sEH pathway is a therapeutic target for PCB 126-mediated hepatotoxicity that warrants further attention. PMID:27208083

  1. Hepatic erythropoietin response in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Louise M; Fenger, Mogens; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2016-01-01

    The main function of erythropoietin (EPO) is to maintain red blood cell mass, but in recent years, increasing evidence has suggested a wider biological role not solely related to erythropoiesis, e.g. angiogenesis and tissue protection. EPO is produced in the liver during fetal life, but the main...... production shifts to the kidney after birth. The liver maintains a production capacity of up to 10% of the total EPO synthesis in healthy controls, but can be up-regulated to 90-100%. However, the hepatic EPO synthesis has been shown not to be adequate for correction of anemia in the absence of renal......, which lead to arterial hypotension, hepatic nephropathy and anemia. An increase in EPO due to renal hypoperfusion, hypoxia and anemia or an EPO-mediated hepato-protective and regenerative mechanism is plausible. However, poor hepatic synthesis capacity, a decreasing co-factor level and inflammatory...

  2. [Viral hepatitis A - possible diagnostic and therapeutic problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husa, Petr; Husa, Petr

    Viral hepatitis A (VHA) is the disease which has an ancient history. Reports of epidemic jaundice were described by Hippocrates in Greece during the 5th century B.C. Incidence of VHA in developed countries is dropping in last decades. What was once common disease is now very rare, usually emerging in local epidemies. With decreasing incidence of hepatitis A clinicians losing practical experiences with disease. Authors present possible diagnostic and therapeutic problems based on their experience with large epidemic of hepatitis A, which occurred in 2016-2017 in Brno area.Key words: hepatitis A (VHA) - hepatitis A virus (HAV).

  3. Hepatic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The past several years have seen significant advances in diagnostic and interventional radiology. These advances have been particularly rewarding for the study of liver disease. Improved imaging and therapeutic procedures in oncology have generated changes in treatment protocols and in evaluating the results of therapy for hepatic malignancies. The enriched understanding of the anatomic and hemodynamic aspects of the portal system has greatly benefited patients with portal hypertension. Now physicians are confidently more aggressive in the therapeutic approach to the variceal bleeder, and they have modified their approach to the preservation of portal flow following shunt. All of the diagnostic modalities used to evaluate the liver are represented in this book. In its structure and organization this volume goes beyond a historical overview of imaging to present greater insight into the current state of the art, as well as possible future developments. Each chapter is designed to elucidate the advantages and weaknesses of the various diagnostic modalities

  4. Increased hepatic FAT/CD36, PTP1B and decreased HNF4A expression contributes to dyslipidemia associated with ethanol-induced liver dysfunction: Rescue effect of ginger extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirpoor, Alireza; Heshmati, Elaheh; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini; Chodari, Leila; Naderi, Roya; Majd, Farideh Nezami; Samadi, Mahrokh

    2018-05-28

    The association between chronic alcohol consumption and the development of alcpholic liver disease is a very well known phenomenon, but the precise underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced liver disease remain elusive. This study aimed to characterize the lipid metabolism alterations and the molecular mediators which are related to lipid metabolism in liver under the heavy ethanol exposure alone or combined with ginger extract. Twenty-four male wistar rats were assigned into three groups, namely control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated ethanol (GETE) groups. Six weeks after the treatment, the ethanol group showed a significant increase in fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and decrease hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 Alpha (HNF4A) genes expressions compared to the control group. The ethanol administration also significantly increased plasma LDL, cholesterol, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) compared to the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed liver histhological changes, such as fibrosis, focal microvesicular steatosis, some apoptotic hepatocytes, spotty necrosis, portal lymphocytic inflammation, mallory-denk bodies, giant mitochondria, piecemeal necrosis. Consumption of ginger extract along with ethanol, partially ameliorated gene expression alteration and histological changes, improved undesirable lipid profile and liver enzymes changes compare to those in the ethanol group. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced liver abnormalities may in part be associated with lipid homeostasis changes mediated by overexpression of FAT/CD36, PTP1B and downexpressionof HNF4A genes. It also show that these effects can be reduced by using ginger extract as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazi, Pouria; Hessel, Jop; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  6. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Ramazi

    Full Text Available For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  7. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  8. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  9. Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jian Ping; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Fei, Yutong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention.......Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention....

  10. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part the are reviewed: Co-operation with IAEA; Participation of the Slovakia on the 41 st session of the General Conference; The comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization; Co-operation with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; co-operation with the European Commission; Fulfillment of obligations resulting from the international contracting documents

  11. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  12. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    In the contemporary world, engineers and designers face huge challenges as they shift towards novel organizational concepts such as ‘concurrent engineering’ in order to manage increasing product diversity so as to satisfy customer demands while trying to accelerate the design process to deal...... they are facing. On one hand, designers need highly flexible ‘coordination mecha-nisms’ that can support horizontal coordination of large-scale distributed design projects, and on the other hand design organizations require versatile and ubiquitous infrastructures to be able to manage their ‘common informa...... with the competitive realities of a global market and decreasing product life cycles. In this environment, the coordination and integration of the myriads of interdependent and yet distributed and concurrent design activities becomes enormously complex. It thus seems as if CSCW technologies may be indispensable...

  13. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  14. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  15. Hepatitis B - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B children; HBV children; Pregnancy - hepatitis B children; Maternal transmission - hepatitis B children ... growth and development. Regular monitoring plays an important role in managing the disease in children. You should ...

  16. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before the discovery of hepatitis E virus (HEV), many epidemics of hepatitis in ... HEV was discovered in 1983 in the ... HEV infection is increased by HIV infection in pregnancy. (Caron et al. .... immunosuppressive therapy on the natural history.

  17. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  18. Hepatitis A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis A Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... IgG HAV-Ab total Anti-HAV Formal Name Viral Hepatitis A Antibody This article was last reviewed on ...

  19. Hepatic falciform artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaques, Paul F.; Mauro, Matthew A.; Sandhu, Jeet

    1997-01-01

    The hepatic falciform artery is an occasional terminal branch of the left or middle hepatic artery, and may provide an uncommon but important collateral route when the principal visceral arteries are occluded

  20. Hepatitis A -- children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007670.htm Hepatitis A - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis A in children is swelling and inflamed tissue of ...

  1. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...

  2. Hepatitis B Foundation Newsletter: B Informed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  3. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  4. Aberrant hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Novelline, R.A.; Athanasoulis, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    In a patient undergoing selective hepatic arteriography for suspected liver trauma, a nonopacified area of the liver, initially thought to represent a hepatic hematoma, was later discovered to be due to the presence of an accessory right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. This case illustrates the need for a search for aberrant vasculature whenever a liver hematoma is suspected on the basis of a selective hepatic arteriogram. (orig.) [de

  5. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  6. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis B Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Known As HBV Tests Hep B anti-HBs Hepatitis B Surface Antibody HBsAg Hepatitis B Surface Antigen HBeAg ...

  7. Right Hepatic Artery: A Cadaver Investigation and Its Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Dandekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The right hepatic artery is an end artery and contributes sole arterial supply to right lobe of the liver. Misinterpretation of normal anatomy and anatomical variations of the right hepatic artery contribute to the major intraoperative mishaps and complications in hepatobiliary surgery. The frequency of inadvertent or iatrogenic hepatobiliary vascular injury rises with the event of an aberrant anatomy. This descriptive study was carried out to document the normal anatomy and different variations of right hepatic artery to contribute to existing knowledge of right hepatic artery to improve surgical safety. This study conducted on 60 cadavers revealed aberrant replaced right hepatic artery in 18.3% and aberrant accessory right hepatic artery in 3.4%. Considering the course, the right hepatic artery ran outside Calot’s triangle in 5% of cases and caterpillar hump right hepatic artery was seen in 13.3% of cases. The right hepatic artery (normal and aberrant crossed anteriorly to the common hepatic duct in 8.3% and posteriorly to it in 71.6%. It has posterior relations with the common bile duct in 16.7% while in 3.4% it did not cross the common hepatic duct or common bile duct. The knowledge of such anomalies is important since their awareness will decrease morbidity and help to keep away from a number of surgical complications.

  8. Effect of iron, taurine and arginine on rat hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Liangwen; Wang Dewen; Cui Xuemei

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The promotion role of iron on pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis and the protective role of taurine and L-arginine against hepatic fibrosis were studied. Method: The model of rat radiation hepatic fibrosis was used. Experimental rats were divided into 0 Gy, 30 Gy, 30 Gy + iron, 30 Gy + taurine and 30 Gy + L-arginine groups. Serum iron, liver tissue hydroxyproline (Hyp) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured one and three months respectively after irradiation of hepatic tissue, production and distribution characteristics of hepatic tissue type I and III collagen were observed with a polarizing microscope. Results: Administration of iron agent could significantly increase hepatic tissue MDA content and serum iron concentration, one month after irradiation, hepatic tissue Hyp in 30 Gy + iron group began to increase, and collagen in hepatic tissue obviously increased. Taurine and L-arginine could reduce serum iron concentration and decrease production of hepatic fissure Hyp. Conclusion: Exogenous iron agent could promote early development of radiation hepatic fibrosis; taurine and arginine could diminish pathologic alteration of hepatic fibrosis to a certain extent

  9. Role of hepatic resection for patients with carcinoid heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernheim, A.M.; Connolly, H.M.; Rubin, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of resection of hepatic carcinoid metastases on progression and prognosis of carcinoid heart disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From our database of 265 consecutive patients diagnosed as having carcinoid heart disease from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2005...... nonrandomized study, our data suggest that patients with carcinoid heart disease who undergo hepatic resection have decreased cardiac progression and improved prognosis. Eligible patients should be considered for hepatic surgery Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...

  10. Syncytial giant-cell hepatitis due to autoimmune hepatitis type II (LKM1+) presenting as subfulminant hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Z; Broida, E; Monselise, Y; Kazatsker, A; Baruch, J; Pappo, O; Skappa, E; Tur-Kaspa, R

    2000-03-01

    Giant cell hepatitis (GCH) in adults is a rare event. The diagnosis of GCH is based on findings of syncytial giant hepatocytes. It is commonly associated with either viral infection or autoimmune hepatitis type I. A patient with GCH due to autoimmune hepatitis type II (LKM1+) is described, a combination that has not been previously reported. Corticosteroid therapy was effective in decreasing serum liver enzymes; however, the patient deteriorated rapidly and developed subfulminant hepatic failure. Although an emergency orthotopic liver transplantation was performed, the patient died because of reperfusion injury. Interestingly, only a few giant hepatocytes were noted in the explanted liver. This case stresses the association of GCH with autoimmune disorders, the possible immune mechanism involved in the formation of giant cell hepatocytes, and illustrates the rapidly progressive course and unfavorable prognosis that these patients can develop.

  11. Results of steroid-based therapy for the hepatitis C-autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiano, T D; Te, H S; Thomas, R M; Hussain, H; Bond, K; Black, M

    2001-10-01

    Overlap syndromes in which persons manifest clinical, histological, or immunological features of both hepatitis C infection and autoimmune hepatitis are well described. The discordant forms of treatment for hepatitis C and autoimmune hepatitis have made medical management of these patients difficult. We report our experience in using corticosteroids as first line therapy for the hepatitis C-autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome. Seven patients with this overlap syndrome (diagnosis based on the presence of serum hepatitis C antibody by RIBA and serum hepatitis C RNA by polymerase chain reaction, and serum hypergammaglobulinemia, elevated ANA or ASMA titers, or histological findings consistent with autoimmune hepatitis) were treated with prednisone with or without azathioprine or cyclosporine, and followed for a median duration of 44.5 months. Five patients (71%) showed improvement of median serum ALT level from 162 U/L to 38 U/L (p = 0.04) and median serum gamma-globulin from 2.1 g/dl to 1.4 g/dl (p = 0.04) by 6 months of therapy. The mean modified histological activity index score also decreased from 11.4 +/- 2.5 to 6.6 +/- 2.6 (p = 0.04) by at least 1 yr of therapy. One patient discontinued prednisone while taking azathioprine and experienced a rebound elevation of serum ALT that did not respond to retreatment with prednisone. Antiviral therapy was subsequently administered and resulted in biochemical and virologic response. Hepatitis C virus RNA remained detectable in all other patients. Corticosteroids are beneficial as a first line therapy for some patients with the hepatitis C-autoimmune overlap syndrome, resulting in appreciable biochemical and histological response but without viral eradication.

  12. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  13. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  14. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  15. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  16. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Acheson, Daniel J.; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species. PMID:26692287

  17. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A; Acheson, Daniel J; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-12-22

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species.

  18. SEIR model simulation for Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side, Syafruddin; Irwan, Mulbar, Usman; Sanusi, Wahidah

    2017-09-01

    Mathematical modelling and simulation for Hepatitis B discuss in this paper. Population devided by four variables, namely: Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Recovered (SEIR). Several factors affect the population in this model is vaccination, immigration and emigration that occurred in the population. SEIR Model obtained Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) non-linear System 4-D which then reduces to 3-D. SEIR model simulation undertaken to predict the number of Hepatitis B cases. The results of the simulation indicates the number of Hepatitis B cases will increase and then decrease for several months. The result of simulation using the number of case in Makassar also found the basic reproduction number less than one, that means, Makassar city is not an endemic area of Hepatitis B.

  19. Epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Rached, Antoine; Abou Kheir, Selim; Saba, Jowana; Ammar, Walid

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis B and C are two potentially life threatening liver infections. Lebanon is ranked as a zone of moderate endemicity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C in Lebanon and their distribution according to age, region and sex. This national prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2011 till December 2012 in the six Lebanese Governorates in collaboration with municipalities, the Ministry of Public Health, Health Centres and dispensaries. An upcoming screening for hepatitis B and C was announced? in different districts of each Governorate. All individuals presenting to local laboratory, not known to have chronic hepatitis, were asked for a blood sample and answered a questionnaire addressing sex, age, place of birth and residence. Screening tests were "Abbots" for hepatitis B and "Human Hexagon" for hepatitis C. PCR testing was used to confirm the positivity of the previous tests. Of 31147 individuals screened, 542 had a rapid test positive for HBV (prevalence 1.74%, 95% CI 1.6-1.89) with a male to female ratio of 1.08. This prevalence was higher in the South and Nabatieh (1.9%) compared to Beirut (0.73%). Of 31,147 individuals screened, 64 had a rapid test positive for HCV (prevalence 0.21%, 95% CI 0.16-0.27) with a male to female ratio of 0.85. This prevalence was higher in Nabatieh (0.61%) compared to Mount Lebanon (0.08%). The prevalence of HBV and HCV in Lebanon is 1.74% and 0.21%, respectively with a higher prevalence in South and Nabatieh districts. These data rank Lebanon amongst countries with low endemicity for both viruses. Decrease in the prevalence of HBV is due to awareness campaign as well as success of the MOPH National Hepatitis Program in vaccinating all new born since 1998 and in screening and vaccinating high risk groups. Copyright © 2016 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cooperation, trust and confidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, T.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Urze, P.C.G.D.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental complexity may strain cooperative relationships, both within and beyond organizations, for two reasons. First, when complexity implies uncertainty the predictability of change disappears. Secondly, change may and often will entail different estimates of the cooperating partners on the

  1. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  2. Hepatic drug clearance following traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, R L; Hassett, J M

    1985-11-01

    Trauma is a complex disease state associated with physiologic changes that have the potential to alter hepatic drug clearance mechanisms. These responses include alterations in hepatic blood flow, reduction in hepatic microsomal activity, reduction in hepatic excretion processes, and changes in protein binding. Hepatic blood flow is influenced by sympathomimetic activity. Both animal and human studies demonstrate an initial reduction and subsequent increase in hepatic blood flow, which coincides with an observed increase and subsequent return to normal in serum catecholamine concentrations. Unfortunately, there are no human studies that address the importance these findings may have to the clearance processes of high intrinsic clearance compounds. Animal studies of trauma indicate that hepatic microsomal activity is depressed during the post-traumatic period. Reduction in the hepatic clearance of antipyrine, a model low intrinsic compound, has also been demonstrated in animal models of trauma. In addition to these effects, hepatic excretion of substances such as indocyanine green and bilirubin have been demonstrated to be impaired in both traumatized animals and humans. Finally, substantial increases in the serum concentration of the binding protein alpha 1-acid glycoprotein occur in trauma patients. This has been reported to be associated with subsequent decreases in the free fraction of lidocaine and quinidine. In addition to changing serum drug concentration/response relationships, the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs bound to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein should also change. Preliminary observations in our laboratory in a dog model of surgically-induced trauma have shown a reduction in the total clearance of lidocaine and reduction in free lidocaine concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Cooperatives as Entrants

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Sexton; Terri A. Sexton

    1987-01-01

    A potential shortcoming of game-theoretic models in industrial organization is their failure to consider consumers as players. We introduce a customer coalition --- a cooperative -- as a potential entrant and compare the cooperative entry threat with that posed by the usual for-profit entrant. We identify four fundamental distinctions between cooperative and for-profit entrants and demonstrate that the strategic interplay between a cooperative and an incumbent firm may differ markedly from th...

  4. Choosing the cooperative option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, G. (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (United States))

    1999-06-01

    Cooperatives do not ask to be exempted from the law. They do ask that laws and regulations be designed to allow them to meet the needs of their consumer-owners in accordance with cooperative principles, at a time that the marginal consumers being abandoned by for-profit utilities may be ready to gravitate toward cooperatives. The cooperative principles are worth reviewing because they explain the focus on the consumer and the cooperative concept of service: cooperatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership; cooperatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting policies and making decisions, the elected representatives are accountable to the membership; members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their cooperative; cooperatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members, if they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their cooperative autonomy; cooperatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperatives, they inform the general public, particularly young people and opinion leaders, about the nature and benefits of cooperation; cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strength the cooperative movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures; and while focusing on member needs, cooperatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies accepted by their members.

  5. Inertia in Cooperative Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Jerker

    1997-01-01

    Which organization model is appropriate for a cooperative enterprise depends on the prerequisites in its business environment. When conditions are changing, the firm must adapt itself. The entry of Sweden, Finland, and Austria into the European Union led to radical changes for agricultural cooperation, especially for Swedish cooperatives since agricultural policy was not allowed a transitional period. After two years, Swedish cooperatives have still not adapted their organization model despit...

  6. What is a cooperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Groups of individuals throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. The earliest forms of hunting and agriculture required a great deal of cooperation among humans. Although the word "cooperative" can be applied to many different types of group activities, in this publication it refers to a formal business model. Cooperative businesses are...

  7. Accumulation of hepatic Hsp70 and plasma cortisol in Oreochromis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hepatic isoforms Hsp70, Hsp74 and Hsp76 were identified and quantified from copper exposures. Long-term DDT exposure did not result in significant induction of hepatic Hsp70. An increase in plasma cortisol concentration was associated with a decrease in heat shock protein accumulation after cadmium exposure, ...

  8. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...... a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered....

  9. Effectiveness of 10-year vaccination (2001–2010) for Hepatitis A in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-lun; Zhu, Xiang-jun; Shan, Ai-lan; Gao, Zhi-gang; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Ya-xing; Liu, Hui; Wu, Wei-shen; Liu, Yong; He, Hai-yan; Xie, Xiao-hua; Xia, Wei-dong; Li, Chao; Xu, Wen-ti; Li, Zhi-yuan; Lin, Hua-Liang; Fu, Wei-ming

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is an effective strategy to prevent and control the transmission of hepatitis A. Hepatitis A immunization program has been taken into effect since 2001 in Tianjin, China. This study evaluated the effectiveness of strategies in the prevention and control of hepatitis A. Data of serological survey, annual hepatitis A incidence, immunization coverage and the positive rate of hepatitis A IgG before and after the immunization program in residents under 15 years old were used to do the analysis. The results indicated that hepatitis A vaccine induced a striking decrease of hepatitis A incidence and a significant increase in the positive rate of anti-HAV IgG among the children younger than 15 years old. Hepatitis A vaccination in children was proved to be effective in the prevention and control of hepatitis A in Tianjin, China. PMID:24503599

  10. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  11. Effect of playing violent video games cooperatively or competitively on subsequent cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewoldsen, David R; Eno, Cassie A; Okdie, Bradley M; Velez, John A; Guadagno, Rosanna E; DeCoster, Jamie

    2012-05-01

    Research on video games has yielded consistent findings that violent video games increase aggression and decrease prosocial behavior. However, these studies typically examined single-player games. Of interest is the effect of cooperative play in a violent video game on subsequent cooperative or competitive behavior. Participants played Halo II (a first-person shooter game) cooperatively or competitively and then completed a modified prisoner's dilemma task to assess competitive and cooperative behavior. Compared with the competitive play conditions, players in the cooperative condition engaged in more tit-for-tat behaviors-a pattern of behavior that typically precedes cooperative behavior. The social context of game play influenced subsequent behavior more than the content of the game that was played.

  12. [Abnormal hepatic function tests in pregnancy: causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemesánszky, Elemér

    2013-07-21

    The well-known normal ranges of laboratory parameters are altered due to the broad spectrum of physiological changes as well as proinflammatory and procoagulant effects of pregnancy. Hepatic disorders of any aetiology can cause potential problems during gravidity. Most frequently toxic-effects, hepatotrop viruses (such as hepatitis B and C), metabolic syndrome and diseases with autoimmune background can be observed. When dealing with "pregnancy-specific hepatic syndromes", it is very important to consider the "timing-factors" of pathologic changes and deterioration of clinical pictures as well. Due to the progress in cholestasis management, early termination of pregnancy can be avoided in many cases. As the overlap is really broad between various hepatic disorders, a multidisciplinary cooperation of different sub-disciplines is emphasized in order to achieve proper diagnosis and curative measures at early phase.

  13. Evaluation and Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy: Current Status and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Suraweera, Duminda; Sundaram, Vinay; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a spectrum of neurocognitive manifestations often seen in patients with liver injury or rarely in patients with portosystemic shunting without liver injury. It can be divided into minimal (covert) hepatic encephalopathy and overt hepatic encephalopathy, depending on the severity. Patients with hepatic encephalopathy have compromised clinical outcomes, decreased quality of life, and increased healthcare utilization, often resulting in a heavy financial and personal bu...

  14. Hepatic encephalopathy. Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, Maria Claudia; Bermudez Munoz, Sonia; J Morillo, Anibal

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy occurs in patients with chronic hepatic insufficiency and can produce abnormalities in the central nervous system, which can be observed in MRI studies. Traditionally, these imaging findings include symmetrical hyper intensities in T1-weighted sequences in the basal ganglia (mainly globus pallidus), involving also the substantia nigra, mesencephalic tegmentum, frontal and occipital cortex. These areas appear of normal intensity in T2-weighted imaging sequences. Other entities that can lead to similar findings include manganese intoxication and type-1 neurofibromatosis. Currently, with the advent of MR spectroscopy, abnormalities in patients with clinical and subclinical hepatic encephalopathy have been described. After hepatic transplantation, hyper intensities of the basal ganglia and the MR spectroscopic findings may disappear within 3 months to 1 year, suggesting a functional, more than a structural damage. This article will demonstrate the MR findings of patients with hepatic encephalopathy due to chronic hepatic insufficiency.

  15. Hepatitis isquémica Ischemic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amuchástegui (h

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis isquémica es una complicación sumamente infrecuente de cirugía cardiovascular. Las biopsias muestran necrosis centrolobulillar. El término de "hepatitis" fue propuesto debido al aumento de transaminasas similar a aquellas de origen infeccioso, e "isquémica" por falla en la perfusión hepática. Posteriormente se definió el término de hepatitis isquémica como cuadro de elevación aguda y reversible (dentro de las 72 horas de transaminasas de hasta 20 veces el valor normal, asociado a trastornos en la perfusión hepática, luego de haber excluido otras causas de hepatitis aguda o daño hepatocelular. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 53 años que consulta por dolor epigástrico de 12 h de evolución sin fiebre, náuseas ni vómitos, resistente a la medicación. Tenía antecedentes inmediatos de reemplazo de válvula aórtica, y estaba anticoagulado. Evolucionó con shock y fallo multiorgánico. El examen evidenció marcada ictericia y signos de taponamiento pericárdico, asociado a un aumento considerable de enzimas hepáticas. Un ecocardiograma informó signos de taponamiento cardíaco y ausencia de disección aórtica. Se decidió pericardiocentesis, extrayéndose 970 cc. de líquido sanguinolento, y hemodiálisis, con notable mejoría de su estado hemodinámico. Los valores enzimáticos disminuyeron. Los marcadores virales fueron negativos.Ischemic hepatitis is an uncommon cardiovascular surgery complication. Hepatic biopsies show centrolobulillar necrosis. The term "hepatitis" was proposed because of a raise in hepatic enzymes similar with infectious disease, and "ischemic" because of failure in hepatic perfusion. Ischemic hepatitis was then defined as an acute and reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes (within 72 h, associated with disturbance in hepatic perfusion after excluding other causes of acute hepatitis. A 53 year-old male presented complaining of a 12 h epigastric pain, without nausea or vomiting, resistant

  16. Changing Epidemiological Characteristics of Hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province, China: Increased Susceptibility in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhifang; Chen, Yaping; Xie, Shuyun; Lv, Huakun

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis A is a common acute hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Annually, it affects 1.4 million people worldwide. Between 1991 and 1994, HAV infections were highly endemic in Zhejiang Province (China), with 78,720 reported HAV infections per year. Hepatitis A vaccine came on the market in 1995 and was implemented for voluntary immunization. Since 2008, hepatitis A vaccine has been integrated into the national childhood routine immunization program. To understand the current epidemiological profile of hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province since hepatitis A vaccine has been available for nearly two decades. This study used the 2005-2014 National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System data to evaluate the incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases in Zhejiang Province. The overall trend of incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases significantly decreased from 2005 to 2014 (Pstrategy with hepatitis A vaccine seemed to be effective in decreasing notified hepatitis A incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years. Those aged ≥20 years were observed to be the most susceptible population. The vast majority of hepatitis A cases were notified among Laborers. Therefore, we strongly suggest that future preventive and control measures should focus more on adults, particularly Laborers, in addition to the current childhood hepatitis A vaccination programme.

  17. Hepatic artery infusion (HAI) for hepatic metastases in combination with hepatic resection and hepatic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, H.W.; Dobelbower, R.R.; Ringleint, J.F.; Skeel, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    Renewed interest in hepatic artery infusion has been stimulated by the development of a totally implantable pump which eliminates many of the problems encountered by the external pumps and catheters. As the potential benefit of hepatic artery infusion would be greater if either all gross disease were removed by prior resection, or alternatively, if non-resectable disease were irradiated in conjunction with hepatic artery infusion, the authors initiated a phase I-II trial to evaluate combined modality therapy

  18. Hepatic folate metabolism in the chronic alcoholic monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, T.; Romero, J.J.; Watson, J.E.; Gong, E.J.; Halsted, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    To assess the role of altered hepatic folate metabolism in the pathogenesis of the folate deficiency of chronic alcoholism, the hepatic metabolism of a tracer dose of 3 H-PteGlu was compared in monkeys given 50% of energy as ethanol for 2 years and in control monkeys. Long-term ethanol feeding resulted in mild hepatic injury, with a significant decrease in hepatic folate levels. Chromatographic studies of liver biopsies obtained after the tracer dose indicated that the processes of reduction, methylation, and formylation of reduced folate and the synthesis of polyglutamyl folates were not affected by long-term ethanol feeding. Hepatic tritium levels were significantly decreased in the ethanol-fed group. These studies suggest that the decrease in hepatic folate levels observed after long-term ethanol ingestion is due to a decrease in hepatic folate levels observed after long-term ethanol ingestion is due to a decreased ability to retain folates in the liver, whereas reduction and further metabolism of folates is not affected

  19. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  20. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.

  1. Primary isolated hepatic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.S.F.; Qureshi, I.H.; Saba, K.; Bukhari, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated hepatic tuberculosis without pulmonary or bowel involvement is a diagnostic challenge and can cause considerable morbidity. A young lady from Lahore presented with fever, pain in right hypochondria, nausea and weight loss. CT scan of abdomen showed multiple small hypodense non-enhancing lesions and a heterogeneous texture of liver. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic tuberculosis. It was concluded a case of isolated hepatic tuberculosis without evidence of other primary sites involvement. It is important to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis when suspecting lymphoproliferative or metastatic diseases in a patient with vague symptoms and abnormal hepatic texture on CT. (author)

  2. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.; Kselikova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125 I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  3. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con-A Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Stephanie H.; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R.; Nagaraj, Savitha V.; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E.; Katz, Steven C.; Miller, George

    2016-01-01

    Concanavalin-A (Con-A) hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor (CLR) that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi, but does not have a well-defined role in pre-clinical models of non-pathogen mediated inflammation. Since Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con-A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con-A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle−/−, and Dectin-1−/− mice. The role of C/EBPβ and HIF-1α signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con-A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con-A hepatitis whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other CLRs did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ related signaling intermediates, C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con-A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF1-α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con-A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. PMID:27559045

  4. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con A Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George

    2016-10-01

    Con A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. Hepatitis C and liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Silvia

    2018-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease represents the leading indication for liver transplantation (LT) in the USA and Europe and HCV recurrence is universal in recipients who are viremic at LT. Until a few years ago, pegylated-interferon in association with ribavirin was the only therapeutic strategy, usable only in compensated cirrhotic patients, in order to prevent post-LT viral recurrence. The recent advent of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has dramatically increased the chances of curative treatment for the transplant population and the debate about which should be the best time for treating the infection is still open: whether to pursue HCV eradication 1) before LT, in order to improve liver function, delist some patients and prevent graft infection; or 2) as early as possible after LT, rather than 3) waiting for hepatitis C recurrence before starting treatment. In addition, in the DAA era, the use of HCV-positive donors may represent a potential approach to safely expanding the donor pool. As more HCV patients achieve cure with DAA regimens, the LT trend for HCV in the future would be expected to mimic the trend observed for hepatitis B virus in the past decade and in the United States, during the DAA-period 2014-2015, the rate of LT wait-listing for HCV complicated by decompensated cirrhosis has already decreased by 32%. This review summarizes the published data and emphasizes DAA treatment applicability to patients with decompensated cirrhosis and to liver transplant recipients.

  6. Cooperative Trust Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    the more widely recognized competitive (non-cooperative) game theory. Cooperative game theory focuses on what groups of self-interested agents can...provides immediate justification for using non-cooperative game theory as the basis for modeling the purely competitive agents. 2.4. Superadditive...the competitive and altruistic contributions of the subset team. Definition: Given a payoff function ( ) in a subset team game , the total marginal

  7. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  8. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  9. Spontaneous cooperation for prosocials, but not for proselfs: Social value orientation moderates spontaneous cooperation behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischkowski, Dorothee; Glöckner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is essential for the success of societies and there is an ongoing debate whether individuals have therefore developed a general spontaneous tendency to cooperate or not. Findings that cooperative behavior is related to shorter decision times provide support for the spontaneous cooperation effect, although contrary results have also been reported. We show that cooperative behavior is better described as person × situation interaction, in that there is a spontaneous cooperation effect for prosocial but not for proself persons. In three studies, one involving population representative samples from the US and Germany, we found that cooperation in a public good game is dependent on an interaction between individuals’ social value orientation and decision time. Increasing deliberation about the dilemma situation does not affect persons that are selfish to begin with, but it is related to decreasing cooperation for prosocial persons that gain positive utility from outcomes of others and score high on the related general personality trait honesty/humility. Our results demonstrate that the spontaneous cooperation hypothesis has to be qualified in that it is limited to persons with a specific personality and social values. Furthermore, they allow reconciling conflicting previous findings by identifying an important moderator for the effect. PMID:26876773

  10. The hepatic bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2018-07-01

    The hepatic bridge forms a tunnel of liver parenchyma that may obscure peritoneal metastases associated with the round ligament. Visualization and then resection of nodules associated with this structure is necessary. The incidence of a hepatic bridge and the extent that it covered the round ligament was determined in consecutive patients. Extent of coverage of the round ligament by the hepatic bridge was determined: Class 1 indicates up to one-third of the round ligament obscured, Class 2 up to two-thirds and Class 3 more than two-thirds. In 102 patients in whom the round ligament of the liver could be completely visualized, 50 had a hepatic bridge. Class 1 was 22 (44%) of the bridges, Class 2 was 16 (32%) and Class 3 was 12 (24%). A hepatic bridge was more frequently present in 28 of 45 male patients (62%) vs. 22 of 57 female patients (38%). Approximately one-half of our patients having cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal metastases were observed to have a hepatic bridge. Up to 56% of these patients have Class 2 or 3 hepatic bridge and may require division of the hepatic bridge to completely visualize the contents of the tunnel created by this structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  11. Hepatitis C Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention. Recommendations for the Identification of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Persons Born During 1945–1965. Prepared by ... Disease Control and Prevention. Vital Signs: Evaluation of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Testing and Reporting — Eight U.S. Sites, 2005–2011. ...

  12. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  13. Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV is an uncommon cause of viral hepatitis during pregnancy, a definitive diagnosis is important because of the potential for congenital CMV. In the case reported here, a diagnosis of hepatitis caused by CMV was made after the more common viral pathogens had been ruled out.

  14. Hepatitis E og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannheimer, Ebba Elisabeth; Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Katzenstein, Terese Lea

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among pregnant women is severe, often leading to fulminant hepatic failure and death, with mortality rates up to 15-25%. Studies suggest that differences in genotypes/subgenotypes, hormonal and immunological changes during pregnancy may contribute to the severe...

  15. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  16. Serum Hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute hepatitis is common in Nigeria and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been a major aetiological factor. However, the role of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is yet undetermined. Forty-five consecutive Nigerian patients with acute Icteric hepatitis (AIH) attending the Medical Clinic of the University College Hospital, ...

  17. The Blood Disappearance Rate of 198Au-Colloid and Changes of Hepatic Blood Flow During Position Change in Normal Persons and in Patients with Various Hepatic Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bo Yeon; Hong, Kee Suk; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1977-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic significance of the blood disappearance rate of 198 Au-colloid and to evaluate the change of hepatic blood flow during position change from supine to erect, we measured the half time of blood disappearance rate of 198 Au-colloid using external counting method in 94 normal persons and in 77 patients with various hepatic diseases. The results obtained were as follows: 1) In normal control, the mean blood disappearance half time of 198 Au-colloid in supine position was 2.7±0.4 minutes. There was no significant difference of hepatic blood flow in age and sex. 2) In acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis, the mean blood disappearance half times in supine position were 3.0±0.45, 3.5±0.74, 7.2±3.6 minutes respectively. The hepatic blood flow of the patients with chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis were significantly decreased than that of normal control. 3) In the normal control and acute hepatitis, the decreases of the hepatic blood flow during the position change from supine to erect were 27.7% and 22.6% respectively.

  18. 18F-FAC PET selectively images hepatic infiltrating CD4 and CD8 T cells in a mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Jessica R; Chen, Bao Ying; Wong, Alicia; Cheng, Donghui; Van Arnam, John S; Witte, Owen N; Clark, Peter M

    2018-04-26

    Immune cell-mediated attack on the liver is a defining feature of autoimmune hepatitis and hepatic allograft rejection. Despite an assortment of diagnostic tools, invasive biopsies remain the only method for identifying immune cells in the liver. We evaluated whether PET imaging with radiotracers that quantify immune activation ( 18 F-FDG and 18 F-FAC) and hepatocyte biology ( 18 F-DFA) can visualize and quantify hepatic infiltrating immune cells and hepatocyte inflammation, respectively, in a preclinical model of autoimmune hepatitis. Methods: Mice treated with Concanavalin A (ConA) to induce a model of autoimmune hepatitis or vehicle were imaged with 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FAC, and 18 F-DFA PET. Immunohistochemistry, digital autoradiography, and ex vivo accumulation assays were used to localize areas of altered radiotracer accumulation in the liver. For comparison, mice treated with an adenovirus to induce a viral hepatitis or vehicle were imaged with 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FAC, and 18 F-DFA PET. 18 F-FAC PET was performed on mice treated with ConA, and vehicle or dexamethasone. Biopsy samples of patients suffering from autoimmune hepatitis were immunostained for deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). Results: Hepatic accumulation of 18 F-FDG and 18 F-FAC was 173% and 61% higher, respectively, and hepatic accumulation of 18 F-DFA was 41% lower in a mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis compared to control mice. Increased hepatic 18 F-FDG accumulation was localized to infiltrating leukocytes and inflamed sinusoidal endothelial cells, increased hepatic 18 F-FAC accumulation was concentrated in infiltrating CD4 and CD8 cells, and decreased hepatic 18 F-DFA accumulation was apparent in hepatocytes throughout the liver. In contrast, viral hepatitis increased hepatic 18 F-FDG accumulation by 109% and decreased hepatic 18 F-DFA accumulation by 20% but had no effect on hepatic 18 F-FAC accumulation (non-significant 2% decrease). 18 F-FAC PET provided a non-invasive biomarker of the efficacy of

  19. Determination of hepatic fractional clearance of radioactive gold colloids for a measure of effective hepatic blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Masahiro

    1979-01-01

    For a measure of effective blood flow, a hepatic fractional clearance of 198 Au-colloids was determined, which was obtained from the disappearance rate multiplied by the fraction of injected dose taken up by the liver. The hepatic uptake was determined with a gamma camera. The counts over the liver was corrected for body weight and height. The method was considered sufficiently simple for routine use. 198 Au-colloids were obtained from Dainabot Lab. and CIS. The former gave 64% higher values of disappearance rate than the latter, without any change in the organ distribution. A quality control tests were applied over a six-year period to the disappearance rates. Reproducibility within 95 to confidence limits was found for both groups. In 28 normal control subjects, hepatic fractional clearance of the colloids from Dainabot Lab. was 18.5 +- 3.4%/min. In patients with progressed hepatic disease, both hepatic fractional clearance and final hepatic uptake were decreased, showing that the determination of hepatic uptake is necessary in measuring effective hepatic blood flow by the colloidal clearance method. The influence of splenic uptake is discussed in relation to hepatic blood flow measurement. (author)

  20. Changing Epidemiological Characteristics of Hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province, China: Increased Susceptibility in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhifang; Chen, Yaping; Xie, Shuyun; Lv, Huakun

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A is a common acute hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Annually, it affects 1.4 million people worldwide. Between 1991 and 1994, HAV infections were highly endemic in Zhejiang Province (China), with 78,720 reported HAV infections per year. Hepatitis A vaccine came on the market in 1995 and was implemented for voluntary immunization. Since 2008, hepatitis A vaccine has been integrated into the national childhood routine immunization program. Objective To understand the current epidemiological profile of hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province since hepatitis A vaccine has been available for nearly two decades. Methods This study used the 2005–2014 National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System data to evaluate the incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases in Zhejiang Province. Results The overall trend of incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases significantly decreased from 2005 to 2014 (Phepatitis A vaccine seemed to be effective in decreasing notified hepatitis A incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years. Those aged ≥20 years were observed to be the most susceptible population. The vast majority of hepatitis A cases were notified among Laborers. Therefore, we strongly suggest that future preventive and control measures should focus more on adults, particularly Laborers, in addition to the current childhood hepatitis A vaccination programme. PMID:27093614

  1. Predisposed to cooperate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Costello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in Toronto and Geneva indicates that asylum seekers and refugees are predisposed to be cooperative with the refugee status determination system and other immigration procedures, and that the design of alternatives to detention can create, foster and support this cooperative predisposition – or can undermine or even demolish it.

  2. Proto-cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Read, James E; Romanczuk, Pawel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    beneficial if the cost of attacking is high, and only then when waiting times are short. Our findings provide evidence that cooperative benefits can be realized through the facilitative effects of individuals' hunting actions without spatial coordination of attacks. Such 'proto-cooperation' may be the pre...

  3. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own

  4. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  5. Helping Children Cooperate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2011-01-01

    There are occasions in life when the competitive process is appropriate. But when people consider the relationships in their lives--with friends, family members, coworkers, and the larger community--they realize the value of cooperation. When adults give children the chance to cooperate, to work together toward a solution or a common goal like…

  6. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  7. Dopaminergic agonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  8. Normal variation of hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn; Nam, Myung Hyun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Byung Hee; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong

    1987-01-01

    This study was an analyses of blood supply of the liver in 125 patients who received hepatic arteriography and abdominal aortography from Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1986 at the Department of Radiology of Hanyang University Hospital. A. Variations in extrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal extrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 106 of 125 cases (84.8%) ; Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and hepatic artery proper arising from the common hepatic artery. 2. The most common type of variation of extrahepatic artery was replaced right hepatic artery from superior mesenteric artery: 6 of 125 cases (4.8%). B. Variations in intrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal intrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 83 of 125 cases (66.4%). Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and middle hepatic artery arising from lower portion of the umbilical point of left hepatic artery. 2. The most common variation of intrahepatic arteries was middle hepatic artery. 3. Among the variation of middle hepatic artery; Right, middle and left hepatic arteries arising from the same location at the hepatic artery proper was the most common type; 17 of 125 cases (13.6%)

  9. Glucocorticosteroids for viral hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection.......Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection....

  10. Hepatic ABC transporters and triglyceride metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, John S; Chung, Soonkyu; Shelness, Gregory S

    2012-06-01

    Elevated plasma triglyceride and reduced HDL concentrations are prominent features of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Individuals with Tangier disease also have elevated plasma triglyceride concentrations and very low HDL, resulting from mutations in ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), an integral membrane protein that facilitates nascent HDL particle assembly. Past studies attributed the inverse relationship between plasma HDL and triglyceride to intravascular lipid exchange and catabolic events. However, recent studies also suggest that hepatic signaling and lipid mobilization and secretion may explain how HDL affects plasma triglyceride concentrations. Hepatocyte-specific ABCA1 knockout mice have markedly reduced plasma HDL and a two-fold increase in triglyceride due to failure to assemble nascent HDL particles by hepatocytes, causing increased catabolism of HDL apolipoprotein A-I and increased hepatic production of triglyceride-enriched VLDL. In-vitro studies suggest that nascent HDL particles may induce signaling to decrease triglyceride secretion. Inhibition of microRNA 33 expression in nonhuman primates augments hepatic ABCA1, genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, and decreases expression of lipogenic genes, causing increased plasma HDL and decreased triglyceride levels. New evidence suggests potential mechanisms by which hepatic ABCA1-mediated nascent HDL formation regulates VLDL-triglyceride production and contributes to the inverse relationship between plasma HDL and triglyceride.

  11. Cooperation enhanced by habitat destruction in Prisoner's Dilemma Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiqing; Wang, Wanxiong; Zhang, Feng; Qiao, Hongqiang

    2017-11-01

    The emergence and maintenance of cooperation is a fundamental problem within groups of selfish individuals, whereby we introduce a model of replicator equations based on the Prisoner's Dilemma game. In the present work, the effect of habitat destruction on the evolution of cooperation will be taken into account. Our results show that cooperators can receive the biggest boost for a moderate value of habitat destruction, and more serious habitat destruction will lead to lower levels of cooperation until zero. Moreover, we also reach the conclusion that the cooperation level decreases monotonously with the increasing of the ratio of cooperative cost to benefit but increases monotonously with the increasing of the encounter probability. Our findings can help to further understand the evolution of cooperation under the harsh external environment.

  12. Feline Hepatic Lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtolina, Chiara; Favier, Robert P

    2017-05-01

    Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common and potentially fatal liver disorder. Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms of FHL remain elusive, there is an imbalance between the influx of fatty acids from peripheral fat stores into the liver, de novo liposynthesis, and the rate of hepatic oxidation and dispersal of hepatic TAG via excretion of very-low density lipoproteins. The diagnosis of FHL is based on anamnestic, clinical, and clinicopathologic findings, associated with diagnostic imaging of the liver, and cytology, or histological examination of liver biopsies. Fluid therapy, electrolyte correction and adequate early nutrition are essential components of the therapy for FHL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary Niacin Supplementation Suppressed Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of niacin supplementation on hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits. Rex Rabbits (90 d, n = 32 were allocated to two equal treatment groups: Fed basal diet (control or fed basal diet with additional 200 mg/kg niacin supplementation (niacin. The results show that niacin significantly increased the levels of plasma adiponectin, hepatic apoprotein B and hepatic leptin receptors mRNA (p0.05. However, niacin treatment significantly inhibited the hepatocytes lipid accumulation compared with the control group (p<0.05. In conclusion, niacin treatment can decrease hepatic fatty acids synthesis, but does not alter fatty acids oxidation and triacylglycerol export. And this whole process attenuates lipid accumulation in liver. Besides, the hormones of insulin, leptin and adiponectin are associated with the regulation of niacin in hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits.

  14. Evaluation and Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraweera, Duminda; Sundaram, Vinay; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a spectrum of neurocognitive manifestations often seen in patients with liver injury or rarely in patients with portosystemic shunting without liver injury. It can be divided into minimal (covert) hepatic encephalopathy and overt hepatic encephalopathy, depending on the severity. Patients with hepatic encephalopathy have compromised clinical outcomes, decreased quality of life, and increased healthcare utilization, often resulting in a heavy financial and personal burden on caregivers. The diagnosis remains largely clinical, with the exclusion of possible other causes for the altered mental status. Current treatment strategies include nonabsorbable disaccharides and antibiotics. This review will focus on the diagnosis, management and clinical impact of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:27377741

  15. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  16. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  17. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    Brundtland Commission Report, and climate change became a common concern. Energy technology cooperation was an integral part of Nordic energy policy cooperation from the very beginning. The Nordic Energy Research Programme was established with funding from each of the Nordic countries, and was earmarked...... by a committee of senior officials and a secretariat. This was characterised by an incremental development of the cooperation based on consensus, mutual understanding and trust facilitated through exchange of experiences, work groups, seminars, educational activities and mobility schemes for energy policy...

  18. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data......-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web...

  19. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E ... drugs. In some cases, hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Hepatitis: Acute or Chronic? Acute hepatitis is the initial ...

  20. HIV and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis C Last Reviewed: July 25, 2017 ...

  1. HIV and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis B Last Reviewed: July 24, 2017 ...

  2. Imaging of hepatic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, D.J.; Hanbidge, A.E.; O'Malley, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented

  3. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  4. hy viral hepatitis?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jelivery.6 They may be confused with surgical conditions and apart from being an ... of the viruses, the diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis, the relationship of .... myocarditis and cardiomyopathy, pancreatitis and CSF abnormalities!

  5. Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Luigi; Deleonardi, Gaia; Lalanne, Claudine; Barbato, Erica; Tovoli, Alessandra; Libra, Alessia; Lenzi, Marco; Cassani, Fabio; Muratori, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The detection of diagnostic autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMA), anti-liver/kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM1), anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) and anti-soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) is historically associated with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. When autoimmune hepatitis is suspected, the detection of one or any combination of diagnostic autoantibodies, by indirect immunofluorescence or immuno-enzymatic techniques with recombinant antigens, is a pivotal step to reach a diagnostic score of probable or definite autoimmune hepatitis. Diagnostic autoantibodies (ANA, SMA, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1, anti-SLA) are a cornerstone in the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Other ancillary autoantibodies, associated with peculiar clinical correlations, appear to be assay-dependent and institution-specific, and validation studies are needed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Hepatic abscesses after adhesiolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonsen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Febrilia and pain in upper right quadrant of the abdomen days after a simple operation for bowel obstruction could be caused by translocation of intestinal bacteria and subsequent formation of hepatic abscesses.

  7. Influences of obesity on the immunogenicity of Hepatitis B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Guo, Zhirong; Dong, Chen

    2017-05-04

    Hepatitis B vaccine is regarded as the most effective method for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, several factors such as age, body mass index and immunocompetent state have been reported to be associated with reduced immunization responses. The present commentary was aimed to discuss the influences of obesity on the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccines. Available peer-reviewed literatures, practice guidelines, and statistics published on hepatitis B vaccine in obesity between 1973 and 2015. Obesity was significantly associated with non-response to hepatitis B vaccine immunization. The risk of nonresponsiveness of hepatitis B vaccine among obese people increased with BMI. Moreover, the obesity might lead to an increased risk of HBV vaccine-escape mutations. The mechanism responsible for decreased immunization responses in obesity included leptin-induced systemic and B cell intrinsic inflammation, impaired T cell responses and lymphocyte division and proliferation. Therefore, more studies should be performed to analyze the influences of obesity on the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccines to improve the immunoprotecive effect of hepatitis B vaccines in future.

  8. Modulation of hepatic steatosis by dietary fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-02-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) describes a range of conditions caused by fat deposition within liver cells. Liver fat content reflects the equilibrium between several metabolic pathways involved in triglyceride synthesis and disposal, such as lipolysis in adipose tissue and de novo lipogenesis, triglyceride esterification, fatty acid oxidation and very-low-density lipoprotein synthesis/secretion in hepatic tissue. In particular, it has been demonstrated that hepatic de novo lipogenesis plays a significant role in NAFLD pathogenesis. It is widely known that the fatty acid composition of the diet influences hepatic lipogenesis along with other metabolic pathways. Therefore, dietary fat may not only be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis, but may also prevent and/or reverse hepatic fat accumulation. In this review, major data from the literature about the role of some dietary fats as a potential cause of hepatic fat accumulation or as a potential treatment for NAFLD are described. Moreover, biochemical mechanisms responsible for an increase or decrease in hepatic lipid content are critically analyzed. It is noteworthy that both quantitative and qualitative aspects of dietary fat influence triglyceride deposition in the liver. A high-fat diet or the dietary administration of conjugated linoleic acids induced hepatic steatosis. In contrast, supplementation of the diet with krill oil or pine nut oil helped in the prevention and/or in the treatment of steatotic liver. Quite interesting is the "case" of olive oil, since several studies have often provided different and/or conflicting results in animal models.

  9. Hepatitis C pada Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakInfeksi virus hepatitis C saat ini masih merupakan persoalan yang serius. Penularan infeksi HCV pada anak yang utama adalah melalui transfusi darah atau produk darah yang saat ini bertanggung jawab menyebabkan kasus hepatitis C kronis. Selain itu infeksi HCV pada anak dapat disebabkan oleh transmisi perinatal (vertikal. Infeksi HCV akut dapat berakhir dengan sirosis dan karsinoma hepatoselular setelah dekade ketiga (sekitar 20%, karena progresivitas infeksi HCV lebih lambat dari infeksi hepatitis B virus. Pada umumnya infeksi HCV bersifat asimptomatik termasuk pada anak. Karena tidak ada gejala yang jelas pada infeksi HCV tersebut maka diagnosis infeksi HCV hanya dapat ditegakkan dengan pemeriksaan awal laboratorium dan uji serologi, dan bila perlu dengan uji molekuler pada pasien dengan risiko tinggi. Kebijakan kuratif khusus terhadap HCV adalah terapi antivirus berupa interferon dan ribavirin yang diberikan bila diagnosis HCV sudah ditegakkanKata kunci: Hepatitis C, diagnosis and management problem, childrenAbstractHepatitis C virus infection is still a serious problem. Transmission of HCV infection in children is a major blood transfusion or blood products that are currently responsible for causing chronic hepatitis C cases. Additionally HCV infection in children can be caused by perinatal transmission (vertical. Acute HCV infection may end up with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma after the third decade (around 20%, due to a slower progression of HCV infection of hepatitis B virus infection. In most cases of HCV infection are asymptomatic, including in children. Since there are no obvious symptoms in the diagnosis of HCV infection HCV infection can only be confirmed by laboratory examinations and serologic testing early, and if necessary with molecular testing in patients at high risk. Curative policy is specific to HCV antiviral therapy such as interferon and ribavirin are given when the diagnosis of HCV has been establishedKeywords:Hepatitis

  10. Crioglobulinemia y hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau González, Georgina

    1998-01-01

    Se describieron las manifestaciones principales de la crioglobulinemia mixta esencial su clasificación inmunoquímica, su asociación con los distintos virus de la hepatitis, las distintas alteraciones inmunológicas asociadas y los principales tratamientos utilizados. The main manifestations of essential mixed cryoglobulinemia were described: its immunochemical classification, its association with different hepatitis virus, the different associated immunological alterations, and the main tre...

  11. Hepatic rupture in preeclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winer-Muram, H.T.; Muram, D.; Salazar, J.; Massie, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of hepatic rupture in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia and eclampsia) is rarely made preoperatively. Diagnostic imaging can be utilized in some patients to confirm the preoperative diagnosis. Since hematoma formation precedes hepatic rupture, then, when diagnostic modalities such as sonography and computed tomography identify patients with hematomas, these patients are at risk of rupture, and should be hospitalized until the hematomas resolve

  12. Torsed pedunculated hepatic hamartoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Lima, Ignacio; Vazquez, Jose L.; Gallego, Marta; Fernandez, Rebeca; Fernandez, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    We report a 9-year-old boy with a 6-h history of acute abdominal pain due to torsion of a pedunculated hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma. The lesion was seen, on US and CT, to connect to the liver through a pedicle. Mesenchymal hepatic hamartomas are unusual tumours that may be pedunculated, and this is a unique case complicated by torsion. The radiological and pathological findings, differential diagnosis, and clinical course are discussed. (orig.)

  13. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Masotti; M. O. Lima; A. M. Cruz; G. D. Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by ja...

  14. CT in hepatic abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hiromura, Tadao; Saitoh, Hiroya; Choji, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Shinohara, Masahiro; Irie, Goroh; Nojima, Takayuki; Morita, Yuzuru.

    1987-01-01

    Fifteen CT pictures from 10 cases of hepatic abscess were reviewed. Rim enhancement was noted only in 2. On the other hand, ill defined low density surrounding central cystic structure was demonstrated in 11. Following contrast injection, this ill defined low density becomes isodense to the normal liver. Histologically, the ill defined low density was granulation tissue composed of neutrophils, lymphocytes and Macrophages. We emphasized the importance of the recognition of the granulation tissue surraounding a cyst of hepatic abscess. (author)

  15. Hepatitis C in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is a serious public health problem all over the world. It is caused by a single stranded RNA virus. Most acute infections are subclinical, but in 75% of individuals, infection leads to a chronic hepatitis, which in some cases can progress to cirrhosis and occasionally development of hepatoma. It has wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review article deals with the overview of epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, management and prevention.

  16. Doppler waveform of hepatic vein in patients with chronic hepatitis B; Correlation with histologic grade and stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Kyeong Tae; Namkung, Sook; Bae, Sang Hoon; Choi, Young Hee

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the waveform of the right hepatic vein and the histological grade and stage in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Eighty-seven patients with chronic hepatitis B were examined prospectively by one sonographer. In each patient, Doppler waveform of the right hepatic vein was obtained. Doppler waveform was classified into 3 type, type 0; normal triphasic pattern, type 1; reduced amplitude of phasic oscillation and no reverse flow phase, and type 2; completely flat flow pattern. In the same session, an ultrasound guided liver biopsy was performed and submitted to one pathologist for grading and staging. Duplex doppler ultrasonography of the right hepatic vein was also performed in 12 control subjects with no evidence of liver or heart disease. The doppler waveform was compared with the histologic severity and a statistical analysis was performed. In the control group, all cases had type 0 waveform. In the hepatitis group, there were type 0 waveform in 61 cases (70.1%), type 1 waveform in 22 cases (25.3%) and type 2 waveform in 4 cases (4.6%). The frequency of abnormal waveform is significantly higher in patients with grade 3-4 and stage 3-4 than grade and stage 1-2 (p>0.005). In the hepatitis group, the venous pulsatility index (VPI) was 0.17-0.69 (mean 0.41), and decreased in the highest and mean values when increasing the histologic scores. However, it was nor significant statistically (p>0.05). The frequency of abnormal waveform was correlated with the histologic severity in patients with chronic hepatitis B. The highest and mean values of the VPI were also correlated. However 70.1% of the patients with chronic hepatitis B showed normal waveform. So doppler ultrasonogram of the hepatic vein may be useful for the diagnosis and the differential diagnosis from cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B by combination of doppler waveform and venous pulsatility index.

  17. Mutual cooperation with Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orstein, Roberto M.

    1998-01-01

    The history of the nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Argentina is outlined in the framework of the changing political circumstances. Reference is made to the agreements between both countries and to its implementation

  18. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  19. From cooperation to globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela UNGUREANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is seen as a consequence of cross-border business. This complex and irreversible process can be seen as an extension of capitalist relations of production or increased interdependence in the economic system. Globalization has given rise to more and more fields of activity worldwide. To meet the challenges of business globalization, many companies form strategic alliances, cooperate or merge with other companies. Cooperation is seen by many companies as an alternative path to success. In recent years joint international associations, licensing, co-production agreements, joint research programs, exploration of consortia and other cooperative relationships between two or more corporations with potential have increased. We notice a cooperation tendency among small-sized companies, especially among those from the developing countries.

  20. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  1. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  2. Cooperative Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  3. On Cooper's Nonparametric Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeidler, James

    1978-01-01

    The basic assumption of Cooper's nonparametric test for trend (EJ 125 069) is questioned. It is contended that the proper assumption alters the distribution of the statistic and reduces its usefulness. (JKS)

  4. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  5. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  6. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  7. Nuclear cooperation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cooperation agreements are reviewed in tabular form, especially agreements with developing countries. The reporting countries are the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, Australia, Japan, and France. A separate EURATOM list is annexed

  8. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Masotti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by jaundice and varying degrees of dehydration, diarrhea and vomiting episodes may occur. A worsening of the disease shows signs of hepatic encephalopathy, drooling and retroflexion of the neck. In clinical examination can be observed depression, lethargy and hepatomegaly. The definitive diagnosis of the disease can be performed by fine needle aspiration biopsy guided by ultrasound and cytology or biopsy. The treatment of hepatic lipidosis is based on stabilizing the patient by supplying water and electrolyte losses and provide adequate nutritional support. The diet is usually provided through feeding tubes for a period ranging from 4 to 6 weeks may occur depending on the patient's condition. The prognosis for cats with hepatic lipidosis is favored in cases of identification followed by intensive treatment of underlying causes and for patients receiving therapy necessary in cases of idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  9. Attraction and cooperative behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Donja Darai; Silvia Grätz

    2012-01-01

    Being good-looking seems to generate substantial benefits in many social interactions, making the "beauty premium" a not to be underrated economic factor. This paper investigates how physical attractiveness enables people to generate these benefits in the case of cooperation, using field data from a modified one-shot prisoner's dilemma played in a high-stakes television game show. While attractive contestants are not more or less cooperative than less attractive ones, facial attractiveness pr...

  10. Histidine augments the suppression of hepatic glucose production by central insulin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kumi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Inaba, Yuka; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Kido, Yoshiaki; Asahara, Shun-Ichiro; Matsuda, Tomokazu; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Maeda, Akifumi; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Mukai, Chisato; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Ota, Tsuguhito; Nakabayashi, Hajime; Kaneko, Shuichi; Kasuga, Masato; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    Glucose intolerance in type 2 diabetes is related to enhanced hepatic glucose production (HGP) due to the increased expression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes. Previously, we revealed that hepatic STAT3 decreases the expression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes and suppresses HGP. Here, we show that increased plasma histidine results in hepatic STAT3 activation. Intravenous and intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of histidine-activated hepatic STAT3 reduced G6Pase protein and mRNA levels and augmented HGP suppression by insulin. This suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis by histidine was abolished by hepatic STAT3 deficiency or hepatic Kupffer cell depletion. Inhibition of HGP by histidine was also blocked by ICV administration of a histamine H1 receptor antagonist. Therefore, histidine activates hepatic STAT3 and suppresses HGP via central histamine action. Hepatic STAT3 phosphorylation after histidine ICV administration was attenuated in histamine H1 receptor knockout (Hrh1KO) mice but not in neuron-specific insulin receptor knockout (NIRKO) mice. Conversely, hepatic STAT3 phosphorylation after insulin ICV administration was attenuated in NIRKO but not in Hrh1KO mice. These findings suggest that central histidine action is independent of central insulin action, while both have additive effects on HGP suppression. Our results indicate that central histidine/histamine-mediated suppression of HGP is a potential target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Collaborative hierarchy maintains cooperation in asymmetric games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioni, Alberto; Pereda, María; Cronin, Katherine A; Tomassini, Marco; Sánchez, Angel

    2018-03-29

    The interplay of social structure and cooperative behavior is under much scrutiny lately as behavior in social contexts becomes increasingly relevant for everyday life. Earlier experimental work showed that the existence of a social hierarchy, earned through competition, was detrimental for the evolution of cooperative behaviors. Here, we study the case in which individuals are ranked in a hierarchical structure based on their performance in a collective effort by having them play a Public Goods Game. In the first treatment, participants are ranked according to group earnings while, in the second treatment, their rankings are based on individual earnings. Subsequently, participants play asymmetric Prisoner's Dilemma games where higher-ranked players gain more than lower ones. Our experiments show that there are no detrimental effects of the hierarchy formed based on group performance, yet when ranking is assigned individually we observe a decrease in cooperation. Our results show that different levels of cooperation arise from the fact that subjects are interpreting rankings as a reputation which carries information about which subjects were cooperators in the previous phase. Our results demonstrate that noting the manner in which a hierarchy is established is essential for understanding its effects on cooperation.

  12. The increased risk of predation enhances cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Bērziņš, Arnis; Krama, Tatjana; Wheatcroft, David; Igaune, Kristīne; Rantala, Markus J.

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that animals in adverse conditions can decrease individual risks and increase long-term benefits by cooperating with neighbours. However, some empirical studies suggest that animals often focus on short-term benefits, which can reduce the likelihood that they will cooperate with others. In this experimental study, we tested between these two alternatives by evaluating whether increased predation risk (as a correlate of environmental adversity) enhances or diminishes the occurrence of cooperation in mobbing, a common anti-predator behaviour, among breeding pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. We tested whether birds would join their mobbing neighbours more often and harass a stuffed predator placed near their neighbours' nests more intensely in areas with a higher perceived risk of predation. Our results show that birds attended mobs initiated by their neighbours more often, approached the stuffed predator significantly more closely, and mobbed it at a higher intensity in areas where the perceived risk of predation was experimentally increased. In such high-risk areas, birds also were more often involved in between-pair cooperation. This study demonstrates the positive impact of predation risk on cooperation in breeding songbirds, which might help in explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation. PMID:19846454

  13. Coping with the worrying complexity of cooperative driver assistance systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, F.C. den; Papp, Z.; Zoutendijk, A.M.; Netten, B.D.; Agovic, K.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years a clear trend became visible towards vehicles equipped with intelligent driver assistance systems based on cooperation between vehicle and infrastructure. The main reason for this is the high potential cooperative systems show to increase traffic throughput and safety and to decrease

  14. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky......We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...

  15. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  16. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...... rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker (J Econ Theory 64:178-201, 1994). This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule....

  17. Carbon tetrachloride treatment induces anorexia independently of hepatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, T; Okabe, S

    2000-08-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the development of anorexia. In the present study, we examined the possible involvement of anorexia in oxygen radical-induced hepatitis. A low dose of carbon tetrachloride (1 ml/kg of a 1:1 solution with olive oil) was orally administered to rats with and without food restriction. In rats with food restriction, carbon tetrachloride treatment induced hepatitis and reduced the body weight gain. In contrast, carbon tetrachloride treatment did not induce hepatitis in rats without food restriction, but the body weight was decreased. In these rats, the loss of body weight was accompanied by a decrease in food intake. The present results indicate that the administration of a low dose of carbon tetrachloride to rats without food restriction induced anorexia independently of hepatitis.

  18. Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  19. Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Resources Patient Education Resources Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for the Public Recommend ...

  20. Alternative and Complementary Therapies for Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Complementary Therapies Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... treatments which have been proven to reduce the hepatitis C viral load. Just because something is "natural" (an herb, ...

  1. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by ... and serious. Drugs are available to treat chronic hepatitis. 4 Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond What else ...

  2. Athlete’s Hepatitis in a Young Healthy Marathon Runner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Khan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Athlete’s hepatitis is an uncommon clinical condition characterized by a significant ischemic insult to the liver. The most likely pathogenesis is decreased blood supply to the liver resulting in significant hypoxic hepatocyte injury. We report a case of a 48-year-old healthy young male who presented with athlete’s hepatitis confirmed by liver biopsy after a 14-mile marathon run. To our knowledge, this is the second case of athlete’s ischemic hepatitis reported in the literature. It is a diagnosis worth considering in patients involved in extreme exercise programs.

  3. Hepatic manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hugh James FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Different hepatic and biliary tract disorders may occur with celiac disease. Some have been hypothesized to share genetic or immunopathogenetic factors, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Other hepatic changes in celiac disease may occur with malnutrition resulting from impaired nutrient absorption, including hepatic steatosis. In addition, celiac disease may be associated with rare hepatic complications, such as hepatic T-cell lymphoma.Keywords: celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, fatty liver, gluten-free diet

  4. Neurologiske symptomer og akut hepatitis associeret til parvovirus B19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giørtz-Carlsen, Birgitte; Rittig, Søren; Thelle, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The spectrum of symptoms correlated to parvovirus B19 infections has expanded greatly during the past years. We report a case of anaemia, encephalitis-like symptoms and acute hepatitis in a 15-months-old Danish girl associated with parvovirus B19, verified by positive serum IgM og IgG antibodies....... She presented with non-febrile seizures and decreased level of consciousness. Later she developed signs of acute hepatitis. The course was benign. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov-19...

  5. Severe atrophy of right hepatic lobe simulating right hepatic lobectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C.W.; Strashun, A.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Absence of the right hepatic lobe following blunt abdominal trauma without surgical resection is reported. The usual site of the right hepatic lobe is demonstrated to be occupied by bowel by hepatobiliary imaging

  6. Cooperative games and network structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    This thesis covers various research topics involving cooperative game theory, a mathematical tool to analyze the cooperative behavior within a group of players. The focus is mainly on interrelations between operations research and cooperative game theory by analyzing specific types of cooperative

  7. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Bouwmeester, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition) than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown), the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions) and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection). However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants) also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  8. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P J L Verkoeijen

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown, the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection. However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  9. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to

  10. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Stauber, Rudolf E; Lackner, Carolin

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of hepatic fibrosis is important for determining prognosis, guiding management decisions, and monitoring disease. Histological evaluation of liver biopsy specimens is currently considered the reference test for staging hepatic fibrosis. Since liver biopsy carries a small but significant risk, noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis are desirable. This editorial gives an overview on noninvasive methods currently available to determine hepatic fibrosis and their diagnostic accur...

  11. The cyclophilin inhibitor Debio-025 shows potent anti-hepatitis C effect in patients coinfected with hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisiak, Robert; Horban, Andrzej; Gallay, Philippe; Bobardt, Michael; Selvarajah, Suganya; Wiercinska-Drapalo, Alicja; Siwak, Ewa; Cielniak, Iwona; Higersberger, Jozef; Kierkus, Jarek; Aeschlimann, Christian; Grosgurin, Pierre; Nicolas-Métral, Valérie; Dumont, Jean-Maurice; Porchet, Hervé; Crabbé, Raf; Scalfaro, Pietro

    2008-03-01

    Debio-025 is an oral cyclophilin (Cyp) inhibitor with potent anti-hepatitis C virus activity in vitro. Its effect on viral load as well as its influence on intracellular Cyp levels was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Mean hepatitis C viral load decreased significantly by 3.6 log(10) after a 14-day oral treatment with 1200 mg twice daily (P CypB) levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased from 67 +/- 6 (standard error) ng/mg protein (baseline) to 5 +/- 1 ng/mg protein at day 15 (P CypB levels, coinciding with the decrease in hepatitis C viral load. These are the first preliminary human data supporting the hypothesis that CypB may play an important role in hepatitis C virus replication and that Cyp inhibition is a valid target for the development of anti-hepatitis C drugs.

  12. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed the communic......The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed...... the companies in the case can be understood as possessing a social capital which is enforced and united by initiatives of the main contractor. The social capital was built up and maintained through the actual constitution of cooperation already in the initial phase of bidding before the building process....... The management logic of the main contractor is interpreted as based on a sociology-inspired understanding focusing on norms and social values rather than on contractual (law) and functional (engineering) logic, which had hitherto been prevalent in Danish construction management....

  13. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undertaking blood transfusion, tattooing and sharing of needles were associated with hepatitis C infection (P=0.001). HBV was not associated with any of the risk factors (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings suggest a high prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C among pregnant women; blood transfusion, tattooing and ...

  14. Attitudes and Awareness Regarding Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in many cases hepatitis B and C can lead to permanent liver ... Department of Public Health Dentistry, Gian Sagar Dental College and Hospital, 1Department of Oral Surgery, Gian ... training among HCWs to prevent the spread of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. ..... primary care physicians following the Department of.

  15. Primary hepatic artery embolization in pediatric blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Caroline C P; Toh, Luke; Lo, Richard H G; Yap, Te-Lu; Narasimhan, Kannan

    2012-12-01

    Non-operative management of isolated blunt hepatic trauma is recommended except when hemodynamic instability requires immediate laparotomy. Hepatic artery angioembolization is increasingly used for hepatic injuries with ongoing bleeding as demonstrated by contrast extravasation on the CT scan. It is used primarily or after laparotomy to control ongoing hemorrhage. Hepatic angioembolization as part of multimodality management of hepatic trauma is reported mainly in adults, with few pediatric case reports. We describe our institution experience with primary pediatric hepatic angioembolization and review the literature with regard to indications and complications. Two cases (3 and 8 years old), with high-grade blunt hepatic injuries with contrast extravasation on the CT scan were successfully managed by emergency primary hepatic angioembolization with minimal morbidity and avoided laparotomy. To date, the only reports of pediatric hepatic angioembolization for trauma are 5 cases for acute bleeding and 15 delayed cases for pseudoaneurysm. The role of hepatic angioembolization in the presence of an arterial blush on CT in adults is accepted, but contested in a pediatric series, despite higher transfusion rate and mortality rate. We propose that hepatic angioembolization should be considered adjunct treatment, in lieu of, or in addition to emergency laparotomy for hemostasis in pediatric blunt hepatic injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The story of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Taek

    1989-09-01

    This book gives descriptions of technical cooperation, which is about why does technology transfer?, process of technology transfer with model, decisive cause and cooperation of technology transfer, cost and effect of technology transfer, historical experience of technology transfer, cases of technology transfer by field such as rubber tire, medicine and computer industry and automobile industry, technology transfer process and present condition of technical cooperation, and strategy for rising of technical cooperation : selection of technology for object of cooperation and development of human resources.

  17. Primary hepatic pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmelin, A.; Hartheiser, M.; Gangi, A.; Welsch, M.; Jeung, M.Y.; Jaeck, D.; Tongio, J.; Dietemann, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are uncommon tumors that represent a potentially curable cause of hypertension. They are usually located in the adrenal glands, but 10% arise from extra-adrenal sites, located along the paravertebral sympathetic chains. We report a case of primary hepatic pheochromocytoma responsible for a severe hypertension in a 24-year-old man. Echotomography showed a lightly heterogeneous mass located in the segment 8 of the liver. Iodine 131 -metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy showed a large hepatic concentration of the tracer and no other localization. This tumor appeared highly vascularized on enhanced CT scan and on aortic angiography. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hepatic tumor with a high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and with a signal isointense to the liver on T1-weighted images. The hepatic venous sampling contained the highest catecholamine level, whereas the adrenal venous samping was normal. After surgical resection of the hepatic tumor, the tension level and catecholamines plasmatic level normalized. No recurrent symptoms appeared during a 3-year follow-up. (orig.)

  18. Hepatitis in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ain, F.U.; Amin, A.; Yasmin, F.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency of viral hepatitis in general, spectrum of hepatitis E in particular, and to study the maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality associated with it. In this prospective study, total number of pregnant women was 4723, sera of 35 pregnant women having clinical jaundice in pregnancy were analyzed for markers of hepatitis A , B, C and E viruses. Of the 35 pregnant women with jaundice HEV IgM were 60%,HA V IgM20%, Anti HCV 8.75%,Hbs Ag 5.71%, unexplained 5.71%. Amongst HEV 23.80% had hepatic encephalopathy DIC in 42.85%, PPH in 23.80%, renal failure in 9.52% an- maternal mortality in 4.76%. Approximately two third of pregnant women with HEV infection had preterm deliveries (76.19) % and perinatal mortality of 42.8%. Hepatitis E was the commonest etiological agent in those who had fulminant disease during pregnancy and was associated with high morbidity and mortality. (author)

  19. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,239 (2014) Number of new ...

  20. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  1. Hepatostomy for central hepatic hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gewertz, B.L.; Olsen, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Two patients with central hepatic hematomas are presented. Hepatostomy tube drainage provided prompt healing of the cavities without complications. The technique is presented as a safe and effective alternative to hepatic resection without compromising the established principles of management

  2. Nitazoxanide for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, Kristiana; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C infection is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. The estimated number of chronically infected people with hepatitis C virus worldwide is about 150 million people. Every year, another three to four million people acquire the infection. Chronic hepatitis C......) and ribavirin was the approved standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. In 2011, first-generation direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been licensed, for use in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin for treating hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Nitazoxanide is another antiviral drug with broad...... antiviral activity and may have potential as an effective alternative, or an addition to standard treatment for the treatment of the hepatitis C virus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nitazoxanide in people with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane...

  3. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...

  4. Decreasing asthma morbidity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-12-12

    Dec 12, 1994 ... Apart from the optimal use of drugs, various supplementary methods have been tested to decrease asthma morbidity, usually in patients from reiatively affluent socio-economic backgrounds. A study of additional measures taken in a group of moderate to severe adult asthmatics from very poor socio- ...

  5. Obesity-induced hepatic hypoperfusion primes for hepatic dysfunction after resuscitated hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Paul J; Hurt, Ryan T; Franklin, Glen A; McClain, Craig J; Garrison, R Neal

    2009-10-01

    Obese patients (BMI>35) after blunt trauma are at increased risk compared to non-obese for organ dysfunction, prolonged hospital stay, infection, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and mortality. Obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) produce a low grade systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with compromised hepatic blood flow, which increases with body mass index. We hypothesized that obesity further aggravates liver dysfunction by reduced hepatic perfusion following resuscitated hemorrhagic shock (HEM). Age-matched Zucker rats (Obese, 314-519 g & Lean, 211-280 g) were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 10-12/group): (1) Lean-Sham; (2) Lean, HEM, and resuscitation (HEM/RES); (3) Obese-Sham; and (4) Obese-HEM/RES. HEM was 40% of mean arterial pressure (MAP) for 60 min; RES was return of shed blood/5 min and 2 volumes of saline/25 min. Hepatic blood flow (HBF) using galactose clearance, liver enzymes and complete metabolic panel were measured over 4 h after completion of RES. Obese rats had increased MAP, heart rate, and fasting blood glucose and BUN concentrations compared to lean controls, required less blood withdrawal (mL/g) to maintain 40% MAP, and RES did not restore BL MAP. Obese rats had decreased HBF at BL and during HEM/RES, which persisted 4 h post RES. ALT and BUN were increased compared to Lean-HEM/RES at 4 h post-RES. These data suggest that obesity significantly contributes to trauma outcomes through compromised vascular control or through fat-induced sinusoidal compression to impair hepatic blood flow after HEM/RES resulting in a greater hepatic injury. The pro-inflammatory state of NAFLD seen in obesity appears to prime the liver for hepatic ischemia after resuscitated hemorrhagic shock, perhaps intensified by insidious and ongoing hepatic hypoperfusion established prior to the traumatic injury or shock.

  6. Epidemiology and Transmission of Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Infections in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Megan G; Foster, Monique A; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2018-04-30

    There are many similarities in the epidemiology and transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype (gt)3 infections in the United States. Both viruses are enterically transmitted, although specific routes of transmission are more clearly established for HAV than for HEV: HAV is restricted to humans and primarily spread through the fecal-oral route, while HEV is zoonotic with poorly understood modes of transmission in the United States. New cases of HAV infection have decreased dramatically in the United States since infant vaccination was recommended in 1996. In recent years, however, outbreaks have occurred among an increasingly susceptible adult population. Although HEV is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries, it is rarely diagnosed in the United States. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  7. Alcohol Use and Hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Marion G.; Terrault, Norah A.

    2002-01-01

    Excess alcohol consumption can worsen the course and outcome of chronic hepatitis C. It is important to distinguish between alcohol abuse, which must be treated on its own merits, and the effect of alcohol use on progression, severity, and treatment of hepatitis C. Most studies on the effects of alcohol on hepatitis C have focused on patients, with high levels of daily alcohol intake. Indeed, the adverse effects of light and moderate amounts of alcohol intake on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infect...

  8. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  9. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, James

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions.

  10. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  11. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  12. Ontogeny of the rat hepatic adrenoceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillian, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    Hepatic alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta-2 adrenoceptors were characterized during development of the rat through Scatchard analysis of ( 3 H)-prazosin, ( 3 H)-rauwolscine and ( 125 I)-pindolol binding to washed particle membrane preparations. Major changes in adrenoceptor number occur shortly before birth and at weaning. The fetal rat liver is characterized by a large number of alpha-2 adrenoceptors which falls 10-20 fold at birth. The number of hepatic beta adrenoceptors decreases 30-50% during the third week after birth increases slightly at weaning, then decreases gradually in the adult. Hepatic alpha-1 adrenoceptor number increases 3-5 fold at weaning to become the predominant adrenoceptor in the adult rat liver. The basis for the fall in alpha-2 number at birth remains unclear. The fall in beta receptor number at the end of the second week post-natally appears dependent on increased insulin and corticosterone secretion as well as increased NE release form nerve terminals. The basis for the increase in beta number at weaning and the sex-dependent loss of beta function but not receptor number in the adult rat remains unknown. The dramatic increases in alpha-1 number and function at weaning are dependent on increased adrenocortical secretion, adrenalectomy prevents the normal. This effect of adrenocorticoids might be mediated through glycogen, as glycogen depletion during fasting decreases alpha-1 receptor number and function at weaning are dependent on increased adrenocortical secretion, adrenalectomy prevents the normal. This effect of adrenocorticoids might be mediated through glycogen, as glycogen depletion during fasting decreases alpha-1 receptor number and function. These findings suggest that hepatic adrenoceptor number adapts from the low carbohydrate diet of the suckling rat to the high carbohydrate diet of the adult at weaning

  13. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured the Slovak Republic (SR) obligations with relation to the international agreements and with the SR membership in the IAEA.International co-operation has been ensured on the basis of the bilateral international agreements. With the Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-operation, the SR fulfilled its financial obligations to this organization in due time and in the full scope. Representing Central and Eastern Europe interest in the Board of Governors, the SR participation in the highest executive in the highest executive authority was finished in 1996.The Board of Governors Vice-chairman position was executed by NRA SR Chairman. 5 national and 6 regional technical co-operation and assistance projects were realized in 1996. 12 organizations participated in these projects and accordingly 104 experts took part in training programmes, scientific visits or as the mission members abroad. Besides, Slovak experts participated at work of technical advisory and consultation groups with the significant assistance. In the framework of IAEA co-operation, the SR was visited by 11 expert missions formed by 28 experts from 19 countries including IAEA. Slovak organizations, namely institutes of the Academy of Sciences, Slovak research centres and universities participated in IAEA scientific and research activities through NRA SR. 15 scientific contracts in total were approved and realized and these contracts are utilized as supplementary financing of the own scientific and research projects. Other international co-operation and regional co-operation activities of the NRA SR in 1996 are reviewed

  14. Hepatic angiography: Portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, T.W. Jr.; Sones, P.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Portal hypertension is usually a manifestation of underlying hepatic parenchymal disease, although it may be secondary to portal or hepatic venous thrombosis and rarely to hyperdynamic portal states. Portal hypertension may present as encephalopathy, ascites, jaundice, hepatic failure, or catastrophic upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Radiologic investigation should include indirect or direct measurements of portal pressure, assessment of portal venous perfusion, visualization of collaterals, and demonstration of arterial and venous anatomy for potential shunt procedure. Following survival of initial variceal bleeding, the most effective procedure to prevent recurrent hemorrhage is a shunt to decompress the varices. The decision whether to intervene medically or surgically during the acute hemorrhagic episode as well as the type of shunt used to prevent future hemorrhage is the subject of continuing controversy

  15. Prophylactic Hepatitis E Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E has been increasingly recognized as an underestimated global disease burden in recent years. Subpopulations with more serious infection-associated damage or death include pregnant women, patients with basic liver diseases, and elderly persons. Vaccine would be the most effective means for prevention of HEV infection. The lack of an efficient cell culture system for HEV makes the development of classic inactive or attenuated vaccine infeasible. Hence, the recombinant vaccine approaches are explored deeply. The neutralizing sites are located almost exclusively in the capsid protein, pORF2, of the virion. Based on pORF2, many vaccine candidates showed potential of protecting primate animals; two of them were tested in human and evidenced to be well tolerated in adults and highly efficacious in preventing hepatitis E. The world's first hepatitis E vaccine, Hecolin ® (HEV 239 vaccine), was licensed in China and launched in 2012.

  16. [Hepatitis E as zoonosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) the causative agent of hepatitis E, is a non-enveloped RNA virus. HEV is transmitted through oral consumption of contaminated food and water According to the currently knowledge now be considered as zoonosis. The main reservoir of HEV are pigs, boars and deer. For the first time HEV was isolated from animals (pigs) in 1997 in the U.S. Genetic analysis of strains isolated from pigs showed high similarity to strains HEV isolated from humans. This was the first evidence showing that HEV is a zoonosis. Further studies have shown that occupational groups e.g. veterinarians, swine breeders with close contact to pigs have an increased risk for HEV infections. The additional evidence supported the zoonotic potential of HEV were reports of acute hepatitis E after the consumption of undercooked meat from deer and wild boar. Infection of HEV in the domestic pig and wild boar population in Europe is widespread.

  17. Hepatic artery aneurysms (HAAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosratini, H.

    2004-01-01

    The hepatic artery aneurysms are rare, especially in interahepatic branches, The frequency consists of 75-80% extrahepatic and 20-25% intrahepatic. Catheterization is achieved usually from common femoral artery, other methods implemented in the case of unsuccessful catheterization from femoral artery, are translumbar and brachial catheterization. The study consist of 565 patients that were referred to the angiography ward, During seven years of assessment, five cases of hepatic artery aneurysm were found; this is a rare condition reported in the English literature. In the literature as well as in this case report the hepatic artery aneurysms are rare. In reported series the extrahepatic artery aneurysms are found more often than in the intrahepatic artery aneurysm but in this case report intrahepatic artery aneurysms are more than extrahepatic one. (author)

  18. Membership in cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eba Gaminde Egia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze the practical application of one of the cooperative principles, «voluntary and free membership», referring to the entering of members in cooperative societies. We will first explain the meaning of this principle, and then bring up its normative regulation, with special emphasis on those aspects in which our autonomic laws differ, and ending with a brief reference to the economic aspect and the different ways to make contributions and their consequences.Received: 31 May 2017Accepted: 14 October 2017Published online: 22 December 2017

  19. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  20. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  1. Canine Copper-Associated Hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, Karen; Fieten, Hille

    2017-01-01

    Copper-associated hepatitis is recognized with increasing frequency in dogs. The disease is characterized by centrolobular hepatic copper accumulation, leading to hepatitis and eventually cirrhosis. The only way to establish the diagnosis is by histologic assessment of copper distribution and copper

  2. Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluids enter another person’s bloodstream. • Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections can cause chronic liver problems. Infection with hepa- ... there is no vaccine to protect people from hepatitis C virus infection. • There are medications that are approved by the ...

  3. Accessory hepatic vein: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Rho, Tack Soo; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the MR appearance of the accessory hepatic veins. The study included 87 consecutive patients for whom abdominal MR images were obtained. The subjects who had liver lesion or hepatic vascular abnormalities were excluded. Couinaud classified accessory hepatic veins into inferior and middle right hepatic veins. Our major interests were evaluation of the incidence, morphology, and location of the accessory hepatic vein. Inferior right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 43 out of 87 patients (49%). The morphology was linear in 35 patients (80.5%), and V-shaped in 8 patients (19.5%). In 40 patients (93%), the inferior right hepatic vein was located in the posteroinferior aspect of the right lobe. Middle right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 7 out of 87 patients (8%). All were single linear in morphology, combined with the inferior right hepatic vein, and located between the right hepatic vein and inferior right hepatic vein. The accessory hepatic vein was demonstrated in 49% among the Korean adult population, and was located in posteroinferior portion of the liver, in 93%

  4. Blood disappearance rate of /sup 198/Au-colloid and changes of hepatic blood flow during position change in normal persons and in patients with various hepatic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, B Y [Capital Armed Forces General Hospital, Seoul (Republic of Korea); Hong, K S; Koh, C S; Lee, M [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea). Coll. of Medicine

    1977-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic significance of the blood disappearance rate of /sup 198/Au-colloid and to evaluate the change of hepatic blood flow during position change from supine to erect, we measured the half time of blood disappearance rate of 7,1/sup 98/Au-colloid using external counting method in 94 normal persons and in 77 patients with various hepatic diseases. The results obtained were as follows: 1. In normal control, the mean blood disappearance half time of /sup 198/Au-colloid in supine position was 2.7+-0.4 minutes. There was no significant difference of hepatic blood flow in age and sex. 2. In acute hepatitits, chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis, the mean blood disappearance half times in supine position were 3.0+-0.45, 3.5+-0.74, 7.2+-3.6 minutes respectively. The hepatic blood flow of the patients with chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis were significantly decreased than that of normal control. 3. In the normal control and acute hepatitis, the decreaces of the hepatic blood flow during the position change from supine to erect were 27.7% and 22.6% respectively.

  5. The blood disappearance rate of 198Au-colloid and changes of hepatic blood flow during position change in normal persons and in patients with various hepatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, B.Y.; Hong, K.S.; Koh, C.S.; Lee, M.

    1977-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic significance of the blood disappearance rate of 198 Au-colloid and to evaluate the change of hepatic blood flow during position change from supine to erect, we measured the half time of blood disappearance rate of 7,1 98 Au-colloid using external counting method in 94 normal persons and in 77 patients with various hepatic diseases. The results obtained were as follows: 1. In normal control, the mean blood disappearance half time of 198 Au-colloid in supine position was 2.7+-0.4 minutes. There was no significant difference of hepatic blood flow in age and sex. 2. In acute hepatitits, chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis, the mean blood disappearance half times in supine position were 3.0+-0.45, 3.5+-0.74, 7.2+-3.6 minutes respectively. The hepatic blood flow of the patients with chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis were significantly decreased than that of normal control. 3. In the normal control and acute hepatitis, the decreaces of the hepatic blood flow during the position change from supine to erect were 27.7% and 22.6% respectively. (author)

  6. Cooperation, cheating, and collapse in biological populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    2014-03-01

    Natural populations can collapse suddenly in response to small changes in environmental conditions, and recovery from such a collapse can be difficult. We have used laboratory microbial ecosystems to directly measure theoretically proposed early warning signals of impending population collapse. Yeast cooperatively break down the sugar sucrose, meaning that below a critical size the population cannot sustain itself. We have demonstrated experimentally that changes in the fluctuations of the population size can serve as an early warning signal that the population is close to collapse. The cooperative nature of yeast growth on sucrose suggests that the population may be susceptible to ``cheater'' cells, which do not contribute to the public good and instead merely take advantage of the cooperative cells. We confirm this possibility experimentally and find that such social parasitism decreases the resilience of the population.

  7. Cooperatives between truth and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Krueger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current declaration of the International Cooperative Alliance on cooperative identity since its 1995 Centennial Conference (which was held in Manchester makes no distinction between cooperation and cooperative. The lack of distinction between cooperation and cooperative has caused the Decennial Cooperative Action Plan to define cooperatives as a form, while their materiality is regarded as managerial: a business (activity under a cooperative form. An identity that is close to us cannot be reduced to form, without this being a problem. Therefore, the value underlying this identity —cooperation— must have a substantial basis, even if it is idealised, if it is to affect us.Received: 27.03.2014Accepted: 12.05.2014

  8. Hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function following injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, B G; Loegering, D J; Blumenstock, F A; Shah, D M

    1986-03-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that in vivo hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function is depressed following thermal injury. The present study was carried out to determine if complement receptor function depression is associated with other states of depressed host defense. Hepatic complement receptor clearance function was determined from the hepatic uptake of rat erythrocytes coated with antierythrocyte IgM (EIgM) in rats. Receptor function was determined following cannulation of a carotid artery, laparotomy plus enterotomy, hemorrhagic shock, trauma, thermal injury, acute bacteremia, acute endotoxemia, and injection of erythrocyte stroma, gelatinized lipid emulsion, or colloidal carbon. Hepatic uptake of EIgM was depressed following each of these experimental interventions except arterial cannulation. This effect was shown not to be due to a decrease in hepatic blood flow or depletion of complement and was therefore due to a depression in hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function. Thus, impairment of hepatic macrophage complement receptor function is associated with several states of depressed host defense.

  9. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  10. Cooperative social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Acera Manero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Social capital consists of the contributions of members and associates, both mandatory and voluntary. From an accounting point of view, it is a liability figure that expresses the value of a portion of the equity of the cooperative. Its inclusion in the liability is not the fact that it is a debt but by its nature unenforceable.

  11. Supranational Cooperation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Deugd, Nienke; Stamm, Katharina; Westerman, Wim

    The sovereign debt crisis and the euro crisis have prompted heads of state and government in Europe to intensify supranational cooperation. However, some political leaders and policy makers aim for more. They propose the introduction of a common European economic government that would prevent Europe

  12. Systematic, Cooperative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Paula M.

    Evaluation procedures based on a systematic evaluation methodology, decision-maker validity, new measurement and design techniques, low cost, and a high level of cooperation on the part of the school staff were used in the assessment of a public school mathematics program for grades 3-8. The mathematics curriculum was organized into Spirals which…

  13. Non-Cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe non-cooperative game models and discuss game theoretic solution concepts. Some applications are also noted. Conventional theory focuses on the question ‘how will rational players play?’, and has the Nash equilibrium at its core. We discuss this concept and its interpretations, as well as

  14. Cooperative Technolgy Deployed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenders, E.; Velt, R. in 't

    2011-01-01

    After the successful demonstrations of cooperative technology by the CVIS and Safespot projects the question remains how this technology can be successfully deployed. This question is explored by the Field Operational Test project FREILOT, which aims to provide fuel economy applications that must be

  15. Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Patricia L. Kennedy; Rob Yaksich; Scott H. Stoleson

    2010-01-01

    The Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) is intermediate in size between the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and the Sharp-shinned Hawk (A. striatus), northern North America's other two accipiters. The two sexes are almost alike in plumage, but as in both of the other species, the female is noticeably larger. According to Wheeler and Clark (1995), a...

  16. Cooperative courseware authoring support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicheva, D.; Aroyo, L.M.; Cristea, A.I.

    2003-01-01

    We refined our knowledge classification and indexing approach applied in our previously developed system AIMS (Agentbased Information Management System) by introducing ontology-oriented support for cooperative courseware authoring. In order to provide a basis for formal semantics and reasoning in

  17. Can war foster cooperation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauer, Michal; Blattman, C.; Chytilová, Julie; Henrich, J.; Miguel, E.; Mitts, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 249-274 ISSN 0895-3309 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : war * conflict * cooperation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 5.727, year: 2016

  18. Robust Dynamic Cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauso, D.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2006-01-01

    Classical cooperative game theory is no longer a suitable tool for those situations where the values of coalitions are not known with certainty. Recent works address situations where the values of coalitions are modelled by random variables. In this work we still consider the values of coalitions as

  19. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); S. Bouwmeester (Samantha)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more

  20. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  1. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Nay

    Full Text Available The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection, when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  2. Discover new cooperation forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    In spite of the good forecasts concerning the supply and demand, the gas market is full of uncertainties because of the competition and the industrial reorganizing. Producers and operators try to define new forms of cooperation allowing the attainments protection and at the same time allowing to take advantage of the market opportunities with a shared risk. (A.L.B.)

  3. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities in international co-operation carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. Professionality of the Bohunice NPPs staff was highly appreciated by inviting them to be the OSART team members

  4. Marketing co-operatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); C.P. Veerman (Cees)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractMarketing co-operatives (MCs) are analysed from an incomplete contracting perspective. The requirement of the domination of control by the members of a MC is a threat to the survival of a MC in markets where the level of asset specificity at the processing stage of production is

  5. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  6. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including “what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?” and “what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?” Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  7. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Fan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including "what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?" and "what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?" Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  8. The Economic Burden of Hepatitis A, B, and C in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Changwoo; Choi, Hyung-Yun; Shim, Jae-Jun; Park, So-Youn; Lee, Kyung Suk; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Oh, In-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis in South Korea is relatively high compared to that in other high-income countries. For this reason, viral hepatitis infection not only affects the population's health, but also impacts national healthcare costs. This study was performed in order to estimate the individual economic costs of the hepatitis A, B, and C viruses as well as to determine, using nationally representative data, the trends in South Korea with respect to these viruses during the 2008-2011 period. The study found that the prevalence of hepatitis A had decreased, but those of hepatitis B and C had increased overall. The mortality rate of hepatitis C was higher than that of the other two types. The mortality rate of hepatitis B had changed little, whereas that of hepatitis C had risen. The total cost of hepatitis A had decreased, from US $62.2 million to US $45.7 million, although a notable exception occurred in 2009, when the cost was US $126.6 million. Conversely, the total cost of hepatitis B had increased rapidly during the same period, from US $501.4 million to US $607.8 million. Finally, the total cost of hepatitis C had also increased from US $63.9 million to US $90.7 million. The direct costs of hepatitis A, B, and C were estimated to account for approximately 35.5%, 46.6%, and 58.0% of the total, respectively. These findings demonstrate the economic burden associated with hepatitis A, B, and C, and demonstrate the need to establish an effective prevention and management policy for future planning in South Korea.

  9. Changing Epidemiological Characteristics of Hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province, China: Increased Susceptibility in Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Wang

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A is a common acute hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV. Annually, it affects 1.4 million people worldwide. Between 1991 and 1994, HAV infections were highly endemic in Zhejiang Province (China, with 78,720 reported HAV infections per year. Hepatitis A vaccine came on the market in 1995 and was implemented for voluntary immunization. Since 2008, hepatitis A vaccine has been integrated into the national childhood routine immunization program.To understand the current epidemiological profile of hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province since hepatitis A vaccine has been available for nearly two decades.This study used the 2005-2014 National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System data to evaluate the incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases in Zhejiang Province.The overall trend of incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases significantly decreased from 2005 to 2014 (P< 0.001. During the study period, the reported incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years declined to the historically lowest record in 2014. Compared with individuals aged ≤19 years, those aged ≥20 years showed the highest incidence rate (P< 0.001. Majority of HAV infected cases were Laborers, accounting for approximately 70% of reported cases.Childhood immunization strategy with hepatitis A vaccine seemed to be effective in decreasing notified hepatitis A incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years. Those aged ≥20 years were observed to be the most susceptible population. The vast majority of hepatitis A cases were notified among Laborers. Therefore, we strongly suggest that future preventive and control measures should focus more on adults, particularly Laborers, in addition to the current childhood hepatitis A vaccination programme.

  10. Hepatitis C in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    positivity rates in these patients, accounting for nearly 24-. 28% of cases. .... Author. Punjab. Blood donors. 44,064. ELISA. 1.09%. Gupta et al 2004. Delhi. Voluntary blood ... contribution of hepatitis C in these disease conditions is summarized ...

  11. XTC-induced hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oranje, W.A.; van Pol, V.; van der Wurff, A.A.; Zeijen, R.N.; Stockbrügger, R.W.; Arends, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    XTC-induced hepatitis. Oranje WA, von Pol P, vd Wurff A, Zeijen RN, Stockbrugger RW, Arends JW. Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Maastricht, Netherlands. An increasing number of severe complications associated with the use of XTC is being reported. After 11 earlier case reports

  12. Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE, the neuropsychiatric presentation of liver disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Reduction of plasma ammonia remains the central therapeutic strategy, but there is a need for newer novel therapies. We discuss current evidence supporting the use of interventions for both the general management of chronic HE and that necessary for more acute and advanced disease.

  13. Hepatic steatosis : metabolic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Adriana Maria den

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the causes and consequences of hepatic steatosis. Epidemiological studies in humans, as well as experimental studies in animal models, have shown an association between visceral obesity and dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism

  14. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sharma (Suraj); M. Carballo (Manuel); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and

  15. The Effect of Conflict History on Cooperation Within and Between Groups: Evidence from a Laboratory Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Beekman, Gonne; Cheung, Stephen L.; Levely, Ian

    2014-01-01

    We study cooperation within and between groups in the laboratory, comparing treatments in which two groups have previously been (i) in conflict with one another, (ii) in conflict with a different group, or (iii) not previously exposed to con flict. We model conflict using an inter-group Tullock contest, and measure its effects upon cooperation using a multi-level public good game. We demonstrate that con flict increases cooperation within groups, while decreasing cooperation between groups. M...

  16. Cooperating for assisting intelligently operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezillon, P.; Cases, E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule

    1995-01-01

    We are in the process of an intelligent cooperative system in a nuclear plant application. The system must cooperate with an operator who accomplishes a task of supervision of a real-world process. We point out in the paper that a cooperation between a cooperative system and an operator has two modes: a waking state and a participating state. During the waking state, the system observes the operator's behavior and the consequences on the process. During the participation state, the cooperative system builds jointly with the user a solution to the problem. In our approach, the cooperation depends on the system capabilities to explain, to incrementally acquire knowledge and to make explicit the context of the cooperation. We develop these ideas in the framework of the design of the cooperative system in the nuclear plant. (authors). 22 refs., 1 fig

  17. Cooperation and cheating in microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the cooperative and competitive dynamics within and between species is a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Microbial model systems represent a unique opportunity to experimentally test fundamental theories regarding the evolution of cooperative behaviors. In this talk I will describe our experiments probing cooperation in microbes. In particular, I will compare the cooperative growth of yeast in sucrose and the cooperative inactivation of antibiotics by bacteria. In both cases we find that cheater strains---which don't contribute to the public welfare---are able to take advantage of the cooperator strains. However, this ability of cheaters to out-compete cooperators occurs only when cheaters are present at low frequency, thus leading to steady-state coexistence. These microbial experiments provide fresh insight into the evolutionary origin of cooperation.

  18. CTBTO international cooperation workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Cooperation Workshop took place in Vienna, Austria, on 16 and 17 November 1998, with the participation of 104 policy/decision makers, Research and Development managers and diplomatic representatives from 58 States Signatories to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The Workshop attempted to develop Treaty stipulations to: promote cooperation to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Treaty; enable member states to strengthen national implementation of verification measures, and to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes. The potential benefits arising from the CTBT monitoring, analysis and data communication systems are multifaceted, and as yet unknown. This Workshop provided the opportunity to examine some of these possibilities. An overview of the CTBT verification regime on the general aspects of the four monitoring technologies (seismic, hydro-acoustic, infrasound and radionuclides), including some of the elements that are the subject of international cooperation, were presented and discussed. Questions were raised on the potential benefits that can be derived by participating in the CTBT regime and broad-based discussions took place. Several concrete proposals on ways and means to facilitate and promote cooperation among States Signatories were suggested. The main points discussed by the participants can be summarized as follows: the purpose of the CTBT Organization is to assist member states to monitor Treaty compliance; the CTBT can be a highly effective technological tool which can generate wide-ranging data, which can be used for peaceful purposes; there are differences in the levels of technology development in the member states that is why peaceful applications should be supported by the Prep Com for the benefit of all member states, whether developed or developing, training being a key element to optimize the CTBT

  19. International cooperation for operating safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    1989-03-01

    The international-cooperation organization in nuclear safety domain is discussed. The nuclear energy Direction Committee is helped by the Security Committee for Nuclear Power Plants in the cooperation between security organizations of member countries and in the safety and nuclear activity regulations. The importance of the cooperation between experts in human being and engine problems is underlined. The applied methods, exchange activities and activity analysis, and the cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency and international organizations is analysed [fr

  20. Cooperation in regional nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newstead, C.M.; Lee, D.S.; Spitalnik, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the nuclear training currently being undertaken in the countries of the co-authors, and considers the degree to which training problems are amenable to common solutions such as cooperative regional training programs. Different types of cooperation are discussed including the development of regional and international training centers, cooperative bilateral and multilateral training, and the proposed US International Nuclear Safety Training Academy. The paper provides suggestions of ways for enhancing regional cooperation

  1. Dietary effects of marine food intake on intestinal and hepatic enzyme activities in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M; Caride, B; Lamas, A; Taboada, C

    2001-03-01

    Dietary effects of two diets high in protein from two marine species (Haliotis tuberculata and Anemonia viridis) as compared to a high-quality patron protein such as casein (or casein supplemented with olive oil) on intestinal and hepatic enzymes were studied. After 23 days, the two marine species as diet compared to casein increased the disaccharidase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Feeding Haliotis tuberculata meal produced a decrease on intestinal leucine aminopeptidase activity. The hepatic gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity decreased slightly in animals fed Haliotis tuberculata meal. Supplementation of casein with olive oil tended to decrease the intestinal and hepatic enzyme activity.

  2. Relation between blood clearance and hepatic uptake of sup 99m Tc-phytate in rats with hepatic injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Hiroshi; Hisano, Tomoyuki; Kohno, Masahiro (Yamaguchi University, Ube (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1989-10-01

    The relation among the blood clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-phytake ({sup 99m}Tc-P), the hepatic uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-P and the severity of hepatic injury was investigated by using the rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCL{sub 4}), D-galactosamine (Gal N), alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) or DL-ethionine (EthN) induced hepatic injury. After the administration of CCL{sub 4}, GalN or ANIT, serum GPT activity increased significantly with the increase of dose level, and the degree of this increase was in the order: GalN>CCl{sub 4}>ANIT. However, the mild increase in serum GPT activity was observed after EthN administration. The blood clearance rate of {sup 99m}Tc-P and the hepatic uptake ratio of {sup 99m}Tc-P decreased with the increase of dose level after CCl{sub 4}, GalN or ANIT administration, but significant changes were not found after EthN administration. The degree of decrease in the blood clearance rate of {sup 99m}Tc-P was in the order: GalNapproxCCl{sub 4}>ANIT, and the degree of decrease in the hepatic uptake ratio of {sup 99m}Tc-P was in the order: GalNapproxCCl{sub 4}>ANIT. These results suggest that the disorder in the hepatocytes may be one of causes for inducing the decrease in the hepatic uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-P, and the consequence of this decrease may induce the decrease in the blood clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-P. (author).

  3. Clinical experience with ursodeoxycholic acid (Urdoxa in complex therapy of chronic viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Esaulenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic virus hepatitis (32 patients, 13 with chronic hepatitis B and 19 with chronic hepatitis C ages from 20 to 72 with elevated levels of bilirubin and active alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma- glutamyl transpeptidase, received ursodeoxycholic acid (Urdoxa over the course of 12 weeks. During therapy alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels decreased. Urdoxa demonstrated good tolerance, efficacy and no visible side effects. Thus, Urdoxa could be used in treatment of chronic viral hepatitis with cytolytic and cholestatic syndromes.

  4. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  5. Conditional cooperation on three continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocher, M.G.; Cherry, T.; Kroll, S.; Netzer, R.; Sutter, M.

    2007-01-01

    We show in a public goods experiment on three continents that conditional cooperation is a universal behavioral regularity. Yet, the number of conditional cooperators and the extent of conditional cooperation are much higher in the U.S.A. than anywhere else.

  6. The governance of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Juanes Sobradillo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the appropriate legislation for cooperative societies to which Article 129 of the Spanish Constitution refers, deepen the analysis of the organs of management and control based on the Spanish and Basque Laws on Cooperatives and the Statute for the European Cooperative Societies.

  7. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  8. Forestry cooperatives: past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark G. Rickenbach

    2006-01-01

    Forest landowner cooperatives are not a new phenomenon, but past efforts to create and sustain these businesses have been largely unsuccessful in the U.S. Before and just after World War II saw significant investment in cooperative development that failed to create durable business. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly describe the history of forestry cooperatives...

  9. Hepatic artery embolization for treatment of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and symptomatic hepatic vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavan, Ajay [Hannover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Klinikum Oldenburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oldenburg (Germany); Caselitz, Martin; Wagner, Siegfried; Manns, Michael [Hannover Medical School, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hannover (Germany); Gratz, Karl-Friedrich [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Lotz, Joachim; Kirchhoff, Timm; Galanski, Michael [Hannover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Piso, Plinio [Hannover Medical School, Department of Abdominal and Transplantation Surgery, Hannover (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    At present there is no established therapy for treating patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and symptomatic hepatic involvement. We present the results of a prospective study with 15 consecutive patients who were treated with staged hepatic artery embolization (HAE). Branches of the hepatic artery were selectively catheterized and embolized in stages using polyvinyl alcohol particles (PVA) and platinum microcoils or steel macrocoils. Prophylactic antibiotics, analgesics and anti-emetics were administered after every embolization. Clinical symptomatology and cardiac output were assessed before and after therapy as well as at the end of follow-up (median 28 months; range 10-136 months). Five patients had abdominal pain and four patients had symptoms of portal hypertension. The cardiac output was raised in all patients, with cardiac failure being present in 11 patients. After treatment, pain resolved in all five patients, and portal hypertension improved in two of the four patients. The mean cardiac output decreased significantly (P<0.001) from 12.57{+-}3.27 l/min pre-treatment to 8.36{+-}2.60 l/min at the end of follow-up. Symptoms arising from cardiac failure resolved or improved markedly in all but one patient. Cholangitis and/or cholecystitis occurred in three patients of whom two required a cholecystectomy. One patient with pre-existent hepatic cirrhosis died as a complication of the procedure. Staged HAE yields long-term relief of clinical symptoms in patients with HHT and hepatic involvement. Patients with pre-existing hepatic cirrhosis may be poor candidates for HAE. (orig.)

  10. Cooperate or Free Ride?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    of international cooperation. On the other hand, the evidence seems to confirm Kindleberger's hypothesis that small countries were free riding during the international financial crisis of 1931, and that therefore there is a need for some coordinating mechanism, or a hegemon, in such crises....... in the establishment of the BIS and free riders in the Austrian crisis, even though there were marked differences in their attitude to international cooperation. These results run counter to the views of those International Political Economy (IPE) theorists who argue that small states should be in favour......In this article, I discuss the role of the three Scandinavian central banks in the establishment of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in 1930, and in the international lender of last resort operation towards Austria in 1931. I argue that small central banks were reluctant supporters...

  11. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu., E-mail: konstantin.yu.arutyunov@jyu.fi [National Research University Higher School of Economics , Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 101000 Moscow (Russian Federation); P.L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems RAS , Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Lehtinen, J.S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Centre for Metrology MIKES, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Junctionless Cooper pair box. • Quantum phase slips. • Coulomb blockade and gate modulation of the Coulomb gap. - Abstract: Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current–voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.

  12. Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling har evalueret undervisningsmetoden Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen og dokumenteret positive effekter på oplevelsen af samarbejde og på lærere og kursisters engagement - men har ikke kunnet påvise systematiske positive effekter af metoden på...... kursisters frafald, fravær og karakterer. Projektet har afprøvet og videreudviklet den pædagogiske metode Cooperative Learning (CL) i en dansk virkelighed og mere specifikt i forhold til VUC'ernes nye kursistgrupper med det overordnede mål at øge gennemførslen markant og målbart ved at anvende og udvikle en...

  13. International cooperative information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Developing countries need mechanisms by which the information they generate themselves and development information from the rest of the world can be retrieved. The international cooperative information system is such a mechanism. Delegates to the Seminar on International Cooperative Information Systems were informed about various existing systems (INIS, AGRIS, INFOTERRA, TCDC/INRES, POPIN, DEVSIS, and INPADROC), some specialized information systems and services (CDS/ISIS and the Cassava Information Centre), and computer programs for information processing (INIS/AGRIS, CDS/ISIS, and MINISIS). The participants suggested some changes that should be made on both the national and the international levels to ensure that these systems meet the needs of developing countries more effectively. (LL)

  14. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...... research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development...

  15. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    a gravitational pull which goes beyond economic problems. Furthermore, the EU has gradually built up a coherent policy on many fields. The EU has become the “reform anchor” and most important cooperation partner for Egypt. The progress towards increasing Egypt’s “Stake in the Internal Market” places cooperation......For decades the US has had a hegemonic position in the Middle East. A key country in this respect has been Egypt. However, in recent decades the EU has made itself increasingly felt in the region. Due to enlargements the EU came geographically much closer, and the Internal Market has generated...... to see the US and EU as rivals. Their roles are rather complementary. The article explores developments in a long-term perspective. Internal and structural developments have had a heavy impact, but at important junctions ideas and strategies for gaining political legitimacy were powerful factors too...

  16. Strategies of inducing cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, M.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the four experiments described in this paper are very consistent, and they can be summarized as follows: (1) The ''nonpunitive'' strategy was most effective in eliciting cooperative behavior from the subjects and, overall, resulted in the highest joint outcomes as well as the highest outcomes for the accomplice. (2) The effectiveness of the turn-the-other-cheek strategy was very much influenced by the competitiveness of the situation; the more competitive the incentives of the subjects, the more massively they exploited the accomplice who employed this strategy. (3) The punitive deterrent strategy elicited more agressive and self-protective, as well as less cooperative, behavior from the subjects than did the other strategies

  17. Problems of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noramli, M.

    1987-01-01

    The main principles of the IAEA technical co-operation program, which intends to answer the requirements of the member states as regards technical assistance, are presented. IAEA offers its assistance in the supervision and financial support of the projects, which promise direct and quick profit to the member states. Projects related to the satisfaction of the main demands of humanity, industrial use, energy generation, radiation protection and other fields, which can promote the contribution of nuclear power generation to the course of peace, protection of health and thriving of states, are among them. 35 million dollars (USA) was allocated for the IAEA technical assistance and realization of the co-operation program in 1987

  18. 77 FR 45895 - World Hepatitis Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Proclamation Worldwide, one in twelve people is living with viral hepatitis--a disease that threatens the... ourselves to the fight against viral hepatitis. Hepatitis prevention and control begins with awareness. Though all types of viral hepatitis are associated with serious health issues, hepatitis B and C can...

  19. Enresa International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 with the mandate to undertake responsibility for radioactive waste management in Spain. From the very beginning, ENRESA was fully aware of the fact that international cooperation plays a very important role in the development of national programmes. Aspects such as the setting up of international databases, the development and validation of models or site characterization technique such enormous efforts and amounts of resources that they could hardly be undertaken individually. Furthermore, joint participation in research, development and demonstration projects reinforces the level of confidence, not only in the decision-making process but also in the technologies, techniques and practices used. ENRESA's participation in the international contexts is largely defined, on the one hand, by the needs arising from its technical programme, as reflected in the General Radioactive Waste Plan and in the Research and Development Plan, and on the other by the need to support spanish governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental forums. The formula for cooperation varies according to needs, this cooperation generally being accomplished by means of bilateral agreements with other institutions having similar competence or by participating in the programmes of inter-governmental organizations. In particular, ENRESA has reached cooperation agreements with most of the agencies with similar responsibilities in other countries and participates very actively in the programmes of the European Union, the Nuclear energy Agency (NEA/OECD) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (Author)

  20. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  1. Diversity and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruner, Justin Pearce

    2014-01-01

    The present dissertation is an exploration of the effect of diversity on social contract formation and the evolution of cooperation. This work stems from the pioneering efforts of economist Arthur Robson, who first explored the role of costless pre-game communication in strategic interactions. When communication is permitted, individuals playing a game can condition their behavior on the signal received from their counterpart. For my purposes, I interpret these signals as racial markers or cu...

  2. The Blood Disappearance Rate of 1{sup 98A}u-Colloid and Changes of Hepatic Blood Flow During Position Change in Normal Persons and in Patients with Various Hepatic Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bo Yeon [Capital Armed Force General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Kee Suk; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1977-03-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic significance of the blood disappearance rate of {sup 198}Au-colloid and to evaluate the change of hepatic blood flow during position change from supine to erect, we measured the half time of blood disappearance rate of {sup 198}Au-colloid using external counting method in 94 normal persons and in 77 patients with various hepatic diseases. The results obtained were as follows: 1) In normal control, the mean blood disappearance half time of {sup 198}Au-colloid in supine position was 2.7+-0.4 minutes. There was no significant difference of hepatic blood flow in age and sex. 2) In acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis, the mean blood disappearance half times in supine position were 3.0+-0.45, 3.5+-0.74, 7.2+-3.6 minutes respectively. The hepatic blood flow of the patients with chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis were significantly decreased than that of normal control. 3) In the normal control and acute hepatitis, the decreases of the hepatic blood flow during the position change from supine to erect were 27.7% and 22.6% respectively.

  3. Four Essays on Corruption and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Schikora, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation contains four separate studies in the fields of corruption and cooperation. The first chapter explicates the mechanism that links the fractionalization of society with its level of corruption within a theoretical model of relational contracting. The other three chapters describe experimental studies. The second and third chapters evaluate two popular anti-corruption policies, the ‘Four-Eyes-Principle’ and ‘Whistle- Blowing’, with respect to their effectiveness in decreasing ...

  4. Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C; Gong, Yanzhang; Brok, J

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection.......Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection....

  5. Changing Epidemiology of Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E Viruses in China, 1990-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang; Wu, Peng; Wang, Liping; Geng, Mengjie; Zeng, Lingjia; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao; Lai, Shengjie; Dalton, Harry R; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yu, Hongjie

    2017-02-01

    We compared the epidemiology of hepatitis A and hepatitis E cases in China from 1990-2014 to better inform policy and prevention efforts. The incidence of hepatitis A cases declined dramatically, while hepatitis E incidence increased. During 2004-2014, hepatitis E mortality rates surpassed those of hepatitis A.

  6. Clostridium difficile colonization and infection in patients with hepatic cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong; Chen, Yunbo; Lv, Tao; Huang, Yandi; Yang, Jiezuan; Li, Yongtao; Huang, Jianrong; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the toxigenic Clostridium difficile colonization (CDC, colonization with toxigenic C. difficile but without symptoms) and C. difficile infection (CDI, active C. difficile infection resulting in disease symptoms) in hepatic cirrhosis patients, identify the risk factors of CDC, and determine the correlation between CDC and CDI. The strains of toxigenic C. difficile were isolated from patients with hepatic cirrhosis within 48 h after admission, followed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Patients were divided into toxigenic CDC group and noncolonized (NC) group according to the colonization. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyse the risk factors for the CDC. Besides, the CDI incidence was compared between the two groups. Colonization of toxigenic C. difficile was identified in 104 cases (19.8 %). Eighteen sequence types (STs) were identified, among which ST-3, ST-54, ST-35 and ST-37 were the predominant types. Child-Pugh class C(relative risk, RR, 3.025; 95 % CI: 1.410-6.488), decrease of prothrombin time activity (PTA) (RR 2.180; 95 % CI: 1.368-3.476), decrease of platelet (RR 2.746; 95 % CI: 0.931-8.103) and concurrent hepatic encephalopathy (RR 1.740; 95 % CI: 1.012-2.990) were identified as the risk factors for the hepatic cirrhosis patients with CDC. The CDI incidence in the CDC group was also significantly higher than that of the NC group (26.0 % vs 1.7 %, Pdifficile colonization. Child's class C, decrease of PTA and platelet, and concurrent hepatic encephalopathy were the risk factors for the hepatic cirrhosis patients with C. difficile colonization. Hepatic cirrhosis patients with C. difficile colonization were more susceptible to CDI.

  7. Sero-prevalence and vaccination status of hepatitis A and hepatitis B among adults with cirrhosis in Sri Lanka: a hospital based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niriella, Madunil Anuk; Kobbegala, Vipuli Jayendra; Karalliyadda, Hasnatha Nuwan; Ranawaka, Chamila Kumara; de Silva, Arjuna Priyadarshin; Dassanayake, Anuradha Supun; de Silva, Hithanadura Janaka

    2017-07-21

    As acute viral hepatitis can be fatal in patients with cirrhosis, vaccination against hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) is recommended for non-immune patients. With increasing affluence the incidence of hepatitis A in childhood has decreased leading to a significant proportion of non-immune adults. As part of their routine investigation, hepatitis A IgG antibodies (anti-HAV IgG), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies was checked and immunization status was assessed among consenting newly diagnosed cirrhotic patients presenting to a tertiary referral center. Out of 135 patients, 107 [79.3%; males 91; mean age (SD) at presentation: 55.5 (11.6) years] with complete data were included for analysis. Most patients had either cryptogenic cirrhosis (62.6%) or alcoholic cirrhosis (29.9%); 2 (1.9%) had HBV cirrhosis, none had hepatitis C (HCV) cirrhosis. None of the patients had received vaccination against hepatitis A, while 71 (67.6%) had been vaccinated against HBV. The majority [62 (58%)] were negative for anti-HAV IgG. Most cirrhotic patients in this cohort were not immune to hepatitis A. None had been vaccinated against HAV, while a third of patients had not been vaccinated against HBV. Cirrhotic patients should be routinely investigated for immunity against HAV and HBV, and vaccination offered to those found to be non-immune.

  8. The risk of predation favors cooperation among breeding prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krama, Tatjana; Berzins, Arnis; Rantala, Markus J

    2010-01-01

    Empirical studies have shown that animals often focus on short-term benefits under conditions of predation risk, which reduces the likelihood that they will cooperate with others. However, some theoretical studies predict that animals in adverse conditions should not avoid cooperation with their neighbors since it may decrease individual risks and increase long-term benefits of reciprocal help. We experimentally tested these two alternatives to find out whether increased predation risk enhances or diminishes the occurrence of cooperation in mobbing, a common anti-predator behavior, among breeding pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca. Our results show that birds attended mobs initiated by their neighbors more often, approached the stuffed predator significantly more closely, and mobbed it at a higher intensity in areas where the perceived risk of predation was experimentally increased. This study demonstrates a positive impact of predation risk on cooperation in breeding songbirds, which might help to explain the emergence and evolution of cooperation. PMID:20714404

  9. Cooperation between referees and authors increases peer review accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T Leek

    Full Text Available Peer review is fundamentally a cooperative process between scientists in a community who agree to review each other's work in an unbiased fashion. Peer review is the foundation for decisions concerning publication in journals, awarding of grants, and academic promotion. Here we perform a laboratory study of open and closed peer review based on an online game. We show that when reviewer behavior was made public under open review, reviewers were rewarded for refereeing and formed significantly more cooperative interactions (13% increase in cooperation, P = 0.018. We also show that referees and authors who participated in cooperative interactions had an 11% higher reviewing accuracy rate (P = 0.016. Our results suggest that increasing cooperation in the peer review process can lead to a decreased risk of reviewing errors.

  10. Hepatic entropy and uniformity: additional parameters that can potentially increase the effectiveness of contrast enhancement during abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeshan, B.; Miles, K.A.; Young, R.C.D.; Chatwin, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To determine how hepatic entropy and uniformity of computed tomography (CT) images of the liver change after the administration of contrast material and to assess whether these additional parameters are more sensitive to tumour-related changes in the liver than measurements of hepatic attenuation or perfusion. Materials and methods: Hepatic attenuation, entropy, uniformity, and perfusion were measured using multi-phase CT following resection of colorectal cancer. Based on conventional CT and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, 12 patients were classified as having no evidence of malignancy, eight with extra-hepatic tumours only, and eight with metastatic liver disease. Results: Hepatic attenuation and entropy increased after CM administration whereas uniformity decreased. Unlike hepatic attenuation, entropy and uniformity changed maximally in the arterial phase. No significant differences in hepatic perfusion or attenuation were found between patient groups, whereas arterial-phase entropy was lower (p = 0.034) and arterial-phase uniformity was higher (p = 0.034) in apparently disease-free areas of liver in patients with hepatic metastases compared with those with no metastases. Conclusion: Temporal changes in hepatic entropy and uniformity differ from those for hepatic attenuation. By reflecting the distribution of hepatic enhancement, these additional parameters are more sensitive to tumour-related changes in the liver than measurements of hepatic attenuation or perfusion

  11. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad shavakhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients.
    • METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cases (79.6% men and 20.4% women were analyzed for s, x and core genes via a nested polymerase chain reaction technique.
    • RESULTS: HBV DNA was detectable in serum of 20 patients (19.4%. No significant difference in age, sex and route of transmission were seen in HBV DNA positive and negative patients. In HBV DNA positive and negative groups, mean of AST was 73, 47 (p < 0.05 and mean of ALT was 76 and 36 respectively (p < 0.05.
    • CONCLUSION: Occult hepatitis B was observed in a considerable number of hepatitis C patients in Tehran. It was associated with elevation in liver enzyme but was not related to route of transmission.
    • KEY WORD: Occult hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cirrhosis.

  12. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Secondary to Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle T. Abegunde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that often presents at an advanced stage with nonspecific symptoms. Objective. To report a case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma in an otherwise healthy man with normal liver function tests two months prior to presenting with a short period of jaundice that progressed to fulminant hepatic failure. Methods. Case report and review of literature. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rapidity of progression to death after the onset of symptoms in a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma. Research on early diagnostic strategies and newer therapies are needed to improve prognosis in this rare and poorly understood malignancy with limited treatment options.

  13. Hepatitis viral aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, and the complementary examinations with special emphasis on the viral markers and the positive diagnosis were also considered

  14. Hepatic lipidosis in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdzinski, P; Squires, E J; Julian, R J

    1994-01-01

    Two flocks of 14,000 twenty-week-old turkey hens each experienced increased mortality due to hepatic lipidosis. Some hens showed signs of dyspnea and cyanosis before death. Necropsy revealed dark muscles and enlarged livers with pale areas and numerous hemorrhages. Petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages were also found on the abdominal fat and epicardium. Lung congestion and edema were prominent. In the heart and blood vessels, the blood was uncoagulated. Mortality was elevated for 12 days and resulted in the death of 0.7% of the turkey hens in one flock and 1.7% in the other. Vitamin E administered in water at a dose of 25 IU per hen appeared to reduce mortality. The nutritional and environmental factors that may contribute to the development of hepatic lipidosis in turkeys are discussed.

  15. Feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimski, D S; Taboada, J

    1995-03-01

    Feline IHL is a severe hepatopathy that can be treated by aggressive nutritional support. Until the underlying mechanisms of protein and lipid metabolism are understood in both healthy and ill cats, dietary therapy remains supportive. It is likely that the pathogenesis of IHL in cats is multifactorial, involving both increased fatty acid mobilization to the liver and a defect in oxidation of fatty acids or removal of VLDL. It is also possible that individual variation may play a role in the development of this disease in cats undergoing starvation. Continued studies will focus on the unique pathways of hepatic metabolism in the cat, and how these pathways are altered, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation and clinical disease. Hopefully, these studies can be applied to the prevention or treatment of IHL in cats.

  16. Hepatitis A Surveillance and Vaccine Use in China From 1990 Through 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fuqiang; Hadler, Stephen C; Zheng, Hui; Wang, Fuzhen; Zhenhua, Wu; Yuansheng, Hu; Gong, Xiaohong; Chen, Yuansheng; Liang, Xiaofeng

    2009-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A vaccines have been highly effective in preventing hepatitis A. To investigate the epidemiology of hepatitis A in China after hepatitis A vaccine became available, we reviewed reported cases of hepatitis A and the use of hepatitis A vaccine in China during the period from 1990 through 2007. Methods Data from the National Notifiable Disease Reporting System from 1990 to 2007 and the Emergency Events Reporting System from 2004 to 2007 were reviewed and epidemiologic characteristics analyzed. Hepatitis A vaccine distribution between 1992 and 2007 was also reviewed. Results The incidence of hepatitis A has declined by 90% since 1990, from 56 to 5.9 per 105/year. Declines in age-specific incidence were seen in all age groups, most dramatically among children younger than 10 years. Disease incidence still varies substantially: poorer western provinces have had the highest incidences since 2000. In high-incidence provinces, children younger than 10 years continue to have a high disease incidence. Only 50% of cases were laboratory-confirmed, and only 3% occurred in reported local outbreaks. Over 156 million doses of hepatitis A vaccine have been distributed since 1992, and use has continued to increase since 2003. Conclusions Incidence of hepatitis A has decreased in all age groups, likely due to changing socioeconomic conditions and increasing hepatitis A vaccine use. Nevertheless, western populations remain at high risk, with transmission predominantly occurring among children. The epidemiology of hepatitis A transmission is not well understood. Improved surveillance with better laboratory confirmation is needed to monitor the impact of universal hepatitis A vaccination of young children; this strategy began to be implemented in 2008. PMID:19561383

  17. [Autoimmune hepatitis: Immunological diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahim, Imane; Brahim, Ikram; Hazime, Raja; Admou, Brahim

    2017-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatopathies (AIHT) including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune cholangitis (AIC), represent an impressive entities in clinical practice. Their pathogenesis is not perfectly elucidated. Several factors are involved in the initiation of hepatic autoimmune and inflammatory phenomena such as genetic predisposition, molecular mimicry and/or abnormalities of T-regulatory lymphocytes. AIHT have a wide spectrum of presentation, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severe acute liver failure. The diagnosis of AIHT is based on the presence of hyperglobulinemia, cytolysis, cholestasis, typical even specific circulating auto-antibodies, distinctive of AIH or PBC, and histological abnormalities as well as necrosis and inflammation. Anti-F actin, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1 antibodies permit to distinguish between AIH type 1 and AIH type 2. Anti-SLA/LP antibodies are rather associated to more severe hepatitis, and particularly useful for the diagnosis of seronegative AIH for other the antibodies. Due to the relevant diagnostic value of anti-M2, anti-Sp100, and anti-gp210 antibodies, the diagnosis of PBC is more affordable than that of PSC and AIC. Based on clinical data, the immunological diagnosis of AIHT takes advantage of the various specialized laboratory techniques including immunofluorescence, immunodot or blot, and the Elisa systems, provided of a closer collaboration between the biologist and the physician. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies on some biochemical parameters in viral hepatitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbiny, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present investigation deals with studying liver amino transferases (ALT. AST). Cholesterol and triglycerides. As well as testosterone and protection hormones in blood of Egyptian men infected with hepatitis C virus.hepatitis B virus and mixed B and C viruses. These biochemical parameters were evaluated to be used in diagnosis and prognosis of viral hepatitis. Which considered the most important health problem in Egypt and developing countries. Biochemical analysis were performed using spectrophotometric and radioimmunoassay techniques. All data will be subjected to statistical analysis in order to detect the most suitable biochemical analysis that can be used as specific tests for early diagnosis of viral hepatitis and to detect the parameters that show abnormalities among the different groups of infected patients. The data revealed that AST and ALT levels were increased in all patient groups. Concerning the level of triglycerides, it was increased only in the group of mixed viral hepatitis B and C, while cholesterol showed non-significant changes in all viral hepatitis groups. The sex hormone testosterone was decreased in all infected patients while the prolactin level was increased only in case of patients infected with mixed B and C viruses. However, these abnormal values in such sex hormones play a serious role in male sterility

  19. Metabolomic biomarkers correlating with hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhasly, Sandro; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Baumann, Sven; von Bergen, Martin; Luch, Andreas; Jungnickel, Harald; Potratz, Sarah; Gerspach, Christian

    2014-06-02

    Hepatic lipidosis or fatty liver disease is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that compromises animal performance and, hence, causes heavy economic losses worldwide. This syndrome, occurring during the critical transition from gestation to early lactation, leads to an impaired health status, decreased milk yield, reduced fertility and shortened lifetime. Because the prevailing clinical chemistry parameters indicate advanced liver damage independently of the underlying disease, currently, hepatic lipidosis can only be ascertained by liver biopsy. We hypothesized that the condition of fatty liver disease may be accompanied by an altered profile of endogenous metabolites in the blood of affected animals. To identify potential small-molecule biomarkers as a novel diagnostic alternative, the serum samples of diseased dairy cows were subjected to a targeted metabolomics screen by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. A subsequent multivariate test involving principal component and linear discriminant analyses yielded 29 metabolites (amino acids, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelines) that, in conjunction, were able to distinguish between dairy cows with no hepatic lipidosis and those displaying different stages of the disorder. This proof-of-concept study indicates that metabolomic profiles, including both amino acids and lipids, distinguish hepatic lipidosis from other peripartal disorders and, hence, provide a promising new tool for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis. By generating insights into the molecular pathogenesis of hepatic lipidosis, metabolomics studies may also facilitate the prevention of this syndrome.

  20. The role of computed tomography in blunt hepatic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Tatsumi

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) images and medical records of 283 patients with blunt abdominal trauma were reviewed. There were 67 patients with hepatic injury. Liver was the most frequently injured organ in blunt abdominal trauma. Most hepatic injuries occurred in the right lobe of the liver. Of the 67 patients with hepatic injury, 60 patients had associated other injuries. There was a high incidence of associated lung injuries (35.8 %). Of importance is the high incidence of associated head injuries (22.4 %), because, in some patients such as those with concomitant head trauma, abdominal symptom is not obvious. The associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs. nonoperative). 32 patients with hepatic injury but no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. 9 patients with hepatic injury and little hemoperitoneum were also managed conservatively. 22 patients with high density hemoperitoneum were surgically treated. By combining information on the clinical state of the patient and CT finding, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased. (author)

  1. Fibronectin and Kupffer cell function in fulminant hepatic failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imawari, M.; Hughes, R.D.; Gove, C.D.; Williams, R.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between plasma fibronectin, in vitro plasma opsonic activity, which measures the biological activity of fibronectin, and in vivo Kupffer cell function, as assessed by the systemic clearance of microaggregated [ 125 I]albumin, were determined simultaneously in 15 patients with fulminant hepatic failure and 12 normal subjects. Both the plasma fibronectin and plasma opsonic activity were significantly reduced in patients with fulminant hepatic failure, while the systemic clearance of microaggregated albumin was decreased. There was a significant correlation between plasma fibronectin and the plasma opsonic activity on admission, but no correlation could be detected between either parameter and the clearance of microaggregated albumin. A gelatin-derived plasma expander was shown to block the plasma opsonic activity both in vitro and in vivo. The low plasma fibronectin and decreased clearance of microaggregated albumin in fulminant hepatic failure reflect different aspects of the overall impairment of Kupffer cell function

  2. Increasing Coverage of Hepatitis B Vaccination in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengnan; Smith, Helen; Peng, Zhuoxin; Xu, Biao; Wang, Weibing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study used a system evaluation method to summarize China's experience on improving the coverage of hepatitis B vaccine, especially the strategies employed to improve the uptake of timely birth dosage. Identifying successful methods and strategies will provide strong evidence for policy makers and health workers in other countries with high hepatitis B prevalence. We conducted a literature review included English or Chinese literature carried out in mainland China, using PubMed, the Cochrane databases, Web of Knowledge, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang data, and other relevant databases. Nineteen articles about the effectiveness and impact of interventions on improving the coverage of hepatitis B vaccine were included. Strong or moderate evidence showed that reinforcing health education, training and supervision, providing subsidies for facility birth, strengthening the coordination among health care providers, and using out-of-cold-chain storage for vaccines were all important to improving vaccination coverage. We found evidence that community education was the most commonly used intervention, and out-reach programs such as out-of-cold chain strategy were more effective in increasing the coverage of vaccination in remote areas where the facility birth rate was respectively low. The essential impact factors were found to be strong government commitment and the cooperation of the different government departments. Public interventions relying on basic health care systems combined with outreach care services were critical elements in improving the hepatitis B vaccination rate in China. This success could not have occurred without exceptional national commitment. PMID:27175710

  3. Social aggregation as a cooperative game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilone, Daniele; Guazzini, Andrea

    2011-07-01

    A new approach for the description of phenomena of social aggregation is suggested. On the basis of psychological concepts (as for instance social norms and cultural coordinates), we deduce a general mechanism for social aggregation in which different clusters of individuals can merge according to cooperation among the agents. In their turn, the agents can cooperate or defect according to the clusters' distribution inside the system. The fitness of an individual increases with the size of its cluster, but decreases with the work the individual had to do in order to join it. In order to test the reliability of such a new approach, we introduce a couple of simple toy models with the features illustrated above. We see, from this preliminary study, how cooperation is the most convenient strategy only in the presence of very large clusters, while on the other hand it is not necessary to have one hundred percent of cooperators for reaching a totally ordered configuration with only one megacluster filling the whole system.

  4. Type B Hepatitis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabarestani

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B surface antigen CHBsAg was found in 1% of controls, 2.1% of professional blood donors, 2.0% of leprosy patients and 76.1% of acute hepatitis in Tehran and Mashhad, Iran. All HBsAg positive samples also possessed antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen and all were subtype ayw. Type B hepatitis and the HBsAg state aloe frequent in Iran, but most must be accounted for by u nonparenter- al" or "rnapparent'' parenteral exposure.

  5. Modulation of hepatic steatosis by dietary fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) describes a range of conditions caused by fat deposition within liver cells. Liver fat content reflects the equilibrium between several metabolic pathways involved in triglyceride synthesis and disposal, such as lipolysis in adipose tissue and de novo lipogenesis, triglyceride esterification, fatty acid oxidation and very-low-density lipoprotein synthesis/secretion in hepatic tissue. In particular, it has been demonstrated that hepatic de novo lipogenesis plays a significant role in NAFLD pathogenesis. It is widely known that the fatty acid composition of the diet influences hepatic lipogenesis along with other metabolic pathways. Therefore, dietary fat may not only be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis, but may also prevent and/or reverse hepatic fat accumulation. In this review, major data from the literature about the role of some dietary fats as a potential cause of hepatic fat accumulation or as a potential treatment for NAFLD are described. Moreover, biochemical mechanisms responsible for an increase or decrease in hepatic lipid content are critically analyzed. It is noteworthy that both quantitative and qualitative aspects of dietary fat influence triglyceride deposition in the liver. A high-fat diet or the dietary administration of conjugated linoleic acids induced hepatic steatosis. In contrast, supplementation of the diet with krill oil or pine nut oil helped in the prevention and/or in the treatment of steatotic liver. Quite interesting is the “case” of olive oil, since several studies have often provided different and⁄or conflicting results in animal models. PMID:24587652

  6. AFRA: Supporting regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) provides a framework for African Member States to intensify their collaboration through programmes and projects focused on the specific shared needs of its members. It is a formal intergovernmental agreement which entered into force in 1990. In the context of AFRA, Regional Designated Centres for training and education in radiation protection (RDCs) are established African institutions able to provide services, such as training of highly qualified specialists or instructors needed at the national level and also to facilitate exchange of experience and information through networks of services operating in the field

  7. Hepatite E Hepatitis E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Paraná

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da hepatite E (VHE é o segundo vírus de transmissão fecal-oral com hepatotropismo confirmado, após o vírus da hepatite A. As grandes epidemias de hepatite das décadas de 50 e 60 na Índia foram causadas pelo VHE. Observaram-se surtos da infecção na África Central, América Latina, Oriente Médio e Repúblicas independentes da ex-União Soviética. O quadro clínico da doença assemelha-se ao de outras hepatites virais. Não há casos descritos de hepatite E crônicas. Cerca de 20% das mulheres que adquirem a doença durante a gravidez desenvolvem formas graves, com insuficiência hepática fulminante. Confirma-se o diagnóstico quando se encontra no soro anticorpos (método de ELISA das classes IgM (fase aguda e/ou IgG (curados. O imunoblot e o PCR-RNA podem ser usados quando necessário. Não há tratamento específico. O uso de imunoglobulina hiperimune tem sido aconselhado por alguns autores. A prevenção se faz pelos cuidados higiênicos e dietéticos habituais. Não há vacina eficaz contra a doença.Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the second most frequent hepatotropic virus transmitted via fecal-oral route, following closely behind hepatitis A virus. The great epidemics of hepatitis described during the 50s and 60s, in India, were caused by this virus. Epidemic bursts have also been described in Central Africa, Latin America, Middle East and in the independent Republics of the ex-Soviet Union. The clinical features of the disease do not differ from those reported for other viral hepatitides. There have been no cases of chronic hepatitis E reported. Around 20% of women infected during pregnancy develop a severe form of hepatitis which courses to liver failure. Diagnosis of hepatitis is confirmed when antibodies (using ELISA of the IgM class (acute phase and/or IgG (infected and cured are found in the serum. Immunoblot and PCR-RNA may be used as necessary. There is no specific treatment for hepatitis E. Hyperimmune serum has

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV are common blood-borne infections unevenly distributed across regions in Nigeria. Few population-based prevalence studies have been done in Nigeria. Objective. To determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV and risk factors for infection with ...

  9. Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in hemodialysis (HD) patients are associated with adverse outcomes, especially after kidney transplantation. Review: In the HD setting, cross-contamination to patients via environmental surfaces, supplies, equipment, multiple-dose medication vials ...

  10. Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The epidemiology of viral hepatitis and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy is of great importance for health planners and program managers. However, few published data on viral hepatitis and HIV are available in Sudan especially during pregnancy. Objectives: The current study was ...

  11. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C viruses (HCV) are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. They are also among the commonest transfusiontransmissible infectious agents. Students of higher institutions are often used as voluntary unpaid donors by many ...

  12. HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Kapembwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART. Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of 323 enrolled patients, 32 (9.9%; 95% CI=6.7-13.2% were HBsAg positive, while 4 (1.2%; 95% CI=0.03-2.4% were HCV Ab positive. Patients with hepatitis B coinfection were more likely to be 200 IU/L was uncommon and did not differ between the two groups (3.4% vs. 2.3%; P=0.5. We were unable to determine predictors of hepatitis C infection due to the low prevalence of disease. Conclusions: HIV and hepatitis B coinfection was common among patients initiating ART at this tertiary care facility. Routine screening for hepatitis B should be considered for HIV-infected persons in southern Africa.

  13. Distinct changing profiles of hepatitis A and E virus infection among patients with acute hepatitis in Mongolia: The first report of the full genome sequence of a novel genotype 1 hepatitis E virus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsralt-Od, Bira; Primadharsini, Putu Prathiwi; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Shigeo; Takahashi, Masaharu; Jirintai, Suljid; Nyamkhuu, Dulmaa; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2018-01-01

    In January 2012, Mongolia started a hepatitis A vaccination program, which has not yet been evaluated. The first occurrence of autochthonous acute hepatitis E in 2013, caused by genotype 4 hepatitis E virus (HEV), suggests the need for a routine study to monitor its prevalence. One hundred fifty-four consecutive patients who were clinically diagnosed with acute hepatitis between 2014 and 2015 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia were studied. By serological and molecular testing followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, only one patient (0.6%) was diagnosed with acute hepatitis A, caused by genotype IA hepatitis A virus (HAV), and 32 (20.8%) patients were diagnosed with acute hepatitis E, caused by genotype 1 HEV. The 32 HEV isolates obtained in this study shared 99.5-100% nucleotide identity and were grouped into a cluster separated from those of subtypes 1a to 1f. Upon comparison of p-distances over the entire genome, the distances between one representative HEV isolate (MNE15-072) and 1a-1f strains were 0.071-0.137, while those between 1b and 1c were 0.062-0.070. In conclusion, the prevalence of acute hepatitis A has decreased in Mongolia since the start of the vaccination program, while the monophyletic genotype 1 HEV strain of a probably novel subtype has been prevalent. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Central effects of humanin on hepatic triglyceride secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhenwei; Su, Kai; Cui, Lingguang; Tas, Emir; Zhang, Ting; Dong, H Henry; Yakar, Shoshana; Muzumdar, Radhika H

    2015-08-01

    Humanin (HN) is an endogenous mitochondria-associated peptide that has been shown to protect against various Alzheimer's disease-associated insults, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, and reactive oxygen species-induced cell death. We have shown previously that HN improves whole body glucose homeostasis by improving insulin sensitivity and increasing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the β-cells. Here, we report that intraperitoneal treatment with one of HN analogs, HNG, decreases body weight gain, visceral fat, and hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The decrease in hepatic TG accumulation is due to increased activity of hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) and increased hepatic TG secretion. Both intravenous (iv) and intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of HNG acutely increase TG secretion from the liver. Vagotomy blocks the effect on both iv and icv HNG on TG secretion, suggesting that the effects of HNG on hepatic TG flux are centrally mediated. Our data suggest that HN is a new player in central regulation of peripheral lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Diminished hepatic insulin removal in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, I.; Salvador, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Arraiza, M.C.; Goena, M.; Barberia, J.J.; Moncada, E.

    1986-01-01

    Peripheral insulin and C-peptide levels during oral glucose load were measured in 20 obese and 23 normal weight nondiabetic subjects. The fasting C-peptide to insulin molar ratios (Cp/I), as well as the relation between incremental areas of the two polypeptides (ACp-AI)/ACp, were used as relative measures of the hepatic insulin extraction (HIE). The insulin and C-peptide basal levels as well as incremental areas under plasma curves were higher in the obese subjects (P<0.001). HIE was lower in obeses than in controls assessed in the fasting state (P<0.05), as well as after glucose load (P<0.001). Nevertheless, obeses and controls with similar insulin fasting levels showed identical hepatic insulin extraction in fasting or after glucose load. HIE was independent of obesity degree, but was related to insulin basal levels (r=-0.60, P<0.01). This study suggests the hypothesis that the decreased hepatic insulin extraction in obeses is a result of the chronically increased insulin delivery to the liver and is not a consequence of obesity, although a contributory role cannot be ruled out

  16. Diminished hepatic insulin removal in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, I; Salvador, J; Rodriguez, R; Arraiza, M C; Goena, M; Barberia, J J; Moncada, E

    1986-01-01

    Peripheral insulin and C-peptide levels during oral glucose load were measured in 20 obese and 23 normal weight nondiabetic subjects. The fasting C-peptide to insulin molar ratios (Cp/I), as well as the relation between incremental areas of the two polypeptides (ACp-AI)/ACp, were used as relative measures of the hepatic insulin extraction (HIE). The insulin and C-peptide basal levels as well as incremental areas under plasma curves were higher in the obese subjects (P<0.001). HIE was lower in obeses than in controls assessed in the fasting state (P<0.05), as well as after glucose load (P<0.001). Nevertheless, obeses and controls with similar insulin fasting levels showed identical hepatic insulin extraction in fasting or after glucose load. HIE was independent of obesity degree, but was related to insulin basal levels (r=-0.60, P<0.01). This study suggests the hypothesis that the decreased hepatic insulin extraction in obeses is a result of the chronically increased insulin delivery to the liver and is not a consequence of obesity, although a contributory role cannot be ruled out.

  17. The seroprevalance of hepatitis A in Adiyaman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Ekrem Citil

    2015-09-01

    Materials and Methods: In this study, the seropositivity of hepatitis A infection of people who had admitted to Adiyaman University training and research hospital and primary care provider from central regions of Adiyaman city from March 2012 to April 2013 were evaluated, retrospectively. Existence of anti- HAV IgG antibodies were studied by macro ELISA devices belonging two different manufacturers (Abbott Laboratories and Roche Diagnostics. Results: One thousand seven hundred twenty male and 1844 female were included the study (a total of 3564 cases. Anti HAV IgG seropositivity was 77,5% (2761/3564. It was determined that the prevalance was increasing with age. This study found no difference in HAV antibody prevalence between men and women.(p>0,05 Conclusion: Hepatitis A infection's serological prevalence profiles vary geographically in the world. In the intermediate endemic areas like Turkey, the latency in the exposure to the virus has constitute a vast number of susceptible adolescents and extremely increased the average age at infection. The severity of illness increases by age. Implement and not;ing vaccination programs for HAV infection, as well as improved hygiene, sanitation, and drinking water quality and quantity are associated with decreased risk of HAV infection. Key Words: Hepatitis A, seroprevalence, Adiyaman [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(3.000: 157-162

  18. Financial problems and cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, J.

    1994-12-31

    For a Bank, an usual way to attract new clients is by offering better interest rates depending on the amount of money that the client deposits in an account: {open_quotes}The more money you have the higher interest rate you get{close_quotes}. For a company is also a common practice to offer their clients discounts connected with the number of units of the product they order: {open_quotes}The more you order, the lower price per unit you pay{close_quotes}. From these situations arises the possibility to take profit if the clients cooperate and join their money or their orders. Hence, we define a new class of cooperative games called Financial Games. We study basic properties and necessary conditions for a game to belong to this class of games and we define the concept of duality for Financial games. The core is always non-empty and, moreover, Financial games are always totally balanced. We look at some special amputations lying in the Core and we study the reduced game on the j{sup th} player at {rvec x} where x{sub j} = b{sub j} = v(N) {minus} v(N {minus} j).

  19. Precompetitive cooperative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the current worldwide technology environment, it is essential for the U.S. microelectronics industry, and especially for the integrated circuit portion of that industry, that precompetitive cooperative research alliances be formed and funded at a level that enables them to be effective in rapidly advancing technology. It is important to realize that technology advances with or without our direct participation. If we do not aggressively participate we are quickly left behind. Increasing complexity and miniaturization have been the themes in semiconductor technology. Many are aware that what began in the early 60's with a few masking steps and minimum dimensions measured in mils, has now evolved to a level of sophistication requiring a 100 MIP workstation for IC design and the investment of nearly $400 million dollars in fab cost to produce today's microchips. The leading nations of the world have come to realize that their future well- being is closely tied to their ability to compete in this hi- tech environment. Industry coalitions have been formed to exploit the early ramifications of emerging technologies. Improvements in overseas manufacturing have been made and continue unabated with new products, new processes, and new services being introduced at an increasing rate. Many foreign governments are now actively involved in formulating and conducting industrial and technology policies to aid their hi-tech industry. To meet these challenges, U.S. firms, with U.S. government cooperation, must respond

  20. Hyperglycemia of Diabetic Rats Decreased by a Glucagon Receptor Antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David G.; Ulichny Goebel, Camy; Hruby, Victor J.; Bregman, Marvin D.; Trivedi, Dev

    1982-02-01

    The glucagon analog [l-Nα-trinitrophenylhistidine, 12-homoarginine]-glucagon (THG) was examined for its ability to lower blood glucose concentrations in rats made diabetic with streptozotocin. In vitro, THG is a potent antagonist of glucagon activation of the hepatic adenylate cyclase assay system. Intravenous bolus injections of THG caused rapid decreases (20 to 35 percent) of short duration in blood glucose. Continuous infusion of low concentrations of the inhibitor led to larger sustained decreases in blood glucose (30 to 65 percent). These studies demonstrate that a glucagon receptor antagonist can substantially reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic animals without addition of exogenous insulin.

  1. Teleworking through cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Minervini

    2006-07-01

    scheme is strictly connected to new technologies and cooperation is an important dimension of teleworking. In our study, cooperation is found performed both in social relations between employers and employees and in institutionalized relations between managers and unions. Although the two forms of cooperation, here called “social trustee cooperation” and “institutional cooperation”, are often thought as prerequisites of “best practices” of new working arrangements, our case studies demonstrate that cooperation has not always arisen that make possible to implement practices of teleworking. By focusing on cooperative relations, the results of different case studies in industry and in the service sector are discussed, thus intending to contribute to the development of sociological debate on telework.

  2. Changes in Hepatic Blood Flow During Transcatheter Arterial Infusion with Heated Saline in Hepatic VX2 Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Wei; Li Jing; Wu Zhiqun; Zhou Changxi; Liu Xi; Wan Yi; Duan Yunyou

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. This study evaluates the influence of transcatheter arterial infusion with heated saline on hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flows to tumor and normal hepatic tissues in a rabbit VX2 tumor model. Methods. All animal experiments were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Twenty rabbits with VX2 liver tumors were divided into the following two groups: (a) the treated group (n = 10), which received a 60 mL transarterial injection of 60 °C saline via the hepatic artery; (b) the control group (n = 10), which received a 60 mL injection of 37 °C saline via the hepatic artery. Using ultrasonography, the blood flows in both the portal vein and hepatic artery were measured, and the changes in the hemodynamic indices were recorded before and immediately after the injection. The changes in the tumor and normal liver tissues of the two groups were histopathologically examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining after the injection. Results. After the transcatheter arterial heated infusion, there was a decrease in the hepatic arterial blood flow to the tumor tissue, a significant decrease in the hepatic artery mean velocity (P < 0.05), and a significant increase in the resistance index (P < 0.05). On hematoxylin and eosin staining, there were no obvious signs of tissue destruction in the normal liver tissue or the tumor tissue after heated perfusion, and coagulated blood plasma was observed in the cavities of intratumoral blood vessels in the treated group. Conclusions. The changes in tumor blood flow in the rabbit VX2 tumor model were presumably caused by microthrombi in the tumor vessels, and the portal vein likely mediated the heat loss in normal liver tissue during the transarterial heated infusion.

  3. Changes in Hepatic Blood Flow During Transcatheter Arterial Infusion with Heated Saline in Hepatic VX2 Tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Wei, E-mail: cawe-001@163.com [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology (China); Li Jing, E-mail: lijing02@fmmu.edu.cn [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery (China); Wu Zhiqun, E-mail: zhiqunwu@fmmu.edu.cn [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology (China); Zhou Changxi, E-mail: changxizhou@163.com [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Respiratory Disease (China); Liu Xi, E-mail: xiliu@fmmu.edu.cn [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Ultrasound Diagnostics (China); Wan Yi, E-mail: yiwan@163.com [The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Health Statistics, Institute for Health Informatics (China); Duan Yunyou, E-mail: yunyouduan@fmmu.edu.cn [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Ultrasound Diagnostics (China)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. This study evaluates the influence of transcatheter arterial infusion with heated saline on hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flows to tumor and normal hepatic tissues in a rabbit VX2 tumor model. Methods. All animal experiments were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Twenty rabbits with VX2 liver tumors were divided into the following two groups: (a) the treated group (n = 10), which received a 60 mL transarterial injection of 60 Degree-Sign C saline via the hepatic artery; (b) the control group (n = 10), which received a 60 mL injection of 37 Degree-Sign C saline via the hepatic artery. Using ultrasonography, the blood flows in both the portal vein and hepatic artery were measured, and the changes in the hemodynamic indices were recorded before and immediately after the injection. The changes in the tumor and normal liver tissues of the two groups were histopathologically examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining after the injection. Results. After the transcatheter arterial heated infusion, there was a decrease in the hepatic arterial blood flow to the tumor tissue, a significant decrease in the hepatic artery mean velocity (P < 0.05), and a significant increase in the resistance index (P < 0.05). On hematoxylin and eosin staining, there were no obvious signs of tissue destruction in the normal liver tissue or the tumor tissue after heated perfusion, and coagulated blood plasma was observed in the cavities of intratumoral blood vessels in the treated group. Conclusions. The changes in tumor blood flow in the rabbit VX2 tumor model were presumably caused by microthrombi in the tumor vessels, and the portal vein likely mediated the heat loss in normal liver tissue during the transarterial heated infusion.

  4. Sonographic changes of liver and gallbladder in acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Daryani N

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatomegaly, decrease in the liver paranchymal echo and increase in the gallbladder wall thickness has been shown in acute viral hepatitis. The present study was done to determine sonographic changes in acute viral hepatitis. We performed liver and bile ducts sonography and specific tests on 42 patients (mean age: 31.5 and 61% male with acute viral hepatitis. Gallbladder wall thickness was seen in 45.2% and hepatomegaly in 33.3% of patients and liver paranchymal echo was decreased in 19.3%. Age, sex, type of hepatitis, cholecystitis like symptoms, aspartate aminotransfrase, alanine aminotransfrase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin did not significantly corralate with these changes. Only raised prothrombin time was strongly correlated to the thickening of the gallbladder and decrease in the liver paranchymal echo and cholesistic like symptoms we can postulate that thickening of the gallbladder and decrease in the liver paranchymal echo is not dependent on the severity and speed of the paranchymal necrosis (as considered with ALT and AST but they depend on the liver function disturbance (as considered with PT because the thickening of the gall bladder is present in 45% of the patients and 10% of the normal population have gallbladder stones, one should not perform the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, only on the basis of sonographic report without attention to the clinical and laboratory data.

  5. Soft cooperation systems and games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J. R.; Gallego, I.; Jiménez-Losada, A.; Ordóñez, M.

    2018-04-01

    A cooperative game for a set of agents establishes a fair allocation of the profit obtained for their cooperation. In order to obtain this allocation, a characteristic function is known. It establishes the profit of each coalition of agents if this coalition decides to act alone. Originally players are considered symmetric and then the allocation only depends on the characteristic function; this paper is about cooperative games with an asymmetric set of agents. We introduced cooperative games with a soft set of agents which explains those parameters determining the asymmetry among them in the cooperation. Now the characteristic function is defined not over the coalitions but over the soft coalitions, namely the profit depends not only on the formed coalition but also on the attributes considered for the players in the coalition. The best known of the allocation rules for cooperative games is the Shapley value. We propose a Shapley kind solution for soft games.

  6. Models in cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Branzei, Rodica; Tijs, Stef

    2008-01-01

    This book investigates models in cooperative game theory in which the players have the possibility to cooperate partially. In a crisp game the agents are either fully involved or not involved at all in cooperation with some other agents, while in a fuzzy game players are allowed to cooperate with infinite many different participation levels, varying from non-cooperation to full cooperation. A multi-choice game describes the intermediate case in which each player may have a fixed number of activity levels. Different set and one-point solution concepts for these games are presented. The properties of these solution concepts and their interrelations on several classes of crisp, fuzzy, and multi-choice games are studied. Applications of the investigated models to many economic situations are indicated as well. The second edition is highly enlarged and contains new results and additional sections in the different chapters as well as one new chapter.

  7. Political Ideology, Trust, and Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M.; Wu, Junhui; Antonellis, Christian; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Theories suggest that political ideology relates to cooperation, with conservatives being more likely to pursue selfish outcomes, and liberals more likely to pursue egalitarian outcomes. In study 1, we examine how political ideology and political party affiliation (Republican vs. Democrat) predict cooperation with a partner who self-identifies as Republican or Democrat in two samples before (n = 362) and after (n = 366) the 2012 US presidential election. Liberals show slightly more concern for their partners’ outcomes compared to conservatives (study 1), and in study 2 this relation is supported by a meta-analysis (r = .15). However, in study 1, political ideology did not relate to cooperation in general. Both Republicans and Democrats extend more cooperation to their in-group relative to the out-group, and this is explained by expectations of cooperation from in-group versus out-group members. We discuss the relation between political ideology and cooperation within and between groups. PMID:29593363

  8. FXR agonist obeticholic acid reduces hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of toxic cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Len; Mannaerts, Inge; Schierwagen, Robert; Govaere, Olivier; Klein, Sabine; Vander Elst, Ingrid; Windmolders, Petra; Farre, Ricard; Wenes, Mathias; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Nevens, Frederik; van Grunsven, Leo A.; Trebicka, Jonel; Laleman, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic inflammation drives hepatic stellate cells (HSC), resulting in liver fibrosis. The Farnesoid-X receptor (FXR) antagonizes inflammation through NF-κB inhibition. We investigated preventive and therapeutic effects of FXR agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) on hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in toxic cirrhotic rats. Cirrhosis was induced by thioacetamide (TAA) intoxication. OCA was given during or after intoxication with vehicle-treated rats as controls. At sacrifice, fibrosis, hemodynamic and biochemical parameters were assessed. HSC activation, cell turn-over, hepatic NF-κB activation, pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines were determined. The effect of OCA was further evaluated in isolated HSC, Kupffer cells, hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC). OCA decreased hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis during TAA-administration and reversed fibrosis in established cirrhosis. Portal pressure decreased through reduced intrahepatic vascular resistance. This was paralleled by decreased expression of pro-fibrotic cytokines (transforming growth-factor β, connective tissue growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor β-receptor) as well as markers of hepatic cell turn-over, by blunting effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1). In vitro, OCA inhibited both LSEC and Kupffer cell activation; while HSC remained unaffected. This related to NF-κB inhibition via up-regulated IκBα. In conclusion, OCA inhibits hepatic inflammation in toxic cirrhotic rats resulting in decreased HSC activation and fibrosis. PMID:27634375

  9. Prospective evaluation of FibroTest®, FibroMeter®, and HepaScore® for staging liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B: comparison with hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Vincent; Sturm, Nathalie; Faure, Patrice; Trocme, Candice; Marlu, Alice; Hilleret, Marie-Noëlle; Morel, Françoise; Zarski, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Fibrosis blood tests have been validated in chronic hepatitis C. Their diagnostic accuracy is less documented in hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to describe the diagnostic performance of FibroTest®, FibroMeter®, and HepaScore® for liver fibrosis in hepatitis B compared to hepatitis C. 510 patients mono-infected with hepatitis B or C and matched on fibrosis stage were included. Blood tests were performed the day of the liver biopsy. Histological lesions were staged according to METAVIR. Fibrosis stages were distributed as followed: F0 n=76, F1 n=192, F2 n=132, F3 n=54, F4 n=56. Overall diagnostic performance of blood tests were similar between hepatitis B and C with AUROC ranging from 0.75 to 0.84 for significant fibrosis, 0.82 to 0.85 for extensive fibrosis and 0.84 to 0.87 for cirrhosis. Optimal cut-offs were consistently lower in hepatitis B compared to hepatitis C, especially for the diagnosis of extensive fibrosis and cirrhosis, with decreased sensitivity and negative predictive values. More hepatitis B than C patients with F ⩾3 were underestimated: FibroTest®: 47% vs. 26%, FibroMeter®: 24% vs. 6%, HepaScore®: 41% vs. 24%, pfibrosis underestimation. Overall the diagnostic performance of blood tests is similar in hepatitis B and C. The risk of underestimating significant fibrosis and cirrhosis is however greater in hepatitis B and cannot be entirely corrected by the use of more stringent cut-offs. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of vildagliptin on hepatic steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Mavin; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Smith, Fiona E; Thelwall, Peter E; Al-Mrabeh, Ahmad; Schweizer, Anja; Foley, James E; Taylor, Roy

    2015-04-01

    Although dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors exert their major action via an incretin mechanism, a favorable effect of vildagliptin on lipid metabolism remains unexplained. The objective was to examine hepatic triglyceride levels and insulin sensitivity on vildagliptin. This was a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. This was an outpatient study at a university clinical research center. Individuals with type 2 diabetes (n = 44) and glycated hemoglobin ≤ 7.6% on stable metformin therapy were included. Intervention was vildagliptin 50 mg twice a day or placebo over 6 months. Main outcome measures were hepatic triglyceride levels and insulin sensitivity. Mean fasting liver triglyceride content decreased by 27% with vildagliptin, from 7.3 ± 1.0% (baseline) to 5.3 ± 0.9% (endpoint). There was no change in the placebo group. The between-group difference in change from baseline was significant (P = .013). Mean fasting plasma glucose concentration decreased over the study period with vildagliptin vs placebo by -1.0 mmol/L (P = .018), and there was a positive correlation between these decrements and liver triglyceride in the vildagliptin group at 3 months (r = 0.47; P = .02) and 6 months (r = 0.44; P = .03). Plasma alanine aminotransferase fell from 27.2 ± 2.8 to 20.3 ± 1.4 IU/L in the vildagliptin group (P = .0007), and there was a correlation between the decrements in alanine aminotransferase and liver triglyceride (r = 0.83; P vildagliptin and placebo groups, respectively (P = .08). This study demonstrates that the dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin brings about a clinically significant decrease in hepatic triglyceride levels during 6 months of therapy unrelated to change in body weight. There was no change in peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  11. Threshold Games and Cooperation on Multiplayer Graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare B Mikkelsen

    Full Text Available The study investigates the effect on cooperation in multiplayer games, when the population from which all individuals are drawn is structured-i.e. when a given individual is only competing with a small subset of the entire population.To optimize the focus on multiplayer effects, a class of games were chosen for which the payoff depends nonlinearly on the number of cooperators-this ensures that the game cannot be represented as a sum of pair-wise interactions, and increases the likelihood of observing behaviour different from that seen in two-player games. The chosen class of games are named "threshold games", and are defined by a threshold, M > 0, which describes the minimal number of cooperators in a given match required for all the participants to receive a benefit. The model was studied primarily through numerical simulations of large populations of individuals, each with interaction neighbourhoods described by various classes of networks.When comparing the level of cooperation in a structured population to the mean-field model, we find that most types of structure lead to a decrease in cooperation. This is both interesting and novel, simply due to the generality and breadth of relevance of the model-it is likely that any model with similar payoff structure exhibits related behaviour. More importantly, we find that the details of the behaviour depends to a large extent on the size of the immediate neighbourhoods of the individuals, as dictated by the network structure. In effect, the players behave as if they are part of a much smaller, fully mixed, population, which we suggest an expression for.

  12. The Professionalization of Intelligence Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...

  13. ITDB Cooperation With International Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    IAEA illicit trafficking database cooperates with many international organizations. Among these organizations are Interpol, Universal Postal Union,and World Customs Organization. Other organizations are Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, UN Economic Commission for Europe, UN-Department of Disarmament Affairs and UN office for Drug and Crime. The cooperation with Interpol involves consultations on issues of training and technical assistance and other matters of common interest.

  14. Aspiration sclerotherapy of hepatic cysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, T.F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic cysts are fluid-filled lesions in the liver that generally arise as congenital anomalies. Prevalence is estimated between 3 and 18%. Overall, cysts are benign and asymptomatic. However, hepatic cysts can increase to a volume of several liters as a result of continuous fluid production by the

  15. Blood transfusion and hepatitis viruses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    virus in blood donors: investigation of type-specific differences in serologic reactivity and rate of alanine aminotransferase abnormalities. Transfusion 1993;. 33: 7-13. 45. McFarlane IG, Smith HM, Johnson PJ, Bray GP, Vergani 0, Williams R. Hepatitis. C virus antibodies in chronic active hepatitis: pathogenetic factor or false-.

  16. Hepatitis B vaccination in travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonder, Gerard J. B.

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of travelers travel to hepatitis B-endemic countries. In travel medicine, vaccinations should be advised according to risks. The actual incidence of hepatitis B infection in short-term tourists is very low and probably not higher than it is for people who do not travel. There is

  17. Screening of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneweg, M; Moerland, W; Quero, J C; Hop, W C; Krabbe, P F; Schalm, S W

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy adversely affects daily functioning. The aim of this study was to determine which elements of daily life have predictive value for subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. METHODS: The study was performed in 179 outpatients with liver cirrhosis.

  18. Hepatitis B and skin: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and its complications have become a global health problem. The spectrum of HBV infection ranges from asymptomatic carrier state to chronic hepatitis. It is usually preceded by constitutional symptoms. It has a wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review includes the pathogenesis along with the pathophysiology with their clinical significance and overview of the treatment.

  19. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  20. Hepatic Lipodystrophy in Galloway Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, M; Mann, S; Hafner-Marx, A; Ignatius, A; Metzner, M

    2017-05-01

    Hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves is a fatal liver disease affecting a small proportion of the Galloway breed described in different parts of Europe and North America during the past decades. The clinical findings include a diversity of neurological signs. Clinical pathology findings frequently indicate hepatobiliary disease. Postmortem examination reveals an enlarged, pale yellow, and firm liver. Histologic lesions include hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. To date, the etiopathogenesis remains obscure. Infectious causes, intoxications, and a hereditary origin have been considered. We describe hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves from an extensively farmed cow-calf operation in southern Germany. Main clinical findings in 6 calves were consistent with hepatic encephalopathy. Clinical pathology findings in 5 of 6 tested animals revealed increased concentration of total bilirubin (maximum value [MV], 54 μmol/l; reference range [RR], 250 U/g Hb). Postmortem examination in 6 calves revealed a firm, diffusely enlarged yellow liver with a finely nodular surface. Histologic lesions included hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. Our findings add to the existing data on hepatic lipodystrophy in the Galloway breed and outline a protocol to aid in the diagnosis of this disorder.

  1. Estimation of Hepatic Function Using 99mTc-DISIDA Plasma Clearance Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. S.; Yoo, H. S.; Lee, J. T.; Park, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Various methods to determine hepatic function have been studied, and among these, calculated maximal removal rate of ICG (ICG R-max) is more accurate and sensitive index for quantification of hepatic function. But calculation of ICG R-max is time-consuming, invasive, and expensive study, and even ICG R-max 1 day study is still complicated. So we tried to evaluated of hepatic function test using 99mTc-DISIDA plasma clearance rate. The author studied 11 cases of normal control, 4 cases of acute hepatitis, 8 cases of chronic hepatitis, and 19 cases of liver cirrhosis. The results were as follows: 1. In normal control, DISIDA-K was 0.70 min -1 , in liver cirrhosis 0.25 min -1 , in acute hepatitis 0.46 min -1 , and in chronic hepatitis 0.14min -1 . The most severe depressed DISIDA-K value was observed in liver cirrhosis. 2. Comparison of DISIDA-K value to liver function indices revealed no correlation between DISIDA-K value and serum albumin, prothrombin time, total bilirubin, SGOT, and alkaline phosphatase. 3. DISIDA-K value in liver cirrhosis with complication such as ascites, splenomegaly, esophageal varices, and hepatic coma was more decreased than without complication. With the above result, calculation of DISIDA-K value was found easily available, accurate, and simple index for quantification of hepatic function.

  2. Autoimmune hepatitis vs. pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Adamczyk-Gruszka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH is a disease of unknown etiology. In pregnancy, it may have mild clinical course as well as can lead to liver failure, or exacerbation of clinical symptoms. In pregnant women the severity of symptoms is often observed between the second and third trimester, and in the puerperium. The disease is marked by enhanced activity of Th lymphocytes, which hepatocytes recognize as foreign antigens. This results in interleukin production activating B lymphocytes, and the production of specific antibodies attacking and destroying the hepatocytes. Case report A 35-year old patient, CII PII, 7 Hbd, with autoimmune hepatitis reported for a check-up. Her first pregnancy was 18 years ago, without history of underlying disease, carried to term without complications. The woman gave birth to a baby-son weighing 3,280g, 10 points Apgar. The delivery was spontaneous and uneventful. The patient got pregnant after an 18-year break. When she twice-tested positively for pregnancy, the treatment with azathioprine was switched to prednisolone. Over the pregnancy the patient was hospitalized 4 times, in 25, 29, 35, and 37 week of gestation due to a threat of preterm delivery, and pregnancy-related cholestasis associated with AIH. In 37 week of gestation, delivery was induced, and she gave birth to a healthy male, weighing 2,650 g, body height of 49 cm, 10 points Apgar scale. The liver function improved and stabilized after the delivery. Treatment with prednisolone has been continued, and the patient’s condition is still controlled. Pregnant patients with autoimmune hepatitis often experience exacerbation of the disease, especially in the third trimester, and in the postpartum period. This case shows that with proper care it is possible to continue and terminate pregnancy safely for the mother and her newly born baby.

  3. Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Kraft-Todd, Gordon T; Newman, George E; Wurzbacher, Owen; Nowak, Martin A; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-04-22

    Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behaviour towards the optimum for a given situation. Thus, in one-shot anonymous interactions where selfishness is optimal, intuitive responses tend to be more cooperative than deliberative responses. We test this 'social heuristics hypothesis' by aggregating across every cooperation experiment using time pressure that we conducted over a 2-year period (15 studies and 6,910 decisions), as well as performing a novel time pressure experiment. Doing so demonstrates a positive average effect of time pressure on cooperation. We also find substantial variation in this effect, and show that this variation is partly explained by previous experience with one-shot lab experiments.

  4. Regional cooperation in transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    As Floridas urbanized areas grow and merge, : neighboring jurisdictions experience interrelated : problems and opportunities, and regional : cooperation becomes an imperative. In the : transportation sector, Floridas metropolitan : planning org...

  5. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis: Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Paulina K; Lucey, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) causes great morbidity and mortality in the United States and throughout the world. Advances in therapy have proven difficult. In part, this reflects challenges in diagnosis, including the distinction between AH and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Liver biopsy is the best method to clarify the cause in circumstances whereby conflicting clinical data confound the diagnosis. All treatment of AH begins with abstinence from alcohol. All patients with AH should be given sufficient nutrition. Prednisolone has become the principal agent for treating patients with severe AH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Right hepatic artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Astrid Del Pilar Ardila; Loures, Paulo; Calle, Juan Cristóbal Ospina; Cunha, Beatriz; Córdoba, Juan Camilo

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of an aneurysm of the right hepatic artery and its multidisciplinary management by general surgery, endoscopy and radiology services. Being a case of extremely low incidence, it is important to show its diagnostic and therapeutic approach. RESUMO Relatamos um caso de aneurisma da artéria hepática direita conduzido de forma multidisciplinar pelos Serviços de Cirurgia Geral, Endoscopia e Radiologia. Em se tratando de caso de incidência baixíssima, é importante mostrar o enfoque diagnóstico e terapêutico usado em seu manejo.

  7. HEPATITIS ALOINMUNE FETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez C., Dr.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis aloinmune fetal, conocida anteriormente como hemocromatosis neonatal, ha demostrado en los últimos años ser una enfermedad completamente distinta a la hemocromatosis del adulto, tanto en su etiología como en su la fisiopatología. Este conocimiento abre nuevas perspectivas tanto en la prevención de la enfermedad en futuros embarazos, así como en el tratamiento con inmunoglobulina endovenosa en la madre durante el embarazo y eventualmente el tratamiento postnatal, en el que el trasplante de hígado juega un rol primordial.

  8. [Repeat hepatic resections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, I; Ciurea, S; Braşoveanu, V; Pietrăreanu, D; Tulbure, D; Georgescu, S; Stănescu, D; Herlea, V

    1998-01-01

    Five cases of iterative liver resections are presented, out of a total of 150 hepatectomies performed between 1.01.1995-1.01.1998. The resections were carried out for recurrent adenoma (one case), cholangiocarcinoma (two cases), hepatocellular carcinoma (one case), colo-rectal cancer metastasis (one case). Only cases with at least one major hepatic resection were included. Re-resections were more difficult than the primary resection due, first of all, to the modified vascular anatomy. Intraoperative ultrasound permitted localization of intrahepatic recurrences. Iterative liver resection appears to be the best therapeutical choice for patients with recurrent liver tumors.

  9. Probiotics in management of hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Barjesh Chander; Singh, Jatinderpal

    2016-12-01

    Gut microflora leads to production of ammonia and endotoxins which play important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). There is relationship between HE and absorption of nitrogenous substances from the intestines. Probiotics play a role in treatment of HE by causing alterations in gut flora by decreasing the counts of pathogen bacteria, intestinal mucosal acidification, decrease in production and absorption of ammonia, alterations in permeability of gut, decreased endotoxin levels and changes in production of short chain fatty acids. Role of gut microbiota using prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics have been evaluated in the management of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), overt HE and prevention of HE. Many studies have shown efficacy of probiotics in reduction of blood ammonia levels, treatment of MHE and prevention of HE. However these trials have problems like inclusion of small number of patients, short treatment durations, variability in HE/MHE related outcomes utilized and high bias risk, errors of systematic and random types. Systematic reviews also have shown different results with one systematic review showing clinical benefits whereas another concluded that probiotics do not have any role in treatment of MHE or HE. Also practical questions on optimal dose, ideal combination of organisms, and duration of treatment and persistence of benefits on long term follow-up are still to be clarified. At present, there are no recommendations for use of probiotics in patients with HE.

  10. A window of opportunity: declining rates of hepatitis B virus infection among injection drug users in Rio de Janeiro, and prospects for targeted hepatitis B vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sabrina A N; Hacker, Mariana A; Oliveira, M Lourdes A; Yoshida, Clara F T; Telles, Paulo R; Bastos, Francisco I

    2005-01-01

    To measure hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection rates among injection drug users in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to report their knowledge of and attitudes toward hepatitis and HBV vaccination. 609 injection drug users recruited in Rio de Janeiro between 1999 and 2001 answered a questionnaire and were tested for hepatitis B and other blood-borne infections. Questions covered sociodemographic information, alcohol and illicit drug consumption, drug injection and sexual practices, medical history, and knowledge about HIV, AIDS and viral hepatitis. The prevalence of HBV infection was 27.1%, with 3.4% of the sample positive for HbsAg (active infection) and 0.8% positive for anti-HBs (indicating previous HBV vaccination). Most interviewees (81.3%) were aware of at least one form of viral hepatitis and received information from many different sources. In agreement with laboratory findings, 96.7% of the interviewees stated they had never been vaccinated against hepatitis B, but almost all unvaccinated interviewees (97.8%) said they would volunteer to be vaccinated if HBV vaccination were available. Few of the injection drug users surveyed had ever been vaccinated against HBV. Although most were aware of the risks posed by viral hepatitis, this awareness seldom translated into consistent behavioral change. The participants' willingness to be vaccinated against HBV suggests that the implementation of vaccination for this population may help decrease rates of hepatitis B infection.

  11. Current topics in autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Luigi; Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Pappas, Giorgios; Cassani, Fabio; Lenzi, Marco

    2010-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic liver disease of unknown aetiology characterized by interface hepatitis, hypergammaglobulinaemia and circulating autoantibodies. In the last decade a number of advancements have been made in the field of clinical and basic research: the simplified diagnostic criteria, the complete response defined as normalization of transaminase levels, the molecular identification of the antigenic targets of anti-liver cytosol antibody type 1 and anti-soluble liver antigen, the detection of anti-actin antibodies, the description of de novo autoimmune hepatitis after liver transplantation for non-autoimmune liver diseases, the characterization of autoimmune hepatitis with overlapping features of primary biliary cirrhosis or primary sclerosing cholangitis, the preliminary experience with novel treatment strategies based on cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil and budesonide, the role played by "impaired" regulatory T cells and the development of novel animal models of autoimmune hepatitis. Copyright © 2010 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of organic phosphorous in diagnosis of viral hepatitis patients B and C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.M.; Abdel Aziz, S.M.; El Sherbin, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    Biochemical and radiochemical analysis were performed on blood of egyptian men infected with hepatitis B, C and mixed B and C viruses as well as normal controls. The results revealed remarkable significant and very highly significant increases in ALT and AST activities in all patient groups. Regarding ALP enzyme, it showed significant increases in hepatitis C (Gr.III) and mixed hepatitis B and C (Gr. IV), whereas it showed a highly significant decrease in hepatitis B virus (Gr.II). GGT activity was highly significantly increased in Gr.II and Gr.III while non-significant change in Gr.IV was detected. Some biochemical compounds in blood especially phosphorus might taken as an early diagnostic tool for hepatitis phosphorus might taken as an early diagnostic tool for hepatitis B and C viruses. Inorganic phosphorus showed very high significant decreases in Gr.III and Gr.IV and a significant decrease in Gr.II. In respect with organic phosphorus, there were very high significant decrease in Gr.III, significant decrease in Gr.II and high significant decrease in Gr.IV

  13. Evolution of group-wise cooperation: Is direct reciprocity insufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun; Ihara, Yasuo

    2017-02-21

    Group-wise cooperation, or cooperation among three or more individuals, is an integral part of human societies. It is likely that group-wise cooperation also played a crucial role in the survival of early hominins, who were confronted with novel environmental challenges, long before the emergence of Homo sapiens. However, previous theoretical and empirical studies, focusing mainly on modern humans, have tended to suggest that evolution of cooperation in sizable groups cannot be explained by simple direct reciprocity and requires some additional mechanisms (reputation, punishment, etc.), which are cognitively too demanding for early hominins. As a partial resolution of the paradox, our recent analysis of a stochastic evolutionary model, which considers the effect of random drift, has revealed that evolution of group-wise cooperation is more likely to occur in larger groups when an individual's share of the benefit produced by one cooperator does not decrease with increasing group size (i.e., goods are non-rivalrous). In this paper, we further extend our previous analysis to explore possible consequences of introducing rare mistakes in behavior or imperfect information about behavior of others on the model outcome. Analyses of the extended models show that evolution of group-wise cooperation can be facilitated by large group size even when individuals intending to cooperate sometimes fail to do so or when all the information about the past behavior of group members is not available. We argue, therefore, that evolution of cooperation in sizable groups does not necessarily require other mechanisms than direct reciprocity if the goods to be produced via group-wise cooperation are non-rivalrous. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alcoholic hepatitis with negligible sup(99m)Tc uptake and transient elevation of serum alpha-fetoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Hirosuke; Okumura, Makoto; Shimizu, Masanori; Eimoto, Tadaaki

    1981-01-01

    A 35 year old male with typical alcoholic hepatitis presented almost negligible uptake of sup(99m)Tc on the liver scan. Electron microscopic findings disclosing decreased number of Kupffer cells and impaired blood flow in the sinusoids may elucidate extremely diminshed uptake of isotope by the liver. Transient elevation of serum α-fetoprotein up to 3200 ng/ml observed during the active stage may indicate a regeneration process of hepatic necrosis occurred following the acute alcoholic hepatitis. (author)

  15. Engineering co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryniszak, W

    1981-06-01

    A purposeful employment policy for human energy is basic to solving the energy dilemma, but a lack of understanding about human behavior has allowed man's exploitive characteristics to dominate during the Inductrial Revolution. England is dependent on trade to survive, but the importance of size in world competition is seen in the trend toward multinational and partnership enterprises. Reflecting this increasing competition, the engineering industries see a need for government policies that acknowledge the importance of technology and the effects of those policies on productivity. Engineering progress requires the creativity of optimistic idealism and the realism of implementing new ideas. The training and nurturing of human resources should begin by broadening the education of engineers to emphasize the concepts of quality and cooperation between government and industry. Engineers and scientists, who work within society, need to understand national demands and to operate in accordance with the highest moral standards. (DCK)

  16. A family of congenital hepatic fibrosis and atypical retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Pawar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hepatic fibrosis is a rare cause of portal hypertension and esophageal varices in children. We report cases of siblings with biopsy proven congenital hepatic fibrosis and with atypical retinitis pigmentosa. They presented with repeated episodes of jaundice along with progressive decrease of vision in night. They had hepatosplenomegaly and portal hypertension with esophageal varices. One of the siblings had a large regenerating nodule replacing the entire right lobe of the liver and other one developed repeated hematemesis. This constellation of diagnosis belongs to the ciliopathy group of disorders. The spectrum of ciliopathy disorders has been evolving, and it varies from mild to severe manifestations.

  17. A switch in hepatic cortisol metabolism across the spectrum of non alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adeeba; Rabbitt, Elizabeth; Brady, Theresa; Brown, Claire; Guest, Peter; Bujalska, Iwona J; Doig, Craig; Newsome, Philip N; Hubscher, Stefan; Elias, Elwyn; Adams, David H; Tomlinson, Jeremy W; Stewart, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver disease ranging from reversible hepatic steatosis, to non alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. The potential role of glucocorticoids (GC) in the pathogenesis of NAFLD is highlighted in patients with GC excess, Cushing's syndrome, who develop central adiposity, insulin resistance and in 20% of cases, NAFLD. Although in most cases of NAFLD, circulating cortisol levels are normal, hepatic cortisol availability is controlled by enzymes that regenerate cortisol (F) from inactive cortisone (E) (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, 11β-HSD1), or inactivate cortisol through A-ring metabolism (5α- and 5β-reductase, 5αR and 5βR). In vitro studies defined 11β-HSD1 expression in normal and NASH liver samples. We then characterised hepatic cortisol metabolism in 16 patients with histologically proven NAFLD compared to 32 obese controls using gas chromatographic analysis of 24 hour urine collection and plasma cortisol generation profile following oral cortisone. In patients with steatosis 5αR activity was increased, with a decrease in hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity. Total cortisol metabolites were increased in this group consistent with increased GC production rate. In contrast, in patients with NASH, 11β-HSD1 activity was increased both in comparison to patients with steatosis, and controls. Endorsing these findings, 11β-HSD1 mRNA and immunostaining was markedly increased in NASH patients in peri septal hepatocytes and within CD68 positive macrophages within inflamed cirrhotic septa. Patients with hepatic steatosis have increased clearance and decreased hepatic regeneration of cortisol and we propose that this may represent a protective mechanism to decrease local GC availability to preserve hepatic metabolic phenotype. With progression to NASH, increased 11β-HSD1 activity and consequent cortisol regeneration may serve to

  18. A switch in hepatic cortisol metabolism across the spectrum of non alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeeba Ahmed

    Full Text Available Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver disease ranging from reversible hepatic steatosis, to non alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH and cirrhosis. The potential role of glucocorticoids (GC in the pathogenesis of NAFLD is highlighted in patients with GC excess, Cushing's syndrome, who develop central adiposity, insulin resistance and in 20% of cases, NAFLD. Although in most cases of NAFLD, circulating cortisol levels are normal, hepatic cortisol availability is controlled by enzymes that regenerate cortisol (F from inactive cortisone (E (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, 11β-HSD1, or inactivate cortisol through A-ring metabolism (5α- and 5β-reductase, 5αR and 5βR.In vitro studies defined 11β-HSD1 expression in normal and NASH liver samples. We then characterised hepatic cortisol metabolism in 16 patients with histologically proven NAFLD compared to 32 obese controls using gas chromatographic analysis of 24 hour urine collection and plasma cortisol generation profile following oral cortisone.In patients with steatosis 5αR activity was increased, with a decrease in hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity. Total cortisol metabolites were increased in this group consistent with increased GC production rate. In contrast, in patients with NASH, 11β-HSD1 activity was increased both in comparison to patients with steatosis, and controls. Endorsing these findings, 11β-HSD1 mRNA and immunostaining was markedly increased in NASH patients in peri septal hepatocytes and within CD68 positive macrophages within inflamed cirrhotic septa.Patients with hepatic steatosis have increased clearance and decreased hepatic regeneration of cortisol and we propose that this may represent a protective mechanism to decrease local GC availability to preserve hepatic metabolic phenotype. With progression to NASH, increased 11β-HSD1 activity and consequent cortisol regeneration may

  19. 75 FR 10319 - Cooper Tools-Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,602] Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From... January 26, 2010, applicable to workers of Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Division, a subsidiary of...

  20. Peracute Infectious Canine Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Cheema*, I. Ahmed, G. Mustafa and A. Aslam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Peracute infectious canine hepatitis (ICH was diagnosed in two young male dogs out of 56 dead canines presented for necropsy examination during the period of April 2009 to June 2010. These dogs were purebred, one- month old Alsatian and 5-month old Labrador. None of the dogs had received any vaccination or deworming treatment; both had died after illness lasting for six hours and twenty four hours respectively. The dogs had shown signs of depression, anorexia and fever. At necropsy, lymph nodes were swollen, edematous and congested; livers were enlarged, bright red and mottled with numerous small white foci. Petechial hemorrhages were seen in the mucosa. Excessive serosanguinous fluid was present in the abdominal cavities. Histologically, the most significant lesion was necrohemorrhagic hepatitis with single cell necrosis of hepatocytes, lacunose dilation of sinusoids filled with blood and numerous large, solid intranuclear inclusion bodies (IIBs in the hepatocytes and macrophages. Both eosinophilic and basophilic (amphophilic inclusions were seen. It has been observed that ICH is re-emerging in some endemic countries. Pet dogs should be regularly protected by effective vaccination.