WorldWideScience

Sample records for cooperative social clusters

  1. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  2. Cooperative social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Acera Manero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Social capital consists of the contributions of members and associates, both mandatory and voluntary. From an accounting point of view, it is a liability figure that expresses the value of a portion of the equity of the cooperative. Its inclusion in the liability is not the fact that it is a debt but by its nature unenforceable.

  3. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation.

  4. Social Capital and Diversification of Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Deng (Wendong)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis contributes to two research streams of the literature regarding agricultural cooperatives, namely, social capital and product diversification of cooperatives. First, the thesis examines the nature of a marketing cooperative by considering both its economic a

  5. Social Capital and Diversification of Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Deng (Wendong)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis contributes to two research streams of the literature regarding agricultural cooperatives, namely, social capital and product diversification of cooperatives. First, the thesis examines the nature of a marketing cooperative by considering both its economic

  6. States, Social Capital and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate...

  7. COOPERATIVE CLUSTERING BASED ON GRID AND DENSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ruifei; YIN Guofu; TAN Ying; CAI Peng

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analysis of features of the grid-based clustering method-clustering in quest(CLIQUE) and density-based clustering method-density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN), a new clustering algorithm named cooperative clustering based on grid and density(CLGRID) is presented. The new algorithm adopts an equivalent rule of regional inquiry and density unit identification. The central region of one class is calculated by the grid-based method and the margin region by a density-based method. By clustering in two phases and using only a small number of seed objects in representative units to expand the cluster, the frequency of region query can be decreased, and consequently the cost of time is reduced. The new algorithm retains positive features of both grid-based and density-based methods and avoids the difficulty of parameter searching. It can discover clusters of arbitrary shape with high efficiency and is not sensitive to noise. The application of CLGRID on test data sets demonstrates its validity and higher efficiency, which contrast with traditional DBSCAN with R* tree.

  8. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhigang; Gao, Haoyu; Qu, Xinglong; Yang, Mingmin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks). This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination) simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels) meet, they play the (anti-) coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic). We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed.

  9. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Cao

    Full Text Available Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks. This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels meet, they play the (anti- coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic. We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed.

  10. Subtle social clues, explicit incentives and cooperation in social dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, Chr.; Declerck, C.; Suetens, S.

    2008-01-01

    Subtle contextual social cues and the explicit incentive structure of social dilemmas are two important, but fundamentally different classes of determinants of cooperative behavior. The former provides subjective social information regarding the likelihood of attaining mutual cooperation by shaping

  11. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  12. Social diversity promotes cooperation in spatial multigames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiahu; Chen, Yaming; Kang, Yu; Perc, Matjaž

    2017-04-01

    Social diversity is omnipresent in the modern world. Here we introduce this diversity into spatial multigames and study its impact on the evolution of cooperation. Multigames are characterized by two or more different social dilemmas being contested among players in the population. When a fraction of players plays the prisoner's dilemma game while the remainder plays the snowdrift game cooperation becomes a difficult proposition. We show that social diversity, determined by the payoff scaling factors from the uniform, exponential or power-law distribution, significantly promotes cooperation. In particular, the stronger the social diversity, the more widespread cooperative behavior becomes. Monte Carlo simulations on the square lattice reveal that a power-law distribution of social diversity is in fact optimal for socially favorable states, thus resonating with findings previously reported for single social dilemmas. We also show that the same promotion mechanism works in time-varying environments, thus further generalizing the important role of social diversity for cooperation in social dilemmas.

  13. Cooperative Learning and Elementary Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    1991-01-01

    Argues that cooperative learning is useful in elementary social studies instruction. Identifies positive interdependence, student interaction, individual accountability for mastering material, and appropriate interpersonal and small group skills as essential elements of cooperative learning. Suggests that cooperative learning can help teach social…

  14. Cooperative Learning and Elementary Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    1991-01-01

    Argues that cooperative learning is useful in elementary social studies instruction. Identifies positive interdependence, student interaction, individual accountability for mastering material, and appropriate interpersonal and small group skills as essential elements of cooperative learning. Suggests that cooperative learning can help teach social…

  15. Social evolution: when promiscuity breeds cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    van Zweden, Jelle; Cardoen, Dries; Wenseleers, Tom

    2012-01-01

    In social evolution theory, it has become common wisdom that close family ties should promote cooperative behaviour. Yet, in social insects, evidence is accumulating that queen promiscuity and low relatedness sometimes work better.

  16. Evolution of Cooperation in Social Dilemmas on Complex Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Swami; Killingback, Timothy

    2016-02-01

    Cooperation in social dilemmas is essential for the functioning of systems at multiple levels of complexity, from the simplest biological organisms to the most sophisticated human societies. Cooperation, although widespread, is fundamentally challenging to explain evolutionarily, since natural selection typically favors selfish behavior which is not socially optimal. Here we study the evolution of cooperation in three exemplars of key social dilemmas, representing the prisoner's dilemma, hawk-dove and coordination classes of games, in structured populations defined by complex networks. Using individual-based simulations of the games on model and empirical networks, we give a detailed comparative study of the effects of the structural properties of a network, such as its average degree, variance in degree distribution, clustering coefficient, and assortativity coefficient, on the promotion of cooperative behavior in all three classes of games.

  17. Evolution of Cooperation in Social Dilemmas on Complex Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swami Iyer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation in social dilemmas is essential for the functioning of systems at multiple levels of complexity, from the simplest biological organisms to the most sophisticated human societies. Cooperation, although widespread, is fundamentally challenging to explain evolutionarily, since natural selection typically favors selfish behavior which is not socially optimal. Here we study the evolution of cooperation in three exemplars of key social dilemmas, representing the prisoner's dilemma, hawk-dove and coordination classes of games, in structured populations defined by complex networks. Using individual-based simulations of the games on model and empirical networks, we give a detailed comparative study of the effects of the structural properties of a network, such as its average degree, variance in degree distribution, clustering coefficient, and assortativity coefficient, on the promotion of cooperative behavior in all three classes of games.

  18. Dynamic Evolution in Social Cooperation Networks with Node Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Yaofeng Zhang; Renbin Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Social cooperation networks are a kind of social networks in which individuals are linked through cooperation. Interference of economic crises, natural disasters and other emergencies may cause the node fails in social cooperation networks. To further study the influences of node failure on the total fitness degree and the cooperative ratio in social cooperation networks, the update rules of individual strategy and networks self-repair are constructed on the basis of the social cooperation ne...

  19. Cooperation on Social Networks and Its Robustness

    CERN Document Server

    Antonioni, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    In this work we have used computer models of social-like networks to show by extensive numerical simulations that cooperation in evolutionary games can emerge and be stable on this class of networks. The amounts of cooperation reached are at least as much as in scale-free networks but here the population model is more realistic. Cooperation is robust with respect to different strategy update rules, population dynamics, and payoff computation. Only when straight average payoff is used or there is high strategy or network noise does cooperation decrease in all games and disappear in the Prisoner's Dilemma.

  20. The evolution of cooperation by social exclusion

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    The exclusion of freeriders from common privileges or public acceptance is widely found in the real world. Current models on the evolution of cooperation with incentives mostly assume peer sanctioning, whereby a punisher imposes penalties on freeriders at a cost to itself. It is well known that such costly punishment has two substantial difficulties. First, a rare punishing cooperator barely subverts the asocial society of freeriders, and second, natural selection often eliminates punishing cooperators in the presence of non-punishing cooperators (namely, "second-order" freeriders). We present a game-theoretical model of social exclusion in which a punishing cooperator can exclude freeriders from benefit sharing. We show that such social exclusion can overcome the above-mentioned difficulties even if it is costly and stochastic. The results do not require a genetic relationship, repeated interaction, reputation, or group selection. Instead, only a limited number of freeriders are required to prevent the secon...

  1. Social Cooperative – an Important Entity of the Social Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary society is characterized by a number of social problems that have multiple causes that range from structural weaknesses of purely individual factors. In the challenges of globalization phenomenon and in the context of sustainable development needs of humanity, the cooperative movement has an important role. Cooperative organizations have the ability to provide viable alternatives, being the main actors of social economy, along with associations and foundations, putting the human in the center of the activity and bringing another report in the process of creating economic value. Also, the cooperative movement is a solution for the multiple and the difficult economic and social issues of the contemporary world.

  2. Priming Cooperation in Social Dilemma Games

    OpenAIRE

    Drouvelis, Michalis; Metcalfe, Robert; Powdthavee, Nattavudh

    2010-01-01

    Research on public goods mainly focuses its attention on the ability of incentives, beliefs and group structure to affect behaviour in social dilemma interactions. This paper investigates the pure effects of a rather subtle mechanism on social preferences in a one-shot linear public good game. Using priming techniques from social psychology, we activate the concept of cooperation and explore the extent to which this intervention brings about changes in people’s voluntary contributions to the ...

  3. Co-evolution of behaviour and social network structure promotes human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehl, Katrin; van der Post, Daniel J; Semmann, Dirk

    2011-06-01

    The ubiquity of cooperation in nature is puzzling because cooperators can be exploited by defectors. Recent theoretical work shows that if dynamic networks define interactions between individuals, cooperation is favoured by natural selection. To address this, we compare cooperative behaviour in multiple but independent repeated games between participants in static and dynamic networks. In the latter, participants could break their links after each social interaction. As predicted, we find higher levels of cooperation in dynamic networks. Through biased link breaking (i.e. to defectors) participants affected their social environment. We show that this link-breaking behaviour leads to substantial network clustering and we find primarily cooperators within these clusters. This assortment is remarkable because it occurred on top of behavioural assortment through direct reciprocity and beyond the perception of participants, and represents a self-organized pattern. Our results highlight the importance of the interaction between ecological context and selective pressures on cooperation.

  4. Evolution of Cooperation in Adaptive Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segbroeck, Sven Van; Santos, Francisco C.; Traulsen, Arne; Lenaerts, Tom; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    Humans are organized in societies, a phenomenon that would never have been possible without the evolution of cooperative behavior. Several mechanisms that foster this evolution have been unraveled over the years, with population structure as a prominent promoter of cooperation. Modern networks of exchange and cooperation are, however, becoming increasingly volatile, and less and less based on long-term stable structure. Here, we address how this change of paradigm aspects the evolution of cooperation. We discuss analytical and numerical models in which individuals can break social ties and create new ones. Interactions are modeled as two-player dilemmas of cooperation. Once a link between two individuals has formed, the productivity of this link is evaluated. Links can be broken off at different rates. This individual capacity of forming new links or severing inconvenient ones can effectively change the nature of the game. We address random formation of new links and local linking rules as well as different individual capacities to maintain social interactions. We conclude by discussing how adaptive social networks can become an important step towards more realistic models of cultural dynamics.

  5. The evolution of cooperation by social exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The exclusion of freeriders from common privileges or public acceptance is widely found in the real world. Current models on the evolution of cooperation with incentives mostly assume peer sanctioning, whereby a punisher imposes penalties on freeriders at a cost to itself. It is well known that such costly punishment has two substantial difficulties. First, a rare punishing cooperator barely subverts the asocial society of freeriders, and second, natural selection often eliminates punishing cooperators in the presence of non-punishing cooperators (namely, ‘second-order’ freeriders). We present a game-theoretical model of social exclusion in which a punishing cooperator can exclude freeriders from benefit sharing. We show that such social exclusion can overcome the above-mentioned difficulties even if it is costly and stochastic. The results do not require a genetic relationship, repeated interaction, reputation or group selection. Instead, only a limited number of freeriders are required to prevent the second-order freeriders from eroding the social immune system. PMID:23222449

  6. Attractiveness and Cooperation in Social Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisato Takahashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that physically more attractive men are less likely to cooperate in social exchange than less attractive men, while physical attractiveness has no effect on women's tendency toward cooperation, with four different experimental games (Prisoner's Dilemma with 99 players, Allocator Choice with 77 players, Faith with 16 players, and Trust with 21 players. Pictures of the game players were taken after they participated in one of the four games, and those pictures were presented to another set of participants (85 raters in Study 1 and 2, 36 raters in Study 3 for attractiveness ratings. Both male and female raters who were unaware of the photographed game players' actual behavior in the game judged the faces of male defectors (who defected in one of the four games to be more attractive than those of male cooperators, but they did not give differential attractiveness ratings to female defectors and female cooperators.

  7. Percolation and cooperation with mobile agents: Geometric and strategy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Vainstein, Mendeli H; Arenzon, Jeferson J

    2014-01-01

    We study the conditions for persistent cooperation in an off-lattice model of mobile agents playing the Prisoner's Dilemma game with pure, unconditional strategies. Each agent has an exclusion radius rP, which accounts for the population viscosity, and an interaction radius rint, which defines the instantaneous contact network for the game dynamics. We show that, differently from the rP=0 case, the model with finite-sized agents presents a coexistence phase with both cooperators and defectors, besides the two absorbing phases, in which either cooperators or defectors dominate. We provide, in addition, a geometric interpretation of the transitions between phases. In analogy with lattice models, the geometric percolation of the contact network (i.e., irrespective of the strategy) enhances cooperation. More importantly, we show that the percolation of defectors is an essential condition for their survival. Differently from compact clusters of cooperators, isolated groups of defectors will eventually become extin...

  8. Evolution of cooperative imitators in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixiao

    2017-02-01

    Many evolutionary game models for network reciprocity are based on an imitation dynamics, yet how semirational imitators prevail has seldom been explained. Here we use a model to investigate the coevolutionary dynamics of cooperation and partnership adjustment in a polygenic population of semirational imitators and rational payoff maximizers. A rational individual chooses a strategy best responding to its neighbors when updating strategy and switches to a new partner who can bring it the maximal payoff from all candidates when adjusting the partnership. In contrast, a semirational individual imitates its neighbor's strategy directly and adjusts its partnership based upon a simple reputation rule. Individual-based simulations show that cooperation cannot evolve in a population of all best responders even if they can switch their partners to somebody who can reward them best in game playing. However, when imitators exist, a stable community that consists of cooperative imitators emerges. Further, we show that a birth-death selection mechanism can eliminate all best responders, cultivating a social regime of all cooperative imitators. Compared with parallel simulations that assume fixed networks, cooperative imitators are evolutionarily favored, provided they are able to adjust their partners.

  9. Social networks and cooperation: a bibliometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Lopes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The social network analysis involves social and behavioral science. The decentralization of productive activities, such as the formation of "network organizations" as a result of downsizing of large corporate structures of the past, marked by outsoucing and formation of alliances, shows the importance of this theme. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the theory of cooperation and social networks over a period of 24 years. For this, was performed a bibliometric study with content analysis. The database chosen for the initial sample search was ISI Web of Science. The search topics were “social network” and “cooperation”. Were analyzed 97 articles and their references, through networks of citations. The main identified research groups dealing with issues related to trust, strategic alliances, natural cooperation, game theory, social capital, intensity of interaction, reciprocity and innovation. It was found that the publications occurred in a large number of journals, which indicates that the theme is multidisciplinary, and only five journals published at least three articles. Although the first publication has occurred in 1987, was from 2006 that the publications effectively increased. The areas most related to the theme of the research were performance, evolution, management, graphics, model and game theory.

  10. Fuzzy C-Means Clustering and Energy Efficient Cluster Head Selection for Cooperative Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Dost Muhammad Saqib; Saeed, Nasir; Nam, Haewoon

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel cluster based cooperative spectrum sensing algorithm to save the wastage of energy, in which clusters are formed using fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering and a cluster head (CH) is selected based on a sensor’s location within each cluster, its location with respect to fusion center (FC), its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and its residual energy. The sensing information of a single sensor is not reliable enough due to shadowing and fading. To overcome these issues, cooperative spectrum sensing schemes were proposed to take advantage of spatial diversity. For cooperative spectrum sensing, all sensors sense the spectrum and report the sensed energy to FC for the final decision. However, it increases the energy consumption of the network when a large number of sensors need to cooperate; in addition to that, the efficiency of the network is also reduced. The proposed algorithm makes the cluster and selects the CHs such that very little amount of network energy is consumed and the highest efficiency of the network is achieved. Using the proposed algorithm maximum probability of detection under an imperfect channel is accomplished with minimum energy consumption as compared to conventional clustering schemes. PMID:27618061

  11. Social role specialization promotes cooperation between parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Zoltán; Székely, Tamás; Liker, András; Harrison, Freya

    2014-06-01

    Biparental care of offspring is a widespread social behavior, and various ecological, life-history, and demographic factors have been proposed to explain its evolution and maintenance. Raising offspring generally requires several types of care (e.g., feeding, brooding, and defense), and males and females often specialize in providing different types of care. However, theoretical models of care often assume that care is a single variable and hence that a unit of care by the mother is interchangeable with a unit of care by the father. We hypothesize that the ability of one parent to provide all types of care may be limited by nonadditive costs or by sex-based asymmetries in the costs of particular care types. Using an individual-based simulation, we show that synergistic costs of investing in two tasks or negligible sex-based cost asymmetries select for task specialization and biparental care. Biparental care persists despite intense sexual selection and sex-biased mortality, suggesting that previous models make overly restrictive predictions of the conditions under which cooperation can be maintained. Our model provides a mechanistic underpinning for published models that show that the synergistic benefits of individuals cooperating can stabilize cooperation, both in the context of parental care and in other social scenarios.

  12. COalitions in COOperation Networks (COCOON): Social Network Analysis and Game Theory to Enhance Cooperation Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory

    2012-01-01

    Sie, R. L. L. (2012). COalitions in COOperation Networks (COCOON): Social Network Analysis and Game Theory to Enhance Cooperation Networks (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). September, 28, 2012, Open Universiteit in the Netherlands (CELSTEC), Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  13. COalitions in COOperation Networks (COCOON): Social Network Analysis and Game Theory to Enhance Cooperation Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory

    2012-01-01

    Sie, R. L. L. (2012). COalitions in COOperation Networks (COCOON): Social Network Analysis and Game Theory to Enhance Cooperation Networks (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). September, 28, 2012, Open Universiteit in the Netherlands (CELSTEC), Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  14. Cooperation and control in multiplayer social dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbe, Christian; Wu, Bin; Traulsen, Arne; Nowak, Martin A

    2014-11-18

    Direct reciprocity and conditional cooperation are important mechanisms to prevent free riding in social dilemmas. However, in large groups, these mechanisms may become ineffective because they require single individuals to have a substantial influence on their peers. However, the recent discovery of zero-determinant strategies in the iterated prisoner's dilemma suggests that we may have underestimated the degree of control that a single player can exert. Here, we develop a theory for zero-determinant strategies for iterated multiplayer social dilemmas, with any number of involved players. We distinguish several particularly interesting subclasses of strategies: fair strategies ensure that the own payoff matches the average payoff of the group; extortionate strategies allow a player to perform above average; and generous strategies let a player perform below average. We use this theory to describe strategies that sustain cooperation, including generalized variants of Tit-for-Tat and Win-Stay Lose-Shift. Moreover, we explore two models that show how individuals can further enhance their strategic options by coordinating their play with others. Our results highlight the importance of individual control and coordination to succeed in large groups.

  15. Social Upgrading in Developing Country Industrial Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Frank; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine the role of social upgrading in developing country industrial clusters. We argue that while economic growth and productivity enhancement matter, social conditions within clusters are influenced by state monetary, fiscal, and labour policies and regulations, as well...... as by dynamic processes of agency among cluster governance actors. We find that the state's policies and regulations might enable or constrain cluster actors to behave in ways that affect social upgrading or downgrading. These policies and regulations may also be used by the state to directly change social...... conditions in national contexts, including in cluster settings, in order to further the government's overall economic strategy. The conclusion outlines our main findings, and the research and policy implications of our analysis....

  16. How can social herding enhance cooperation?

    CERN Document Server

    Schweitzer, Frank; Tessone, Claudio J

    2012-01-01

    We study a system in which N agents have to decide between two strategies \\theta_i (i \\in 1... N), for defection or cooperation, when interacting with other n agents (either spatial neighbors or randomly chosen ones). After each round, they update their strategy responding nonlinearly to two different information sources: (i) the payoff a_i(\\theta_i, f_i) received from the strategic interaction with their n counterparts, (ii) the fraction f_i of cooperators in this interaction. For the latter response, we assume social herding, i.e. agents adopt their strategy based on the frequencies of the different strategies in their neighborhood, without taking into account the consequences of this decision. We note that f_i already determines the payoff, so there is no additional information assumed. A parameter \\zeta defines to what level agents take the two different information sources into account. For the strategic interaction, we assume a Prisoner's Dilemma game, i.e. one in which defection is the evolutionary sta...

  17. Evolution of cooperation driven by social-welfare-based migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ye, Hang; Zhang, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Individuals' migration behavior may play a significant role in the evolution of cooperation. In reality, individuals' migration behavior may depend on their perceptions of social welfare. To study the relationship between social-welfare-based migration and the evolution of cooperation, we consider an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) in which an individual's migration depends on social welfare but not on the individual's own payoff. By introducing three important social welfare functions (SWFs) that are commonly studied in social science, we find that social-welfare-based migration can promote cooperation under a wide range of parameter values. In addition, these three SWFs have different effects on cooperation, especially through the different spatial patterns formed by migration. Because the relative efficiency of the three SWFs will change if the parameter values are changed, we cannot determine which SWF is optimal for supporting cooperation. We also show that memory capacity, which is needed to evaluate individual welfare, may affect cooperation levels in opposite directions under different SWFs. Our work should be helpful for understanding the evolution of human cooperation and bridging the chasm between studies of social preferences and studies of social cooperation.

  18. Social norms and cooperation in real-life social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    types of normative beliefs make it difficult to test the interaction hypothesis. By using structural equation modelling with residual centering these problems are overcome and the interaction hypothesis is confirmed. The result is stable across three replications spanning a two-year period.......The hypothesis that injunctive and descriptive norms interact positively or synergistically to promote cooperation in social dilemmas is tested in the context of a survey study focusing on environmentally responsible behaviour. Measurement error and strong and positive correlations between the two...

  19. Multiple effect of social influence on cooperation in interdependent network games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Luo-Luo; Li, Wen-Jing; Wang, Zhen

    2015-10-01

    The social influence exists widely in the human society, where individual decision-making process (from congressional election to electronic commerce) may be affected by the attitude and behavior of others belonging to different social networks. Here, we couple the snowdrift (SD) game and the prisoner’s dilemma (PD) game on two interdependent networks, where strategies in both games are associated by social influence to mimick the majority rule. More accurately, individuals’ strategies updating refers to social learning (based on payoff difference) and above-mentioned social influence (related with environment of interdependent group), which is controlled by social influence strength s. Setting s = 0 decouples the networks and returns the traditional network game; while its increase involves the interactions between networks. By means of numerous Monte Carlo simulations, we find that such a mechanism brings multiple influence to the evolution of cooperation. Small s leads to unequal cooperation level in both games, because social learning is still the main updating rule for most players. Though intermediate and large s guarantees the synchronized evolution of strategy pairs, cooperation finally dies out and reaches a completely dominance in both cases. Interestingly, these observations are attributed to the expansion of cooperation clusters. Our work may provide a new understanding to the emergence of cooperation in intercorrelated social systems.

  20. Social and Symbolic Capital in Firm Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    Based on a relational perspective this paper analyses the case of the “Mechatronics Cluster” in Southern Jutland, Denmark. We found that cluster managers are not aware of the importance of social and symbolic capital. Cluster managers could have access to both but they are not aware...... of this resource and they don´t have any knowledge how to manage social and symbolic capital. Just to integrate social-capital-supporting initiatives in the day to day business would help to develop and to foster social and symbolic capital on a low cost level. And in our example just to integrate successful sub...

  1. Impact of Social Reward on the Evolution of the Cooperation Behavior in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu’e; Chang, Shuhua; Zhang, Zhipeng; Deng, Zhenghong

    2017-01-01

    Social reward, as a significant mechanism explaining the evolution of cooperation, has attracted great attention both theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation by proposing a reward model in network population, where a third strategy, reward, as an independent yet particular type of cooperation is introduced in 2-person evolutionary games. Specifically, a new kind of role corresponding to reward strategy, reward agents, is defined, which is aimed at increasing the income of cooperators by applying to them a social reward. Results from numerical simulations show that consideration of social reward greatly promotes the evolution of cooperation, which is confirmed for different network topologies and two evolutionary games. Moreover, we explore the microscopic mechanisms for the promotion of cooperation in the three-strategy model. As expected, the reward agents play a vital role in the formation of cooperative clusters, thus resisting the aggression of defectors. Our research might provide valuable insights into further exploring the nature of cooperation in the real world. PMID:28112276

  2. Impact of Social Reward on the Evolution of the Cooperation Behavior in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu’E.; Chang, Shuhua; Zhang, Zhipeng; Deng, Zhenghong

    2017-01-01

    Social reward, as a significant mechanism explaining the evolution of cooperation, has attracted great attention both theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation by proposing a reward model in network population, where a third strategy, reward, as an independent yet particular type of cooperation is introduced in 2-person evolutionary games. Specifically, a new kind of role corresponding to reward strategy, reward agents, is defined, which is aimed at increasing the income of cooperators by applying to them a social reward. Results from numerical simulations show that consideration of social reward greatly promotes the evolution of cooperation, which is confirmed for different network topologies and two evolutionary games. Moreover, we explore the microscopic mechanisms for the promotion of cooperation in the three-strategy model. As expected, the reward agents play a vital role in the formation of cooperative clusters, thus resisting the aggression of defectors. Our research might provide valuable insights into further exploring the nature of cooperation in the real world.

  3. Development cooperation as methodology for teaching social responsibility to engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Pia

    2011-12-01

    The role of engineering in promoting global well-being has become accentuated, turning the engineering curriculum into a means of dividing well-being equally. The gradual fortifying calls for humanitarian engineering have resulted in the incorporation of social responsibility themes in the university curriculum. Cooperation, communication, teamwork, intercultural cooperation, sustainability, social and global responsibility represent the socio-cultural dimensions that are becoming increasingly important as globalisation intensifies the demands for socially and globally adept engineering communities. This article describes an experiment, the Development Cooperation Project, which was conducted at Aalto University in Finland to integrate social responsibility themes into higher engineering education.

  4. Social Constructivism and International Cooperation in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, Elif

    2006-01-01

    International cooperation in Distance Education which is a very popular phenomenon today can be explained by the rise of social constructivism in social sciences, namely Education and International Relations, for the purpose of this paper. Social constructive approach in International Relations with its emphasis on building social bridges via…

  5. Clustering Effect on the Evolution of Cooperation in a Herding Snowdrift Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guang; QIU Tian; WU Xiao-Run

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation for two cluster breaking mechanisms in a herding snowdrift game.The cooperative behavior is observed to be related to the duster size.A negative dependence of the payoff parameter r on cooperative behavior is discovered.For a low r,herding helps promote the cooperation,whereas for a high r,herding tends to prevent cooperative behavior.

  6. Impact of Social Punishment on Cooperative Behavior in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Zhou, Chang-Song; Moreno, Yamir

    2013-10-01

    Social punishment is a mechanism by which cooperative individuals spend part of their resources to penalize defectors. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in 2-person evolutionary games on networks when a mechanism for social punishment is introduced. Specifically, we introduce a new kind of role, punisher, which is aimed at reducing the earnings of defectors by applying to them a social fee. Results from numerical simulations show that different equilibria allowing the three strategies to coexist are possible as well as that social punishment further enhance the robustness of cooperation. Our results are confirmed for different network topologies and two evolutionary games. In addition, we analyze the microscopic mechanisms that give rise to the observed macroscopic behaviors in both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. Our conclusions might provide additional insights for understanding the roots of cooperation in social systems.

  7. Future cooperative communication systems driven by social mobile networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blázovics, L.; Varga, C.; Bamford, W.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we are underlining the importance of social mobile networks for upcoming cooperative communication systems. The assumption of this work is that future mobile communication systems will incorporate user cooperation, i.e. a combination of cellular access in parallel with ongoing short...... range links to the neighboring devices. It has been shown that user cooperation enables higher data rates, better spectral efficiencies, and reduces the energy consumption of the mobile unit. In this work the social mobile networks are identified to be a fertile ground to facilitate the cooperative use...... cases. By the example of the Gedda-Headz gaming community, possible links between cooperative mobile communication and social mobile networks are shown....

  8. Contagion of Cooperation in Static and Fluid Social Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian J Jordan

    Full Text Available Cooperation is essential for successful human societies. Thus, understanding how cooperative and selfish behaviors spread from person to person is a topic of theoretical and practical importance. Previous laboratory experiments provide clear evidence of social contagion in the domain of cooperation, both in fixed networks and in randomly shuffled networks, but leave open the possibility of asymmetries in the spread of cooperative and selfish behaviors. Additionally, many real human interaction structures are dynamic: we often have control over whom we interact with. Dynamic networks may differ importantly in the goals and strategic considerations they promote, and thus the question of how cooperative and selfish behaviors spread in dynamic networks remains open. Here, we address these questions with data from a social dilemma laboratory experiment. We measure the contagion of both cooperative and selfish behavior over time across three different network structures that vary in the extent to which they afford individuals control over their network ties. We find that in relatively fixed networks, both cooperative and selfish behaviors are contagious. In contrast, in more dynamic networks, selfish behavior is contagious, but cooperative behavior is not: subjects are fairly likely to switch to cooperation regardless of the behavior of their neighbors. We hypothesize that this insensitivity to the behavior of neighbors in dynamic networks is the result of subjects' desire to attract new cooperative partners: even if many of one's current neighbors are defectors, it may still make sense to switch to cooperation. We further hypothesize that selfishness remains contagious in dynamic networks because of the well-documented willingness of cooperators to retaliate against selfishness, even when doing so is costly. These results shed light on the contagion of cooperative behavior in fixed and fluid networks, and have implications for influence

  9. A model of human cooperation in social dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Capraro

    Full Text Available Social dilemmas are situations in which collective interests are at odds with private interests: pollution, depletion of natural resources, and intergroup conflicts, are at their core social dilemmas. Because of their multidisciplinarity and their importance, social dilemmas have been studied by economists, biologists, psychologists, sociologists, and political scientists. These studies typically explain tendency to cooperation by dividing people in proself and prosocial types, or appealing to forms of external control or, in iterated social dilemmas, to long-term strategies. But recent experiments have shown that cooperation is possible even in one-shot social dilemmas without forms of external control and the rate of cooperation typically depends on the payoffs. This makes impossible a predictive division between proself and prosocial people and proves that people have attitude to cooperation by nature. The key innovation of this article is in fact to postulate that humans have attitude to cooperation by nature and consequently they do not act a priori as single agents, as assumed by standard economic models, but they forecast how a social dilemma would evolve if they formed coalitions and then they act according to their most optimistic forecast. Formalizing this idea we propose the first predictive model of human cooperation able to organize a number of different experimental findings that are not explained by the standard model. We show also that the model makes satisfactorily accurate quantitative predictions of population average behavior in one-shot social dilemmas.

  10. Social deprivation affects cooperative predator inspection in a cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Saskia; Anaya-Rojas, Jaime M; Frommen, Joachim G; Thünken, Timo

    2015-03-01

    The social environment individuals are exposed to during ontogeny shapes social skills and social competence in group-living animals. Consequently, social deprivation has serious effects on behaviour and development in animals but little is known about its impact on cooperation. In this study, we examined the effect of social environment on cooperative predator inspection. Predator inspection behaviour is a complex behaviour, which is present in a variety of shoaling fish species. Often, two fish leave the safety of the group and inspect a potentially dangerous predator in order to gather information about the current predation risk. As predator inspection is highly risky, it is prone to conflicts and cheating. However, cooperation among individuals may reduce the individual predation risk. We investigated this complex social behaviour in juveniles of the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus that were reared in two different social environments throughout development. Fish reared in a group inspected more often than isolation-reared fish and were more likely to cooperate, i.e. they conducted conjoint inspection of a predator. By contrast, isolation-reared fish were more likely to perform a single inspection without a companion. These results suggest an impairment of cooperative behaviour in isolation-reared fish most probably due to lack of social experience and resulting in lowered social skills needed in coordinated behaviour.

  11. Simulating social dilemmas: promoting cooperative behavior through imagined group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleady, Rose; Hopthrow, Tim; Crisp, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    A robust finding in social dilemmas research is that individual group members are more likely to act cooperatively if they are given the chance to discuss the dilemma with one another. The authors investigated whether imagining a group discussion may represent an effective means of increasing cooperative behavior in the absence of the opportunity for direct negotiation among decision makers. Five experiments, utilizing a range of task variants, tested this hypothesis. Participants engaged in a guided simulation of the progressive steps required to reach a cooperative consensus within a group discussion of a social dilemma. Results support the conclusion that imagined group discussion enables conscious processes that parallel those underlying the direct group discussion and is a strategy that can effectively elicit cooperative behavior. The applied potential of imagined group discussion techniques to encourage more socially responsible behavior is discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Cooperation prevails when individuals adjust their social ties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco C Santos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional evolutionary game theory predicts that natural selection favours the selfish and strong even though cooperative interactions thrive at all levels of organization in living systems. Recent investigations demonstrated that a limiting factor for the evolution of cooperative interactions is the way in which they are organized, cooperators becoming evolutionarily competitive whenever individuals are constrained to interact with few others along the edges of networks with low average connectivity. Despite this insight, the conundrum of cooperation remains since recent empirical data shows that real networks exhibit typically high average connectivity and associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. Here, a computational model is constructed in which individuals are able to self-organize both their strategy and their social ties throughout evolution, based exclusively on their self-interest. We show that the entangled evolution of individual strategy and network structure constitutes a key mechanism for the sustainability of cooperation in social networks. For a given average connectivity of the population, there is a critical value for the ratio W between the time scales associated with the evolution of strategy and of structure above which cooperators wipe out defectors. Moreover, the emerging social networks exhibit an overall heterogeneity that accounts very well for the diversity of patterns recently found in acquired data on social networks. Finally, heterogeneity is found to become maximal when W reaches its critical value. These results show that simple topological dynamics reflecting the individual capacity for self-organization of social ties can produce realistic networks of high average connectivity with associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. On the other hand, they show that cooperation cannot evolve as a result of "social viscosity" alone in heterogeneous networks with high average connectivity, requiring the

  13. Predation risk drives social complexity in cooperative breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewoud, Frank; Frommen, Joachim Gerhard; Josi, Dario; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Jungwirth, Arne; Taborsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Predation risk is a major ecological factor selecting for group living. It is largely ignored, however, as an evolutionary driver of social complexity and cooperative breeding, which is attributed mainly to a combination of habitat saturation and enhanced relatedness levels. Social cichlids neither

  14. Protocol for the application of cooperative MIMO based on clustering in sparse wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-hua; QU Yu-gui; LIN Zhi-ting; BAI Rong-gang; ZHAO Bao-hua; PAN Quan-ke

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) using cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication are effective tools to collect data in several environments. However, how to apply cooperative MIMO in WSN remains a critical challenge, especially in sparse WSN. In this article, a novel clustering scheme is proposed for the application of cooperative MIMO in sparse WSN by extending the traditional low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) protocol. This clustering scheme solves the problem that the cluster heads (CH) cannot find enough secondary cluster heads (SCH), which are used to cooperate and inform multiple-antenna transmitters with CHs. On the basis of this protocol, the overall energy consumption of the networks model is developed, and the optimal number of CHs is obtained. The simulation results show that this protocol is feasible for the sparse WSN. The simulation results also illustrate that this protocol provides significant energy efficiencies, even after allowing for additional overheads.

  15. Time pressure increases cooperation in competitively framed social dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Cone

    Full Text Available What makes people willing to pay costs to benefit others? Does such cooperation require effortful self-control, or do automatic, intuitive processes favor cooperation? Time pressure has been shown to increase cooperative behavior in Public Goods Games, implying a predisposition towards cooperation. Consistent with the hypothesis that this predisposition results from the fact that cooperation is typically advantageous outside the lab, it has further been shown that the time pressure effect is undermined by prior experience playing lab games (where selfishness is the more advantageous strategy. Furthermore, a recent study found that time pressure increases cooperation even in a game framed as a competition, suggesting that the time pressure effect is not the result of social norm compliance. Here, we successfully replicate these findings, again observing a positive effect of time pressure on cooperation in a competitively framed game, but not when using the standard cooperative framing. These results suggest that participants' intuitions favor cooperation rather than norm compliance, and also that simply changing the framing of the Public Goods Game is enough to make it appear novel to participants and thus to restore the time pressure effect.

  16. Modeling the cooperative and competitive contagions in online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yun-Bei; Chen, J. J.; Li, Zhi-hong

    2017-10-01

    The wide adoption of social media has increased the interaction among different pieces of information, and this interaction includes cooperation and competition for our finite attention. While previous research focus on fully competition, this paper extends the interaction to be both ;cooperation; and ;competition;, by employing an IS1S2 R model. To explore how two different pieces of information interact with each other, the IS1S2 R model splits the agents into four parts-(Ignorant-Spreader I-Spreader II-Stifler), based on SIR epidemic spreading model. Using real data from Weibo.com, a social network site similar to Twitter, we find some parameters, like decaying rates, can both influence the cooperative diffusion process and the competitive process, while other parameters, like infectious rates only have influence on the competitive diffusion process. Besides, the parameters' effect are more significant in the competitive diffusion than in the cooperative diffusion.

  17. Strategical incoherence regulates cooperation in social dilemmas on multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Matamalas, Joan T; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation is a very common, yet not fully-understood phenomenon in natural and human systems. The introduction of a network within the population is known to affect the outcome of cooperative dynamics, allowing for the survival of cooperation in adverse scenarios. Recently, the introduction of multiplex networks has yet again modified the expectations for the outcome of the Prisoner's Dilemma game, compared to the monoplex case. However, much remains unstudied regarding other social dilemmas on multiplex, as well as the unexplored microscopic underpinnings of it. In this paper, we systematically study the evolution of cooperation in all four games in the $T-S$ plane on multiplex. More importantly, we find some remarkable and previously unknown features in the microscopic organization of the strategies, that are responsible for the important differences between cooperative dynamics in monoplex and multiplex. Specifically, we find that in the stationary state, there are individuals that play the same strategy...

  18. Cooperatives as a social enterprise in Italy: a place for social integration and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savio, M; Righetti, A

    1993-10-01

    This article analyses the history and development of an integrated cooperative established in 1981 in northern Italy. Integrated cooperatives, otherwise known as social enterprises, are among the most interesting activities developed in the area of social assistance and rehabilitation in recent years in Italy. In particular, they acquired relevance in the care of mentally disordered people by providing them with job opportunities, which is an important rehabilitative and integrative factor. The aim of social enterprises is two-fold. They have the economic goal of offering remunerative work just as any other commercial enterprise, as well as the social mandate of promoting the physical, social, and mental health of their members. A positive coexistence between market competition and rehabilitation is therefore constantly pursued. This research aimed at analysing the working and social experience of people employed by the cooperative during its 10-year life. The study was limited to those who had a social or health problem when entering the cooperative. The investigation was promoted by cooperative members, who felt the need to document their experience and to undertake initiatives towards evaluating the rehabilitative value of the social enterprise. The results show that cooperative members come from different marginalized areas of social and health distress, of which the two largest are social service users and psychiatric service users. There is a noticeable turn-over rate, which underlines one function of the cooperative as being a transitional working context from which users can gain access to other more rewarding job opportunities in the labour market.

  19. Strategical incoherence regulates cooperation in social dilemmas on multiplex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamalas, Joan T; Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation is a very common, yet not fully-understood phenomenon in natural and human systems. The introduction of a network within the population is known to affect the outcome of cooperative dynamics, allowing for the survival of cooperation in adverse scenarios. Recently, the introduction of multiplex networks has yet again modified the expectations for the outcome of the Prisoner's Dilemma game, compared to the monoplex case. However, much remains unstudied regarding other social dilemmas on multiplex, as well as the unexplored microscopic underpinnings of it. In this paper, we systematically study the evolution of cooperation in all four games in the T-S plane on multiplex. More importantly, we find some remarkable and previously unknown features in the microscopic organization of the strategies, that are responsible for the important differences between cooperative dynamics in monoplex and multiplex. Specifically, we find that in the stationary state, there are individuals that play the same strategy in all layers (coherent), and others that don't (incoherent). This second group of players is responsible for the surprising fact of a non full-cooperation in the Harmony Game on multiplex, never observed before, as well as a higher-than-expected cooperation rates in some regions of the other three social dilemmas.

  20. Strategical incoherence regulates cooperation in social dilemmas on multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamalas, Joan T.; Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Cooperation is a very common, yet not fully-understood phenomenon in natural and human systems. The introduction of a network within the population is known to affect the outcome of cooperative dynamics, allowing for the survival of cooperation in adverse scenarios. Recently, the introduction of multiplex networks has yet again modified the expectations for the outcome of the Prisoner's Dilemma game, compared to the monoplex case. However, much remains unstudied regarding other social dilemmas on multiplex, as well as the unexplored microscopic underpinnings of it. In this paper, we systematically study the evolution of cooperation in all four games in the T - S plane on multiplex. More importantly, we find some remarkable and previously unknown features in the microscopic organization of the strategies, that are responsible for the important differences between cooperative dynamics in monoplex and multiplex. Specifically, we find that in the stationary state, there are individuals that play the same strategy in all layers (coherent), and others that don't (incoherent). This second group of players is responsible for the surprising fact of a non full-cooperation in the Harmony Game on multiplex, never observed before, as well as a higher-than-expected cooperation rates in some regions of the other three social dilemmas.

  1. Evolution of cooperation under social pressure in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, María

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we aim to contribute to the understanding of human prosocial behavior by studying the influence that a particular form of social pressure, "being watched," has on the evolution of cooperative behavior. We study how cooperation emerges in multiplex complex topologies by analyzing a particular bidirectionally coupled dynamics on top of a two-layer multiplex network (duplex). The coupled dynamics appears between the prisoner's dilemma game in a network and a threshold cascade model in the other. The threshold model is intended to abstract the behavior of a network of vigilant nodes that impose the pressure of being observed altering hence the temptation to defect of the dilemma. Cooperation or defection in the game also affects the state of a node of being vigilant. We analyze these processes on different duplex networks structures and assess the influence of the topology, average degree and correlated multiplexity, on the outcome of cooperation. Interestingly, we find that the social pressure of vigilance may impact cooperation positively or negatively, depending on the duplex structure, specifically the degree correlations between layers is determinant. Our results give further quantitative insights in the promotion of cooperation under social pressure.

  2. Evolution of cooperation under social pressure in multiplex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, María

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we aim to contribute to the understanding of human prosocial behavior by studying the influence that a particular form of social pressure, "being watched," has on the evolution of cooperative behavior. We study how cooperation emerges in multiplex complex topologies by analyzing a particular bidirectionally coupled dynamics on top of a two-layer multiplex network (duplex). The coupled dynamics appears between the prisoner's dilemma game in a network and a threshold cascade model in the other. The threshold model is intended to abstract the behavior of a network of vigilant nodes that impose the pressure of being observed altering hence the temptation to defect of the dilemma. Cooperation or defection in the game also affects the state of a node of being vigilant. We analyze these processes on different duplex networks structures and assess the influence of the topology, average degree and correlated multiplexity, on the outcome of cooperation. Interestingly, we find that the social pressure of vigilance may impact cooperation positively or negatively, depending on the duplex structure, specifically the degree correlations between layers is determinant. Our results give further quantitative insights in the promotion of cooperation under social pressure.

  3. Social Value Induction and Cooperation in the Centipede Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briony D Pulford

    Full Text Available The Centipede game provides a dynamic model of cooperation and competition in repeated dyadic interactions. Two experiments investigated psychological factors driving cooperation in 20 rounds of a Centipede game with significant monetary incentives and anonymous and random re-pairing of players after every round. The main purpose of the research was to determine whether the pattern of strategic choices observed when no specific social value orientation is experimentally induced--the standard condition in all previous investigations of behavior in the Centipede and most other experimental games--is essentially individualistic, the orthodox game-theoretic assumption being that players are individualistically motivated in the absence of any specific motivational induction. Participants in whom no specific state social value orientation was induced exhibited moderately non-cooperative play that differed significantly from the pattern found when an individualistic orientation was induced. In both experiments, the neutral treatment condition, in which no orientation was induced, elicited competitive behavior resembling behavior in the condition in which a competitive orientation was explicitly induced. Trait social value orientation, measured with a questionnaire, influenced cooperation differently depending on the experimentally induced state social value orientation. Cooperative trait social value orientation was a significant predictor of cooperation and, to a lesser degree, experimentally induced competitive orientation was a significant predictor of non-cooperation. The experimental results imply that the standard assumption of individualistic motivation in experimental games may not be valid, and that the results of such investigations need to take into account the possibility that players are competitively motivated.

  4. An energy efficient cooperative hierarchical MIMO clustering scheme for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Mehwish; Qaisar, Saad; Lee, Sungyoung

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present an energy efficient hierarchical cooperative clustering scheme for wireless sensor networks. Communication cost is a crucial factor in depleting the energy of sensor nodes. In the proposed scheme, nodes cooperate to form clusters at each level of network hierarchy ensuring maximal coverage and minimal energy expenditure with relatively uniform distribution of load within the network. Performance is enhanced by cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication ensuring energy efficiency for WSN deployments over large geographical areas. We test our scheme using TOSSIM and compare the proposed scheme with cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (CMIMO) clustering scheme and traditional multihop Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO) routing approach. Performance is evaluated on the basis of number of clusters, number of hops, energy consumption and network lifetime. Experimental results show significant energy conservation and increase in network lifetime as compared to existing schemes.

  5. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM and INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN DISTANCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif TOPRAK

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available International cooperation in Distance Education which is a very popular phenomenon today can be explained by the rise of social constructivism in social sciences, namely Education and International Relations, for the purpose of this paper. Social constructive approach in International Relations with its emphasis on building social bridges via learning common values and social constructivism in education highlighting learning communities, pave the way for institutionalization of cooperation in Distance Education. Multicultural, multilingual models that adopt educational materials according to local cultures and demands, serve as a good mean of meeting educational needs globally. Information and Communication Technologies ease interactions and lead to a global flow of information, some advantages of which are emphasized in this paper.

  6. Visual Matrix Clustering of Social Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Foote, Harlan P.; May, Richard A.

    2013-07-01

    The prevailing choices to graphically represent a social network in today’s literature are a node-link graph layout and an adjacency matrix. Both visualization techniques have unique strengths and weaknesses when applied to different domain applications. In this article, we focus our discussion on adjacency matrix and how to turn the matrix-based visualization technique from merely showing pairwise associations among network actors (or graph nodes) to depicting clusters of a social network. We also use node-link layouts to supplement the discussion.

  7. PSICOSSOCIAL REHABILITATION THROUGH THERAPEUTIC WORKSHOPS AND/OR SOCIAL COOPERATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília M Scatena

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic workshops and the social cooperatives, while current Mental Health NationalPolitics devices, objectify if it differentiates of the practice predecessors, idea current practices ofestablishing the work as a therapeutic, well-known resource like ‘moral treatment’. In this context, itunderstands that the workshops, don't introduce by itself an inaugural form of work with the madness. Theworkshops work experience and/or cooperative becomes positive when one of her functions is also the oneof intervene in the citizenship field. Thus, acting in the social scope, contributes like transformation currentreality possibility in the that tells respect to the psychiatric treatment.

  8. Distinct neural patterns of social cognition for cooperation versus competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Lily; Dungan, James; Waytz, Adam; Young, Liane

    2016-08-15

    How do people consider other minds during cooperation versus competition? Some accounts predict that theory of mind (ToM) is recruited more for cooperation versus competition or competition versus cooperation, whereas other accounts predict similar recruitment across these two contexts. The present fMRI study examined activity in brain regions for ToM (bilateral temporoparietal junction, precuneus, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex) across cooperative and competitive interactions with the same individual within the same paradigm. Although univariate analyses revealed that ToM regions overall were recruited similarly across interaction contexts, multivariate pattern analyses revealed that these regions nevertheless encoded information separating cooperation from competition. Specifically, ToM regions encoded differences between cooperation and competition when people believed the outcome was determined by their and their partner's choices but not when the computer determined the outcome. We propose that, when people are motivated to consider others' mental states, ToM regions encode different aspects of mental states during cooperation versus competition. Given the role of these regions for ToM, these findings reveal distinct patterns of social cognition for distinct motivational contexts.

  9. Public utility ando social initiative cooperatives. Administrative and tax aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega María Arnáez Arce

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the administrative legal system of cooperatives classified as public benefit and social initiative, due to the uniqueness of their aim, as they are cooperatives devoted to providing people with care and support services. Some of these include the development of healthcare, therapeutic, educational, cultural and recreational activities, and others focused on labour market integration and defence of individuals or groups with special difficulties of integration. In addition, the concurrence of a public interest makes the taxation system of these cooperatives become apart from the special tax system for cooperatives, and apply a more beneficial, special tax system.Received: 20.05.2013Accepted: 26.06.2013

  10. User cooperation, virality and gaming in a social mobile network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, C; Blazovics, L; Charaf, H

    2012-01-01

    Social networks and mobile systems are both rapidly developing areas nowadays. In this chapter, we will introduce Gedda-Headz, a novel social mobile gaming concept that brings these two areas together. Gedda-Headz is a social mobile network that mainly focuses on multiplayer mobile gaming. First we......, as virality is very important in social networks, we will describe the viral elements of Gedda-Headz. We will also introduce the Gedda-Headz spreader, a novel method to spread the word about the network, increasing the virality further....... will thoroughly discuss how users may cooperate with each other in Gedda-Headz, as cooperation is very important in a mobile environment. Among other benefits, it may help users to use services that would otherwise be unreachable for them, or greatly decrease the energy cost of certain activities. Finally...

  11. Orientating cooperative learning model on social responsibility in physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Chuan Chiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Five alternative generic models on Physical Education were addressed by Jewett et al. (1995. Although these five generic models enumerate the main curriculum design, it rarely presents well the full view of it. Cooperative learning (CL is generally adopted by the teachers in social science field and receives splendid effects. In the field of physical education, there are also numerous successful examples applied on CL model. On the other hand, CL curriculum emphasizes on active learning that involves the processes of social interaction, making decision, and cognitive outcome to provide students with a holistic education; that was expelled from the five generic models. Therefore, this study adopts content analysis to explore the link between cooperative learning and social responsibility in physical education. Aforementioned, the contribution of this study is preliminarily building up CL model on social responsibility value orientation in physical education for the extension of Jewett et al. (1995 to complete the structure of the theoretical integrity.

  12. Cooperative investment in public goods is kin directed in communal nests of social birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, René E; Kaden, Jennifer C; Argüelles-Ticó, Araceli; Dawson, Deborah A; Burke, Terry; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2014-09-01

    The tragedy of the commons predicts social collapse when public goods are jointly exploited by individuals attempting to maximize their fitness at the expense of other social group members. However, animal societies have evolved many times despite this vulnerability to exploitation by selfish individuals. Kin selection offers a solution to this social dilemma, but in large social groups mean relatedness is often low. Sociable weavers (Philetairus socius) live in large colonies that share the benefits of a massive communal nest, which requires individual investment for construction and maintenance. Here, we show that despite low mean kinship within colonies, relatives are spatially and socially clustered and that nest-building males have higher local relatedness to other colony members than do non-building males. Alternative hypotheses received little support, so we conclude that the benefits of the public good are shared with kin and that cooperative investment is, despite the large size and low relatedness of these communities, kin directed.

  13. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN PARANA STATE’S AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Augusto Gutierre Pona; Thiago Henrique Moreira Goes; Régio Márcio Toesca Gimenes; Pery Francisco Assis Shikida

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the client’s perceptions on the cooperatives’ conduct values and rules, in Parana State, influence (or not) these companies to perform Corporate Social Responsibility (C.S.R.) actions. Surveys on corporate social responsibility were sent to all agricultural cooperatives within Parana State. The questions were divided in five categories: workplace policies; environmental policies; market policies; community-related policies; company values. Those information cat...

  14. Designing a Social Environment for Human-Robot Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Fred M.

    Noting that work is partly a social activity, and that workers' psychological and emotional needs influence their productivity, this paper explores avenues for improving human-robot cooperation and for enhancing worker satisfaction in the environment of flexible automation. The first section of the paper offers a brief overview of the…

  15. Development Cooperation as Methodology for Teaching Social Responsibility to Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Pia

    2011-01-01

    The role of engineering in promoting global well-being has become accentuated, turning the engineering curriculum into a means of dividing well-being equally. The gradual fortifying calls for humanitarian engineering have resulted in the incorporation of social responsibility themes in the university curriculum. Cooperation, communication,…

  16. Development Cooperation as Methodology for Teaching Social Responsibility to Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Pia

    2011-01-01

    The role of engineering in promoting global well-being has become accentuated, turning the engineering curriculum into a means of dividing well-being equally. The gradual fortifying calls for humanitarian engineering have resulted in the incorporation of social responsibility themes in the university curriculum. Cooperation, communication,…

  17. Cooperative Management for a Cluster of Residential Prosumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Graells, Moises

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an energy management system for coordinating distributed prosumers. The prosumers are residential microgrids which internally produce and consume energy for autonomous operation. However, better performance is achieved by cooperative operation with other prosumers neighbors...

  18. Inferring reputation promotes the evolution of cooperation in spatial social dilemma games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available In realistic world individuals with high reputation are more likely to influence the collective behaviors. Due to the cost and error of information dissemination, however, it is unreasonable to assign each individual with a complete cognitive power, which means that not everyone can accurately realize others' reputation situation. Here we introduce the mechanism of inferring reputation into the selection of potential strategy sources to explore the evolution of cooperation. Before the game each player is assigned with a randomly distributed parameter p denoting his ability to infer the reputation of others. The parameter p of each individual is kept constant during the game. The value of p indicates that the neighbor possessing highest reputation is chosen with the probability p and randomly choosing an opponent is left with the probability 1-p. We find that this novel mechanism can be seen as an universally applicable promoter of cooperation, which works on various interaction networks and in different types of evolutionary game. Of particular interest is the fact that, in the early stages of evolutionary process, cooperators with high reputation who are easily regarded as the potential strategy donors can quickly lead to the formation of extremely robust clusters of cooperators that are impervious to defector attacks. These clusters eventually help cooperators reach their undisputed dominance, which transcends what can be warranted by the spatial reciprocity alone. Moreover, we provide complete phase diagrams to depict the impact of uncertainty in strategy adoptions and conclude that the effective interaction topology structure may be altered under such a mechanism. When the estimation of reputation is extended, we also show that the moderate value of evaluation factor enables cooperation to thrive best. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous cooperative behaviors in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies

  19. Inferring reputation promotes the evolution of cooperation in spatial social dilemma games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Yin, Zi-Yu; Xia, Cheng-Yi

    2012-01-01

    In realistic world individuals with high reputation are more likely to influence the collective behaviors. Due to the cost and error of information dissemination, however, it is unreasonable to assign each individual with a complete cognitive power, which means that not everyone can accurately realize others' reputation situation. Here we introduce the mechanism of inferring reputation into the selection of potential strategy sources to explore the evolution of cooperation. Before the game each player is assigned with a randomly distributed parameter p denoting his ability to infer the reputation of others. The parameter p of each individual is kept constant during the game. The value of p indicates that the neighbor possessing highest reputation is chosen with the probability p and randomly choosing an opponent is left with the probability 1-p. We find that this novel mechanism can be seen as an universally applicable promoter of cooperation, which works on various interaction networks and in different types of evolutionary game. Of particular interest is the fact that, in the early stages of evolutionary process, cooperators with high reputation who are easily regarded as the potential strategy donors can quickly lead to the formation of extremely robust clusters of cooperators that are impervious to defector attacks. These clusters eventually help cooperators reach their undisputed dominance, which transcends what can be warranted by the spatial reciprocity alone. Moreover, we provide complete phase diagrams to depict the impact of uncertainty in strategy adoptions and conclude that the effective interaction topology structure may be altered under such a mechanism. When the estimation of reputation is extended, we also show that the moderate value of evaluation factor enables cooperation to thrive best. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous cooperative behaviors in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve social

  20. Cooperative Learning and Social Stories: Effective Social Skills Strategies for Reading Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Dianne M.; Safran, Stephen P.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that few teachers understand the debilitating effect that social skill deficits have on a child's daily life. Notes that instructional strategies such as cooperative learning groups and social stories can help children improve their social behavior. Encourages all educators not only to emphasize academics, but also to seize any…

  1. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN PARANA STATE’S AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto Gutierre Pona

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether the client’s perceptions on the cooperatives’ conduct values and rules, in Parana State, influence (or not these companies to perform Corporate Social Responsibility (C.S.R. actions. Surveys on corporate social responsibility were sent to all agricultural cooperatives within Parana State. The questions were divided in five categories: workplace policies; environmental policies; market policies; community-related policies; company values. Those information categories were charted by the cross tabulation method. The analysis has shown that, when companies notice client’s concern about the issue, they tend to perform Corporate Social Responsibility practices.

  2. New Cooperation Modes: An Opportunity for Polish Biotechnological Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Puslecki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews new cooperation forms between companies, referring to the latest data from the asap (the Association of Strategic Alliance Professionals. Potential cooperation between companies, universities and research institutes in the field of biotechnology in Poland based on a model of open innovation alliances are presented. Biopharmaceutical companies are looking for new and innovative paths of development. They try to implement new strategies to transfer their research processes to a higher level. To achieve this, biopharmaceutical companies often use open innovation model as an additional tool for developing new products. Thanks to the cooperation with universities in the framework of open innovation alliances, they can significantly reduce the risk, the cost of research, and most of all, through joint work with academic researchers on identifying disease mechanisms and on development of new drugs, they are able to create improved and appropriate medical therapy for patients.

  3. Predation risk drives social complexity in cooperative breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewoud, Frank; Frommen, Joachim Gerhard; Josi, Dario; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Jungwirth, Arne; Taborsky, Michael

    2016-04-12

    Predation risk is a major ecological factor selecting for group living. It is largely ignored, however, as an evolutionary driver of social complexity and cooperative breeding, which is attributed mainly to a combination of habitat saturation and enhanced relatedness levels. Social cichlids neither suffer from habitat saturation, nor are their groups composed primarily of relatives. This demands alternative ecological explanations for the evolution of advanced social organization. To address this question, we compared the ecology of eight populations of Neolamprologus pulcher, a cichlid fish arguably representing the pinnacle of social evolution in poikilothermic vertebrates. Results show that variation in social organization and behavior of these fish is primarily explained by predation risk and related ecological factors. Remarkably, ecology affects group structure more strongly than group size, with predation inversely affecting small and large group members. High predation and shelter limitation leads to groups containing few small but many large members, which is an effect enhanced at low population densities. Apparently, enhanced safety from predators by cooperative defense and shelter construction are the primary benefits of sociality. This finding suggests that predation risk can be fundamental for the transition toward complex social organization, which is generally undervalued.

  4. Lightweight Interactions for Reciprocal Cooperation in a Social Network Game

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, Masanori; Fukuda, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    The construction of reciprocal relationships requires cooperative interactions during the initial meetings. However, cooperative behavior with strangers is risky because the strangers may be exploiters. In this study, we show that people increase the likelihood of cooperativeness of strangers by using lightweight non-risky interactions in risky situations based on the analysis of a social network game (SNG). They can construct reciprocal relationships in this manner. The interactions involve low-cost signaling because they are not generated at any cost to the senders and recipients. Theoretical studies show that low-cost signals are not guaranteed to be reliable because the low-cost signals from senders can lie at any time. However, people used low-cost signals to construct reciprocal relationships in an SNG, which suggests the existence of mechanisms for generating reliable, low-cost signals in human evolution.

  5. Energy Efficient Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks Using Distributed Dynamic Load Balanced Clustering Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukkumar R.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR is a promising and potential technique to enable secondary users (SUs or unlicenced users to exploit the unused spectrum resources effectively possessed by primary users (PUs or licenced users. The proven clustering approach is used to organize nodes in the network into the logical groups to attain energy efficiency, network scalability, and stability for improving the sensing accuracy in CR through cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS. In this paper, a distributed dynamic load balanced clustering (DDLBC algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, each member in the cluster is to calculate the cooperative gain, residual energy, distance, and sensing cost from the neighboring clusters to perform the optimal decision. Each member in a cluster participates in selecting a cluster head (CH through cooperative gain, and residual energy that minimises network energy consumption and enhances the channel sensing. First, we form the number of clusters using the Markov decision process (MDP model to reduce the energy consumption in a network. In this algorithm, CR users effectively utilize the PUs reporting time slots of unavailability. The simulation results reveal that the clusters convergence, energy efficiency, and accuracy of channel sensing increased considerably by using the proposed algorithm.

  6. SPECIFICITY OF SOCIAL COOPERATIVES ACTIVITY AS A SUBJECTS OF SOCIAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Mierzwa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the role of social enterprises on the labour market, exemplified by social cooperatives. In market economy, basing on experiences of a number of EU states, it is possible to state that there is a reason for existence of that type of enterprises, which can be proved by their continuous development and supporting policy of the European Parliament. These enterprises are often the only chance for marginalized and socially excluded people. The work made use of provisions of the law regarding operation of social cooperatives, different types of elaborations, as well as scientific literature.

  7. Explaining Large-N Cooperation: Generalized Social Trust and the Social Exchange Heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new argument that links generalized social trust and collective action in situations with a large number of actors, who do not have specific information on each other. Generalized social trust enhances large-N cooperation through the social exchange heuristic, which stimul...... hypothesized, there is scant micro level evidence as it has mainly been tested at the macro level. The results show that people holding generalized social trust cooperate more readily in large-N dilemmas, and that they most likely do so because of the social exchange heuristic.......This article presents a new argument that links generalized social trust and collective action in situations with a large number of actors, who do not have specific information on each other. Generalized social trust enhances large-N cooperation through the social exchange heuristic, which...... stimulate conditional cooperation in social dilemmas. Using data from a survey in four countries and recycling behavior as an indicator of collective action, this explanation is tested with individual level data. While the relationship between generalized social trust and large-N collective action is often...

  8. Value homophily benefits cooperation but motivates employing incorrect social information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauwolf, Paul; Mitchell, Dominic; Bryson, Joanna J

    2015-02-21

    Individuals often judge others based on third-party gossip, rather than their own experience, despite the fact that gossip is error-prone. Rather than judging others on their merits, even when such knowledge is free, we judge based on the opinions of third parties. Here we seek to understand this observation in the context of the evolution of cooperation. If individuals are being judged on noisy social reputations rather than on merit, then agents might exploit this, eroding the sustainability of cooperation. We employ a version of the Prisoner׳s Dilemma, the Donation game, which has been used to simulate the evolution of cooperation through indirect reciprocity. First, we validate the proposition that adding homophily (the propensity to interact with others of similar beliefs) into a society increases the sustainability of cooperation. However, this creates an evolutionary conflict between the accurate signalling of ingroup status versus the veridical report of the behaviour of other agents. We find that conditions exist where signalling ingroup status outweighs honesty as the best method to ultimately spread cooperation.

  9. A HYBRID APPROACH FOR NODE CO-OPERATION BASED CLUSTERING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sathiyakumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is termed as a set of wireless nodes which could be built with infrastructure less environment where network services are afforded by the nodes themselves. In such a situation, if a node refuses to co-operate with other nodes, then it will lead to a considerable diminution in throughput and the network operation decreases to low optimum value. Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs rely on the collaboration of nodes for packet routing ahead. Nevertheless, much of the existing work in MANETs imagines that mobile nodes (probably possessed by selfish users will pursue prearranged protocols without variation. Therefore, implementing the co-operation between the nodes turn out to be an significant issue. The previous work described a secured key model for ad hoc network with efficient node clustering based on reputation and ranking model. But the downside is that the co-operation with the nodes is less results in a communication error. To enhance the security in MANET, in this work, we present a hybrid approach, build a node co-operation among the nodes in MANET by evaluating the weightage of cooperativeness of each node in MANET. With the estimation of normal co-operative nodes, nodes are restructured on its own (self. Then clustering is made with the reorganized nodes to form a secured communication among the nodes in the MANET environment. The Simulation of the proposed Hybrid Approach for Node Cooperation based Clustering (HANCC work is done for varying topology, node size, attack type and intensity with different pause time settings and the performance evaluations are carried over in terms of node cooperativeness, clustering efficiency, communication overhead and compared with an existing secured key model. Compared to an existing secured key model, the proposed HANCC performance is 80-90% high.

  10. Another Life: social cooperation and a-organic life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Terranova

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author draws attention to some key concepts of the political economy of digital culture asking whether new theories of social production and sympathetic cooperation, in the work of authors such as Yochai Benkler and Maurizio Lazzarato, can offer an alternative to the neoliberal logic of market-based competition as the basis for the production of new forms of life.

  11. Keeping up appearances: Experiments on cooperation in social dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    van den Broek, E.M.F.

    2014-01-01

    We cooperate. To be precise: we help out others at a cost to ourselves, daily and at an astonishing scale; among family, strangers and enemies, whether we are foraging, negotiating or waging war. Why are we willing to reduce our own chances of survival and reproduction to augment those of others? This dissertation addresses such social dilemmas using laboratory experiments. It explores how we incorporate reputational concerns, whether imaginary competition with another group makes us more sel...

  12. Cooperation in health: A cluster analysis of 190 research institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Barreto Lang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Webometrics has been recognized as a science with great potential for application in various fields. However, studies in this area are still restricted to the large field of informetrics. Moreover, the debate surrounding the relation between the web and the health field has been dedicated to addressing issues of socioeconomic nature related to universal access and a new division between north and south. Objectives: With the aim of contributing to the broadening of webometrics to other areas of knowledge, this study intends to map on the web, in the light of international cooperation models, relations between major health research institutions. Results: Results showed predominantly thematic groupings, the reflection of a north-south cooperation model and a low expression of relations between institutions of south countries.

  13. How to keep punishment to maintain cooperation: Introducing social vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Okada, Isamu

    2016-02-01

    Although there is much support for the punishment system as a sophisticated approach to resolving social dilemmas, more than a few researchers have also pointed out the limitations of such an approach. Second-order free riding is a serious issue facing the punishment system. Various pioneering works have suggested that an anti-social behavior or noise stemming from a mutation may, surprisingly, be helpful for avoiding second-order freeloaders. In this work, we show through mathematical analysis and an agent-based simulation of a model extending the meta-norms game that the coercive introduction of a small number of non-cooperators can maintain a cooperative regime robustly. This paradoxical idea was inspired by the effect of a vaccine, which is a weakened pathogen injected into a human body to create antibodies and ward off infection by that pathogen. Our expectation is that the coercive introduction of a few defectors, i.e., a social vaccine, will help maintain a highly cooperative regime because it will ensure that the punishment system works.

  14. On-the-fly Packet Error Recovery in a Cooperative Cluster of Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vingelmann, Peter; Heide, Janus; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of packet error recovery in a cooperative cluster of mobile devices. We assume that these devices receive data from a broadcast transmission on their primary network interface (e.g. LTE network), and they are using a secondary network interface (e.g. ad hoc...... aim to repair the packet losses on-the-fly (as the data is being received), which also imposes real-time constraints on the protocol.We propose a solution based on random linear network coding to form cooperative clusters of mobile devices to facilitate the efficient exchange of information among them...

  15. Dynamical Models Explaining Social Balance and Evolution of Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A; De Leenheer, P

    2013-01-01

    In social networks with positive and negative links the dominant theory of explaining its structure is that of social balance. The theory states that a network is balanced if its triads are balanced. Such a balanced network can be split into (at most) two opposing factions with positive links within a faction and negative links between them. Although inherently dynamical, the theory has long remained static, with a focus on finding such partitions. Recently however, a dynamical model was introduced which was shown to converge to a socially balanced state for certain symmetric initial conditions. Here we show this does not hold for general (non-symmetric) initial conditions. We propose an alternative model and show that it does converge to a socially balanced state generically. Moreover, in a basic model of evolution of cooperation of indirect reciprocity, the alternative model has an evolutionary advantage compared to the earlier model. The principal difference between the two models can be understood in term...

  16. Egoism, altruism, and social justice: theory and experiments on cooperation in social dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, Sjerp

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative or altruistic behavior in the absence of egoistic incentives is an issue that has puzzled many social scientists. In this book an attempt is made to gain more insight into such behavior for a specific type of situation: the social dilemma. ...

  17. Egoism, altruism, and social justice : theory and experiments on cooperation in social dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Sjerp de

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative or altruistic behavior in the absence of egoistic incentives is an issue that has puzzled many social scientists. In this book an attempt is made to gain more insight into such behavior for a specific type of situation: the social dilemma. ...

  18. Egoism, altruism, and social justice : theory and experiments on cooperation in social dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Sjerp de

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative or altruistic behavior in the absence of egoistic incentives is an issue that has puzzled many social scientists. In this book an attempt is made to gain more insight into such behavior for a specific type of situation: the social dilemma. ...

  19. Cooperative Energy Management for a Cluster of Households Prosumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Graells, Moises

    2016-01-01

    The increment of electrical and electronic appliances for improving the lifestyle of residential consumers has led to a larger demand of energy. In order to supply their energy requirements, the consumers have changed the paradigm by integrating renewable energy sources to their power grid....... Therefore, consumers become prosumers in which they internally generate and consume energy looking for an autonomous operation. This paper proposes an energy management system for coordinating the operation of distributed household prosumers. It was found that better performance is achieved when cooperative...

  20. Cooperative Energy Management for a Cluster of Households Prosumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Graells, Moises;

    2016-01-01

    . Therefore, consumers become prosumers in which they internally generate and consume energy looking for an autonomous operation. This paper proposes an energy management system for coordinating the operation of distributed household prosumers. It was found that better performance is achieved when cooperative......The increment of electrical and electronic appliances for improving the lifestyle of residential consumers has led to a larger demand of energy. In order to supply their energy requirements, the consumers have changed the paradigm by integrating renewable energy sources to their power grid...

  1. The effect of corporate social responsibility on social capital creation: an empirical study on participation in social cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Degli Antoni; Elisa Portale

    2009-01-01

    This paper analysis the effect of corporate social responsibility on social capital by carrying out an empirical study on a specific kind of nonprofit organizations: the social cooperatives. With respect to the previous studies on the relationship between participation in nonprofit organizations and creation of social capital, this contribution reveals two main reasons of interest. The first one concerns the indices of social capital. In particular this paper takes into account all the three ...

  2. The effect of corporate social responsibility on social capital creation: an empirical study on participation in social cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Degli Antoni; Elisa Portale

    2009-01-01

    This paper analysis the effect of corporate social responsibility on social capital by carrying out an empirical study on a specific kind of nonprofit organizations: the social cooperatives. With respect to the previous studies on the relationship between participation in nonprofit organizations and creation of social capital, this contribution reveals two main reasons of interest. The first one concerns the indices of social capital. In particular this paper takes into account all the three ...

  3. Strong reciprocity, human cooperation, and the enforcement of social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Ernst; Fischbacher, Urs; Gächter, Simon

    2002-03-01

    This paper provides strong evidence challenging the self-interest assumption that dominates the behavioral sciences and much evolutionary thinking. The evidence indicates that many people have a tendency to voluntarily cooperate, if treated fairly, and to punish noncooperators. We call this behavioral propensity "strong reciprocity" and show empirically that it can lead to almost universal cooperation in circumstances in which purely self-interested behavior would cause a complete breakdown of cooperation. In addition, we show that people are willing to punish those who behaved unfairly towards a third person or who defected in a Prisoner's Dilemma game with a third person. This suggests that strong reciprocity is a powerful device for the enforcement of social norms involving, for example, food sharing or collective action. Strong reciprocity cannot be rationalized as an adaptive trait by the leading evolutionary theories of human cooperation (in other words, kin selection, reciprocal altruism, indirect reciprocity, and costly signaling theory). However, multilevel selection theories of cultural evolution are consistent with strong reciprocity.

  4. Dynamical models explaining social balance and evolution of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traag, Vincent Antonio; Van Dooren, Paul; De Leenheer, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Social networks with positive and negative links often split into two antagonistic factions. Examples of such a split abound: revolutionaries versus an old regime, Republicans versus Democrats, Axis versus Allies during the second world war, or the Western versus the Eastern bloc during the Cold War. Although this structure, known as social balance, is well understood, it is not clear how such factions emerge. An earlier model could explain the formation of such factions if reputations were assumed to be symmetric. We show this is not the case for non-symmetric reputations, and propose an alternative model which (almost) always leads to social balance, thereby explaining the tendency of social networks to split into two factions. In addition, the alternative model may lead to cooperation when faced with defectors, contrary to the earlier model. The difference between the two models may be understood in terms of the underlying gossiping mechanism: whereas the earlier model assumed that an individual adjusts his opinion about somebody by gossiping about that person with everybody in the network, we assume instead that the individual gossips with that person about everybody. It turns out that the alternative model is able to lead to cooperative behaviour, unlike the previous model.

  5. Mesoscopic structure conditions the emergence of cooperation on social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Lozano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We study the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma on two social networks substrates obtained from actual relational data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We find very different cooperation levels on each of them that cannot be easily understood in terms of global statistical properties of both networks. We claim that the result can be understood at the mesoscopic scale, by studying the community structure of the networks. We explain the dependence of the cooperation level on the temptation parameter in terms of the internal structure of the communities and their interconnections. We then test our results on community-structured, specifically designed artificial networks, finding a good agreement with the observations in both real substrates. CONCLUSION: Our results support the conclusion that studies of evolutionary games on model networks and their interpretation in terms of global properties may not be sufficient to study specific, real social systems. Further, the study allows us to define new quantitative parameters that summarize the mesoscopic structure of any network. In addition, the community perspective may be helpful to interpret the origin and behavior of existing networks as well as to design structures that show resilient cooperative behavior.

  6. Mesoscopic structure conditions the emergence of cooperation on social networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, S.; Arenas, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2008-12-01

    We study the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma on two social networks substrates obtained from actual relational data. We find very different cooperation levels on each of them that cannot be easily understood in terms of global statistical properties of both networks. We claim that the result can be understood at the mesoscopic scale, by studying the community structure of the networks. We explain the dependence of the cooperation level on the temptation parameter in terms of the internal structure of the communities and their interconnections. We then test our results on community-structured, specifically designed artificial networks, finding a good agreement with the observations in both real substrates. Our results support the conclusion that studies of evolutionary games on model networks and their interpretation in terms of global properties may not be sufficient to study specific, real social systems. Further, the study allows us to define new quantitative parameters that summarize the mesoscopic structure of any network. In addition, the community perspective may be helpful to interpret the origin and behavior of existing networks as well as to design structures that show resilient cooperative behavior.

  7. Industrial Clusters and Social Upgrading in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Frank; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    In this article, we explore the relationship between industrial clusters and social upgrading in developing countries. Our article focuses on the hitherto little-considered influence of the economic and regulatory environment on the social upgrading of a cluster and on its governance system....... In doing so, we develop an analytical framework that seeks to explain how the enabling environment and different actors in cluster governance can either facilitate and/or hinder the process of social upgrading in cluster settings in developing countries. Finally, the conclusion outlines our main findings...

  8. Diversity of neighborhoods promotes cooperation in evolutionary social dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongjuan; Lu, Jun; Shi, Lei

    2017-02-01

    Explaining the evolution of cooperative behavior is one of the most important and interesting problems in a myriad of disciplines, such as evolutionary biology, mathematics, statistical physics, social science and economics Up to now, there have been a great number of works aiming to this issue with the help of evolutionary game theory. However, vast majority of existing literatures simply assume that the interaction neighborhood and replacement neighborhood are symmetric, which seems inconsistent with real-world cases. In this paper, we consider the asymmetrical neighborhood: player of type A, whose factor is controlled by a parameter τ, has four interaction neighbors and four replacement neighbors, while player of type B, whose factor is controlled by a parameter 1 - τ, possess eight interaction neighbors and four replacement neighbors. By means of numerous Monte Carlo simulations, we found that middle τ can make the cooperation reach the highest level While for this finding, its robustness can be further validated in more games.

  9. Suppression of social conflict and evolutionary transitions to cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cant, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    Evolutionary conflict arises at all levels of biological organization and presents a barrier to the evolution of cooperation. This barrier can be overcome by mechanisms that reduce the disparity between the fitness optima of subunits, sometimes called the "battleground" of conflict. An alternative, unstudied possibility is that effort invested in conflict is unprofitable. This possibility has received little attention because most existing models of social conflict assume that fitness depends on the ratio of players' conflict efforts, so that "peaceful" outcomes featuring zero conflict effort are evolutionarily unstable. Here I show that peaceful outcomes are stable where success depends on the difference rather than the ratio of efforts invested in conflict. These difference form models are particularly appropriate to model strategies of suppression or policing. The model suggests that incomplete information and asymmetries in strength can act to eliminate costly conflict within groups, even among unrelated individuals, and thereby facilitate the evolution of cooperation.

  10. Promoting Corporate Social Responsibility in Logistics throughout Horizontal Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel A. Juan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR can be promoted in Logistics and Transportation (L&T companies by means of Horizontal Cooperation (HC practices. The L&T sector is experiencing important changes because of new trends in markets and society. These changes have a strong impact on the way L&T companies develop their distribution activities.On the one hand, globalisation and increasing competition are creating incentives for these companies to cooperate in different ways – with the aim of becoming more efficient by sharing resources and reducing costs. On the other hand, the increasing sustainability awareness within society is pressuring L&T companies to integrate CSR principles into their strategies and policies. Accordingly, this paper discusses the current trends in these areas and offers some examples of how HC can contribute to reduce both distributions costs as well as the environmental impact of the distribution activities.

  11. Cooperativeness and competitiveness as two distinct constructs: validating the Cooperative and Competitive Personality Scale in a social dilemma context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Su; Au, Wing-Tung; Jiang, Feng; Xie, Xiaofei; Yam, Paton

    2013-01-01

    The present research validated the construct and criterion validities of the Cooperative and Competitive Personality Scale (CCPS) in a social dilemma context. The results from three studies supported the notion that cooperativeness and competitiveness are two independent dimensions, challenging the traditional view that they are two ends of a single continuum. First, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two-factor structure fit the data significantly better than a one-factor structure. Moreover, cooperativeness and competitiveness were either not significantly correlated (Studies 1 and 3) or only moderately positively correlated (Study 2). Second, cooperativeness and competitiveness were differentially associated with Schwartz's Personal Values. These results further supported the idea that cooperativeness and competitiveness are two distinct constructs. Specifically, the individuals who were highly cooperative emphasized self-transcendent values (i.e., universalism and benevolence) more, whereas the individuals who were highly competitive emphasized self-enhancement values (i.e., power and achievement) more. Finally, the CCPS, which adheres to the trait perspective of personality, was found to be a useful supplement to more prevalent social motive measures (i.e., social value orientation) in predicting cooperative behaviors. Specifically, in Study 2, when social value orientation was controlled for, the CCPS significantly predicted cooperative behaviors in a public goods dilemma (individuals who score higher on cooperativeness scale contributed more to the public goods). In Study 3, when social value orientation was controlled for, the CCPS significantly predicted cooperative behaviors in commons dilemmas (individuals who score higher on cooperativeness scale requested fewer resources from the common resource pool). The practical implications of the CCPS in conflict resolution, as well as in recruitment and selection settings, are discussed.

  12. Network coding and evolutionary theory for performance enhancement in wireless cooperative clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Militano, Leonardo; Fitzek, Frank; Iera, Antonio;

    2010-01-01

    consumption, data rate and data transfer time are parameters that will likely benefit from this novel communication concept. This paper presents a WLAN-based cooperative scenario, conceived to support file-sharing services, in which a sub-set of cluster nodes access, through their cellular radio interface......Cooperation over short-range wireless links among user devices, which download remote contents through cellular links, is a paradigm quickly gaining ground, given that it can answer several technological and design issues that next-generation wireless applications will raise. Among others, energy......, portions of a file to be successively exchanged among all cluster members over wireless local area network (WLAN) links. Besides showing the beneficial effects of cooperation, this paper also focuses on the performance enhancement that can be achieved when using the network coding paradigm, whose...

  13. Relative importance of social synergy, assortation and networks in the evolution of social cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Montoreano, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    We compare the likelihood of different socially relevant features to allow the evolutionary emergence and maintenance of cooperation in a generalized variant of the iterated Prisoners Dilemma game. Results show that the average costs/benefit balance of cooperation is the primary constraint for its establishment and maintenance. Behavior increasing inclusive fitness such as assortation, homophily, kin-selection and tagging of individuals, is second in importance. Networks characteristics were the least important in favoring the establishment and maintenance of cooperation, despite being the most popular in recent research on the subject. Results suggest that inclusive fitness theory with its expansions to include assortative and economic considerations is more general, powerful and relevant in analyzing social phenomena than kin selection theory with its emphasis on genetic relatedness. Merging economics with evolutionary theory will be necessary to reveal more about the nature of social dynamics.

  14. The social evolution of dispersal with public goods cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, T B; Rodrigues, A M M; Gardner, A; Buckling, A

    2013-12-01

    Selection can favour the evolution of individually costly dispersal if this alleviates competition between relatives. However, conditions that favour altruistic dispersal also mediate selection for other social behaviours, such as public goods cooperation, which in turn is likely to mediate dispersal evolution. Here, we investigate - both experimentally (using bacteria) and theoretically - how social habitat heterogeneity (i.e. the distribution of public goods cooperators and cheats) affects the evolution of dispersal. In addition to recovering the well-known theoretical result that the optimal level of dispersal increases with genetic relatedness of patch mates, we find both mathematically and experimentally that dispersal is always favoured when average patch occupancy is low, but when average patch occupancy is high, the presence of public goods cheats greatly alters selection for dispersal. Specifically, when public goods cheats are localized to the home patch, higher dispersal rates are favoured, but when cheats are present throughout available patches, lower dispersal rates are favoured. These results highlight the importance of other social traits in driving dispersal evolution.

  15. Role of Clustering Coefficient on Cooperation Dynamics in Homogeneous Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gang; GAO Kun; YANG Han-Xin; WANG Bing-Hong

    2008-01-01

    Based on previous works, we give further investigations on the Prisoners' Dilemma Game (PDG) on two different types of homogeneous networks, i.e. the homogeneous small-world network (HSWN) and the regular ring graph. We find that the so-called resonance-like character can occur on both the networks. Different from the viewpoint in previous publications, we think the small-world effect may be unnecessary to produce this character. Therefore, over these two types of networks, we suggest a common understanding in the viewpoint of clustering coefficient. Detailed simulation results can sustain our viewpoint quite well. Furthermore, we investigate the Snowdrift Game (SG) on the same networks. The difference between the outputs of the PDG and the SG can also sustain our viewpoint.

  16. Cooperative Cluster Metalation and Ligand Migration in Zirconium Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Shuai; Chen, Ying-Pin; Qin, Junsheng; Lu, Weigang; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang; Bosch, Mathieu; Liu, Tian-Fu; Lian, Xizhen; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2015-10-23

    Cooperative cluster metalation and ligand migration were performed on a Zr-MOF, leading to the isolation of unique bimetallic MOFs based on decanuclear Zr6M4 (M=Ni, Co) clusters. The M2+ reacts with the μ3-OH and terminal H2O ligands on an 8-connected [Zr6O4(OH)8(H2O)4] cluster to form a bimetallic [Zr6M4O8(OH)8(H2O)8] cluster. Along with the metalation of Zr6 cluster, ligand migration is observed in which a Zr–carboxylate bond dissociates to form a M–carboxylate bond. Single-crystal to single-crystal transformation is realized so that snapshots for cooperative cluster metalation and ligand migration processes are captured by successive single-crystal X-ray structures. In3+ was metalated into the same Zr-MOF which showed excellent catalytic activity in the acetaldehyde cyclotrimerization reaction. This work not only provides a powerful tool to functionalize Zr-MOFs with other metals, but also structurally elucidates the formation mechanism of the resulting heterometallic MOFs.

  17. Using cluster analysis in measuring social domain of territorial brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Stepanova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Territorial brand has a social dimension reflected in the social equilibrium and measurable with social effectiveness indicators. The paper offers social effectiveness analysis of territory using investigation object “territorial and social systems (TSS” with their further classification according to social types based on cluster analysis. This method allows the authors to distinct four social types of TSS in Sverdlovsk region in accordance with such characteristics as financial activity, quality of life, social stability and ill-being levels. The results of investigation could be useful for brand policy of territorial authorities.

  18. Centralized cooperative spectrum sensing for ad-hoc disaster relief network clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2010-01-01

    Disaster relief networks have to be highly adaptable and resilient. Cognitive radio enhanced ad-hoc architecture have been put forward as a candidate to enable such networks. Spectrum sensing is the cornerstone of the cognitive radio paradigm, and it has been the target of intensive research....... The main common conclusion was that the achievable spectrum sensing accuracy can be greatly enhanced through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. When considering applying Cognitive Radio to ad-hoc disaster relief networks, spectrum sensing cooperative schemes are paramount. A centralized cluster...

  19. HOUSING COOPERATIVES IN PORTUGAL - THE END OF SOCIAL PURPOSES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida CAGICA CARVALHO

    2007-01-01

    busca las cooperativas de vivienda, cuáles son sus ventajas y cuál es el nivel de ingresos de sus miembros/In Portugal housing cooperatives (co-ops developed greatly after the 1975 change of political regime. The economic weight of cooperatives in national GDP (2005 is about 8.8% of total business volume and housing cooperatives make up about 3.3% of this total. During the last 30 years the functioning of housing cooperatives has changed, particularly in the principal objective of providing reasonable accommodation for lower-income families and thereby improving their living conditions/quality of life .Today many housing cooperatives function as companies, which promote housing for the middle or middle-upper income but not for the lower income groups. This seems contrary to the principal objective of the cooperatives since the 1975 change in political regime. What happened? During the last thirty years many things changed. Political policy has seen a progressive retreat of state control, undermining the social objective of housing co-ops, creating financial problems, disappearance of incentives, diminished availability of lands for construction and speculation in the housing sector. Housing co-ops are functioning in a market that has many failures. Asymmetric information, prices, unique characteristics of housing and competitiveness in the market are some of the many problems that exist in this sector. Public policy also influences these characteristics. We demonstrate in this paper that during the thirty years of existence of housing co-ops in Portugal the social objective to promote houses for low-income individuals has changed considerably and the target resident the houses has also changed. This leads us to question if the social objective of housing co-ops is being achieved. We used a questionnaire to discover why people look for cooperative housing, what the advantage of cooperative housing is and what the members’ income level is

  20. Principle of «concern for community»: beyond «social responsibility» in cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Airton Cardoso Cançado; Maria de Fátima Arruda Souza; Ariádne Sclafoni Rigo; Jeová Torres Silva Junior

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the principle of cooperatives Concern for Community represents the way cooperatives interact to its community, especially in a social aspect. Thus there is no need of using the terminology «Social Responsibility for Cooperatives» once the cooperative principle already encompasses the social actions of the cooperative in a more complete and organic way. This discussion is related to traditional mimicry of cooperatives management (technics and tools) from manage...

  1. Intelligent Hybrid Cluster Based Classification Algorithm for Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Muthurajkumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an hybrid clustering based classification algorithm based on mean approach to effectively classify to mine the ordered sequences (paths from weblog data in order to perform social network analysis. In the system proposed in this work for social pattern analysis, the sequences of human activities are typically analyzed by switching behaviors, which are likely to produce overlapping clusters. In this proposed system, a robust Modified Boosting algorithm is proposed to hybrid clustering based classification for clustering the data. This work is useful to provide connection between the aggregated features from the network data and traditional indices used in social network analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm improves the decision results from data clustering when combined with the proposed classification algorithm and hence it is proved that of provides better classification accuracy when tested with Weblog dataset. In addition, this algorithm improves the predictive performance especially for multiclass datasets which can increases the accuracy.

  2. Quantifying cooperativity in water clusters: an attempt towards obtaining a generalised equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Soumen; Narahari Sastry, G.

    2015-10-01

    The current study describes the development of a general equation of cooperativity energy (CE) for an n-mer system based on the difference between interaction energy of the system and the sum of interaction energy of its dimeric subunits. The counterpoise corrected generalised CE equation of n-mer system has also been developed. In order to validate these two generalised equations, we have considered four different kinds of water clusters, viz. W1D, W2D, W2D-H and W3D, ((H2O)n: n = 3-10), with the increasing cluster size as well as changing arrangements. The CE obtained from the two generalised equations follow the trend W3D > W2D-H > W2D > W1D. The deviation at n = 6 for W3D clusters in the plot of CE with cluster size has also been observed for O-H stretching frequencies, electron density and the Laplacian of the electron density plots. The contrastingly higher CE for cyclic pentamer compared to hexamer is in accordance with earlier observations as well as computed average hydrogen bond lengths. We have observed that the average charge value is more on oxygen atoms of pentamer than hexamer resulting in the shortening of hydrogen bond in pentamer and hence the CE values are more for pentamer than hexamer. We have shown that CE has the capability to quantify the cooperativity effect in water clusters.

  3. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVE COOPERATIVES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Matyja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction, the article presents a brief reflection on collaborative farming in Poland and abroad. There is also a formulated objective of the study, which is to show the essence of agricultural productive cooperatives’ activity and their role in the farmers’ and local communities’ protection. The following section presents used research methods and the subjective, spatial and temporal scope of own research. Subsequent parts of the article relate to the description of the history of APCs in Poland with an explanation of the causes of their foundation and liquidating, presentation the essence and the role of cooperative activi-ties in agriculture with an indication of the advantages of collective farming and characteris-tics of agricultural, economic and social activities of Polish APCs. At the end of the article there is the summary of the undertaken considerations and conclusions.

  4. Cooperatives for “fair globalization”? Indigenous people, cooperatives, and corporate social responsibility in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Cooperatives and socially responsible corporations are being hailed as possible correctives to the socioeconomic and ecological exploitation of transnational capitalism. AmazonCoop—a cooperative linking indigenous Brazil nut harvesters and the multinational firm The Body Shop through trade and development projects—capitalized on indigenous symbolism to generate significant material benefits for both parties. At the same time, however, it made indigenous people more vulnerable and dependent, failed to promote participatory development, masked the effects of unfavorable state policies, and perpetuated discriminatory distinctions among indigenous people. Furthermore, the cooperative did not provide an organizational framework to ameliorate the vulnerabilities of indigenous identity politics or transform symbolic capital into enduring political-economic change. This case strongly supports arguments that cooperatives must be rooted in participation, democratic member control, and autonomy if they are to promote “fair globalization” or social transformation rather than institutionalize existing patterns of exploitation.

  5. What can social parasites tell us about cooperation and conflict in insect societies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, David Richard

    features of their evolution can provide information on how cooperation is normally maintained in insect societies. Distantly related social parasites must evolve de novo exploitation strategies without the benefit of shared ancestry of social traits with their hosts, so that their evolution can be used...... strategies to exploit social insect colonies. Both types of social parasitism can provide useful insights into cooperation and conflict within insect societies. Closely related social parasites are essentially the outcome of the breakdown of cooperation and the realisation of conflict, and the unique...... to examine how cooperation can be exploited independent of these traits. In this presentation I will examine both types of social parasitism in detail, and provide some examples of the insights they can bring to the study of cooperation and conflict....

  6. Cluster-size distributions for irreversible cooperative filling of lattices. I. Exact one-dimensional results for coalescing clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, R. S.; Hoffman, D. K.; Evans, J. W.

    1985-06-01

    We consider processes where the sites of an infinite, uniform lattice are filled irreversibly and cooperatively, with the rate of adsorption at a site depending on the state of its nearest neighbors (only). The asymmetry between empty and filled sites, associated with irreversibility, leads one to consider the closed infinite coupled hierarchies of rate equations for probabilities of connected and singly, doubly, etc., disconnected empty subconfigurations and results in an empty-site-shielding property. The latter allows exact solutions, via truncation, of these equations in one dimension and is used here to determine probabilities of filled s-tuples, fs (f1≡θ is the coverage), and thus of clusters of exactly s filled sites, ns≡fs-2fs+1+fs+2 for s∞, and we can accurately estimate the asymptotic decay rate λ(θ)≡ lims-->∞ fs+1/fs≡ lims-->∞ ns+1/ns, where 0=λ(0)behavior of the average cluster size, as θ-->1, is also considered. In addition, we develop a novel technique to determine directly the asymptotic decay rate λ(θ) and indicate its extension to higher-dimensional irreversible cooperative filling (and to other dynamic processes on lattices).

  7. Comparative analysis of a tourism cluster in the Baikal region: role of cooperation as a factor of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Nikolayevna Danilenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates cooperation in the field of tourism as a factor and feature of tourism clusters development. The analysis of tourism clusters development, trends and most common forms of cooperation between the participants in two regions of the Baikal region (Irkutsk region and the Republic of Buryatia was carried out based on the results of interviews with representatives of tourism business, education and government. The results indicate that compared with European practice, the areas of cooperation of Russian tourism sector enterprises with other economic actors are less diverse. Some attributes of cluster development based on cooperation are indicated in the Republic of Buryatia, whereas they are missing in the Irkutsk region, although two regions are the objects of a number of national and regional development programs aimed at tourism clusters development.

  8. Shariah Governance Framework For Islamic Co-Operatives As An Integral Social Insitution In Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Issyam Itam; Rusni bt Hasan; Syed Musa Alhabshi

    2017-01-01

    In Malaysia, Islamic cooperatives are recognized as providers of some form of Islamic financial service similar to Islamic Banks and Takaful Operators. An Islamic Co-operative refers to a co-operative conducting activities and businesses based on Shariah principles. Being a non-banking financial institution, its main objective is to enhance social economic welfare of its members. As a form of captive social institution, it enables the less economically privileged members of society to pool re...

  9. The early social environment affects social competence in a cooperative breeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborsky, Barbara; Arnold, Cornelia; Junker, Julian; Tschopp, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Social competence is defined as the ability of an animal to optimize the expression of social behaviour as a function of the available social information. The social environment encountered early in life can affect the expression of various social behaviours later in life. We investigated whether early social experience can affect social competence. In the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher, we tested whether individuals reared with older brood-caring conspecifics persistently perform better in a series of tasks (1) simulating different social contexts, (2) assigning individuals different social roles and (3) exposing them to an unknown social situation. Fish that had been reared together with older conspecifics showed more appropriate behaviours both as winners (more aggressive displays) and as losers (more submissive displays) when aggressively competing with peers over a resource, and when trying to be accepted as subordinate group member and prospective brood care helper by an unfamiliar dominant pair (more submissive displays near shelters), a situation they had never encountered before. In both tasks fish that had grown up with older fish were tolerated better by conspecifics than fish reared with same-age siblings only. We detected effects of the early environment on social behaviour in the juvenile and adult stages of the test fish. Our results suggest that growing up in more complex social groups fosters a general social ability (i.e. social competence) in N. pulcher that improves their performance across different social roles and contexts, and which may provide fitness benefits. PMID:22536004

  10. Dynamics of Cooperation in a Task Completion Social Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passino, Kevin M.

    2017-01-01

    We study the situation where the members of a community have the choice to participate in the completion of a common task. The process of completing the task involves only costs and no benefits to the individuals that participate in this process. However, completing the task results in changes that significantly benefit the community and that exceed the participation efforts. A task completion social dilemma arises when the short-term participation costs dissipate any interest in the community members to contribute to the task completion process and therefore to obtain the benefits that result from completing the task. In this work, we model the task completion problem using a dynamical system that characterizes the participation dynamics in the community and the task completion process. We show how this model naturally allows for the incorporation of several mechanisms that facilitate the emergence of cooperation and that have been studied in previous research on social dilemmas, including communication across a network, and indirect reciprocity through relative reputation. We provide mathematical analyses and computer simulations to study the qualitative properties of the participation dynamics in the community for different scenarios. PMID:28125721

  11. Cluster-size distributions for irreversible cooperative filling of lattices. I. Exact one-dimensional results for coalescing clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nord, R.S.; Hoffman, D.K.; Evans, J.W.

    1985-06-01

    We consider processes where the sites of an infinite, uniform lattice are filled irreversibly and cooperatively, with the rate of adsorption at a site depending on the state of its nearest neighbors (only). The asymmetry between empty and filled sites, associated with irreversibility, leads one to consider the closed infinite coupled hierarchies of rate equations for probabilities of connected and singly, doubly, etc., disconnected empty subconfigurations and results in an empty-site-shielding property. The latter allows exact solutions, via truncation, of these equations in one dimension and is used here to determine probabilities of filled s-tuples, f/sub s/ (f/sub 1/equivalenttheta is the coverage), and thus of clusters of exactly s filled sites, n/sub s/equivalentf/sub s/-2f/sub s+1/+f/sub s+2/ for s< or =13 and 11, respectively. When all rates are nonzero so that clusters can coalesce, the f/sub s/ and n/sub s/ distributions decay exponentially as s..-->..infinity, and we can accurately estimate the asymptotic decay rate lambda(theta)equivalent lim/sub s/..-->..infinity f/sub s+1//f/sub s/equivalent lim/sub s/..-->..infinity n/sub s+1//n/sub s/, where 0 = lambda(0)< or =lambda(theta)< or =lambda(1) = 1. Divergent behavior of the average cluster size, as theta..-->..1, is also considered.

  12. Treatment of social capital in the transformation of cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Nagore

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Provided for in Article 69.2 of the Spanish Law on Cooperatives, to regulate the transformation of the cooperative society in civil or commercial society of any kind, that the participation of cooperative members in the capital of the new entity will be proportional to they had in that.

  13. Commonalities of the Mondragon Corproacion Cooperativa Spain, the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh, the Evangeline Cooperatives, and the Big Carrot cooperative social ventures of Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Rouf, Kazi Abdur

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this is paper to compare and contrast the Evangeline Cooperatives in Canada, the Big Carrot in Toronto, the Mondragon in Spain, and the group based microcredit Grameen Bank in Bangladesh through the lens of the cooperative movement in Canada, Spain, and Bangladesh. Results show that the idea of corporate responsibility can be shifted by a cooperative movement and become the heart of its value system. While, new social stock markets with social enterprise cooperatives can...

  14. Multi-Objective Clustering Optimization for Multi-Channel Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Heterogeneous Green CRNs

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Abdulkadir

    2016-06-27

    In this paper, we address energy efficient (EE) cooperative spectrum sensing policies for large scale heterogeneous cognitive radio networks (CRNs) which consist of multiple primary channels and large number of secondary users (SUs) with heterogeneous sensing and reporting channel qualities. We approach this issue from macro and micro perspectives. Macro perspective groups SUs into clusters with the objectives: 1) total energy consumption minimization; 2) total throughput maximization; and 3) inter-cluster energy and throughput fairness. We adopt and demonstrate how to solve these using the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II. The micro perspective, on the other hand, operates as a sub-procedure on cluster formations decided by the macro perspective. For the micro perspectives, we first propose a procedure to select the cluster head (CH) which yields: 1) the best CH which gives the minimum total multi-hop error rate and 2) the optimal routing paths from SUs to the CH. Exploiting Poisson-Binomial distribution, a novel and generalized K-out-of-N voting rule is developed for heterogeneous CRNs to allow SUs to have different local detection performances. Then, a convex optimization framework is established to minimize the intra-cluster energy cost by jointly obtaining the optimal sensing durations and thresholds of feature detectors for the proposed voting rule. Likewise, instead of a common fixed sample size test, we developed a weighted sample size test for quantized soft decision fusion to obtain a more EE regime under heterogeneity. We have shown that the combination of proposed CH selection and cooperation schemes gives a superior performance in terms of energy efficiency and robustness against reporting error wall.

  15. A New Cooperative Algorithm Based on PSO and K-Means for Data Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sargolzaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Data clustering has been applied in multiple fields such as machine learning, data mining, wireless sensor networks and pattern recognition. One of the most famous clustering approaches is K-means which effectively has been used in many clustering problems, but this algorithm has some drawbacks such as local optimal convergence and sensitivity to initial points. Approach: Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm is one of the swarm intelligence algorithms, which is applied in determining the optimal cluster centers. In this study, a cooperative algorithm based on PSO and k-means is presented. Result: The proposed algorithm utilizes both global search ability of PSO and local search ability of k-means. The proposed algorithm and also PSO, PSO with Contraction Factor (CF-PSO, k-means algorithms and KPSO hybrid algorithm have been used for clustering six datasets and their efficiencies are compared with each other. Conclusion: Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has an acceptable efficiency and robustness.

  16. Commonalities of the Mondragon Corproacion Cooperativa Spain, the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh, the Evangeline Cooperatives, and the Big Carrot cooperative social ventures of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouf, Kazi Abdur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this is paper to compare and contrast the Evangeline Cooperatives in Canada, the Big Carrot in Toronto, the Mondragon in Spain, and the group based microcredit Grameen Bank in Bangladesh through the lens of the cooperative movement in Canada, Spain, and Bangladesh. Results show that the idea of corporate responsibility can be shifted by a cooperative movement and become the heart of its value system. While, new social stock markets with social enterprise cooperatives can accelerate investment in social enterprise cooperatives to promote employment, sustainable development and to reduce poverty.

  17. A Novel Wireless Power Transfer-Based Weighed Clustering Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Method for Cognitive Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin

    2015-10-30

    In a cognitive sensor network (CSN), the wastage of sensing time and energy is a challenge to cooperative spectrum sensing, when the number of cooperative cognitive nodes (CNs) becomes very large. In this paper, a novel wireless power transfer (WPT)-based weighed clustering cooperative spectrum sensing model is proposed, which divides all the CNs into several clusters, and then selects the most favorable CNs as the cluster heads and allows the common CNs to transfer the received radio frequency (RF) energy of the primary node (PN) to the cluster heads, in order to supply the electrical energy needed for sensing and cooperation. A joint resource optimization is formulated to maximize the spectrum access probability of the CSN, through jointly allocating sensing time and clustering number. According to the resource optimization results, a clustering algorithm is proposed. The simulation results have shown that compared to the traditional model, the cluster heads of the proposed model can achieve more transmission power and there exists optimal sensing time and clustering number to maximize the spectrum access probability.

  18. Non-Cooperative Regulation Coordination Based on Game Theory for Wind Farm Clusters during Ramping Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Yongzhi; Liu, Yutian; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    of wind farm clusters (WFCs) in order to track scheduled wind power of the WFC during ramping events. In the proposed strategy, a non‐cooperative game is formulated and wind farms compete to provide regulation to the WFC during ramping events. A regulation revenue function is proposed to evaluate......With increasing penetration of wind power in power systems, it is important to track scheduled wind power output as much as possible during ramping events to ensure security of the system. In this paper, a non‐cooperative coordination strategy based on the game theory is proposed for the regulation...... the competition process of wind farms to provide regulation to the WFC which includes revenue of effective regulation (ER), power support regulation and punishment regulation. The multi‐time‐interval Nash equilibrium condition is derived for the regulation competition process of wind farms. By setting parameters...

  19. The increased risk of joint venture promotes social cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te Wu

    Full Text Available The joint venture of many members is common both in animal world and human society. In these public enterprizes, highly cooperative groups are more likely to while low cooperative groups are still possible but not probable to succeed. Existent literature mostly focuses on the traditional public goods game, in which cooperators create public wealth unconditionally and benefit all group members unbiasedly. We here institute a model addressing this public goods dilemma with incorporating the public resource foraging failure risk. Risk-averse individuals tend to lead a autarkic life, while risk-preferential ones tend to participate in the risky public goods game. For participants, group's success relies on its cooperativeness, with increasing contribution leading to increasing success likelihood. We introduce a function with one tunable parameter to describe the risk removal pattern and study in detail three representative classes. Analytical results show that the widely replicated population dynamics of cyclical dominance of loner, cooperator and defector disappear, while most of the time loners act as savors while eventually they also disappear. Depending on the way that group's success relies on its cooperativeness, either cooperators pervade the entire population or they coexist with defectors. Even in the later case, cooperators still hold salient superiority in number as some defectors also survive by parasitizing. The harder the joint venture succeeds, the higher level of cooperation once cooperators can win the evolutionary race. Our work may enrich the literature concerning the risky public goods games.

  20. The increased risk of joint venture promotes social cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

    2013-01-01

    The joint venture of many members is common both in animal world and human society. In these public enterprizes, highly cooperative groups are more likely to while low cooperative groups are still possible but not probable to succeed. Existent literature mostly focuses on the traditional public goods game, in which cooperators create public wealth unconditionally and benefit all group members unbiasedly. We here institute a model addressing this public goods dilemma with incorporating the public resource foraging failure risk. Risk-averse individuals tend to lead a autarkic life, while risk-preferential ones tend to participate in the risky public goods game. For participants, group's success relies on its cooperativeness, with increasing contribution leading to increasing success likelihood. We introduce a function with one tunable parameter to describe the risk removal pattern and study in detail three representative classes. Analytical results show that the widely replicated population dynamics of cyclical dominance of loner, cooperator and defector disappear, while most of the time loners act as savors while eventually they also disappear. Depending on the way that group's success relies on its cooperativeness, either cooperators pervade the entire population or they coexist with defectors. Even in the later case, cooperators still hold salient superiority in number as some defectors also survive by parasitizing. The harder the joint venture succeeds, the higher level of cooperation once cooperators can win the evolutionary race. Our work may enrich the literature concerning the risky public goods games.

  1. Industrial Clusters and Corporate Social Responsibility in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam; Vanhamme, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a review of what we know, what we do not know, and what we need to know about the relationship between industrial clusters and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in developing countries. In addition to the drivers of and barriers to the adoption of CSR initiatives...... focus on export-oriented industrial clusters, the risk that CSR becomes a form of economic and cultural imperialism, and the potential for joint-action CSR initiatives in clusters of small and medium-sized enterprises to offer a new form of greenwashing. From this review, the authors develop...

  2. Cluster-size distributions for irreversible cooperative filling of lattices. II. Exact one-dimensional results for noncoalescing clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.W.; Nord, R.S.

    1985-06-01

    We consider processes where the sites of an infinite, uniform, one-dimensional lattice are filled irreversibly and cooperatively, with the rates k/sub i/, depending on the number i = 0,1,2 of filled nearest neighbors. Furthermore, we suppose that filling of sites with both neighbors already filled is forbidden, so k/sub 2/ = 0. Thus, clusters can nucleate and grow, but cannot coalesce. Exact truncation solutions of the corresponding infinite hierarchy of rate equations for subconfiguration probabilities are possible. For the probabilities of filled s-tuples f/sub s/ as a function of coverage, thetaequivalentf/sub 1/, we find that f/sub s//f/sub s+1/ = D(theta)s+C(theta,s), where C(theta,s)/s..-->..0 as s..-->..infinity. This corresponds to faster than exponential decay. Also, if rhoequivalentk/sub 1//k/sub 0/, then one has D(theta)approx.(2rhotheta)/sup -1/ as theta..-->..0. The filled-cluster-size distribution n/sub s/ has the same characteristics. Motivated by the behavior of these families of f/sub s//f/sub s+1/-vs-s curves, we develop the natural extension of f/sub s/ to s< or =0. Explicit values for f/sub s/ and related quantities for ''almost random'' filling, k/sub 0/ = k/sub 1/, are obtained from a direct statistical analysis.

  3. Cluster-size distributions for irreversible cooperative filling of lattices. II. Exact one-dimensional results for noncoalescing clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. W.; Nord, R. S.

    1985-06-01

    We consider processes where the sites of an infinite, uniform, one-dimensional lattice are filled irreversibly and cooperatively, with the rates ki, depending on the number i=0,1,2 of filled nearest neighbors. Furthermore, we suppose that filling of sites with both neighbors already filled is forbidden, so k2=0. Thus, clusters can nucleate and grow, but cannot coalesce. Exact truncation solutions of the corresponding infinite hierarchy of rate equations for subconfiguration probabilities are possible. For the probabilities of filled s-tuples fs as a function of coverage, θ≡f1, we find that fs/fs+1=D(θ)s+C(θ,s), where C(θ,s)/s-->0 as s-->∞. This corresponds to faster than exponential decay. Also, if ρ≡k1/k0, then one has D(θ)~(2ρθ)-1 as θ-->0. The filled-cluster-size distribution ns has the same characteristics. Motivated by the behavior of these families of fs/fs+1-vs-s curves, we develop the natural extension of fs to s<=0. Explicit values for fs and related quantities for ``almost random'' filling, k0=k1, are obtained from a direct statistical analysis.

  4. A polychromatic ‘greenbeard' locus determines patterns of cooperation in a social amoeba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenheit, Nicole; Parkinson, Katie; Stewart, Balint; Howie, Jennifer A.; Wolf, Jason B.; Thompson, Christopher R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Cheaters disrupt cooperation by reaping the benefits without paying their fair share of associated costs. Cheater impact can be diminished if cooperators display a tag (‘greenbeard') and recognise and preferentially direct cooperation towards other tag carriers. Despite its popular appeal, the feasibility of such greenbeards has been questioned because the complex patterns of partner-specific cooperative behaviours seen in nature require greenbeards to come in different colours. Here we show that a locus (‘Tgr') of a social amoeba represents a polychromatic greenbeard. Patterns of natural Tgr locus sequence polymorphisms predict partner-specific patterns of cooperation by underlying variation in partner-specific protein–protein binding strength and recognition specificity. Finally, Tgr locus polymorphisms increase fitness because they help avoid potential costs of cooperating with incompatible partners. These results suggest that a polychromatic greenbeard can provide a key mechanism for the evolutionary maintenance of cooperation. PMID:28120827

  5. A polychromatic 'greenbeard' locus determines patterns of cooperation in a social amoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenheit, Nicole; Parkinson, Katie; Stewart, Balint; Howie, Jennifer A; Wolf, Jason B; Thompson, Christopher R L

    2017-01-25

    Cheaters disrupt cooperation by reaping the benefits without paying their fair share of associated costs. Cheater impact can be diminished if cooperators display a tag ('greenbeard') and recognise and preferentially direct cooperation towards other tag carriers. Despite its popular appeal, the feasibility of such greenbeards has been questioned because the complex patterns of partner-specific cooperative behaviours seen in nature require greenbeards to come in different colours. Here we show that a locus ('Tgr') of a social amoeba represents a polychromatic greenbeard. Patterns of natural Tgr locus sequence polymorphisms predict partner-specific patterns of cooperation by underlying variation in partner-specific protein-protein binding strength and recognition specificity. Finally, Tgr locus polymorphisms increase fitness because they help avoid potential costs of cooperating with incompatible partners. These results suggest that a polychromatic greenbeard can provide a key mechanism for the evolutionary maintenance of cooperation.

  6. How Do Social Capital and HIV/AIDS Outcomes Geographically Cluster and Which Sociocontextual Mechanisms Predict Differences Across Clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransome, Yusuf; Dean, Lorraine T; Crawford, Natalie D; Metzger, David S; Blank, Michael B; Nunn, Amy S

    2017-09-01

    Place of residence has been associated with HIV transmission risks. Social capital, defined as features of social organization that improve efficiency of society by facilitating coordinated actions, often varies by neighborhood, and hypothesized to have protective effects on HIV care continuum outcomes. We examined whether the association between social capital and 2 HIV care continuum outcomes clustered geographically and whether sociocontextual mechanisms predict differences across clusters. Bivariate Local Moran's I evaluated geographical clustering in the association between social capital (participation in civic and social organizations, 2006, 2008, 2010) and [5-year (2007-2011) prevalence of late HIV diagnosis and linkage to HIV care] across Philadelphia, PA, census tracts (N = 378). Maps documented the clusters and multinomial regression assessed which sociocontextual mechanisms (eg, racial composition) predict differences across clusters. We identified 4 significant clusters (high social capital-high HIV/AIDS, low social capital-low HIV/AIDS, low social capital-high HIV/AIDS, and high social capital-low HIV/AIDS). Moran's I between social capital and late HIV diagnosis was (I = 0.19, z = 9.54, P social capital was lowest and HIV burden the highest, compared with clusters with high social capital and lowest HIV burden. The association between social participation and HIV care continuum outcomes cluster geographically in Philadelphia, PA. HIV prevention interventions should account for this phenomenon. Reducing geographic disparities will require interventions tailored to each continuum step and that address socioeconomic factors such as neighborhood median income.

  7. MODEL OF COOPERATION OF THE SYSTEM OF STAFF EDUCATION FOR INDUSTRY – CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF EDUCATIONAL CLUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata PRADELA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Education of staff for industry in Poland is carried out in vocational education system in schools, responsible for education of qualified workers and in system of technical universities, responsible for engineering education. This article concentrates on aspects of education of qualified workers. There is presented model of cooperation insitution responsible for vocational education for industry on the basis of concept of educational cluster. The first part of the article describes aims and determinants of cluster formulation. The second – model of structure of educational cluster, particularly: stakeholders of cluster (potential participants of cluster, scope of cooperation, information flows and stakeholders’ activities. The last part of article discusses possibilities of implementati on the model: (a by creation educational strategies and (b by caring out projects concentrated on particular problem.

  8. Dynamic social networks facilitate cooperation in the N-player Prisoner’s Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Golriz; Kirley, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Understanding how cooperative behaviour evolves in network communities, where the individual members interact via social dilemma games, is an on-going challenge. In this paper, we introduce a social network based model to investigate the evolution of cooperation in the N-player Prisoner’s Dilemma game. As such, this work complements previous studies focused on multi-player social dilemma games and endogenous networks. Agents in our model, employ different game-playing strategies reflecting varying cognitive capacities. When an agent plays cooperatively, a social link is formed with each of the other N-1 group members. Subsequent cooperative actions reinforce this link. However, when an agent defects, the links in the social network are broken. Computational simulations across a range of parameter settings are used to examine different scenarios: varying population and group sizes; the group formation process (or partner selection); and agent decision-making strategies under varying dilemma constraints (cost-to-benefit ratios), including a “discriminator” strategy where the action is based on a function of the weighted links within an agent’s social network. The simulation results show that the proposed social network model is able to evolve and maintain cooperation. As expected, as the value of N increases the equilibrium proportion of cooperators in the population decreases. In addition, this outcome is dependent on the dilemma constraint (cost-to-benefit ratio). However, in some circumstances the dynamic social network plays an increasingly important role in promoting and sustaining cooperation, especially when the agents adopt the discriminator strategy. The adjustment of social links results in the formation of communities of “like-minded” agents. Subsequently, this local optimal behaviour promotes the evolution of cooperative behaviour at the system level.

  9. Green social cooperatives in Italy: a practical way to cover the three pillars of sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Osti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an introductory description of Italian green social cooperatives which are democratic nonprofit organizations specializing in the provision of environmental services. The background to this topic is the literature on the “third sector,” usually called social entrepreneurship, and the “sociology of environment,” mainly that part concerned with consumption and lifestyles. Green social cooperatives are a concrete attempt to unify the three pillars of sustainability. The analysis is divided into two parts. The first part highlights the challenges that the environmental crisis raises for social enterprises and considers three dimensions in particular: work integration, generalized or linear exchange, and the theory of the commons. The discussion reveals mismatches between the urgency of moving toward a sustainable world and the competences of social enterprises. The second part examines this asymmetry and uses the social cooperative, the main empirical expression of social enterprise in Italy, as its point of departure. The article proposes a typology with which to frame green social cooperatives and employs a qualitative approach to outline a concrete case for each type. The result is the emergence of a social area, at present decidedly underdeveloped and undersized, but with considerable potential for job creation and environmental services. The analysis demonstrates that social enterprises are interesting hybrids of economic and social sustainability, but to promote the environmental pillar of sustainability they must combine work and habitation (or production and consumption according to a logic of sufficiency.

  10. How Social Software Supports Cooperative Practices in a Globally Distributed Software Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuffrida, Rosalba; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    In Global Software Development (GSD), the lack of face- to-face communication is a major challenge and effective computer-mediated practices are necessary. This paper analyzes cooperative practices supported by Social Software (SoSo) in a GSD student project. The empirical results show...... that the role of SoSo is to support informal communication, enabling social talks and metawork, both necessary for establishing and for maintaining effective coordination mechanisms, thus successful cooperation....

  11. A genetic contribution to cooperation: dopamine-relevant genes are associated with social facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Nora T; Markett, Sebastian A; Montag, Christian; Reuter, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Social loafing and social facilitation are stable behavioral effects that describe increased or decreased motivation, as well as effort and cooperation in teamwork as opposed to individual working situations. Recent twin studies demonstrate the heritability of cooperative behavior. Brain imaging studies have shown that reciprocity, cooperativeness, and social rewards activate reward processing areas with strong dopaminergic input, such as the ventral striatum. Thus, candidate genes for social behavior are hypothesized to affect dopaminergic neurotransmission. In the present study, we investigated the dopaminergic genetic contribution to social cooperation, especially to social loafing and social facilitation. N = 106 healthy, Caucasian subjects participated in the study and were genotyped for three polymorphisms relevant to the dopaminergic system (COMTval158met, DRD2 c957t, DRD2 rs#2283265). In addition to a main effect indicating an increased performance in teamwork situations, we found a significant interaction between a haplotype block covering both DRD2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs#6277 and rs#2283265), henceforth referred to as the DRD2-haplotype block, and the COMT val158met polymorphism (rs#4680) with social facilitation. Carriers of the DRD2 CT-haplotype block and at least one Val-allele showed a greater increase in performance in teamwork settings when compared with carriers of the CT-haplotype block and the Met/Met-genotype. Our results suggest that epistasis between COMTval158met and the two DRD2 SNPs contributes to individual differences in cooperativeness in teamwork settings.

  12. Games people play - towards an enactive view of cooperation in social neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Alexander Engemann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The field of social neuroscience has made considerable progress in unraveling the neural correlates of human cooperation by making use of brain imaging methods. Within this field, neuroeconomic research has drawn on paradigms from experimental economics, such as the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Trust Game. These paradigms capture the topic of conflict in cooperation, while focusing strongly on outcome-related decision processes. Cooperation, however, does not equate with that perspective, but relies on additional psychological processes and events, including shared intentions and mutually coordinated joint action. These additional facets of cooperation have been successfully addressed by research in developmental psychology, cognitive science, and social philosophy. Corresponding neuroimaging data, however, is still sparse. Therefore, in this paper, we present a juxtaposition of these mutually related but mostly independent trends in cooperation research. We propose that the neuroscientific study of cooperation could benefit from paradigms and concepts employed in developmental psychology and social philosophy. Bringing both to a neuroimaging environment might allow studying the neural correlates of cooperation by using formal models of decision-making as well as capturing the neural responses that underlie joint action scenarios, thus, promising to advance our understanding of the nature of human cooperation.

  13. Dynamic instability of cooperation due to diverse activity patterns in evolutionary social dilemmas

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Perc, Matjaz; Moreno, Yamir

    2015-01-01

    Individuals might abstain from participating in an instance of an evolutionary game for various reasons, ranging from lack of interest to risk aversion. In order to understand the consequences of such diverse activity patterns on the evolution of cooperation, we study a weak prisoner's dilemma where each player's participation is probabilistic rather than certain. Players that do not participate get a null payoff and are unable to replicate. We show that inactivity introduces cascading failures of cooperation, which are particularly severe on scale-free networks with frequently inactive hubs. The drops in the fraction of cooperators are sudden, while the spatiotemporal reorganization of compact cooperative clusters, and thus the recovery, takes time. Nevertheless, if the activity of players is directly proportional to their degree, or if the interaction network is not strongly heterogeneous, the overall evolution of cooperation is not impaired. This is because inactivity negatively affects the potency of low-...

  14. Social and Symbolic Capital in Border Region Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    to a specific industry sector. The actors have relationships characterised by interdependencies of different strength and quality that define the boundaries. Empirically this contribution is sticking to a firm cluster in the Danish - German border region in Southern Jutland/Danmark. We found global players...... with a high sensitivity regarding the importance of social capital in the process of value creation. Managers on the firm- as well as on the web-level are aware of the potential, but the border between the countries is by the same one border of the cluster as an value adding unit....

  15. Topic Modeling Based Image Clustering by Events in Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Social event detection in large photo collections is very challenging and multimodal clustering is an effective methodology to deal with the problem. Geographic information is important in event detection. This paper proposed a topic model based approach to estimate the missing geographic information for photos. The approach utilizes a supervised multimodal topic model to estimate the joint distribution of time, geographic, content, and attached textual information. Then we annotate the missing geographic photos with a predicted geographic coordinate. Experimental results indicate that the clustering performance improved by annotated geographic information.

  16. Cluster model of social partnership in municipal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova Oksana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the model of educational clusters that are based on social interaction between educational institutions and public-private partnerships. Particular attention is paid to methods of creating such educational network, which allows not only to educational organizations to obtain the missing for the implementation of educational activities and resources to achieve certain educational outcomes, but also to meet the needs of customers of educational services. Different approaches to the formation of a model educational cluster, based on partnerships.

  17. Patterns of cooperation during collective emergencies in the help-or-escape social dilemma

    CERN Document Server

    Moussaid, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Although cooperation is central to the organisation of many social systems, relatively little is known about cooperation in situations of collective emergency. When groups of people flee from a danger such as a burning building or a terrorist attack, the collective benefit of cooperation is important, but the cost of helping is high and the temptation to defect is strong. To explore the degree of cooperation in emergencies, we develop a new social game, the help-or-escape social dilemma. Under time and monetary pressure, players decide how much risk they are willing to take in order to help others. Results indicated that players took as much risk to help others during emergencies as they did under normal conditions. In both conditions, most players applied an egalitarian heuristic and helped others until their chance of success equalled that of the group. This strategy is less efficient during emergencies, however, because the increased time pressure results in fewer people helped. Furthermore, emergencies te...

  18. Fairness and cooperation are rewarding: evidence from social cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibnia, Golnaz; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2007-11-01

    To motivate their consumers or employees, corporations often offer monetary incentives, such as cash-back deals or salary bonuses. However, human behavior is not solely driven by material outcome; fairness and equity matter as well. In a recent neuroimaging study, fair offers led to higher happiness ratings and increased activity in several reward regions of the brain compared with unfair offers of equal monetary value. Other neuroimaging studies have similarly shown activation in reward regions in response to cooperative partners or cooperative play. Here, we review these findings and discuss the implications for organizational settings.

  19. THE ROLE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS ON THE GROWTH OF ITALIAN SOCIAL COOPERATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Agliata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Third Sector in Italy records a slow but constant growth due to the increase of the number of entities but not of their dimension. The difficulties in financial management, generated by a low attraction of debt and equity financial resources and a low level of managerial skills characterized the non profit organizations. Focused on the social cooperatives, the article describe the effects on the financial structure of innovative financial instruments as the participative loan. In the last years in Italy there has been an increasing attention towards the ethical finance. The consideration of the social co-ops as a part of the Third Sector allows them to have a privileged interlocution with the institutions of the ethical finance. But the development of this institutions, although it is originated from the will to support the social responsible development, at the moment seems not to support a substantial resolution of the financial needs related to the management of the social cooperatives. The article shows an analysis on a particular financial intermediary, the Cooperazione Finanza Impresa (CFI. This institution is a private equity investor which since twenty years is dedicated to worker cooperatives and social cooperatives. The interest for this institution, besides the entities financed, is based on a particular form of participative loan developed. The investigation start from the observation of a singular social cooperatives with the elaboration of a set of indicators based on the financial ratio analysis. The evaluation regard the financial structure previous to the financing operation and its subsequent modification. Due to the first conclusions, the investigation enlarged the analysis to a sample of 10 social cooperatives in order to confirm the first results. The observation of modified financial structure up a period of five years shows significative positive change that support both the economic and the financial equilibrium, with

  20. Punishment does not promote cooperation under exploration dynamics when anti-social punishment is possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Oliver P; Nowak, Martin A; Rand, David G

    2014-11-07

    It has been argued that punishment promotes the evolution of cooperation when mutation rates are high (i.e. when agents engage in 'exploration dynamics'). Mutations maintain a steady supply of agents that punish free-riders, and thus free-riders are at a disadvantage. Recent experiments, however, have demonstrated that free-riders sometimes also pay to punish cooperators. Inspired by these empirical results, theoretical work has explored evolutionary dynamics where mutants are rare, and found that punishment does not promote the evolution of cooperation when this 'anti-social punishment' is allowed. Here we extend previous theory by studying the effect of anti-social punishment on the evolution of cooperation across higher mutation rates, and by studying voluntary as well as compulsory Public Goods Games. We find that for intermediate and high mutation rates, adding punishment does not promote cooperation in either compulsory or voluntary public goods games if anti-social punishment is possible. This is because mutations generate agents that punish cooperators just as frequently as agents that punish defectors, and these two effects cancel each other out. These results raise questions about the effectiveness of punishment for promoting cooperation when mutations are common, and highlight how decisions about which strategies to include in the strategy set can have profound effects on the resulting dynamics.

  1. Topic Modeling Based Image Clustering by Events in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Social event detection in large photo collections is very challenging and multimodal clustering is an effective methodology to deal with the problem. Geographic information is important in event detection. This paper proposed a topic model based approach to estimate the missing geographic information for photos. The approach utilizes a supervised multimodal topic model to estimate the joint distribution of time, geographic, content, and attached textual information. Then we annotate the missi...

  2. The Definition, Measurement and Development of Social Motives Underlying Cooperative and Competitive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Charles G.; Messick, David M.

    This research proposal supports a program in social psychology which uses a variety of game paradigms and related tasks to obtain estimates of the relative dominance of various social motives including those of maximizing own gain (individualism), joint gain (cooperation), and relative gain (competition). Numerous major studies completed or in…

  3. Social Interaction Rules in Cooperative Learning Groups for Students at Risk for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuester, Deitra A.; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of providing social participation rules on the performance and social behavior of a school-based sample of 10-14-year-old students at risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 34) who worked cooperatively in same-gender triads with typical peers (n = 92). The design was primarily a 2 (population group)…

  4. Keeping up appearances: Experiments on cooperation in social dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, E.M.F.

    2014-01-01

    We cooperate. To be precise: we help out others at a cost to ourselves, daily and at an astonishing scale; among family, strangers and enemies, whether we are foraging, negotiating or waging war. Why are we willing to reduce our own chances of survival and reproduction to augment those of others? Th

  5. Measuring social capital: The Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, G.L.H.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    What are the roots of social capital and how can it be measured and built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society and ...

  6. Measuring social capital: The Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, G.L.H.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    What are the roots of social capital and how can it be measured and built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society and ...

  7. Trust, cooperation, and equality: a psychological analysis of the formation of social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Philip J

    2011-06-01

    Research suggests that in modern Western culture there is a positive relationship between the equality of resources and the formation of trust and cooperation, two psychological components of social capital. Two studies elucidate the psychological processes underlying that relationship. Study 1 experimentally tested the influence of resource distributions on the formation of trust and intentions to cooperate; individuals receiving a deficit of resources and a surplus of resources evidenced lower levels of social capital (i.e., trust and cooperation) than did individuals receiving equal amounts. Analyses revealed the process was affective for deficit participants and cognitive for surplus participants. Study 2 provided suggestive support for the affective-model of equality and social capital using proxy variables in the 1996 General Social Survey data set. Results suggest support for a causal path of unequal resource distributions generating affective experiences and cognitive concerns of justice, which mediate disengagement and distrust of others.

  8. Cooperative network clustering and task allocation for heterogeneous small satellite network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jing

    The research of small satellite has emerged as a hot topic in recent years because of its economical prospects and convenience in launching and design. Due to the size and energy constraints of small satellites, forming a small satellite network(SSN) in which all the satellites cooperate with each other to finish tasks is an efficient and effective way to utilize them. In this dissertation, I designed and evaluated a weight based dominating set clustering algorithm, which efficiently organizes the satellites into stable clusters. The traditional clustering algorithms of large monolithic satellite networks, such as formation flying and satellite swarm, are often limited on automatic formation of clusters. Therefore, a novel Distributed Weight based Dominating Set(DWDS) clustering algorithm is designed to address the clustering problems in the stochastically deployed SSNs. Considering the unique features of small satellites, this algorithm is able to form the clusters efficiently and stably. In this algorithm, satellites are separated into different groups according to their spatial characteristics. A minimum dominating set is chosen as the candidate cluster head set based on their weights, which is a weighted combination of residual energy and connection degree. Then the cluster heads admit new neighbors that accept their invitations into the cluster, until the maximum cluster size is reached. Evaluated by the simulation results, in a SSN with 200 to 800 nodes, the algorithm is able to efficiently cluster more than 90% of nodes in 3 seconds. The Deadline Based Resource Balancing (DBRB) task allocation algorithm is designed for efficient task allocations in heterogeneous LEO small satellite networks. In the task allocation process, the dispatcher needs to consider the deadlines of the tasks as well as the residue energy of different resources for best energy utilization. We assume the tasks adopt a Map-Reduce framework, in which a task can consist of multiple

  9. Impact of fraud on the mean-field dynamics of cooperative social systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhl, Torsten; Röhl, Claudia; Schuster, Heinz Georg; Traulsen, Arne

    2007-08-01

    The evolution of costly cooperation between selfish individuals seems to contradict Darwinian selection, as it reduces the fitness of a cooperating individual. However, several mechanisms such as repeated interactions or spatial structure can lead to the evolution of cooperation. One such mechanism for the evolution of cooperation, in particular among humans, is indirect reciprocity, in which individuals base their decision to cooperate on the reputation of the potential receiver, which has been established in previous interactions. Cooperation can evolve in these systems if individuals preferably cooperate with those that have shown to be cooperative in the past. We analyze the impact of fake reputations or fraud on the dynamics of reputation and on the success of the reputation system itself, using a mean-field description for evolutionary games given by the replicator equation. This allows us to classify the qualitative dynamics of our model analytically. Our results show that cooperation based on indirect reciprocity is robust with respect to fake reputations and can even be enhanced by them. We conclude that fraud per se does not necessarily have a detrimental effect on social systems.

  10. Principle of «concern for community»: beyond «social responsibility» in cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Cardoso Cançado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to demonstrate the principle of cooperatives Concern for Community represents the way cooperatives interact to its community, especially in a social aspect. Thus there is no need of using the terminology «Social Responsibility for Cooperatives» once the cooperative principle already encompasses the social actions of the cooperative in a more complete and organic way. This discussion is related to traditional mimicry of cooperatives management (technics and tools from management of companies, which weakens the identity of cooperatives. This text also demonstrates the Theory of Giving can support the theory and practice of the Concern for Community principle.A previous version of this paper was published and presented at International Summit of Cooperatives Quebec 2012.Received: 27.03.2014Accepted: 01.07.2014

  11. Translucent Players: Explaining Cooperative Behavior in Social Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Capraro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, numerous experiments have shown that humans do not always behave so as to maximize their material payoff. Cooperative behavior when non-cooperation is a dominant strategy (with respect to the material payoffs is particularly puzzling. Here we propose a novel approach to explain cooperation, assuming what Halpern and Pass call translucent players. Typically, players are assumed to be opaque, in the sense that a deviation by one player in a normal-form game does not affect the strategies used by other players. But a player may believe that if he switches from one strategy to another, the fact that he chooses to switch may be visible to the other players. For example, if he chooses to defect in Prisoner's Dilemma, the other player may sense his guilt. We show that by assuming translucent players, we can recover many of the regularities observed in human behavior in well-studied games such as Prisoner's Dilemma, Traveler's Dilemma, Bertrand Competition, and the Public Goods game.

  12. User cooperation, virality and gaming in a social mobile network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, C; Blazovics, L; Charaf, H

    2012-01-01

    Social networks and mobile systems are both rapidly developing areas nowadays. In this chapter, we will introduce Gedda-Headz, a novel social mobile gaming concept that brings these two areas together. Gedda-Headz is a social mobile network that mainly focuses on multiplayer mobile gaming. First ......, as virality is very important in social networks, we will describe the viral elements of Gedda-Headz. We will also introduce the Gedda-Headz spreader, a novel method to spread the word about the network, increasing the virality further....

  13. Interactions Among Agent Variables and Evolution of Social Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Shafee, Fariel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we first review some basic concepts associated with a model for social interaction previously proposed by us. Each agent is seen as an array of variables that can be found in different states. The agents are then allowed to interact and form groups based on their variables. We discuss how spin-glass type physics may be appropriate for our model. Several types of variables and costs associated with flipping the variables are discussed. Then some simple graphs are presented to understand the formation of various levels of identities within social clusters. In the end, we analyze events from the French revolution and the Russian revolution to to understand how different variables and identities interact within a hierarchical social structure.

  14. Co-evolution between sociality and dispersal: the role of synergistic cooperative benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Brelsford, Alan; Avilés, Leticia

    2012-11-07

    Explaining the evolution of sociality is challenging because social individuals face disadvantages that must be balanced by intrinsic benefits of living in a group. One potential route towards the evolution of sociality may emerge from the avoidance of dispersal, which can be risky in some environments. Although early studies found that local competition may cancel the benefits of cooperation in viscous populations, subsequent studies have identified conditions, such as the presence of kin recognition or specific demographic conditions, under which altruism will still spread. Most of these studies assume that the costs of cooperating outweigh the direct benefits (strong altruism). In nature, however, many organisms gain synergistic benefits from group living, which may counterbalance even costly altruistic behaviours. Here, we use an individual based model to investigate how dispersal and social behaviour co-evolve when social behaviours result in synergistic benefits that counterbalance the relative cost of altruism to a greater extent than assumed in previous models. When the cost of cooperation is high, selection for sociality responds strongly to the cost of dispersal. In particular, cooperation can begin to spread in a population when higher cooperation levels become correlated with lower dispersal tendencies within individuals. In contrast, less costly social behaviours are less sensitive to the cost of dispersal. In line with previous studies, we find that mechanisms of global population control also affect this relationship: when whole patches (groups) go extinct each generation, selection favours a relatively high dispersal propensity, and social behaviours evolve only when they are not very costly. If random individuals within groups experience mortality each generation to maintain a global carrying capacity, on the other hand, social behaviours spread and dispersal is reduced, even when the latter is not costly.

  15. ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF FINANCIAL SOCIAL LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES ON LOAN REPAYMENT BEHAVIOUR OF COOPERATOR BORROWERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ogbonna EMEROLE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study on analysis of influence of financial social learning opportunities on loan repayment behavior of cooperator borrowers was carried out in Abia State, Nigeria. It was the objectives of the study to relate social learning financial opportunities in cooperative societies and member borrowers budgeting and timely repayment of loans; and determine demographic, social learning and financial factors that influenced loan repayment by cooperator borrowers. Two-stage random sampling technique was used in selecting first, two of the three agricultural zones; and second two registered farmers’ multi-purpose agricultural cooperative societies. This was followed by purposive selection from registers of the chosen cooperative societies sixty cooperators who currently were repaying loans borrowed. Descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were used in analyzing the gathered cross sectional data. Results suggest important relationships between financial social learning opportunities in cooperative societies and borrowers’ budgeting and timely loan repayment behaviours. Attendance to meetings, discussions with fellow cooperators and meaningful observation on financial behaviour of members of cooperative societies had significant positive influences on conduct and performance loan beneficiaries. The number of times beneficiaries attended meeting since after loan(s were received; number of times they discussed loan matters with members before loan(s were received; and number of times they discussed loan repayment strategies with other cooperators after loans were received had positive influences on loan repayment behaviour of cooperator borrowers. Cooperator(s should participate in all union activities to truly belong and reap the benefits of being a member

  16. TOWARD AN AUGMENTED THEORY OF COOPERATIVE BEHAVIOR: THE CASE OF CLUSTERING IN ANIMAL AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Thurow, Amy Purvis; Thompson, Paul B.

    1998-01-01

    An augmented theory of cooperative behavior is presented. This game-theoretic model details two obstacles to cooperation which often arise when stakeholders are negotiating local land-use conflicts. First, protracted involvement from outsiders can deter long-run cooperation. Second, if stakeholders fail to frame the expected pay-offs from cooperating similarly -- both their ethical stances and their choices of language -- then their likelihood of successful cooperation is reduced. Case studie...

  17. Dynamic instability of cooperation due to diverse activity patterns in evolutionary social dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Perc, Matjaž; Moreno, Yamir

    2015-03-01

    Individuals might abstain from participating in an instance of an evolutionary game for various reasons, ranging from lack of interest to risk aversion. In order to understand the consequences of such diverse activity patterns on the evolution of cooperation, we study a weak prisoner's dilemma where each player's participation is probabilistic rather than certain. Players that do not participate get a null payoff and are unable to replicate. We show that inactivity introduces cascading failures of cooperation, which are particularly severe on scale-free networks with frequently inactive hubs. The drops in the fraction of cooperators are sudden, while the spatiotemporal reorganization of compact cooperative clusters, and thus the recovery, takes time. Nevertheless, if the activity of players is directly proportional to their degree, or if the interaction network is not strongly heterogeneous, the overall evolution of cooperation is not impaired. This is because inactivity negatively affects the potency of low-degree defectors, who are hence unable to utilize on their inherent evolutionary advantage. Between cascading failures, the fraction of cooperators is therefore higher than usual, which lastly balances out the asymmetric dynamic instabilities that emerge due to intermittent blackouts of cooperative hubs.

  18. [Behavior change from defection to cooperation in a social dilemma: a field study of attitude-behavior consistency in campus parking behavior by motorcyclists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoura, Y

    1987-12-01

    Behavior change by persuasive communications in a social dilemma, in which a university tried to persuade students to park their motorcycles in a designated lot in order to resolve noise problems, was studied by a questionnaire. Hayashi's quantification theory III was applied to variables such as subjective norms, beliefs in the effectiveness of one's cooperation, the perception of campus traffic conditions and attitudes toward one's parking behavior. Factor scores obtained were subjected to a cluster analysis, which, within 105 defectors, yielded three subgroups. Contrary to prediction, subgroups were not different in their cooperation ratio examined 10 months later, but tended to be different in their readiness for acceptance of persuasion and in their intention to cooperate in a social dilemma other than parking. Two mechanisms underlying cooperation were revealed: internalization of prosocial norm, and compliance in which cooperation was unaccompanied by correspondent changes in normative beliefs. The Fishbein model was applicable only to change through internalization. A linear assumption in the Fishbein model between evaluative attitude and behavior should be reexamined in its application to a social dilemma.

  19. Evolution of cooperation: combining kin selection and reciprocal altruism into matrix games with social dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Som B Ale

    Full Text Available Darwinian selection should preclude cooperation from evolving; yet cooperation is widespread among organisms. We show how kin selection and reciprocal altruism can promote cooperation in diverse 2×2 matrix games (prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift, and hawk-dove. We visualize kin selection as non-random interactions with like-strategies interacting more than by chance. Reciprocal altruism emerges from iterated games where players have some likelihood of knowing the identity of other players. This perspective allows us to combine kin selection and reciprocal altruism into a general matrix game model. Both mechanisms operating together should influence the evolution of cooperation. In the absence of kin selection, reciprocal altruism may be an evolutionarily stable strategy but is unable to invade a population of non-co-operators. Similarly, it may take a high degree of relatedness to permit cooperation to supplant non-cooperation. Together, a little bit of reciprocal altruism can, however, greatly reduce the threshold at which kin selection promotes cooperation, and vice-versa. To properly frame applications and tests of cooperation, empiricists should consider kin selection and reciprocal altruism together rather than as alternatives, and they should be applied to a broader class of social dilemmas than just the prisoner's dilemma.

  20. Effects of social intention on movement kinematics in cooperative actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois eQuesque

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimal control models of biological movements are used to account for those internal variables that constrain voluntary goal-directed actions. They however do not take into account external environmental constraints as those associated to social intention. We investigated here the effects of the social context on kinematic characteristics of sequential actions consisting in placing an object on an initial pad (preparatory action before reaching and grasping as fast as possible the object to move it to another location (main action. Reach-to-grasp actions were performed either in an isolated condition or in the presence of a partner (audience effect, located in the near or far space (effect of shared reachable space, and who could intervene on the object in a systematic fashion (effect of social intention effect or not (effect of social uncertainty. Results showed an absence of audience effect but nevertheless an influence of the social context both on the main and the preparatory actions. In particular, a localized effect of shared reachable space was observed on the main action, which was smoother when performed within the reachable space of the partner. Furthermore, a global effect of social uncertainty was observed on both actions with faster and jerkier movements. Finally, social intention affected the preparatory action with higher wrist displacements and slower movements when the object was placed for the partner rather than placed for self-use. Overall, these results demonstrate specific effects of action space, social uncertainty and social intention on the planning of reach-to-grasp actions, in particular on the preparatory action, which was performed with no specific execution constraint. These findings underline the importance of considering the social context in optimal models of action control for human-robot interactions, in particular when focusing on the implementation of motor parameters required to afford intuitive

  1. COOPERATION AND SUSTAINABILITY CASE STUDY OF A SOCIETY OF SOCIAL SOLIDARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Carrillo González

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability studies have been addressed from an economic, social, cultural, and environmental point of view. They have exceeded dimensions and developed mechanisms, which have involved various elements to establish cooperation and social networks. The aim of this paper is to analyze cooperation and establishment of farmers' organizations as critical factors in achieving sustainable local projects oriented to reforestation and land recovery, illustrating with the case of a triple S (Society of Social Solidarity, in the town of Zapotitlan Lagunas in the State of Oaxaca. Positive effects derived from these kinds of societies are reforestation in the area, land recovery, consolidation of social relationships and job creations. Therefore, thinking and acting locally is a condition to positively impact on the environment and add a social and economic vision can contribute to sustainability.

  2. Deciphering versatility and cooperation in multilayer social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Camellia; Jalan, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    Despite large scale availability of social data, our understanding of the basic laws governing human behaviour remains limited, owing to the lack of a proper framework which can capture the interplay of various interdependent factors affecting social interactions. In the recent years, multilayer networks has increasingly been realized to provide an efficient framework for understanding the intricacies of complex real world systems. The present study encompasses the multilayer network analysis of Bollywood, the largest film industry of the world, comprising of a massive time-varying social data. Making around 1500 films annually, Bollywood has emerged as a globally recognized and appreciated platform for cultural exchange. This film industry acts as a mirror of the society and the rapidly changing nature of the society is reflected in the depictions of films. This renders this model system to provide a ripe platform to understand social behaviour by analyzing the patterns of evolution and the success of indivi...

  3. The Social Construction of Development Cooperation Success and Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe

    2016-01-01

    Determining the success of development projects and programmes is often portrayed and understood as a question of measurable impact and effectiveness. More often than not however, success is a negotiated truth, socially constructed between the involved stakeholders that does not require measurable......, the article argues, is not a matter of attaining impact, but is rather constructed in the overlapping space between representation and interpretation of events, actions and discourses, made and sustained socially between recipient and donor....

  4. On Social Optima of Non-Cooperative Mean Field Games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Sen; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Lin; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2016-12-12

    This paper studies the social optima in noncooperative mean-field games for a large population of agents with heterogeneous stochastic dynamic systems. Each agent seeks to maximize an individual utility functional, and utility functionals of different agents are coupled through a mean field term that depends on the mean of the population states/controls. The paper has the following contributions. First, we derive a set of control strategies for the agents that possess *-Nash equilibrium property, and converge to the mean-field Nash equilibrium as the population size goes to infinity. Second, we study the social optimal in the mean field game. We derive the conditions, termed the socially optimal conditions, under which the *-Nash equilibrium of the mean field game maximizes the social welfare. Third, a primal-dual algorithm is proposed to compute the *-Nash equilibrium of the mean field game. Since the *-Nash equilibrium of the mean field game is socially optimal, we can compute the equilibrium by solving the social welfare maximization problem, which can be addressed by a decentralized primal-dual algorithm. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. The co-evolution of social institutions, demography, and large-scale human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Simon T; Lehmann, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    Human cooperation is typically coordinated by institutions, which determine the outcome structure of the social interactions individuals engage in. Explaining the Neolithic transition from small- to large-scale societies involves understanding how these institutions co-evolve with demography. We study this using a demographically explicit model of institution formation in a patch-structured population. Each patch supports both social and asocial niches. Social individuals create an institution, at a cost to themselves, by negotiating how much of the costly public good provided by cooperators is invested into sanctioning defectors. The remainder of their public good is invested in technology that increases carrying capacity, such as irrigation systems. We show that social individuals can invade a population of asocials, and form institutions that support high levels of cooperation. We then demonstrate conditions where the co-evolution of cooperation, institutions, and demographic carrying capacity creates a transition from small- to large-scale social groups. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  6. Building and destroying social capital: The case of cooperative movements in Denmark and Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chloupkova, Jarka; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    . However, the comparison of the present level of social capital indicates that the level of social capital is significantly higher in Denmark than in Poland. The paper concludes that the reason for this difference is due to the fact that the original accumulation of social capital in Poland was destroyed......Social capital, measured as the level of trust among people, may be regarded as a new production factor alongside the traditional ones of human and physical capital. With appropriate levels of social capital, monitoring and transaction costs can be saved and thus economic growth stimulated. Via...... linking social capital to rural development and comparing the cases of agricultural cooperative movements in Denmark and Poland, this paper identifies possible roots of building social capital and suggests that social capital was built through a lengthy process in both countries during the 19th century...

  7. Building and destroying social capital: The case of cooperative movements in Denmark and Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chloupkova, Jarka; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    Social capital, measured as the level of trust among people, may be regarded as a new production factor alongside the traditional ones of human and physical capital. With appropriate levels of social capital, monitoring and transaction costs can be saved and thus economic growth stimulated. Via....... However, the comparison of the present level of social capital indicates that the level of social capital is significantly higher in Denmark than in Poland. The paper concludes that the reason for this difference is due to the fact that the original accumulation of social capital in Poland was destroyed...... linking social capital to rural development and comparing the cases of agricultural cooperative movements in Denmark and Poland, this paper identifies possible roots of building social capital and suggests that social capital was built through a lengthy process in both countries during the 19th century...

  8. Cooperation enhanced by indirect reciprocity in spatial prisoner's dilemma games for social P2P systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lin-Lin; Li, Ming-Chu; Wang, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    With the growing interest in social Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications, relationships of individuals are further exploited to improve the performances of reputation systems. It is an on-going challenge to investigate how spatial reciprocity aids indirect reciprocity in sustaining cooperation in practical P2P environments. This paper describes the construction of an extended prisoner's dilemma game on square lattice networks with three strategies, i.e., defection, unconditional cooperation, and reciprocal cooperation. Reciprocators discriminate partners according to their reputations based on image scoring, where mistakes in judgment of reputations may occur. The independent structures of interaction and learning neighborhood are discussed, with respect to the situation in which learning environments differ from interaction networks. The simulation results have indicated that the incentive mechanism enhances cooperation better in structured peers than among a well-mixed population. Given the realistic condition of inaccurate reputation scores, defection is still successfully held down when the players interact and learn within the unified neighborhoods. Extensive simulations have further confirmed the positive impact of spatial structure on cooperation with different sizes of lattice neighborhoods. And similar conclusions can also be drawn on regular random networks and scale-free networks. Moreover, for the separated structures of the neighborhoods, the interaction network has a critical effect on the evolution dynamics of cooperation and learning environments only have weaker impacts on the process. Our findings further provide some insights concerning the evolution of collective behaviors in social systems.

  9. Long-term social bonds promote cooperation in the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Angèle; Larose, Karine; Dubois, Frédérique

    2009-12-07

    Reciprocal altruism, one of the most probable explanations for cooperation among non-kin, has been modelled as a Prisoner's Dilemma. According to this game, cooperation could evolve when individuals, who expect to play again, use conditional strategies like tit-for-tat or Pavlov. There is evidence that humans use such strategies to achieve mutual cooperation, but most controlled experiments with non-human animals have failed to find cooperation. One reason for this could be that subjects fail to cooperate because they behave as if they were to play only once. To assess this hypothesis, we conducted an experiment with monogamous zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) that were tested in a two-choice apparatus, with either their social partner or an experimental opponent of the opposite sex. We found that zebra finches maintained high levels of cooperation in an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game only when interacting with their social partner. Although other mechanisms may have contributed to the observed difference between the two treatments, our results support the hypothesis that animals do not systematically give in to the short-term temptation of cheating when long-term benefits exist. Thus, our findings contradict the commonly accepted idea that reciprocal altruism will be rare in non-human animals.

  10. Shariah Governance Framework For Islamic Co-Operatives As An Integral Social Insitution In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Issyam Itam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, Islamic cooperatives are recognized as providers of some form of Islamic financial service similar to Islamic Banks and Takaful Operators. An Islamic Co-operative refers to a co-operative conducting activities and businesses based on Shariah principles. Being a non-banking financial institution, its main objective is to enhance social economic welfare of its members. As a form of captive social institution, it enables the less economically privileged members of society to pool resources as a cooperative. Malaysia is spearheading the Islamic banking and finance industry globally by having in place a proper and well-designed legal and regulatory framework for Islamic Financial Institutions, which includes the area of Shariah governance. However, the Shariah governance framework for the Islamic Co-operative in Malaysia is still in its infancy stage. In this paper, this area will be given focus and properly highlighted. Later, comparison will be made with the Shariah governance framework for the Islamic financial institutions. This paper will conclude that the requirements with regard to Shariah governance for the Islamic Co-operative are flexible and not as strict as required for the Islamic financial institutions.

  11. Perspectives of the social and economic cooperation among the SCO member states in condition of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisher Fayzievich Rasulev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the main directions of the social and economic cooperation among SCO member states in trade, economic and investment spheres, and transport-communication potential of the region. On the example of The Republic of Uzbekistan, it is discussed the priorities of thesocial and economic development, such as the modernization of industry and competitiveness, theincrease of investment, the development of the transport system, as well as the project of a free industrial economic zone in the context of the SCO member states. The author shows that the equal and mutually beneficial cooperation in the SCO framework in various areas of economic cooperation has to be developed, which in fact confirms the expectations of its role as a key element of strengthening of the economic security and stability, and the harmonization of the integration processes in the region. Also, the articleexamines thelegal framework of cooperation in the SCO framework, such as the Treaty on thelong-term friendship and cooperation of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, which establishes the principles of sovereignty, territorial integrity and inviolability of the borders of the SCO countries, peaceful resolution of differences and disputes, as well as mutual respect for the choice of the path of political, economic, social and cultural development, according to national circumstances of each state.

  12. Manufacturers’ Benefits from Their Cooperation with Key Retailers in the Context of Business Models: A Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzanna Witek-Hajduk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine if, among consumer durable goods’ manufacturers operating in Poland, clusters could be distinguished in terms of the strength of benefits obtained from their cooperation with the key retailer. Also, this article aims to verify if these clusters could be differentiated according to the business models employed by the two parties. With the CATI method data was collected from 613 respondents that were clustered into 5 groups. The established clusters proved to differ statistically in terms of the manufacturer’s business model. From the perspective of the manufacturer, however, these differences proved to be poor predictors of the overall level of the obtained benefits.

  13. Rearing-group size determines social competence and brain structure in a cooperatively breeding cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Stefan; Bessert-Nettelbeck, Mathilde; Kotrschal, Alexander; Taborsky, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Social animals can greatly benefit from well-developed social skills. Because the frequency and diversity of social interactions often increase with the size of social groups, the benefits of advanced social skills can be expected to increase with group size. Variation in social skills often arises during ontogeny, depending on early social experience. Whether variation of social-group sizes affects development of social skills and related changes in brain structures remains unexplored. We investigated whether, in a cooperatively breeding cichlid, early group size (1) shapes social behavior and social skills and (2) induces lasting plastic changes in gross brain structures and (3) whether the development of social skills is confined to a sensitive ontogenetic period. Rearing-group size and the time juveniles spent in these groups interactively influenced the development of social skills and the relative sizes of four main brain regions. We did not detect a sensitive developmental period for the shaping of social behavior within the 2-month experience phase. Instead, our results suggest continuous plastic behavioral changes over time. We discuss how developmental effects on social behavior and brain architecture may adaptively tune phenotypes to their current or future environments.

  14. Promotion of cooperation in social dilemma games via generalised indirect reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiong, Raymond; Kirley, Michael

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a novel generalised indirect reciprocity approach for promoting cooperation in social dilemma games. Here, players decide upon an action to play in the game based on public information (or "external cues") rather than individual-specific information. The public information is constantly updated according to the underlying learning model. Comprehensive simulation experiments using the N-player Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) and Snowdrift (SD) games show that generalised indirect reciprocity promotes high levels of cooperation across a wide range of conditions. This is despite the fact that the make-up of player groups is continually changing. As expected, the extent of cooperative behaviour observed in the "constraint-relaxed" N-player SD game is significantly higher than the N-player PD game. Our proposed generalised indirect reciprocity model may shed light on the conundrum of cooperation between anonymous individuals.

  15. THE SOCIAL ORIENTATION OF THE ACTIVITY OF THE LABOUR WORKING COOPERATIVES FOR DISABLED PEOPLE IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena MITEVA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bulgaria's membership in the European Union defines the orientation of our country in line with the key strategic priorities of Europe 2020, which aims to achieve smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The role of the cooperative system becomes especially important at this time when the EU itself is constructed as a union of equal socially oriented states. In the paper is depicted the role of the labour working producer cooperatives for disabled people as one of the main actors of the social economy in the EU which contribute to solving many economic and social problems of a substantial part of the Bulgarian population and to implement the priorities of the strategy "Europe 2020". In line with this aim, are given suggestion for the trends in improving their activity. So that they could provide better labour rehabilitation, strengthen the social integration of their members, promotion of production, improvement of working conditions, proposals for changes in legislation.

  16. Measuring social complexity and the emergence of cooperation from entropic principles

    CERN Document Server

    López-Corona, O; Huerta, A; Mustri-Trejo, D; Perez, K; Ruiz, A; Valdés, O; Zamudio, F

    2015-01-01

    Assessing quantitatively the state and dynamics of a social system is a very difficult problem. It is of great importance for both practical and theoretical reasons such as establishing the efficiency of social action programs, detecting possible community needs or allocating resources. In this paper we propose a new general theoretical framework for the study of social complexity, based on the relation of complexity and entropy in combination with evolutionary dynamics to asses the dynamics of the system. Imposing the second law of thermodynamics, we study the conditions under which cooperation emerges and demonstrate that it depends of relative importance of local and global fitness. As cooperation is a central concept in sustainability, this thermodynamic-informational approach allows new insights and means to asses it using the concept of Helmholtz free energy. Finally we introduce a new set of equations that consider the more general case where the social system change both in time and space, and relate ...

  17. Impact of heterogeneous activity and community structure on the evolutionary success of cooperators in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Xi; Rong, Zhihai; Yang, Han-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical studies suggest that heavy-tailed distributions of human activities are universal in real social dynamics [L. Muchnik, S. Pei, L. C. Parra, S. D. S. Reis, J. S. Andrade Jr., S. Havlin, and H. A. Makse, Sci. Rep. 3, 1783 (2013)]. On the other hand, community structure is ubiquitous in biological and social networks [M. E. J. Newman, Nat. Phys. 8, 25 (2012)]. Motivated by these facts, we here consider the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game taking place on top of a real social network to investigate how the community structure and the heterogeneity in activity of individuals affect the evolution of cooperation. In particular, we account for a variation of the birth-death process (which can also be regarded as a proportional imitation rule from a social point of view) for the strategy updating under both weak and strong selection (meaning the payoffs harvested from games contribute either slightly or heavily to the individuals' performance). By implementing comparative studies, where the players are selected either randomly or in terms of their actual activities to play games with their immediate neighbors, we figure out that heterogeneous activity benefits the emergence of collective cooperation in a harsh environment (the action for cooperation is costly) under strong selection, whereas it impairs the formation of altruism under weak selection. Moreover, we find that the abundance of communities in the social network can evidently foster the formation of cooperation under strong selection, in contrast to the games evolving on randomized counterparts. Our results are therefore helpful for us to better understand the evolution of cooperation in real social systems.

  18. Emergence of social cooperation in threshold public goods games with collective risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Fu, Feng; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

    2009-07-01

    In real situations, people are often faced with the option of voluntary contribution to achieve a collective goal, for example, building a dam or a fence, in order to avoid an unfavorable loss. Those who do not donate, however, can free ride on others’ sacrifices. As a result, cooperation is difficult to maintain, leading to an enduring collective-risk social dilemma. To address this issue, here we propose a simple yet effective theoretical model of threshold public goods game with collective risk and focus on the effect of risk on the emergence of social cooperation. To do this, we consider the population dynamics represented by replicator equation for two simplifying scenarios, respectively: one with fair sharers, who contribute the minimum average amount versus defectors and the other with altruists contributing more than average versus defectors. For both cases, we find that the dilemma is relieved in high-risk situations where cooperation is likely to persist and dominate defection in the population. Large initial endowment to individuals also encourages the risk-averse action, which means that, as compared to poor players (with small initial endowment), wealthy individuals (with large initial endowment) are more likely to cooperate in order to protect their private accounts. In addition, we show that small donation amount and small threshold (collective target) can encourage and sustain cooperation. Furthermore, for other parameters fixed, the impacts of group size act differently on the two scenarios because of distinct mechanisms: in the former case where the cost of cooperation depends on the group size, large size of group readily results in defection, while easily maintains cooperation in the latter case where the cost of cooperation is fixed irrespective of the group size. Our theoretical results of the replicator dynamics are in excellent agreement with the individual based simulation results.

  19. Social Loafing in a Co-operative Classroom Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Adrian C.; Linley, P. Alex; Hargreaves, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether social loafing (the tendency for individuals to reduce their input when performing as part of a group) existed in a collaborative educational task employing groups of three and eight participants. Indicates that individuals working in smaller groups were more productive than those working in larger groups. (CMK)

  20. Equilibrium Social Hierarchies: A Non-Cooperative Ordinal Status Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, R.; Mouche, van P.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We analyze a game in strategic form, where each player's payoff depends on his action and his social status, which is given by his rank in the actions distribution. Our focus is on the relation between the degree of heterogeneity among status-seeking players and the distribution of their Na

  1. Social sustainability of Brazilian biodiesel: The role of agricultural cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stattman, S.L.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofuels have been criticized in academic and activist circles not only for their environmental consequences but also for their social impacts on food availability and on small-scale family farming. Meanwhile (global) initiatives and policies have been developed to stimulate "sustainable biofuels".

  2. Social sustainability of Brazilian biodiesel: The role of agricultural cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stattman, S.L.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofuels have been criticized in academic and activist circles not only for their environmental consequences but also for their social impacts on food availability and on small-scale family farming. Meanwhile (global) initiatives and policies have been developed to stimulate "sustainable biofuels".

  3. The impact of size of cooperative group on achievement, social support, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Andrea; Conte, Stella; Johnson, David W; Johnson, Roger T

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cooperative learning in pairs and groups of 4 and in individualistic learning were compared on achievement, social support, and self-esteem. Sixty-two Italian 7th-grade students with no previous experience with cooperative learning were assigned to conditions on a stratified random basis controlling for ability, gender, and self-esteem. Students participated in 1 instructional unit for 90 min for 6 instructional days during a period of about 6 weeks. The results indicate that cooperative learning in pairs and 4s promoted higher achievement and greater academic support from peers than did individualistic learning. Students working in pairs developed a higher level of social self-esteem than did students learning in the other conditions.

  4. Taxation of cooperatives from the perspective of international expansion and sustainable development of social economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Patón García

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has created a major concern in developedcountries for control of social risks with negative effects on growth and this problem can be approached from the perspective of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. Thus, CSR is seen as an entrepreneurial attitude aimed at promoting social, economic and environmental purposes while guarantying competitiveness in the international market. Thus, social economy can contribute to sustainable development, economic and social cohesion, to promote productive and income distribution, to ensure employment and equality of opportunities. The purpose of this study is to have an influence onthe role that taxation plays in the area of incentive policies related to social economy and very prominently manifested in the legal status of cooperatives. The approach aims to provide proposals on tax regulation of cooperatives taking the perspective of the international context and the size of the sector in countries like Spain and Peru in order to encourage cooperative social responsibility. Indeed, the importance of providing a legal and fiscal framework to promote their internationalization connects providentially with the principles that govern the cooperative action. We consider that it is essential, from the perspective of sustainable development and cooperatives’social responsibility, to take into account in the tax regime applicable criteria that can be justified on constitutional principles, the general interest of society or internationalization economic activity. Also, there could be other positive effects in the area of Latin America, such as decreasing tax evasion and the formalization of at least a portion of the informal sector of the economy, including the real impulse to CSR.

  5. Cooperation makes beliefs: Weather variation and sources of social trust in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Anh Duc Dang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I investigate the origins of social trust within Vietnam. By combining a unique contemporary survey of households with historical data on weather variation, I show that individuals who are heavily threatened by negative weather fluctuation exhibit more trust in neighbours and others within their close group. The evidence indicates that the effects of weather variation on social trust are transmitted through strengthening the cooperation among village peasants as they cope with ...

  6. Effect of co-operative fuzzy c-means clustering on estimates of three parameters AVA inversion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh R Nair; Suresh Ch Kandpal

    2010-04-01

    We determine the degree of variation of model fitness,to a true model based on amplitude variation with angle (AVA)methodology for a synthetic gas hydrate model,using co-operative fuzzy c-means clustering,constrained to a rock physics model.When a homogeneous starting model is used,with only traditional least squares optimization scheme for inversion,the variance of the parameters is found to be comparatively high.In this co-operative methodology,the output from the least squares inversion is fed as an input to the fuzzy scheme.Tests with co-operative inversion using fuzzy c-means with damped least squares technique and constraints derived from empirical relationship based on rock properties model show improved stability,model fitness and variance for all the three parameters in comparison with the standard inversion alone.

  7. Performance of Cooperative Learning Groups in a Postgraduate Education Research Methodology Course: The Role of Social Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the degree that social interdependence predicted the achievement of 26 cooperative learning groups. Social interdependence was assessed in terms of postgraduate students' individual orientation (that is, cooperative, competitive, and individualistic). Participants were 84 postgraduate students enrolled in an…

  8. Performance of Cooperative Learning Groups in a Postgraduate Education Research Methodology Course: The Role of Social Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the degree that social interdependence predicted the achievement of 26 cooperative learning groups. Social interdependence was assessed in terms of postgraduate students' individual orientation (that is, cooperative, competitive, and individualistic). Participants were 84 postgraduate students enrolled in an…

  9. A systematic investigation of cooperativity between two types of hydrogen bonding in the nonlinear clusters of an aromatic molecule: Pyrazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Saeed K.

    2014-06-01

    Crystalline pyrazole consists of nonlinear chains of an aromatic molecule. It includes two independent molecules which in turn causes two different types of hydrogen bonds (HBs). These two types of HBs with slight differences in their Nsbnd H⋯N geometries can be considered as interesting ones in the recent studies of cooperativity between different HBs. These HBs are investigated in several pyrazole clusters by electronic structure calculations. Parameters such as structure, binding energy, charge transfer, chemical shielding and electric field gradient (EFG) parameters calculated at the second order Moller-Plesset perturbation (MP2) and density functional (DF) levels of theory. Both the basis set superposition error (BSSE) and zero point vibrational energy (ZPVE) corrections on the cooperativity enhancement were considered. Changes of different properties of clusters against crystal size were investigated by proposed diagrams fitted to a logarithmic function which renders their extrema in the crystal limit. In each cluster, pyrazole molecules for which their parameters are more affected by cooperativity enhancement were explored employing these fitted diagrams. Most calculated energetic and spectroscopic parameters were in good linear correlations with both the structural parameters and charge transfer along HB (q). These correlations in the cases of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupolar resonance (NQR) parameters, were explained in the terms of natural charges of bonding (σ(N1sbnd H1)) and antibonding (σ*(N1sbnd H1)) orbitals. Organizing calculated data for mental clusters with similar molecules and HB types produced better regression values in all linear correlations. According to the experimental CQ of N(2) in solid state and zero charge transfer in the gas phase, the value of charge transfer in the crystalline pyrazole and gas phase value of CQ of N(2) were assessed, respectively. Diagrams of the structural parameters against either

  10. Pillars of cooperation: Honesty-Humility, social value orientations, and economic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbig, B.E.; Zettler, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    The current work explores the predictive power of the recently proposed sixth personality dimension, Honesty-Humility, with respect to economic and cooperative behavior. It was expected that this factor should explain how decision makers allocate a valued good to themselves vs. another...... fearing consequences. Finally, social value orientations were shown to partially mediate the effects found....

  11. Cooperative Activity as Mediation in the Social Adjustment of Chinese International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junqian

    2017-01-01

    Social adjustment is one of the most difficult and long-lasting challenges for international students who study in a new country. This paper uses a case study of cooperative painting activity conducted in Australian setting, in which two Chinese and three other students from different countries participated, in order to assess the efficiency of…

  12. Web-sharing Sociality and Cooperative Prey Capture in a Malagasy Spitting Spider (Araneae: Scytodidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Web-sharing sociality and cooperative prey capture are reported for Scytodes socialis, sp. nov., a spitting spider discovered in a dry deciduous forest in Eastern Madagascar. Transect-based sampling was used to investigate colony demographics, estimate web volume and stratigraphic position, and asse

  13. Socially cooperative choices: An approach to achieving resource sustainability in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crance, Colin; Draper, Dianne

    1996-03-01

    Achieving resource sustainability, particularly in the coastal zone, is complicated by a variety of interdependencies and trade-offs between economic, social, and ecological variables. Although trade-offs between each of these variables are important, this paper emphasizes the social components of resource management. In this regard a distinction is made between individual and cooperative choices. Individual choices frequently are made from a shortterm, self-interested perspective, whereas cooperative choices are made from a long-term, community and resource-sustainability perspective. Typically, when presented with a spectrum of resource management decisions, individuals have a tendency to act in a self-interested manner. Thus, cooperative benefits, such as reduced conflict and improved resource certainty, are not realized. An overview of selected aspects of social dilemma theory suggests that socially cooperative choice outcomes are attainable in coastal zone management by integrating structural and behavioral solutions in resource use decision making. Three barriers to successful integration of structural and behavioral solutions are identified as self-interest, mistrust, and variable perceptions of resource amenities. Examples from coastal zone management indicate that these barriers may be overcome using approaches such as scopereduction, co-management, community education, and local participation. The paper also provides comment on the potential benefits of integrating structural and behavioral solutions in international coastal zone management efforts.

  14. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Elementary Students' Science Achievement and Social Skills in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the effects of two methods of teaching--teacher-centered and cooperative learning--on students' science achievement and use of social skills. The sample consists of 163 female elementary science students in 8 intact grade 5 classes who were assigned to 2 instructional methods and were taught an identical science unit by 4…

  15. How Social Software Supports Cooperative Practices in a Globally Distributed Software Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuffrida, Rosalba; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    In Global Software Development (GSD), the lack of face- to-face communication is a major challenge and effective computer-mediated practices are necessary. This paper analyzes cooperative practices supported by Social Software (SoSo) in a GSD student project. The empirical results show...

  16. The Game Factory: Using Cooperative Games to Promote Pro-Social Behaviour among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Helen; Hoppe, David; Kingsbury, David; Ma, Tony

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the use of a cooperative physical games program "The Game Factory" on social behaviour among children. Children are required to work together towards positive collective outcomes. A pretest-intervention-posttest design is used. Parents and teachers assessed 90 Australian primary school children in two experimental…

  17. The role of cooperation for improved stewardship of marine social-ecological systems in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Villasante

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Latin American and Caribbean (LAC countries are among the worlds' richest in marine biodiversity. Fish stocks in these regions are important for fishing communities, and fishing activities engage several million people. These fisheries depend on the natural services provided by a diverse range of marine social-ecological systems, but many LAC fisheries are in a degraded state, and concerns about overexploitation are widespread. With most fishery resources fully exploited or overexploited, opportunities for development lie primarily in restoring depleted stocks and using stocks more efficiently. The papers published in the Special Feature "Cooperation, Local Communities, and Marine Social-Ecological Systems: New Findings from Latin America" present a range of experiences with ecosystem stewardship in the region and highlight promising perspectives for the future. The Special Feature consists of papers that deal with new findings from case studies which show how cooperation is key for building resilience in LAC fisheries. These case studies illustrate the effects of different types of cooperation and the roles of diverse stakeholders (fishers, scientists, environmental nongovernmental organizations, and national administrations, among others in different countries of the region. Combined, these papers describe social processes, leadership, and institutional and organizational changes of relevance for stewardship of marine social-ecological systems in Latin America. The field of resilience research is still in an explorative phase in the region, and our ambition with this Special Feature is that the new discoveries presented may stimulate additional research in this field, including increased international cooperation with LAC scientists.

  18. Social partners cooperation for reduction of musculoskeletal disorders in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Veerle; O'Neill, David; Motmans, Roeland; Lundqvist, Peter; Roman-Liu, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    The European social partners in agriculture recognize the considerable frequency of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the sector which has negative consequences for workers, employers, social security systems and hence for the whole society. They made an agreement in 2005 to tackle this problem and their main interest was finding good practices 'on the floor', with the involvement of the farmers and farming industries. A partnership with researchers from 4 different organisations across Europe, was created, taking into account both academic partners and/or partners experienced with the agricultural sector. GEOPA-COPA acted as a network partner with all the EU agriculture organisations. The project partners proposed a methodology how to collect the good practices. In total, 103 company visits were organised and 55 additional reports were collected. More than 140 good practices were defined going from easy, low-cost solutions to highly technological, more expensive solutions. All this information is disseminated via the project website (www.agri-ergonomics.eu) and summarised in 6 brochures. This paper focuses on the methodology to set up the ergonomic project with social partners.

  19. A Comparison of Spatial and Social Clustering of Cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Giebultowicz, Sophia; Ali, Mohammad; Yunus, Mohammad; Emch, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Infectious diseases often cluster spatially, but can also cluster socially because they are transmitted within social networks. This study compares spatial and social clustering of cholera in rural Bangladesh. Data include a spatially referenced longitudinal demographic database which consists of approximately 200,000 people and laboratory-confirmed cholera cases from 1983 to 2003. Matrices are created of kinship ties between households using a complete network design and distance matrices ar...

  20. Preschool social exclusion, aggression, and cooperation: a longitudinal evaluation of the need-to-belong and the social-reconnection hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenseng, Frode; Belsky, Jay; Skalicka, Vera; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2014-12-01

    The need-to-belong theory stipulates that social exclusion fosters aggression, whereas the social-reconnection hypothesis suggests that social exclusion promotes motivation to behave cooperatively. To date, empirical investigations of these contrasting views have focused on the immediate effects of social exclusion, yielding mixed results. Here we examine longer term effects of preschool social exclusion on children's functioning 2 years later. Social exclusion was reported by teachers, aggression and cooperation by parents. Cross-lagged analyses showed that greater social exclusion at age 4 predicted more aggression and less cooperation at age 6, providing support for the need-to-belong rather than social-reconnection hypothesis. Secondary analyses showed that social exclusion predicted more aggression only among children scoring above mean on aggression at age 4, indicating that aggressive behavior is amplified by social exclusion among children already behaving aggressively. No gender differences were found. Implications and limitations are discussed in a developmental context.

  1. Developing Thinking and Social skills in a Cooperative Learning classroom.

    OpenAIRE

    Pino Martínez, Cristina del

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo se centra en cómo la utilización de rutinas dentro del aula ayuda al alumnado a desarrollar las competencias básicas presentes en todos los currículums de educación. Estas herramientas no solo sirven para alcanzar las competencias básicas sino para desarrollar también habilidades de pensamiento y habilidades sociales que contribuyen a crear una cultura de colegio para así conseguir un buen ambiente donde el aprendizaje y conocimiento se adquiera con mayor facilidad. Con esta p...

  2. Coarse cluster enhancing collaborative recommendation for social network systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yao-Dong; Cai, Shi-Min; Tang, Ming; Shang, Min-Sheng

    2017-10-01

    Traditional collaborative filtering based recommender systems for social network systems bring very high demands on time complexity due to computing similarities of all pairs of users via resource usages and annotation actions, which thus strongly suppresses recommending speed. In this paper, to overcome this drawback, we propose a novel approach, namely coarse cluster that partitions similar users and associated items at a high speed to enhance user-based collaborative filtering, and then develop a fast collaborative user model for the social tagging systems. The experimental results based on Delicious dataset show that the proposed model is able to dramatically reduce the processing time cost greater than 90 % and relatively improve the accuracy in comparison with the ordinary user-based collaborative filtering, and is robust for the initial parameter. Most importantly, the proposed model can be conveniently extended by introducing more users' information (e.g., profiles) and practically applied for the large-scale social network systems to enhance the recommending speed without accuracy loss.

  3. Cluster analysis application for analysing a diversification in a perception of cooperative banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyse a regional diversification in a perception of cooperative banks among students who come from farms in central and west Poland. The aim was realised by the comparison of the students’ in the analysed voivodships view about 13 statements concerning cooperative banks. The next step was to distinguish between voivodships 3 segments – with positive, neutral and negative outlook on the cooperative banks and to describe the distinguished segments.

  4. On the evolution of cooperation under social pressure in multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pereda, María

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we aim to contribute to the understanding of the human pro-social behavior by studying the influence that a particular form of social pressure "being watched" has on the evolution of cooperative behavior. We study how cooperation emerge in multiplex complex topologies by analyzing a particular bidirectionally-coupled dynamics on top of a two-layers multiplex network (duplex). The coupled dynamics appears between the Prisoner's Dilemma game in a network, and a threshold cascade model in the other. The threshold model is intended to abstract the behavior of a network of vigilant nodes, that impose pressure of being observed altering hence the temptation to defect of the dilemma. Cooperation or defection in the game also affects the state of a node of being vigilant. We analyze these processes on different duplex networks structures and assess the influence of the topology, average degree and correlated multiplexity, on the outcome of cooperation. Interestingly, we find that the social pressure of ...

  5. A theoretical evidence for cooperative enhancement in aerogen-bonding interactions: Open-chain clusters of KrOF2 and XeOF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Vessally, Esmail

    2016-10-01

    The cooperativity of aerogen-bonding interactions is studied in open-chain (KrOF2)n=2-6 and (XeOF2)n=2-6 clusters. The formation mechanism and bonding properties of these clusters are investigated by means of molecular electrostatic potentials, natural bond orbital and noncovalent interaction index analyses. The small variation of average interaction energy from the pentamer to hexamer cluster reveals that cooperativity effects are almost completely saturated in the larger clusters. The cooperative effects in the clusters also make an increase in the average 83Kr or 129Xe chemical shielding isotropies and total spin-spin coupling constants across the aerogen-bonding.

  6. [Effects of environmental change and others' behavior on cooperative behavior and solution preference in social dilemma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, S

    2001-12-01

    This study examined how environmental change and others' behavior affected cooperative behavior and solution preference of the person in social dilemma situation. Participants in two experiments played an "environment game," in which gradual pollution in environment and reduction in profit rate were simulated. Information on behavior of other players was manipulated: in "free rider" condition, one person was an extreme free rider, and the others were cooperative; in "loafing" condition, everyone loafed. In both experiments, "Bad Apple Effect" was not observed clearly, and cooperative behavior increased as environmental pollution worsened. In Experiment 2, there was no main effect of others' behavior on solution preference. However, significant correlations were found among solution preference, motivation to control others' behavior, and perceived seriousness of the situation, only when an extreme free rider was among them.

  7. Coevolution of Cooperation and Partner Rewiring Range in Spatial Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khoo, Tommy; Pauls, Scott

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in the study of coevolutionary games on networks. Despite much progress, little attention has been paid to spatially embedded networks, where the underlying geographic distance, rather than the graph distance, is an important and relevant aspect of the partner rewiring process. It thus remains largely unclear how individual partner rewiring range preference, local vs. global, emerges and affects cooperation. Here we explicitly address this issue using a coevolutionary model of cooperation and partner rewiring range preference in spatially embedded social networks. In contrast to local rewiring, global rewiring has no distance restriction but incurs a one-time cost upon establishing any long range link. We find that under a wide range of model parameters, global partner switching preference can coevolve with cooperation. Moreover, the resulting partner network is highly degree-heterogeneous with small average shortest path length while maintaining high clusterin...

  8. Social imitation versus strategic choice, or consensus versus cooperation, in the networked Prisoner's Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilone, Daniele; Ramasco, José J; Sánchez, Angel; San Miguel, Maxi

    2014-08-01

    The interplay of social and strategic motivations in human interactions is a largely unexplored topic in collective social phenomena. Whether individuals' decisions are taken in a purely strategic basis or due to social pressure without a rational background crucially influences the model outcome. Here we study a networked Prisoner's Dilemma in which decisions are made either based on the replication of the most successful neighbor's strategy (unconditional imitation) or by pure social imitation following an update rule inspired by the voter model. The main effects of the voter dynamics are an enhancement of the final consensus, i.e., asymptotic states are generally uniform, and a promotion of cooperation in certain regions of the parameter space as compared to the outcome of purely strategic updates. Thus, voter dynamics acts as an interface noise and has a similar effect as a pure random noise; furthermore, its influence is mostly independent of the network heterogeneity. When strategic decisions are made following other update rules such as the replicator or Moran processes, the dynamic mixed state found under unconditional imitation for some parameters disappears, but an increase of cooperation in certain parameter regions is still observed. Comparing our results with recent experiments on the Prisoner's Dilemma, we conclude that such a mixed dynamics may explain moody conditional cooperation among the agents.

  9. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S

    2017-04-01

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Cooperation stimulation strategies for peer-to-peer wireless live video-sharing social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W Sabrina; Zhao, H Vicky; Liu, K J Ray

    2010-07-01

    Human behavior analysis in video sharing social networks is an emerging research area, which analyzes the behavior of users who share multimedia content and investigates the impact of human dynamics on video sharing systems. Users watching live streaming in the same wireless network share the same limited bandwidth of backbone connection to the Internet, thus, they might want to cooperate with each other to obtain better video quality. These users form a wireless live-streaming social network. Every user wishes to watch video with high quality while paying as little as possible cost to help others. This paper focuses on providing incentives for user cooperation. We propose a game-theoretic framework to model user behavior and to analyze the optimal strategies for user cooperation simulation in wireless live streaming. We first analyze the Pareto optimality and the time-sensitive bargaining equilibrium of the two-person game. We then extend the solution to the multiuser scenario. We also consider potential selfish users' cheating behavior and malicious users' attacking behavior and analyze the performance of the proposed strategies with the existence of cheating users and malicious attackers. Both our analytical and simulation results show that the proposed strategies can effectively stimulate user cooperation, achieve cheat free and attack resistance, and help provide reliable services for wireless live streaming applications.

  11. Cooperation, Fast and Slow: Meta-Analytic Evidence for a Theory of Social Heuristics and Self-Interested Deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G

    2016-09-01

    Does cooperating require the inhibition of selfish urges? Or does "rational" self-interest constrain cooperative impulses? I investigated the role of intuition and deliberation in cooperation by meta-analyzing 67 studies in which cognitive-processing manipulations were applied to economic cooperation games (total N = 17,647; no indication of publication bias using Egger's test, Begg's test, or p-curve). My meta-analysis was guided by the social heuristics hypothesis, which proposes that intuition favors behavior that typically maximizes payoffs, whereas deliberation favors behavior that maximizes one's payoff in the current situation. Therefore, this theory predicts that deliberation will undermine pure cooperation (i.e., cooperation in settings where there are few future consequences for one's actions, such that cooperating is not in one's self-interest) but not strategic cooperation (i.e., cooperation in settings where cooperating can maximize one's payoff). As predicted, the meta-analysis revealed 17.3% more pure cooperation when intuition was promoted over deliberation, but no significant difference in strategic cooperation between more intuitive and more deliberative conditions.

  12. South-South cooperation in health: bringing in theory, politics, history, and social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Muntaner, Carles; Afzal, Zabia

    2017-10-02

    Since the mid-2000s, the practice of South-South cooperation in health (SSC) has attracted growing attention among policymakers, health and foreign affairs ministries, global health agencies, and scholars from a range of fields. But the South-South label elucidates little about the actual content of the cooperation and conflates the "where" with the "who, what, how, and why". While there have been some attempts to theorize global health diplomacy and South-South cooperation generally, these efforts do not sufficiently distinguish among the different kinds of practices and political values that fall under the South-South rubric, ranging from economic and geopolitical interests to social justice forms of solidarity. In the spirit of deepening theoretical, historical, and social justice analyses of SSC, this article: (1) critically revisits international relations theories that seek to explain SSC, exploring Marxian and other heterodox theories ignored in the mainstream literature; (2) traces the historical provenance of a variety of forms of SSC; and (3) introduces the concept of social justice-oriented South-South.

  13. Cooperation Between Probation Officers and Other Services in Implementing Prevention and Social Rehabilitation Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Jurczyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the current legal regulations dealing with the tasks and duties of probation officers, as well as the misinterpretation of the role of probation officers in the mass media, among employees of other institutions and the charges of the officers. The authors have described a few of the most essential differences in working with an individual and his environment between career officers, social workers and police officers. They have stressed that understanding the differences in the scope of duties, as well as undertaking effective cooperation, are the key factors that affect the effectiveness of social rehabilitation interactions.

  14. The generation and re-generation of social capital and enterprises in multi-stakeholders social cooperative enterprises: a system dynamic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Travaglini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Theories on social capital and on social entrepreneurship have mainly highlighted the attitude of social capital to generate enterprises and to foster good relations between third sector organizations and the public sector. This paper considers the social capital in a specific third sector enterprise; here, multi-stakeholder social cooperatives are seen, at the same time, as social capital results, creators and incubators. In the particular enterprises that identify themselves as community social enterprises, social capital, both as organizational and relational capital, is fundamental: SCEs arise from but also produce and disseminate social capital. This paper aims to improve the building of relational social capital and the refining of helpful relations drawn from other arenas, where they were created and from where they are sometimes transferred to other realities, where their role is carried on further (often working in non-profit, horizontally and vertically arranged groups, where they share resources and relations. To represent this perspective, we use a qualitative system dynamic approach in which social capital is measured using proxies. Cooperation of volunteers, customers, community leaders and third sector local organizations is fundamental to establish trust relations between public local authorities and cooperatives. These relations help the latter to maintain long-term contracts with local authorities as providers of social services and enable them to add innovation to their services, by developing experiences and management models and maintaining an interchange with civil servants regarding these matters. The long-term relations and the organizational relations linking SCEs and public organizations help to create and to renovate social capital. Thus, multi-stakeholder cooperatives originated via social capital developed in third sector organizations produce new social capital within the cooperatives themselves and between

  15. A MODEL OF THE INNOVATIVE AMBER CLUSTER AS A CENTRE OF COOPERATION OF AUTHORITIES - BUSINESS - SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb B. Trifonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism of forming an innovative amber cluster was developed, including structural interconnections of cluster partners,a package of basic innovative technologies, which will createa new value chain, new vacancies, provide contributions to theregional budget.A method of analytical estimation was suggested to assess cluster synergism of partners: authorities, business, science/education, culture, which reflects potential possibilities of thecluster model of region development.

  16. Social imitation vs strategic choice, or consensus vs cooperation in the networked Prisoner's Dilemma

    CERN Document Server

    Vilone, Daniele; Sánchez, Angel; Miguel, Maxi San

    2014-01-01

    The interplay of social and strategic motivations in human interactions is a largely unexplored question in collective social phenomena. Whether individuals' decisions are taken in a pure strategic basis or due to social pressure without a rational background crucially influences the model outcome. Here we study a networked Prisoner's Dilemma in which decisions are made either based on the replication of the most successful neighbor's strategy (unconditional imitation) or by pure social imitation following an update rule inspired by the voter model. The main effects of the voter dynamics are an enhancement of the final consensus, i.e., asymptotic states are generally uniform, and a promotion of cooperation in certain regions of the parameter space as compared to the outcome of purely strategic updates. Thus, voter dynamics acts as an interface noise and has a similar effect to a pure random noise; furthermore, its influence is mostly independent of the network heterogeneity. When strategic decisions are made ...

  17. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  18. Mining Learning Social Networks for Cooperative Learning with Appropriate Learning Partners in a Problem-Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Chang, Chia-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have identified web-based cooperative learning as an increasingly popular educational paradigm with potential to increase learner satisfaction and interactions. However, peer-to-peer interaction often suffers barriers owing to a failure to explore useful social interaction information in web-based cooperative learning environments.…

  19. Mining Learning Social Networks for Cooperative Learning with Appropriate Learning Partners in a Problem-Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Chang, Chia-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have identified web-based cooperative learning as an increasingly popular educational paradigm with potential to increase learner satisfaction and interactions. However, peer-to-peer interaction often suffers barriers owing to a failure to explore useful social interaction information in web-based cooperative learning environments.…

  20. No sex-biased dispersal in a primate with an uncommon social system-cooperative polyandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Muñoz, Samuel L; Ribeiro, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    An influential hypothesis proposed by Greenwood (1980) suggests that different mating systems result in female and male-biased dispersal, respectively, in birds and mammals. However, other aspects of social structure and behavior can also shape sex-biased dispersal. Although sex-specific patterns of kin cooperation are expected to affect the benefits of philopatry and dispersal patterns, empirical evidence is scarce. Unlike many mammals, Saguinus geoffroyi (Geoffroy's tamarin) has a breeding system in which typically multiple males mate with a single breeding female. Males typically form cooperative reproductive partnerships between relatives, whereas females generally compete for reproductive opportunities. This system of cooperative polyandry is predicted to result in female-biased dispersal, providing an opportunity to test the current hypotheses of sex-biased dispersal. Here we test for evidence of sex-biased dispersal in S. geoffroyi using demographic and genetic data from three populations. We find no sex bias in natal dispersal, contrary to the prediction based on the mating patterns. This pattern was consistent after controlling for the effects of historical population structure. Limited breeding opportunities within social groups likely drive both males and females to disperse, suggesting that dispersal is intimately related to the social context. The integration of genetic and field data revealed that tamarins are another exception to the presumed pattern of male-biased dispersal in mammals. A shift in focus from mating systems to social behavior, which plays a role in most all processes expected to influence sex-bias in dispersal, will be a fruitful target for research both within species and across taxa.

  1. No sex-biased dispersal in a primate with an uncommon social system—cooperative polyandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel L. Díaz-Muñoz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An influential hypothesis proposed by Greenwood (1980 suggests that different mating systems result in female and male-biased dispersal, respectively, in birds and mammals. However, other aspects of social structure and behavior can also shape sex-biased dispersal. Although sex-specific patterns of kin cooperation are expected to affect the benefits of philopatry and dispersal patterns, empirical evidence is scarce. Unlike many mammals, Saguinus geoffroyi (Geoffroy’s tamarin has a breeding system in which typically multiple males mate with a single breeding female. Males typically form cooperative reproductive partnerships between relatives, whereas females generally compete for reproductive opportunities. This system of cooperative polyandry is predicted to result in female-biased dispersal, providing an opportunity to test the current hypotheses of sex-biased dispersal. Here we test for evidence of sex-biased dispersal in S. geoffroyi using demographic and genetic data from three populations. We find no sex bias in natal dispersal, contrary to the prediction based on the mating patterns. This pattern was consistent after controlling for the effects of historical population structure. Limited breeding opportunities within social groups likely drive both males and females to disperse, suggesting that dispersal is intimately related to the social context. The integration of genetic and field data revealed that tamarins are another exception to the presumed pattern of male-biased dispersal in mammals. A shift in focus from mating systems to social behavior, which plays a role in most all processes expected to influence sex-bias in dispersal, will be a fruitful target for research both within species and across taxa.

  2. Social and Symbolic Capital in Firm Clusters: An empirical Investigation of Relational Resources and Value Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    creation of single firms embedded in clusters in terms of overlapping value adding webs of single firms. The main focus of the paper is on how to describe and operationalise and how to manage social and symbolic capital in clusters. The fact that the main source of value creation is rooted within networks...... raises the question of the impact of social capital on relational rents. The main objectives of this paper therefore are to investigate how value creation on the relational level of a cluster can be systematised to come to a better understanding of valuable resources on the cluster level. Empirically...

  3. Clustered Conserved Cysteines in Hyaluronan Synthase Mediate Cooperative Activation by Mg(2+) Ions and Severe Inhibitory Effects of Divalent Cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlapak-Simmons, Valarie L; Medina, Andria P; Baggenstoss, Bruce A; Nguyen, Long; Baron, Christina A; Weigel, Paul H

    2011-11-15

    Hyaluronan synthase (HAS) uses UDP-GlcUA and UDP-GlcNAc to make hyaluronan (HA). Streptococcus equisimilis HAS (SeHAS) contains four conserved cysteines clustered near the membrane, and requires phospholipids and Mg(2+) for activity. Activity of membrane-bound or purified enzyme displayed a sigmoidal saturation profile for Mg(2+) with a Hill coefficient of 2. To assess if Cys residues are important for cooperativity we examined the Mg(2+) dependence of mutants with various combinations of Cys-to-Ala mutations. All Cys-mutants lost the cooperative response to Mg(2+). In the presence of Mg(2+), other divalent cations inhibited SeHAS with different potencies (Cu(2+)~Zn(2+) >Co(2+) >Ni(2+) >Mn(2+) >Ba(2+) Sr(2+) Ca(2+)). Some divalent metal ions likely inhibit by displacement of Mg(2+)-UDP-Sugar complexes (e.g. Ca(2+), Sr(2+) and Ba(2+) had apparent Ki values of 2-5 mM). In contrast, Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) inhibited more potently (apparent Ki ≤ 0.2 mM). Inhibition of Cys-null SeHAS by Cu(2+), but not Zn(2+), was greatly attenuated compared to wildtype. Double and triple Cys-mutants showed differing sensitivities to Zn(2+) or Cu(2+). Wildtype SeHAS allowed to make HA prior to exposure to Zn(2+) or Cu(2+) was protected from inhibition, indicating that access of metal ions to sensitive functional groups was hindered in processively acting HA•HAS complexes. We conclude that clustered Cys residues mediate cooperative interactions with Mg(2+) and that transition metal ions inhibit SeHAS very potently by interacting with one or more of these -SH groups.

  4. The potential for expanding inter-cluster cooperation between the ship-building industries of Estonia, Finland, and North-West Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laaksonen Eini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shipbuilding industry clusters in the Eastern Baltic Sea region, i. e. Estonia, Finland and North-West Russia, may benefit significantly from increased mutual cooperation; however, the international networks between the clusters are still poorly developed. The aim of this article is to analyse the preconditions for cluster internationalization between these clusters, which are rather different but complementary in terms of skills. The research material for this desk study was collected from various sources, including journal articles, media, research reports, and other publications. The results of the study indicate that the increasing cooperation within the triangle of these clusters has a significant potential in terms of combining different areas of expertise and creating a multidimensional maritime industry hub in the region. However, differences in the cluster structure and development stages lead to certain difficulties in achieving these objectives. In conclusion, the authors identify the factors both facilitating and inhibiting networking between the three clusters. This study provides a platform for further research focusing on the factors identified and gives ideas for public discussion on increased inter-cluster cooperation.

  5. The potential for expanding inter-cluster cooperation between the ship-building industries of Estonia, Finland, and North-West Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laaksonen Eini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shipbuilding industry clusters in the Eastern Baltic Sea region, i. e. Estonia, Finland and North-West Russia, may benefit significantly from increased mutual cooperation; however, the international networks between the clusters are still poorly developed. The aim of this article is to analyse the preconditions for cluster internationalization between these clusters, which are rather different but complementary in terms of skills. The research material for this desk study was collected from various sources, including journal articles, media, research reports, and other publications. The results of the study indicate that the increasing cooperation within the triangle of these clusters has a significant potential in terms of combining different areas of expertise and creating a multidimensional maritime industry hub in the region. However, differences in the cluster structure and development stages lead to certain difficulties in achieving these objectives. In conclusion, the authors identify the factors both facilitating and inhibiting networking between the three clusters. This study provides a platform for further research focusing on the factors identified and gives ideas for public discussion on increased inter-cluster cooperation.

  6. Links between patterns of racial socialization and discrimination experiences and psychological adjustment: a cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Alex A; Syed, Moin

    2014-10-01

    This study used a person-oriented analytic approach to identify meaningful patterns of barriers-focused racial socialization and perceived racial discrimination experiences in a sample of 295 late adolescents. Using cluster analysis, three distinct groups were identified: Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination, High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination, and High Barrier Socialization-High Discrimination clusters. These groups were substantively unique in terms of the frequency of racial socialization messages about bias preparation and out-group mistrust its members received and their actual perceived discrimination experiences. Further, individuals in the High Barrier Socialization-High Discrimination cluster reported significantly higher depressive symptoms than those in the Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination and High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination clusters. However, no differences in adjustment were observed between the Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination and High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination clusters. Overall, the findings highlight important individual differences in how young people of color experience their race and how these differences have significant implications on psychological adjustment. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Making Cooperation Work: Generalized Social Trust and Large-N Collective Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    with high levels of generalized social trust more readily undertake pro-environmental behavior like recycling or supporting environmental associations. These results are sustained at the national level; countries with trusting citizens have higher recycling rates and more members of environmental......It has often been argued that generalized social trust, the belief that most people are trustworthy, enhances cooperation in large-N collective action dilemmas. Large-N dilemmas are situations where an actor has to decide whether to contribute to the provision of public goods that benefit a large...... on survey and national level data from several countries is used to investigate if, how, and when generalized social trust leads to collective action. Specifically, citizens' behavior in relation to the environment is used as the indicator of voluntary public good provision. This indicator affords excellent...

  8. Humans choose representatives who enforce cooperation in social dilemmas through extortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinski, Manfred; Hilbe, Christian; Semmann, Dirk; Sommerfeld, Ralf; Marotzke, Jochem

    2016-03-01

    Social dilemmas force players to balance between personal and collective gain. In many dilemmas, such as elected governments negotiating climate-change mitigation measures, the decisions are made not by individual players but by their representatives. However, the behaviour of representatives in social dilemmas has not been investigated experimentally. Here inspired by the negotiations for greenhouse-gas emissions reductions, we experimentally study a collective-risk social dilemma that involves representatives deciding on behalf of their fellow group members. Representatives can be re-elected or voted out after each consecutive collective-risk game. Selfish players are preferentially elected and are hence found most frequently in the `representatives' treatment. Across all treatments, we identify the selfish players as extortioners. As predicted by our mathematical model, their steadfast strategies enforce cooperation from fair players who finally compensate almost completely the deficit caused by the extortionate co-players. Everybody gains, but the extortionate representatives and their groups gain the most.

  9. Social Pressure and Environmental Effects on Networks: A Path to Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pereda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study how the pro-social impact due to the vigilance by other individuals is conditioned by both environmental and evolutionary effects. To this aim, we consider a known model where agents play a Prisoner’s Dilemma Game (PDG among themselves and the pay-off matrix of an individual changes according to the number of neighbors that are “vigilant”, i.e., how many neighbors watch out for her behavior. In particular, the temptation to defect decreases linearly with the number of vigilant neighbors. This model proved to support cooperation in specific conditions, and here we check its robustness with different topologies, microscopical update rules and initial conditions. By means of many numerical simulations and few theoretical considerations, we find in which situations the vigilance by the others is more effective in favoring cooperative behaviors and when its influence is weaker.

  10. A new co-operative inversion strategy via fuzzy clustering technique applied to seismic and magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong Kieu, Duy; Kepic, Anton

    2015-04-01

    Geophysical inversion produces very useful images of earth parameters; however, inversion results usually suffer from inherent non-uniqueness: many subsurface models with different structures and parameters can explain the measurements. To reduce the ambiguity, extra information about the earth's structure and physical properties is needed. This prior information can be extracted from geological principles, prior petrophysical information from well logs, and complementary information from other geophysical methods. Any technique used to constrain inversion should be able to integrate the prior information and to guide updating inversion process in terms of the geological model. In this research, we have adopted fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering technique for this purpose. FCM is a clustering method that allows us to divide the model of physical parameters into a few clusters of representative values that also may relate to geological units based on the similarity of the geophysical properties. This exploits the fact that in many geological environments the earth is comprised of a few distinctive rock units with different physical properties. Therefore FCM can provide a platform to constrain geophysical inversion, and should tend to produce models that are geologically meaningful. FCM was incorporated in both separate and co-operative inversion processing of seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) data with petrophysical constraints. Using petrophysical information through FCM assists the inversion to build a reliable earth model. In this algorithm, FCM plays a role of guider; it uses the prior information to drive the model update process, and also forming an earth model filled with rocks units rather than smooth transitions when the boundary is in doubt. Where petrophysical information from well logs or core measurement is not locally available the cluster petrophysics may be solved for in inversion as well if some knowledge of how many distinctive geological exist. A

  11. Cooperação econômica versus competitividade social Economic cooperation versus social competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cláudio Tupinambá Arroyo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As estratégias de cooperação econômica, presentes desde as sociedades primitivas, indicam que a presidência da lógica da 'competição' é uma importante distorção promovida pelo modo capitalista de produção e vivência que apartou o trabalhador do trabalho, desumanizando as relações sociais e políticas. Cooperação e competição possuem interações e complementaridades possíveis de potencializar um desenvolvimento humano desde que sob as premissas da economia solidária. Interação que traz efetiva agregação de valor ao processo econômico. A principal estratégia cooperativa está na lógica das teorias que fundamentam os aglomerados e arranjos econômicos. E a construção sociocultural capaz de tornar esta opção uma construção hegemônica se articula, hoje, em torno da economia solidária.The strategies of economic cooperation, found since primitive societies, indicate that the dominance of the logic of 'competition' is an important distortion promoted by the capitalist mode of production and the experience that separated the worker from work, dehumanizing social and political relations. Cooperation and competition interact and complement each other in ways that are capable of potentializing human development as long as they do so from the premises of solidarity economics. This interaction effectively aggregates value to the economic process. The principal cooperative strategy is in the logic of the theories that are at the foundation of the economic agglomerates and arrangements. The social-cultural construction capable of making this option a hegemonic construction is now articulated around solidarity economics.

  12. Social Learning Network Analysis Model to Identify Learning Patterns Using Ontology Clustering Techniques and Meaningful Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdausiah Mansur, Andi Besse; Yusof, Norazah

    2013-01-01

    Clustering on Social Learning Network still not explored widely, especially when the network focuses on e-learning system. Any conventional methods are not really suitable for the e-learning data. SNA requires content analysis, which involves human intervention and need to be carried out manually. Some of the previous clustering techniques need…

  13. Clustering social cues to determine social signals: developing learning algorithms using the "n-most likely states" approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Andrew; Kapalo, Katelynn A.; Warta, Samantha F.; Fiore, Stephen M.

    2016-05-01

    Human-robot teaming largely relies on the ability of machines to respond and relate to human social signals. Prior work in Social Signal Processing has drawn a distinction between social cues (discrete, observable features) and social signals (underlying meaning). For machines to attribute meaning to behavior, they must first understand some probabilistic relationship between the cues presented and the signal conveyed. Using data derived from a study in which participants identified a set of salient social signals in a simulated scenario and indicated the cues related to the perceived signals, we detail a learning algorithm, which clusters social cue observations and defines an "N-Most Likely States" set for each cluster. Since multiple signals may be co-present in a given simulation and a set of social cues often maps to multiple social signals, the "N-Most Likely States" approach provides a dramatic improvement over typical linear classifiers. We find that the target social signal appears in a "3 most-likely signals" set with up to 85% probability. This results in increased speed and accuracy on large amounts of data, which is critical for modeling social cognition mechanisms in robots to facilitate more natural human-robot interaction. These results also demonstrate the utility of such an approach in deployed scenarios where robots need to communicate with human teammates quickly and efficiently. In this paper, we detail our algorithm, comparative results, and offer potential applications for robot social signal detection and machine-aided human social signal detection.

  14. Decentralized cooperative spectrum sensing for ad-hoc disaster relief network clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2010-01-01

    Disaster relief networks need to be highly adaptable and resilient in order to encompass the emergency service demands. Cognitive Radio enhanced ad-hoc architecture have been put forward as candidate to enable such networks. Spectrum sensing, the cornerstone of the Cognitive Radio paradigm, has...... been the target of intensive research, of which the main common conclusion was that the achievable spectrum sensing accuracy can be greatly enhanced through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. When considering applying Cognitive Radio to ad-hoc disaster relief networks, the use of spectrum sensing...

  15. Role of social environment and social clustering in spread of opinions in co-evolving networks

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, Nishant

    2013-01-01

    Taking a pragmatic approach to the processes involved in the phenomena of collective opinion formation, we investigate two specific modifications to the co-evolving network voter model of opinion formation, studied by Holme and Newman [1]. First, we replace the rewiring probability parameter by a distribution of probability of accepting or rejecting opinions between individuals, accounting for the asymmetric influences in relationships among individuals in a social group. Second, we modify the rewiring step by a path-length-based preference for rewiring that reinforces local clustering. We have investigated the influences of these modifications on the outcomes of the simulations of this model. We found that varying the shape of the distribution of probability of accepting or rejecting opinions can lead to the emergence of two qualitatively distinct final states, one having several isolated connected components each in internal consensus leading to the existence of diverse set of opinions and the other having ...

  16. Behavior of Collective Cooperation Yielded by Two Update Rules in Social Dilemmas: Combining Fermi and Moran Rules*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏承遗; 王磊; 王娟; 王劲松

    2012-01-01

    We combine the Fermi and Moran update rules in the spatial prisoner's dilemma and snowdrift games to investigate the behavior of collective cooperation among agents on the regular lattice. Large-scale simulations indicate that, compared to the model with only one update rule, the the role of update dynamics should be paid more attention in cooperation behavior exhibits the richer phenomena, and the evolutionary game theory. Meanwhile, we also observe that the introduction of Moran rule, which needs to consider all neighbor's information, can markedly promote the aggregate cooperation level, that is, randomly selecting the neighbor proportional to its payoff to imitate will facilitate the cooperation among agents. Current results will contribute to further understand the cooperation dynamics and evolutionary behaviors within many biological, economic and social systems.

  17. Bacterial cooperation in the wild and in the clinic: are pathogen social behaviours relevant outside the laboratory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Freya

    2013-02-01

    Individual bacterial cells can communicate via quorum sensing, cooperate to harvest nutrients from their environment, form multicellular biofilms, compete over resources and even kill one another. When the environment that bacteria inhabit is an animal host, these social behaviours mediate virulence. Over the last decade, much attention has focussed on the ecology, evolution and pathology of bacterial cooperation, and the possibility that it could be exploited or destabilised to treat infections. But how far can we really extrapolate from theoretical predictions and laboratory experiments to make inferences about 'cooperative' behaviours in hosts and reservoirs? To determine the likely importance and evolution of cooperation 'in the wild', several questions must be addressed. A recent paper that reports the dynamics of bacterial cooperation and virulence in a field experiment provides an excellent nucleus for bringing together key empirical and theoretical results which help us to frame - if not completely to answer - these questions.

  18. High pressure studies on nanometer sized clusters: Structural, optical, and cooperative properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, S.H.

    1995-05-01

    High-pressure Se EXAFS is used to study pressure-induced structural transformations in CdSe nanocrystals. The transformation is wurtzite to rock salt, at a pressure much higher than in bulk. High-pressure XRD is used to confirm the EXAFS results. Diffraction peak widths indicate that nanocrystals do not fragment upon transformation. Optical absorption correlates with structural transformations and is used to measure transition pressures; transformation pressure increases smoothly as nanocrystal size decreases. Thermodynamics of transformation is modeled using an elevated surface energy in the high-pressure phase. High-pressure study of Si nanocrystals show large increases in transformation pressure in crystallites to 500{angstrom} diameter, and an overall change in crystallite shape upon transformation is seen from XRD line widths. C{sub 60} single crystals were studied using Raman scattering; results provide information about the clusters` rotational state. Optical properties of high-pressure phase CdSe clusters were studied.

  19. Variation, sex, and social cooperation: molecular population genetics of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Flowers

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dictyostelium discoideum is a eukaryotic microbial model system for multicellular development, cell-cell signaling, and social behavior. Key models of social evolution require an understanding of genetic relationships between individuals across the genome or possibly at specific genes, but the nature of variation within D. discoideum is largely unknown. We re-sequenced 137 gene fragments in wild North American strains of D. discoideum and examined the levels and patterns of nucleotide variation in this social microbial species. We observe surprisingly low levels of nucleotide variation in D. discoideum across these strains, with a mean nucleotide diversity (pi of 0.08%, and no strong population stratification among North American strains. We also do not find any clear relationship between nucleotide divergence between strains and levels of social dominance and kin discrimination. Kin discrimination experiments, however, show that strains collected from the same location show greater ability to distinguish self from non-self than do strains from different geographic areas. This suggests that a greater ability to recognize self versus non-self may arise among strains that are more likely to encounter each other in nature, which would lead to preferential formation of fruiting bodies with clonemates and may prevent the evolution of cheating behaviors within D. discoideum populations. Finally, despite the fact that sex has rarely been observed in this species, we document a rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium between SNPs, the presence of recombinant genotypes among natural strains, and high estimates of the population recombination parameter rho. The SNP data indicate that recombination is widespread within D. discoideum and that sex as a form of social interaction is likely to be an important aspect of the life cycle.

  20. With Us or Against Us: Simulated Social Touch by Virtual Agents in a Cooperative or Competitive Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, Gijs; Kolkmeier, Jan; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Bickmore, Timothy; Marsella, Stacy; Sidner, Candance

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine how simulated social touch by a virtual agent in a cooperative or competitive augmented reality game influences the perceived trustworthiness, warmth and politeness of the agent. Before and after the game, participants interact with two agents whereby one agent touches the participant’s arm. Results showed no significant difference in how agents are perceived in the cooperative and competitive situation. However, significant differences between perception of the touch...

  1. Cooperation, competition, and coalitions in enzyme-producing microbes: Social evolution and nutrient depolymerization rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Joseph Folse

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular enzymes represent a public good for microbial communities, as they break down complex molecules into simple molecules that microbes can take up. These communities are vulnerable to cheating by microbes that do not produce enzymes, but benefit from those produced by others. However, extracellular enzymes are ubiquitous and play an important role in the depolymerization of nutrients. We developed a multi-genotype, multi-nutrient model of a community of exoenzyme-producing microbes, in order to investigate the relationship between diversity, social interactions, and nutrient depolymerization. We focused on coalitions between complementary types of microbes and their implications for spatial pattern formation and nutrient depolymerization. The model included polymers containing carbon, nitrogen, or phosphorus, and eight genotypes of bacteria, which produced different subsets of the three enzymes responsible for hydrolyzing these polymers. We allowed social dynamics to emerge from a mechanistic model of enzyme production, action, and diffusion. We found that diversity was maximized at high rates of either diffusion or enzyme production (but not both. Conditions favoring cheating also favored the emergence of coalitions. We characterized the spatial patterns formed by different interactions, showing that same-type cooperation leads to aggregation, but between-type cooperation leads to an interwoven, filamentous pattern. Contrary to expectations based on niche complementarity, we found that nutrient depolymerization declined with increasing diversity due to a negative competitive effect of coalitions on generalist producers, leading to less overall enzyme production. This decline in depolymerization was stronger for non-limiting nutrients in the system. This study shows that social interactions among microbes foraging for complementary resources can influence microbial diversity, microbial spatial distributions, and rates of nutrient

  2. Cooperation, competition, and coalitions in enzyme-producing microbes: social evolution and nutrient depolymerization rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folse, Henry J; Allison, Steven D

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular enzymes represent a public good for microbial communities, as they break down complex molecules into simple molecules that microbes can take up. These communities are vulnerable to cheating by microbes that do not produce enzymes, but benefit from those produced by others. However, extracellular enzymes are ubiquitous and play an important role in the depolymerization of nutrients. We developed a multi-genotype, multi-nutrient model of a community of exoenzyme-producing microbes, in order to investigate the relationship between diversity, social interactions, and nutrient depolymerization. We focused on coalitions between complementary types of microbes and their implications for spatial pattern formation and nutrient depolymerization. The model included polymers containing carbon, nitrogen, or phosphorus, and eight genotypes of bacteria, which produced different subsets of the three enzymes responsible for hydrolyzing these polymers. We allowed social dynamics to emerge from a mechanistic model of enzyme production, action, and diffusion. We found that diversity was maximized at high rates of either diffusion or enzyme production (but not both). Conditions favoring cheating also favored the emergence of coalitions. We characterized the spatial patterns formed by different interactions, showing that same-type cooperation leads to aggregation, but between-type cooperation leads to an interwoven, filamentous pattern. Contrary to expectations based on niche complementarity, we found that nutrient depolymerization declined with increasing diversity due to a negative competitive effect of coalitions on generalist producers, leading to less overall enzyme production. This decline in depolymerization was stronger for non-limiting nutrients in the system. This study shows that social interactions among microbes foraging for complementary resources can influence microbial diversity, microbial spatial distributions, and rates of nutrient depolymerization.

  3. Psychopathology, social adjustment and personality correlates of schizotypy clusters in a large nonclinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Lewandowski, Kathryn E; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2010-09-01

    Correlational methods, unlike cluster analyses, cannot take into account the possibility that individuals score highly on more than one symptom dimension simultaneously. This may account for some of the inconsistency found in the literature of correlates of schizotypy dimensions. This study explored the clustering of positive and negative schizotypy dimensions in nonclinical subjects and whether schizotypy clusters have meaningful patterns of adjustment in terms of psychopathology, social functioning, and personality. Positive and negative schizotypy dimensional scores were derived from the Chapman Psychosis-Proneness Scales for 6137 college students and submitted to cluster analysis. Of these, 780 completed the NEO-PI-R and Social Adjustment Scale-self report version, and a further 430 were interviewed for schizophrenia-spectrum, mood, and substance use psychopathology. Four clusters were obtained: low (nonschizotypic), high positive, high negative, and mixed (high positive and negative) schizotypy. The positive schizotypy cluster presented high rates of psychotic-like experiences, schizotypal and paranoid symptoms, had affective and substance abuse pathology, and was open to experience and extraverted. The negative schizotypy cluster had high rates of negative and schizoid symptoms, impaired social adjustment, high conscientiousness and low agreeableness. The mixed cluster was the most deviant on almost all aspects. Our cluster solution is consistent with the limited cluster analytic studies reported in schizotypy and schizophrenia, indicating that meaningful profiles of schizotypy features can be detected in nonclinical populations. The clusters identified displayed a distinct and meaningful pattern of correlates in different domains, thus providing construct validity to the schizotypy types defined. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Parameters of Regional Cooperative Behavior in the German Biotech Industry – A Quantitative Social Network Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Strotebeck, Falk

    We analyse the determinants of network formation in Germany’s biotechnology industry using social network analysis combined with a regression approach for count data. Outcome variable of interest is the degree centrality of German regions, which is specified as a function of the region’s innovative...... and economic performance as well as biotech-related policy variables. The inclusion of the latter allows us to shed new light on the question to what extent R&D-based cluster policies are able to impact on the formation of the German biotech network. Our results show that policy indicators such as the volume...

  5. Distributed Joint Cluster Formation and Resource Allocation Scheme for Cooperative Data Collection in Virtual MIMO-Based M2M Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Luan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient data collection scheme plays an important role for the real-time intelligent monitoring in many machine-to-machine (M2M networks. In this paper, a distributed joint cluster formation and resource allocation scheme for data collection in cluster-based M2M networks is proposed. Specifically, in order to utilize the advantages of cooperation, we first propose a hierarchical transmission model which contains two communication phases. In the first phase, the intracluster information sharing is carried out by all the nodes within the same cluster. Then these nodes transmit the total information to the BS cooperatively with virtual-MIMO (VMIMO protocol in the second phase. To grasp the properties and advantages of this cooperative transmission strategy, the theoretical analysis results are provided. The key issue in this system is to form the clusters and allocate resources efficiently. Since the optimization problem on this issue is an NP-hard problem, a feasible joint scheme for the cluster formation and resource allocation is proposed in this paper, which is carried out via coalition formation game with a distributed algorithm. This scheme can reduce the complexity while keeping an attractive performance. Simulation results show the properties of the proposed scheme and its advantages when comparing with the noncooperative scheme for the data collection in a practical scenario.

  6. Life history factors, personality and the social clustering of sexual experience in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent sexual behaviour may show clustering in neighbourhoods, schools and friendship networks. This study aims to assess how experience with sexual intercourse clusters across the social world of adolescents and whether predictors implicated by life history theory or personality traits can account for its between-individual variation and social patterning. Using data on 2877 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we ran logistic multiple classification models to assess the clustering of sexual experience by approximately 17.5 years in schools, neighbourhoods and friendship networks. We examined how much clustering at particular levels could be accounted for by life history predictors and Big Five personality factors. Sexual experience exhibited substantial clustering in friendship networks, while clustering at the level of schools and neighbourhoods was minimal, suggesting a limited role for socio-ecological influences at those levels. While life history predictors did account for some variation in sexual experience, they did not explain clustering in friendship networks. Personality, especially extraversion, explained about a quarter of friends' similarity. After accounting for life history factors and personality, substantial unexplained similarity among friends remained, which may reflect a tendency to associate with similar individuals or the social transmission of behavioural norms. PMID:27853543

  7. Evolution of emotions on networks leads to the evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Xie, Neng-Gang; Ye, Ye; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-04-01

    We show that the resolution of social dilemmas in random graphs and scale-free networks is facilitated by imitating not the strategy of better-performing players but, rather, their emotions. We assume sympathy and envy to be the two emotions that determine the strategy of each player in any given interaction, and we define them as the probabilities of cooperating with players having a lower and a higher payoff, respectively. Starting with a population where all possible combinations of the two emotions are available, the evolutionary process leads to a spontaneous fixation to a single emotional profile that is eventually adopted by all players. However, this emotional profile depends not only on the payoffs but also on the heterogeneity of the interaction network. Homogeneous networks, such as lattices and regular random graphs, lead to fixations that are characterized by high sympathy and high envy, while heterogeneous networks lead to low or modest sympathy but also low envy. Our results thus suggest that public emotions and the propensity to cooperate at large depend, and are in fact determined by, the properties of the interaction network.

  8. Cooperation Is Not Enough—Exploring Social-Ecological Micro-Foundations for Sustainable Common-Pool Resource Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijermans, Nanda; Schlüter, Maja; Lindahl, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation amongst resource users holds the key to overcoming the social dilemma that characterizes community-based common-pool resource management. But is cooperation alone enough to achieve sustainable resource use? The short answer is no. Developing management strategies in a complex social-ecological environment also requires ecological knowledge and approaches to deal with perceived environmental uncertainty. Recent behavioral experimental research indicates variation in the degree to which a group of users can identify a sustainable exploitation level. In this paper, we identify social-ecological micro-foundations that facilitate cooperative sustainable common-pool resource use. We do so by using an agent-based model (ABM) that is informed by behavioral common-pool resource experiments. In these experiments, groups that cooperate do not necessarily manage the resource sustainably, but also over- or underexploit. By reproducing the patterns of the behavioral experiments in a qualitative way, the ABM represents a social-ecological explanation for the experimental observations. We find that the ecological knowledge of each group member cannot sufficiently explain the relationship between cooperation and sustainable resource use. Instead, the development of a sustainable exploitation level depends on the distribution of ecological knowledge among the group members, their influence on each other’s knowledge, and the environmental uncertainty the individuals perceive. The study provides insights about critical social-ecological micro-foundations underpinning collective action and sustainable resource management. These insights may inform policy-making, but also point to future research needs regarding the mechanisms of social learning, the development of shared management strategies and the interplay of social and ecological uncertainty. PMID:27556175

  9. Cooperation Is Not Enough Exploring Social-Ecological Micro-Foundations for Sustainable Common-Pool Resource Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Caroline; Wijermans, Nanda; Schlüter, Maja; Lindahl, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation amongst resource users holds the key to overcoming the social dilemma that characterizes community-based common-pool resource management. But is cooperation alone enough to achieve sustainable resource use? The short answer is no. Developing management strategies in a complex social-ecological environment also requires ecological knowledge and approaches to deal with perceived environmental uncertainty. Recent behavioral experimental research indicates variation in the degree to which a group of users can identify a sustainable exploitation level. In this paper, we identify social-ecological micro-foundations that facilitate cooperative sustainable common-pool resource use. We do so by using an agent-based model (ABM) that is informed by behavioral common-pool resource experiments. In these experiments, groups that cooperate do not necessarily manage the resource sustainably, but also over- or underexploit. By reproducing the patterns of the behavioral experiments in a qualitative way, the ABM represents a social-ecological explanation for the experimental observations. We find that the ecological knowledge of each group member cannot sufficiently explain the relationship between cooperation and sustainable resource use. Instead, the development of a sustainable exploitation level depends on the distribution of ecological knowledge among the group members, their influence on each other's knowledge, and the environmental uncertainty the individuals perceive. The study provides insights about critical social-ecological micro-foundations underpinning collective action and sustainable resource management. These insights may inform policy-making, but also point to future research needs regarding the mechanisms of social learning, the development of shared management strategies and the interplay of social and ecological uncertainty.

  10. Evolution of emotions on networks leads to the evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila; Ye, Ye; Perc, Matjaz

    2013-01-01

    We show that the resolution of social dilemmas on random graphs and scale-free networks is facilitated by imitating not the strategy of better performing players but rather their emotions. We assume sympathy and envy as the two emotions that determine the strategy of each player by any given interaction, and we define them as probabilities to cooperate with players having a lower and higher payoff, respectively. Starting with a population where all possible combinations of the two emotions are available, the evolutionary process leads to a spontaneous fixation to a single emotional profile that is eventually adopted by all players. However, this emotional profile depends not only on the payoffs but also on the heterogeneity of the interaction network. Homogeneous networks, such as lattices and regular random graphs, lead to fixations that are characterized by high sympathy and high envy, while heterogeneous networks lead to low or modest sympathy but also low envy. Our results thus suggest that public emotion...

  11. Three "quantum" models of competition and cooperation in interacting biological populations and social groups

    CERN Document Server

    Vol, E D

    2012-01-01

    In present paper we propose the consistent statistical approach which appropriate for a number of models describing both behavior of biological populations and various social groups interacting with each other.The approach proposed based on the ideas of quantum theory of open systems (QTOS) and allows one to account explicitly both discreteness of a system variables and their fluctuations near mean values.Therefore this approach can be applied also for the description of small populations where standard dynamical methods are failed. We study in detail three typical models of interaction between populations and groups: 1) antagonistic struggle between two populations 2) cooperation (or, more precisely, obligatory mutualism) between two species 3) the formation of coalition between two feeble groups in their conflict with third one that is more powerful . The models considered in a sense are mutually complementary and include the most types of interaction between populations and groups. Besides this method can ...

  12. Effect of Resource Spatial Correlation and Hunter-Fisher-Gatherer Mobility on Social Cooperation in Tierra del Fuego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José Ignacio; Pereda, María; Zurro, Débora; Álvarez, Myrian; Caro, Jorge; Galán, José Manuel; Briz i Godino, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an agent-based model designed to explore the development of cooperation in hunter-fisher-gatherer societies that face a dilemma of sharing an unpredictable resource that is randomly distributed in space. The model is a stylised abstraction of the Yamana society, which inhabited the channels and islands of the southernmost part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina-Chile). According to ethnographic sources, the Yamana developed cooperative behaviour supported by an indirect reciprocity mechanism: whenever someone found an extraordinary confluence of resources, such as a beached whale, they would use smoke signals to announce their find, bringing people together to share food and exchange different types of social capital. The model provides insight on how the spatial concentration of beachings and agents’ movements in the space can influence cooperation. We conclude that the emergence of informal and dynamic communities that operate as a vigilance network preserves cooperation and makes defection very costly. PMID:25853728

  13. Effect of resource spatial correlation and hunter-fisher-gatherer mobility on social cooperation in Tierra del Fuego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José Ignacio; Pereda, María; Zurro, Débora; Álvarez, Myrian; Caro, Jorge; Galán, José Manuel; Briz i Godino, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an agent-based model designed to explore the development of cooperation in hunter-fisher-gatherer societies that face a dilemma of sharing an unpredictable resource that is randomly distributed in space. The model is a stylised abstraction of the Yamana society, which inhabited the channels and islands of the southernmost part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina-Chile). According to ethnographic sources, the Yamana developed cooperative behaviour supported by an indirect reciprocity mechanism: whenever someone found an extraordinary confluence of resources, such as a beached whale, they would use smoke signals to announce their find, bringing people together to share food and exchange different types of social capital. The model provides insight on how the spatial concentration of beachings and agents' movements in the space can influence cooperation. We conclude that the emergence of informal and dynamic communities that operate as a vigilance network preserves cooperation and makes defection very costly.

  14. ON COOPERATIVE BEHAVIOR IN DISTRIBUTED TEAMS: THE INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATION DESIGN, MEDIA RICHNESS, SOCIAL INTERACTION, AND INTERACTION ADAPTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorthe Doejbak Haakonsson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-interest vs. cooperation is a fundamental dilemma in animal behavior as well as in human and organizational behavior. In organizations, how to get people to cooperate despite or in conjunction with their self-interest is fundamental to the achievement of a common goal.While both organizational designs and social interactions have been found to further cooperation in organizations, some of the literatures have received contradictory support, just as very little research, if any, has examined their joint effects in distributed organizations, where communication is usually achieved via different communication media. This paper reviews the extant literature, and offers a set of hypothesis to integrate current theories and explanations. Further, it discusses how future research should examine the joint effects of media, incentives, and social interactions.

  15. On Cooperative Behavior in Distributed Teams: The Influence of Organizational Design, Media Richness, Social Interaction, and Interaction Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkonsson, Dorthe D; Obel, Børge; Eskildsen, Jacob K; Burton, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Self-interest vs. cooperation is a fundamental dilemma in animal behavior as well as in human and organizational behavior. In organizations, how to get people to cooperate despite or in conjunction with their self-interest is fundamental to the achievement of a common goal. While both organizational designs and social interactions have been found to further cooperation in organizations, some of the literature has received contradictory support, just as very little research, if any, has examined their joint effects in distributed organizations, where communication is usually achieved via different communication media. This paper reviews the extant literature and offers a set of hypotheses to integrate current theories and explanations. Further, it discusses how future research should examine the joint effects of media, incentives, and social interactions.

  16. Neuro- and social-cognitive clustering highlights distinct profiles in adults with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Beth; Musiat, Peter; Lose, Anna; DeJong, Hannah; Broadbent, Hannah; Kenyon, Martha; Loomes, Rachel; Watson, Charlotte; Ghelani, Shreena; Serpell, Lucy; Richards, Lorna; Johnson-Sabine, Eric; Boughton, Nicky; Treasure, Janet; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the neuro- and social-cognitive profile of a consecutive series of adult outpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) when compared with widely available age and gender matched historical control data. The relationship between performance profiles, clinical characteristics, service utilization, and treatment adherence was also investigated. Consecutively recruited outpatients with a broad diagnosis of AN (restricting subtype AN-R: n = 44, binge-purge subtype AN-BP: n = 33 or Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified-AN subtype EDNOS-AN: n = 23) completed a comprehensive set of neurocognitive (set-shifting, central coherence) and social-cognitive measures (Emotional Theory of Mind). Data were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis and a discriminant function analysis. Three separate, meaningful clusters emerged. Cluster 1 (n = 45) showed overall average to high average neuro- and social- cognitive performance, Cluster 2 (n = 38) showed mixed performance characterized by distinct strengths and weaknesses, and Cluster 3 (n = 17) showed poor overall performance (Autism Spectrum disorder (ASD) like cluster). The three clusters did not differ in terms of eating disorder symptoms, comorbid features or service utilization and treatment adherence. A discriminant function analysis confirmed that the clusters were best characterized by performance in perseveration and set-shifting measures. The findings suggest that considerable neuro- and social-cognitive heterogeneity exists in patients with AN, with a subset showing ASD-like features. The value of this method of profiling in predicting longer term patient outcomes and in guiding development of etiologically targeted treatments remains to be seen. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Impact Evaluation of Reactive Assessment Strategies to Address Social Loafing by Promoting Student Cooperation and Encouraging Mutual Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalillo-Herráez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative work is an effective strategy when team members are kept motivated and collaborate towards the achievement of a common goal. However, social loafing may significantly reduce educational gains. In this article, we analyse whether assessment-based reactive strategies that exploit existing emotional relationships between the team members…

  18. With Us or Against Us: Simulated Social Touch by Virtual Agents in a Cooperative or Competitive Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Gijs; Kolkmeier, Jan; Kolkmeier, Jan; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Bickmore, Timothy; Marsella, Stacy; Sidner, Candance

    In this paper we examine how simulated social touch by a virtual agent in a cooperative or competitive augmented reality game influences the perceived trustworthiness, warmth and politeness of the agent. Before and after the game, participants interact with two agents whereby one agent touches the

  19. Cooperative Weblog Learning in Higher Education: Its Facilitating Effects on Social Interaction, Time Lag, and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tien-Chi; Huang, Yueh-Min; Yu, Fu-Yun

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of using weblog technologies to support cooperative learning in higher education. The study focused on the effects of features embedded in weblogs on social interactions, time lags, and cognitive loads. A quasi-experimental control-group research design was adopted. The participants were 115 undergraduates who were…

  20. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Method and Systematic Teaching on Students' Achievement and Retention of Knowledge in Social Studies Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz Toklucu, Selma; Tay, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Many effective instructional strategies, methods, and techniques, which were developed in accordance with constructivist approach, can be used together in social studies lessons. Constructivist education comprises active learning processes. Two active learning approaches are cooperative learning and systematic teaching. Purpose…

  1. An Assessment of the Social Validity of Cooperative Learning and Conflict Resolution Programs in an Alternative Inner City High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattri, Nidhi

    A study was done to evaluate the social validity of the interventions of conflict resolution and cooperative learning at three campuses of an alternative inner-city high school in New York City. The evaluation explored students' and teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness and applicability of the interventions in their lives. Extensive…

  2. Cooperative Weblog Learning in Higher Education: Its Facilitating Effects on Social Interaction, Time Lag, and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tien-Chi; Huang, Yueh-Min; Yu, Fu-Yun

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of using weblog technologies to support cooperative learning in higher education. The study focused on the effects of features embedded in weblogs on social interactions, time lags, and cognitive loads. A quasi-experimental control-group research design was adopted. The participants were 115 undergraduates who were…

  3. Use of Peer Tutoring, Cooperative Learning, and Collaborative Learning: Implications for Reducing Anti-Social Behavior of Schooling Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Obiyo, N.; Obidoa, M.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the use of peer tutoring, cooperative learning, and collaborative learning as strategies to reduce anti-social behavior among schooling adolescents. The study is a descriptive survey study. The area of study was Nsukka education zone in Enugu State of Nigeria. The sample of the study was 200 teachers randomly sampled from…

  4. LA RESPONSABILIDAD SOCIAL CORPORATIVA Y SU PARALELISMO CON LAS SOCIEDADES COOPERATIVAS / CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ITS PARALLELISM WITH THE COOPERATIVES SOCIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAQUEL PUENTES POYATOS

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de responsabilidad social corporativa no es nuevo. Es un enfoque que, según la literatura científica, está muy presente en las sociedades cooperativas y es fuente de singularidades de éstas. En este sentido la Comisión Europea (2002 indicó que “Las cooperativas tienen una larga tradición en combinar viabilidad económica y responsabilidad social gracias al diálogo entre las partes interesadas y a la gestión participativa, y pueden servir de referencia a otras organizaciones”. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo poner de manifiesto que la responsabilidad social corporativa está entroncada en los valores y principios cooperativos y que, por tanto, constituye una ideología innata al cooperativismo. En consecuencia podemos decir que las sociedades cooperativas se sitúan como las máximas exponentes de la RSC. /Corporate social responsibility is not a new concept. According to the scientific literature it is a very present concept in cooperatives societies and it is a source of singularities of these ones. In this context the European Commission (2002 reported that “Cooperatives have a long tradition in combining economic viability and social responsibility through dialogue between stakeholders and participatory management, so they can serve as reference for other organizations”. This work aims to show that corporate social responsibility is rooted in the cooperative values and principles and, therefore, constitutes an inherent ideology of cooperatives. Therefore we can say that cooperatives are positioned as the greatest exponents of CSR

  5. Cooperation between gatekeepers in sickness insurance – the perspective of social insurance officers. A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvidsson Barbro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective was to describe variations in how social insurance officers conceive the cooperation with the health care in their daily work with sick leave. Methods Fifteen social insurance officers (SIOs working with administration of sickness benefits were interviewed. They were purposefully recruited to represent different parts of the social insurance office organization, different ages, gender, education, and work experience. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using phenomenographic approach. Results 11 women and 4 men, aged 25–65, with a work experience ranging from 1–40 years were interviewed. Three descriptive categories embracing eleven subcategories emerged: 1 Communication channels included three subcategories; to obtain medical opinions, to hold meetings with actors involved, to experience support functions; 2 Organizational conditions included five subcategories; to experience lack of time, to experience problems of availability, to experience lack of continuity, to experience unclear responsibility, to experience ongoing change; 3 Attitudes included three subcategories; to conceive the attitudes of the physicians, to conceive the attitudes of the patients, to conceive the attitudes of the SIOs. Conclusion Personal communication was described as crucial to ensure a more efficient working process. The personal contact was obstructed mainly by issues related to work load, lack of continuity, and reorganisations. By enhancing and enabling personal contact between SIOs and health care professionals, the waiting times for the sick-listed might be shortened, resulting in shorter periods of sick-leave. Issues around collaboration and communication between gatekeepers need to be recognized in the ongoing work with new guidelines and education in insurance medicine.

  6. From the margins to the mainstream? - The potential for CSR cooperation in Angola and Nigeria[Corporate social responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldgard, Mai; Pilch, Tony; Lunde, Leiv

    2004-07-01

    This paper argues that current cooperation between International Oil Companies (IOCs) on corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Angola and Nigeria is very limited. In spite of the same IOCs working on the same CSR agendas in the same countries, they rarely work together to enhance the cause of CSR. There are some exceptions, but in the vast majority of cases, IOCs continue to work in relative isolation when developing socially responsible business activity. This matters because companies and societies may stand to benefit from IOCs working together to promote CSR. Companies can benefit from being seen to work with each other, avoiding duplication and maximising opportunities. Societies may also benefit from IOCs working together; for instance on important community development projects, ensuring that services are developed where the need is greatest, and also, to the extent feasible, in conveying joint industry messages to the governments in question. The paper identifies a number of barriers to CSR cooperation, including: commercial drivers incentivising competition not cooperation, IOCs focusing on promotion of their own independent 'CSR' identity, and current arrangements encouraging cooperation with other agents, rather than between IOCs. The paper closes by proposing that multilateral agencies should help establish CSR Forums in countries like Angola and Nigeria, involving IOCs, state owned oil companies, industry associations, host governments and international governments. Such forums could work to identify key social and environmental needs, evaluate where IOCs are best placed to respond and, working together, drive greater levels of micro and macro CSR activity (author) (ml)

  7. Using social media to support cluster development : Working Paper (draft- do not quote)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manickam, Anu; Graaf, Frank Jan de

    2012-01-01

    Developing European transnational clusters is a cornerstone in current EU-policies towards a sustainable competitive and open European economy. Within this conceptual paper relates these objectives to new developments in the application of network IT or, in popular terms, the rise of social media

  8. Applying spatial clustering analysis to a township-level social vulnerability assessment in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yen Lin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The degree of social vulnerability may vary according to the conditions and backgrounds of different locations, yet spatial clustering phenomena may exist when nearby spatial units exhibit similar characteristics. This study applied spatial autocorrelation statistics to analyze the spatial association of vulnerability among townships in Taiwan. The vulnerability was first assessed on the basis of a social vulnerability index that was constructed using Fuzzy Delphi and analytic hierarchy process methods. Subsequently, the corresponding indicator variables were applied to calculate standardized vulnerability assessment scores by using government data. According to the results of the vulnerability assessment in which T scores were normalized, the distribution of social vulnerabilities varied among the townships. The scores were further analyzed using spatial autocorrelation statistics for spatial clustering of vulnerability distribution. The Local G statistic identified 42 significant spatial association pockets, whereas the Global G statistic indicated no spatial phenomenon of clustering. This phenomenon was verified and explained by applying Moran's I statistics to examine the homogeneity and heterogeneity of spatial associations. Although both statistics were originally designed to identify the existence of spatial clustering, they serve diverse purposes, and the results can be compared to obtain additional insights into the distribution patterns of social vulnerability.

  9. Stable and fluctuating social preferences and implications for cooperation among female bonobos at LuiKotale, Salonga National Park, DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovice, Liza R; Douglas, Pamela Heidi; Martinez-Iñigo, Laura; Surbeck, Martin; Vigilant, Linda; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2017-05-01

    Female bonobos (Pan paniscus) are characterized as highly affiliative and cooperative, but few studies have quantified the strength and stability of female intra-sexual relationships or explored how variation in social relationships influences cooperation. We measure female social preferences, identify causes of variation in preferences, and test whether variation in social preferences predicts food sharing or coalitionary support. Data were collected over 3 years from females in the Bompusa community at LuiKotale, DRC. We measured genetic relatedness and constructed social preference indices for party association, proximity, grooming, GG-rubbing and aggression. We identified preferred social partners based on permutation tests and measured stability using Mantel tests. We used factor analysis to identify inter-relationships between preference indices and used LMMs to test whether variation in social preferences was explained by relatedness, rank differences, having dependent young or co-residency time. We used GLMMs to test whether variation in social preferences predicted food sharing or coalitionary support. All females had preferred non-kin partners for proximity, grooming or GG-rubbing, but only grooming preferences were stable across years. Association indices were higher among lactating females, and aggression was lower among females with longer co-residency times. The factor analysis identified one factor, representing proximity and GG-rubbing preferences, labeled behavioral coordination. Dyads with higher levels of behavioral coordination were more likely to share food. Female bonobos exhibit stable, differentiated grooming relationships outside of kinship and philopatry. Females also exhibit flexible proximity and GG-rubbing preferences that may facilitate cooperation with a wider range of social partners. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Personality, Parasites, Political Attitudes, and Cooperation: A Model of How Infection Prevalence Influences Openness and Social Group Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gordon D A; Fincher, Corey L; Walasek, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    What is the origin of individual differences in ideology and personality? According to the parasite stress hypothesis, the structure of a society and the values of individuals within it are both influenced by the prevalence of infectious disease within the society's geographical region. High levels of infection threat are associated with more ethnocentric and collectivist social structures and greater adherence to social norms, as well as with socially conservative political ideology and less open but more conscientious personalities. Here we use an agent-based model to explore a specific opportunities-parasites trade-off (OPTO) hypothesis, according to which utility-maximizing agents place themselves at an optimal point on a trade-off between (a) the gains that may be achieved through accessing the resources of geographically or socially distant out-group members through openness to out-group interaction, and (b) the losses arising due to consequently increased risks of exotic infection to which immunity has not been developed. We examine the evolution of cooperation and the formation of social groups within social networks, and we show that the groups that spontaneously form exhibit greater local rather than global cooperative networks when levels of infection are high. It is suggested that the OPTO model offers a first step toward understanding the specific mechanisms through which environmental conditions may influence cognition, ideology, personality, and social organization. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Topics in Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Cognitive Science Society.

  11. Evolution of cooperation on stochastic dynamical networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    Full Text Available Cooperative behavior that increases the fitness of others at a cost to oneself can be promoted by natural selection only in the presence of an additional mechanism. One such mechanism is based on population structure, which can lead to clustering of cooperating agents. Recently, the focus has turned to complex dynamical population structures such as social networks, where the nodes represent individuals and links represent social relationships. We investigate how the dynamics of a social network can change the level of cooperation in the network. Individuals either update their strategies by imitating their partners or adjust their social ties. For the dynamics of the network structure, a random link is selected and breaks with a probability determined by the adjacent individuals. Once it is broken, a new one is established. This linking dynamics can be conveniently characterized by a Markov chain in the configuration space of an ever-changing network of interacting agents. Our model can be analytically solved provided the dynamics of links proceeds much faster than the dynamics of strategies. This leads to a simple rule for the evolution of cooperation: The more fragile links between cooperating players and non-cooperating players are (or the more robust links between cooperators are, the more likely cooperation prevails. Our approach may pave the way for analytically investigating coevolution of strategy and structure.

  12. Research on Influence Factors of Cooperative Marketing between Cluster Firms%集群企业合作营销影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李开; 崔小龙; 马士健

    2014-01-01

    地理集聚赋予集群企业各种可能的优势(如降低生产和交易成本等),但这种优势只有经企业间的合作营销才能够得以实现。为了对集群企业合作营销展开系统性研究,本文运用实证分析的方法,对福建泉州、广东东莞和浙江温州三地的传统集群中的企业进行调查,从微观的层面研究了企业合作营销的影响因素。研究结果表明企业家沟通能力、营销人员能力、资源互补或匹配和集群外部环境等,是影响集群企业合作营销的主要因素。%Geographic concentration gives every possible advantage of cluster firms ( such as lower production and trans-action cost , etc.) , but this advantage can be realized only when cluster firms cooperate with each other .This paper con-ducts a survey accompanied by site investigations and firm visits in three Chinese traditional clusters located in Quanzhou , Dongguan and Wenzhou , and studies influence factors of cooperative marketing between cluster firms from the micro aspects.The result indicates that entrepreneur′s communication skills, marketing personnel′s abilities, resource supplementary or match and external environment are the main factors influencing cooperative marketing between cluster firms.

  13. Social and Spatial Clustering of People at Humanity's Largest Gathering

    CERN Document Server

    Barnett, Ian; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    Macroscopic behavior of scientific and societal systems results from the aggregation of microscopic behaviors of their constituent elements, but connecting the macroscopic with the microscopic in human behavior has traditionally been difficult. Manifestations of homophily, the notion that individuals tend to interact with others who resemble them, have been observed in many small and intermediate size settings. However, whether this behavior translates to truly macroscopic levels, and what its consequences may be, remains unknown. Here, we use call detail records (CDRs) to examine the population dynamics and manifestations of social and spatial homophily at a macroscopic level among the residents of 23 states of India at the Kumbh Mela, a 3-month-long Hindu festival. We estimate that the festival was attended by 61 million people, making it the largest gathering in the history of humanity. While we find strong overall evidence for both types of homophily for residents of different states, participants from lo...

  14. Cascading failures and the emergence of cooperation in evolutionary-game based models of social and economical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Armbruster, Dieter

    2011-09-01

    We study catastrophic behaviors in large networked systems in the paradigm of evolutionary games by incorporating a realistic "death" or "bankruptcy" mechanism. We find that a cascading bankruptcy process can arise when defection strategies exist and individuals are vulnerable to deficit. Strikingly, we observe that, after the catastrophic cascading process terminates, cooperators are the sole survivors, regardless of the game types and of the connection patterns among individuals as determined by the topology of the underlying network. It is necessary that individuals cooperate with each other to survive the catastrophic failures. Cooperation thus becomes the optimal strategy and absolutely outperforms defection in the game evolution with respect to the "death" mechanism. Our results can be useful for understanding large-scale catastrophe in real-world systems and in particular, they may yield insights into significant social and economical phenomena such as large-scale failures of financial institutions and corporations during an economic recession.

  15. 谱聚类的现状及其在社会网络中的应用%Survey on spectral clustering and its applications in social networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟钦学; Paul J.Kennedy

    2013-01-01

    In recent years,analyzing social networks based on data clustering becomes one of the most popular topics as it has much significance.The direct benefit of these researches is to prevent terrorist attacks and detect the spread of diseases by detecting communities.Moreover,it is easy to boost social development and social cooperation after understanding structures of social networks clearly because social networks are dynamic networks and data clustering can predict changes of social ties.From the data mining aspect,social networks are incomplete,huge,complex and dynamic networks,and traditional data clustering methods do not work well in social areas due to these features.Conversely,spectral clustering,as one of the most popular modern data clustering algorithms,offers a systematic,flexible and practical solution to problems about social networks.The theories and experiments prove that it outperforms traditional data clustering algorithms in achieving global solutions and processing large datasets.This paper is to review the current theories and methodology of spectral clustering and its advantages when compared with traditional data clustering algorithms.On the other hand,some fundamental knowledge of social networks and two typical spectral clustering applications in social areas are also covered.%近年来,凭借其重要的研究意义,采用数据聚类去分析社会网络已成为时下最热门的话题之一.这些研究最直接应用的是防止恐怖袭击和社区通过检测疾病的传播.此外,由于社会网络是动态的,而社会关系的变化是可以通过数据聚类方法预测的.从而使得清楚了解社会网络结构将有助于促进社会发展和社会成员间的合作.从数据挖掘角度来看,社交网络是一种不完全的,庞大的,复杂的,动态的网络.而这些特性使得传统的数据聚类方法并不能成功应用在社会网络中.相反,作为一个最流行的现代数据的聚类算法,谱聚类在对社

  16. An application of the Strategic Games Matrix for competitive and cooperative strategies modeling for the firms of a textile and apparel business cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Pascoli Bottura

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the need of a generalized collaboration environment required to the implementation of any well-succeeded business cluster, the unavoidable decision-making autonomy and the free enterprise context among the companies, usually operating as multiple and complex supply chains, induce them to pursue their own interests, disconsidering the interest of other agents involved. Such companies, whether competing or cooperating with each other, naturally give rise to different conflict of interest situations among themselves, that need to be modeled, treated, conciliated, and managed. In this paper, a cooperative and competitive strategy modeling to treat the relationships among clustered companies is presented, based on concepts of the Games Theory. This work proposes the application of a methodology of analysis of these complex industrial arrangements using the Strategic Games Matrix (SGM as the conceptual framework. It shows that SGM is an useful analytical and managerial support tool to deal with the multiple conflicts of interest among the several agents in a cluster, both for descriptive and prescriptive purposes. This methodology is applied to the so-called Pólo-Tec-Tex (Technological Pole of Textile Industries, a textile and apparel industrial and commercial cluster of companies, in the region of Americana city, in São Paulo state.

  17. From Scorecard to Social Learning: A Reflective Coassessment Approach for Promoting Multiagency Cooperation in Natural Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Roux

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The responsibility for managing and conserving freshwater ecosystems is typically shared by multiple organizations with sometimes conflicting policy mandates. However, scorecard-based approaches for measuring management effectiveness in natural resource management are usually confined to single organizations. This paper describes a social learning approach which acknowledges cooperation as an essential precondition for effective management and that encourages reflective coassessment of cooperative relationships. The approach was pilot tested with eight participating organizations in one water management area in South Africa. It specifically aimed to allow for a multiagency reflective assessment of issues determining cooperative behavior, allow context-specific adaptations, and be embedded in adaptive management. It involved development of a spreadsheet-based scorecard-type tool that can be used to facilitate a multiagency workshop. This workshop serves to bring parties face-to-face and helps them codiscover their interdependence, shortcomings, and strengths. The spreadsheet structures reflection on their respective roles and effectiveness while the reflective coassessment motivates participants to address shortcomings. Overall, insights that emerged included: cooperation should be an explicit component of each organization's operational strategy; facilitation of appropriate cooperative behavior could be very effectively achieved by external "bridging organizations"; the reflective assessment process must be followed by purposefully adaptive interventions; the ability of the scorecard to be contextually adaptive was important; and institutional readiness requires investigation as the approach does sit somewhat uncomfortably with much current practice.

  18. The effect of oxytocin on cooperation in a prisoner's dilemma depends on the social context and a person's social value orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, Carolyn H; Boone, Christophe; Kiyonari, Toko

    2014-06-01

    The interactionist approach to the study of exogenous oxytocin (OT) effects on prosocial behavior has emphasized the need to consider both contextual cues and individual differences. Therefore, an experiment was set up to examine the joint effect of intranasal OT, a salient social cue and the personality trait social value orientation on cooperative behavior in one-shot prisoner's dilemma games. The outcome of these mixed-motive games is known to be highly dependent on values and on social information that might reveal the partner's intent. Consistent with an a priori hypothesis, OT and social information interact significantly to affect the behavior of individuals with a proself value orientation: after prior contact with the game partner, OT enhances cooperative behavior, whereas in anonymous conditions, it exacerbates their intrinsic self-interested behavior. These effects of OT do not hold for individuals with a prosocial value orientation, whose cooperation levels appear to be more influenced by prior contact with the game partner. Follow-up hypotheses for why prosocial and proself individuals respond differently to exogenous OT were developed.

  19. Cluster A personality pathology in social anxiety disorder: a comparison with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Arendt, Mikkel; Fentz, Hanne Nørr; Hougaard, Esben; Rosenberg, Nicole K

    2014-10-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been associated with cluster A personality disorder (PD) traits, mainly paranoid and schizoid traits. The aim of the study was to further investigate cluster A personality pathology in patients with SAD. Self-reported PD traits were investigated in a clinical sample of 161 participants with SAD and in a clinical comparison group of 145 participants with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PAD). A diagnosis of SAD was associated with more paranoid and schizotypal PD traits, and an association between depression and personality pathology could indicate a state-effect of depression on PD traits. Patients with SAD had more cluster A personality pathology than patients with PAD, with the most solid indication for paranoid personality pathology.

  20. Arauco: The Role of a Housing Cooperative Community in the Mental Health and Social Adaptation of Latin American Refugees in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allodi, F.; Rojas, A.

    1988-01-01

    Studies the social adjustment of 30 Chilean refugee families who comprise the Arauco Housing Cooperative in Toronto, Canada. Concludes that preservation of the parent child relationship in times of stress is the key to the child's continuing development. (FMW)

  1. RELACIÓN CIRCULAR ENTRE ÉTICA, RESPONSABILIDAD SOCIAL Y REPUTACIÓN DE LAS COOPERATIVAS / CIRCULAR RELATIONSHIP AMONG ETHIC, SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND REPUTATION OF COOPERATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel OLMEDO CIFUENTES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available De forma progresiva, las empresas implantan programas y actividades sobre la base de la ética empresarial, la responsabilidad social y el buen gobierno, una estrategia justificada tanto por las actuales presiones procedentes de la sociedad como por los beneficios que obtienen en términos de reputación y de gestión de las relaciones con los stakeholders o grupos de interés. La propuesta de esta investigación es aplicar la dinámica en las relaciones de estas variables al caso de las cooperativas. Concretamente, se estudian las consecuencias de la ética empresarial y la responsabilidad social sobre la propensión a implantar códigos de conducta, y sus repercusiones sobre la consecución de un buen gobierno cooperativo y de una mayor reputación. Además, se razona que las cooperativas con mayor nivel de reputación tengan mayor tendencia a adoptar principios basados en la ética y la responsabilidad social. En definitiva, la principal aportación de este artículo se encuentra en la justificación de la relación circular existente entre estas variables para el caso de las cooperativas, en la medida en que son organizaciones con una singularidad propia en términos jurídicos, económicos y sociales / Progressively, companies implement programs and activities based on business ethics, social responsibility and good governance. It is a justified strategy both in the current pressures from society, as the benefits that the firms obtain in terms of reputation and managing relationships with stakeholders. The proposal of this research is to apply the dynamics in the relationships of these variables to the case of cooperatives. In particular, it is studied the consequences of business ethics and social responsibility on the propensity to implement codes of conduct, and its impact on the achievement of good government in the cooperative and a greater reputation. Besides, it is argued that cooperatives with higher reputation are more likely to

  2. Spatial structure facilitates cooperation in a social dilemma: empirical evidence from a bacterial community.

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    Felix J H Hol

    Full Text Available Cooperative organisms are ubiquitous in nature, despite their vulnerability to exploitation by cheaters. Although numerous theoretical studies suggest that spatial structure is critical for cooperation to persist, the spatial ecology of microbial cooperation remains largely unexplored experimentally. By tracking the community dynamics of cooperating (rpoS wild-type and cheating (rpoS mutant Escherichia coli in well-mixed flasks and microfabricated habitats, we demonstrate that spatial structure stabilizes coexistence between wild-type and mutant and thus facilitates cooperator maintenance. We develop a method to interpret our experimental results in the context of game theory, and show that the game wild-type and mutant bacteria play in an unstructured environment changes markedly over time, and eventually obeys a prisoner's dilemma leading to cheater dominance. In contrast, when wild-type and mutant E. coli co-inhabit a spatially-structured habitat, cooperators and cheaters coexist at intermediate frequencies. Our findings show that even in microhabitats lacking patchiness or spatial heterogeneities in resource availability, surface growth allows cells to form multi-cellular aggregates, yielding a self-structured community in which cooperators persist.

  3. Spatial structure facilitates cooperation in a social dilemma: empirical evidence from a bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, Felix J H; Galajda, Peter; Nagy, Krisztina; Woolthuis, Rutger G; Dekker, Cees; Keymer, Juan E

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative organisms are ubiquitous in nature, despite their vulnerability to exploitation by cheaters. Although numerous theoretical studies suggest that spatial structure is critical for cooperation to persist, the spatial ecology of microbial cooperation remains largely unexplored experimentally. By tracking the community dynamics of cooperating (rpoS wild-type) and cheating (rpoS mutant) Escherichia coli in well-mixed flasks and microfabricated habitats, we demonstrate that spatial structure stabilizes coexistence between wild-type and mutant and thus facilitates cooperator maintenance. We develop a method to interpret our experimental results in the context of game theory, and show that the game wild-type and mutant bacteria play in an unstructured environment changes markedly over time, and eventually obeys a prisoner's dilemma leading to cheater dominance. In contrast, when wild-type and mutant E. coli co-inhabit a spatially-structured habitat, cooperators and cheaters coexist at intermediate frequencies. Our findings show that even in microhabitats lacking patchiness or spatial heterogeneities in resource availability, surface growth allows cells to form multi-cellular aggregates, yielding a self-structured community in which cooperators persist.

  4. Securing recommender systems against shilling attacks using social-based clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiangliang

    2013-07-01

    Recommender systems (RS) have been found supportive and practical in e-commerce and been established as useful aiding services. Despite their great adoption in the user communities, RS are still vulnerable to unscrupulous producers who try to promote their products by shilling the systems. With the advent of social networks new sources of information have been made available which can potentially render RS more resistant to attacks. In this paper we explore the information provided in the form of social links with clustering for diminishing the impact of attacks. We propose two algorithms, CluTr and WCluTr, to combine clustering with "trust" among users. We demonstrate that CluTr and WCluTr enhance the robustness of RS by experimentally evaluating them on data from a public consumer recommender system Epinions.com. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York & Science Press, China.

  5. Securing Recommender Systems Against Shilling Attacks Using Social-Based Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Liang Zhang; Tak Man Desmond Lee; Georgios Pitsilis

    2013-01-01

    Recommender systems (RS) have been found supportive and practical in e-commerce and been established as useful aiding services.Despite their great adoption in the user communities,RS are still vulnerable to unscrupulous producers who try to promote their products by shilling the systems.With the advent of social networks new sources of information have been made available which can potentially render RS more resistant to attacks.In this paper we explore the information provided in the form of social links with clustering for diminishing the impact of attacks.We propose two algorithms,CLUTR and WCLUTR,to combine clustering with "trust" among users.We demonstrate that CLUTR and WCLUTR enhance the robustness of RS by experimentally evaluating them on data from a public consumer recommender system Epinions.com.

  6. Facilitation effect of observed motor deviants in a cooperative motor task: Evidence for direct perception of social intention in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesque, François; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne; Coello, Yann

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal parameters of voluntary motor action may help optimize human social interactions. Yet it is unknown whether individuals performing a cooperative task spontaneously perceive subtly informative social cues emerging through voluntary actions. In the present study, an auditory cue was provided through headphones to an actor and a partner who faced each other. Depending on the pitch of the auditory cue, either the actor or the partner were required to grasp and move a wooden dowel under time constraints from a central to a lateral position. Before this main action, the actor performed a preparatory action under no time constraint, consisting in placing the wooden dowel on the central location when receiving either a neutral ("prêt"-ready) or an informative auditory cue relative to who will be asked to perform the main action (the actor: "moi"-me, or the partner: "lui"-him). Although the task focused on the main action, analysis of motor performances revealed that actors performed the preparatory action with longer reaction times and higher trajectories when informed that the partner would be performing the main action. In this same condition, partners executed the main actions with shorter reaction times and lower velocities, despite having received no previous informative cues. These results demonstrate that the mere observation of socially driven motor actions spontaneously influences the low-level kinematics of voluntary motor actions performed by the observer during a cooperative motor task. These findings indicate that social intention can be anticipated from the mere observation of action patterns.

  7. A common oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism modulates intranasal oxytocin effects on the neural response to social cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, C; Lori, A; Waldman, I D; Binder, E B; Haroon, E; Rilling, J K

    2015-09-01

    Intranasal oxytocin (OT) can modulate social-emotional functioning and related brain activity in humans. Consequently, OT has been discussed as a potential treatment for psychiatric disorders involving social behavioral deficits. However, OT effects are often heterogeneous across individuals. Here we explore individual differences in OT effects on the neural response to social cooperation as a function of the rs53576 polymorphism of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Previously, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which healthy men and women were randomized to treatment with intranasal OT or placebo. Afterwards, they were imaged with functional magnetic resonance imaging while playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game with same-sex partners. Within the left ventral caudate nucleus, intranasal OT treatment increased activation to reciprocated cooperation in men, but tended to decrease activation in women. Here, we show that these sex differences in OT effects are specific to individuals with the rs53576 GG genotype, and are not found for other genotypes (rs53576 AA/AG). Thus, OT may increase the reward or salience of positive social interactions for male GG homozygotes, while decreasing those processes for female GG homozygotes. These results suggest that rs53576 genotype is an important variable to consider in future investigations of the clinical efficacy of intranasal OT treatment.

  8. Cooperation Relationships in Community Prevention Committees—Neglected by Qualitative Social Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning van den Brink

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available There are very few qualitative studies about the different models of cooperation founded in the last years in the field of community crime prevention in Germany. Qualitative methods are helpful in identifying and in analyzing the conflicts in interest and the negotiation process that takes place among the local institutes. The conflict in interest makes it difficult to work together and in the worst case it can completely block cooperation. With the help of qualitative methods, the soft skills and structural requirements for successful cooperation can be identified and discussed. The aim of this article is to show that it is necessary to examine the "inner life" of cooperation especially in crime prevention committees by using qualitative methods and with more rigor than in the past. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503202

  9. Sharing the cost of river basin adaptation portfolios to climate change: Insights from social justice and cooperative game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Corentin; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    The adaptation of water resource systems to the potential impacts of climate change requires mixed portfolios of supply and demand adaptation measures. The issue is not only to select efficient, robust, and flexible adaptation portfolios but also to find equitable strategies of cost allocation among the stakeholders. Our work addresses such cost allocation problems by applying two different theoretical approaches: social justice and cooperative game theory in a real case study. First of all, a cost-effective portfolio of adaptation measures at the basin scale is selected using a least-cost optimization model. Cost allocation solutions are then defined based on economic rationality concepts from cooperative game theory (the Core). Second, interviews are conducted to characterize stakeholders' perceptions of social justice principles associated with the definition of alternatives cost allocation rules. The comparison of the cost allocation scenarios leads to contrasted insights in order to inform the decision-making process at the river basin scale and potentially reap the efficiency gains from cooperation in the design of river basin adaptation portfolios.

  10. The coevolution of cooperation and dispersal in social groups and its implications for the emergence of multicellularity

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    Hochberg Michael E

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work on the complexity of life highlights the roles played by evolutionary forces at different levels of individuality. One of the central puzzles in explaining transitions in individuality for entities ranging from complex cells, to multicellular organisms and societies, is how different autonomous units relinquish control over their functions to others in the group. In addition to the necessity of reducing conflict over effecting specialized tasks, differentiating groups must control the exploitation of the commons, or else be out-competed by more fit groups. Results We propose that two forms of conflict – access to resources within groups and representation in germ line – may be resolved in tandem through individual and group-level selective effects. Specifically, we employ an optimization model to show the conditions under which different within-group social behaviors (cooperators producing a public good or cheaters exploiting the public good may be selected to disperse, thereby not affecting the commons and functioning as germ line. We find that partial or complete dispersal specialization of cheaters is a general outcome. The propensity for cheaters to disperse is highest with intermediate benefit:cost ratios of cooperative acts and with high relatedness. An examination of a range of real biological systems tends to support our theory, although additional study is required to provide robust tests. Conclusion We suggest that trait linkage between dispersal and cheating should be operative regardless of whether groups ever achieve higher levels of individuality, because individual selection will always tend to increase exploitation, and stronger group structure will tend to increase overall cooperation through kin selected benefits. Cheater specialization as dispersers offers simultaneous solutions to the evolution of cooperation in social groups and the origin of specialization of germ and soma in

  11. Invasion and expansion of cooperators in lattice populations: prisoner's dilemma vs. snowdrift games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Feng; Nowak, Martin A; Hauert, Christoph

    2010-10-07

    The evolution of cooperation is an enduring conundrum in biology and the social sciences. Two social dilemmas, the prisoner's dilemma and the snowdrift game have emerged as the most promising mathematical metaphors to study cooperation. Spatial structure with limited local interactions has long been identified as a potent promoter of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma but in the spatial snowdrift game, space may actually enhance or inhibit cooperation. Here we investigate and link the microscopic interaction between individuals to the characteristics of the emerging macroscopic patterns generated by the spatial invasion process of cooperators in a world of defectors. In our simulations, individuals are located on a square lattice with Moore neighborhood and update their strategies by probabilistically imitating the strategies of better performing neighbors. Under sufficiently benign conditions, cooperators can survive in both games. After rapid local equilibration, cooperators expand quadratically until global saturation is reached. Under favorable conditions, cooperators expand as a large contiguous cluster in both games with minor differences concerning the shape of embedded defectors. Under less favorable conditions, however, distinct differences arise. In the prisoner's dilemma, cooperators break up into isolated, compact clusters. The compact clustering reduces exploitation and leads to positive assortment, such that cooperators interact more frequently with other cooperators than with defectors. In contrast, in the snowdrift game, cooperators form small, dendritic clusters, which results in negative assortment and cooperators interact more frequently with defectors than with other cooperators. In order to characterize and quantify the emerging spatial patterns, we introduce a measure for the cluster shape and demonstrate that the macroscopic patterns can be used to determine the characteristics of the underlying microscopic interactions.

  12. Role of social environment and social clustering in spread of opinions in coevolving networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Nishant; Mucha, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    Taking a pragmatic approach to the processes involved in the phenomena of collective opinion formation, we investigate two specific modifications to the coevolving network voter model of opinion formation studied by Holme and Newman [Phys. Rev. E 74, 056108 (2006)]. First, we replace the rewiring probability parameter by a distribution of probability of accepting or rejecting opinions between individuals, accounting for heterogeneity and asymmetric influences in relationships between individuals. Second, we modify the rewiring step by a path-length-based preference for rewiring that reinforces local clustering. We have investigated the influences of these modifications on the outcomes of simulations of this model. We found that varying the shape of the distribution of probability of accepting or rejecting opinions can lead to the emergence of two qualitatively distinct final states, one having several isolated connected components each in internal consensus, allowing for the existence of diverse opinions, and the other having a single dominant connected component with each node within that dominant component having the same opinion. Furthermore, more importantly, we found that the initial clustering in the network can also induce similar transitions. Our investigation also indicates that these transitions are governed by a weak and complex dependence on system size. We found that the networks in the final states of the model have rich structural properties including the small world property for some parameter regimes.

  13. Governance, corporate social responsibility and cooperation in sustainable tourist destinations: the case of the island of Fuerteventura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga González-Morales

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on governance, corporate social responsibility (CSR and public-private cooperation in sustainable tourist destinations. The empirical analysis focuses on the island of Fuerteventura (the Canary Islands, where a process of coordinated decision making has begun, as well as putting in place plans to modernize the destination. Those responsible for tourism hotel and non-hotel accommodation were surveyed to assess the importance given to CSR in their companies. In particular, CSR’s environmental dimension and its relation with the public sector and other socio-economic factors, bearing in mind that Fuerteventura is a tourist destination in a Biosphere Reserve.

  14. The CORVET subunit Vps8 cooperates with the Rab5 homolog Vps21 to induce clustering of late endosomal compartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markgraf, Daniel F; Ahnert, Franziska; Arlt, Henning; Mari, Muriel; Peplowska, Karolina; Epp, Nadine; Griffith, Janice; Reggiori, Fulvio; Ungermann, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Membrane tethering, the process of mediating the first contact between membranes destined for fusion, requires specialized multisubunit protein complexes and Rab GTPases. In the yeast endolysosomal system, the hexameric HOPS tethering complex cooperates with the Rab7 homolog Ypt7 to promote homotypi

  15. Changing Roles of a University Cooperative Extension Service in Response to Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Thelma C.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have acknowledged that cooperative extension organizations should rethink dominant agricultural foci and be more inclusive of nontraditional audiences. An extension organization in the southeastern United States has experienced declining workshop participation, requests for technical assistance, and local office visits. These declines…

  16. Organizations(2): "Social Capitalism" and Adult Education: The Migros Co-Operative in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Journal of Adult Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Half of all adult education programs in Switzerland are conducted through Migros, the country's largest cooperative and largest private company. Migros' educational network principle specializes in teaching languages but also offers 174 subject areas as well as other activities and services. Some Migros adult education innovations are described.…

  17. Cultural evolution of cooperation : The interplay between forms of social learning and group selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, Lucas; Quiñones, Andres; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    The role of cultural group selection in the evolution of human cooperation is hotly debated. It has been argued that group selection is more effective in cultural evolution than in genetic evolution, because some forms of cultural transmission (conformism and/or the tendency to follow a leader) redu

  18. Teaching Yugoslavia the Cooperative Way: An Upper Elementary/Middle School Social Studies Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilke, Eileen Veronica

    1992-01-01

    Suggests methods for teaching about Yugoslavia. Recommends assigning students to maintain journals of news clippings about developments in Yugoslavia. Proposes forming cooperative-learning groups for researching the country's various regions. Offers activities for teaching about language arts, fine arts, reading and literature, religion,…

  19. Spatial clusters of violent deaths in a newly urbanized region of Brazil: highlighting the social disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Ana Lucia SS

    2009-11-01

    very poor area on the outskirts of the town. This cluster had a significantly higher proportion of people with the lowest educational status, lowest income, and poor housing conditions in comparison to the remainder of the municipality. Conclusion Our findings highlight the link between social inequalities and intentional deaths, clearly showing the need for urgent social interventions to reduce violence and premature mortality.

  20. “Nihon Koujin Club” and Its Activities with reference to Social Cooperation and Continuing Development of Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazu-Hiro

    “Nihon Koujin Club” and its activities are reviewed with reference to social cooperation and continuing development of engineers. Nihon Koujin Club was the first Japanese association of working-engineers (“koujin” in Japanese) established in 1920. At one time, more than 5000 engineers from various fields of engineering registered as the member of the club. Nihon-Koujin Club carried out various activities such as examinations to qualify professional engineers, enlightening activities for engineers' ethics and improvement of working conditions and so on. Proposals to governments were sometimes made one of which was that on engineering education. When it started, Nihon Koujin Club had an ambition to exchange information together with international counterparts such as The British Association of Scientific Worker. Unfortunately the direction of the club has deviated from its original purpose due to historical circumstances of nationalism of those days. Nevertheless its activities could be appreciated as an early stage of movement of engineers in Japan. The modern activities related to social cooperation or continuing development of engineers can be traced back to the activities of Nihon Koujin Club.

  1. Conflict and cooperation over sex: the consequences of social and genetic polyandry for reproductive success in dunnocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo S A; Santos, Luana L S; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2015-11-01

    Conflict and cooperation within and between the sexes are among the driving forces that lead to the evolution of mating systems. Among mating strategies, female genetic polyandry and male reproductive cooperation pose challenging evolutionary questions regarding the maintenance of systems where one sex suffers from reduced fitness. Here, we investigate the consequences of social and genetic polyandry for reproductive success of females and males in a population of the dunnock, Prunella modularis. We show that female multiple mating ameliorates the negative effects of inbreeding. We, however, found little evidence that females engage in extra-group (pair) mating with less related or more heterozygous males. Breeding in socially polyandrous groups reduced the amount of paternity lost to extra-group males, such that, on average, cobreeding and monogamous males fledged a similar number of young. Importantly, c. 30% of cobreeding male dyads were related, suggesting they could gain indirect fitness benefits. Taken together, cobreeding males achieve equivalent reproductive success to monogamous counterparts under most circumstances. Our study has revealed unexpected complexities in the variable mating system of dunnocks in New Zealand. Our results differ from the well-known Cambridge dunnock study and can help our understanding of the evolution and maintenance of various breeding systems in the animal kingdom.

  2. EL GOBIERNO EN LA SOCIEDAD COOPERATIVA COMO BASE DE LA COHESIÓN SOCIAL: EL CASO DE UNA SOCIEDAD COOPERATIVA AGRARIA / GOVERNANCE IN THE COOPERATIVE AS A BASE OF SOCIAL COHESION: THE CASE OF AN AGRARIAN COOPERATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina PEDROSA ORTEGA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dadas las características del entorno actual, en el que se ha producido un aumento de la sensibilidad hacia los problemas éticos, se ha globalizado la economía y estamos asistiendo a un aumento de la competencia, se ha producido un cambio en la concepción convencional de la organización. Aunque las sociedades cooperativas se centren en satisfacer las necesidades y deseos de sus socios, también trabajan por conseguir el desarrollo sostenible de la comunidad en la que se implantan, según el último de los principios de su cultura cooperativa. Esto supone que la cohesión social con su entorno sea considerada como una de las bases de la ventaja competitiva de la fórmula cooperativa. Como respuesta a la complejidad de la situación actual y para asegurar la supervivencia de la empresa aparece la teoría de los grupos de interés. Dicha teoría trata de lograr un buen gobierno a través de la integración de los objetivos de dichos grupos de interés en la organización. Por ello, vamos a estudiar cómo esta teoría es válida para las organizaciones cooperativas en la búsqueda de su ventaja competitiva / In the current environment, in which has increased the sensitivity to ethical issues, the economy has been globalized and are witnessing the rise of competition, there has been a change in the conventional view of the organization. Although cooperatives are focused on meeting the needs and desires of their partners are also working to achieve sustainable development of the community in which they are implanted, as the last of the cooperative principles of their culture. This implies that social cohesion with their environment is considered as a base of competitive advantage of the cooperative. In response to the complexity of this situation and to ensure the survival of this type of enterprises, it is necessary the theory of the stakeholders. This theory seeks to achieve good governance through the integration of the objectives of those

  3. When interdependence shapes social perception: cooperation and competition moderate implicit gender stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemus, Soledad; Bukowski, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of interdependence goals on the accessibility of implicit gender stereotypical associations. Participants were asked to cooperate with or compete against a woman on a mathematical abilities task and subsequently the relative activation of positive and negative warmth and competence traits was measured using a primed categorization task. Results showed that female primes (vs. male primes) facilitated the activation of low warmth and high competence in the competition condition, whereas high warmth was activated in the cooperation condition and no differences were found for competence traits. These results are discussed referring to the stereotype content model and the compensation effect in person perception. The goal dependent nature of implicit gender stereotypes is emphasized.

  4. Cognitive and motivational requirements for the emergence of cooperation in a rat social game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte S Viana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Game theory and the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD game in particular, which captures the paradox of cooperative interactions that lead to benefits but entail costs to the interacting individuals, have constituted a powerful tool in the study of the mechanisms of reciprocity. However, in non-human animals most tests of reciprocity in PD games have resulted in sustained defection strategies. As a consequence, it has been suggested that under such stringent conditions as the PD game humans alone have evolved the necessary cognitive abilities to engage in reciprocity, namely, numerical discrimination, memory and control of temporal discounting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use an iterated PD game to test rats (Rattus norvegicus for the presence of such cognitive abilities by manipulating the strategy of the opponent, Tit-for-Tat and Pseudo-Random, or the relative size of the temptation to defect. We found that rats shape their behaviour according to the opponent's strategy and the relative outcome resulting from cooperative or defective moves. Finally, we show that the behaviour of rats is contingent upon their motivational state (hungry versus sated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we show that rats understand the payoff matrix of the PD game and the strategy of the opponent. Importantly, our findings reveal that rats possess the necessary cognitive capacities for reciprocity-based cooperation to emerge in the context of a prisoner's dilemma. Finally, the validation of the rat as a model to study reciprocity-based cooperation during the PD game opens new avenues of research in experimental neuroscience.

  5. The conflict of social norms may cause the collapse of cooperation: indirect reciprocity with opposing attitudes towards in-group favoritism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tadasu; Jusup, Marko; Iwasa, Yoh

    2014-04-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a cooperation maintaining mechanism based on the social evaluation of players. Here, we consider the case of a group in which two social norms with opposing attitudes towards in-group favoritism are mixed. One norm, called Bushido (the way of warriors), regards cooperation with outsiders as betrayal, whereas the second norm, called Shonindo (the way of merchants), regards cooperation with outsiders as desirable. Each member of the group, irrespective of being a Bushido or a Shonindo player, is evaluated in two different ways and assigned two different labels: "ally" or "enemy" according to the Bushido evaluation; "good" or "bad" according to the Shonindo evaluation. These labels change in response to the action taken (cooperation or defection) when acting as a donor, as well as the label attached to the recipient. In addition to Bushido players, who cooperate with an ally and defect from an enemy, and Shonindo players, who cooperate with a good recipient and defect from a bad recipient, the group contains a third kind of players--unconditional defectors. The fractions of the three types of players follow the replicator dynamics. If the probability of interacting with outsiders is small, and if the cost-to-benefit ratio of cooperation is low, we observe several important patterns. Each social norm is able to maintain a high level of cooperation when dominant. Bushido and Shonindo players evaluate each other unfavorably and engage in a severe conflict. In the end, only one norm permeates the whole group driving the other to the extinction. When both social norms are equally effective, a rare occurrence of unconditional defectors may lead to a successful invasion.

  6. International Co-operation and Trends in Social Science Information Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsa, Gyorgy; Foldi, Tamas

    1980-01-01

    Identifies the role and mechanism of information transfer in the social sciences, and surveys selected, significant institutions and organizations (mostly international), which promote such transfer. (RAA)

  7. Social Phenomenological Study of Strategic Action in the Cluster of Furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maria Felicio Macedo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research carried out on the following strategic phenomenon, for the most part, the guidelines of the functionalist paradigm. This production has its relevance in the scientific community, however, does not cover the strategy in all its complexity. In this scenario, it is intended to address the strategy from the assumptions of social phenomenology, an online research study focused on the action. Social action is the experience of the phenomenon. For this, research is carried out "for reasons" and "why reasons" present in strategic action. The relevance of this study is to address the strategy as a phenomenon that exists because of the social subject, which may show that its essence transcends the limits of individuality, because thinking is based on the phenomenological social awareness of the existence of the other. Held semi-structured interviews with fourteen strategists operating in cluster of furniture Bento Gonçalves, and the data analyzed according to the phenomenological approach of Sanders (1982. As a result, it follows that the "why reasons" are the 'becoming' and expertise, and the "for reasons": the search for freedom in corporate decision making and building a legacy. We conclude that the meaning of strategic action is not isolated, being linked to several factors related to the existential project of the strategist.

  8. Cooperation and innovation in social economy companies Cooperación e innovación en empresas de economía social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan Briones Peñalver

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The companies when forming cooperation agree- ments develop innovation measures and new organizational forms. Through the alliances with a third partner (UT, joint-ventures, agreements with suppliers, commercial agreements mechanisms pro- pellers of the innovation can be articulated in order to be more critic to compete the companies of social economy (EES. The objective of this study is to understand the capacities generated by the innovation used for collaborative processes. The empiric mark of the work has as purpose to study the cooperation processes taken by the EES of the Region of Murcia, with the purpose of knowing its arguments in the formation of agreements, to identify the variables that affect to its development, and to know the decisive factors that impel the EES, to the revitalization of cooperation processes and innovation.Las empresas, al formar acuerdos de cooperación, desarrollan medidas de innovación y nuevas formas organizacionales. Mediante las alianzas con terceros (UTEs, joint-ventures, acuerdos con proveedores, acuerdos comerciales pueden articular mecanis- mos propulsores de la innovación, que a su vez son críticos para competir con las empresas de economía social (EES. El objetivo de este estudio es entender las capacidades generadas por la inno- vación, las cuales utilizan procesos colaborativos. El marco empírico del trabajo tiene como finalidad estudiar los procesos de cooperación llevados por las EES de la Región de Murcia, con el propósito de conocer sus argumentos en la formación de acuerdos, identificar las variables que afectan a su desarrollo y, conocer los factores determinantes que impulsan a las EES a la dinamización de procesos de cooperación e innovación.

  9. Social Media Use of Cooperative Extension Family Economics Educators: Online Survey Results and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara; Zumwalt, Andrew; Bechman, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This article describes results of an online survey conducted by the eXtension Financial Security for All (FSA) Community of Practice (CoP) to determine the social media capacity and activity of its members. The survey was conducted to inform two subsequent FSA CoP programs: an archived webinar on social media programs and impact evaluation methods…

  10. Social Media Use of Cooperative Extension Family Economics Educators: Online Survey Results and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara; Zumwalt, Andrew; Bechman, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This article describes results of an online survey conducted by the eXtension Financial Security for All (FSA) Community of Practice (CoP) to determine the social media capacity and activity of its members. The survey was conducted to inform two subsequent FSA CoP programs: an archived webinar on social media programs and impact evaluation methods…

  11. Improving Student Social Skills through the Use of Cooperative Learning, Problem Solving, and Direct Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Meredith; Christensen, Robb

    The report describes a program to improve students social skills and level of responsibility. The targeted eighth and ninth grade students are located in two communities in northwestern Illinois. The problem of students exhibiting a lack of social skills and responsibility had been documented by student discipline referrals, anecdotal records,…

  12. COOPERATING SYSTEM BUILDING IN THE PROCESS OF SOCIAL WORK INTERVENTION: „WE TRY THAT CLIENT DOESN‘T GO TO NOWHERE“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Šatkauskienė

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study revealed that mental health social workers reflecting their professional experience, development of cooperative system building in social work intervention process describes as family involvement to the helping process and organization of social assistance network. Family understand as primary system of help, which can help a person, who has mental health disorders, to cope with challenges of everyday life. Social support network organization as a social work intervention activity directed toward cooperation with other agencies. The aim of cooperation is to initiate the continuity of help after hospital treatment, to facilitate person’s return home. Social workers cooperation with other help systems reveals that other agencies faced with missing resources, it need to provide the help. This compounded return to the community, the continuity of help in environment, where person lives and community help provision capacities after hospitalization. It seems that existing help provision – reception tradition is centralized and availability and accessibility dependent of potential client initiative unilaterally.

  13. Symptom severity, affective and somatic symptom clusters predict poorer social cognition performance in current but not remitted major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy eAir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with major depressive disorder when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity and affective and somatic symptom clusters on social cognition. One hundred and eight adult patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition in isolation and in combination with prosody and body language interpretation. While no associations between the diagnostic status (MDD vs controls and any of the social cognition measures were found, severity of depressive and anxious symptoms predicted performance on all social cognition subscales in currently depressed participants, controlling for age, gender, education and psychotropic medication. Moreover, in the current MDD group, an affective depressive symptom cluster was inversely related to performance on the more complex ACS Pairs and Prosody tasks, while a somatic symptom cluster was inversely related to ACS Affect Recognition and Total scores. In contrast, there were no associations between symptom severity or symptom clusters and the WAIS ACS in remitted depression participants. Given the state like nature social deficits in this study, these impairments may cause problems with day to day functioning and have implications in targeted therapeutic interventions.

  14. The duality of gaze: Eyes extract and signal social information during sustained cooperative and competitive dyadic gaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eJarick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to nonhuman primate eyes, which have a dark sclera surrounding a dark iris, human eyes have a white sclera that surrounds a dark iris. This high contrast morphology allows humans to determine quickly and easily where others are looking and infer what they are attending to. In recent years an enormous body of work has used photos and schematic images of faces to study these aspects of social attention, e.g., the selection of the eyes of others and the shift of attention to where those eyes are directed. However, evolutionary theory holds that humans did not develop a high contrast morphology simply to use the eyes of others as attentional cues; rather they sacrificed camouflage for communication, that is, to signal their thoughts and intentions to others. In the present study we demonstrate the importance of this by taking as our starting point the hypothesis that a cornerstone of nonverbal communication is the eye contact between individuals and the time that it is held. In a single simple study we show experimentally that the effect of eye contact can be quickly and profoundly altered merely by having participants, who had never met before, play a game in a cooperative or competitive manner. After the game participants were asked to make eye contact for a prolonged period of time (10 minutes. Those who had played the game cooperatively found this terribly difficult to do, repeatedly talking and breaking gaze. In contrast, those who had played the game competitively were able to stare quietly at each other for a sustained period. Collectively these data demonstrate that when looking at the eyes of a real person one both acquires and signals information to the other person. This duality of gaze is critical to nonverbal communication, with the nature of that communication shaped by the relationship between individuals, e.g., cooperative or competitive.

  15. The HOPE social media intervention for global HIV prevention in Peru: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Cumberland, William G; Nianogo, Roch; Menacho, Luis A; Galea, Jerome T; Coates, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Social media technologies offer new approaches to HIV prevention and promotion of testing. We examined the efficacy of the Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE) social media intervention to increase HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru. In this cluster randomised controlled trial, Peruvian MSM from Greater Lima (including Callao) who had sex with a man in the past 12 months, were 18 years of age or older, were HIV negative or serostatus unknown, and had a Facebook account or were willing to create one (N=556) were randomly assigned (1:1) by concealed allocation to join intervention or control groups on Facebook for 12 weeks. For the intervention, Peruvian MSM were trained and assigned to be HIV prevention mentors (peer-leaders) to participants in Facebook groups. The interventions period lasted 12 weeks. Participants in control groups received an enhanced standard of care, including standard offline HIV prevention available in Peru and participation in Facebook groups (without peer leaders) that provided study updates and HIV testing information. After accepting a request to join the groups, continued participation was voluntary. Participants also completed questionnaires on HIV risk behaviours and social media use at baseline and 12 week follow-up. The primary outcome was the number of participants who received a free HIV test at a local community clinic. The facebook groups were analysed as clusters to account for intracluster correlations. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01701206. Of 49 peer-leaders recruited, 34 completed training and were assigned at random to the intervention Facebook groups. Between March 19, 2012, and June 11, 2012, and Sept 26, 2012, and Dec 19, 2012, 556 participants were randomly assigned to intervention groups (N=278) or control groups (N=278); we analyse data for 252 and 246. 43 participants (17%) in the intervention group and 16 (7%) in the control groups got tested for HIV (adjusted

  16. Communication activity in a social network: relation between long-term correlations and inter-event clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Rybski, Diego; Havlin, Shlomo; Liljeros, Fredrik; Makse, Hernan A

    2012-01-01

    The timing patterns of human communication in social networks is not random. On the contrary, communication is dominated by emergent statistical laws such as non-trivial correlations and clustering. Recently, we found long-term correlations in the user's activity in social communities. Here, we extend this work to study collective behavior of the whole community. The goal is to understand the origin of clustering and long-term persistence. At the individual level, we find that the correlations in activity are a byproduct of the clustering expressed in the power-law distribution of inter-event times of single users. On the contrary, the activity of the whole community presents long-term correlations that are a true emergent property of the system, i.e. they are not related to the distribution of inter-event times. This result suggests the existence of collective behavior, possible arising from nontrivial communication patterns through the embedding social network.

  17. The physiology of cooperative breeding in a rare social canid; sex, suppression and pseudopregnancy in female Ethiopian wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, Freya; Paris, Monique; Macdonald, David W; Millar, Robert; Argaw, Kifle; Johnson, Paul J; Farstad, Wenche; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2013-10-02

    Ethiopian wolves, Canis simensis, differ from other cooperatively breeding canids in that they combine intense sociality with solitary foraging, making them a suitable species in which to study the physiology of cooperative breeding. The reproductive physiology of twenty wild female Ethiopian wolves (eleven dominant and nine subordinate) in Ethiopia's Bale Mountains National Park was studied non-invasively through the extraction and assaying of estradiol, progesterone and glucocorticoids in collected fecal samples using enzyme and radioimmunoassays. All dominant females showed increased estradiol concentrations and/or mating behavior during the annual mating season. In contrast, none of the subordinate females showed increased estradiol concentrations or mating behavior during the mating season. However, two subordinate females came into estrus outside of the mating season. Both dominant and subordinate females had higher average progesterone concentrations during the dominant female's pregnancy than at other times of the year, and two subordinate females allosuckled the dominant female's pups. No statistically significant differences in glucocorticoid concentrations were found between dominant and subordinate females. These results suggest that subordinate females are reproductively suppressed during the annual mating season, but may ovulate outside of the mating season and become pseudopregnant. No evidence was found to suggest that reproductive suppression in subordinate females was regulated through aggressive behaviors, and no relationship was found between fecal glucocorticoids and dominance status. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Social and Behavioral Risk Marker Clustering Associated with Biological Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease: NHANES 2001–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Everage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Social and behavioral risk markers (e.g., physical activity, diet, smoking, and socioeconomic position cluster; however, little is known whether clustering is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD risk. Objectives were to determine if sociobehavioral clustering is associated with biological CHD risk factors (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and diabetes and whether associations are independent of individual clustering components. Methods. Participants included 4,305 males and 4,673 females aged ≥20 years from NHANES 2001–2004. Sociobehavioral Risk Marker Index (SRI included a summary score of physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, smoking, and educational attainment. Regression analyses evaluated associations of SRI with aforementioned biological CHD risk factors. Receiver operator curve analyses assessed independent predictive ability of SRI. Results. Healthful clustering (SRI = 0 was associated with improved biological CHD risk factor levels in 5 of 6 risk factors in females and 2 of 6 risk factors in males. Adding SRI to models containing age, race, and individual SRI components did not improve C-statistics. Conclusions. Findings suggest that healthful sociobehavioral risk marker clustering is associated with favorable CHD risk factor levels, particularly in females. These findings should inform social ecological interventions that consider health impacts of addressing social and behavioral risk factors.

  19. On Social Security Cooperation in China-ASEAN Area%中国—东盟社会保障协作问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊

    2011-01-01

    The regional integration process of China-ASEAN is speeding up,but due to lackage of international cooperation in social security areas,on one hand the possibility of social dumping greatly increases for China-ASEAN countries to strive for capital and market,this even causes trade conflict,on the other hand it is difficult for multinational floating population to gain social security.These problems in the social security will seriously affect China-ASEAN regional cooperation process.This paper explains the prominent problems of social security cooperation in China-ASEAN area,then analyzes the factors that impact on social security cooperation,finally puts forward some suggestions to promote social security cooperation in China-ASEAN area.%中国-东盟区域一体化进程正在加快发展,但是由于缺乏社会保障领域的国际协作,一方面中国-东盟各国之间因争夺资本、市场而出现社会倾销的可能性大大增加,甚至会导致贸易冲突;另一方面该区域内跨国流动人口的社会保障转移、接续难。这些社会保障中的突出问题将严重影响中国-东盟的区域合作的进程。本文阐述了中国-东盟区域合作中突出的社会保障问题,分析了影响中国-东盟社会保障协作的因素,最后提出了促进中国-东盟社会保障协作的建议。

  20. Social living mitigates the costs of a chronic illness in a cooperative carnivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, Emily S.; Cross, Paul C.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Smith, Douglas W.; Metz, Matthew C; Stahler, Daniel R.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Infection risk is assumed to increase with social group size, and thus be a cost of group living. We assess infection risk and costs with respect to group size using data from an epidemic of sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) among grey wolves (Canis lupus). We demonstrate that group size does not predict infection risk and that individual costs of infection, in terms of reduced survival, can be entirely offset by having sufficient numbers of pack-mates. Infected individuals experience increased mortality hazards with increasing proportions of infected pack-mates, but healthy individuals remain unaffected. The social support of group hunting and territory defence are two possible mechanisms mediating infection costs. This is likely a common phenomenon among other social species and chronic infections, but difficult to detect in systems where infection status cannot be measured continuously over time.

  1. Cooperation and innovation in social economy companies Desarrollo local: reflexiones desde el desarrollo humano sostenible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Vargas Elizondo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay is a social and epistemological reflection on local economic development issued from the perspective of sustainable human development. It deals with some typical problems of development; and a differentiation is established expecting to suggest a road to the status of social citizenship and the threats that this aspiration conveys as well as an analysis of common insertion situations. As an exploratory essay, its main objective is to promote a theoretical reflexion on local economic development.At the same time,it gives an important relative weight to those strategies oriented to include that social sectors more vulnerable in the current process of globalisation.El presente documento contiene una reflexión epistemológica y social del tema del desarrollo económico local, desde la perspectiva del desarrollo humano sostenible. En él se abordan problemas típi- cos del desarrollo; se establece su diferenciación con la expectativa de insinuar al menos las vías de acce- so a la condición de ciudadanía social, las amenazas que esta aspiración experimenta y un recorrido por diversas situaciones de inserción que se suelen presentar. Es, pues, un ensayo exploratorio con el objetivo de promover la reflexión teórica sobre este importante tema. Otorga un gran peso relativo a las estrategias orientadas a incluir económica, social y políticamente a los sectores más vulnerables, en actual proceso de globalización.

  2. The police, social services and psychiatry cooperation in Denmark—A new model of working practice between governmental sectors. A description of the concept, process, practice and experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sestoft, Dorthe; Rasmussen, Mikael Flemming; Vitus, Kathrine

    2014-01-01

    In 2004 a new model of working practice between three public sectors, the local Police Department, Social Services and Psychiatry/Mental Health Services (PSP) was introduced in the municipality of Frederiksberg, Denmark. The aim of this cooperation was to enhance support to vulnerable citizens, who...... do not belong solely to one of the three sectors and thereby often get lost in the system. The PSP cooperation was introduced to ensure that relevant information concerning vulnerable citizens was shared between the three sectors and to improve collaboration between the sectors involved in order...... and crime. Participants of the PSP cooperations further highlight positive changes in the cooperation between the involved sectors, which is thought to further improve the support to vulnerable citizens and thereby enhance both prevention and follow up of cases. Furthermore, the recommendations drawn from...

  3. Cooperative protein structural dynamics of homodimeric hemoglobin linked to water cluster at subunit interface revealed by time-resolved X-ray solution scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Goo; Muniyappan, Srinivasan; Oang, Key Young; Kim, Tae Wu; Yang, Cheolhee; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Jeongho; Ihee, Hyotcherl

    2016-03-01

    Homodimeric hemoglobin (HbI) consisting of two subunits is a good model system for investigating the allosteric structural transition as it exhibits cooperativity in ligand binding. In this work, as an effort to extend our previous study on wild-type and F97Y mutant HbI, we investigate structural dynamics of a mutant HbI in solution to examine the role of well-organized interfacial water cluster, which has been known to mediate intersubunit communication in HbI. In the T72V mutant of HbI, the interfacial water cluster in the T state is perturbed due to the lack of Thr72, resulting in two less interfacial water molecules than in wild-type HbI. By performing picosecond time-resolved X-ray solution scattering experiment and kinetic analysis on the T72V mutant, we identify three structurally distinct intermediates (I1, I2, and I3) and show that the kinetics of the T72V mutant are well described by the same kinetic model used for wild-type and F97Y HbI, which involves biphasic kinetics, geminate recombination, and bimolecular CO recombination. The optimized kinetic model shows that the R-T transition and bimolecular CO recombination are faster in the T72V mutant than in the wild type. From structural analysis using species-associated difference scattering curves for the intermediates, we find that the T-like deoxy I3 intermediate in solution has a different structure from deoxy HbI in crystal. In addition, we extract detailed structural parameters of the intermediates such as E-F distance, intersubunit rotation angle, and heme-heme distance. By comparing the structures of protein intermediates in wild-type HbI and the T72V mutant, we reveal how the perturbation in the interfacial water cluster affects the kinetics and structures of reaction intermediates of HbI.

  4. Parameters of Regional Cooperative Behavior in the German Biotech Industry – A Quantitative Social Network Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Strotebeck, Falk

    We analyse the determinants of network formation in Germany’s biotechnology industry using social network analysis combined with a regression approach for count data. Outcome variable of interest is the degree centrality of German regions, which is specified as a function of the region’s innovative...

  5. Cooperation between social security and employment services: Evaluation of a reform strategy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Since the early 1990s in the Netherlands a process of restructuring social security has been going on. A central element is the introduction of regional Centres of Work and Income, stimulating people living on benefits to return to paid work and making services more client–oriented. In these centres

  6. Cooperation between social security and employment services: Evaluation of a reform strategy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Since the early 1990s in the Netherlands a process of restructuring social security has been going on. A central element is the introduction of regional Centres of Work and Income, stimulating people living on benefits to return to paid work and making services more client–oriented. In these

  7. Improving Social Skills at the Elementary Level through Cooperative Learning and Direct Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohrn, Laurie; Holian, Eleanor; Kaplan, Debra

    This action research project implemented and evaluated a program for improving social development of elementary school students in order to lessen disruptive behavior in physical education class. The targeted population consisted of elementary school children in second, fourth, and fifth grades in a growing rural, middle class community. Anecdotal…

  8. A Clustering Ensemble approach based on the similarities in 2-mode social networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Bao-ping; ZHANG Meng-jie

    2014-01-01

    For a particular clustering problems, selecting the best clustering method is a challenging problem.Research suggests that integrate the multiple clustering can improve the accuracy of clustering ensemble greatly. A new clustering ensemble approach based on the similarities in 2-mode networks is proposed in this paper. First of all, the data object and the initial clustering clusters transform into 2-mode networks, then using the similarities in 2-mode networks to calculate the similarity between different clusters iteratively to refine the adjacency matrix , K-means algorithm is finally used to get the final clustering, then obtain the final clustering results.The method effectively use the similarity between different clusters, example shows the feasibility of this method.

  9. Assessing the social licence to operate of the work of humanitarian and development cooperation organizations : A case study of Mercy Corps in Samtskhe-Javakheti, Georgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijelava, David; Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We examine the applicability of the concept of Social Licence to Operate (SLO) for international humanitarian and development cooperation organizations. We review the relevant literature on SLO and derive criteria that can be applicable to the work of development agencies. We also examine the case

  10. Combining network analysis with Cognitive Work Analysis: insights into social organisational and cooperation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Robert J; Baber, Chris; Stanton, Neville A; Jenkins, Daniel P; Revell, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) allows complex, sociotechnical systems to be explored in terms of their potential configurations. However, CWA does not explicitly analyse the manner in which person-to-person communication is performed in these configurations. Consequently, the combination of CWA with Social Network Analysis provides a means by which CWA output can be analysed to consider communication structure. The approach is illustrated through a case study of a military planning team. The case study shows how actor-to-actor and actor-to-function mapping can be analysed, in terms of centrality, to produce metrics of system structure under different operating conditions. In this paper, a technique for building social network diagrams from CWA is demonstrated.The approach allows analysts to appreciate the potential impact of organisational structure on a command system.

  11. Cluster-randomized trial demonstrating impact on academic achievement of elementary social-emotional learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, David J; Adams, Ryan E; Fredstrom, Bridget K; Weissberg, Roger P; Gilman, Richard; Voyce, Charlene; Tomlin, Ricarda; Speese-Linehan, Dee

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the results of a social and emotional learning (SEL) program on academic achievement among students attending a large, urban, high-risk school district. Using a cluster-randomized design, 24 elementary schools were assigned to receive either the intervention curriculum (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies, or PATHS) or a curriculum that delivered few if any SEL topics (i.e., the control group). In addition to state mastery test scores, demographic data, school attendance, and dosage information were obtained from 705 students who remained in the same group from the 3rd to the 6th grade. Analyses of odds ratios revealed that students enrolled in the intervention schools demonstrated higher levels of basic proficiency in reading, writing, and math at some grade levels. Although these between-groups differences held for race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status, significant within-group differences also were noted across these variables. Collectively, these findings indicated that social development instruction may be a promising approach to promote acquisition of academic proficiency, especially among youth attending high-risk school settings. Implications of these findings with respect to SEL programs conclude the article.

  12. Cooperative and Competitive Dynamics Model for Information Propagation in Online Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaming Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional empirical models of propagation consider individual contagion as an independent process, thus spreading in isolation manner. In this paper, we study how different contagions interact with each other as they spread through the network in order to propose an alternative dynamics model for information propagation. The proposed model is a novel combination of Lotka-Volterra cooperative model and competitive model. It is assumed that the interaction of one message on another is flexible instead of always negative. We prove that the impact of competition depends on the critical speed of the messages. By analyzing the differential equations, one or two stable equilibrium points can be found under certain conditions. Simulation results not only show the correctness of our theoretical analyses but also provide a more attractive conclusion. Different types of messages could coexist in the condition of high critical speed and intense competitive environment, or vice versa. The messages will benefit from the high critical speed when they are both competitive, and adopting a Tit-for-Tat strategy is necessary during the process of information propagation.

  13. SocialRAD: an infrastructure for a secure, cooperative, asynchronous teleradiology system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, João Filho Matos; Motta, Gustavo Henrique Matos Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of teleradiology services has enabled a major advance in the provision of health services to areas with difficult geographical access. However, this potential has also brought with it a number of challenges: the large volume of data, characteristic of imaging tests, and security requirements designed to ensure confidentiality and integrity. Moreover, there is also a number of ethical questions involving the dominant model on the market, whereby this service is outsourced to private companies, and is not directly undertaken by professional radiologists. Therefore, the present paper proposes a cooperative model of teleradiology, where health professionals interact directly with the hospitals providing patient care. This has involved the integration of a wide range of technologies, such as the interconnection models Peer-to-Peer, Cloud Computing, Dynamic DNS, RESTful Web Services, as well as security and interoperability standards, with the aim of promoting a secure, collaborative asynchronous environment. The developed model is currently being used on an experimental basis, providing teleradiology support to cities in the north-eastern hinterland of Brazil, and is fulfilling all expectations.

  14. Institutions and Social Change: implementing co-operative housing and environmentally sustainable development at Christie Walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan McClean

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available How can institutions contribute to the building of civil society in the twenty- first century? It is clear that the old laissez-faire approach and the more recent neo-conservative reliance on the market have failed to deliver housing for many people. On the other hand the state-based welfare housing model espoused by the Australian Labor Party over the twentieth century has also been beset by problems. Social alienation, and the crisis in affordable housing make the case that individualist approaches to urban living are not working. More communal solutions are needed - solutions attuned to a complex view of civil society outlined by Michael Edwards' tripartite definition. At the same time the onset of global warming now prompts Australians to create more environmentally sustainable ways of living. Addressing the theme of responsibility, this paper focuses on citizenship in its broader environmental, social and active forms. It analyses interviews and documentary evidence concerning the planning and development of Christie Walk, an innovative, medium density eco-city development in Adelaide. The investigation reveals the effects of some Australian institutions on residents' efforts to live socially and environmentally sustainable lives in an urban environment. The paper offers transdisciplinary research and analysis, linking the fields of history, urban housing, community development and environmental theory.

  15. Industrial clusters and social networks and their impact on the performance of micro- and small-scale enterprises: evidence from the handloom sector in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study empirically investigates how clustering and social networks affect the performance of micro- and small-scale enterprises by looking at the evidence from Ethiopia. By contrasting the performance of clustered micro enterprises with that of dispersed ones, it was first shown that clustering

  16. The HOPE Social Media Intervention for Global HIV Prevention: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D.; Cumberland, William G.; Nianogo, Roch; Menacho, Luis A.; Galea, Jerome T.; Coates, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media technologies are newly emerging tools that can be used for HIV prevention and testing in low- and middle-income countries, such as Peru. This study examined the efficacy of using the Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE) social media intervention to increase HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru. Methods In a cluster randomized controlled trial with concealed allocation, Peruvian MSM from Greater Lima/Callao (N = 556) were randomly assigned to join private intervention or control groups on Facebook for 12 weeks. In the intervention condition, forty-nine Peruvian MSM were trained and randomly assigned to be HIV prevention mentors to participants via Facebook groups over 12 weeks. Control participants received an enhanced standard of care, including standard offline HIV prevention available in Peru as well as participation in Facebook groups (without peer leaders) that provided study updates and HIV testing information. After accepting a request to join the groups, continued participation was voluntary. Participants could request a free HIV test at a local community clinic, and completed questionnaires on HIV risk behaviors and social media use at baseline and 12-week follow-up. Findings Between March 19, 2012, and June 11, 2012, and Sept 26, 2012, and Dec 19, 2012, 556 participants were randomly assigned to intervention groups (N=278) or control groups (N=278); we analyse data for 252 and 246. 43 participants (17%) in the intervention group and 16 (7%) in the control groups got tested for HIV (adjusted odds ratio 2.61, 95% CI 1.55–4.38). No adverse events were reported. Retention at 12-week follow-up was 90%. Across conditions, 7 (87.5%) of the 8 participants who tested positive were linked to care at a local clinic. Interpretation Development of peer-mentored social media communities seemed to be an effective method to increase HIV testing among high-risk populations in Peru.: Results suggest that the HOPE social

  17. The evolution of cooperation by the Hankshaw effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Sarah P; Connelly, Brian D; Dickinson, Katherine J; Kerr, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of cooperation-costly behavior that benefits others-faces one clear obstacle. Namely, cooperators are always at a competitive disadvantage relative to defectors, individuals that reap the benefits, but evade the cost of cooperation. One solution to this problem involves genetic hitchhiking, where the allele encoding cooperation becomes linked to a beneficial mutation, allowing cooperation to rise in abundance. Here, we explore hitchhiking in the context of adaptation to a stressful environment by cooperators and defectors with spatially limited dispersal. Under such conditions, clustered cooperators reach higher local densities, thereby experiencing more mutational opportunities than defectors. Thus, the allele encoding cooperation has a greater probability of hitchhiking with alleles conferring stress adaptation. We label this probabilistic enhancement the "Hankshaw effect" after the character Sissy Hankshaw, whose anomalously large thumbs made her a singularly effective hitchhiker. Using an agent-based model, we reveal a broad set of conditions that allow the evolution of cooperation through this effect. Additionally, we show that spite, a costly behavior that harms others, can evolve by the Hankshaw effect. While in an unchanging environment these costly social behaviors have transient success, in a dynamic environment, cooperation and spite can persist indefinitely.

  18. 大规模联合采集智能群体的协调跟踪模型及稳定性分析%An Improved Cooperative Tracking Model Used for Large-scale Social Foraging Swarm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世明; 方华京

    2006-01-01

    An improved cooperative tracking model is proposed, which is based on the local information between mutually observable individuals with global object information, and this model is used for scalable social foraging swarm. In this model, the "follower" individuals in the swarm take the center of the minimal circumcircle decided by the neighbors in the positive visual set of individual as its local object position. We study the stability properties of cooperative tracking behavior of social foraging swarm based on Lyapunov stability theory. Simulations show that the stable cooperative tracking behavior of the global social foraging swarm can be achieved easily, and beautiful scalability emerge from the proposed model for social foraging swarm.

  19. Autonomous and non-autonomous traits mediate social cooperation in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nameeta Mujumdar; Ashvini Kumar Dubey; Krithi Nandimath; Vidyanand Nanjundiah

    2011-08-01

    In the trishanku (triA−) mutant of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, aggregates are smaller than usual and the spore mass is located mid-way up the stalk, not at the apex. We have monitored aggregate territory size, spore allocation and fruiting body morphology in chimaeric groups of (quasi-wild-type) Ax2 and triA− cells. Developmental canalisation breaks down in chimaeras and leads to an increase in phenotypic variation. A minority of triA− cells causes largely Ax2 aggregation streams to break up; the effect is not due to the counting factor. Most chimaeric fruiting bodies resemble those ofAx2 or triA−. Others are double-deckers with a single stalk and two spore masses, one each at the terminus and midway along the stalk. The relative number of spores belonging to the two genotypes depends both on the mixing ratio and on the fruiting body morphology. In double-deckers formed from 1:1 chimaeras, the upper spore mass has more Ax2 spores, and the lower spore mass more triA− spores, than expected. Thus, the traits under study depend partly on the cells’ own genotype and partly on the phenotypes, and so genotypes, of other cells: they are both autonomous and non-autonomous. These findings strengthen the parallels between multicellular development and behaviour in social groups. Besides that, they reinforce the point that a trait can be associated with a genotype only in a specified context.

  20. Civil society, third sector, and healthcare: the case of social cooperatives in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzaga, Carlo; Fazzi, Luca

    2014-12-01

    In many European countries, the third sector is considered an actor able to improve both the efficiency and the efficacy of public healthcare systems afflicted by the crisis of the welfare state. Attributed to third-sector organizations is the role of a hybrid actor tasked with the professional supply of services, not for profit but rather for mutualistic purposes, and to serve the public interest. However, empirical evidence on the capacity of the third sector to pursue objectives of social inclusion in a phase of withdrawal by the public sector is almost entirely lacking in the European countries. The article describes the results of research on the transformation of the Italian healthcare system and on the emergence of a new third sector in Italy. The results of the inquiry highlight the strategies, characteristics, and governance processes which enable third-sector organizations operating in the healthcare sector to pursue objectives of inclusion, and to serve the needs of disadvantaged groups by assuming the form of social enterprises.

  1. Dilemmas of partial cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Related to the often applied cooperation models of social dilemmas, we deal with scenarios in which defection dominates cooperation, but an intermediate fraction of cooperators, that is, "partial cooperation," would maximize the overall performance of a group of individuals. Of course, such a solution comes at the expense of cooperators that do not profit from the overall maximum. However, because there are mechanisms accounting for mutual benefits after repeated interactions or through evolutionary mechanisms, such situations can constitute "dilemmas" of partial cooperation. Among the 12 ordinally distinct, symmetrical 2 x 2 games, three (barely considered) variants are correspondents of such dilemmas. Whereas some previous studies investigated particular instances of such games, we here provide the unifying framework and concisely relate it to the broad literature on cooperation in social dilemmas. Complementing our argumentation, we study the evolution of partial cooperation by deriving the respective conditions under which coexistence of cooperators and defectors, that is, partial cooperation, can be a stable outcome of evolutionary dynamics in these scenarios. Finally, we discuss the relevance of such models for research on the large biodiversity and variation in cooperative efforts both in biological and social systems.

  2. From Neural and Social Cooperation to the Global Emergence of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eGrigolini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent article cite{hebbian} discusses the emergence of intelligencevia criticality as a consequence of locality breakdown. Herein, we use criticality for the foundation of a novel generation of game theory making the local interaction between players yield long-range effects.We first establish that criticality is not confined to the Ising-like structure of the sociological model of cite{hebbian}, called the decision making model (DMM, through the study of the emergence of altruism using the altruism-selfishness model (ASM. Bothmodels generate criticality, one by imitation of opinion (DMM the other byimitation of behavior (ASM.The dynamics of a sociological network $mathcal{S}$ influences thebehavioral network $mathcal{F}$ through two game theoretic paradigms:(i emph{the value of altruism} ; (ii emph{the benefit of rapid consensus}.In (i the network $mathcal{S}$ debates the moral issue ofaltruism by means of the DMM, while at the level $mathcal{F}$ the individuals operate according to the ASM. The individuals of the level $mathcal{S}$, through a weak influence on the individuals of the level $mathcal{F}$,exert a societal control on $mathcal{F}$, fitting the principle of complexity management and complexity matching. In (ii the benefit to society is the rapid attainment of consensus in the $mathcal{S}$ level.The agents of the level $mathcal{F}$ operate according to the prisoner'sdilemma prescription, with the defectors acting as DMMcontrarians at the level $mathcal{S}$. The contrarians, acting as the inhibitory links of neural networks, exert on society the same beneficial effect of maintaining the criticality-induced resilience that they generate in neural networks. The conflict between personal and social benefit makes the networks evolve toward criticality.Finally, we show that the theory of this article is compatible with recent discoveries in the burgeoning field of social neuroscience.

  3. Cooperative protein structural dynamics of homodimeric hemoglobin linked to water cluster at subunit interface revealed by time-resolved X-ray solution scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Goo Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Homodimeric hemoglobin (HbI consisting of two subunits is a good model system for investigating the allosteric structural transition as it exhibits cooperativity in ligand binding. In this work, as an effort to extend our previous study on wild-type and F97Y mutant HbI, we investigate structural dynamics of a mutant HbI in solution to examine the role of well-organized interfacial water cluster, which has been known to mediate intersubunit communication in HbI. In the T72V mutant of HbI, the interfacial water cluster in the T state is perturbed due to the lack of Thr72, resulting in two less interfacial water molecules than in wild-type HbI. By performing picosecond time-resolved X-ray solution scattering experiment and kinetic analysis on the T72V mutant, we identify three structurally distinct intermediates (I1, I2, and I3 and show that the kinetics of the T72V mutant are well described by the same kinetic model used for wild-type and F97Y HbI, which involves biphasic kinetics, geminate recombination, and bimolecular CO recombination. The optimized kinetic model shows that the R-T transition and bimolecular CO recombination are faster in the T72V mutant than in the wild type. From structural analysis using species-associated difference scattering curves for the intermediates, we find that the T-like deoxy I3 intermediate in solution has a different structure from deoxy HbI in crystal. In addition, we extract detailed structural parameters of the intermediates such as E-F distance, intersubunit rotation angle, and heme-heme distance. By comparing the structures of protein intermediates in wild-type HbI and the T72V mutant, we reveal how the perturbation in the interfacial water cluster affects the kinetics and structures of reaction intermediates of HbI.

  4. Trust-Based Cooperative Social System Applied to a Carpooling Platform for Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Molina-Gil, Jezabel; Martín-Fernández, Francisco; Loia, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    One of the worst traffic problems today is the existence of huge traffic jams in almost any big city, produced by the large number of commuters using private cars. This problem has led to an increase in research on the optimization of vehicle occupancy in urban areas as this would help to solve the problem that most cars are occupied by single passengers. The solution of sharing the available seats in cars, known as carpooling, is already available in major cities around the world. However, carpooling is still not considered a safe and reliable solution for many users. With the widespread use of mobile technology and social networks, it is possible to create a trust-based platform to promote carpooling through a convenient, fast and secure system. The main objective of this work is the design and implementation of a carpool system that improves some important aspects of previous systems, focusing on trust between users, and on the security of the system. The proposed system guarantees user privacy and measures trust levels through a new reputation algorithm. In addition to this, the proposal has been developed as a mobile application for devices using the Android Open Source Project. PMID:28134803

  5. Trust-Based Cooperative Social System Applied to a Carpooling Platform for Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Molina-Gil, Jezabel; Martín-Fernández, Francisco; Loia, Vincenzo

    2017-01-27

    One of the worst traffic problems today is the existence of huge traffic jams in almost any big city, produced by the large number of commuters using private cars. This problem has led to an increase in research on the optimization of vehicle occupancy in urban areas as this would help to solve the problem that most cars are occupied by single passengers. The solution of sharing the available seats in cars, known as carpooling, is already available in major cities around the world. However, carpooling is still not considered a safe and reliable solution for many users. With the widespread use of mobile technology and social networks, it is possible to create a trust-based platform to promote carpooling through a convenient, fast and secure system. The main objective of this work is the design and implementation of a carpool system that improves some important aspects of previous systems, focusing on trust between users, and on the security of the system. The proposed system guarantees user privacy and measures trust levels through a new reputation algorithm. In addition to this, the proposal has been developed as a mobile application for devices using the Android Open Source Project.

  6. Trust-Based Cooperative Social System Applied to a Carpooling Platform for Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido Caballero-Gil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the worst traffic problems today is the existence of huge traffic jams in almost any big city, produced by the large number of commuters using private cars. This problem has led to an increase in research on the optimization of vehicle occupancy in urban areas as this would help to solve the problem that most cars are occupied by single passengers. The solution of sharing the available seats in cars, known as carpooling, is already available in major cities around the world. However, carpooling is still not considered a safe and reliable solution for many users. With the widespread use of mobile technology and social networks, it is possible to create a trust-based platform to promote carpooling through a convenient, fast and secure system. The main objective of this work is the design and implementation of a carpool system that improves some important aspects of previous systems, focusing on trust between users, and on the security of the system. The proposed system guarantees user privacy and measures trust levels through a new reputation algorithm. In addition to this, the proposal has been developed as a mobile application for devices using the Android Open Source Project.

  7. The influence of cooperation and defection on social decision making in depression: A study of the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgi, Kristen M; van 't Wout, Mascha

    2016-12-30

    This study evaluated the influence of self-reported levels of depression on interpersonal strategic decision making when interacting with partners who differed in their predetermined tendency to cooperate in three separate computerized iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Games (iPDGs). Across 29 participants, cooperation was lowest when interacting with a predominantly defecting partner and highest when interacting with a predominantly cooperating partner. Greater depression severity was related to steadier and continued cooperation over trials with the cooperating partner, seeming to reflect a prosocial response tendency when interacting with this partner. With the unbiased partner, depression severity was associated with a more volatile response pattern in reaction to cooperation and defection by this partner. Severity of depression did not influence cooperation with a defecting partner or expectations about partner cooperation reported before the task began. Taken together, these data appear to show that in predominately positive interactions, as in the cooperating partner condition, depression is associated with less volatile, more consistent cooperation. When such clear feedback is absent, as in the unbiased partner condition, depression is associated with more volatile behavior. Nonetheless, participants were generally able to adapt their behavior accordingly in this dynamic interpersonal decision making context.

  8. Cooperation percolation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    The paradox of cooperation among selfish individuals still puzzles scientific communities. Although a large amount of evidence has demonstrated that cooperator clusters in spatial games are effective to protect cooperators against the invasion of defectors, we continue to lack the condition for the formation of a giant cooperator cluster that assures the prevalence of cooperation in a system. Here, we study the dynamical organization of cooperator clusters in spatial prisoner's dilemma game to offer the condition for the dominance of cooperation, finding that a phase transition characterized by the emergence of a large spanning cooperator cluster occurs when the initial fraction of cooperators exceeds a certain threshold. Interestingly, the phase transition belongs to different universality classes of percolation determined by the temptation to defect $b$. Specifically, on square lattices, $1

  9. Social Dancing and Incidence of Falls in Older Adults: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafna Merom

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of falls among older people is a major public health challenge. Exercises that challenge balance are recognized as an efficacious fall prevention strategy. Given that small-scale trials have indicated that diverse dance styles can improve balance and gait of older adults, two of the strongest risk factors for falls in older people, this study aimed to determine whether social dance is effective in i reducing the number of falls and ii improving physical and cognitive fall-related risk factors.A parallel two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 23 self-care retirement villages (clusters around Sydney, Australia. Eligible villages had to have an appropriate hall for dancing, house at least 60 residents, and not be currently offering dance as a village activity. Retirement villages were randomised using a computer generated randomisation method, constrained using minimisation. Eligible participants had to be a resident of the village, be able to walk at least 50 m, and agree to undergo physical and cognitive testing without cognitive impairment. Residents of intervention villages (12 clusters were offered twice weekly one-hour social dancing classes (folk or ballroom dancing over 12 mo (80 h in total. Programs were standardized across villages and were delivered by eight dance teachers. Participants in the control villages (11 clusters were advised to continue with their regular activities.falls during the 12 mo trial and Trail Making Tests.The Physiological Performance Assessment (i.e., postural sway, proprioception, reaction time, leg strength and the Short Physical Performance Battery; health-related physical and mental quality of life from the Short-Form 12 (SF-12 Survey. Data on falls were obtained from 522 of 530 (98% randomised participants (mean age 78 y, 85% women and 424 (80% attended the 12-mo reassessment, which was lower among folk dance participants (71% than ballroom dancing (82% or control

  10. Social Network, Competitiveness of Industry Cluster and SMEs' Internationalization%社会网络、产业集群竞争力与中小企业国际化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小虎; 刘冰洁

    2012-01-01

    diversification and process depth of the internationalization of SMEs, while the cluster of social networks contribute to the enhancement of cluster competitiveness, thereby contributing to internationalization. With internationalization, SMEs will succeed in restructuring and upgrading. ( 1 ) To build a complete industrial chain is more conducive to reflect the advantages of the cluster. It's important to enhance the proportion of services in pro- duction. Financial services, software services, e-commerce, information services, industrial design are still the re- strictive factors on enhancing the cluster competitiveness. (2) With continuous transformation of the cluster hard- ware facilities and institutional arrangements, and actively introducing large-scale enterprises, foreign-funded enter- prises or joint ventures, the industry cluster competitiveness and market competitiveness will be improved. (3) Im- proving the quality of the cluster of social networks. The stronger the social network tie is, the stronger the competi- tiveness of the industry cluster will be. As a result of the cluster of SMEs, close contact and cooperative relation- ship, as well as information sharing help to promote the competitiveness of industry clusters.

  11. Operation Mechanism of Farmers’ Professional Cooperatives from the Point of Low-Carbon Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We firstly take a look at internal logic of cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products.In combination with operation features of farmers’ professional cooperatives and actual requirements for cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products;we elaborate establishing benefit allocation mechanism,bearing education and training functions,forming low-carbon value,building low-carbon identification system,as well as realizing low-carbon value.According to these situations,we systematically analyze operation mechanism of farmers’ professional cooperatives suitable for cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products.To promote cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products,we put forward following suggestions,including government guidance and encouragement,social acceptance and active cooperation,and integration into global low-carbon development system to share benefit of low-carbon development.

  12. A functional MRI study on how oxytocin affects decision making in social dilemmas: Cooperate as long as it pays off, aggress only when you think you can win.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Bruno; Declerck, Carolyn H; Boone, Christophe; Parizel, Paul M

    2017-08-01

    We investigate if the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), known to moderate social behaviour, influences strategic decision making in social dilemmas by facilitating the integration of incentives and social cues. Participants (N=29) played two economic games with different incentive structures in the fMRI scanner after receiving OT or placebo (following a double blind, within-subject design). Pictures of angry or neutral faces (the social cues) were displayed alongside the game matrices. Consistent with a priori hypotheses based on the modulatory role of OT in mesolimbic dopaminergic brain regions, the results indicate that, compared to placebo, OT significantly increases the activation of the nucleus accumbens during an assurance (coordination) game that rewards mutual cooperation. This increases appetitive motivation so that cooperative behaviour is facilitated for risk averse individuals. OT also significantly attenuates the amygdala, thereby reducing the orienting response to social cues. The corresponding change in behaviour is only apparent in the chicken (or anti-coordination) game, where aggression is incentivized but fatal if the partner also aggresses. Because of this ambiguity, decision making can be improved by additional information, and OT steers decisions in the chicken game in accordance with the valence of the facial cue: aggress when face is neutral; retreat when it is angry. Through its combined influence on amygdala and nucleus accumbens, OT improves the selection of a cooperative or aggressive strategy in function of the best match between the incentives of the game and the social cues present in the decision environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reducing child conduct problems and promoting social skills in a middle-income country: cluster randomised controlled trial†

    OpenAIRE

    Baker-Henningham, Helen; Scott, Stephen; Jones, Kelvyn; Walker, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for effective, affordable interventions to prevent child mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries. Aims To determine the effects of a universal pre-school-based intervention on child conduct problems and social skills at school and at home. Method In a cluster randomised design, 24 community pre-schools in inner-city areas of Kingston, Jamaica, were randomly assigned to receive the Incredible Years Teacher Training intervention (n = 12) or ...

  14. Communication activity in a social network: relation between long-term correlations and inter-event clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybski, Diego; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Havlin, Shlomo; Liljeros, Fredrik; Makse, Hernán A

    2012-01-01

    Human communication in social networks is dominated by emergent statistical laws such as non-trivial correlations and temporal clustering. Recently, we found long-term correlations in the user's activity in social communities. Here, we extend this work to study the collective behavior of the whole community with the goal of understanding the origin of clustering and long-term persistence. At the individual level, we find that the correlations in activity are a byproduct of the clustering expressed in the power-law distribution of inter-event times of single users, i.e. short periods of many events are separated by long periods of no events. On the contrary, the activity of the whole community presents long-term correlations that are a true emergent property of the system, i.e. they are not related to the distribution of inter-event times. This result suggests the existence of collective behavior, possibly arising from nontrivial communication patterns through the embedding social network.

  15. Shilling Attack Prevention for Recommender Systems Using Social-based Clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Tak

    2011-06-06

    A Recommender System (RS) is a system that utilizes user and item information to predict the feeling of users towards unfamiliar items. Recommender Systems have become popular tools for online stores due to their usefulness in confidently recommending items to users. A popular algorithm for recommender system is Collaborative Filtering (CF). CF uses other users\\' profiles to predict whether a user is interested in a particular object. This system, however, is vulnerable to malicious users seeking to promote items by manipulating rating predictions with fake user profiles. Profiles with behaviors similar to "victim" users alter the prediction of a Recommender System. Manipulating rating predictions through injected profiles is referred to as a shilling attack. It is important to develop shilling attack prevention frameworks for to protect the trustworthiness of Recommender Systems. In this thesis, we will demonstrate a new methodology that utilizes social information to prevent malicious users from manipulating the prediction system. The key element in our new methodology rests upon the concept of trust among real users, an element we claim absent among malicious profiles. In order to use trust information for shilling attack prevention, we first develop a weighting system which makes the system rely more on trustworthy users when making predictions. We then use this trust information to cluster out untrustworthy users to improve rating robustness. The robustness of the new and classic systems is then evaluated with data from a public commercial consumer RS, Epinions.com. Several complexity reduction procedures are also introduced to make implementing the algorithms mentioned possible for a huge commercial database.

  16. CONSIDERACIONES SOBRE LA NATURALEZA DEL CAPITAL SOCIAL EN LAS SOCIEDADES COOPERATIVAS DE TRABAJO ASOCIADO/REMARKS ABOUT THE NATURE OF SHAREHOLDERS EQUITY IN THE ASSOCIATED LABOUR COOPERATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier ITURRIOZ DEL CAMPO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Normas Internacionales de Contabilidad (NIC, actualmente denominadas Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera (NIIF, han clasificado al capital social de la sociedad cooperativa como recurso ajeno, al tratarse de un pasivo exigible por estar sujeto a “cancelación o devolución”, cuando el socio decida causar baja de la misma. Esto ha reabierto el debate en el mundo cooperativo entre los defensores y los opositores a dicha clasificación. El principal argumento en contra de esta consideración es que, se considera que se puede poner en peligro la subsistencia y viabilidad económica de la sociedad al presentar una imagen ante terceros que no ofrece garantías suficientes. No obstante, la CINIIF 2 deja una puerta abierta para considerar la totalidad del capital social, o una parte del mismo, como recurso propio siempre que la cooperativa posea el derecho incondicional o parcial a rechazar el rescate de las aportaciones realizadas por los socios. En este estudio se realiza un análisis del capital social en las sociedades cooperativas de trabajo asociado teniendo en cuenta las implicaciones de considerar al capita social como un recurso ajeno o como un recurso propio. En este último caso, tendría lugar una aproximación aún mayor entre la figura de la sociedad cooperativa de trabajo asociado y la sociedad laboral. /The International Accounting Standards (IAS, nowadays International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS, have classified the shareholders’ equity of the cooperatives as a liability, for being subject to " cancellation or return ", when the partner decides to resign from the cooperative. This has reopened the debate in the cooperative world among the defenders and the opponents for the above mentioned consideration. The principal argument in opposition to this consideration is that it is possible to put in danger the subsistence and economic viability of the society, because its image does not offer enough

  17. Cluster-size entropy in the Axelrod model of social influence: small-world networks and mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandica, Y; Charmell, A; Villegas-Febres, J; Bonalde, I

    2011-10-01

    We study the Axelrod's cultural adaptation model using the concept of cluster-size entropy S(c), which gives information on the variability of the cultural cluster size present in the system. Using networks of different topologies, from regular to random, we find that the critical point of the well-known nonequilibrium monocultural-multicultural (order-disorder) transition of the Axelrod model is given by the maximum of the S(c)(q) distributions. The width of the cluster entropy distributions can be used to qualitatively determine whether the transition is first or second order. By scaling the cluster entropy distributions we were able to obtain a relationship between the critical cultural trait q(c) and the number F of cultural features in two-dimensional regular networks. We also analyze the effect of the mass media (external field) on social systems within the Axelrod model in a square network. We find a partially ordered phase whose largest cultural cluster is not aligned with the external field, in contrast with a recent suggestion that this type of phase cannot be formed in regular networks. We draw a q-B phase diagram for the Axelrod model in regular networks.

  18. Cluster size entropy in the Axelrod model of social influence: small-world networks and mass media

    CERN Document Server

    Gandica, Yérali; Villegas-Febres, J; Bonalde, I

    2011-01-01

    We study the Axelrod's cultural adaptation model using the concept of cluster size entropy, $S_{c}$ that gives information on the variability of the cultural cluster size present in the system. Using networks of different topologies, from regular to random, we find that the critical point of the well-known nonequilibrium monocultural-multicultural (order-disorder) transition of the Axelrod model is unambiguously given by the maximum of the $S_{c}(q)$ distributions. The width of the cluster entropy distributions can be used to qualitatively determine whether the transition is first- or second-order. By scaling the cluster entropy distributions we were able to obtain a relationship between the critical cultural trait $q_c$ and the number $F$ of cultural features in regular networks. We also analyze the effect of the mass media (external field) on social systems within the Axelrod model in a square network. We find a new partially ordered phase whose largest cultural cluster is not aligned with the external fiel...

  19. Eb&D: A new clustering approach for signed social networks based on both edge-betweenness centrality and density of subgraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xingqin; Song, Huimin; Wu, Jianliang; Fuller, Edgar; Luo, Rong; Zhang, Cun-Quan

    2017-09-01

    Clustering algorithms for unsigned social networks which have only positive edges have been studied intensively. However, when a network has like/dislike, love/hate, respect/disrespect, or trust/distrust relationships, unsigned social networks with only positive edges are inadequate. Thus we model such kind of networks as signed networks which can have both negative and positive edges. Detecting the cluster structures of signed networks is much harder than for unsigned networks, because it not only requires that positive edges within clusters are as many as possible, but also requires that negative edges between clusters are as many as possible. Currently, we have few clustering algorithms for signed networks, and most of them requires the number of final clusters as an input while it is actually hard to predict beforehand. In this paper, we will propose a novel clustering algorithm called Eb &D for signed networks, where both the betweenness of edges and the density of subgraphs are used to detect cluster structures. A hierarchically nested system will be constructed to illustrate the inclusion relationships of clusters. To show the validity and efficiency of Eb &D, we test it on several classical social networks and also hundreds of synthetic data sets, and all obtain better results compared with other methods. The biggest advantage of Eb &D compared with other methods is that the number of clusters do not need to be known prior.

  20. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Buckley; O'Farrell, Gail

    1990-01-01

    Presents essential characteristics and types of cooperative learning strategies for use in elementary social studies. Outlines exercises for forming teams and building team spirit. Points out such methods promote group interdependence and student responsibility for learning and teaching others. Highlights two cooperative group strategies, Jigsaw…

  1. Effect of initial fraction of cooperators on cooperative behavior in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keizo Shigaki

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of initial fraction of cooperators on the evolution of cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma games. Compared with the results of heterogeneous networks, we find that there is a relatively low initial fraction of cooperators to guarantee higher equilibrium cooperative level. While this interesting phenomenon is contrary to the commonly shared knowledge that higher initial fraction of cooperators can provide better environment for the evolution of cooperation. To support our outcome, we explore the time courses of cooperation and find that the whole course can be divided into two sequent stages: enduring (END and expanding (EXP periods. At the end of END period, thought there is a limited number of cooperator clusters left for the case of low initial setup, these clusters can smoothly expand to hold the whole system in the EXP period. However, for high initial fraction of cooperators, superfluous cooperator clusters hinder their effective expansion, which induces many remaining defectors surrounding the cooperator clusters. Moreover, through intensive analysis, we also demonstrate that when the tendency of three cooperation cluster characteristics (cluster size, cluster number and cluster shape are consistent within END and EXP periods, the state that maximizes cooperation can be favored.

  2. Effect of initial fraction of cooperators on cooperative behavior in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigaki, Keizo; Wang, Zhen; Tanimoto, Jun; Fukuda, Eriko

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the influence of initial fraction of cooperators on the evolution of cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma games. Compared with the results of heterogeneous networks, we find that there is a relatively low initial fraction of cooperators to guarantee higher equilibrium cooperative level. While this interesting phenomenon is contrary to the commonly shared knowledge that higher initial fraction of cooperators can provide better environment for the evolution of cooperation. To support our outcome, we explore the time courses of cooperation and find that the whole course can be divided into two sequent stages: enduring (END) and expanding (EXP) periods. At the end of END period, thought there is a limited number of cooperator clusters left for the case of low initial setup, these clusters can smoothly expand to hold the whole system in the EXP period. However, for high initial fraction of cooperators, superfluous cooperator clusters hinder their effective expansion, which induces many remaining defectors surrounding the cooperator clusters. Moreover, through intensive analysis, we also demonstrate that when the tendency of three cooperation cluster characteristics (cluster size, cluster number and cluster shape) are consistent within END and EXP periods, the state that maximizes cooperation can be favored.

  3. Research on the Social Cooperation in the Public Digital Cultural Service%公共数字文化服务中的社会合作研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    完颜邓邓

    2016-01-01

    公共数字文化服务提供的政府失灵问题与公共文化服务机构自身条件的有限性决定了公共数字文化服务建设需要与社会力量合作。国内外公共数字文化服务建设与非营利性组织、营利性组织、公民个人在资源建设、服务推广、基础设施构建、管理领域开展的合作,可总结为基于项目的合同/协议式合作、以管理协调机构为依托的合作两种模式。为发展持续的合作关系,保障合作的顺利进展,需要维护合作对象的利益并为其创造价值,保持沟通畅通与协调一致。%The government failure in supplying public digital cultural service and the limitation of the public cultural service institutions determine the demand of cooperation with social forces. At home and abroad, the public digital cul-tural service projects are carrying out cooperation with non-profit organization, profit organization, individual citizens in four areas: resources construction, extension services, infrastructure construction and management. The cooperation model could be reduced to two kinds: cooperation based on project contract / agreement, cooperation based on man-agement and coordination organization. In order to develop a sustainable partnership and ensure the smooth progress of cooperation, we need to safeguard the interests of partners and create value for them, to maintain unimpeded communi-cation and unanimous coordination.

  4. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Model Script and Think-Pair-Share to Critical Thinking Skills, Social Attitude and Learning Outcomes Cognitive Biology of multiethnic High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didimus Tanah Boleng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran Cooperative Script dan Think-Pair-Share terhadap Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis, Sikap Sosial, dan Hasil Belajar Kognitif Biologi Siswa SMA Multietnis   Abstract: Biological learning process with multiethnic students requires a learning models which allow students to work independently, to work together in small groups, and to share with other groups. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of learning models, ethnicity, and the interaction of learning model and ethnic on critical thinking skills, social attitudes, and cognitive achievement. This quasi experimental study was conducted in 11th grade of Natural Science Class Highschool students with six ethnicaly and Junior Highschool National score groups consisted of 132 samples. The results of Covarian Analysis showed that the learning models significantly affected the social attitudes and increased the critical thinking skills and cognitive achievement. Ethnicity significantly affected the social attitudes and cognitive achievement. Interaction of learning models and ethnicity significantly affected students social attitudes. Key Words: cooperative script, think-pair-share, critical thinking skills, social attitudes, biology cognitive achievement, multiethnic students Abstrak: Pengelolaan proses pembelajaran biologi pada siswa multietnis memerlukan model pembelajaran yang memungkinkan siswa bekerja mandiri, bekerja sama dalam kelompok kecil, dan berbagi dengan kelompok lain. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh model pembelajaran, etnis, serta interaksi model pembelajaran dan etnis terhadap keterampilan berpikir kritis, sikap sosial, dan hasil belajar kognitif biologi siswa. Penelitian eksperimen semu ini dilakukan di kelas XI IPA SMA dengan sampel sebanyak 132 orang siswa terbagi dalam enam kelas yang homogen berdasarkan etnis dan nilai ujian nasional SMP siswa. Hasil analisis data dengan menggunakan Analisis Kovarian menunjukkan bahwa model

  5. Cooperation in social dilemmas: free riding may be thwarted by second-order reward rather than by punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyonari, Toko; Barclay, Pat

    2008-10-01

    Cooperation among nonrelatives can be puzzling because cooperation often involves incurring costs to confer benefits on unrelated others. Punishment of noncooperators can sustain otherwise fragile cooperation, but the provision of punishment suffers from a "second-order" free-riding problem because nonpunishers can free ride on the benefits from costly punishment provided by others. One suggested solution to this problem is second-order punishment of nonpunishers; more generally, the threat or promise of higher order sanctions might maintain the lower order sanctions that enforce cooperation in collective action problems. Here the authors report on 3 experiments testing people's willingness to provide second-order sanctions by having participants play a cooperative game with opportunities to punish and reward each other. The authors found that people supported those who rewarded cooperators either by rewarding them or by punishing nonrewarders, but people did not support those who punished noncooperators--they did not reward punishers or punish nonpunishers. Furthermore, people did not approve of punishers more than they did nonpunishers, even when nonpunishers were clearly unwilling to use sanctions to support cooperation. The results suggest that people will much more readily support positive sanctions than they will support negative sanctions.

  6. Network modularity promotes cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-05-01

    Cooperation in animals and humans is widely observed even if evolutionary biology theories predict the evolution of selfish individuals. Previous game theory models have shown that cooperation can evolve when the game takes place in a structured population such as a social network because it limits interactions between individuals. Modularity, the natural division of a network into groups, is a key characteristic of all social networks but the influence of this crucial social feature on the evolution of cooperation has never been investigated. Here, we provide novel pieces of evidence that network modularity promotes the evolution of cooperation in 2-person prisoner's dilemma games. By simulating games on social networks of different structures, we show that modularity shapes interactions between individuals favouring the evolution of cooperation. Modularity provides a simple mechanism for the evolution of cooperation without having to invoke complicated mechanisms such as reputation or punishment, or requiring genetic similarity among individuals. Thus, cooperation can evolve over wider social contexts than previously reported.

  7. Clustered marginalization of minorities during social transitions induced by co-evolution of behaviour and network structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Donges, Jonathan F.; Engemann, Denis A.; Levermann, Anders

    2016-08-01

    Large-scale transitions in societies are associated with both individual behavioural change and restructuring of the social network. These two factors have often been considered independently, yet recent advances in social network research challenge this view. Here we show that common features of societal marginalization and clustering emerge naturally during transitions in a co-evolutionary adaptive network model. This is achieved by explicitly considering the interplay between individual interaction and a dynamic network structure in behavioural selection. We exemplify this mechanism by simulating how smoking behaviour and the network structure get reconfigured by changing social norms. Our results are consistent with empirical findings: The prevalence of smoking was reduced, remaining smokers were preferentially connected among each other and formed increasingly marginalized clusters. We propose that self-amplifying feedbacks between individual behaviour and dynamic restructuring of the network are main drivers of the transition. This generative mechanism for co-evolution of individual behaviour and social network structure may apply to a wide range of examples beyond smoking.

  8. Relational diversity promotes cooperation in prisoner's dilemma games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Jianwei; Deng, Ruipu; Li, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Relational diversity can be characterized by heterogeneous distributions of tie strengths in social networks and this diversity is present not only among humans, but throughout the animal world. We account for this observation by analyzing two network datasets from Facebook. We measure the strength of a tie by calculating the extent of overlap of friends between the two individuals. Based on the previous findings in human experiments, we argue that it is very unlikely that players will allocate their investments equally to their neighbors. There is a tendency that players prefer to donate more to their intimate friends. We find that if players preferentially allocate their investments to their good friends, cooperation will be promoted in PDG. We proved that the facilitation of the cooperative strategy relies mostly on the cooperative allies between best friends, resulting in the formation of cooperative clusters which are able to prevail against the defectors even when there is a large cost to cooperate. Moreover, we discover that the effect of relational diversity cannot be analyzed by adopting classical complex networks models, because neither of the artificial networks is able to produce networks with diverse distributions of tie strengths. It is of vital importance to introduce real social networks to study the influence of diverse relations especially when it comes to humans. This research proposes a brand new perspective to understand the influence of social relations on the emergence of cooperation in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games.

  9. Cluster-cluster clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales.

  10. Cluster-cluster clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C.S.

    1985-08-01

    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales. 30 references.

  11. Evolution Analysis on Cluster Supply Chain Green Cooperation and the Role Playing by Governments%集群供应链绿色合作行为演化博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左志平; 刘春玲

    2015-01-01

    集群供应链绿色合作是解决产业集群工业污染和提高资源利用效率的一条重要途径。针对目前集群企业绿色合作动力不足问题,建立了集群供应链绿色合作行为与政府作用的演化博弈模型;在分析不同单链式供应链不同策略下各自的成本和收益基础上,运用演化博弈理论研究了集群供应链跨链绿色合作与政府管制行为之间的关系。结果显示:废弃物的产出规模、废弃物再利用固定投资、原材料的采购价格是集群供应链跨链绿色合作的先决条件;政府对废弃物排放而进行的罚款、政府的监管成本、政府监管失职招致的信誉损失对集群式供应链跨链绿色合作有不同程度的影响。最后,根据研究结果给出了相关政策建议。%Green cooperation of cluster supply chain is one of the important way to solve industrial pollution of industrial cluster and improve the efficiency of resource utilization.The main purpose of the research is to solve the problem of the limited motivation for cluster enterprise green cooperation.Based on the analysis of costs and benefits of cluster supply chain with different single supply chains and different strategies,this paper uses Evolutionary Game Theory to study the re-lation between on government environmental regulation behavior and crosswise green cooperation of cluster supply chain. The results manifest that the production scale of the wastes ,fixed investment of reusing and the material price were the key factors for the realization of cluster supply chain crosswise green cooperation;the government fine of By -product emissions of the core enterprise,the legal regulatory costs of the government and the neglect of government regulation duty incurred the credibility losses directly affect the game result.According to the results,it gives the relevant policy recommendations.

  12. Firms' Industry-education-research Cooperation Behavior in LMT Cluster%中低技术产业集群中企业产学研合作行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑛

    2011-01-01

    集群区域技术创新活动绩效与官、产、学三方互动配合的契合程度高度相关.本研究以三螺旋模型理论及吸收能力理论为基础,探讨中低技术集群中学研机构的作用,分析了企业产学研合作行为的影响因素.以90家梧州人工宝石产业集群企业为样本进行实证研究后得出结论:中低技术集群中产学研合作是一个包含了复杂联系机制的系统:并非所有的集群企业都可以有效地获取和利用学研机构的知识资源,其根源在于企业吸收能力制约着企业产学研合作的选择行为及创新效率.综合研究成果,探讨了中低技术集群企业深化产学研合作的努力方向及对政府集群政策的借鉴意义.%The technological innovational performance of regional cluster has high degree correlation with the fit of government - industry-university interactive relationships. Based on the Triple Helix model and firms' absorptive capacity theory, the roles to Low & Middle Technological (LMT) cluster of university & research institutions are discussed, and the factors effecting firms' industry-education-research cooperation behavior are analyzed. By engaging in an empirical study with a sample of 90 firms in Wuzhou artificial gem industry cluster, the paper shows that industry-education-research cooperation in LMT cluster is a system including complex linkage mechanism; Not all the clustered firms can effectively access and exploit the available external knowledge resources of university & research institutions as their absorptive capacity limit the choice behavior and innovation efficiency of industry-education-research cooperation. The paper also gives suggestions for the firms' efforts directions to deepen the level of industry-education-research cooperation, and discusses the reference for government's cluster policy.

  13. Evaluation of an early detection tool for social-emotional and behavioral problems in toddlers: The Brief Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment - A cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Alice S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of social-emotional and behavioral problems is estimated to be 8 to 9% among preschool children. Effective early detection tools are needed to promote the provision of adequate care at an early stage. The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA was developed for this purpose. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the BITSEA to enhance social-emotional and behavioral health of preschool children. Methods and Design A cluster randomized controlled trial is set up in youth health care centers in the larger Rotterdam area in the Netherlands, to evaluate the BITSEA. The 31 youth health care centers are randomly allocated to either the control group or the intervention group. The intervention group uses the scores on the BITSEA and cut-off points to evaluate a child's social-emotional and behavioral health and to decide whether or not the child should be referred. The control group provides care as usual, which involves administering a questionnaire that structures the conversation between child health professionals and parents. At a one year follow-up measurement the social-emotional and behavioral health of all children included in the study population will be evaluated. Discussion It is hypothesized that better results will be found, in terms of social-emotional and behavioral health in the intervention group, compared to the control group, due to more adequate early detection, referral and more appropriate and timely care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials NTR2035

  14. Cooperativity in beryllium bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Yáñez, Manuel; Mó, Otilia

    2014-03-07

    A theoretical study of the beryllium bonded clusters of the (iminomethyl)beryllium hydride and (iminomethyl)beryllium fluoride [HC(BeX)=NH, X = H, F] molecules has been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) level of theory. Linear and cyclic clusters have been characterized up to the decamer. The geometric, energetic, electronic and NMR properties of the clusters clearly indicate positive cooperativity. The evolution of the molecular properties, as the size of the cluster increases, is similar to those reported in polymers held together by hydrogen bonds.

  15. Different reactions to adverse neighborhoods in games of cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chunyan; Weissing, Franz J; Perc, Matjaz; Xie, Guangming; Wang, Long; 10.1371/journal.pone.0035183

    2012-01-01

    In social dilemmas, cooperation among randomly interacting individuals is often difficult to achieve. The situation changes if interactions take place in a network where the network structure jointly evolves with the behavioral strategies of the interacting individuals. In particular, cooperation can be stabilized if individuals tend to cut interaction links when facing adverse neighborhoods. Here we consider two different types of reaction to adverse neighborhoods, and all possible mixtures between these reactions. When faced with a gloomy outlook, players can either choose to cut and rewire some of their links to other individuals, or they can migrate to another location and establish new links in the new local neighborhood. We find that in general local rewiring is more favorable for the evolution of cooperation than emigration from adverse neighborhoods. Rewiring helps to maintain the diversity in the degree distribution of players and favors the spontaneous emergence of cooperative clusters. Both propert...

  16. Russia and Countering Violent Extremism in the Internet and Social Media: Exploring Prospects for U.S.-Russia Cooperation Beyond the "Reset"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharyl N. Cross Dr.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia has been targeted with a series of terrorist attacks over the past several years, and there are a growing number of extremist groups operating throughout Russia’s society utilizing the Internet/social media to promote their narratives and objectives. Russia’s policy community has created institutional mechanisms and laws to address the challenge of violent extremism in the Internet/social media, and recognizes the importance of international cooperation toward these ends. This study, based on primary research conducted in Moscow in 2012, defines Russia’s assessment of domestic and international sources violent extremist threats; explains Moscow’s perspective on balancing democratic principles with the challenge of countering violent extremism in the Internet/social media; assesses existing capacities and impediments to further international collaboration with Russia in countering violent extremism in the Internet/social media spheres; defines specific initiatives that Russia, the United States, and other nations of the world community could advance to enhance international cooperation in countering violent extremism throughout the world cyber community.

  17. 中国-东盟社会保障协作问题研究%Research on China-ASEAN Social Security Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 安立波

    2011-01-01

    中国-东盟区域一体化进程正在加快发展,但是由于缺乏社会保障领域的国际协作,一方面中国-东盟各国之间因争夺资本、市场而出现社会倾销的可能性大大增加,甚至会导致贸易冲突;另一方面该区域内跨国流动人口的社会保障转移、接续难。这些社会保障中的突出问题将严重影响中国-东盟区域合作的进程。需通过双边、多边协议促进社会保障协作、确定基本社会福利标准、发展劳务派遣、逐步推进跨国流动人员社会保障的转移和接续等措施,有重点、有步骤地推进中国-东盟社会保障协作。%The process of China-ASEAN regional integration is speeding up. However, due to the lack of international cooperation in the field of social security, two major problems emerged as follows: On one side, the possibilities of dumping will be increasing among China-ASEAN countries because of capital and the market competition, probably leading to trade conflicts. On the other side, the difficulties of transferring social security among transnational flows of people within China and ASEAN will surely have a negative impact on China- ASEAN regional cooperation. We must push forward the China-ASEAN Social Security Cooperation by setting fundamental standards for social security, developing labor service dispatching, improving the transferring of social security among China-ASEAN, etc.through bilateral and multilateral agreements to promote social security cooperation.

  18. Synergistic cooperation promotes multicellular performance and unicellular free-rider persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, William W; Travisano, Michael

    2017-06-05

    The evolution of multicellular life requires cooperation among cells, which can be undermined by intra-group selection for selfishness. Theory predicts that selection to avoid non-cooperators limits social interactions among non-relatives, yet previous evolution experiments suggest that intra-group conflict is an outcome, rather than a driver, of incipient multicellular life cycles. Here we report the evolution of multicellularity via two distinct mechanisms of group formation in the unicellular budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. Cells remain permanently attached following mitosis, giving rise to clonal clusters (staying together); clusters then reversibly assemble into social groups (coming together). Coming together amplifies the benefits of multicellularity and allows social clusters to collectively outperform solitary clusters. However, cooperation among non-relatives also permits fast-growing unicellular lineages to 'free-ride' during selection for increased size. Cooperation and competition for the benefits of multicellularity promote the stable coexistence of unicellular and multicellular genotypes, underscoring the importance of social and ecological context during the transition to multicellularity.

  19. Singing together or apart: The effect of competitive and cooperative singing on social bonding within and between sub-groups of a university Fraternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; van Duijn, Max; Rotkirch, Anna; David-Barrett, Tamas; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-11-01

    Singing together seems to facilitate social bonding, but it is unclear whether this is true in all contexts. Here we examine the social bonding outcomes of naturalistic singing behaviour in a European university Fraternity composed of exclusive 'Cliques': recognised sub-groups of 5-20 friends who adopt a special name and identity. Singing occurs frequently in this Fraternity, both 'competitively' (contests between Cliques) and 'cooperatively' (multiple Cliques singing together). Both situations were re-created experimentally in order to explore how competitive and cooperative singing affects feelings of closeness towards others. Participants were assigned to teams of four and were asked to sing together with another team either from the same Clique or from a different Clique. Participants (N = 88) felt significantly closer to teams from different Cliques after singing with them compared to before, regardless of whether they cooperated with (singing loudly together) or competed against (trying to singing louder than) the other team. In contrast, participants reported reduced closeness with other teams from their own Clique after competing with them. These results indicate that group singing can increase closeness to less familiar individuals regardless of whether they share a common motivation, but that singing competitively may reduce closeness within a very tight-knit group.

  20. Culture, Cooperation, and the General Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berigan, Nick; Irwin, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Solutions to social dilemmas require cooperation. Given that there are commonly multiple avenues for cooperation, sometimes social dilemmas require coordination of strategies in addition to sufficient cooperation to be successful. This study examines one social dilemma where such coordination is necessary: supporting the general welfare. Using…

  1. Information diffusion, Facebook clusters, and the simplicial model of social aggregation: a computational simulation of simplicial diffusers for community health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Kerk F; Sparks, Lisa; Struppa, Daniele C; Mannucci, Mirco A; Damiano, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    By integrating the simplicial model of social aggregation with existing research on opinion leadership and diffusion networks, this article introduces the constructs of simplicial diffusers (mathematically defined as nodes embedded in simplexes; a simplex is a socially bonded cluster) and simplicial diffusing sets (mathematically defined as minimal covers of a simplicial complex; a simplicial complex is a social aggregation in which socially bonded clusters are embedded) to propose a strategic approach for information diffusion of cancer screenings as a health intervention on Facebook for community cancer prevention and control. This approach is novel in its incorporation of interpersonally bonded clusters, culturally distinct subgroups, and different united social entities that coexist within a larger community into a computational simulation to select sets of simplicial diffusers with the highest degree of information diffusion for health intervention dissemination. The unique contributions of the article also include seven propositions and five algorithmic steps for computationally modeling the simplicial model with Facebook data.

  2. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  3. Cooperation and popularity in spatial games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Jin, Zhen; Wang, Zhen

    2014-11-01

    Selection of the competition opponent is crucial for the evolution of cooperation in evolutionary games. In this work, we introduce a simple rule, incorporating individual popularity via the single parameter α, to study how the selection of the potential strategy sources influences individual behavior traits. For positive α players with high popularity will be considered more likely, while for negative α the opposite holds. Setting α equal to zero returns the frequently adopted random selection of the opponent. We find that positive α (namely, adopting the strategy from a more popular player) promotes the emergence of cooperation, which is robust against different interaction networks and game classes. The essence of this boosting effect can be attributed to the fact: increasing α accelerates the microscopic organization of cooperator clusters to resist the exploitation of defectors. Moreover, we also demonstrated that the introduction of a new mechanism alters the impact of uncertainty by strategy adoption on the evolution of cooperation. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous cooperative behaviors in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve social dilemmas.

  4. The agricultural cooperatives in Argentina today: Three cases from the perspective of social capital El cooperativismo agropecuario argentino en la actualidad: Presentación y análisis de tres casos desde la perspectiva del capital social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lattuada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a characterization of the agricultural cooperatives in Argentina. In particular, we are interested in the capacity of these organizations to generate social capital. In order to this, we present some specific cases. Thus, the work, that takes part of a larger investigation, is divided in two sections and conclusions. Firstly, we emphasize in the theoretical aspects about social capital and cooperative organizations. Secondly, we show, with this theoretical key, three cases of cooperatives of different types: FeCoVita, AFA and SanCor. Regarding with the methodology, we considerer a literature review related to the topic of social capital and, for the cases, we take institutional material provided for the organizations and specialized studies and interviews.En este trabajo, presentamos una caracterización sobre el cooperativismo agropecuario en la Argentina de los últimos tiempos desde una lente en particular: la capacidad de estas organizaciones para generar capital social, traducida en la presentación de algunos casos concretos. De este modo, el trabajo -que forma parte de una investigación mayor- se divide en dos apartados y conclusiones. En el primero de ellos destacamos los aspectos teóricos en torno al capital social y las organizaciones cooperativas. En el segundo, mostramos, desde la clave teórica anterior, tres casos de cooperativas, de distinto tipo, de larga data en nuestro país: FeCoVita, AFA y SanCor. En cuanto a la metodología utilizada, se consideró una exhaustiva revisión de bibliografía vinculada al tema del capital social y, para la preparación de los casos, se tuvieron en cuenta información institucional provista por cada organización, estudios especializados y entrevistas en profundidad.

  5. “Not Just an Apartment Building”: Residents’ Quality of Life in a Social Housing Co-operative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Eileen Wisniewski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the impact that two social housing complexes have had on their residents' quality of life. These two complexes, known as Tannery Court Co-operative Ltd., target a specific segment of the affordable housing market: non-elderly singles. A mixed-methods approach was used to assess the quality of life of residents. The data collection strategy used semi-structured interviews conducted with the help of a questionnaire. A total of 43 interviews were completed at the two building sites. Analysis of interview and questionnaire data identified six areas of improvement in residents' quality of life. These are life in general (an overarching dimension, housing (the focus of the Tannery Court intervention, neighbourhood (including safety and appearance, food, self-confidence (an enabling dimension for future development of projects and goals among the residents, and financial situation (a key dimension because of its multiple impacts on other aspects of life. / L'objectif de cette recherche était d'évaluer l'impact des deux complexes de logements coopératifs Tannery Court sur la qualité de vie des résidants. Ces complexes ciblent un segment particulier du marché du logement social, les célibataires d'âge actif et vivant en deçà du seuil de la pauvreté. Cette étude utilise une méthodologie mixte pour évaluer la situation et la qualité de vie des résidants. La stratégie de cueillette de données s'appuie sur des entrevues semi-dirigées effectuées à l'aide d'un questionnaire. Au total, nous avons complété 43 entrevues. Six aspects de la qualité de vie se sont améliorés de façon significative. Il s'agit de la vie en général (une dimension globale, le logement (l'objectif premier visé par l'équipe de Tannery Court, le quartier de résidence (dimensions importantes de la localisation d'un complexe comme la sécurité et l'apparence la confiance en soi (une dimension clé pour le d

  6. Consistent strategy updating in spatial and non-spatial behavioral experiments does not promote cooperation in social networks.

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    Jelena Grujić

    Full Text Available The presence of costly cooperation between otherwise selfish actors is not trivial. A prominent mechanism that promotes cooperation is spatial population structure. However, recent experiments with human subjects report substantially lower level of cooperation then predicted by theoretical models. We analyze the data of such an experiment in which a total of 400 players play a Prisoner's Dilemma on a 4×4 square lattice in two treatments, either interacting via a fixed square lattice (15 independent groups or with a population structure changing after each interaction (10 independent groups. We analyze the statistics of individual decisions and infer in which way they can be matched with the typical models of evolutionary game theorists. We find no difference in the strategy updating between the two treatments. However, the strategy updates are distinct from the most popular models which lead to the promotion of cooperation as shown by computer simulations of the strategy updating. This suggests that the promotion of cooperation by population structure is not as straightforward in humans as often envisioned in theoretical models.

  7. CLUSTER OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT IN THE SOUTHWEST OF PARANÁ: PARADIGMATIC CHANGES OF INNOVATION TO THE SOCIAL DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Henrique Mainardes Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes the analysis of the concepts of innovation and design of the social aspect in the construction of possible models of social perception, contributing to the building of technological knowledge and changes to environmental rationality.. You can see the construction of new ideas and knowledge from the social dimension strongly associated with innovative processes, fostering the development with the construction of a democratic and participatory environmental dynamics. From this analysis, allows itself to be a case study of the Cluster of Information Technology (IT in the southwestern region of Paraná, checking the main axes of social dimension can contribute to regional development. It is realized that contextualization innovation unfolds gradually, providing opportunities new approaches and directions of the central objectives, assuming roles in the development of sustainable processes and environmental constitution, turning the rationality of processes interconnected networks of information technology in a wide scope of complexity allowing evaluation of the main changes in the social and human capital.

  8. Mapping Diversity of Publication Patterns in the Social Sciences and Humanities: An Approach Making Use of Fuzzy Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik T. Verleysen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present a method for systematically mapping diversity of publication patterns at the author level in the social sciences and humanities in terms of publication type, publication language and co-authorship. Design/methodology/approach: In a follow-up to the hard partitioning clustering by Verleysen and Weeren in 2016, we now propose the complementary use of fuzzy cluster analysis, making use of a membership coefficient to study gradual differences between publication styles among authors within a scholarly discipline. The analysis of the probability density function of the membership coefficient allows to assess the distribution of publication styles within and between disciplines. Findings: As an illustration we analyze 1,828 productive authors affiliated in Flanders, Belgium. Whereas a hard partitioning previously identified two broad publication styles, an international one vs. a domestic one, fuzzy analysis now shows gradual differences among authors. Internal diversity also varies across disciplines and can be explained by researchers' specialization and dissemination strategies. Research limitations: The dataset used is limited to one country for the years 2000-2011; a cognitive classification of authors may yield a different result from the affiliation-based classification used here. Practical implications: Our method is applicable to other bibliometric and research evaluation contexts, especially for the social sciences and humanities in non-Anglophone countries. Originality/value: The method proposed is a novel application of cluster analysis to the field of bibliometrics. Applied to publication patterns at the author level in the social sciences and humanities, for the first time it systematically documents intra-disciplinary diversity.

  9. Prospects of ASEAN Legal Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Riyanto

    2016-01-01

    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional organization in the countries of Southeast Asia established in Bangkok, Thailand, on August 8, 1967 (the Bangkok Declaration) by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. One form of cooperation that could further encourage the establishment of ASEAN's goal was legal cooperation. This was because, this cooperation could further strengthen cooperation in politics, economy, social and culture in Southeast Asia. ...

  10. Co-evolutionary behaviour selection in adaptive social networks predicts clustered marginalization of minorities

    CERN Document Server

    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Engemann, Denis A; Levermann, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Human behaviour is largely shaped by local social interactions and depends on the structure of connections between individuals in social networks. These two dimensions of behaviour selection are commonly studied in isolation by different disciplines and are often treated as independent processes. To the contrary, empirical findings on spread of behaviour in social networks suggest that local interactions between individuals and network evolution are interdependent. Empirical evidence, however, remains inconclusive as social network studies often suffer from limited sample sizes or are prohibitive on ethical grounds. Here we introduce a co-evolutionary adaptive network model of social behaviour selection that provides insights into generative mechanisms by resolving both these aspects through computer simulations. We considered four complementary models and evaluated them with regard to emulating empirical behaviour dynamics in social networks. For this purpose we modelled the prevalence of smoking and and the...

  11. Triadic closure dynamics explains scaling-exponents for preferential attachment-, degree- and clustering distributions in social multiplex data

    CERN Document Server

    Klimek, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Social networks exhibit scaling-laws for several structural characteristics, such as the degree distribution, the scaling of the attachment kernel, and the clustering coefficients as a function of node degree. A detailed understanding if and how these scaling laws are inter-related is missing so far, let alone whether they can be understood through a common, dynamical principle. We propose a simple model for stationary network formation and show that the three mentioned scaling relations follow as natural consequences of triadic closure. The validity of the model is tested on multiplex data from a well studied massive multiplayer online game. We find that the three scaling exponents observed in the multiplex data for the friendship, communication and trading networks can simultaneously be explained by the model. These results suggest that triadic closure could be identified as one of the fundamental dynamical principles in social multiplex network formation.

  12. Implementation Strategy Cooperative Learning Type of Student Achievement Division Team (STAD) to Improve Social Skills Students on Learning Morals in Man 2 Pontianak Learning the Year 2016/2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianawati

    2017-01-01

    Background doing the research is Social skills is an individual's ability to communicate effectively with others, both verbally and nonverbally. Facts social attitudes such selfishness, individualism, indifferent, no responsible attitude, miss communication and interaction with others. One Cooperative-learning strategy to develop cooperation…

  13. Fundamental Limits of Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, Angel; Andrews, Jeffrey G

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation is viewed as a key ingredient for interference management in wireless systems. This paper shows that cooperation has fundamental limitations. The main result is that even full cooperation between transmitters cannot in general change an interference-limited network to a noise-limited network. The key idea is that there exists a spectral efficiency upper bound that is independent of the transmit power. First, a spectral efficiency upper bound is established for systems that rely on pilot-assisted channel estimation; in this framework, cooperation is shown to be possible only within clusters of limited size, which are subject to out-of-cluster interference whose power scales with that of the in-cluster signals. Second, an upper bound is also shown to exist when cooperation is through noncoherent communication; thus, the spectral efficiency limitation is not a by-product of the reliance on pilot-assisted channel estimation. Consequently, existing literature that routinely assumes the high-power spect...

  14. The Role of Social Capital in Work Satisfaction (Case: The Staff of Cooperative Organization of Kermanshah Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Haghighatian

    2012-01-01

    Results: The findings showed that social capital consisting of social networks, trust, organizational and social participation, and organizational commitment had a positive and significant (R2=0.12 relationship with work satisfaction. Of the components of social capital, trust had the greatest effect and of background factors, gender had the most (R2=0.32 influence, that is, women had higher work satisfaction than men did.

  15. Student Perceptions of Social Learning Space: Designing and Implementing a Co-Operative Assessment Task in Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Roger W.; Depaz, Iris; Lluka, Lesley J.

    2008-01-01

    We report findings from a case study of co-operative, group-based assessment in Pharmacology for second-year undergraduates at The University of Queensland, Australia. Students enrolled in the 2005 Bachelor of Science and 2006 Bachelor of Pharmacy degree programs, were early users of the university's new Collaborative Teaching and Learning Centre…

  16. Social Psychological Consequences of Interpersonal Relations: A Confirmatory Approach to Testing Deutsch's Theory of Cooperation and Conflict Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quahwu

    This study tested M. Deutsch's theory of cooperation and conflict resolution using an intervention project at an inner city alternative high school in New York City. The study was designed to test the theory by confirmatory structural modeling and by evaluating the intervention. The procedure involved a pre- and post-test procedure administered…

  17. Student Perceptions of Social Learning Space: Designing and Implementing a Co-Operative Assessment Task in Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Roger W.; Depaz, Iris; Lluka, Lesley J.

    2008-01-01

    We report findings from a case study of co-operative, group-based assessment in Pharmacology for second-year undergraduates at The University of Queensland, Australia. Students enrolled in the 2005 Bachelor of Science and 2006 Bachelor of Pharmacy degree programs, were early users of the university's new Collaborative Teaching and Learning Centre…

  18. Social and Symbolic Capital in Firm Clusters: An empirical Investigation of Relational Resources and Value Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    Cluster initiatives are a popular instrument of public policy everywhere in the world. This development acknowledges that the organisational units that create added value are not isolated individual businesses, but networks of actors. Our research has the objective to better understand value...... in its role as a broker and a moderator....

  19. Public Order: Challenges of Inter-Institutional and Regional Cooperation in the Context of the Knowledge Society. A Question of Economic and Social Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Balan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The context of public policies undergoes a process of rapid change due to the emergence of the dynamic knowledge-based economy and society. Public administration institutions need to adapt their material and human resources to the dynamic developments of the knowledge and information society in order to maintain efficiency and effectiveness of their scopes. One of the most fragile fields is public order and the need for improved inter-institutional cooperation at national, regional, and EU-level for achieving the objectives of ensuring citizens’ safety while safeguarding rights and liberties. The social and economic efficiency of public order policies and measures need to be reassessed and improved based on overhauled and updated inter-institutional and organisational concepts, on diversified methods of cooperation at national, regional, EU- and international level. A recent project developed in the field of public order with respect to juvenile delinquency has shown that major questions still need to be approached with respect to efficiency and effectiveness of inter-institutional cooperation with both public and private bodies, and with representatives of the non-governmental organizations. The outcomes of the project have shown that juvenile delinquency must be approached as phenomenon in the wider framework of public order, of urban and rural safety, of crime prevention and combating. One major conclusion of the project is that a new integrated model is required with respect to the intra-, and inter-institutional cooperation and dialogue, but also with respect to the skills required to work efficiently considering the challenges posed by the overall developments of a society changing towards increased knowledge and information awareness. This would allow also for improved quality assessment and effectiveness measurements based on composite process and outcome indicators for public order, and public administration, in general, as well.

  20. Effect of Growing Size of Interaction Neighbors on the Evolution of Cooperation in Spatial Snowdrift Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟娟; 王娟; 孙世温; 王莉; 王震; 夏承遗

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we study the influence of the size of interaction neighbors(k) on the evolution of cooperation in the spatial snowdrift game.At first,we consider the effects of noise K and cost-to-benefit ratio r,the simulation results indicate that the evolution of cooperation depends on the combined action of noise and cost-to-benefit ratio.For a lower r,the cooperators are multitudinous and the cooperation frequency ultimately increases to 1 as the increase of noise.However,for a higher r,the defectors account for the majority of the game and dominate the game if the noise is large enough.Then we mainly investigate how k influences the evolution of cooperation by varying the noise in detail.We find that the frequency of cooperators is closely related to the size of neighborhood and cost-to-benefit ratio r.In the case of lower r,the augmentation of k plays no positive role in promoting the cooperation as compared with that of k = 4,while for higher r the cooperation is improved for a growing size of neighborhood.At last,based on the above discussions,we explore the cluster-forming mechanism among the cooperators.The current results are beneficial to further understand the evolution of cooperation in many natural,social and biological systems.

  1. The outbreak of cooperation among success-driven individuals under noisy conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Dirk; Yu, Wenjian

    2009-03-10

    According to Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan [1651; 2008 (Touchstone, New York), English Ed], "the life of man [is] solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short," and it would need powerful social institutions to establish social order. In reality, however, social cooperation can also arise spontaneously, based on local interactions rather than centralized control. The self-organization of cooperative behavior is particularly puzzling for social dilemmas related to sharing natural resources or creating common goods. Such situations are often described by the prisoner's dilemma. Here, we report the sudden outbreak of predominant cooperation in a noisy world dominated by selfishness and defection, when individuals imitate superior strategies and show success-driven migration. In our model, individuals are unrelated, and do not inherit behavioral traits. They defect or cooperate selfishly when the opportunity arises, and they do not know how often they will interact or have interacted with someone else. Moreover, our individuals have no reputation mechanism to form friendship networks, nor do they have the option of voluntary interaction or costly punishment. Therefore, the outbreak of prevailing cooperation, when directed motion is integrated in a game-theoretical model, is remarkable, particularly when random strategy mutations and random relocations challenge the formation and survival of cooperative clusters. Our results suggest that mobility is significant for the evolution of social order, and essential for its stabilization and maintenance.

  2. Cooperation and contagion in web-based, networked public goods experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Siddharth; Watts, Duncan J

    2011-03-11

    A longstanding idea in the literature on human cooperation is that cooperation should be reinforced when conditional cooperators are more likely to interact. In the context of social networks, this idea implies that cooperation should fare better in highly clustered networks such as cliques than in networks with low clustering such as random networks. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of web-based experiments, in which 24 individuals played a local public goods game arranged on one of five network topologies that varied between disconnected cliques and a random regular graph. In contrast with previous theoretical work, we found that network topology had no significant effect on average contributions. This result implies either that individuals are not conditional cooperators, or else that cooperation does not benefit from positive reinforcement between connected neighbors. We then tested both of these possibilities in two subsequent series of experiments in which artificial seed players were introduced, making either full or zero contributions. First, we found that although players did generally behave like conditional cooperators, they were as likely to decrease their contributions in response to low contributing neighbors as they were to increase their contributions in response to high contributing neighbors. Second, we found that positive effects of cooperation were contagious only to direct neighbors in the network. In total we report on 113 human subjects experiments, highlighting the speed, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness of web-based experiments over those conducted in physical labs.

  3. Cooperation and contagion in web-based, networked public goods experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Suri

    Full Text Available A longstanding idea in the literature on human cooperation is that cooperation should be reinforced when conditional cooperators are more likely to interact. In the context of social networks, this idea implies that cooperation should fare better in highly clustered networks such as cliques than in networks with low clustering such as random networks. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of web-based experiments, in which 24 individuals played a local public goods game arranged on one of five network topologies that varied between disconnected cliques and a random regular graph. In contrast with previous theoretical work, we found that network topology had no significant effect on average contributions. This result implies either that individuals are not conditional cooperators, or else that cooperation does not benefit from positive reinforcement between connected neighbors. We then tested both of these possibilities in two subsequent series of experiments in which artificial seed players were introduced, making either full or zero contributions. First, we found that although players did generally behave like conditional cooperators, they were as likely to decrease their contributions in response to low contributing neighbors as they were to increase their contributions in response to high contributing neighbors. Second, we found that positive effects of cooperation were contagious only to direct neighbors in the network. In total we report on 113 human subjects experiments, highlighting the speed, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness of web-based experiments over those conducted in physical labs.

  4. Singing together or apart: The effect of competitive and cooperative singing on social bonding within and between sub-groups of a university Fraternity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; van Duijn, Max; Rotkirch, Anna; David-Barrett, Tamas; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-01-01

    Singing together seems to facilitate social bonding, but it is unclear whether this is true in all contexts. Here we examine the social bonding outcomes of naturalistic singing behaviour in a European university Fraternity composed of exclusive ‘Cliques’: recognised sub-groups of 5-20 friends who adopt a special name and identity. Singing occurs frequently in this Fraternity, both ‘competitively’ (contests between Cliques) and ‘cooperatively’ (multiple Cliques singing together). Both situations were re-created experimentally in order to explore how competitive and cooperative singing affects feelings of closeness towards others. Participants were assigned to teams of four and were asked to sing together with another team either from the same Clique or from a different Clique. Participants (N = 88) felt significantly closer to teams from different Cliques after singing with them compared to before, regardless of whether they cooperated with (singing loudly together) or competed against (trying to singing louder than) the other team. In contrast, participants reported reduced closeness with other teams from their own Clique after competing with them. These results indicate that group singing can increase closeness to less familiar individuals regardless of whether they share a common motivation, but that singing competitively may reduce closeness within a very tight-knit group. PMID:27777494

  5. Culture and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-09-12

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities.

  6. Cluster B personality symptoms in persons at genetic risk for schizophrenia are associated with social competence and activation of the right temporo-parietal junction during emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Micaela Giuliana; Villarreal, Mirta Fabiana; de Achával, Delfina; Drucaroff, Lucas Javier; Costanzo, Elsa Yolanda; Castro, Mariana Nair; Pahissa, Jaime; Camprodon, Joan; Nemeroff, Charles; Guinjoan, Salvador Martín

    2014-01-30

    Personality disorders are common in nonpsychotic siblings of patients with schizophrenia, and some personality traits in this group may be associated with an increased risk for full-blown psychosis. We sought to establish if faulty right-hemisphere activation induced by social cognitive tasks, as previously described in patients with schizophrenia, is associated with specific personality symptoms in their unaffected siblings. We observed that cluster B personality symptoms in this group were inversely related to activation in the right temporo parietal junction (rTPJ, a structure critical in social cognitive processing) in response to a basic emotion processing task and also to social competence, whereas in contrast to our initial hypothesis, cluster A traits were not associated with right hemisphere activation during emotion processing or with social competence. These findings suggest the existence of clinical traits in at-risk individuals which share a common neurobiological substrate with schizophrenia, in regards to social performance.

  7. 地理邻近对集群内企业合作创新的动态影响机制%Dynamic Affecting Mechanism of Geographical Proximity Cooperative Innovation of Cluster Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 杨军; 郑刚; 梁瑞

    2012-01-01

    分析单一、永久性地理邻近效应论的缺陷,以及“临时性地理邻近”的提出背景;重点探析永久性地理邻近和临时性地理邻近在集群内企业合作创新不同阶段的动态影响机制,得出结论,在合作创新的初中期,永久性地理邻近起主导作用,而在中后期则是临时性地理邻近发挥主导作用;以法国生物技术产业集群为案例进行例证检验.%The paper first analyzes the defects of single, permanent geographical proximity effects and the background of raising " temporary geographic proximity" . It focuses on exploring the dynamic effect mechanism that the permanent and temporary geographical proximity works on cluster innovation in enterprise cooperation in different phases, and draws the conclusion that in the early and middle periods of cooperative innovation, permanent geographic proximity plays a leading role, and it is temporary geographic proximity to play a leading role in later period. Finally, the paper takes France biotechnology industry cluster as a test case.

  8. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed....... The management logic of the main contractor is interpreted as based on a sociology-inspired understanding focusing on norms and social values rather than on contractual (law) and functional (engineering) logic, which had hitherto been prevalent in Danish construction management....

  9. Social Value Orientation and Cooperation in Asymmetric Social Dilemmas%不对称社会困境中社会价值取向对合作的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长江; 郝芳

    2011-01-01

    以往研究表明,社会价值取向对社会困境中合作行为变异的解释量不高.本研究指出,初始资源配置导致个体处于某种优劣势位置上,从而影响社会价值取向不同的个体的合作行为.研究设置了两人互动和多人互动两种情境,通过变化被试所拥有的初始资源的相对价值或相对数量来操作优势差异,检验亲社会者和亲自我者在社会困境中的心理与行为差异.研究结果表明,在初始资源处于相对劣势位置时,亲社会者比亲自我者表现出更高的合作水平.%The effect of social value orientation on cooperative behavior in social dilemmas has been widely examined in social psychology research. However, only a small to medium effect size has been found, According to the appropriateness model (Weber, Kopelman, & Messick, 2004), decision making in social dilemmas can be shaped by one's identity, situational recognition, and the application of rules. Thus, individual characteristics interacting with situational factors affect decision making in social dilemmas. Therefore, the unequal resources with which individuals are endowed in asymmetric social dilemmas set up differences in endowment dominance and serve as contextual cues that may shape cooperative behavior differently for prosocials and proselfs. This study hypothesized that prosocials would be sensitive to difference in endowment dominance whereas proselfs would be immune to the difference (H1) and that, compared to proselfs, prosocials would exhibit a higher level of cooperation when they were endowed with less or when their endowments were worth less (H2).The current study examined the above hypotheses via two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were randomly assigned to an advantaged condition or a disadvantaged condition. Their social value orientation was measured with a nine-item decomposed game instrument. 90 participants interacted in a fictional two-person prisoner's dilemma situation

  10. Complex cooperative networks from evolutionary preferential attachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Poncela

    Full Text Available In spite of its relevance to the origin of complex networks, the interplay between form and function and its role during network formation remains largely unexplored. While recent studies introduce dynamics by considering rewiring processes of a pre-existent network, we study network growth and formation by proposing an evolutionary preferential attachment model, its main feature being that the capacity of a node to attract new links depends on a dynamical variable governed in turn by the node interactions. As a specific example, we focus on the problem of the emergence of cooperation by analyzing the formation of a social network with interactions given by the Prisoner's Dilemma. The resulting networks show many features of real systems, such as scale-free degree distributions, cooperative behavior and hierarchical clustering. Interestingly, results such as the cooperators being located mostly on nodes of intermediate degree are very different from the observations of cooperative behavior on static networks. The evolutionary preferential attachment mechanism points to an evolutionary origin of scale-free networks and may help understand similar feedback problems in the dynamics of complex networks by appropriately choosing the game describing the interaction of nodes.

  11. The structure of a bottlenose dolphin society is coupled to a unique foraging cooperation with artisanal fishermen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daura-Jorge, F G; Cantor, M; Ingram, S N; Lusseau, D; Simões-Lopes, P C

    2012-10-23

    Diverse and localized foraging behaviours have been reported in isolated populations of many animal species around the world. In Laguna, southern Brazil, a subset of resident bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) uses a foraging tactic involving cooperative interactions with local, beach-casting fishermen. We used individual photo-identification data to assess whether cooperative and non-cooperative dolphins were socially segregated. The social structure of the population was found to be a fission-fusion system with few non-random associations, typical for this species. However, association values were greater among cooperative dolphins than among non-cooperative dolphins or between dolphins from different foraging classes. Furthermore, the dolphin social network was divided into three modules, clustering individuals that shared or lacked the cooperative foraging tactic. Space-use patterns were not sufficient to explain this partitioning, indicating a behavioural factor. The segregation of dolphins using different foraging tactics could result from foraging behaviour driving social structure, while the closer association between dolphins engaged in the cooperation could facilitate the transmission and learning of this behavioural trait from conspecifics. This unique case of a dolphin-human interaction represents a valuable opportunity to explore hypotheses on the role of social learning in wild cetaceans.

  12. Narcissistic versus social self-sorting of oligophenyleneethynylene derivatives: from isodesmic self-assembly to cooperative co-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, María José; Rest, Christina; Schellheimer, Jennifer; Stepanenko, Vladimir; Fernández, Gustavo

    2012-12-03

    Narcissistic versus social! The self-assembly of two structurally related oligophenyleneethynylene derivatives featuring polar or nonpolar peripheral chains is reported. Their remarkable narcissistic versus social self-sorting behaviour in aqueous media can be controlled by concentration and solvent changes.

  13. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed their li......To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...... of this research project. The main objective of this research is to better understand the proces of collective maintenance of these ancient water tunnels. The study evaluates the social, cultural, political and environmental factors that have driven abandonment and decay of qanats in Syria. It tries to reconcile...

  14. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique...... learning can be supported by transparency. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article discusses by which means social networking and transparency may be utilized within cooperative online education...... feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other’s actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. This article demonstrates how cooperative...

  15. Social networks and cooperation in electronic communities : a theoretical-empirical analysis of academic communication and Internet discussion groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the use of academic e-mailing lists and newsgroups on the Internet by university researchers in the Netherlands and England. Their use is related to three clusters of problems that are analyzed. Firstly, while there are considerable time costs for using Internet Discussion Groups,

  16. Social networks and cooperation in electronic communities : a theoretical-empirical analysis of academic communication and Internet discussion groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the use of academic e-mailing lists and newsgroups on the Internet by university researchers in the Netherlands and England. Their use is related to three clusters of problems that are analyzed. Firstly, while there are considerable time costs for using Internet Discussion Groups,

  17. Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑莹莹

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the cooperative learning as a teaching method in a second language learning class. It mainly talks about the background, foundation, features, definitions, components, goals, advantages and disadvantages of cooperative learning. And as the encounter of the disadvantages in cooperative learning, this paper also proposes some strategies.

  18. MICRO-CLUSTER TURÍSTICOS: EL PAPEL DEL CAPITAL SOCIAL EN EL DESARROLLO ECONÓMICO LOCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Merinero Rodríguez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Local Productive Systems theory has been used for a certain period of time, applied to the scientist analysis of tourist activity, especially with the development of the studies made by the Tourist Clusters. This analytic perspective considers very important the analysis of the specific area where tourist activity is held, and as application of this theoretical framework, he approach focuses on the importance of the elements of the Production System, who are the actors and productive relationships that are established between them in the productive environment. However, despite the scientific breakthrough that has occurred, these studies have yet a clear analytical deficit, which is due to the limited treatment given to the analysis of the elements of the productive system, i.e. to the actors and their relationships. An important component of this framework has been called the theory of stakeholders, which has provided the introduction of important analytical innovations, both of the players and their productive relations. Nevertheless, this second framework of analysis still has a deficit of relationships analysis, as it focuses particularly on static factors of relations, as part of same sentence.The work presented here, aims to provide a new methodology for the analysis of tourism, under the Tourism Cluster, the dynamic characteristics of relations, through the study of the processes of effective collaboration that occur between public and private actors for the development of tourist activities in a given territory, essentially using the Social Network Analysis.

  19. NGOs as providers of the social welfare services in cooperation with local authorities in the times of financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Waniak-Michalak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to establish whether Polish non-governmental organizations (NGOs are important providers of social welfare services, and whether local authorities perceive them as partners in the implementation of this type of projects. The significance of NGOs is measured with the amount of social welfare grants they received between 2006 and 2011 and with the number of NGOs offering social welfare services that were active in that period. To test the research hypotheses, a trend analysis and a panel regression model are used. The research findings show that NGOs are becoming increasingly important to local governments as their partners in the field of social welfare, as well as a strong correlation between the number of NGOs in the area and the level of local governments’ grants for NGOs on the one hand and economic indicators such as GDP and the rate of unemployment on the other.

  20. The influence of interparental conflict and cooperation on children’s social competence: differential susceptibility according to temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Rones, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Interparental conflict is common in most families, and some forms of conflict may have negative consequences for children. Research has shown that, overall, interparental conflict may predict comparatively reduced social competence in children, but we know little about the potential impact of different forms of conflict on children’s social competence. Moreover, children may also reap developmentally from having parents who solve their conflicts in constructive manners. Possibly, children ...

  1. Aggression, grooming and group-level cooperation in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus): insights from social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofoot, Margaret C; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Maiya, Arun S; Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y

    2011-08-01

    The form of animal social systems depends on the nature of agonistic and affiliative interactions. Social network theory provides tools for characterizing social structure that go beyond simple dyadic interactions and consider the group as a whole. We show three groups of capuchin monkeys from Barro Colorado Island, Panama, where there are strong connections between key aspects of aggression, grooming, and proximity networks, and, at least among females, those who incur risk to defend their group have particular "social personalities." Although there is no significant correlation for any of the network measures between giving and receiving aggression, suggesting that dominance relationships do not follow a simple hierarchy, strong correlations emerge for many measures between the aggression and grooming networks. At the local, but not global, scale, receiving aggression and giving grooming are strongly linked in all groups. Proximity shows no correlation with aggression at either the local or the global scale, suggesting that individuals neither seek out nor avoid aggressors. Yet, grooming has a global but not local connection to proximity. Extensive groomers who tend to direct their efforts at other extensive groomers also spend time in close proximity to many other individuals. These results indicate the important role that prosociality plays in shaping female social relationships. We also show that females who receive the least aggression, and thus pay low costs for group living, are most likely to participate in group defense. No consistent "social personality" traits characterize the males who invest in group defense.

  2. The effect of social group size on feather corticosterone in the co-operatively breeding Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani): An assay validation and analysis of extreme social living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Joshua K.; Muir, Cameron; Hurd, Conner S.; Hing, Jing S.; Quinn, James S.

    2017-01-01

    Living closely with others can provide a myriad of fitness benefits, from shared territory defense to co-operative resource acquisition. Costs of social aggregation are not absent, however, and likely influence optimal and observed groups’ sizes in a social species. Here, we explored optimal group size in a joint-nesting cuckoo species (the Smooth-billed Ani, Crotophaga ani) using endocrine markers of stress physiology (corticosterone, or CORT). Smooth-billed Anis exhibit intense reproductive competition that is exacerbated in atypically large groups. We therefore hypothesized that intra-group competition (measured by social group size) mediates the desirability and physiological cost of social group membership in this species. To test this hypothesis, we captured 47 adult Smooth-billed Anis (31 males, 16 females) during the breeding seasons of 2012-2014 in south-western Puerto Rico, and documented social group sizes. Tail feathers were sampled and used to quantify CORT (pg/mg) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (n = 50). Our analyses show significant differences in feather-CORT of adults between categorical group sizes, with individuals from atypically large social groups (≥ x + 1SD) having highest mean concentrations (33.319 pg/mg), and individuals from atypically small social groups (≤ x − 1SD) having lowest mean concentrations (8.969 pg/mg). Whether reproductive competition or effort is responsible for elevated CORT in atypically large social groups, however, remains unclear. Our results suggest that living in atypically large groups is physiologically expensive and may represent an evolutionarily unstable strategy. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore a correlation between stress physiology and group size in a joint-nesting species. PMID:28355280

  3. Respondent-driven sampling bias induced by clustering and community structure in social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, Luis Enrique Correa; Lambiotte, Renaud; Liljeros, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Sampling hidden populations is particularly challenging using standard sampling methods mainly because of the lack of a sampling frame. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is an alternative methodology that exploits the social contacts between peers to reach and weight individuals in these hard-to-reach populations. It is a snowball sampling procedure where the weight of the respondents is adjusted for the likelihood of being sampled due to differences in the number of contacts. In RDS, the structure of the social contacts thus defines the sampling process and affects its coverage, for instance by constraining the sampling within a sub-region of the network. In this paper we study the bias induced by network structures such as social triangles, community structure, and heterogeneities in the number of contacts, in the recruitment trees and in the RDS estimator. We simulate different scenarios of network structures and response-rates to study the potential biases one may expect in real settings. We find that the ...

  4. The Potential Role of Social Media Platforms in Community Awareness of Antibiotic Use in the Gulf Cooperation Council States: Luxury or Necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zowawi, Hosam Mamoon; Abedalthagafi, Malak; Mar, Florie A; Almalki, Turki; Kutbi, Abdullah H; Harris-Brown, Tiffany; Harbarth, Stephan; Balkhy, Hanan H; Paterson, David L; Hasanain, Rihab Abdalazez

    2015-10-15

    The increasing emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious public health issue. Increasing the awareness of the general public about appropriate antibiotic use is a key factor for combating this issue. Several public media campaigns worldwide have been launched; however, such campaigns can be costly and the outcomes are variable and difficult to assess. Social media platforms, including Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube, are now frequently utilized to address health-related issues. In many geographical locations, such as the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) States (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Bahrain), these platforms are becoming increasingly popular. The socioeconomic status of the GCC states and their reliable communication and networking infrastructure has allowed the penetration and scalability of these platforms in the region. This might explain why the Saudi Ministry of Health is using social media platforms alongside various other media platforms in a large-scale public awareness campaign to educate at-risk communities about the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). This paper discusses the potential for using social media tools as cost-efficient and mass education platforms to raise awareness of appropriate antibiotic use in the general public and in the medical communities of the Arabian Peninsula.

  5. An exploratory cluster randomised trial of a university halls of residence based social norms intervention in Wales, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Simon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive alcohol consumption amongst university students has received increasing attention. A social norms approach to reducing drinking behaviours has met with some success in the USA. Such an approach is based on the assumption that student's perceptions of the norms of their peers are highly influential, but that these perceptions are often incorrect. Social norms interventions therefore aim to correct these inaccurate perceptions, and in turn, to change behaviours. However, UK studies are scarce and it is increasingly recognised that social norm interventions need to be supported by socio ecological approaches that address the wider determinants of behaviour. Objectives To describe the research design for an exploratory trial examining the acceptability, hypothesised process of change and implementation of a social norm marketing campaign designed to correct misperceptions of normative alcohol use and reduce levels of misuse, implemented alongside a university wide alcohol harm reduction toolkit. It also assesses the feasibility of a potential large scale effectiveness trial by providing key trial design parameters including randomisation, recruitment and retention, contamination, data collection methods, outcome measures and intracluster correlations. Methods/design The study adopts an exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial design with halls of residence as the unit of allocation, and a nested mixed methods process evaluation. Four Welsh (UK universities participated in the study, with residence hall managers consenting to implementation of the trial in 50 university owned campus based halls of residence. Consenting halls were randomised to either a phased multi channel social norm marketing campaign addressing normative discrepancies (n = 25 intervention or normal practice (n = 25 control. The primary outcome is alcohol consumption (units per week measured using the Daily Drinking Questionnaire. Secondary

  6. An exploratory cluster randomised trial of a university halls of residence based social norms intervention in Wales, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Simon; Moore, Graham; Williams, Annie; Moore, Laurence

    2012-03-13

    Excessive alcohol consumption amongst university students has received increasing attention. A social norms approach to reducing drinking behaviours has met with some success in the USA. Such an approach is based on the assumption that student's perceptions of the norms of their peers are highly influential, but that these perceptions are often incorrect. Social norms interventions therefore aim to correct these inaccurate perceptions, and in turn, to change behaviours. However, UK studies are scarce and it is increasingly recognised that social norm interventions need to be supported by socio ecological approaches that address the wider determinants of behaviour. To describe the research design for an exploratory trial examining the acceptability, hypothesised process of change and implementation of a social norm marketing campaign designed to correct misperceptions of normative alcohol use and reduce levels of misuse, implemented alongside a university wide alcohol harm reduction toolkit. It also assesses the feasibility of a potential large scale effectiveness trial by providing key trial design parameters including randomisation, recruitment and retention, contamination, data collection methods, outcome measures and intracluster correlations. The study adopts an exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial design with halls of residence as the unit of allocation, and a nested mixed methods process evaluation. Four Welsh (UK) universities participated in the study, with residence hall managers consenting to implementation of the trial in 50 university owned campus based halls of residence. Consenting halls were randomised to either a phased multi channel social norm marketing campaign addressing normative discrepancies (n = 25 intervention) or normal practice (n = 25 control). The primary outcome is alcohol consumption (units per week) measured using the Daily Drinking Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes assess frequency of alcohol consumption, higher risk

  7. International cooperation Brazil-Cuba-Haiti: the role of community radios in strengthening social mobilization in the public health context in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Renata Machado Dos Santos; Oliveira, Valdir de Castro

    2015-01-01

    The present article investigates the role of Haitian community radios in strengthening social mobilization, with the aim of supporting the actions undertaken in the field of public health in Haiti, based on the development of the Workshop for community radios, as part of the Tripartite Cooperation Brazil-Cuba-Haiti. The qualitative methodology is justified because of the study content, an analysis of documents and direct observation, through a case study presented at the Workshop held in the department of Hinches, in Haiti. This meeting was held in the context of the Working Group on Tripartite Communication, under the responsibility of the Health Channel/Fiocruz, in partnership with the Department for Health Promotion and Environmental Prevention of the Ministry of Health and Population of Haiti (DPSPE/MSPP/Haiti), with a proposal to better structure a network of multipliers in health promotion.

  8. Economic and social importance of agricultural productive cooperatives in Poland Ekonomiczne i społeczne znaczenie rolniczych spółdzielni produkcyjnych w Polsce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Matyja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction, the article presents a brief reflection on collaborative farming in Poland and abroad. There is also a formulated objective of the study, which is to show the essence of agricultural productive cooperatives’ activity and their role in the farmers’ and local communities’ protection. The following section presents used research methods and the subjective, spatial and temporal scope of own research. Subsequent parts of the article relate to the description of the history of APCs in Poland with an explanation of the causes of their foundation and liquidating, presentation the essence and the role of cooperative activi-ties in agriculture with an indication of the advantages of collective farming and characteris-tics of agricultural, economic and social activities of Polish APCs. At the end of the article there is the summary of the undertaken considerations and conclu-sions.

  9. La docència en Economia social i cooperatives: bases per l'innovació educativa en els programes de postgrau europeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Chaves Avila

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La docència universitària en Economia Social i Cooperatives s’està consolidant mitjançant els canvis que s’estàn donant en l’entorn europeu, principalment en els estudis de postgrau. La Universitat de València, per mitjà del IUDESCOOP, és pionera en la implantació d’una titulació de postgrau en aquest camp, mitjançant una metodologIa basada en l’ensenyament mixte presencial i a distància sustentada en l’ús de les TIC, amb uns forts nexes d’unió amb altres universitats espanyoles, europees i latinoamericanes i per les relacions permanents que manté amb professionals i directius que pertanyen a aquestes entitats.

  10. Cooperation and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan Clark, C; Thorne, Christopher B; Hardy, Sonya; Cropsey, Karen L

    2013-09-25

    Deficits in pro-social cooperation are common in many individuals with mental illnesses such as depression. For decades, researchers have used economic game paradigms to compare cross-cultural cooperative behavior. However, research using economic games to assess cooperative behavior in clinical populations is in the early stages. We hypothesized that individuals with greater depressive symptoms would struggle to maintain reciprocity in iterative games, but not in single-iteration games measuring personal values. Participants (n=41) played four computer-based economic games (prisoner's dilemma, the public goods game, the ultimatum game, and the trust game) measuring different aspects of cooperation. Participants completed the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and other measures of personality and demographics. Analyses assessed the relationships between game performance and psychological distress as measured by the DASS. Significant correlations were found between game performance and depressive symptoms, but not symptoms of anxiety or stress. Performance in the prisoner's dilemma and public goods game was significantly related to depression in a linear regression even when known associations with depressive affect such as age, gender, race, education, marital status, and neuroticism were controlled for. Depressive symptoms were associated with an inability to sustain reciprocal cooperation. Participants showed the predicted deficits in cooperation in these economic games. Economic games show the potential for assessing the social deficits associated with depressive symptoms. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. COOPERATIVAS DE CRÉDITO Y BANCA SOCIAL: VIEJAS Y NUEVAS RESPUESTAS ÉTICAS Y SOLIDARIAS A PROBLEMAS DE SIEMPRE / CREDIT COOPERATIVES AND SOCIAL BANKING: OLD AND NEW ETHICAL AND SOLIDARITY RESPONSES TO USUAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo MELIÁN NAVARRO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre el origen de las cooperativas de crédito y la nueva “banca social” median unos cien años, en los que los sistemas bancarios han sufrido una transformación extraordinaria. A pesar de sus diferencias, ambos tipos de instituciones surgieron por unos motivos semejantes: la exclusión financiera de colectivos vulnerables y la necesidad de respuestas éticas, solidarias y responsables. Esas necesidades han cobrado protagonismo con la actual crisis financiera, económica y social, en la que se aprecia un deterioro de los valores elementales y, en consecuencia, una extensión del descrédito de las entidades bancarias. En esta situación, se revaloriza el papel del crédito cooperativo y de la “banca social”, instrumentos que, por sus especiales características, se han visto menos afectadas por la pérdida de reputación y se abren paso como alternativas. / Between the credit cooperatives origin and new social banking have passed by a century, in which banking systems have going through an extraordinary change. Despite their differences, both kinds of companies come up by similar reasons: Financial exclusion of vulnerable collectives and need of ethical, responsible and solidary responses. These needs have gain prominence in the present social and financial-economic crisis, in which a basic values deterioration and accordingly a growing essential values deterioration. In this situation increase the social banking and cooperative credit role. These tools have been less affected by loos of reputation because of their especial features and breaking through as new credit ways.

  12. EL BONO SOCIAL Y LAS COOPERATIVAS ENERGÉTICAS VERDES: SITUACIÓN Y PERSPECTIVAS 1/THE SPANISH SOCIAL TARIFF AND RENEWABLE ENERGY COOPERATIVES: SITUATION AND PERSPECTIVES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Egoitz Jaio Gabiola; Juan Diego Paredes Gázquez; José Antonio Sánchez Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    ...". Para acceder al bono social, aparte de cumplir los requisitos socioeconómicos estipulados por ley, hay que tener contratada la electricidad con alguna comercializadora de referencia, las cuales tienen...

  13. "Parquesoft": a study of social entrepreneurship in software industry cluster in cali, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Hernández; Fernando Alemán; Jennifer Taborda

    2006-01-01

    El cambio institucional ocurrido en los últimos años en los países en desarrollo como Colombia soporta y legitimiza actividades productivas e innovativas. Pero esta dinámica reciente ha sido igno rada; por el contrario la literatura en ciencias sociales se ha concentrado en el estudio de las actividades destructivas y criminales. El problema de estudio es entender cómo en países como Colom bia, el desarrollo de sectores industriales formales como el software se basa en las redes ...

  14. Percolation threshold determines the optimal population density for public cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhen; Perc, Matjaz; 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.037101

    2012-01-01

    While worldwide census data provide statistical evidence that firmly link the population density with several indicators of social welfare, the precise mechanisms underlying these observations are largely unknown. Here we study the impact of population density on the evolution of public cooperation in structured populations and find that the optimal density is uniquely related to the percolation threshold of the host graph irrespective of its topological details. We explain our observations by showing that spatial reciprocity peaks in the vicinity of the percolation threshold, when the emergence of a giant cooperative cluster is hindered neither by vacancy nor by invading defectors, thus discovering an intuitive yet universal law that links the population density with social prosperity.

  15. Using Social-Emotional and Character Development to Improve Academic Outcomes: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Low-Income, Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Lewis, Kendra M.; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Snyder, Frank J.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Flay, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: School-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs can influence not only SECD but also academic-related outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of one SECD program, Positive Action (PA), on educational outcomes among low-income, urban youth. Methods: The longitudinal study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized…

  16. Globalization and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods.

  17. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  18. Fairness Psychology and Group Cooperation in Perspective of Social Capital%社会资本视野下的公平心理与群体合作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周怀峰

    2014-01-01

    追求公平的心理并不必然驱使人们选择自律或利他惩罚行为来维护群体合作。只有具备一定的社会资本条件,不公平才会诱发人们内疚或嫉妒情绪,也只有具备一定的社会资本条件,内疚情绪才可能诱发自律,嫉妒情绪才可能诱发利他惩罚行为。在这种情况下,追求公平的心理才能起到维护群体合作的作用。对于基层社群和工作团队等群体的管理而言,激活人们的公平意识,培育和维护群体社会资本,把人们的内疚和嫉妒心理相应地转化为自律和利他惩罚行为有利于提高群体合作水平。%The psychology to pursue fairness does not necessarily motivate people to take self discipline or altruistic punishment behavior to achieve group cooperation.Only under the condition of certain social cap-ital can guilt or envy be induced by unfairness.Only in this case can guilt cause self discipline and envy bring about altruistic punishment behavior.Thus,only on this condition can the behavior of pursuing fair-ness promote and maintain group cooperation.So,for the management of the group of grassroots communi-ty and the work team,activating the awareness of fairness,nurturing and maintaining group social capital, turning people's guilt and envy into self discipline and altruistic punishment behavior are ways to improve the level of group cooperation.

  19. New Attempt and Exploration of Rural Cooperative in North China——On Liu Jirong' s Cooperative Movement and Rural Social Changes%走近华北农村合作社的最新尝试与探索——评刘纪荣著《合作运动与乡村社会变迁》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏本权

    2015-01-01

    Based on the longitudinal study of the rural cooperative movement in North China, Liu Jirong' s Cooperative movement and rural social changes studied the rural social changes caused by the rural cooperative movement in the perspective of national social relations through the analysis of the operation mechanism, the mechanism of cooperation system, and the mechanism of the cooperation system. In the study of modern Chinese rural cooperation movement, the book made up one of the weakest areas and it was one masterpiece in the field of the study on North China. In the study of regional social change in North China, the book should have a broader perspective and thinking.%刘纪荣所著《合作运动与乡村社会变迁》一书,在对华北农村合作运动历程纵向考察的基础上,通过分析华北农村合作运动中合作组织的经营运行、合作体系的运行机制、合作制度的功能机理,在国家—社会关系的视野下讨论农村合作运动引起的乡村社会变迁. 在近代中国农村合作运动的研究上,该书弥补了以往学术界研究中的一大薄弱领域,是华北学研究的一部重要著作. 在华北区域社会变迁研究层面,该书值得探讨的问题还应具有更为广阔的视野与思路.

  20. Emotion and the construal of social situations: Inferences of cooperation versus competition from expressions of anger, happiness, and disappointment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, E.A.; Heerdink, M.W.; Van Kleef, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    The notion that emotional expressions regulate social life by providing information is gaining popularity. Prior research on the effects of emotional expressions on observers’ inferential processes has focused mostly on inferences regarding the personality traits of the expresser, such as dominance

  1. Evolution of cooperation driven by incremental learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Duan, Haibin

    2015-02-01

    It has been shown that the details of microscopic rules in structured populations can have a crucial impact on the ultimate outcome in evolutionary games. So alternative formulations of strategies and their revision processes exploring how strategies are actually adopted and spread within the interaction network need to be studied. In the present work, we formulate the strategy update rule as an incremental learning process, wherein knowledge is refreshed according to one's own experience learned from the past (self-learning) and that gained from social interaction (social-learning). More precisely, we propose a continuous version of strategy update rules, by introducing the willingness to cooperate W, to better capture the flexibility of decision making behavior. Importantly, the newly gained knowledge including self-learning and social learning is weighted by the parameter ω, establishing a strategy update rule involving innovative element. Moreover, we quantify the macroscopic features of the emerging patterns to inspect the underlying mechanisms of the evolutionary process using six cluster characteristics. In order to further support our results, we examine the time evolution course for these characteristics. Our results might provide insights for understanding cooperative behaviors and have several important implications for understanding how individuals adjust their strategies under real-life conditions.

  2. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish–Czech Border Region

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2016-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the analysis and evaluation of cross-border entrepreneurship development opportunities on the basis of cross-border cooperation, which has gradually evolved from consisting of bilateral partnerships to a networking model or even a cluster. The study conducted at the Polish–Czech border area indicates that, in terms of the development of cross-border cooperation, the economic sphere is lagging far behind social activities such as culture, education and tourism. At t...

  3. Hepatitis C virus phylogenetic clustering is associated with the social-injecting network in a cohort of people who inject drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Sacks-Davis

    Full Text Available It is hypothesized that social networks facilitate transmission of the hepatitis C virus (HCV. We tested for association between HCV phylogeny and reported injecting relationships using longitudinal data from a social network design study. People who inject drugs were recruited from street drug markets in Melbourne, Australia. Interviews and blood tests took place three monthly (during 2005-2008, with participants asked to nominate up to five injecting partners at each interview. The HCV core region of individual isolates was then sequenced and phylogenetic trees were constructed. Genetic clusters were identified using bootstrapping (cut-off: 70%. An adjusted Jaccard similarity coefficient was used to measure the association between the reported injecting relationships and relationships defined by clustering in the phylogenetic analysis (statistical significance assessed using the quadratic assignment procedure. 402 participants consented to participate; 244 HCV infections were observed in 238 individuals. 26 genetic clusters were identified, with 2-7 infections per cluster. Newly acquired infection (AOR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.04-3.96, p = 0.037, and HCV genotype 3 (vs. genotype 1, AOR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.48-4.99 were independent predictors of being in a cluster. 54% of participants whose infections were part of a cluster in the phylogenetic analysis reported injecting with at least one other participant in that cluster during the study. Overall, 16% of participants who were infected at study entry and 40% of participants with newly acquired infections had molecular evidence of related infections with at least one injecting partner. Likely transmission clusters identified in phylogenetic analysis correlated with reported injecting relationships (adjusted Jaccard coefficient: 0.300; p<0.001. This is the first study to show that HCV phylogeny is associated with the injecting network, highlighting the importance of the injecting network in HCV

  4. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  5. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  6. Conformity enhances network reciprocity in evolutionary social dilemmas

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of highest payoffs in evolutionary social dilemmas is risky and sometimes inferior to conformity. Choosing the most common strategy within the interaction range is safer because it ensures that the payoff of an individual will not be much lower than average. Herding instincts and crowd behavior in humans and social animals also compel to conformity on their own right. Motivated by these facts, we here study the impact of conformity on the evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas. We show that an appropriate fraction of conformists within the population introduces an effective surface tension around cooperative clusters and ensures smooth interfaces between different strategy domains. Payoff-driven players brake the symmetry in favor of cooperation and enable an expansion of clusters past the boundaries imposed by traditional network reciprocity. This mechanism works even under the most testing conditions, and it is robust against variations of the interaction network as long as degree-normalize...

  7. Del Movimiento de Trabajadores Desocupados a la cooperativa social: Trabajo y formas de militancia en la economía social From desocupados' movements to cooperatives and social economy in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pía Valeria Rius

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo estudia prácticas de trabajo y de militancia en los movimientos de trabajadores desocupados (MTD. Introduce una metodología de investigación que abandona una mirada exclusiva sobre los militantes, entendidos en el sentido habitual de referentes o dirigentes, para comprender el conjunto de relaciones que conforman la pertenencia a un movimiento de desocupados en un mismo medio social. Se basa en el estudio de una cooperativa textil situada en Berisso realizado entre 2003 y 2007. Una perspectiva de tipo etnográfica permite ir más allá de la relevancia política del MTD para poner de relieve concepciones de trabajo y de actividad económica. En particular se refleja la relación entre miembros y no miembros de la organización, lazos familiares y de vecindad. El trabajo continúa siendo la actividad legítima para ganarse la vida pero abarca nuevas prácticas. La actividad política es considerada una forma de trabajo. El trabajo y la militancia aparecen como dos condiciones necesarias en la transformación de organizaciones de desocupados y cooperativas de trabajo. La consigna de trabajo digno de los MTD adquiere la forma de un trabajo, sin patrón, respetado o bancado. Se trata de frágiles acuerdos mutuos que se producen mediante la discusión en el seno de lugar de trabajo.This article studies forms of work and militancy practices in desocupados' (unemployed workers' movements (MTD. It compares the militants' and the non-militants' conceptions of work observed in the same social milieu. It analyzes a textile cooperative in the city of Berisso between 2003 and 2007. From an ethnographic standpoint, the article explores the relationships established between members and non-members, in particular, links between families, acquaintances and vecinos (neighbors. The analysis does not focus on the movement as political actor but conceptions of justice, notions of work and economic activity. Political activities turn into work. Work

  8. LA RESPONSABILIDAD SOCIAL CORPORATIVA Y SU PARALELISMO CON LAS SOCIEDADES COOPERATIVAS / CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ITS PARALLELISM WITH THE COOPERATIVES SOCIETIES

    OpenAIRE

    RAQUEL PUENTES POYATOS; ADORACIÓN MOZAS MORAL

    2010-01-01

    El concepto de responsabilidad social corporativa no es nuevo. Es un enfoque que, según la literatura científica, está muy presente en las sociedades cooperativas y es fuente de singularidades de éstas. En este sentido la Comisión Europea (2002) indicó que “Las cooperativas tienen una larga tradición en combinar viabilidad económica y responsabilidad social gracias al diálogo entre las partes interesadas y a la gestión participativa, y pueden servir de referencia a otras organizaciones”. Este...

  9. Project Seacleaner: from cooperation among ISMAR-CNR researchers, high school students and the Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies to an application for environmental monitoring and scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, Silvia; Marini, Claudio; Tosi, Daniela; Caselli, Lorena; Marini, Davide; Lucchinelli, Paolo; Vatteroni, Davide; Lunardelli, Francesco; Agrusa, Astrid; Lombardi, Davide; Stroobant, Mascha

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the Institute for Marine Science of the Italian Research Council ISMAR-CNR has undertaken a series of actions to incorporate oceanography in education: among these, the project "SeaCleaner" that has been developed together with a local Secondary School (Istituto di Istruzione Superiore Capellini-Sauro) and the Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies (DLTM) [1]. Seven students, engaged within the national Programme "work-related learning"[2], have worked side-by-side with ISMAR-CNR researchers, investigating on the problem of debris accumulation on beaches, and understanding the damage that this issue causes to marine environments and ecosystems. This problem has recently become a challenging research subject for an increasing number of oceanographers and, in general, for environmental researchers coming from the Mediterranean areas [3, 4, 5], other European Seas [6] and Oceans [7, 8]. Data collected during repeated surveys (seasonally) in the same beach stretch, over several years, allow calculating debris accumulation rates and flow intensities. Application of current models gives additional information on debris dispersal and origin, but we shouldn't forget that, generally, relevance of acquired data is determined by the accuracy and standardization of the procedure. In this context, students have previously searched for literature sources and summarized the most important issues, among these: few data that are often collected during small ranges of time and usually a low number of available researchers for carrying out such a time-consuming survey in the field. In a initial part of the project, several trial surveys have been performed on different beaches in La Spezia province, in order to understand how to elaborate possible strategies to speed up and standardize the procedure. Developing an application for Android system (downloadable on any compatible mobile device such as smartphones, tablets, etc.) has been considered as a good solution since it

  10. "Las cooperativas: una alternativa económica y social frente a la crisis" (Cooperatives: an economic and social alternative to the crisis)

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Divar Garteiz-Aurrecoa

    2013-01-01

    El Cooperativismo nació como alternativa económica y social,impulsado por la piedad religiosa y reglado bajo los principios democráticos. Lasolidaridad y la democracia económica hacen de las cooperativas sociedadesespecialmente resistentes frente a las dificultades económicas.

  11. "Las cooperativas: una alternativa económica y social frente a la crisis" (Cooperatives: an economic and social alternative to the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar Garteiz-Aurrecoa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El Cooperativismo nació como alternativa económica y social,impulsado por la piedad religiosa y reglado bajo los principios democráticos. Lasolidaridad y la democracia económica hacen de las cooperativas sociedadesespecialmente resistentes frente a las dificultades económicas.

  12. RELACIÓN CIRCULAR ENTRE ÉTICA, RESPONSABILIDAD SOCIAL Y REPUTACIÓN DE LAS COOPERATIVAS / CIRCULAR RELATIONSHIP AMONG ETHIC, SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND REPUTATION OF COOPERATIVES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isabel OLMEDO CIFUENTES; Inocencia María MARTÍNEZ LEÓN; Narciso ARCAS LARIO; Joaquín LONGINOS MARÍN RIVES

    2012-01-01

    ... ética empresarial, la responsabilidad social y el buen gobierno, una estrategia justificada tanto por las actuales presiones procedentes de la sociedad como por los beneficios que obtienen en términos de reputación y de...

  13. "Parquesoft": a study of social entrepreneurship in software industry cluster in cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El cambio institucional ocurrido en los últimos años en los países en desarrollo como Colombia soporta y legitimiza actividades productivas e innovativas. Pero esta dinámica reciente ha sido igno rada; por el contrario la literatura en ciencias sociales se ha concentrado en el estudio de las actividades destructivas y criminales. El problema de estudio es entender cómo en países como Colom bia, el desarrollo de sectores industriales formales como el software se basa en las redes informales existentes, las cuales emergen como una respuesta a las sociedades exclusivistas pre-industriales. En particular entender cómo el “Efecto Tunel”, término introducido por Albert Hirschman en los 70’s, emerge como una organización alternativa para coordinar recursos productivos en sociedades inequitativas. El estudio de caso es sobre Parquesoft, un ejemplo de esta nueva industria formal en Colombia basada en un grupo diferente de valores y objetivos que marcan la diferencia en la manera de hacer negocios y pensar el desarrollo.

  14. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish–Czech Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the analysis and evaluation of cross-border entrepreneurship development opportunities on the basis of cross-border cooperation, which has gradually evolved from consisting of bilateral partnerships to a networking model or even a cluster. The study conducted at the Polish–Czech border area indicates that, in terms of the development of cross-border cooperation, the economic sphere is lagging far behind social activities such as culture, education and tourism. At the same time, Polish and Czech enterprises are not sufficiently mobilized to develop cross-border entrepreneurship, although a number of support instruments in this regard have been proposed. Sustainable development of the border should take into account both social and economic aspects. An important research problem therefore becomes determining the possibility of boosting the development of cross-border entrepreneurship on the basis of the existing forms of cross-border cooperation, including cooperation in the social sphere. The aim of this paper is to define the conditions and opportunities for the development of cluster cooperation in the area of cross-border entrepreneurship. The author has attempted to resolve whether the intensity of cross-border cooperation can be a factor which mobilizes companies to develop their cross-border entrepreneurship and whether cross-border entrepreneurship can be further developed within the cluster model.

  15. Role of investment heterogeneity in the cooperation on spatial public goods game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wu-Jie; Xia, Cheng-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Public cooperation plays a significant role in the survival and maintenance of biological species, to elucidate its origin thus becomes an interesting question from various disciplines. Through long-term development, the public goods game has proven to be a useful tool, where cooperator making contribution can beat again the free-rides. Differentiating from the traditional homogeneous investment, individual trend of making contribution is more likely affected by the investment level of his neighborhood. Based on this fact, we here investigate the impact of heterogeneous investment on public cooperation, where the investment sum is mapped to the proportion of cooperators determined by parameter α. Interestingly, we find, irrespective of interaction networks, that the increment of α (increment of heterogeneous investment) is beneficial for promoting cooperation and even guarantees the complete cooperation dominance under weak replication factor. While this promotion effect can be attributed to the formation of more robust cooperator clusters and shortening END period. Moreover, we find that this simple mechanism can change the potential interaction network, which results in the change of phase diagrams. We hope that our work may shed light on the understanding of the cooperative behavior in other social dilemmas.

  16. Role of investment heterogeneity in the cooperation on spatial public goods game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Jie Yuan

    Full Text Available Public cooperation plays a significant role in the survival and maintenance of biological species, to elucidate its origin thus becomes an interesting question from various disciplines. Through long-term development, the public goods game has proven to be a useful tool, where cooperator making contribution can beat again the free-rides. Differentiating from the traditional homogeneous investment, individual trend of making contribution is more likely affected by the investment level of his neighborhood. Based on this fact, we here investigate the impact of heterogeneous investment on public cooperation, where the investment sum is mapped to the proportion of cooperators determined by parameter α. Interestingly, we find, irrespective of interaction networks, that the increment of α (increment of heterogeneous investment is beneficial for promoting cooperation and even guarantees the complete cooperation dominance under weak replication factor. While this promotion effect can be attributed to the formation of more robust cooperator clusters and shortening END period. Moreover, we find that this simple mechanism can change the potential interaction network, which results in the change of phase diagrams. We hope that our work may shed light on the understanding of the cooperative behavior in other social dilemmas.

  17. The Aftermath of a Suicide Cluster in the Age of Online Social Networking: A Qualitative Analysis of Adolescent Grief Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffel, Carly J.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Ruiz, John M.; Ruggles, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Although suicide clusters have been identified in many populations, research exploring the role of online communication in the aftermath of a suicide cluster is extremely limited. This study used the Consensual Qualitative Research method to analyze interviews with ten high school students 1 year after a suicide cluster in a small suburban school…

  18. The Aftermath of a Suicide Cluster in the Age of Online Social Networking: A Qualitative Analysis of Adolescent Grief Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffel, Carly J.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Ruiz, John M.; Ruggles, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Although suicide clusters have been identified in many populations, research exploring the role of online communication in the aftermath of a suicide cluster is extremely limited. This study used the Consensual Qualitative Research method to analyze interviews with ten high school students 1 year after a suicide cluster in a small suburban school…

  19. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  20. The paradox of cooperation benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, A; Takács, K

    2010-05-21

    It seems obvious that as the benefits of cooperation increase, the share of cooperators in the population should also increase. It is well known that positive assortment between cooperative types, for instance in spatially structured populations, provide better conditions for the evolution of cooperation than complete mixing. This study demonstrates that, assuming positive assortment, under most conditions higher cooperation benefits also increase the share of cooperators. On the other hand, under a specified range of payoff values, when at least two payoff parameters are modified, the reverse is true. The conditions for this paradox are determined for two-person social dilemmas: the Prisoner's Dilemma, the Hawks and Doves game, and the Stag Hunt game, assuming global selection and positive assortment.

  1. Discussion about Shareholding Cooperative Development Road for Agricultural Cooperatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongcai WANG

    2016-01-01

    Using modern economic theories,this paper analyzed drawbacks of Shareholding cooperative development of agricultural cooperatives in institutional design and expounded inevitable difficulties of development of agricultural cooperatives. Shareholding cooperative development provides a pass for many social forces entering and controlling agricultural cooperatives and making numerous non-agricultural cooperative organizations become formal cooperatives. Deep cause for Shareholding cooperative development of agricultural cooperatives involves how to recognize status and function of family producers of agricultural products in the drive of agricultural modernization and the problem of state policies choosing family producers of agricultural products or other participants in the agricultural industry chain. Shareholding cooperative development is only an expedient measure in certain period,and it should not change development laws of things and essential feature of agricultural cooperatives because of stressing national conditions.

  2. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    , the biological problems that inspire these physical studies cover fundamental processes, from cell division up to the dynamics within axons and neurons. We would like to acknowledge and thank all contributors for their submissions, which made this special issue possible in the first place. Moreover, we would like to thank the staff at IOP Publishing for helping us with the administrative aspects and for co-ordinating the refereeing process. We hope that readers will enjoy this collection of papers and that it will trigger them to further explore the endless open physics questions presented by biological systems. Cooperative dynamics contents How does the antagonism between capping and anti-capping proteins affect actin network dynamics? Longhua Hu and Garegin A Papoian The emergence of sarcomeric, graded-polarity and spindle-like patterns in bundles of short cytoskeletal polymers and two opposite molecular motorsE M Craig, S Dey and A Mogilner Model of myosin node aggregation into a contractile ring: the effect of local alignmentNikola Ojkic, Jian-Qiu Wu and Dimitrios Vavylonis Loop formation of microtubules during gliding at high densityLynn Liu, Erkan Tüzel and Jennifer L Ross Protein-coat dynamics and cluster phases in intracellular traffickingGreg Huber, Hui Wang and Ranjan Mukhopadhyay Conformational changes, diffusion and collective behavior in monomeric kinesin-based motilityKerwyn Casey Huang, Christian Vega and Ajay Gopinathan One-dimensional deterministic transport in neurons measured by dispersion-relation phase spectroscopyRu Wang, Zhuo Wang, Joe Leigh, Nahil Sobh, Larry Millet, Martha U Gillette, Alex J Levine and Gabriel Popescu

  3. Development of cooperative learning process scale (CLPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Bay

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important components of social constructivist learning environment is that learners are in co-operation. Effectiveness of cooperative learning process also depends on implementing the requirements of cooperative learning by the learners. The key components of cooperative learning are those positive dependence, personal responsibility, face-to-face supportive interaction, group process, interpersonal social skills. The purpose of this study has taken place to determine the psychometric properties of the measurement tool that was developed to examine effectiveness of cooperative learning process. The study was carried out on 177 students at the Gaziantep University, Faculty of Education. Learning environment was instructed under the social constructivist approach and the students have done their assigned tasks in cooperation with. 48-item test was applied to students. Factor analysis was implemented to the obtained data. Results of the study indicated that measurement tool should be used to measure process of cooperative learning.

  4. Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.

    2006-12-01

    Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation. Cooperation means that selfish replicators forgo some of their reproductive potential to help one another. But natural selection implies competition and therefore opposes cooperation unless a specific mechanism is at work. Here I discuss five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. For each mechanism, a simple rule is derived that specifies whether natural selection can lead to cooperation.

  5. Inactive sites and the evolution of cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Júnior, E. J.; Wardil, L. L.; da Silva, J. K. L.

    2016-10-01

    Cooperation is often conditioned on environmental factors. Behaviors may be inactive due to external factors, and yet the trait itself may not change. We study the evolution of cooperation with active and inactive sites. In inactive sites cooperators behave as defectors, receiving but not providing benefits. This unintentional mimicry provides local advantage to cooperation, but also prevents the mutual reinforcement provided by clusters of active cooperators. In general, we found that cooperation is enhanced by inactivity. In particular, if most sites are inactive, cooperation survives even if the temptation to defect is very large. Interestingly, in the square lattice with pairwise comparison rule we found that cooperation is enforced by inactive sites only up to a certain limit.

  6. 容迟网络中基于社会感知的协作机制研究%Survey on Socially Aware Based Cooperation Mechanisms in Delay Tolerant Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭篁; 王堃; 于悦

    2012-01-01

    Social selfishness of nodes is prevalent in delay tolerant network, which has negative impact on the efficiency and security of DTN performance. In recent years, since the first report of socially aware computing, more and more researchers Dropose to combine socially awareness, game theory and other methods with nodes' cooperation in DTN. Research on socially iware based cooperation mechanism in DTN becomes a hot issue both in academic and industrial communities. In this paper, we introduce the impact of socially selfish nodes on network performance. Moreover, we focus on the proposed cooperation mechanisms and categorized them into three kinds: game theory based, reputation based and virtual bank based. Each category is discussed in detail and the typical work is introduced. Especially, the features of these categories of cooperation mechanisms are analyzed and compared, which is helpful to both the academic researchers and DTN applications. Finally, future works about the socially aware based cooperation mechanisms in DTN are outlined.%针对节点的社会自私性(social selfishness)对容迟网络(delay tolerant network,DTN)中路由效率、网络性能和安全等造成的负面影响,采用社会感知(socially aware)、博弈论等方法设计合理的协作机制是当前容迟网络研究的一个重要方向.文中首先描述了节点的社会自私性对容迟网络性能的影响.依据分析工具的差异,将已有容迟网络中基于社会感知的协作机制分为基于博弈论、基于信誉、基于虚拟银行3类.文中对各类协作机制的基本原理、方法和不足之处进行了分析和比较,最后对容迟网络中基于社会感知的协作机制的未来研究方向进行了展望.

  7. Humanization: Explaining the Law of Cooperatives in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sapovadia, Vrajlal; Patel, Sweta

    2012-01-01

    International Cooperative Alliance defines a cooperative as an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise. Cooperatives are based on the values of self-help, self-responsibility, democracy, equality, equity, mutual cooperation, and solidarity. Members of the cooperative society believe in the ethical values of honesty, openness, social respo...

  8. "Las cooperativas de utilidad pública e iniciativa social. Aspectos administrativos y fiscales" (Public utility ando social initiative cooperatives. Administrative and tax aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega M.ª Arnáez Arce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el régimen jurídico administrativo de lascooperativas calificadas como de utilidad pública e iniciativa social, por la singularidadde su objeto, toda vez que se trata de cooperativas dedicadas a la prestaciónde servicios asistenciales y de atención a las personas. Entre otros, el desarrollode actividades sanitarias, terapéuticas, educativas, culturales, recreativas, deintegración laboral y de defensa de personas o colectivos con especiales dificultadesde integración. Además, la concurrencia de un interés público hace que la tributaciónde estas cooperativas se aparte del régimen fiscal especial previsto paralas cooperativas, y se les aplique otro régimen fiscal especial más beneficioso.

  9. Clustering of risk factors and social class in childhood and adulthood in British women's heart and health study: cross sectional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, S; Montaner, D.; Lawlor, DA

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine co-occurrence and clustering of risk factors used in the Framingham equation by social class in childhood and adult life. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: 23 towns across England, Wales, and Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 2936 women aged 60-79 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of risk factors (hypertension, obesity, smoking, left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiography, diabetes, and low concentration of high density cholesterol); ratios of observed to expe...

  10. Grouping approach of learning team based on social network analysis and multidimensional feature clustering%结合社会网络分析和多维特征聚类的学习小组划分方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红宇; 王坚强; 马华

    2013-01-01

    This paper presented a learner feature model considering learning capacity, learning status and cooperation ability by introducing social network analysis. Employing the fuzzy similarity and fuzzy equivalent operations, it put forward a grouping approach of learning team, in which learning leader candidate were identified by using dynamic multi-level fuzzy clustering method, and iterative grouping could be achieved compromising learners of different levels. Finally, the experiment proves that this approach can enhance accuracy of learning team grouping with self-adaptability.%通过引入社会网络分析方法,建立了综合学习能力、学习状态和协作能力多维指标的学习者特征模型,应用模糊相似和模糊等价演算,以多层次的模糊动态聚类方法识别候选学习领袖,通过融合多类型学习者实现学习小组的迭代划分.实验分析表明,该方法可提高虚拟学习社区中学习小组划分结果的准确度,具有良好的自适应性.

  11. 山西省装备制造业集群企业合作与创新之间关系的经验分析%Empirical Analysis on Relationship between Cooperation and Innovation of Enterprises in Equipment Manufacturing Industry Cluster of Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔彬

    2012-01-01

    利用山西省装备制造业集群企业的数据,实证分析了集群企业的纵向合作和横向合作对综合创新、产品创新和流程创新的作用。结果表明:纵向合作是影响山西省装备制造业集群创新的重要因素,横向合作对产品创新的影响较为显著。%: This paper uses the data about enterprises in equipment manufacturing industry cluster of Shanxi province to empirically study the impacts of longitudinal cooperation and horizontal cooperation among cluster enterprises on integrated innovation,product innovation and process innovation. The result shows as follows:longitudinal cooperation is an important factor affecting the innovation of equipment manufacturing in- dustry cluster of Shanxi province,and the influence of horizontal cooperation on product innovation is significant.

  12. Helping and Cooperation in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Colombi, Costanza; Rogers, Sally J.; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Helping and cooperation are central to human social life. Here, we report two studies investigating these social behaviors in children with autism and children with developmental delay. In the first study, both groups of children helped the experimenter attain her goals. In the second study, both groups of children cooperated with an adult, but…

  13. Facebook-augmented partner notification in a cluster of syphilis cases in Milwaukee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Paul; Oyervides, Otilio; Grande, Katarina M; Prater, Daphne; Vann, Vannessa; Reitl, Irmine; Biedrzycki, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Public health professionals face many challenges in infectious disease cluster case identification and partner notification (PN), especially in populations using social media as a primary communication venue. We present a method using Facebook and social network diagram illustration to identify, link, and notify individuals in a cluster of syphilis cases in young black men who have sex with men (MSM). Use of Facebook was crucial in identifying two of 55 individuals with syphilis, and the cooperation of socially connected individuals with traditional PN methods yielded a high number of contacts per case. Integration of PN services for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases, as well as collaboration between the city and state information systems, assisted in the cluster investigation. Given that rates of syphilis and HIV infection are increasing significantly in young African American MSM, the use of social media can provide an additional avenue to facilitate case identification and notification.

  14. Market competition and efficient cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Riedl, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    We use laboratory experiments to study the causal effects of favorable and unfavorable competitive market experience on cooperation in a subsequent social dilemma game. The issues we study are part of the broader topic of whether there are behavioral spillovers between different spheres of social

  15. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique feat...

  16. Anàlisi de les modificacions estatutàries per adaptar el règim de reemborsament del capital social a les normes comptables de les cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Montegut

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objecte: L’objectiu del treball és analitzar les modificacions realitzades en els Estatuts de les cooperatives per adaptar el capital social a les normes comptables i veure quins han estats els efectes econòmics de l’adaptació del capital social en la situació patrimonial i econòmica de les cooperatives. Disseny/metodologia: Per dur a terme l’estudi s’ha demanat al Registre de Cooperatives  els Estatuts i els comptes anuals, per al període 2010-2011, de les cooperatives objecte de l’estudi. En primer lloc s’han revisat els Estatuts per veure quins articles han modificat o han introduït en relació a la nova normativa comptable. En segon lloc s’ha creat una base de dades amb els comptes anuals de les cooperatives per tal d’analitzar la situació econòmica i financera de les mateixes a través d’un anàlisi de les masses del balanç i de ràtios. Aportacions i resultats: S’ha identificat el percentatge de cooperatives que han decidit adaptar els Estatuts a la reforma comptable i el criteri adoptat per les mateixes. Els resultats mostren que les cooperatives han adaptat majoritàriament els seus Estatuts i que els efectes de l’aplicació de les normes comptables adaptades a la NIC 32 consisteixen en una disminució del patrimoni net i un augment de l’endeutament. Limitacions: La dificultat temporal per anar obtenint els comptes anuals i els Estatuts de les diferents cooperatives existents a Catalunya. Implicacions pràctiques i socials: Degut a que des de 2011 totes les cooperatives espanyoles han d'aplicar les normes comptables adaptades a la NIC 32, els resultats d'aquest treball de recerca poden ser útils per a diferents grups d'interès, no solament per a les pròpies cooperatives, sinó també per altres organismes cooperatius per a què puguin realitzar les valoracions que creguin convenients i per a les entitats financeres, per tal que puguin tenir-los en compte a l'hora de prendre decisions. Valor afegit

  17. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette;

    2008-01-01

    research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development......The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...

  18. Evidence for frequent incest in a cooperatively breeding mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, H J; Cant, M A; Hoffman, J I; Sanderson, J L

    2014-12-01

    As breeding between relatives often results in inbreeding depression, inbreeding avoidance is widespread in the animal kingdom. However, inbreeding avoidance may entail fitness costs. For example, dispersal away from relatives may reduce survival. How these conflicting selection pressures are resolved is challenging to investigate, but theoretical models predict that inbreeding should occur frequently in some systems. Despite this, few studies have found evidence of regular incest in mammals, even in social species where relatives are spatio-temporally clustered and opportunities for inbreeding frequently arise. We used genetic parentage assignments together with relatedness data to quantify inbreeding rates in a wild population of banded mongooses, a cooperatively breeding carnivore. We show that females regularly conceive to close relatives, including fathers and brothers. We suggest that the costs of inbreeding avoidance may sometimes outweigh the benefits, even in cooperatively breeding species where strong within-group incest avoidance is considered to be the norm.

  19. Clusters e redes de cooperação de pequenas e médias empresas: observatório europeu, caso alemão e contribuições ao caso brasileiro Clusters and cooperation networks of small and medium-sized companies: analysis of european and German experiences and contributions to the brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Cecílio Gerolamo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os recentes estudos sobre clusters e redes de cooperação de pequenas e médias empresas na Europa, realizados pela Comissão Européia, bem como a descrição da atual estratégia de desenvolvimento de redes de competência na Alemanha (Kompetenznetze Deutschland, abordando especificamente o caso da região de Berlim e Brandemburgo. O objetivo principal é, por meio das análises dos programas europeus de desenvolvimento de clusters e redes de cooperação entre pequenas e médias empresas, verificar possibilidades de adaptação para a realidade brasileira no que se refere a arranjos produtivos locais e parques tecnológicos. Em linhas gerais, pequenas e médias empresas pertencentes a clusters na Europa têm demonstrado desempenho acima da média quando comparadas às demais empresas de seus respectivos setores. O aumento da competitividade de clusters e o crescimento econômico regional estão fortemente associados ao investimento em inovação. Esse é o caso da Alemanha que incentiva o desenvolvimento de inovação por meio de suas redes de competência. A região Berlim-Brandemburgo retrata o exemplo de uma estratégia coerente de desenvolvimento local. Pode-se dizer que possíveis alternativas para o Brasil seriam o apoio mais direto do poder público, foco em inovação e definição de processos para gerenciamento das redes de cooperação.This paper presents studies on clusters and cooperation networks of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs developed by the European Commission, as well as a description of the current German strategy for developing competence networks (Kompetenznetze Deutschland, focusing specifically on the case of the regions of Berlin and Brandenburg. The main goal of this work is to analyze the experience of the European and German initiatives and to verify the possibilities of adapting such initiatives to the context of local productive systems and technology parks in Brazil. In

  20. EL CAPITAL RELACIONAL DE LAS COOPERATIVAS DE CRÉDITO EN ESPAÑA: UN ESTUDIO CUALITATIVO DE SUS INTANGIBLES SOCIALES MEDIANTE EL ANÁLISIS DELPHI / THE RELATIONAL CAPITAL OF THE CREDIT COOPERATIVES IN SPAIN: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF THEIR SOCIAL INTANGIBLE USING THE DELPHI ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J SERVER IZQUIERDO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Especialmente en el caso de las cajas de ahorro, el capital social ha sido recurrentemente utilizado para explicar la aportación que ciertas entidades bancarias realizan al desarrollo económico y social de sus territorios de actuación. Las cooperativas de crédito, como organizaciones singulares en nuestro sistema financiero, poseen unos intangibles de características particulares. Así, la reputación corporativa, las relaciones sociales, con la administración o con los medios de comunicación y el ejercicio de la responsabilidad social les confieren unas características específicas y unos rasgos concretos que merecen ser estudiados. Mediante el análisis Delphi, este trabajo trata de identificar las singularidades del capital social de estas entidades, donde destacan –como fortalezas- una gran proximidad y la participación del socio y -como debilidad- la reputación de estas entidades. Los intangibles sociales cuentan con una importante valoración en las cooperativas de crédito, especialmente el ejercicio de la responsabilidad social (un claro síntoma del compromiso de estas entidades. La potenciación del capital social de las cooperativas pasa por amplificar la política de comunicación, especialmente por lo que se refiere al uso del Fondo de Educación y Promoción Cooperativa (FEPC. En este sentido, el camino emprendido por las cajas de ahorro, resulta un ejemplo a seguir. / Social Capital has constantly been used to explain the beneficial impact that some banking companies have on the economic and social development, especially for saving banks. Credit cooperatives, which are singular in our financial system, posses certain assets with their own features. Thus, corporate reputation, social relationships, interaction with public administration and media, and performance in social responsibility shape credit unions in such a way that it is worth to be studied. By means of Delphi analysis this work identifies the singularities