WorldWideScience

Sample records for cooperative radio resource

  1. Cooperative Radio Resource Management for Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Tragos, Elias; Luo, Jijun

    2009-01-01

    The heterogeneity in technology and also in ownership leads to complex systems and interworking problems, which can be seen from the ability to establish and maintain connections with required quality, in fault detection and location, in resource allocation and in charging of the usage of the net...

  2. Cost-effectiveness Assessment of 5G Systems with Cooperative Radio Resource Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nikolikj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available By use of techno-economic analysis of heterogeneous hierarchical cell structures and spectral efficiencies of the forthcoming advanced radio access technologies, this paper proposes various cost-efficient capacity enlargement strategies evaluated through the level of the production cost per transferred data unit and achievable profit margins. For the purpose of maximizing the aggregate performance (capacity or profit, we also assess the cooperative manners of radio resource sharing between mobile network operators, especially in the cases of capacity over-provisioning, when we also determine the principles to provide guaranteed data rates to a particular number of users. The results show that, for heavily loaded office environments, the future 5G pico base stations could be a preferable deployment solution. Also, we confirm that the radio resource management method with dynamic resource allocation can significantly improve the capacity of two comparably loaded operators which share the resources and aim to increase their cost effectiveness.

  3. Multiuser Radio Resource Allocation for Multiservice Transmission in OFDMA-Based Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xing

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The problem of multiservice transmission in OFDMA-based cooperative relay networks is studied comprehensively. We propose a framework to adaptively allocate power, subcarriers, and data rate in OFDMA system to maximize spectral efficiency under the constraints of satisfying multiuser multiservices' QoS requirements. Specifically, first we concentrate on the single-user scenario which considers multiservice transmission in point-to-point cooperative relay network. Based on the analysis of single-user scenario, we extend the multiservice transmission to multiuser point-to-multipoint scenario. Next, based on the framework, we propose several suboptimal radio resource allocation algorithms for multiservice transmissions in OFDMA-based cooperative relay networks to further reduce the computational complexity. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms yield much higher spectral efficiency and much lower outage probability, which are flexible and efficient for the OFDMA-based cooperative relay system.

  4. Estimation of Distribution Algorithm for Resource Allocation in Green Cooperative Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagan Anpalagan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid increase in the usage and demand of wireless sensor networks (WSN, the limited frequency spectrum available for WSN applications will be extremely crowded in the near future. More sensor devices also mean more recharging/replacement of batteries, which will cause significant impact on the global carbon footprint. In this paper, we propose a relay-assisted cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN that allocates communication resources in an environmentally friendly manner. We use shared band amplify and forward relaying for cooperative communication in the proposed CRSN. We present a multi-objective optimization architecture for resource allocation in a green cooperative cognitive radio sensor network (GC-CRSN. The proposed multi-objective framework jointly performs relay assignment and power allocation in GC-CRSN, while optimizing two conflicting objectives. The first objective is to maximize the total throughput, and the second objective is to minimize the total transmission power of CRSN. The proposed relay assignment and power allocation problem is a non-convex mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem (NC-MINLP, which is generally non-deterministic polynomial-time (NP-hard. We introduce a hybrid heuristic algorithm for this problem. The hybrid heuristic includes an estimation-of-distribution algorithm (EDA for performing power allocation and iterative greedy schemes for constraint satisfaction and relay assignment. We analyze the throughput and power consumption tradeoff in GC-CRSN. A detailed analysis of the performance of the proposed algorithm is presented with the simulation results.

  5. Cognitive radio networks efficient resource allocation in cooperative sensing, cellular communications, high-speed vehicles, and smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Tao; Cao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    PrefaceAcknowledgmentsAbout the AuthorsIntroductionCognitive Radio-Based NetworksOpportunistic Spectrum Access NetworksCognitive Radio Networks with Cooperative SensingCognitive Radio Networks for Cellular CommunicationsCognitive Radio Networks for High-Speed VehiclesCognitive Radio Networks for a Smart GridContent and OrganizationTransmission Slot Allocation in an Opportunistic Spectrum Access NetworkSingle-User Single-Channel System ModelProbabilistic Slot Allocation SchemeOptimal Probabilistic Slot AllocationBaseline PerformanceExponential DistributionHyper-Erlang DistributionPerformance An

  6. A Subcarrier-Pair Based Resource Allocation Scheme Using Proportional Fairness for Cooperative OFDM-Based Cognitive Radio Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongtao; Zhou, Liuji; Liu, Kaihua

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a joint subcarrier-pair based resource allocation algorithm in order to improve the efficiency and fairness of cooperative multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MU-OFDM) cognitive radio (CR) systems. A communication model where one source node communicates with one destination node assisted by one half-duplex decode-and-forward (DF) relay is considered in the paper. An interference-limited environment is considered, with the constraint of transmitted sum-power over all channels and aggregate average interference towards multiple primary users (PUs). The proposed resource allocation algorithm is capable of maximizing both the system transmission efficiency and fairness among secondary users (SUs). Besides, the proposed algorithm can also keep the interference introduced to the PU bands below a threshold. A proportional fairness constraint is used to assure that each SU can achieve a required data rate, with quality of service guarantees. Moreover, we extend the analysis to the scenario where each cooperative SU has no channel state information (CSI) about non-adjacent links. We analyzed the throughput and fairness tradeoff in CR system. A detailed analysis of the performance of the proposed algorithm is presented with the simulation results. PMID:23939586

  7. On hybrid cooperation in underlay cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2012-11-01

    In wireless systems where transmitters are subject to a strict received power constraint, such as in underlay cognitive radio networks, cooperative communication is a promising strategy to enhance network performance, as it helps to improve the coverage area and outage performance of a network. However, this comes at the expense of increased resource utilization. To balance the performance gain against the possible over-utilization of resources, we propose a hybrid-cooperation technique for underlay cognitive radio networks, where secondary users cooperate only when required. Various performance measures of the proposed hybrid-cooperation technique are analyzed in this paper, and are also further validated numerically. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. On Hybrid Cooperation in Underlay Cognitive Radio Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Øien, Geir E.

    2013-01-01

    of opportunistic wireless systems such as cognitive radio networks. In order to balance the performance gains from cooperative communication against the possible over-utilization of resources, we propose and analyze an adaptive-cooperation technique for underlay cognitive radio networks, termed as hybrid......Cooperative communication is a promising strategy to enhance the performance of a communication network as it helps to improve the coverage area and the outage performance. However, such enhancement comes at the expense of increased resource utilization, which is undesirable; more so in the case......-cooperation. Under the proposed cooperation scheme, secondary users in a cognitive radio network cooperate adaptively to enhance the spectral efficiency and the error performance of the network. The bit error rate, the spectral efficiency and the outage performance of the network under the proposed hybrid...

  9. On hybrid cooperation in underlay cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2013-09-01

    Cooperative communication is a promising strategy to enhance the performance of a communication network as it helps to improve the coverage area and the outage performance. However, such enhancement comes at the expense of increased resource utilization, which is undesirable; more so in the case of opportunistic wireless systems such as cognitive radio networks. In order to balance the performance gains from cooperative communication against the possible over-utilization of resources, we propose and analyze an adaptive-cooperation technique for underlay cognitive radio networks, termed as hybrid-cooperation. Under the proposed cooperation scheme, secondary users in a cognitive radio network cooperate adaptively to enhance the spectral efficiency and the error performance of the network. The bit error rate, the spectral efficiency and the outage performance of the network under the proposed hybrid cooperation scheme with amplify-and-forward relaying are analyzed in this paper, and compared against conventional cooperation technique. Findings of the analytical performance analyses are further validated numerically through selected computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations. The proposed scheme is found to achieve significantly better performance in terms of the spectral efficiency and the bit error rate, compared to the conventional amplify-and-forward cooperation scheme. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. Designing for cooperation at a Radio Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kensing, F.; Simonsen, Jesper; Bødker, Keld

    1997-01-01

    We address computer support for work and its coordination in one of the radio channels of the Danish Broadcasting Corporation. Based upon ethnographically inspired analysis and participatory design techniques, we propose design solutions now implemented or under implementation. We focus on cooper......We address computer support for work and its coordination in one of the radio channels of the Danish Broadcasting Corporation. Based upon ethnographically inspired analysis and participatory design techniques, we propose design solutions now implemented or under implementation. We focus...

  11. Optimizing Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks with Opportunistic Access

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Chen, Yunfei; Radaydeh, Redha M.

    2012-01-01

    Optimal resource allocation for cooperative cognitive radio networks with opportunistic access to the licensed spectrum is studied. Resource allocation is based on minimizing the symbol error rate at the receiver. Both the cases of all-participate relaying and selective relaying are considered. The objective function is derived and the constraints are detailed for both scenarios. It is then shown that the objective functions and the constraints are nonlinear and nonconvex functions of the parameters of interest, that is, source and relay powers, symbol time, and sensing time. Therefore, it is difficult to obtain closed-form solutions for the optimal resource allocation. The optimization problem is then solved using numerical techniques. Numerical results show that the all-participate system provides better performance than its selection counterpart, at the cost of greater resources. © 2012 Ammar Zafar et al.

  12. Optimizing Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks with Opportunistic Access

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-09-16

    Optimal resource allocation for cooperative cognitive radio networks with opportunistic access to the licensed spectrum is studied. Resource allocation is based on minimizing the symbol error rate at the receiver. Both the cases of all-participate relaying and selective relaying are considered. The objective function is derived and the constraints are detailed for both scenarios. It is then shown that the objective functions and the constraints are nonlinear and nonconvex functions of the parameters of interest, that is, source and relay powers, symbol time, and sensing time. Therefore, it is difficult to obtain closed-form solutions for the optimal resource allocation. The optimization problem is then solved using numerical techniques. Numerical results show that the all-participate system provides better performance than its selection counterpart, at the cost of greater resources. © 2012 Ammar Zafar et al.

  13. Nganyi Community Resource Centre: Community radio station ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... To mark World Meteorological Day on March 23, 2015, the Kenya Meteorological Services (KMS) launched a resource centre and radio station in western Kenya to disseminate weather and climate information.

  14. Radio resource allocation and dynamic spectrum access

    CERN Document Server

    Benmammar , Badr

    2013-01-01

    We are currently witnessing an increase in telecommunications norms and standards given the recent advances in this field. The increasing number of normalized standards paves the way for an increase in the range of services available for each consumer. Moreover, the majority of available radio frequencies have already been allocated. This explains the emergence of cognitive radio (CR) - the sharing of the spectrum between a primary user and a secondary user.In this book, we will present the state of the art of the different techniques for spectrum access using cooperation and competit

  15. Cognitive radio networks dynamic resource allocation schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents a survey of dynamic resource allocation schemes in Cognitive Radio (CR) Systems, focusing on the spectral-efficiency and energy-efficiency in wireless networks. It also introduces a variety of dynamic resource allocation schemes for CR networks and provides a concise introduction of the landscape of CR technology. The author covers in detail the dynamic resource allocation problem for the motivations and challenges in CR systems. The Spectral- and Energy-Efficient resource allocation schemes are comprehensively investigated, including new insights into the trade-off

  16. Cooperative Detection for Primary User in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose two novel cooperative detection schemes based on the AF (Amplify and Forward and DF (Decode and Forward protocols to achieve spatial diversity gains for cognitive radio networks, which are referred to as the AF-CDS, (AF-based Cooperative Detection Scheme and DF-CDS (DF-based Cooperative Detection Scheme, respectively. Closed-form expressions of detection probabilities for the noncooperation scheme, AND-CDS (AND-based Cooperative Detection Scheme, AF-CDS and DF-CDS, are derived over Rayleigh fading channels. Also, we analyze the overall agility for the proposed cooperative detection schemes and show that our schemes can further reduce the detection time. In addition, we compare the DF-CDS with the AF-CDS in terms of detection probability and agility gain, depicting the advantage of DF-CDS at low SNR region and high false alarm probability region.

  17. On hybrid cooperation in underlay cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Ø ien, Geir Egil; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative communication is a promising strategy to enhance the performance of a communication network as it helps to improve the coverage area and the outage performance. However, such enhancement comes at the expense of increased resource

  18. Spectrum management and radio resource management considering cognitive radio systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haartsen, J.C.; Wieweg, Lasse; Huschke, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    International fora and some national administrations define a cognitive radio (CR) as a pioneering radio communication system that would be capable of altering and adapting its transmitter and receiver parameters based on communication and the exchange of information with related detectable radio

  19. Cooperative Cognitive Radio Systems over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2013-05-08

    This thesis aims to investigate the incorporation of cooperative techniques in cognitive radio networks over Nakagami-m fading channels. These last years, spectrum sharing mechanisms has gained a lot of interest in the wireless communication domain. Using cooperation in a cognitive set up make the use of spectrum much more efficient. Moreover, it helps to extend the coverage area of the cognitive network and also to reduce the transmitting power and, thus, the generated interference. In this work, we consider two particular scenarios for cooperative cognitive radio systems. The first scenario consider multihop regenerative relaying in an underlay cognitive set up. The cooperation is performed in the secondary system, in the presence of multiple primary users. Both interference power and peak power constraints are taking into account. Closed-form expressions for the statistical characteristics and multiple end- to-end performance metrics are derived. Different scenarios are presented to illustrate the obtained results and Monte Carlo simulations confirm the accuracy of our analytical derivations. In the second part of this work, we consider an overlay cognitive network with the spectrally efficient two-phase two-way relaying protocol. Two relay selection techniques, optimizing both the primary and the secondary communication, are presented. The overall outage performance is investigated and an optimal power allocation scheme, that ameliorate the outage performance of the system, is proposed. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate and compare the obtained results.

  20. Fast Detection Method in Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR technology improves the utilization of spectrum highly via opportunistic spectrum sharing, which requests fast detection as the spectrum utilization is dynamic. Taking into consideration the characteristic of wireless channels, we propose a fast detection scheme for a cooperative cognitive radio network, which consists of multiple CRs and a central control office. Specifically, each CR makes individual detection decision using the sequential probability ratio test combined with Neyman Pearson detection with respect to a specific observation window length. The proposed method upper bounds the detection delay. In addition, a weighted K out of N fusion rule is also proposed for the central control office to reach fast global decision based on the information collected from CRs, with more weights assigned for CRs with good channel conditions. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve fast detection while maintaining the detection accuracy.

  1. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie; Zeng Chang-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed

  2. Analytical Frameworks of Cooperative and Cognitive Radio Systems with Practical Considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    for cooperative and cognitive radio systems considering real world scenarios and to make these technologies implementable. In most of the research on cooperative relaying, it has been assumed that the communicating nodes have perfect channel state information

  3. Cooperative resources lead to sustainable competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vieira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze how organizational resources contribute to cooperatives achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. The theoretical approach of this study is the Resource Based View and VRIO model advocated by Barney and Hesterly (2007. The research was characterized as descriptive and quantitative, through data collection from secondary sources and a survey. The data collection tool was a questionnaire devised by Peacock, Sehnem and Hoffmann (2011. Data collection took place between the months of September 2014 and March 2015. The study sample was composed of a total of 215 cooperatives from across the country, divided into 13 segments. Secondary data was subjected to content analysis. The primary data was analyzed using statistical inference, namely: descriptive statistics, mean, Pearson correlation, Varimax rotation and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The main results showed that human resources are seen as important to achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. This research contributed to and enables new studies concerning the growth of cooperatives taking into account the use of internal resources.

  4. Radio resource management using geometric water-filling

    CERN Document Server

    He, Peter; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng

    2014-01-01

    This brief introduces the fundamental theory and development of managing radio resources using a water-filling algorithm that can optimize system performance in wireless communication. Geometric Water-Filling (GWF) is a crucial underlying tool in emerging communication systems such as multiple input multiple output systems, cognitive radio systems, and green communication systems. Early chapters introduce emerging wireless technologies and provide a detailed analysis of water-filling. The brief investigates single user and multi-user issues of radio resource management, allocation of resources

  5. On Optimizing Radio Resource Usage in Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Ciobanu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of the interference between mobile terminals and radio access points inside the network represented since always a challenge for all mobile telecommunications service providers. The present paper represents a study regarding the optimum utilization of radio resources in order to obtain a system with as high a capacity as possible for a certain available bandwidth.

  6. Enhanced cognitive Radio Resource Management for LTE systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail; Shihada, Basem; Shin, Kang G.

    2013-01-01

    as it improves network efficiency by exploiting radio environment information, intelligent optimization algorithms to configure transmission parameters, and mitigate interference. In this paper, we propose a cognitive resource management scheme to adapt LTE

  7. Energy Efficient Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks Using Distributed Dynamic Load Balanced Clustering Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukkumar R.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR is a promising and potential technique to enable secondary users (SUs or unlicenced users to exploit the unused spectrum resources effectively possessed by primary users (PUs or licenced users. The proven clustering approach is used to organize nodes in the network into the logical groups to attain energy efficiency, network scalability, and stability for improving the sensing accuracy in CR through cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS. In this paper, a distributed dynamic load balanced clustering (DDLBC algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, each member in the cluster is to calculate the cooperative gain, residual energy, distance, and sensing cost from the neighboring clusters to perform the optimal decision. Each member in a cluster participates in selecting a cluster head (CH through cooperative gain, and residual energy that minimises network energy consumption and enhances the channel sensing. First, we form the number of clusters using the Markov decision process (MDP model to reduce the energy consumption in a network. In this algorithm, CR users effectively utilize the PUs reporting time slots of unavailability. The simulation results reveal that the clusters convergence, energy efficiency, and accuracy of channel sensing increased considerably by using the proposed algorithm.

  8. Energy Efficient Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks Using Distributed Dynamic Load Balanced Clustering Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukkumar R.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR is a promising and potential technique to enable secondary users (SUs or unlicenced users to exploit the unused spectrum resources effectively possessed by primary users (PUs or licenced users. The proven clustering approach is used to organize nodes in the network into the logical groups to attain energy efficiency, network scalability, and stability for improving the sensing accuracy in CR through cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS. In this paper, a distributed dynamic load balanced clustering (DDLBC algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, each member in the cluster is to calculate the cooperative gain, residual energy, distance, and sensing cost from the neighboring clusters to perform the optimal decision. Each member in a cluster participates in selecting a cluster head (CH through cooperative gain, and residual energy that minimises network energy consumption and enhances the channel sensing. First, we form the number of clusters using the Markov decision process (MDP model to reduce the energy consumption in a network. In this algorithm, CR users effectively utilize the PUs reporting time slots of unavailability. The simulation results reveal that the clusters convergence, energy efficiency, and accuracy of channel sensing increased considerably by using the proposed algorithm.

  9. Resource Allocation for Cloud Radio Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Dhifallah, Oussama

    2016-04-01

    Cloud-radio access network (CRAN) is expected to be the core network architecture for next generation mobile radio system. In CRANs, joint signal processing is performed at multiple cloud computing centers (clouds) that are connected to several base stations (BSs) via high capacity backhaul links. As a result, large-scale interference management and network power consumption reduction can be effectively achieved. Unlike recent works on CRANs which consider a single cloud processing and treat inter-cloud interference as background noise, the first part of this thesis focuses on the more practical scenario of the downlink of a multi-cloud radio access network where BSs are connected to each cloud through wireline backhaul links. Assume that each cloud serves a set of pre-known single-antenna mobile users (MUs). This part focuses on minimizing the network total power consumption subject to practical constraints. The problems are solved using sophisticated techniques from optimization theory (e.g. Dual Decomposition-based algorithm and the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM)-based algorithm). One highlight of this part is that the proposed solutions can be implemented in a distributed fashion by allowing a reasonable information exchange between the coupled clouds. Additionally, feasible solutions of the considered optimization problems can be estimated locally at each iteration. Simulation results show that the proposed distributed algorithms converge to the centralized algorithms in a reasonable number of iterations. To further account of the backhaul congestion due to densification in CRANs, the second part of this thesis considers the downlink of a cache-enabled CRAN where each BS is equipped with a local-cache with limited size used to store the popular files without the need for backhauling. Further, each cache-enabled BS is connected to the cloud via limited capacity backhaul link and can serve a set of pre-known single antenna MUs. This part

  10. Cross stratum resources protection in fog-computing-based radio over fiber networks for 5G services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaoyong; Shao, Sujie; Wang, Yao; Yang, Hui

    2017-09-01

    In order to meet the requirement of internet of things (IoT) and 5G, the cloud radio access network is a paradigm which converges all base stations computational resources into a cloud baseband unit (BBU) pool, while the distributed radio frequency signals are collected by remote radio head (RRH). A precondition for centralized processing in the BBU pool is an interconnection fronthaul network with high capacity and low delay. However, it has become more complex and frequent in the interaction between RRH and BBU and resource scheduling among BBUs in cloud. Cloud radio over fiber network has been proposed in our previous work already. In order to overcome the complexity and latency, in this paper, we first present a novel cross stratum resources protection (CSRP) architecture in fog-computing-based radio over fiber networks (F-RoFN) for 5G services. Additionally, a cross stratum protection (CSP) scheme considering the network survivability is introduced in the proposed architecture. The CSRP with CSP scheme can effectively pull the remote processing resource locally to implement the cooperative radio resource management, enhance the responsiveness and resilience to the dynamic end-to-end 5G service demands, and globally optimize optical network, wireless and fog resources. The feasibility and efficiency of the proposed architecture with CSP scheme are verified on our software defined networking testbed in terms of service latency, transmission success rate, resource occupation rate and blocking probability.

  11. Location-based resource allocation for OFDMA cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2010-01-01

    In cognitive radio systems, in order for the secondary users to opportunistically share the spectrum without interfering the primary users, an accurate spectrum measurement and a precise estimation of the interference at the primary users are necessary but are challenging tasks. Since it is impractical in cognitive radio systems to assume that the channel state information of the interference link is available at the cognitive transmitter, the interference at the primary users is hard to be estimated accurately. This paper introduces a resource allocation algorithm for OFDMA-based cognitive radio systems, which utilizes location information of the primary and secondary users instead of the channel state information of the interference link. Simulation results show that it is indeed effective to incorporate location information into resource allocation so that a near-optimal capacity is achieved.

  12. Radio resource management in multi-tier cellular wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, Ekram; Niyato, Dusit

    2013-01-01

    Providing an extensive overview of the radio resource management problem in femtocell networks, this invaluable book considers both code division multiple access femtocells and orthogonal frequency-division multiple access femtocells. In addition to incorporating current research on this topic, the book also covers technical challenges in femtocell deployment, provides readers with a variety of approaches to resource allocation and a comparison of their effectiveness, explains how to model various networks using Stochastic geometry and shot noise theory, and much more.

  13. Throughput Maximization for Cognitive Radio Networks Using Active Cooperation and Superposition Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Hamza, Doha R.

    2015-02-13

    We propose a three-message superposition coding scheme in a cognitive radio relay network exploiting active cooperation between primary and secondary users. The primary user is motivated to cooperate by substantial benefits it can reap from this access scenario. Specifically, the time resource is split into three transmission phases: The first two phases are dedicated to primary communication, while the third phase is for the secondary’s transmission. We formulate two throughput maximization problems for the secondary network subject to primary user rate constraints and per-node power constraints with respect to the time durations of primary transmission and the transmit power of the primary and the secondary users. The first throughput maximization problem assumes a partial power constraint such that the secondary power dedicated to primary cooperation, i.e. for the first two communication phases, is fixed apriori. In the second throughput maximization problem, a total power constraint is assumed over the three phases of communication. The two problems are difficult to solve analytically when the relaying channel gains are strictly greater than each other and strictly greater than the direct link channel gain. However, mathematically tractable lowerbound and upperbound solutions can be attained for the two problems. For both problems, by only using the lowerbound solution, we demonstrate significant throughput gains for both the primary and the secondary users through this active cooperation scheme. We find that most of the throughput gains come from minimizing the second phase transmission time since the secondary nodes assist the primary communication during this phase. Finally, we demonstrate the superiority of our proposed scheme compared to a number of reference schemes that include best relay selection, dual-hop routing, and an interference channel model.

  14. Throughput Maximization for Cognitive Radio Networks Using Active Cooperation and Superposition Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Hamza, Doha R.; Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Aissa, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    We propose a three-message superposition coding scheme in a cognitive radio relay network exploiting active cooperation between primary and secondary users. The primary user is motivated to cooperate by substantial benefits it can reap from this access scenario. Specifically, the time resource is split into three transmission phases: The first two phases are dedicated to primary communication, while the third phase is for the secondary’s transmission. We formulate two throughput maximization problems for the secondary network subject to primary user rate constraints and per-node power constraints with respect to the time durations of primary transmission and the transmit power of the primary and the secondary users. The first throughput maximization problem assumes a partial power constraint such that the secondary power dedicated to primary cooperation, i.e. for the first two communication phases, is fixed apriori. In the second throughput maximization problem, a total power constraint is assumed over the three phases of communication. The two problems are difficult to solve analytically when the relaying channel gains are strictly greater than each other and strictly greater than the direct link channel gain. However, mathematically tractable lowerbound and upperbound solutions can be attained for the two problems. For both problems, by only using the lowerbound solution, we demonstrate significant throughput gains for both the primary and the secondary users through this active cooperation scheme. We find that most of the throughput gains come from minimizing the second phase transmission time since the secondary nodes assist the primary communication during this phase. Finally, we demonstrate the superiority of our proposed scheme compared to a number of reference schemes that include best relay selection, dual-hop routing, and an interference channel model.

  15. Sophisticated Online Learning Scheme for Green Resource Allocation in 5G Heterogeneous Cloud Radio Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2018-01-23

    5G is the upcoming evolution for the current cellular networks that aims at satisfying the future demand for data services. Heterogeneous cloud radio access networks (H-CRANs) are envisioned as a new trend of 5G that exploits the advantages of heterogeneous and cloud radio access networks to enhance spectral and energy efficiency. Remote radio heads (RRHs) are small cells utilized to provide high data rates for users with high quality of service (QoS) requirements, while high power macro base station (BS) is deployed for coverage maintenance and low QoS users service. Inter-tier interference between macro BSs and RRHs and energy efficiency are critical challenges that accompany resource allocation in H-CRANs. Therefore, we propose an efficient resource allocation scheme using online learning, which mitigates interference and maximizes energy efficiency while maintaining QoS requirements for all users. The resource allocation includes resource blocks (RBs) and power. The proposed scheme is implemented using two approaches: centralized, where the resource allocation is processed at a controller integrated with the baseband processing unit and decentralized, where macro BSs cooperate to achieve optimal resource allocation strategy. To foster the performance of such sophisticated scheme with a model free learning, we consider users\\' priority in RB allocation and compact state representation learning methodology to improve the speed of convergence and account for the curse of dimensionality during the learning process. The proposed scheme including both approaches is implemented using software defined radios testbed. The obtained results and simulation results confirm that the proposed resource allocation solution in H-CRANs increases the energy efficiency significantly and maintains users\\' QoS.

  16. Design And Implementation Of Radio Resources Controller Of WCDMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, A.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, wireless communications and especially the mobile networks are employed in nuclear applications including, but not limited to, Nuclear Material Integrity [1], Radiation Monitoring Networks [2, 3] and Nuclear Power Plants [4]. The thesis introduces an overview about one of the third generation (3G) mobile networks, known as Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) networks, which consists of Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) and the Core Network (CN). The UTRAN has many interfaces, but the thesis focuses on the Uu interface which is between the User Equipment (UE) and the UTRAN. That interface is based on Wideband Code Division Multiple Accessing (WCDMA) system. The protocol architecture of UMTS is composed of two planes; the control plane and the user plane. Again, the thesis is concerned on the control plane which has the Radio Resources Control (RRC) protocol to manage the control signal at the Uu interface between the UE and the Radio Network Controller. The main goal of the thesis is to design, implement and test the building blocks of Radio Resources Controller of the WCDMA system. Also, the thesis presents one of nuclear applications that is based on WCDMA. This application includes design, implementation and simulation of Radiation Monitoring network as a pilot prototype model.

  17. Intergroup Cooperation in Common Pool Resource Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Jathan; Spierre, Susan G; Selinger, Evan; Seager, Thomas P; Adams, Elizabeth A; Berardy, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Fundamental problems of environmental sustainability, including climate change and fisheries management, require collective action on a scale that transcends the political and cultural boundaries of the nation-state. Rational, self-interested neoclassical economic theories of human behavior predict tragedy in the absence of third party enforcement of agreements and practical difficulties that prevent privatization. Evolutionary biology offers a theory of cooperation, but more often than not in a context of discrimination against other groups. That is, in-group boundaries are necessarily defined by those excluded as members of out-groups. However, in some settings human's exhibit behavior that is inconsistent with both rational economic and group driven cooperation of evolutionary biological theory. This paper reports the results of a non-cooperative game-theoretic exercise that models a tragedy of the commons problem in which groups of players may advance their own positions only at the expense of other groups. Students enrolled from multiple universities and assigned to different multi-university identity groups participated in experiments that repeatedly resulted in cooperative outcomes despite intergroup conflicts and expressions of group identity. We offer three possible explanations: (1) students were cooperative because they were in an academic setting; (2) students may have viewed their instructors as the out-group; or (3) the emergence of a small number of influential, ethical leaders is sufficient to ensure cooperation amongst the larger groups. From our data and analysis, we draw out lessons that may help to inform approaches for institutional design and policy negotiations, particularly in climate change management.

  18. Incentivize Spectrum Leasing in Cognitive Radio Networks by Exploiting Cooperative Retransmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the spectrum leasing issue in cognitive radio networks by exploiting the secondary user’s cooperative retransmission. In contrast with the previous researches that focuses on cancellationbased or coding-based cooperative retransmissions, we propose a novel trading-based mechanism to facilitate the cooperative retransmission for cognitive radio networks. By utilizing the Stackelberg game model, we incentivize the otherwise non-cooperative users by maximizing their utilities in terms of transmission rates and economic profit. We analyze the existence of the unique Nash equilibrium of the game, and provide the optimal solutions with corresponding constraints. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed mechanism, under which the performance of the whole system could be substantially improved.

  19. Potential game theory applications in radio resource allocation

    CERN Document Server

    Lã, Quang Duy; Soong, Boon-Hee

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a thorough examination of potential game theory and its applications in radio resource management for wireless communications systems and networking. The book addresses two major research goals: how to identify a given game as a potential game, and how to design the utility functions and the potential functions with certain special properties in order to formulate a potential game. After proposing a unifying mathematical framework for the identification of potential games, the text surveys existing applications of this technique within wireless communications and networking problems found in OFDMA 3G/4G/WiFi networks, as well as next-generation systems such as cognitive radios and dynamic spectrum access networks. Professionals interested in understanding the theoretical aspect of this specialized field will find Potential Game Theory a valuable resource, as will advanced-level engineering students. It paves the way for extensive and rigorous research exploration on a topic whose capacity for...

  20. Hard Decision Fusion based Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Armi N.M. Saad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative spectrum sensing was proposed to combat fading, noise uncertainty, shadowing, and even hidden node problem due to primary users (PUs activity that is not spatially localized. It improves the probability of detection by collaborating to detect PUs signal in cognitive radio (CR system as well. This paper studies cooperative spectrum sensing and signal detection in CR system by implementing hard decision combining in data fusion centre. Through computer simulation, we evaluate the performances of cooperative spectrum sensing and signal detection by employing OR and AND rules as decision combining. Energy detector is used to observe the presence of primary user (PU signal. Those results are compared to non-cooperative signal detection for evaluation. They show that cooperative technique has better performance than non-cooperative. Moreover, signal to noise ratio (SNR with greater than or equal 10 dB and 15 collaborated users in CR system has optimal value for probability of detection.

  1. Conceptual Considerations for Reducing the Computational Complexity in Software Defined Radio using Cooperative Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jesper Michael; Fitzek, Frank H. P.; Koch, Peter

    2005-01-01

    the expected increase in complexity leading to a decrease in energy efficiency, cooperative wireless networks are introduced. Cooperative wireless networks enables the concept of resource sharing. Resource sharing is interpreted as collaborative signal processing. This interpretation leads to the concept...... of a distributed signal processor. OFDM and the principle of FFT is described as an example of collaborative signal processing....

  2. Cooperative Cognitive Radio Systems over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2013-01-01

    . Using cooperation in a cognitive set up make the use of spectrum much more efficient. Moreover, it helps to extend the coverage area of the cognitive network and also to reduce the transmitting power and, thus, the generated interference. In this work

  3. Enhanced cognitive Radio Resource Management for LTE systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2013-10-01

    The explosive growth in mobile Internet and related services has increased the need for more bandwidth in cellular networks. The Long-Term Evolution (LTE) technology is an attractive solution for operators and subscribers to meet such need since it provides high data rates and scalable bandwidth. Radio Resource Management (RRM) is essential for LTE to provide better communication quality and meet the application QoS requirements. Cognitive resource management is a promising solution for LTE RRM as it improves network efficiency by exploiting radio environment information, intelligent optimization algorithms to configure transmission parameters, and mitigate interference. In this paper, we propose a cognitive resource management scheme to adapt LTE network parameters to the environment conditions. The scheme optimizes resource blocks assignment, modulation selection and bandwidth selection to maximize throughput and minimize interference. The scheme uses constrained optimization for throughput maximization and interference control. It is also enhanced by learning mechanism to reduce the optimization complexity and improve the decision-making quality. Our evaluation results show that our scheme achieved significant improvements in throughput and LTE system capacity. Results also show the improvement in the user satisfaction over other techniques in LTE RRM.

  4. Emergence and Evolution of Cooperation Under Resource Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, María; Zurro, Débora; Santos, José I.; Briz I Godino, Ivan; Álvarez, Myrian; Caro, Jorge; Galán, José M.

    2017-03-01

    We study the influence that resource availability has on cooperation in the context of hunter-gatherer societies. This paper proposes a model based on archaeological and ethnographic research on resource stress episodes, which exposes three different cooperative regimes according to the relationship between resource availability in the environment and population size. The most interesting regime represents moderate survival stress in which individuals coordinate in an evolutionary way to increase the probabilities of survival and reduce the risk of failing to meet the minimum needs for survival. Populations self-organise in an indirect reciprocity system in which the norm that emerges is to share the part of the resource that is not strictly necessary for survival, thereby collectively lowering the chances of starving. Our findings shed further light on the emergence and evolution of cooperation in hunter-gatherer societies.

  5. Radio Resource Management for V2V Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Beatriz Soret; Gatnau, Marta; Kovács, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    Big expectations are put into vehicular communications (V2X) for a safer and more intelligent driving. With human lives at risk, the system cannot afford to fail, which translates into very stringent reliability and latency requirements to the radio network. One of the challenges is to find...... efficient radio resource management (RRM) strategies for direct vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication that can fulfil the requirements even with high traffic density. In cellular networks, a device-to-device (D2D) communication is usually split into two phases: the discovery process, for node awareness...... of each other; and the communication phase itself, where data exchange takes place. In the case of V2V, the discovery phase can utilize the status information that cars broadcast periodically as the beacons to detect the presence of neighbouring cars. For the delivery of specific messages (e...

  6. Exact performance of cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radios with quantized information under imperfect reporting channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi

    2013-09-01

    Spectrum sensing is the first and main step for cognitive radio systems to achieve an efficient use of the spectrum. Cooperation among cognitive radio users is a technique employed to improve the sensing performance by exploiting the diversity between the sensing channels to overcome the fading and shadowing effects which allows reduction of miss-detection and false alarm probabilities. Information can be exchanged between cooperating users in different formats from the binary hard information to the full soft information. Quantized information has shown its efficiency as a trade-off between binary hard and full soft for other cooperative schemes, in this paper, we investigate the use of quantized information between cooperating cognitive users. We derive closed-form expressions of the cooperative average false alarm and detection probabilities over fading channels for a generalized system model with not necessarily identical average sensing Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and imperfect reporting channels. Numerical simulations allow us to conclude a tradeoff between the quantization size and the reporting energy in order to achieve the optimal cooperative error probability. Copyright © 2013 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc.

  7. Radio resource allocation over fading channels under statistical delay constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Le-Ngoc, Tho

    2017-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents radio resource allocation schemes for buffer-aided communications systems over fading channels under statistical delay constraints in terms of upper-bounded average delay or delay-outage probability. This Brief starts by considering a source-destination communications link with data arriving at the source transmission buffer. The first scenario, the joint optimal data admission control and power allocation problem for throughput maximization is considered, where the source is assumed to have a maximum power and an average delay constraints. The second scenario, optimal power allocation problems for energy harvesting (EH) communications systems under average delay or delay-outage constraints are explored, where the EH source harvests random amounts of energy from renewable energy sources, and stores the harvested energy in a battery during data transmission. Online resource allocation algorithms are developed when the statistical knowledge of the random channel fading, data arrivals...

  8. Interference Information Based Power Control for Cognitive Radio with Multi-Hop Cooperative Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Youngjin; Murata, Hidekazu; Yamamoto, Koji; Yoshida, Susumu

    Reliable detection of other radio systems is crucial for systems that share the same frequency band. In wireless communication channels, there is uncertainty in the received signal level due to multipath fading and shadowing. Cooperative sensing techniques in which radio stations share their sensing information can improve the detection probability of other systems. In this paper, a new cooperative sensing scheme that reduces the false detection probability while maintaining the outage probability of other systems is investigated. In the proposed system, sensing information is collected using multi-hop transmission from all sensing stations that detect other systems, and transmission decisions are based on the received sensing information. The proposed system also controls the transmit power based on the received CINRs from the sensing stations. Simulation results reveal that the proposed system can reduce the outage probability of other systems, or improve its link success probability.

  9. Assessment of Cooperative and Heterogeneous Indoor Localization Algorithms with Real Radio Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Noureddine, Hadi; Amiot, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present results of real-life local- ization experiments performed in an unprecedented cooperative and heterogeneous wireless context. The experiments covered measurements of different radio devices packed together on a trolley, emulating a multi-standard Mobile Terminal (MT) along...... representative trajectories in a crowded office environment. Among all the radio access technologies involved in this campaign (including LTE, WiFi...), the focus is herein put mostly on Impulse Radio - Ultra Wideband (IR-UWB) and ZigBee sub-systems, which are enabled with peer-to-peer ranging capabilities based...... on Time of Arrival (ToA) estimation and Received Signal Strength (RSS) measurements respectively. Single-link model parameters are preliminarily drawn and discussed. In comparison with existing similar campaigns, new algorithms are also applied to the measurement data, showing the interest of advanced de...

  10. Modeling and performance analysis of cooperative communications in cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khabazian, Mehdi

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of a network comprised of a primary user and a secondary user with the latter having cognitive radio capabilities. The secondary node uses the empty slots of the primary user to transmit its own traffic as well as to relay the primary\\'s traffic in a cooperative fashion. Taking a queuing theory approach, we find the probability generating functions of the numbers of packets in the queues of the primary and secondary users. Subsequently, we determine a number of performance measures such as the average queues\\' lengths, average packet transmission delays and secondary user\\'s queue surcharge due to cooperation. The numerical results along with the simulations show the importance of controlling the number of primary user packets admitted by the secondary user for cooperation and its impacts on the other performance measures. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Northeast Asian economy cooperation: study on energy resource cooperation in Northeast Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Woo Jin [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In Northeast Asian region, there are East Russia with abundant resources, Japan a large energy consumption country, Korea and China with rapidly increasing energy consumption due to their economic development, but the utilization rate of East Russian resources are very low and the resource trading and investment among Korea, China and Japan are also low. Korea and Japan use most of energy imported from Middle East. It is expected that import of petroleum and gas except coal will be increasing in China and most of imported energy will be imported mainly from the Middle East. For Korea, with not much energy resources and foreign-oriented economic system, if investment on resource development among Northeast Asian countries is active and energy transportation among these countries is liberalized, the enhancement of energy cooperation in Northeast Asia has a high possibility to provide North and South Korean energy cooperation as well as to secure energy security and to develop energy industry. Therefore, Korean government needs to promote Northeast Asian energy cooperation by taking its lead. (author). 28 refs., 8 figs., 44 tabs.

  12. Location-Based Resource Allocation for OFDMA Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ghorbel, Mahdi

    2011-05-01

    Cognitive radio is one of the hot topics for emerging and future wireless communication. It has been proposed as a suitable solution for the spectrum scarcity caused by the increase in frequency demand. The concept is based on allowing unlicensed users, called cognitive or secondary users, to share the unoccupied frequency bands with their owners, called the primary users, under constraints on the interference they cause to them. In order to estimate this interference, the cognitive system usually uses the channel state information to the primary user, which is often impractical to obtain. However, we propose to use location information, which is easier to obtain, to estimate this interference. The purpose of this work is to propose a subchannel and power allocation method which maximizes the secondary users\\' total capacity under the constraints of limited budget power and total interference to the primary under certain threshold. We model the problem as a constrained optimization problem for both downlink and uplink cases. Then, we propose low-complexity resource allocation schemes based on the waterfilling algorithm. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed method with comparison to the exhaustive search algorithm.

  13. Optimal resource allocation solutions for heterogeneous cognitive radio networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Awoyemi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio networks (CRN are currently gaining immense recognition as the most-likely next-generation wireless communication paradigm, because of their enticing promise of mitigating the spectrum scarcity and/or underutilisation challenge. Indisputably, for this promise to ever materialise, CRN must of necessity devise appropriate mechanisms to judiciously allocate their rather scarce or limited resources (spectrum and others among their numerous users. ‘Resource allocation (RA in CRN', which essentially describes mechanisms that can effectively and optimally carry out such allocation, so as to achieve the utmost for the network, has therefore recently become an important research focus. However, in most research works on RA in CRN, a highly significant factor that describes a more realistic and practical consideration of CRN has been ignored (or only partially explored, i.e., the aspect of the heterogeneity of CRN. To address this important aspect, in this paper, RA models that incorporate the most essential concepts of heterogeneity, as applicable to CRN, are developed and the imports of such inclusion in the overall networking are investigated. Furthermore, to fully explore the relevance and implications of the various heterogeneous classifications to the RA formulations, weights are attached to the different classes and their effects on the network performance are studied. In solving the developed complex RA problems for heterogeneous CRN, a solution approach that examines and exploits the structure of the problem in achieving a less-complex reformulation, is extensively employed. This approach, as the results presented show, makes it possible to obtain optimal solutions to the rather difficult RA problems of heterogeneous CRN.

  14. Environmental monitoring and cooperative resource management at the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This poster session by the Environmental Monitoring Section of the US DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is to demonstrate that the DOE is committed to sound environmental management. This WIPP poster session demonstrates radiological as well as nonradiological environmental monitoring activities conducted routinely at the WIPP. And how data collected prior to the WIPP being operational is used to establish a preoperational baseline for environmental studies in which the samples collected during the operational phase will be compared. Cooperative Resource Management is a relatively new concept for governments agencies. It allows two or more agencies the ability to jointly share in funding a program or project and yet both agencies can benefit from the outcome. These programs are usually a biological type study. The WIPP cooperative agreement between the US BLM, DOE and its contractors is to continue the ongoing documentation of the diversity of the Chihuahuan desert

  15. Equal gain combining for cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hamza, Doha R.

    2014-08-01

    Sensing with equal gain combining (SEGC), a novel cooperative spectrum sensing technique for cognitive radio networks, is proposed. Cognitive radios simultaneously transmit their sensing results to the fusion center (FC) over multipath fading reporting channels. The cognitive radios estimate the phases of the reporting channels and use those estimates for coherent combining of the sensing results at the FC. A global decision is made at the FC by comparing the received signal with a threshold. We obtain the global detection probabilities and secondary throughput exactly through a moment generating function approach. We verify our solution via system simulation and demonstrate that the Chernoff bound and central limit theory approximation are not tight. The cases of hard sensing and soft sensing are considered and we provide examples in which hard sensing is advantageous to soft sensing. We contrast the performance of SEGC with maximum ratio combining of the sensors\\' results and provide examples where the former is superior. Furthermore, we evaluate the performance of SEGC against existing orthogonal reporting techniques such as time division multiple access (TDMA). SEGC performance always dominates that of TDMA in terms of secondary throughput. We also study the impact of phase and synchronization errors and demonstrate the robustness of the SEGC technique against such imperfections. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  16. Heterogeneous game resource distributions promote cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guang-Hai; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Yan-Cun; Tian, Sheng-Wen; Yue, Jun

    2018-01-01

    In social networks, individual abilities to establish interactions are always heterogeneous and independent of the number of topological neighbors. We here study the influence of heterogeneous distributions of abilities on the evolution of individual cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. First, we introduced a prisoner's dilemma game, taking into account individual heterogeneous abilities to establish games, which are determined by the owned game resources. Second, we studied three types of game resource distributions that follow the power-law property. Simulation results show that the heterogeneous distribution of individual game resources can promote cooperation effectively, and the heterogeneous level of resource distributions has a positive influence on the maintenance of cooperation. Extensive analysis shows that cooperators with large resource capacities can foster cooperator clusters around themselves. Furthermore, when the temptation to defect is high, cooperator clusters in which the central pure cooperators have larger game resource capacities are more stable than other cooperator clusters.

  17. Sophisticated Online Learning Scheme for Green Resource Allocation in 5G Heterogeneous Cloud Radio Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail; Shihada, Basem

    2018-01-01

    is implemented using two approaches: centralized, where the resource allocation is processed at a controller integrated with the baseband processing unit and decentralized, where macro BSs cooperate to achieve optimal resource allocation strategy. To foster

  18. Location-based resource allocation for OFDMA cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon; Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    In cognitive radio systems, in order for the secondary users to opportunistically share the spectrum without interfering the primary users, an accurate spectrum measurement and a precise estimation of the interference at the primary users

  19. Adaptive multi-objective Optimization scheme for cognitive radio resource management

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail; Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-01

    configuration by exploiting optimization and machine learning techniques. In this paper, we propose an Adaptive Multi-objective Optimization Scheme (AMOS) for cognitive radio resource management to improve spectrum operation and network performance

  20. Scalable and Hybrid Radio Resource Management for Future Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mino, E.; Luo, Jijun; Tragos, E.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of ubiquitous and scalable system is applied in the IST WINNER II [1] project to deliver optimum performance for different deployment scenarios, from local area to wide area wireless networks. The integration in a unique radio system of a cellular and local area type networks supposes...... a great advantage for the final user and for the operator, compared with the current situation, with disconnected systems, usually with different subscriptions, radio interfaces and terminals. To be a ubiquitous wireless system, the IST project WINNER II has defined three system modes. This contribution...

  1. Promotion of Bilateral Cooperative Programs in Nuclear Human Resources Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Nam, Y. M.

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this project is strengthening of bilateral cooperation with those countries for sharing Korea's technology, and providing of education and training on Korean experience regarding national nuclear policy, technology self reliance, and technology itself, in the field of nuclear power generation and the application of radioisotopes and radiation. This project covers an analysis on the need of nuclear human resource development in countries having interest in the introduction of nuclear power and/or promotion of the use of nuclear energy, and provision of courses on 'nuclear power policy, planning and management' and 'design and operation of nuclear research reactor, and application of radiation technology' along with the country specific needs. Education and training of key members in nuclear energy development from Egypt: It was implemented through bilateral cooperation and support by KOICA program. The first part, which targeted staff members from Egypt Nuclear Commission, was held for 2 months providing a KOICA course on policy, planning and management for nuclear power project, and second part was on the job training in Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power and Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, KAERI respectively. On the job training of 1 scientist from Vietnam was implemented on the basis of bilateral cooperation in a research laboratory on radioactive waste treatment technology, at KAERI. Education and training for scientists from South East RCA countries were carried out for 11 participants from Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, China, Pakistan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Bangladesh. The course dealt with nuclear research reactor and radiation application technology. Development of nuclear education and training programs for key persons involved in nuclear power projects from countries of Middle East: The developed program consists of 15 courses addressing 3 technical levels, i.e. high level policy makers, middle level project implementers, and beginners

  2. Promotion of Bilateral Cooperative Programs in Nuclear Human Resources Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Nam, Y. M. (and others)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of this project is strengthening of bilateral cooperation with those countries for sharing Korea's technology, and providing of education and training on Korean experience regarding national nuclear policy, technology self reliance, and technology itself, in the field of nuclear power generation and the application of radioisotopes and radiation. This project covers an analysis on the need of nuclear human resource development in countries having interest in the introduction of nuclear power and/or promotion of the use of nuclear energy, and provision of courses on 'nuclear power policy, planning and management' and 'design and operation of nuclear research reactor, and application of radiation technology' along with the country specific needs. Education and training of key members in nuclear energy development from Egypt: It was implemented through bilateral cooperation and support by KOICA program. The first part, which targeted staff members from Egypt Nuclear Commission, was held for 2 months providing a KOICA course on policy, planning and management for nuclear power project, and second part was on the job training in Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power and Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, KAERI respectively. On the job training of 1 scientist from Vietnam was implemented on the basis of bilateral cooperation in a research laboratory on radioactive waste treatment technology, at KAERI. Education and training for scientists from South East RCA countries were carried out for 11 participants from Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, China, Pakistan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Bangladesh. The course dealt with nuclear research reactor and radiation application technology. Development of nuclear education and training programs for key persons involved in nuclear power projects from countries of Middle East: The developed program consists of 15 courses addressing 3 technical levels, i.e. high level policy makers, middle level project

  3. Human resources for health: global crisis and international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Gustavo Zoio; Fehn, Amanda Cavada; Ungerer, Regina Lucia Sarmento; Poz, Mario Roberto Dal

    2017-07-01

    From the 1990s onwards, national economies became connected and globalized. Changes in the demographic and epidemiological profile of the population highlighted the need for further discussions and strategies on Human Resources for Health (HRH). The health workforce crisis is a worldwide phenomenon. It includes: difficulties in attracting and retaining health professionals to work in rural and remote areas, poor distribution and high turnover of health staff particularly physicians, poor training of health workforces in new sanitation and demographic conditions and the production of scientific evidence to support HRH decision making, policy management, programs and interventions. In this scenario, technical cooperation activities may contribute to the development of the countries involved, strengthening relationships and expanding exchanges as well as contributing to the production, dissemination and use of technical scientific knowledge and evidence and the training of workers and institutional strengthening. This article aims to explore this context highlighting the participation of Brazil in the international cooperation arena on HRH and emphasizing the role of the World Health Organization in confronting this crisis that limits the ability of countries and their health systems to improve the health and lives of their populations.

  4. Secure Cooperative Spectrum Sensing for the Cognitive Radio Network Using Nonuniform Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both reliable detection of the primary signal in a noisy and fading environment and nullifying the effect of unauthorized users are important tasks in cognitive radio networks. To address these issues, we consider a cooperative spectrum sensing approach where each user is assigned nonuniform reliability based on the sensing performance. Users with poor channel or faulty sensor are assigned low reliability. The nonuniform reliabilities serve as identification tags and are used to isolate users with malicious behavior. We consider a link layer attack similar to the Byzantine attack, which falsifies the spectrum sensing data. Three different strategies are presented in this paper to ignore unreliable and malicious users in the network. Considering only reliable users for global decision improves sensing time and decreases collisions in the control channel. The fusion center uses the degree of reliability as a weighting factor to determine the global decision in scheme I. Schemes II and III consider the unreliability of users, which makes the computations even simpler. The proposed schemes reduce the number of sensing reports and increase the inference accuracy. The advantages of our proposed schemes over conventional cooperative spectrum sensing and the Chair-Varshney optimum rule are demonstrated through simulations.

  5. Overview of Radio Resource Management (RRM) issues in multi-radio access systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorguseski, L.; Prasad, R.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of multi-radio access networks is currently considered as a strong candidate for the next generation wireless access networks. This concept incorporates conventional cellular networks such as GERAN or UTRAN for wide area coverage while local-area networks such as IEEE 802.11, HIPERLAN/2,

  6. Restoration of abandoned mine lands through cooperative coal resource evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, D.M.; Smith, M.

    1996-01-01

    The public reclamation cost of reclaiming all of Pennsylvania's abandoned mine lands is estimated at $15 billion. Drainage from abandoned mines poses another $5 billion water pollution clean-up problem. Although it is unlikely that public reclamation alone could ever tackle these problems, much can be done to alleviate the nuisances through the remining of previously mined areas to recover remaining reserves, restore the land and improve water quality in the same process. Remining of priority areas is encouraged through a new Pennsylvania policy which provides incentives to mining companies. One incentive, initiated under Pennsylvania's comprehensive mine reclamation strategy, is to identify and geologically map reminable coal resources in selected watersheds, and then to expedite mine permitting in these watersheds. At present, two such priority watersheds, Little Toby Creek in Elk County and Tangascootak Creek in Clinton County, are the focus of geologic map compilation based on recent quadrangle mapping, or new, directed, geologic mapping, including new research core drilling to establish the geologic stratigraphic framework. In order to maximize environmental benefits the comprehensive mine reclamation strategy identifies watersheds which are affected by acid mine drainage (AMD), but that are reasonably capable of restoration, if sufficient coal reserves remain. Pennsylvania's geochemical quality database of rock overburden, in combination with detailed coal resource mapping by the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, and the cooperation of coal companies and leaseholders, is being used by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to identify and design remining projects which will not only allow the recovery of coal resources, but will also improve the water quality through a variety of innovative mining techniques

  7. Analytical Frameworks of Cooperative and Cognitive Radio Systems with Practical Considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2013-08-01

    Cooperative and cognitive radio systems have been proposed as a solution to improve the quality-of-service (QoS) and spectrum efficiency of existing communication systems. The objective of this dissertation is to propose and analyze schemes for cooperative and cognitive radio systems considering real world scenarios and to make these technologies implementable. In most of the research on cooperative relaying, it has been assumed that the communicating nodes have perfect channel state information (CSI). However, in reality, this is not the case and the nodes may only have an estimate of the CSI or partial knowledge of the CSI. Thus, in this dissertation, depending on the amount of CSI available, novel receivers are proposed to improve the performance of amplify-and forward relaying. Specifically, new coherent receivers are derived which do not perform channel estimation at the destination by using the received pilot signals directly for decoding. The derived receivers are based on new metrics that use distribution of the channels and the noise to achieve improved symbol-error-rate (SER) performance. The SER performance of the derived receivers is further improved by utilizing the decision history in the receivers. In cases where receivers with low complexity are desired, novel non-coherent receiver which detects the signal without knowledge of CSI is proposed. In addition, new receivers are proposed for the situation when only partial CSI is available at the destination i.e. channel knowledge of either the source-relay link or the relay-destination link but not both, is available. These receivers are termed as `half-coherent receivers\\' since they have channel-state-information of only one of the two links in the system. In practical systems, the CSI at the communicating terminals becomes outdated due to the time varying nature of the channel and results in system performance degradation. In this dissertation, the impact of using outdated CSI for relay selection on

  8. Study on the Flexibility in Cross-Border Water Resources Cooperation Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zongrui; Wang, Teng; Zhou, Li

    2018-02-01

    Flexible strategy is very important to cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources, which may be employed to reconcile contradictions and ease conflicts. Flexible characters of cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources could be analyzed and revealed, using flexible strategic management framework, by taking international cooperation protocols related to water from Transboundary Freshwater Disputes Database (TFDD) as samples from the number of cooperation issues, the amount of management layers and regulator agencies in cooperation organization and the categories of income (cost) distribution (allocation) mode. The research demonstrates that there are some flexible features of cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources: Riparian countries would select relative diversification strategies related to water, tend to construct a flexible cooperation organization featured with moderate hierarchies from vertical perspective and simplified administrations from horizontal perspective, and adopt selective inducement modes to respect ‘joint and several liability’.

  9. Achievable Rates of UAV-Relayed Cooperative Cognitive Radio MIMO Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Ghazzai, Hakim; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    We study the achievable rate of an uplink MIMO cognitive radio system where the primary user (PU) and the secondary user (SU) aim to communicate to the closest primary base station (BS) via a multi-access channel through the same unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) relay. The SU message is then forwarded from the primary BS to the secondary network with a certain incentive reward as a part of the cooperation protocol between both networks. A special linear precoding scheme is proposed to enable the SU to exploit the PU free eigenmodes. We analyze two scenarios in which the UAV relay gain matrix is either fixed or optimized. We derive the optimal power allocation that maximizes the achievable rate of the SU respecting power budget, interference, and relay power constraints. Numerical results highlight the cognitive rate gain of our proposed scheme with respect to various problem parameters. We also highlight the effect of UAV altitude on the SU and PU rates. Finally, when the relay matrix is optimized, we show that the PU rate is remarkably enhanced and that the SU rate is only improved at high power regime.

  10. Achievable Rates of UAV-Relayed Cooperative Cognitive Radio MIMO Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2017-04-19

    We study the achievable rate of an uplink MIMO cognitive radio system where the primary user (PU) and the secondary user (SU) aim to communicate to the closest primary base station (BS) via a multi-access channel through the same unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) relay. The SU message is then forwarded from the primary BS to the secondary network with a certain incentive reward as a part of the cooperation protocol between both networks. A special linear precoding scheme is proposed to enable the SU to exploit the PU free eigenmodes. We analyze two scenarios in which the UAV relay gain matrix is either fixed or optimized. We derive the optimal power allocation that maximizes the achievable rate of the SU respecting power budget, interference, and relay power constraints. Numerical results highlight the cognitive rate gain of our proposed scheme with respect to various problem parameters. We also highlight the effect of UAV altitude on the SU and PU rates. Finally, when the relay matrix is optimized, we show that the PU rate is remarkably enhanced and that the SU rate is only improved at high power regime.

  11. Resource configuration and abundance affect space use of a cooperatively breeding resident bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Stanton; Dylan C. Kesler; Frank R. Thompson III

    2014-01-01

    Movement and space use of birds is driven by activities associated with acquiring and maintaining access to critical resources. Thus, the spatial configuration of resources within home ranges should influence bird movements, and resource values should be relative to their locations. We radio-tracked 22 Brown-headed Nuthatches (Sitta pusilla) and...

  12. Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie

    2012-01-01

    Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm is proposed, and a fitness function is provided. Simulations are conducted using the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm, the simulated annealing algorithm, the quantum genetic algorithm and the simple genetic algorithm, respectively. The results show that the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm performs better than the other three algorithms in terms of the multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation, and has quick convergence speed and strong global searching capability, which effectively reduces the system power consumption and bit error rate. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  13. Green Networking in Cellular HetNets: A Unified Radio Resource Management Framework with Base Station ON/OFF Switching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2016-12-07

    In this paper, the problem of energy efficiency in cellular heterogeneous networks (HetNets) is investigated using radio resource and power management combined with the base station (BS) ON/OFF switching. The objective is to minimize the total power consumption of the network while satisfying the quality of service (QoS) requirements of each connected user. We consider the case of co-existing macrocell BS, small cell BSs, and private femtocell access points (FAPs). Three different network scenarios are investigated, depending on the status of the FAPs, i.e., HetNets without FAPs, HetNets with closed FAPs, and HetNets with semi-closed FAPs. A unified framework is proposed to simultaneously allocate spectrum resources to users in an energy efficient manner and switch off redundant small cell BSs. The high complexity dual decomposition technique is employed to achieve optimal solutions for the problem. A low complexity iterative algorithm is also proposed and its performances are compared to those of the optimal technique. The particularly interesting case of semi-closed FAPs, in which the FAPs accept to serve external users, achieves the highest energy efficiency due to increased degrees of freedom. In this paper, a cooperation scheme between FAPs and mobile operator is also investigated. The incentives for FAPs, e.g., renewable energy sharing and roaming prices, enabling cooperation are discussed to be considered as a useful guideline for inter-operator agreements.

  14. Green Networking in Cellular HetNets: A Unified Radio Resource Management Framework with Base Station ON/OFF Switching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim; Farooq, Muhammad Junaid; Alsharoa, Ahmad; Yaacoub, Elias; Kadri, Abdullah; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of energy efficiency in cellular heterogeneous networks (HetNets) is investigated using radio resource and power management combined with the base station (BS) ON/OFF switching. The objective is to minimize the total power consumption of the network while satisfying the quality of service (QoS) requirements of each connected user. We consider the case of co-existing macrocell BS, small cell BSs, and private femtocell access points (FAPs). Three different network scenarios are investigated, depending on the status of the FAPs, i.e., HetNets without FAPs, HetNets with closed FAPs, and HetNets with semi-closed FAPs. A unified framework is proposed to simultaneously allocate spectrum resources to users in an energy efficient manner and switch off redundant small cell BSs. The high complexity dual decomposition technique is employed to achieve optimal solutions for the problem. A low complexity iterative algorithm is also proposed and its performances are compared to those of the optimal technique. The particularly interesting case of semi-closed FAPs, in which the FAPs accept to serve external users, achieves the highest energy efficiency due to increased degrees of freedom. In this paper, a cooperation scheme between FAPs and mobile operator is also investigated. The incentives for FAPs, e.g., renewable energy sharing and roaming prices, enabling cooperation are discussed to be considered as a useful guideline for inter-operator agreements.

  15. Competitive debate classroom as a cooperative learning technique for the human resources subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. SANCHEZ PRIETO

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows an academic debate model as a cooperative learning technique for teaching human resources at University. The general objective of this paper is to conclude if academic debate can be included in the category of cooperative learning. The Specific objective it is presenting a model to implement this technique. Thus the first part of the paper shows the concept of cooperative learning and its main characteristics. The second part presents the debate model believed to be labelled as cooperative learning. Last part concludes with the characteristics of the model that match different aspects or not of the cooperative learning.

  16. Learning Frameworks for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing and Energy-Efficient Data Protection in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinh Quang Do

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies learning frameworks for energy-efficient data communications in an energy-harvesting cognitive radio network in which secondary users (SUs harvest energy from solar power while opportunistically accessing a licensed channel for data transmission. The SUs perform spectrum sensing individually, and send local decisions about the presence of the primary user (PU on the channel to a fusion center (FC. We first design a new cooperative spectrum-sensing technique based on a convolutional neural network in which the FC uses historical sensing data to train the network for classification problem. The system is assumed to operate in a time-slotted manner. At the beginning of each time slot, the FC uses the current local decisions as input for the trained network to decide whether the PU is active or not in that time slot. In addition, legitimate transmissions can be vulnerable to a hidden eavesdropper, which always passively listens to the communication. Therefore, we further propose a transfer learning actor–critic algorithm for an SU to decide its operation mode to increase the security level under the constraint of limited energy. In this approach, the SU directly interacts with the environment to learn its dynamics (i.e., an arrival of harvested energy; then, the SU can either stay idle to save energy or transmit to the FC secured data that are encrypted using a suitable private-key encryption method to maximize the long-term effective security level of the network. We finally present numerical simulation results under various configurations to evaluate our proposed schemes.

  17. Integrated Common Radio Resource Management with Spectrum Aggregation over Non-Contiguous Frequency Bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabral, Orlando; Meucci, Filippo; Mihovska, Albena D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an integrated Common Radio Resource Management (iCRRM). The iCRRM performs classic CRRM functionalities jointly with Spectrum Aggregation (SA), being able to switch users between non-contiguous frequency bands. The SA scheduling is obtained with an optimised General Multi...

  18. Cooperative institutions for sustainable common pool resource management: Application to groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Kaveh; Dinar, Ariel

    2012-09-01

    Beneficiaries of common pool resources (CPRs) may select available noncooperative and regulatory exogenous institutions for managing the resource, as well as cooperative management institutions. All these institutions may increase the long-term gains, prolong the life of the resource, and help to escape the tragedy of the commons trap. Cooperative game theory approaches can serve as the backbone of cooperative CPR management institutions. This paper formulates and applies several commonly used cooperative game theoretic solution concepts, namely, the core, Nash-Harsanyi, Shapley, and nucleolus. Through a numerical groundwater example, we show how CPR users can share the gains obtained from cooperation in a fair and efficient manner based on these cooperative solution concepts (management institutions). Although, based on their fairness rationales, various cooperative management institutions may suggest different allocations that are potentially acceptable to the users, these allocation solutions may not be stable as some users may find them unfair. This paper discusses how different methods, such as application of the plurality rule and power index, stability index, and propensity to disrupt concepts, can help identify the most stable and likely solutions for enforcing cooperation among the CPR beneficiaries. Furthermore, how the noncooperative managerial characteristics of the CPR users can affect the stability and acceptability of the different cooperative CPR management institutions is discussed, providing valuable policy insights for cooperative CPR management at community levels.

  19. Resource allocation for relay assisted cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-09-16

    In this paper, we present two optimal resource allocation schemes that maximize throughput and symbol correct rate (SCR). The throughput and SCR are derived. The derived throughput and SCR are optimized with respect to the sensing time, the source transmission power and the relay transmission power. Numerical results show that the optimal sensing time is dependent on the primary user\\'s signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). They also show that SCR increases with increase in the number of relays. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Cooper and Eromanga Basins, Australia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2016-05-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean conventional resources of 68 million barrels of oil and 964 billion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper and Eromanga Basins of Australia.

  1. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the Cooper Basin, Australia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2016-07-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean continuous resources of 482 million barrels of oil and 29.8 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper Basin of Australia.

  2. Transboundary Water Resources in Southern Africa: Conflict or cooperation?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Patrick, MJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature suggests a linkage between internationally shared water resources and conflict potential. Anthony R. Turton, Marian J. Patrick and Frederic Julien examine transboundary water resource management in southern Africa, showing that empirical...

  3. Strategic Human Resources Management of Employer Cooperative Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Richard P.; Porter, Ralph C.

    1982-01-01

    This article discusses effective strategic planning and management of employer cooperative education programs. It examines types of planning, the need for such programs, and implementation strategies. Several case studies are considered: Dayton-Hudson, IBM, AT&T, Delta Airlines, and Rockwell International. (CT)

  4. Adaptive multi-objective Optimization scheme for cognitive radio resource management

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive Radio is an intelligent Software Defined Radio that is capable to alter its transmission parameters according to predefined objectives and wireless environment conditions. Cognitive engine is the actuator that performs radio parameters configuration by exploiting optimization and machine learning techniques. In this paper, we propose an Adaptive Multi-objective Optimization Scheme (AMOS) for cognitive radio resource management to improve spectrum operation and network performance. The optimization relies on adapting radio transmission parameters to environment conditions using constrained optimization modeling called fitness functions in an iterative manner. These functions include minimizing power consumption, Bit Error Rate, delay and interference. On the other hand, maximizing throughput and spectral efficiency. Cross-layer optimization is exploited to access environmental parameters from all TCP/IP stack layers. AMOS uses adaptive Genetic Algorithm in terms of its parameters and objective weights as the vehicle of optimization. The proposed scheme has demonstrated quick response and efficiency in three different scenarios compared to other schemes. In addition, it shows its capability to optimize the performance of TCP/IP layers as whole not only the physical layer.

  5. Crowd-Funding: A New Resource Cooperation Mode for Mobile Cloud Computing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    Full Text Available Mobile cloud computing, which integrates the cloud computing techniques into the mobile environment, is regarded as one of the enabler technologies for 5G mobile wireless networks. There are many sporadic spare resources distributed within various devices in the networks, which can be used to support mobile cloud applications. However, these devices, with only a few spare resources, cannot support some resource-intensive mobile applications alone. If some of them cooperate with each other and share their resources, then they can support many applications. In this paper, we propose a resource cooperative provision mode referred to as "Crowd-funding", which is designed to aggregate the distributed devices together as the resource provider of mobile applications. Moreover, to facilitate high-efficiency resource management via dynamic resource allocation, different resource providers should be selected to form a stable resource coalition for different requirements. Thus, considering different requirements, we propose two different resource aggregation models for coalition formation. Finally, we may allocate the revenues based on their attributions according to the concept of the "Shapley value" to enable a more impartial revenue share among the cooperators. It is shown that a dynamic and flexible resource-management method can be developed based on the proposed Crowd-funding model, relying on the spare resources in the network.

  6. Crowd-Funding: A New Resource Cooperation Mode for Mobile Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Min; Sun, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Mobile cloud computing, which integrates the cloud computing techniques into the mobile environment, is regarded as one of the enabler technologies for 5G mobile wireless networks. There are many sporadic spare resources distributed within various devices in the networks, which can be used to support mobile cloud applications. However, these devices, with only a few spare resources, cannot support some resource-intensive mobile applications alone. If some of them cooperate with each other and share their resources, then they can support many applications. In this paper, we propose a resource cooperative provision mode referred to as "Crowd-funding", which is designed to aggregate the distributed devices together as the resource provider of mobile applications. Moreover, to facilitate high-efficiency resource management via dynamic resource allocation, different resource providers should be selected to form a stable resource coalition for different requirements. Thus, considering different requirements, we propose two different resource aggregation models for coalition formation. Finally, we may allocate the revenues based on their attributions according to the concept of the "Shapley value" to enable a more impartial revenue share among the cooperators. It is shown that a dynamic and flexible resource-management method can be developed based on the proposed Crowd-funding model, relying on the spare resources in the network.

  7. Secure Cooperative Spectrum Sensing via a Novel User-Classification Scheme in Cognitive Radios for Future Communication Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Future communication networks would be required to deliver data on a far greater scale than is known to us today, thus mandating the maximal utilization of the available radio spectrum using cognitive radios. In this paper, we have proposed a novel cooperative spectrum sensing approach for cognitive radios. In cooperative spectrum sensing, the fusion center relies on reports of the cognitive users to make a global decision. The global decision is obtained by assigning weights to the reports received from cognitive users. Computation of such weights requires prior information of the probability of detection and the probability of false alarms, which are not readily available in real scenarios. Further, the cognitive users are divided into reliable and unreliable categories based on their weighted energy by using some empirical threshold. In this paper, we propose a method to classify the cognitive users into reliable, neutral and unreliable categories without using any pre-defined or empirically-obtained threshold. Moreover, the computation of weights does not require the detection, or false alarm probabilities, or an estimate of these probabilities. Reliable cognitive users are assigned the highest weights; neutral cognitive users are assigned medium weights (less than the reliable and higher than the unreliable cognitive users’ weights; and unreliable users are assigned the least weights. We show the performance improvement of our proposed method through simulations by comparing it with the conventional cooperative spectrum sensing scheme through different metrics, like receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and mean square error. For clarity, we also show the effect of malicious users on detection probability and false alarm probability individually through simulations.

  8. Discrete rate resource allocation for OFDMA cognitive radio systems with location information

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi; Nam, Haewoon; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a resource allocation algorithm based on location information for cognitive radio systems. The location information allows a practical implementation of cognitive radio systems when the channel state knowledge of the interference links with the primary users is not available. Using this information and measurements, the secondary users estimate the pathloss between the secondary and primary users to avoid interfering the primary users while sharing the frequency bands. The major improvement in this paper is low-complex algorithms for downlink and uplink resource allocations with integer bit distributions, where collocated subchannel constraint is considered in uplink case. We show, through numerical simulations, that for the downlink case, the proposed algorithm is indeed optimal while for the uplink case, it is near-optimal. ©2010 IEEE.

  9. Game theoretic wireless resource allocation for H.264 MGS video transmission over cognitive radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkoulis, Alexandros; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a method for the fair and efficient allocation of wireless resources over a cognitive radio system network to transmit multiple scalable video streams to multiple users. The method exploits the dynamic architecture of the Scalable Video Coding extension of the H.264 standard, along with the diversity that OFDMA networks provide. We use a game-theoretic Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) framework to ensure that each user receives the minimum video quality requirements, while maintaining fairness over the cognitive radio system. An optimization problem is formulated, where the objective is the maximization of the Nash product while minimizing the waste of resources. The problem is solved by using a Swarm Intelligence optimizer, namely Particle Swarm Optimization. Due to the high dimensionality of the problem, we also introduce a dimension-reduction technique. Our experimental results demonstrate the fairness imposed by the employed NBS framework.

  10. Discrete rate resource allocation for OFDMA cognitive radio systems with location information

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we introduce a resource allocation algorithm based on location information for cognitive radio systems. The location information allows a practical implementation of cognitive radio systems when the channel state knowledge of the interference links with the primary users is not available. Using this information and measurements, the secondary users estimate the pathloss between the secondary and primary users to avoid interfering the primary users while sharing the frequency bands. The major improvement in this paper is low-complex algorithms for downlink and uplink resource allocations with integer bit distributions, where collocated subchannel constraint is considered in uplink case. We show, through numerical simulations, that for the downlink case, the proposed algorithm is indeed optimal while for the uplink case, it is near-optimal. ©2010 IEEE.

  11. Centralized Radio Resource Management for 5G small cells as LSA enabler

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Oscar; Miatton, Federico; Diaz, Salva; Herzog, Uwe; Frascolla, Valerio; Fitch, Michael; Briggs, Keith; Miscopein, Benoit; de Domenico, Antonio; Georgakopoulos, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The stringent requirements defined for 5G systems drive the need to promote new paradigms to the existing cellular networks. Dense and ultra-dense networks based on small cells, together with new spectrum sharing schemes seem to be key enabling technologies for emerging 5G mobile networks. This article explores the vision of the SPEED-5G project, analyzing the ability of a Centralized Radio Resource Management entity to support the Licensed Shared Access spectrum sharing framework in a deploy...

  12. Socially cooperative choices: An approach to achieving resource sustainability in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crance, Colin; Draper, Dianne

    1996-03-01

    Achieving resource sustainability, particularly in the coastal zone, is complicated by a variety of interdependencies and trade-offs between economic, social, and ecological variables. Although trade-offs between each of these variables are important, this paper emphasizes the social components of resource management. In this regard a distinction is made between individual and cooperative choices. Individual choices frequently are made from a shortterm, self-interested perspective, whereas cooperative choices are made from a long-term, community and resource-sustainability perspective. Typically, when presented with a spectrum of resource management decisions, individuals have a tendency to act in a self-interested manner. Thus, cooperative benefits, such as reduced conflict and improved resource certainty, are not realized. An overview of selected aspects of social dilemma theory suggests that socially cooperative choice outcomes are attainable in coastal zone management by integrating structural and behavioral solutions in resource use decision making. Three barriers to successful integration of structural and behavioral solutions are identified as self-interest, mistrust, and variable perceptions of resource amenities. Examples from coastal zone management indicate that these barriers may be overcome using approaches such as scopereduction, co-management, community education, and local participation. The paper also provides comment on the potential benefits of integrating structural and behavioral solutions in international coastal zone management efforts.

  13. From scorecard to social learning: a reflective coassessment approach for promoting multiagency cooperation in natural resource management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, DJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available resource management are usually confined to single organizations. This paper describes a social learning approach which acknowledges cooperation as an essential precondition for effective management and that encourages reflective coassessment of cooperative...

  14. Exact performance of cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radios with quantized information under imperfect reporting channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi; Nam, Haewoon; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    between the sensing channels to overcome the fading and shadowing effects which allows reduction of miss-detection and false alarm probabilities. Information can be exchanged between cooperating users in different formats from the binary hard information

  15. Primary user localisation and uplink resource allocation in orthogonal frequency division multiple access cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2015-05-21

    In cognitive radio networks, secondary users (SUs) can share spectrum with primary users (PUs) under the condition that no interference is caused to the PUs. To evaluate the interference imposed to the PUs, the cognitive systems discussed in the literature usually assume that the channel state information (CSI) of the link from a secondary transmitter to a primary receiver (interference link) is known at the secondary transmitter. However, this assumption may often be impractical in cognitive radio systems, since the PUs need to be oblivious to the presence of the SUs. The authors first discuss PU localisation and then introduce an uplink resource allocation algorithm for orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based cognitive radio systems, where relative location information between primary and SUs is used instead of CSI of the interference link to estimate the interference. Numerical and simulation results show that it is indeed effective to use location information as a part of resource allocation and thus a near-optimal capacity is achieved. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2015.

  16. Optimal resource assignment in workflows for maximizing cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Akhil; Dijkman, R.M.; Song, Minseok; Daniel, Fl.; Wang, J.; Weber, B.

    2013-01-01

    A workflow is a team process since many actors work on various tasks to complete an instance. Resource management in such workflows deals with assignment of tasks to workers or actors. In team formation, it is necessary to ensure that members of a team are compatible with each other. When a workflow

  17. Generalized location-based resource allocation for OFDMA cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi

    2010-09-01

    Cognitive radio is one of the hot topics for emerging and future wireless communication. Cognitive users can share channels with primary users under the condition of non interference. In order to compute this interference, the cognitive system usually use the channel state information of the primary user which is often impractical to obtain. However, using location information, we can estimate this interference by pathloss computation. In this paper, we introduce a low-complexity resource allocation algorithm for orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) based cognitive radio systems, which uses relative location information between primary and secondary users to estimate the interference. This algorithm considers interference with multiple primary users having different thresholds. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm by comparing it with an optimal exhaustive search method. © 2010 IEEE.

  18. Performance Analysis of Secondary Link with Cross-Layer Design and Cooperative Relay in Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Hao

    2012-06-01

    In this thesis, we investigate two different system infrastructures in underlay cognitive radio network, in which two popular techniques, cross-layer design and cooperative communication, are considered, respectively. In particular, we introduce the Aggressive Adaptive Modulation and Coding (A-AMC) into the cross-layer design and achieve the optimal boundary points in closed form to choose the AMC and A-AMC transmission modes by taking into account the Channel State Information (CSI) from the secondary transmitter to both the primary receiver and the secondary receiver. What’s more, for the cooperative communication design, we consider three different relay selection schemes: Partial Relay Selection, Opportunistic Relay Selection and Threshold Relay Selection. The Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of the Signal-to- Noise Ratio (SNR) in each hop for different selection schemes are provided, and then the exact closed-form expressions for the end-to-end packet loss rate in the secondary link considering the cooperation of the Decode-and-Forward (DF) relay for different relay selection schemes are derived.

  19. A Study on Governance and Human Resources for Cooperative Road Facilities Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Sachiko; Takagi, Akiyoshi; Kurauchi, Fumitaka; Demura, Yoshifumi

    Within today's infrastructure management, Asset Management systems are becoming a mainstream feature. For region where the risk is low, it is necessary to create a "cooperative road facilities management system". This research both examined and suggested what kind of cooperative road facilities management system should be promoted by the regional society. Concretely, this study defines the operational realities of a previous case. It discusses the problem of the road facilities management as a governance. Furthermore, its realization depends on "the cooperation between municipalities", "the private-sector initiative", and "residents participation" .Also, it discusses the problem of human resources for governance. Its realization depends on "the engineers' promotion", and "creation of a voluntary activity of the resident" as a human resources. Moreover, it defines that the intermediary is important because the human resources tied to the governance. As a result, the prospect of the road facilities management is shown by the role of the player and the relation among player.

  20. Efficient Radio Resource Allocation in a GSM and GPRS Cellular Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vannucci

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of various radio resource allocation strategies in a GSM/GPRS cellular network. The most efficient resource allocation is analysed as a function of the proportion of circuit switched voice and packet switched data load. The Grade of Service and average packet delay is investigated as a function of the load, packet size and call duration. Additionally, the feasibility of using voice over Internet Protocol as opposed to circuit switched voice is investigated as a means to increase subscriber capacity per base station. The work is motivated firstly by the complexity of having both circuit switched and packet switched connectivity on GSM/GPRS mobile cellular system and secondly that an exclusively packet based access on GSM/GPRS has the potential to increase the efficiency of resource utilisation by suitably varying the channel allocation to exploit the characteristics of voice and data traffic.

  1. Radio resource management for mobile traffic offloading in heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuan; Huang, Jianwei; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2017-01-01

    This SpringerBrief offers two concrete design examples for traffic offloading. The first is an optimal resource allocation for small-cell based traffic offloading that aims at minimizing mobile users’ data cost. The second is an optimal resource allocation for device-to-device assisted traffic offloading that also minimizes the total energy consumption and cellular link usage (while providing an overview of the challenging issues). Both examples illustrate the importance of proper resource allocation to the success of traffic offloading, show the consequent performance advantages of executing optimal resource allocation, and present the methodologies to achieve the corresponding optimal offloading solution for traffic offloading in heterogeneous cellular networks. The authors also include an overview of heterogeneous cellular networks and explain different traffic offloading paradigms ranging from uplink traffic offloading through small cells to downlink traffic offloading via mobile device-to-device cooper...

  2. Resource allocation in heterogeneous cloud radio access networks: advances and challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Dahrouj, Hayssam

    2015-06-01

    Base station densification is increasingly used by network operators to provide better throughput and coverage performance to mobile subscribers in dense data traffic areas. Such densification is progressively diffusing the move from traditional macrocell base stations toward heterogeneous networks with diverse cell sizes (e.g., microcell, picocell, femotcell) and diverse radio access technologies (e.g., GSM, CDMA), and LTE). The coexistence of the different network entities brings an additional set of challenges, particularly in terms of the provisioning of high-speed communications and the management of wireless interference. Resource sharing between different entities, largely incompatible in conventional systems due to the lack of interconnections, becomes a necessity. By connecting all the base stations from different tiers to a central processor (referred to as the cloud) through wire/wireline backhaul links, the heterogeneous cloud radio access network, H-CRAN, provides an open, simple, controllable, and flexible paradigm for resource allocation. This article discusses challenges and recent developments in H-CRAN design. It proposes promising resource allocation schemes in H-CRAN: coordinated scheduling, hybrid backhauling, and multicloud association. Simulations results show how the proposed strategies provide appreciable performance improvement compared to methods from recent literature. © 2015 IEEE.

  3. Relay selection and resource allocation for two-way DF-AF cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.; Bader, Faouzi; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, the problem of relay selection and optimal resource allocation for two-way relaying cognitive radio networks using half duplex amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward protocols is investigated. The primary and secondary users are assumed to access the spectrum simultaneously, in a way that the interference introduced to the primary users should be below a certain tolerated limit. Dual decomposition and subgradient methods are used to find the optimal power allocation. A suboptimal approach based on a genetic algorithm is also presented. Simulation results show that the proposed suboptimal algorithm offers a performance close to the optimal performance with a considerable complexity saving. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Abstract Radio Resource Management Framework for System Level Simulations in LTE-A Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Viering, Ingo; Zanier, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a simple mathematical model of different packet scheduling policies in Long Term Evolution- Advanced (LTE-A) systems, by investigating the performance of Proportional Fair (PF) and the generalized cross-Component Carrier scheduler from a theoretical perspective. For that purpose......, an abstract Radio Resource Management (RRM) framework has been developed and tested for different ratios of users with Carrier Aggregation (CA) capabilities. The conducted system level simulations confirm that the proposed model can satisfactorily capture the main properties of the aforementioned scheduling...

  5. Downlink Radio Resource Management for QoS Provisioning in OFDMA Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monghal, Guillaume Damien

    Admission Control solution for a realistic OFDMA based system in downlink where LTE is taken as a case study. In the frame of the thesis work, a detailed system model of LTE dedicated to Radio Resource Management study has been developed and implemented in a semi-static system level simulator. In a first...... phase, the study focuses on the dual time / frequency domain packet scheduling concept which allows a linear complexity. Fundamental design principles for throughput control are highlighted. Using those principles, the design of a complete Quality of Service aware packet scheduling algorithm based...

  6. Relay selection and resource allocation for two-way DF-AF cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2013-08-01

    In this letter, the problem of relay selection and optimal resource allocation for two-way relaying cognitive radio networks using half duplex amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward protocols is investigated. The primary and secondary users are assumed to access the spectrum simultaneously, in a way that the interference introduced to the primary users should be below a certain tolerated limit. Dual decomposition and subgradient methods are used to find the optimal power allocation. A suboptimal approach based on a genetic algorithm is also presented. Simulation results show that the proposed suboptimal algorithm offers a performance close to the optimal performance with a considerable complexity saving. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. A Policy study on cooperation for the development of underground resources in North Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jung Nam [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    For the smooth promotion of joint development program of underground resources in North Korea, it requires a domestic legal authority applicable when a private company begins the development program of underground resources in North Korea. It is recommended that the supply of initial fund of resources development program in North Korea will utilize the supply method of existing resources development subsidizing fund instead of establishing new fund. In the case of enlarging its program by minerals, it is desirable to support it by creating the South-North resources development cooperation fund for a certain period to attract voluntary participation of the private sector. In this study, minerals able to develop among natural minerals in North Korea were classified and presented by grouping according to the higher order. Also, a plan for institutionalizing this was sought by connecting a development program by types of minerals for the smooth operation of South-North resources development cooperation program. Considering types of minerals, area, and the size and cost of development, it should be operated step by step, but for programs realizable at once, it should be started in its early stage. It is recommended to review a step by step plan for mineral resources development in North Korea continuously in connection with other economic cooperation sector such as the manufacturing industry. (author). 30 refs., 40 tabs.

  8. Metal recycling - a renewable resource in Gulf Cooperative Countries region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.E. [Bahrain Univ. (Bahrain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-01

    The exhaustion of natural resources and growing environmental awareness highlighted the necessity of metal recycling all over the world. The production/consumption activities in the GCC region do generate annually a huge amount of valuable ferrous and nonferrous metal scrap. This paper deals with the benefits of metal recycling to the GCC region in lights of energetic, environmental and economic points of view. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die abnehmenden Vorraete von Primaermetallen sowie das zunehmende Umweltbewusstsein machen das Metall-Recycling auf der ganzen Welt notwendig. Die Produktions- und Verbrauchsaktivitaeten in der GCC-Region erzeugen jaehrlich riesige Mengen von wertvollem eisen- und nicht eisenhaltigen Schrott. Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit dem Energie-Verbrauch, dem Umweltschutz und der Wirtschaft des Recycling und stellt dessen Vorteile fuer die GCC-Region vor. (orig.)

  9. Modeling and performance analysis of cooperative communications in cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khabazian, Mehdi; Aissa, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    as well as to relay the primary's traffic in a cooperative fashion. Taking a queuing theory approach, we find the probability generating functions of the numbers of packets in the queues of the primary and secondary users. Subsequently, we determine a

  10. Study on the Introduction of High-Quality Educational Resources for Sino-Foreign Cooperative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhui, Lin

    2016-01-01

    In Sino-foreign cooperative education, high-quality introduced educational resources must benefit the growth and development of students, facilitate the school's capacity building and the improvement of overall educational standards, and promote national socioeconomic development. It is necessary to establish and perfect the various working…

  11. Decentralized Opportunistic Spectrum Resources Access Model and Algorithm toward Cooperative Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Yang; Mohammed, Abdul-Wahid

    2016-01-01

    Limited communication resources have gradually become a critical factor toward efficiency of decentralized large scale multi-agent coordination when both system scales up and tasks become more complex. In current researches, due to the agent’s limited communication and observational capability, an agent in a decentralized setting can only choose a part of channels to access, but cannot perceive or share global information. Each agent’s cooperative decision is based on the partial observation of the system state, and as such, uncertainty in the communication network is unavoidable. In this situation, it is a major challenge working out cooperative decision-making under uncertainty with only a partial observation of the environment. In this paper, we propose a decentralized approach that allows agents cooperatively search and independently choose channels. The key to our design is to build an up-to-date observation for each agent’s view so that a local decision model is achievable in a large scale team coordination. We simplify the Dec-POMDP model problem, and each agent can jointly work out its communication policy in order to improve its local decision utilities for the choice of communication resources. Finally, we discuss an implicate resource competition game, and show that, there exists an approximate resources access tradeoff balance between agents. Based on this discovery, the tradeoff between real-time decision-making and the efficiency of cooperation using these channels can be well improved. PMID:26727504

  12. Decentralized Opportunistic Spectrum Resources Access Model and Algorithm toward Cooperative Ad-Hoc Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    Full Text Available Limited communication resources have gradually become a critical factor toward efficiency of decentralized large scale multi-agent coordination when both system scales up and tasks become more complex. In current researches, due to the agent's limited communication and observational capability, an agent in a decentralized setting can only choose a part of channels to access, but cannot perceive or share global information. Each agent's cooperative decision is based on the partial observation of the system state, and as such, uncertainty in the communication network is unavoidable. In this situation, it is a major challenge working out cooperative decision-making under uncertainty with only a partial observation of the environment. In this paper, we propose a decentralized approach that allows agents cooperatively search and independently choose channels. The key to our design is to build an up-to-date observation for each agent's view so that a local decision model is achievable in a large scale team coordination. We simplify the Dec-POMDP model problem, and each agent can jointly work out its communication policy in order to improve its local decision utilities for the choice of communication resources. Finally, we discuss an implicate resource competition game, and show that, there exists an approximate resources access tradeoff balance between agents. Based on this discovery, the tradeoff between real-time decision-making and the efficiency of cooperation using these channels can be well improved.

  13. Radio Resource Management Techniques for eMBB and mMTC services in 5G Dense Small Cell Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Lauridsen, Mads; Berardinelli, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    requirements. This article provides an overview of key radio resource management techniques for 5G dense small cells and demonstrates how these techniques can contribute to fulfilling some of the important 5G requirements. Preliminary system level simulation results indicate that a mean throughput gain...... design requirements. Dense small cells with multiple antenna nodes are believed to be key elements in meeting these challenging requirements. 5G will thus feature an adaptable air interface with carefully designed radio resource management techniques that can optimize each link according to its service...... of around 65%, and up to 84% in latency reduction can be achieved utilizing the discussed resource management techniques....

  14. Resource Allocation for Downlink Multi-Cell OFDMA Cognitive Radio Network Using Hungarian Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Forouzan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of resource allocation for downlink part of an OFDM-based multi-cell cognitive radio network which consists of multiple secondary transmitters and receivers communicating simultaneously in the presence of multiple primary users. We present a new framework to maximize the total data throughput of secondary users by means of subchannel assignment, while ensuring interference leakage to PUs is below a threshold. In this framework, we first formulate the resource allocation problem as a nonlinear and non-convex optimization problem. Then we represent the problem as a maximum weighted matching in a bipartite graph and propose an iterative algorithm based on Hungarian method to solve it. The present contribution develops an efficient subchannel allocation algorithm that assigns subchannels to the secondary users without the perfect knowledge of fading channel gain between cognitive radio transmitter and primary receivers. The performance of the proposed subcarrier allocation algorithm is compared with a blind subchannel allocation as well as another scheme with the perfect knowledge of channel-state information. Simulation results reveal that a significant performance advantage can still be realized, even if the optimization at the secondary network is based on imperfect network information.

  15. Nagasaki cooperative group study of radio-chemo-immunotherapy following surgery for glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Shobu; Moriyama, Tadayoshi; Tanaka, Keisei; Moroki, Jiro.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this interinstitutional controlled study was to assess the usefulness of radio-chemo-immunotherapy following surgery for glioma. Immediately after surgery for glioma, patients were randomly allocated into the group A with radiotherapy (5,000 to 6,000 rad), ACNU, and OK-432 and the group B with radiotherapy and ACNU. Fifty-one patients consisting of 24 in the froup A and 27 in the group B entered the study from January 1981 to December 1983. No significant differences in one-year, two-year, and three-year survival rates were observed between the groups. Protective effects on leukopenia were observed in the group A, compared with the group B, with a significant difference. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Social Cooperation and Disharmony in Communities Mediated through Common Pool Resource Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiarto, H. S.; Lansing, J. S.; Chung, N. N.; Lai, C. H.; Cheong, S. A.; Chew, L. Y.

    2017-05-01

    It was theorized that when a society exploits a shared resource, the system can undergo extreme phase transition from full cooperation in abiding by a social agreement, to full defection from it. This was shown to happen in an integrated society with complex social relationships. However, real-world agents tend to segregate into communities whose interactions contain features of the associated community structure. We found that such social segregation softens the abrupt extreme transition through the emergence of multiple intermediate phases composed of communities of cooperators and defectors. Phase transitions thus now occur through these intermediate phases which avert the instantaneous collapse of social cooperation within a society. While this is beneficial to society, it nonetheless costs society in two ways. First, the return to full cooperation from full defection at the phase transition is no longer immediate. Community linkages have rendered greater societal inertia such that the switch back is now typically stepwise rather than a single change. Second, there is a drastic increase in social disharmony within the society due to the greater tension in the relationship between segregated communities of defectors and cooperators. Intriguingly, these results on multiple phases with its associated phenomenon of social disharmony are found to characterize the level of cooperation within a society of Balinese farmers who exploit water for rice production.

  17. Resource conflict and cooperation between human host and gut microbiota: implications for nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewski, Helen; Alcock, Joe; Aktipis, Athena

    2016-05-01

    Diet has been known to play an important role in human health since at least the time period of the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. In the last decade, research has revealed that microorganisms inhabiting the digestive tract, known as the gut microbiota, are critical factors in human health. This paper draws on concepts of cooperation and conflict from ecology and evolutionary biology to make predictions about host-microbiota interactions involving nutrients. To optimally extract energy from some resources (e.g., fiber), hosts require cooperation from microbes. Other nutrients can be utilized by both hosts and microbes (e.g., simple sugars, iron) in their ingested form, which may lead to greater conflict over these resources. This framework predicts that some negative health effects of foods are driven by the direct effects of these foods on human physiology and by indirect effects resulting from microbiome-host competition and conflict (e.g., increased invasiveness and inflammation). Similarly, beneficial effects of some foods on host health may be enhanced by resource sharing and other cooperative behaviors between host and microbes that may downregulate inflammation and virulence. Given that some foods cultivate cooperation between hosts and microbes while others agitate conflict, host-microbe interactions may be novel targets for interventions aimed at improving nutrition and human health. © 2016 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. An approach involving dynamic group search optimization for allocating resources in OFDM-based cognitive radio system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Suresh Nanivadekar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Allocation of channel resources in a cognitive radio system for achieving minimized transmission energy at an increased transmission rate is a challenging research. This paper proposes a resource allocation algorithm based on the meta-heuristic search principle. The proposed algorithm is an improved version of the Group Search Optimizer (GSO, which is a currently developed optimization algorithm that works through imitating the searching behaviour of the animals. The improvement is accomplished through introducing dynamics in the maximum pursuit angle of the GSO members. A cognitive radio system, relying on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM for its operation, is simulated and the experimentations are carried out for sub-channel allocation. The proposed algorithm is experimentally compared with five renowned optimization algorithms, namely, conventional GSO, Particle Swarm Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, Firefly Algorithm and Artificial Bee Colony algorithm. The obtained results assert the competing performance of the proposed algorithm over the other algorithms. Keywords: Cognitive radio, OFDM, Resource, Allocation, Optimization, GSO

  19. Joint Mode Selection and Resource Allocation for Downlink Fog Radio Access Networks Supported D2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Hongyu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Presented as an innovative paradigm incorporating the cloud computing into radio access network, Cloud radio access networks (C-RANs have been shown advantageous in curtailing the capital and operating expenditures as well as providing better services to the customers. However, heavy burden on the non-ideal fronthaul limits performances of CRANs. Here we focus on the alleviation of burden on the fronthaul via the edge devices’ caches and propose a fog computing based RAN (F-RAN architecture with three candidate transmission modes: device to device, local distributed coordination, and global C-RAN. Followed by the proposed simple mode selection scheme, the average energy efficiency (EE of systems optimization problem considering congestion control is presented. Under the Lyapunov framework, the problem is reformulated as a joint mode selection and resource allocation problem, which can be solved by block coordinate descent method. The mathematical analysis and simulation results validate the benefits of F-RAN and an EE-delay tradeoff can be achieved by the proposed algorithm.

  20. Emergence of competition and cooperation in an evolutionary resource war model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamantia, Fabio

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we introduce a simple punishment scheme in the 'great fish war' model with many players. An imitative process regulates how a coalition of cooperators is dynamically updated over time. An intuitive effect of adding sanctions is that they could enlarge the possible sustainable coalitions. However, the evolution toward full cooperation can be sustained by a punishment scheme provided that a critical mass of agents enforces cooperation at the beginning of the game. Moreover, we show the presence of thresholds in sanctions or in the cost for punishing such that if these thresholds are trespassed then dramatic reductions in the resource level and in the agents' welfare may occur as a consequence of free riding effects. We show by some examples that these phenomena are due to the presence of tipping points in the model.

  1. Green Cooperative Spectrum Sensing and Scheduling in Heterogeneous Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Abdulkadir

    2016-09-12

    In this paper, we consider heterogeneous cognitive radio networks (CRNs) comprising primary channels (PCs) with heterogeneous characteristics and secondary users (SUs) with various sensing and reporting qualities for different PCs. We first define the opportunity as the achievable total data rate and its cost as the energy consumption caused from sensing, reporting, and channel switching operations and formulate a joint spectrum discovery and energy efficiency objective to minimize the energy spent per unit of data rate. Then, a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem is formulated to determine: 1) the optimal subset of PCs to be scheduled for sensing; 2) the SU assignment set for each scheduled PC; and 3) sensing durations and detection thresholds of each SU on PCs it is assigned to sense. Thereafter, an equivalent convex framework is developed for specific instances of the above combinatorial problem. For comparison, optimal detection and sensing thresholds are also derived analytically under the homogeneity assumption. Based on these, a prioritized ordering heuristic is developed to order channels under the spectrum, energy, and spectrum-energy limited regimes. After that, a scheduling and assignment heuristic is proposed and is shown to perform very close to the exhaustive optimal solution. Finally, the behavior of the CRN is numerically analyzed under these regimes with respect to different numbers of SUs, PCs, and sensing qualities.

  2. Interference-Aware Radio Resource Management for Local Area Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro CássioB

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interference-aware multiple access is an enabler to cost-efficient and reliable high data-rate local area wireless access. In this paper, we propose an interference-aware radio resource management scheme where receivers inform about their throughput, interference, and signal levels by means of broadcast messages tied to data reception. In the proposed scheme, the conventional scheduler is extended to interference-aware operation where individual scheduling decisions are based on estimated change in system-level performance. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated in system simulations where it is compared to a conventional scheduler and a centralized scheduler (global optimum. The convergence of the proposed scheduler is analyzed and signaling overhead of an example implementation is characterized. The results demonstrate that the proposed scheme enables fair and efficient wireless access in challenging interference scenarios, for example, multiple networks deployed in the same geographical area and sharing a common band.

  3. Toward a Reconfigurable MIMO Downlink Air Interface and Radio Resource Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, Istvan Zsolt; Luis, Garcia Ordonez; Ferrández, Miguel Navarro

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a reconfigurable multiple-input multiple-output air interface design combined with radio resource management algorithms applicable to multi-user MIMO transmission in downlink orthogonal frequency-division multiple access systems. A low-complexity, adaptive, and channel...... scheduling. System-level performance analysis, including the effects of limited and imperfect feedback from the terminals, shows that the SURFACE air interface provides an attractive practical solution for operations with high-rate adaptive MIMO transmission schemes in the context of next-generation wireless......-aware single-user and multi-user MIMO transmission solution is proposed based on the findings of the SURFACE European Commission funded research project. The resulting cross-layer design covers the reconfigurable air interface, and practical layer 1 and layer 2 RRM mechanisms for time-frequency packet...

  4. [Resource allocation analysis for international cooperation program for HIV/AIDS prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Xue, Hui; Liu, Hui; Guo, Hao-yan; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Jiang-ping

    2008-12-01

    To provide evidence for resource allocation and cooperation between domestic and international HIV/AIDS programs in China by analyzing the needs and current levels of resource input in provinces. National and provincial international cooperation program investment and allocation data from 2000 to 2006 were collected. Several factors in each province were analyzed through multiple regression analysis in order to determine whether they had a statistical correlation to the distribution of international HIV/AIDS program resources in China, including: the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the number of accumulated people living with HIV/AIDS, and the number of accumulated people living with AIDS. Then the Z values were calculated at each provincial level and compared with related international investment. The resource allocation in different program areas were compared with the level of resource input by international and central government HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs through Chi-square test. The international cooperation program investment at local level from 2000 to 2006 were 4893, 24 669, 50 567, 52 950, 112 143, 363 396 and 247 045 thousand RMB respectively, and at national level were 3007, 19 726, 29 035, 37 530, 77 500, 105 786 and 77 035 thousand RMB respectively. There was a statistical correlation between international HIV/AIDS program resource input and the accumulated number of people living with AIDS (R is 0.56 and 0.69 accordingly, and P international resource input and the GDP of each province. International HIV/AIDS cooperation programs did not invest in each province according to its practical needs (R = 0.066, P = 0.725). The international cooperation program investments and needs in different province could not meet completely. The ranks of Z value in Guangdong, Shandong and Jiangsu were 3, 5 and 6, but the ranks of international cooperation program in those provinces were 18, 13 and 28 respectively. The investment proportion for national

  5. Energy Efficient Resource Allocation for Cognitive Radios: A Generalized Sensing Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2014-12-31

    In this paper, two resource allocation schemes for energy efficient cognitive radio systems are proposed. Our design considers resource allocation approaches that adopt spectrum sharing combined with soft-sensing information, adaptive sensing thresholds, and adaptive power to achieve an energy efficient system. An energy per good-bit metric is considered as an energy efficient objective function. A multi-carrier system, such as, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, is considered in the framework. The proposed resource allocation schemes, using different approaches, are designated as sub-optimal and optimal. The sub-optimal approach is attained by optimizing over a channel inversion power policy. The optimal approach utilizes the calculus of variation theory to optimize a problem of instantaneous objective function subject to average and instantaneous constraints with respect to functional optimization variables. In addition to the analytical results, selected numerical results are provided to quantify the impact of soft-sensing information and the optimal adaptive sensing threshold on the system performance.

  6. Energy Efficient Resource Allocation for Cognitive Radios: A Generalized Sensing Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Rezki, Zouheir; Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two resource allocation schemes for energy efficient cognitive radio systems are proposed. Our design considers resource allocation approaches that adopt spectrum sharing combined with soft-sensing information, adaptive sensing thresholds, and adaptive power to achieve an energy efficient system. An energy per good-bit metric is considered as an energy efficient objective function. A multi-carrier system, such as, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, is considered in the framework. The proposed resource allocation schemes, using different approaches, are designated as sub-optimal and optimal. The sub-optimal approach is attained by optimizing over a channel inversion power policy. The optimal approach utilizes the calculus of variation theory to optimize a problem of instantaneous objective function subject to average and instantaneous constraints with respect to functional optimization variables. In addition to the analytical results, selected numerical results are provided to quantify the impact of soft-sensing information and the optimal adaptive sensing threshold on the system performance.

  7. International negotiations of natural resources on the moon and other celestial bodies : future cooperation or conflict?

    OpenAIRE

    Eymork, Tania Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims to assess the degree to which one can expect conflict or cooperation over the natural resources on the Moon and other celestial bodies in the future. By describing and exploring how the emerging global space industry may benefit humankind, it covers existing international space treaties and how fairer administration may help to eradicate poverty by, amongst other things, providing a clean source of environmentally friendly energy. This sixtyyear young industry is redeployi...

  8. Cooperation in Global Environmental Governance for Building A Conflict Prevention Architecture in Natural Resources Torno

    OpenAIRE

    Padilha, Norma Sueli; Cardoso, Simone Alves

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the effectiveness and the importance of cooperation in global environmental governance arrangements to prevent conflicts and promote pea- cebuilding through analysis the partnership between the European Union (EU) and the United Nations (UN) around the natural resources and conflict prevention. The problem to be addressed and the challenge to overcome by the international community is the fra- gility of some countries in creating and maintaining institutions t...

  9. Near-Optimal Resource Allocation in Cooperative Cellular Networks Using Genetic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Zihan; Armour, Simon; McGeehan, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows how a genetic algorithm can be used as a method of obtaining the near-optimal solution of the resource block scheduling problem in a cooperative cellular network. An exhaustive search is initially implementedto guarantee that the optimal result, in terms of maximizing the bandwidth efficiency of the overall network, is found, and then the genetic algorithm with the properly selected termination conditions is used in the same network. The simulation results show that the genet...

  10. U.S. Geological Survey cooperative water-resources programs in Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1969, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has had a cooperative water-resources investigation program with Chester County to measure and describe the water resources of the County. Generally, the USGS provides one-half of the program funding, and local cooperators are required to provide matching funds. Cooperation has been primarily with the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA), with participation from the Chester County Health Department and funding from the Chester County Board of Commissioners. Municipalities and the Red Clay Valley Association also have provided part of the funding for several projects. This report describes how the long-term partnership between the USGS and Chester County, Pa., provides the County with the information that it needs for sound water-resources management.The CCWRA was created in 1961, primarily for land acquisition and planning for flood-control and water-supply projects. With the backing of the Brandywine Valley Association, the CCWRA started its first cooperative project with the USGS in 1969. It was a study of the water-quality condition of Chester County streams with an emphasis on benthic macroinvertebrates and stream chemistry.The kinds of projects and data collection conducted by the USGS have changed with the needs of Chester County and the mission of the CCWRA. Chester County is experiencing rapid population growth (it had the tenth-highest rate of growth in the nation from 1980 to 1990). This growth places considerable stress on water resources and has caused the CCWRA to broaden its focus from flood control to water-supply planning, water quality, and ground-water and surface-water management. The results of USGS studies are used by the CCWRA and other County agencies, including the Planning Commission, Health Department, and Parks and Recreation Department, for conducting day-to-day activities and planning for future growth. The results also are used by the CCWRA to provide guidance and technical

  11. A Novel Optimal Joint Resource Allocation Method in Cooperative Multicarrier Networks: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demands for better transmission speed and robust quality of service (QoS, the capacity constrained backhaul gradually becomes a bottleneck in cooperative wireless networks, e.g., in the Internet of Things (IoT scenario in joint processing mode of LTE-Advanced Pro. This paper focuses on resource allocation within capacity constrained backhaul in uplink cooperative wireless networks, where two base stations (BSs equipped with single antennae serve multiple single-antennae users via multi-carrier transmission mode. In this work, we propose a novel cooperative transmission scheme based on compress-and-forward with user pairing to solve the joint mixed integer programming problem. To maximize the system capacity under the limited backhaul, we formulate the joint optimization problem of user sorting, subcarrier mapping and backhaul resource sharing among different pairs (subcarriers for users. A novel robust and efficient centralized algorithm based on alternating optimization strategy and perfect mapping is proposed. Simulations show that our novel method can improve the system capacity significantly under the constraint of the backhaul resource compared with the blind alternatives.

  12. A robust cooperative spectrum sensing scheme based on Dempster-Shafer theory and trustworthiness degree calculation in cognitive radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinlong; Feng, Shuo; Wu, Qihui; Zheng, Xueqiang; Xu, Yuhua; Ding, Guoru

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) is a promising technology that brings about remarkable improvement in spectrum utilization. To tackle the hidden terminal problem, cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) which benefits from the spatial diversity has been studied extensively. Since CSS is vulnerable to the attacks initiated by malicious secondary users (SUs), several secure CSS schemes based on Dempster-Shafer theory have been proposed. However, the existing works only utilize the current difference of SUs, such as the difference in SNR or similarity degree, to evaluate the trustworthiness of each SU. As the current difference is only one-sided and sometimes inaccurate, the statistical information contained in each SU's historical behavior should not be overlooked. In this article, we propose a robust CSS scheme based on Dempster-Shafer theory and trustworthiness degree calculation. It is carried out in four successive steps, which are basic probability assignment (BPA), trustworthiness degree calculation, selection and adjustment of BPA, and combination by Dempster-Shafer rule, respectively. Our proposed scheme evaluates the trustworthiness degree of SUs from both current difference aspect and historical behavior aspect and exploits Dempster-Shafer theory's potential to establish a `soft update' approach for the reputation value maintenance. It can not only differentiate malicious SUs from honest ones based on their historical behaviors but also reserve the current difference for each SU to achieve a better real-time performance. Abundant simulation results have validated that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing ones under the impact of different attack patterns and different number of malicious SUs.

  13. Downlink Radio Resource Management for LTE-Advanced System with Combined MU-MIMO and Carrier Aggregation Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hung Tuan; Kovacs, Istvan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the performance enhancement of a downlink LTE-Advanced system with a combination of the multi-user MIMO and carrier aggregation transmission techniques. Radio resource management for the systems with the combined features are proposed, and the system performance is evaluate...

  14. Review of the human resources needed for development of the activity in a service hospital radio physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almansa, J. F.; Burgos, D. E.; Guerrero, R.

    2011-01-01

    The age of the recommendations on minimum human and material resources of the SEFM, along with the emergence of new imaging techniques and new equipment, plus analysis of recent international publications relating to the subject and the establishment of relative value units in several Spanish regions, justify a revision of the minimum necessary human resources to carry out the tasks of Radio physics service with adequate safety and quality.

  15. Cooperative networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    This brief focuses on radio resource allocation in a heterogeneous wireless medium. It presents radio resource allocation algorithms with decentralized implementation, which support both single-network and multi-homing services. The brief provides a set of cooperative networking algorithms, which rely on the concepts of short-term call traffic load prediction, network cooperation, convex optimization, and decomposition theory. In the proposed solutions, mobile terminals play an active role in the resource allocation operation, instead of their traditional role as passive service recipients in the networking environment.

  16. Identifying resource manager information needs for the North Pacific Landscape Conservation Cooperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Liedtke, Theresa; Jenni, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are a network of 22 public-private partnerships, defined by ecoregion, that share and provide science to ensure the sustainability of land, water, wildlife and cultural resources in North America. LLCs were established by the U.S. Department of Interior (DOI) in recognition that response to climate change must be coordinated on a landscape-level basis because important resources, ecosystem processes and resource management challenges extend beyond national wildlife refuges, Bureau of Land Management lands, national parks, and even international boundaries. Therefore, DOI agencies must work with other Federal, State, Tribal (U.S. indigenous peoples), First Nation (Canadian indigenous peoples), and local governments, as well as private landowners, to develop landscape-level strategies for understanding and responding to climate change.

  17. Auction-Based Resource Allocation for Cooperative Video Transmission Protocols over Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Han

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative transmission has been proposed as a novel transmission strategy that takes advantage of broadcast nature of wireless networks, forms virtual MIMO system, and provides diversity gains. In this paper, wireless video transmission protocols are proposed, in which the spectrum resources are first allocated for the source side to broadcast video packets to the relay and destination, and then for the relay side to transmit side information generated from the received packets. The proposed protocols are optimized to minimize the end-to-end expected distortion via choosing bandwidth/power allocation, configuration of side information, subject to bandwidth and power constraints. For multiuser cases, most of current resource allocation approaches cannot be naturally extended and applied to the networks with relay nodes for video transmission. This paper extends the share auction approach into the cooperative video communication scenarios and provides a near-optimal solution for resource allocation. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed approach has significant advantage of up to 4 dB gain in single user case and 1.3 dB gain in multiuser case over the reference systems in terms of peak-to-signal-noise ratio. In addition, it reduces the formidable computational complexity of the optimal solution to linear complexity with performance degradation of less than 0.3 dB.

  18. Practical Implementation of Cooperative RRM for IMT-Advanced Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Tragos, Elias; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a practical implementation of a radio resource management (RRM) framework for support of cooperation between radio access networks (RANs). The platform supports the inter-working between a next generation RAN and legacy systems (i.e., WLAN, UMTS). The platform is based on rea...

  19. Enhanced machine learning scheme for energy efficient resource allocation in 5G heterogeneous cloud radio access networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2018-02-15

    Heterogeneous cloud radio access networks (H-CRAN) is a new trend of 5G that aims to leverage the heterogeneous and cloud radio access networks advantages. Low power remote radio heads (RRHs) are exploited to provide high data rates for users with high quality of service requirements (QoS), while high power macro base stations (BSs) are deployed for coverage maintenance and low QoS users support. However, the inter-tier interference between the macro BS and RRHs and energy efficiency are critical challenges that accompany resource allocation in H-CRAN. Therefore, we propose a centralized resource allocation scheme using online learning, which guarantees interference mitigation and maximizes energy efficiency while maintaining QoS requirements for all users. To foster the performance of such scheme with a model-free learning, we consider users\\' priority in resource blocks (RBs) allocation and compact state representation based learning methodology to enhance the learning process. Simulation results confirm that the proposed resource allocation solution can mitigate interference, increase energy and spectral efficiencies significantly, and maintain users\\' QoS requirements.

  20. Radio resource management scheme and outage analysis for network-assisted multi-hop D2D communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Melki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In a cellular network it's very difficult to make spectrum resource more efficiently. Device-to-Device (D2D technology enables new service opportunities, and provides high throughput and reliable communication while reducing the base station load. For better total performance, short-range D2D links and cellular links share the same radio resource and the management of interference becomes a crucial task. Here we argue that single-hop D2D technology can be used to further improve cellular networks performance if the key D2D radio resource management algorithms are suitably extended to support multi-hop D2D communications. Aiming to establish a new paradigm for the analysis and design of multi-hop D2D communications, We propose a radio resource allocation for multi-hop D2D routes based on interference avoidance approach in LTE-A networks. On top of that, we investigate the outage probability of D2D communication. We first introduce a new definition of outage probability by considering the maximum distance to be allowable for single-hop transmission. Then we study and analyze the outage performance of a multi-hop D2D route. We derive the general closed form expression of outage probability of the multi-hop D2D routes. The results demonstrate that the D2D radio, sharing the same resources as the cellular network, provide higher capacity compared to pure cellular communication where all the data is transmitted through the base station. They also demonstrate that the new method of calculation of D2D multi hop outage probability has better performance than classical method defined in the literature.

  1. On the social nature of personality : Effects of extraversion, agreeableness, and feedback about collective resource use on cooperation in a resource dilemma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, S.L.; Jager, W.; van den Berg, A.E.; Vlek, C.A.J.; Hofstee, W.K.B.

    The present research investigated how individual differences in Extraversion and Agreeableness affect cooperation in an experimental resource dilemma. Manipulated feedback indicated either that the common resource was being wed at a sustainable rate or that it was being rapidly depleted. As

  2. Efficiency Assessment of Economic International Cooperation in Development of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina V. Beresneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is focused on efficiency assessment of economic cooperation in development of Arctic offshore oil and gas resources. The author developed an economic model based on cost-benefit analysis (CBA. CBA is used in some countries (EU, USA, Australia as an analytic tool to make public policy decisions. CBA is based on the method of discounting cash flows associated with costs and benefits of public policy. It is assumed that all public goals are equally important inter alia, hence public bodies should opt for those initiatives that maximize public benefits for every dollar spent from the state budget. There are five stages of economic modeling: 1 the definition of public benefits and costs associated with the public initiative; 2 monetary valuation of costs and benefits; 3 the definition of discounting period and discounting rate; 4 the calculation of net present value of cash flows; 5 the comparison of initiatives' net present values. The model is built with a number of hypotheses assumed. It allows making evaluation of investments into the technology to decrease the cost of Arctic offshore oil and gas development. Moreover, the model has two scenarios describing a public policy to support technology development with international economic cooperation and without it. Under given hypotheses both scenarios return positive net present value of policies which proves that governmental initiative to support Arctic technology development is economically justified. Also the model sows that the scenario with international cooperation is more efficient from economic point of view. It is explained by two factors: the higher speed of technology transfer (due W international cooperation and the opportunity to use financial leverage (attracting the funds from foreign partners. The model allows closing the existing scientific gap between the theory of CBA method and its practical use in public decision making.

  3. Resource Allocation for OFDMA-Based Cognitive Radio Networks with Application to H.264 Scalable Video Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coon JustinP

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resource allocation schemes for orthogonal frequency division multiple access- (OFDMA- based cognitive radio (CR networks that impose minimum and maximum rate constraints are considered. To demonstrate the practical application of such systems, we consider the transmission of scalable video sequences. An integer programming (IP formulation of the problem is presented, which provides the optimal solution when solved using common discrete programming methods. Due to the computational complexity involved in such an approach and its unsuitability for dynamic cognitive radio environments, we propose to use the method of lift-and-project to obtain a stronger formulation for the resource allocation problem such that the integrality gap between the integer program and its linear relaxation is reduced. A simple branching operation is then performed that eliminates any noninteger values at the output of the linear program solvers. Simulation results demonstrate that this simple technique results in solutions very close to the optimum.

  4. [Attention deficit and hyperactivity in school children--knowledge, resources and cooperation among professions concerned].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweifer, Christina

    2009-01-01

    The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behaviour problems in school age with an estimated prevalence between three to seven percent. Although the disorder is in particular a problem at the school setting, only few studies included the professions involved such as class teachers, special education teachers, school psychologists or school medics. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to assess the knowledge and resources of these professions and to analyse their way of communication and cooperation. A total of 124 persons were questioned using a 19-item self-developed questionnaire. The knowledge of the professions concerned seems to be satisfying. However, school psychologists and special education teachers are able to use their resources and their possibilities for cooperation better than school medics or class teachers do. The results also indicate that the major problem is at the interface between the professions. The development of a network with special focus on ADHD to overcome the barriers is proposed.

  5. Extending the Scope of the Resource Admission Control Subsystem (RACS) in IP multimedia subsystem using cognitive radios

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muwonge, BK

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available is greatly increased, and resource reservation and QoS management by the RACS is also greatly increased. Index Terms—Traffic Engineering; Cross Layer; Cognitive Radio, IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) I. INTRODUCTION HE IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS...) is seen as the answer to the much talked-about convergence of data and telecommunication services. The original IMS design was by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for delivering IP Multimedia services to end users, using telecommunication...

  6. Use of Online Information Resources by RMIT University Economics, Finance, and Marketing Students Participating in a Cooperative Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the use of online information resources by Economics, Finance, and Marketing 3rd year students in a cooperative education program and explores some possible factors and issues that influence how students use these resources. The nature of Work Integrated Learning (WIL) programs, the business information environment, and the…

  7. International cooperation Brazil-Cuba-Haiti: the role of community radios in strengthening social mobilization in the public health context in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Renata Machado Dos Santos; Oliveira, Valdir de Castro

    2015-01-01

    The present article investigates the role of Haitian community radios in strengthening social mobilization, with the aim of supporting the actions undertaken in the field of public health in Haiti, based on the development of the Workshop for community radios, as part of the Tripartite Cooperation Brazil-Cuba-Haiti. The qualitative methodology is justified because of the study content, an analysis of documents and direct observation, through a case study presented at the Workshop held in the department of Hinches, in Haiti. This meeting was held in the context of the Working Group on Tripartite Communication, under the responsibility of the Health Channel/Fiocruz, in partnership with the Department for Health Promotion and Environmental Prevention of the Ministry of Health and Population of Haiti (DPSPE/MSPP/Haiti), with a proposal to better structure a network of multipliers in health promotion.

  8. Enhancement of environment and resources engineering studies through an international cooperation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporali, E.; Tuneski, A.

    2012-12-01

    Higher education plays a very important role in the modern societies development, enhancing social, cultural and economic development for a sustainable growth, environment respectful. In this framework, the European Commission promotes the TEMPUS-Trans European Mobility Programme for University Studies. Curricula harmonization and lifelong learning programme development in higher education are among the focused aspects of the TEMPUS programme. The DEREL-Development of Environment and Resources Engineering Learning, is a three years TEMPUS project coordinated by the University of Firenze, in cooperation with colleagues of the Ss Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje financed and activated since October 2010. The DEREL Project Consortium consists of 4 EU Universities (from Italy, Greece, Germany and Austria), 7 Partner Countries (PC) Universities (from FYR of Macedonia, Serbia and Albania), and 1 PC Ministry, 4 PC National Agencies, 1 PC non governmental organization and 1 PC enterprise. In cooperation with the same 4 EU Universities and the same Macedonian Institutions, in the period 2005-2008 also a TEMPUS JEP entitled DEREC-Development of Environmental and Resources Engineering Curriculum, was also carried out by the University of Firenze in cooperation with colleagues of the Ss Cyril and Methodius University. Within DEREC a new three-years first cycle curriculum in Environmental and Resources Engineering was opened at the University Ss Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, and the necessary conditions for offering a Joint Degree Title, on the basis of an agreement between the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University and the University of Firenze, were fulfilled. The running DEREL project, as a continuation of DEREC, is aimed to introduce a new, up-to-date, postgraduate second cycle curriculum in Environment and Resources Engineering at the Ss Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, FYR of Macedonia, University of Novi Sad, Serbia and Polytechnic University of Tirana, Albania

  9. Radio resource management scheme and outage analysis for network-assisted multi-hop D2D communications

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Melki; Sameh Najeh; Hichem Besbes

    2016-01-01

    In a cellular network it's very difficult to make spectrum resource more efficiently. Device-to-Device (D2D) technology enables new service opportunities, and provides high throughput and reliable communication while reducing the base station load. For better total performance, short-range D2D links and cellular links share the same radio resource and the management of interference becomes a crucial task. Here we argue that single-hop D2D technology can be used to further improve cellular net...

  10. Resource allocation in heterogeneous cloud radio access networks: advances and challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Dahrouj, Hayssam; Douik, Ahmed S.; Dhifallah, Oussama Najeeb; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    , becomes a necessity. By connecting all the base stations from different tiers to a central processor (referred to as the cloud) through wire/wireline backhaul links, the heterogeneous cloud radio access network, H-CRAN, provides an open, simple

  11. Primary user localisation and uplink resource allocation in orthogonal frequency division multiple access cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon; Saeed, Nasir; Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In cognitive radio networks, secondary users (SUs) can share spectrum with primary users (PUs) under the condition that no interference is caused to the PUs. To evaluate the interference imposed to the PUs, the cognitive systems discussed

  12. Generalized location-based resource allocation for OFDMA cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi; Nam, Haewoon; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive radio is one of the hot topics for emerging and future wireless communication. Cognitive users can share channels with primary users under the condition of non interference. In order to compute this interference, the cognitive system

  13. ''Meteor'' radio/television satellites for study of earth's natural resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivanov, A S; Tuchin, Yu M

    1981-01-01

    Two types of wide sweep multi-zonal scanning devices are included in the Meteor units, including radio-transmitting, and memory units. Data is transmitted within the wave range assigned to meteorologic earth satellites.

  14. Effect of resource spatial correlation and hunter-fisher-gatherer mobility on social cooperation in Tierra del Fuego.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Santos

    Full Text Available This article presents an agent-based model designed to explore the development of cooperation in hunter-fisher-gatherer societies that face a dilemma of sharing an unpredictable resource that is randomly distributed in space. The model is a stylised abstraction of the Yamana society, which inhabited the channels and islands of the southernmost part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina-Chile. According to ethnographic sources, the Yamana developed cooperative behaviour supported by an indirect reciprocity mechanism: whenever someone found an extraordinary confluence of resources, such as a beached whale, they would use smoke signals to announce their find, bringing people together to share food and exchange different types of social capital. The model provides insight on how the spatial concentration of beachings and agents' movements in the space can influence cooperation. We conclude that the emergence of informal and dynamic communities that operate as a vigilance network preserves cooperation and makes defection very costly.

  15. Cooperation Is Not Enough—Exploring Social-Ecological Micro-Foundations for Sustainable Common-Pool Resource Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijermans, Nanda; Schlüter, Maja; Lindahl, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation amongst resource users holds the key to overcoming the social dilemma that characterizes community-based common-pool resource management. But is cooperation alone enough to achieve sustainable resource use? The short answer is no. Developing management strategies in a complex social-ecological environment also requires ecological knowledge and approaches to deal with perceived environmental uncertainty. Recent behavioral experimental research indicates variation in the degree to which a group of users can identify a sustainable exploitation level. In this paper, we identify social-ecological micro-foundations that facilitate cooperative sustainable common-pool resource use. We do so by using an agent-based model (ABM) that is informed by behavioral common-pool resource experiments. In these experiments, groups that cooperate do not necessarily manage the resource sustainably, but also over- or underexploit. By reproducing the patterns of the behavioral experiments in a qualitative way, the ABM represents a social-ecological explanation for the experimental observations. We find that the ecological knowledge of each group member cannot sufficiently explain the relationship between cooperation and sustainable resource use. Instead, the development of a sustainable exploitation level depends on the distribution of ecological knowledge among the group members, their influence on each other’s knowledge, and the environmental uncertainty the individuals perceive. The study provides insights about critical social-ecological micro-foundations underpinning collective action and sustainable resource management. These insights may inform policy-making, but also point to future research needs regarding the mechanisms of social learning, the development of shared management strategies and the interplay of social and ecological uncertainty. PMID:27556175

  16. Cooperation Is Not Enough—Exploring Social-Ecological Micro-Foundations for Sustainable Common-Pool Resource Use [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schill

    Full Text Available Cooperation amongst resource users holds the key to overcoming the social dilemma that characterizes community-based common-pool resource management. But is cooperation alone enough to achieve sustainable resource use? The short answer is no. Developing management strategies in a complex social-ecological environment also requires ecological knowledge and approaches to deal with perceived environmental uncertainty. Recent behavioral experimental research indicates variation in the degree to which a group of users can identify a sustainable exploitation level. In this paper, we identify social-ecological micro-foundations that facilitate cooperative sustainable common-pool resource use. We do so by using an agent-based model (ABM that is informed by behavioral common-pool resource experiments. In these experiments, groups that cooperate do not necessarily manage the resource sustainably, but also over- or underexploit. By reproducing the patterns of the behavioral experiments in a qualitative way, the ABM represents a social-ecological explanation for the experimental observations. We find that the ecological knowledge of each group member cannot sufficiently explain the relationship between cooperation and sustainable resource use. Instead, the development of a sustainable exploitation level depends on the distribution of ecological knowledge among the group members, their influence on each other's knowledge, and the environmental uncertainty the individuals perceive. The study provides insights about critical social-ecological micro-foundations underpinning collective action and sustainable resource management. These insights may inform policy-making, but also point to future research needs regarding the mechanisms of social learning, the development of shared management strategies and the interplay of social and ecological uncertainty.

  17. Cooperation Is Not Enough—Exploring Social-Ecological Micro-Foundations for Sustainable Common-Pool Resource Use [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Caroline; Wijermans, Nanda; Schlüter, Maja; Lindahl, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation amongst resource users holds the key to overcoming the social dilemma that characterizes community-based common-pool resource management. But is cooperation alone enough to achieve sustainable resource use? The short answer is no. Developing management strategies in a complex social-ecological environment also requires ecological knowledge and approaches to deal with perceived environmental uncertainty. Recent behavioral experimental research indicates variation in the degree to which a group of users can identify a sustainable exploitation level. In this paper, we identify social-ecological micro-foundations that facilitate cooperative sustainable common-pool resource use. We do so by using an agent-based model (ABM) that is informed by behavioral common-pool resource experiments. In these experiments, groups that cooperate do not necessarily manage the resource sustainably, but also over- or underexploit. By reproducing the patterns of the behavioral experiments in a qualitative way, the ABM represents a social-ecological explanation for the experimental observations. We find that the ecological knowledge of each group member cannot sufficiently explain the relationship between cooperation and sustainable resource use. Instead, the development of a sustainable exploitation level depends on the distribution of ecological knowledge among the group members, their influence on each other's knowledge, and the environmental uncertainty the individuals perceive. The study provides insights about critical social-ecological micro-foundations underpinning collective action and sustainable resource management. These insights may inform policy-making, but also point to future research needs regarding the mechanisms of social learning, the development of shared management strategies and the interplay of social and ecological uncertainty.

  18. The management of human resources in the Basic Units of Cooperative Production in Cuba: An essential challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deysi Alfonso Porraspita

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The socioeconomic structure of Cuba has undergone a stage of profound transformation, with various factors that have intervened in this process, where different forms of business structures have converged, one of which has been represented by the cooperative sector, fundamentally developed in agriculture from the country. In this scenario the issue of the effectiveness of these entities has been subject to dissimilar analyzes and debates from different sides, where what is related to the human factor has played an essential role, this implies a detailed observation of the adequate management of human resources in the integral management of these organizations. In this line, the fundamental challenge will be to manage human resources in a way that contributes to the continuous improvement of the Cooperative Production Units as one of the representative structures of the agrarian cooperative sector in Cuba. Carrying out an analysis highlighting the importance of the management of human resources as a contribution to affectivity of the Basic Units of Cooperative production constituted the objective of the work. Through analysis, synthesis and use of the logical historical in the system analysis, the work addressed the theoretical pillars and methodological aspects that support the management of human resources in the cooperative entities analyzed as a tribute to the effectiveness of their results.

  19. DiffServ resource management in IP-based radio access networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijenk, Geert; Karagiannis, Georgios; Rexhepi, Vlora; Westberg, Lars; prof.dr. Prasad, R.; prof.dr. Bach Andersen, J.

    2001-01-01

    The increasing popularity of the Internet, the flexibility of IP, and the wide deployment of IP technologies, as well as the growth of mobile communications have driven the development of IP-based solutions for wireless networking. The introduction of IP-based transport in Radio Access Networks

  20. Cross-layer design for radio resource allocation based on priority scheduling in OFDMA wireless access network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yen-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA system has the advantages of flexible subcarrier allocation and adaptive modulation with respect to channel conditions. However, transmission overhead is required in each frame to broadcast the arrangement of radio resources to all mobile stations within the coverage of the same base station. This overhead greatly affects the utilization of valuable radio resources. In this paper, a cross layer scheme is proposed to reduce the number of traffic bursts at the downlink of an OFDMA wireless access network so that the overhead of the media access protocol (MAP field can be minimized. The proposed scheme considers the priorities and the channel conditions of quality of service (QoS traffic streams to arrange for them to be sent with minimum bursts in a heuristic manner. In addition, the trade-off between the degradation of the modulation level and the reduction of traffic bursts is investigated. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can effectively reduce the traffic bursts and, therefore, increase resource utilization.

  1. The National Resource Library for Science and Technology in Sweden: A Nordic model of cooperating technology libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagar, Gunnar

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this presentation is to give a state-of-the-art report on the present situation of Nordic technology libraries, to elaborate on a plan for national resource libraries in Sweden, and to share how the Royal Institute of Technology Library in Stockholm (KTHB) has fostered a network of cooperating libraries in order to optimize government funding for the system of resource libraries.

  2. Improving the Achievement of Second Year Natural Resource Management Students of Madawalabu University through Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulahi, Mohammed Mussa; Hashim, Hakim; Kawo, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this action research is to improve the achievement of students in general and, to examine the perception of students and teachers about cooperative learning, to identify major factors affecting the implementation of cooperative learning and to identify the possible strategies used to improve cooperative learning in Madawalabu…

  3. End-to-end performance of cooperative relaying in spectrum-sharing systems with quality of service requirements

    KAUST Repository

    Asghari, Vahid Reza; Aissa, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    We propose adopting a cooperative relaying technique in spectrum-sharing cognitive radio (CR) systems to more effectively and efficiently utilize available transmission resources, such as power, rate, and bandwidth, while adhering to the quality

  4. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  5. Resource-Efficient Fusion with Pre-Compensated Transmissions for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan Adionel Guimarães

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a novel fusion scheme for cooperative spectrum sensing was proposed for saving resources in the control channel. Secondary users (SUs simultaneously report their decisions using binary modulations with the same carrier frequencies. The transmitted symbols add incoherently at the fusion centre (FC, leading to a larger set of symbols in which a subset is associated with the presence of the primary user (PU signal, and another subset is associated with the absence of such a signal. The decision criterion applied for discriminating these subsets works under the assumption that the channel gains are known at the FC. In this paper, we propose a new simultaneous transmission and decision scheme in which the task of channel estimation is shifted from the FC to the SUs, without the need for feeding-back of the estimates to the FC. The estimates are used at the SUs to pre-compensate for the reporting channel phase rotations and to partially compensate for the channel gains. This partial compensation is the result of signal clipping for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR control. We show, analytically and with simulations, that this new scheme can produce large performance improvements, yet reduces the implementation complexity when compared with the original one.

  6. A cooperative online learning scheme for resource allocation in 5G systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail; Shihada, Basem

    2016-01-01

    The demand on mobile Internet related services has increased the need for higher bandwidth in cellular networks. The 5G technology is envisioned as a solution to satisfy this demand as it provides high data rates and scalable bandwidth. The multi-tier heterogeneous structure of 5G with dense base station deployment, relays, and device-to-device (D2D) communications intends to serve users with different QoS requirements. However, the multi-tier structure causes severe interference among the multi-tier users which further complicates the resource allocation problem. In this paper, we propose a cooperative scheme to tackle the interference problem, including both cross-tier interference that affects macro users from other tiers and co-tier interference, which is among users belong to the same tier. The scheme employs an online learning algorithm for efficient spectrum allocation with power and modulation adaptation capability. Our evaluation results show that our online scheme outperforms others and achieves significant improvements in throughput, spectral efficiency, fairness, and outage ratio. © 2016 IEEE.

  7. A cooperative online learning scheme for resource allocation in 5G systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2016-07-26

    The demand on mobile Internet related services has increased the need for higher bandwidth in cellular networks. The 5G technology is envisioned as a solution to satisfy this demand as it provides high data rates and scalable bandwidth. The multi-tier heterogeneous structure of 5G with dense base station deployment, relays, and device-to-device (D2D) communications intends to serve users with different QoS requirements. However, the multi-tier structure causes severe interference among the multi-tier users which further complicates the resource allocation problem. In this paper, we propose a cooperative scheme to tackle the interference problem, including both cross-tier interference that affects macro users from other tiers and co-tier interference, which is among users belong to the same tier. The scheme employs an online learning algorithm for efficient spectrum allocation with power and modulation adaptation capability. Our evaluation results show that our online scheme outperforms others and achieves significant improvements in throughput, spectral efficiency, fairness, and outage ratio. © 2016 IEEE.

  8. Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources optimization with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; He, Yongqi; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; Bai, Wei; Lee, Young

    2016-04-18

    Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) has become a promising scenario to accommodate high-performance services with ubiquitous user coverage and real-time cloud computing using cloud BBUs. In our previous work, we implemented cross stratum optimization of optical network and application stratums resources that allows to accommodate the services in optical networks. In view of this, this study extends to consider the multiple dimensional resources optimization of radio, optical and BBU processing in 5G age. We propose a novel multi-stratum resources optimization (MSRO) architecture with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks (C-RoFN) using software defined control. A global evaluation scheme (GES) for MSRO in C-RoFN is introduced based on the proposed architecture. The MSRO can enhance the responsiveness to dynamic end-to-end user demands and globally optimize radio frequency, optical and BBU resources effectively to maximize radio coverage. The efficiency and feasibility of the proposed architecture are experimentally demonstrated on OpenFlow-based enhanced SDN testbed. The performance of GES under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated based on MSRO architecture in terms of resource occupation rate and path provisioning latency, compared with other provisioning scheme.

  9. Space Telecommunications Radio System STRS Cognitive Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    Radios today are evolving from awareness toward cognition. A software defined radio (SDR) provides the most capability for integrating autonomic decision making ability and allows the incremental evolution toward a cognitive radio. This cognitive radio technology will impact NASA space communications in areas such as spectrum utilization, interoperability, network operations, and radio resource management over a wide range of operating conditions. NASAs cognitive radio will build upon the infrastructure being developed by Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) SDR technology. This paper explores the feasibility of inserting cognitive capabilities in the NASA STRS architecture and the interfaces between the cognitive engine and the STRS radio. The STRS architecture defines methods that can inform the cognitive engine about the radio environment so that the cognitive engine can learn autonomously from experience, and take appropriate actions to adapt the radio operating characteristics and optimize performance.

  10. From Scorecard to Social Learning: A Reflective Coassessment Approach for Promoting Multiagency Cooperation in Natural Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Roux

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The responsibility for managing and conserving freshwater ecosystems is typically shared by multiple organizations with sometimes conflicting policy mandates. However, scorecard-based approaches for measuring management effectiveness in natural resource management are usually confined to single organizations. This paper describes a social learning approach which acknowledges cooperation as an essential precondition for effective management and that encourages reflective coassessment of cooperative relationships. The approach was pilot tested with eight participating organizations in one water management area in South Africa. It specifically aimed to allow for a multiagency reflective assessment of issues determining cooperative behavior, allow context-specific adaptations, and be embedded in adaptive management. It involved development of a spreadsheet-based scorecard-type tool that can be used to facilitate a multiagency workshop. This workshop serves to bring parties face-to-face and helps them codiscover their interdependence, shortcomings, and strengths. The spreadsheet structures reflection on their respective roles and effectiveness while the reflective coassessment motivates participants to address shortcomings. Overall, insights that emerged included: cooperation should be an explicit component of each organization's operational strategy; facilitation of appropriate cooperative behavior could be very effectively achieved by external "bridging organizations"; the reflective assessment process must be followed by purposefully adaptive interventions; the ability of the scorecard to be contextually adaptive was important; and institutional readiness requires investigation as the approach does sit somewhat uncomfortably with much current practice.

  11. Lenses on ‘Japaneseness’ in the Development Cooperation Charter of 2015: Soft power, human resources development, education and training

    OpenAIRE

    King, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The Working Paper provides a critical analysis of the 2015 Development Assistance Charter, paying particular attention to its case for Japan’s comparative advantage and uniqueness in its development cooperation policies and practice. The term ‘Japaneseness’ is used as a shorthand for this ‘Japan brand ODA’. The paper’s focus is especially on the softer side of Japanese aid, notably its long history of concern with human resources development, knowledge creation, and self-help. These prioritie...

  12. Overview of NRA Human Resource Development Center and NRA Cooperation and Support for IAEA/ANSN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shohei

    2014-01-01

    Vision: • Development and training of NRA employees: → To achieve and maintain nuclear regulation based on a high level of expertise; → To abide by the plan over a long period of time; → To recognize that such workforce is the most valuable asset of the regulatory body. • Establishment of safety culture: → To continuously master specialized knowledge and skills on nuclear safety; → To implement constant thorough review of the safety improvement. • Enhancement of international cooperation: → Cooperation with foreign nuclear regulatory organizations; → Cooperation with emerging nuclear power countries; → Special emphasis on sharing lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident. Mission: • Design, develop and implement training programs for NRA employees; • Promote knowledge transfer from experienced expert to young staff; • Strengthen international cooperation with other nuclear regulatory organizations; • Implement national examinations and develop nuclear safety experts at large etc.; • Continuously improve training programs by implementing a PDCA cycle

  13. A Unit on "Fahrenheit 451" That Uses Cooperative Learning (Resources and Reviews).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbers, Frances A.

    1991-01-01

    Provides a curriculum unit using the novel "Fahrenheit 451" to provide student-centered activities based on solid pedagogical methodology. Emphasizes value-centered analysis of the novel, comparison of alternative arguments, and integration of cooperative learning activities. (PRA)

  14. Cooperation at different scales: challenges for local and international water resource governance in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mirumachi, N

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available . This paper examines how the cooperative principle has influenced stakeholder interaction at the local and international scales of water governance in South Africa. Water policies and initiatives have been set up to promote multi-level governance...

  15. Cross-layer combining of adaptive modulation and truncated ARQ under cognitive radio resource requirements

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli; Ma, Hao; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    In addressing the issue of taking full advantage of the shared spectrum under imposed limitations in a cognitive radio (CR) network, we exploit a cross-layer design for the communications of secondary users (SUs), which combines adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) at the physical layer with truncated automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocol at the data link layer. To achieve high spectral efficiency (SE) while maintaining a target packet loss probability (PLP), switching among different transmission modes is performed to match the time-varying propagation conditions pertaining to the secondary link. Herein, by minimizing the SU's packet error rate (PER) with each transmission mode subject to the spectrum-sharing constraints, we obtain the optimal power allocation at the secondary transmitter (ST) and then derive the probability density function (pdf) of the received SNR at the secondary receiver (SR). Based on these statistics, the SU's packet loss rate and average SE are obtained in closed form, considering transmissions over block-fading channels with different distributions. Our results quantify the relation between the performance of a secondary link exploiting the cross-layer-designed adaptive transmission and the interference inflicted on the primary user (PU) in CR networks. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  16. Cross-layer combining of adaptive modulation and truncated ARQ under cognitive radio resource requirements

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2012-11-01

    In addressing the issue of taking full advantage of the shared spectrum under imposed limitations in a cognitive radio (CR) network, we exploit a cross-layer design for the communications of secondary users (SUs), which combines adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) at the physical layer with truncated automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocol at the data link layer. To achieve high spectral efficiency (SE) while maintaining a target packet loss probability (PLP), switching among different transmission modes is performed to match the time-varying propagation conditions pertaining to the secondary link. Herein, by minimizing the SU\\'s packet error rate (PER) with each transmission mode subject to the spectrum-sharing constraints, we obtain the optimal power allocation at the secondary transmitter (ST) and then derive the probability density function (pdf) of the received SNR at the secondary receiver (SR). Based on these statistics, the SU\\'s packet loss rate and average SE are obtained in closed form, considering transmissions over block-fading channels with different distributions. Our results quantify the relation between the performance of a secondary link exploiting the cross-layer-designed adaptive transmission and the interference inflicted on the primary user (PU) in CR networks. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  17. Biobjective Optimization of Radio Access Technology Selection and Resource Allocation in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Anna; D’Andreagiovanni, Fabio; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2013-01-01

    , in order to include handover as an additional decision dimension. Furthermore, the solution algorithm that we propose refines a heuristic solution approach recently proposed in literature, by considering a real joint optimization of the considered resources. The simulation study shows that the new model...... leads to a significant reduction in handover frequency, when compared to a traditional scheme based on maximum SNR....

  18. Radio Resource Management for Uplink Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2015-01-01

    . On the other hand they will introduce additional power back-off for the power amplifier in the user equipment (UE) with non-contiguous resource allocation. Taking into account that the uplink is inherently limited by the maximum transmission power of the UE, the assignment of uplink CA and/or dual cluster...... scheduling algorithm is proposed for dual-cluster transmission, which tightly couples the bandwidth allocation and packet scheduling together to exploit the frequency domain diversity with low complexity. Simulation results show that with proper differentiation between power-limited and non-power-limited UEs......This paper investigates the uplink resource allocation problem in the context of LTE-Advanced systems with carrier aggregation (CA) and dual-cluster scheduling. On one hand these Rel’10 functionalities can increase the available transmission bandwidth and scheduling flexibility in uplink...

  19. A Utility-Based Downlink Radio Resource Allocation for Multiservice Cellular DS-CDMA Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Shabany

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel framework is proposed to model downlink resource allocation problem in multiservice direct-sequence code division multiple-access (DS-CDMA cellular networks. This framework is based on a defined utility function, which leads to utilizing the network resources in a more efficient way. This utility function quantifies the degree of utilization of resources. As a matter of fact, using the defined utility function, users' channel fluctuations and their delay constraints along with the load conditions of all BSs are all taken into consideration. Unlike previous works, we solve the problem with the general objective of maximizing the total network utility instead of maximizing the achieved utility of each base station (BS. It is shown that this problem is equivalent to finding the optimum BS assignment throughout the network, which is mapped to a multidimensional multiple-choice knapsack problem (MMKP. Since MMKP is NP-hard, a polynomial-time suboptimal algorithm is then proposed to develop an efficient base-station assignment. Simulation results indicate a significant performance improvement in terms of achieved utility and packet drop ratio.

  20. The Mentoring Profile Inventory: An Online Professional Development Resource for Cooperating Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Anthony; Collins, John; Triggs, Valerie; Nielsen, Wendy; Augustine, Ann; Coulter, Dianne; Cunningham, Joni; Grigoriadis, Tina; Hardman, Stephanie; Hunter, Lee; Kinegal, Jane; Li, Bianca; Mah, Jeff; Mastin, Karen; Partridge, David; Pawer, Leonard; Rasoda,Sandy; Salbuvik, Kathleen; Ward, Mitch; White, Janet; Weil, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    We report on the origins, development and refinement of an online inventory to help cooperating teachers focus on selected dimensions of their practice. The Mentoring Profile Inventory (MPI) helps quantify important features of both the motivating and challenging aspects of mentoring student teachers and provides results to respondents in a…

  1. Joint pricing and resource allocation for OFDMA-based cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi; Goldsmith, André a J.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive users can share spectrum with primary users under constraints on the interference that results. We present a new pricing strategy for sharing the primary users' available subchannels with cognitive users by optimizing the secondary and primary users' utilities while meeting the primary users' interference constraints. The primary users aim to maximize their revenues by sharing their subchannels with secondary users while ensuring that they achieve a minimum target capacity. On the other hand, the secondary users aim to maximize their capacity under three different constraints: consumed power, a given budget for sharing subchannels, and tolerable interference caused to the primary users. We introduce a sequential procedure based on a distributed algorithm to determine the resource allocation, interference thresholds and prices that satisfy the requirements of both parties in the network. Simulations show that the users face a tradeoff between capacity, power, and price. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Joint pricing and resource allocation for OFDMA-based cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi

    2011-04-01

    Cognitive users can share spectrum with primary users under constraints on the interference that results. We present a new pricing strategy for sharing the primary users\\' available subchannels with cognitive users by optimizing the secondary and primary users\\' utilities while meeting the primary users\\' interference constraints. The primary users aim to maximize their revenues by sharing their subchannels with secondary users while ensuring that they achieve a minimum target capacity. On the other hand, the secondary users aim to maximize their capacity under three different constraints: consumed power, a given budget for sharing subchannels, and tolerable interference caused to the primary users. We introduce a sequential procedure based on a distributed algorithm to determine the resource allocation, interference thresholds and prices that satisfy the requirements of both parties in the network. Simulations show that the users face a tradeoff between capacity, power, and price. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. From Competitive to Cooperative Resource Management for Cyber-Physical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents models and methods for feedback-based resource management for cyber-physical systems. Common for the scenarios considered are severe resource constraints, uncertain and time-varying conditions and the goal of enabling flexibility in systems design rather than restricting it. A brief survey on reservation-based scheduling, an important enabling technology for this thesis, is provided and shows how modern day resource reservation techniques are derived from their real-time ...

  4. CuRa: Cooperation on non-polluting resource exchange for cost reduction. Final report; CuRa: Cooperation fuer umweltschonenden Ressourcenaustausch zur Nutzung von Kostenreduktionspotenzialen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoen, M.; Delahaye, F.; Hiessl, H.; Kotz, C.; Kuntze, U.; Matuschweski, A.; Schuenke, P.; Zoche, P.; Hafkesbrink, J.; Rebhan, A.; Schroll, M.

    2003-02-01

    The project CuRa: (German acronym for Cooperation for Environmentally Friendly Exchange of Resources) aimed to design elements to put into practice the model of sustainable development. The focus was on the participation of industry and business on a regional level and two model regions were chosen for the analysis of case studies. It was intended to give impulses for regional material flow networks between companies, for example by bundling similar material flows to achieve a better profitability and by one-to-one cooperation between companies, one of them using the waste of the partner as raw material. In addition, the potential for reducing material throughput using modern information technology was investigated in a case study. A set of theses derived from institutional theory was verified on the basis of the empirical results. Useful for the development and the stabilization of networks are, among others, expected economic benefits for the partners, common socio-cultural values and traditions, and using existing institutional arrangements as a basis. Different forms of market and policy failures were identified as obstacles, e.g. the established system of waste disposal services, the focus among the responsible actors on compliance with existing rules, and different regulatory obstacles. Nevertheless, in spite of the insufficient number of successful examples and demonstration projects, a shift in orientation from focusing on mere waste disposal towards a closed loop recycling economy and even towards sustainable development was identified within the commercial sector. (orig.) [German] Im Projekt CuRa: (Cooperation fuer umweltschonenden Ressourcenaustausch) sollten in zwei Modellregionen Bausteine fuer die operative Umsetzung des Leitbildes nachhaltiger Entwicklung durch regionale Akteure aus Industrie und Gewerbe entwickelt werden. Es sollte ein Anstoss zu zwischen- und ueberbetrieblicher Vernetzung von Materialfluessen sowie zu einer Umgestaltung der

  5. Cooperation or competition : dilemma for resource managers in sustainable wildlife utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwakiwa, E.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: analytical modelling; Associated Private Nature Reserves; consumptive use; elephants; Kruger National Park; land productivity; non-consumptive use; waterpoints; Savanna ecosystem model; South Africa.

    Wildlife as part of biodiversity is a global natural resource.

  6. Fairness-Aware Energy-Efficient Resource Allocation for AF Co-Operative OFDMA Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bedeer, Ebrahim; Alorainy, Abdulaziz; Hossain, Md. Jahangir; Amin, Osama; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we adopt an energy-efficiency (EE) metric, named worst-EE, that is suitable for EE fairness optimization in the uplink transmission of amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) networks. More specifically, we assign subcarriers and allocate powers for mobile and relay stations in order to maximize the worst-EE, i.e., to maximize the EE of the mobile station (MS) with the lowest EE value, subject to MSs transmit power, relay station (RS) transmit power, and MSs quality-of-service (QoS) constraints. The formulated primal max-min optimization problem is nonconvex fractional mixed integer nonlinear program, i.e., NP-hard to solve. We provide a novel optimization framework that studies the structure of the primal problem and prove that the dual min-max optimization problem attains the same optimal solution of the primal problem. Additionally, we propose a modified Dinkelbach algorithm, named dual Dinkelbach, to achieve the optimal solution of the dual problem in a polynomial time complexity. We further exploit the structure of the obtained optimal solution and develop a low complexity suboptimal heuristic. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm to improve the network performance in terms of fairness between MSs, worst-EE, and average network transmission rate when compared to traditional schemes that maximize the EE of the whole network. Presented results also show that the suboptimal heuristic balances the achieved performance and the computational complexity.

  7. Fairness-Aware Energy-Efficient Resource Allocation for AF Co-Operative OFDMA Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bedeer, Ebrahim

    2015-09-23

    In this paper, we adopt an energy-efficiency (EE) metric, named worst-EE, that is suitable for EE fairness optimization in the uplink transmission of amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) networks. More specifically, we assign subcarriers and allocate powers for mobile and relay stations in order to maximize the worst-EE, i.e., to maximize the EE of the mobile station (MS) with the lowest EE value, subject to MSs transmit power, relay station (RS) transmit power, and MSs quality-of-service (QoS) constraints. The formulated primal max-min optimization problem is nonconvex fractional mixed integer nonlinear program, i.e., NP-hard to solve. We provide a novel optimization framework that studies the structure of the primal problem and prove that the dual min-max optimization problem attains the same optimal solution of the primal problem. Additionally, we propose a modified Dinkelbach algorithm, named dual Dinkelbach, to achieve the optimal solution of the dual problem in a polynomial time complexity. We further exploit the structure of the obtained optimal solution and develop a low complexity suboptimal heuristic. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm to improve the network performance in terms of fairness between MSs, worst-EE, and average network transmission rate when compared to traditional schemes that maximize the EE of the whole network. Presented results also show that the suboptimal heuristic balances the achieved performance and the computational complexity.

  8. The greening of superpower relations: Cooperative ventures in environmental protection and conservation of resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClave, D.

    1989-01-01

    Ronald Reagan's favorite Russian expression doveryay, no proveryay (trust, but verify). Improbably as it all seemed just five years ago, the superpower verification business has been booming. Each day seems to bring with it a new and wondrous event. In June: Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral Crowe in the cockpit of a BLACKJACK strategic bomber; a team of American scientists measuring the radiation of a cruise-nuclear warhead aboard the Slova, one of the Soviet navy's most powerful ships of the line; in 1988 American inspectors bringing home shrapnel souvenirs of SS-20 missiles exploded deep in Central Asia; General Akhromeyev on a guided tour of the Pentagon and in a B-1B bomber. Consequently, no proposal for building confidence is too farfetched. That assumption underlies the content and the thrust of this paper. In energy and the environment, as in many areas, there is a strong element of parallelism in superpower experience. There is a rising environmental consciousness in the both countries. Strong ecological and geographical incentives exist for cooperation. Specific efforts are also discussed

  9. Novel Concepts of Cooperative Wireless Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    ; secondly, the increasing density of the wireless devices makes cooperation possible; last, the cost of information exchange (i.e. transmission power, transmission time, spectrum, etc.) is very low if information exchange over short-range link is needed. Cooperation changes the way of information delivery......Although wireless networks have achieved great success in the lastest two decades, the current wireless networks have difficulties to fulll users' ever-increasing expectations and needs. It is mainly due to available spectrum resource scarcity, limited battery capacity of wireless device......, unreliable wireless radio link, etc. To tackle these issues, a new telecommunication paradigm has been proposed, referred to as cooperative wireless networking [1]. The basic idea of cooperative wireless networking is that wireless devices work together to achieve their individual goals or one common goal...

  10. The Navruz Project: Cooperative transboundary monitoring data sharing and modeling of water resources in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passell, Howard David; Barber, David S.; Solodukhin, V.; Khazekhber, S.; Pozniak, V.; Vasiliev, I.; Alekhina, V.; Djuraev, Akram; Radyuk, R.; Suozzi, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Navruz Project engages scientists from nuclear physics research institutes and water science institutions in the Central Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and Sandia National Laboratories. The project uses standardized methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Phase I of the project was initiated in 2000 with 15 sampling points in each of the four countries with sample analysis performed for over 100 parameters. Phase II of the project began in 2003 and expanded sampling to include at least 30 points in each country in an effort to characterize ''hot spots'' and to identify sources. Phase III of the project began in 2006 and will integrate decision support modeling with the existing monitoring. Overall, the project addresses four main goals: to create collaboration among Central Asian scientists and countries; to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and nonproliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources. Contamination of these rivers is a result of growing population, urbanization, and agricultural activities, as well as radioactive contamination from a legacy of uranium mining and related activities of the former Soviet Union. The project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of the importance of these contaminants to public health and political stability in Central Asia.

  11. News and Views: Research council resource allocations: managing demand; e-MERLIN radio telescope network is up and running

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The research councils discovered in December the allocation of money from the UK government's Comprehensive Spending Review, and have set out their delivery plans outlining how they will spend it. Details and decisions will follow consultation in the coming months. The first image from eMerlin, the UK's national radio astronomy facility, shows the power of the enhanced network of radio telescopes spread over 220 km and now linked by fibre optics. These links and advanced receivers will allow astronomers to see in a single day what would have previously taken them more than a year of observations.

  12. Contribution Towards Practical Cognitive Radios Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi

    2013-07-01

    Cognitive radios is one of the hot topics for emerging and future wireless commu- nication. It has been proposed as a suitable solution for the spectrum scarcity caused by the increase in frequency demand. The concept is based on allowing unlicensed users, called cognitive or secondary users, to share the unoccupied frequency bands with their owners, called the primary users, under constraints on the interference they cause to them. The objective of our work is to propose some enhancements to cognitive radio systems while taking into account practical constraints. Cogni- tive radios requires a capability to detect spectrum holes (spectrum sensing) and a scheduling flexibility to avoid the occupied spectrum and selectively use the empty spectrum (dynamic resource allocation). Thus, the work is composed of two main parts. The first part focuses on cooperative spectrum sensing. We compute in this part the analytical performance of cooperative spectrum sensing under non identical and imperfect channels. Different schemes are considered for the cooperation between users such as hard binary, censored information, quantized, and soft information. The second part focuses on the dynamic resource allocation. We first propose low-cost re- source allocation algorithms that use location information to estimate the interference to primary users to replace absence of instantaneous channel state information. We extend these algorithms to handle practical implementation constraints such as dis- 5 crete bit-loading and collocated subcarriers allocations. We then propose a reduced dimension approach based on the grouping of subcarriers into clusters and performing the resource allocation over clusters of subcarriers instead of single subcarriers. This approach is shown to reduce the computational complexity of the algorithm with lim- ited performance loss. In addition, it is valid for a generic set of resource allocation problems in presence of co-channel interference between users.

  13. Resource Availability Modulates the Cooperative and Competitive Nature of a Microbial Cross-Feeding Mutualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim A Hoek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutualisms between species play an important role in ecosystem function and stability. However, in some environments, the competitive aspects of an interaction may dominate the mutualistic aspects. Although these transitions could have far-reaching implications, it has been difficult to study the causes and consequences of this mutualistic-competitive transition in experimentally tractable systems. Here, we study a microbial cross-feeding mutualism in which each yeast strain supplies an essential amino acid for its partner strain. We find that, depending upon the amount of freely available amino acid in the environment, this pair of strains can exhibit an obligatory mutualism, facultative mutualism, competition, parasitism, competitive exclusion, or failed mutualism leading to extinction of the population. A simple model capturing the essential features of this interaction explains how resource availability modulates the interaction and predicts that changes in the dynamics of the mutualism in deteriorating environments can provide advance warning that collapse of the mutualism is imminent. We confirm this prediction experimentally by showing that, in the high nutrient competitive regime, the strains rapidly reach a common carrying capacity before slowly reaching the equilibrium ratio between the strains. However, in the low nutrient regime, before collapse of the obligate mutualism, we find that the ratio rapidly reaches its equilibrium and it is the total abundance that is slow to reach equilibrium. Our results provide a general framework for how mutualisms may transition between qualitatively different regimes of interaction in response to changes in nutrient availability in the environment.

  14. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2015-01-01

    Within the EU regulatory framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. While radio licence renewal occurs in many EU countries, an objective, model-based approach for setting licence

  15. Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc. (CRCPD). A model for networking, cooperation, resource sharing, information exchange and regulation harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The focus of the talk will be to introduce the participants to the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc. (CRCPD) and their proven methods for networking, information exchange, regulation development and standardization, and radiation protection guidance on emerging technologies. The presentation will describe how radiation control programs and staff from all 50 states in the US work collaboratively to ensure adequate radiation protection standards are uniformly applied throughout the country by pooling of resources and networking between all the states and the federal government, as well as with international members and partners. The products of CRCPD, such as the Suggested State Regulations along with other relevant informational documents, will be discussed along with how participants can access these products for use in their respective countries. CRCPD and its members represent a comprehensive radiation regulatory structure, covering all radiation sources and activities, (radioactive materials, licensing, registration, radioactive waste, x-ray, accelerators, emergency response, environmental monitoring, radon, and security). Networks are in place for all radiation issues. At the completion of this presentation, the participants will better understand a proven method to develop and implement a cooperative partnership with other countries. They will also gain knowledge on how to access CRCPD products that can be tailored for their own use and how to request technical assistance from membership. (author)

  16. Radio astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagnibeda, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    The history of radio astronomical observations at the Astronomical Observatory of Leningrad State University is reviewed. Various facilities are described, and methods and instruments used are discussed. Some results are summarized for radio observations of the sun, including observations of local sources of solar radio emission, the absolute solar radio flux, and radio emission from filaments and prominences.

  17. Resource Management and Prevention of Moral Harassment: The Cases of Two Agricultural Cooperatives of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alves Storti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify and analyze how preventive work is done on issues related to moral harassment in two agricultural cooperatives in Paraná. The locus chosen for analysis was justified by the need for actions that curb harassment in organizations and by the peculiarity of the environment, in addition to the two cooperatives surveyed being large employers in their region. A qualitative case study approach was taken. Descriptive data was collected through document research and interviews with four managers of the two cooperatives. Findings revealed that both cooperatives analyzed have no records of moral harassment in the Regional Labor Court and use some prevention methods. In addition, statements by personnel management professionals presented some discrepancies with other professionals interviewed, which may be related to a lack of knowledge on the theme or to cultural aspects. The Green Cooperative presented more preventive methods to moral harassment than the Blue Cooperative, including a code of ethics, denunciations via e-mail, organization environment research, a denunciation box and harassment prevention training for future leaders. The Blue Cooperative uses formal channels of communication and employee dialogue, but nothing specifically directed towards situations of harassment, organization climate research, or a code of ethics. Areas of personnel management are suggested to invest more in communicating prevention actions with those involved, which encourages dialogue and the dissemination of knowledge on what harassment is and how to prevent it.

  18. Distributed Joint Cluster Formation and Resource Allocation Scheme for Cooperative Data Collection in Virtual MIMO-Based M2M Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Luan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient data collection scheme plays an important role for the real-time intelligent monitoring in many machine-to-machine (M2M networks. In this paper, a distributed joint cluster formation and resource allocation scheme for data collection in cluster-based M2M networks is proposed. Specifically, in order to utilize the advantages of cooperation, we first propose a hierarchical transmission model which contains two communication phases. In the first phase, the intracluster information sharing is carried out by all the nodes within the same cluster. Then these nodes transmit the total information to the BS cooperatively with virtual-MIMO (VMIMO protocol in the second phase. To grasp the properties and advantages of this cooperative transmission strategy, the theoretical analysis results are provided. The key issue in this system is to form the clusters and allocate resources efficiently. Since the optimization problem on this issue is an NP-hard problem, a feasible joint scheme for the cluster formation and resource allocation is proposed in this paper, which is carried out via coalition formation game with a distributed algorithm. This scheme can reduce the complexity while keeping an attractive performance. Simulation results show the properties of the proposed scheme and its advantages when comparing with the noncooperative scheme for the data collection in a practical scenario.

  19. Interference Management And Game Theoretic Analysis of Cognitive Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Taranto, Rocco

    dynamics between independent primary and cognitive user and to derive rules of local action at the independent cognitive users that result in stable and efficient system operation. We have modeled our scenario via a non-cooperative power control game so that the corresponding Nash equilibriums are taken......Cognitive Radio systems are intended to dynamically access the spectrum that is underutilized by its owner at certain time, geographical location or frequency. Dynamic spectrum access presents a great opportunity to increase the available bandwidth, but it has also posed new challenges...... to the research community. This Ph.D. thesis deals with interference management in Cognitive Radio systems: interference management is a conditio sine qua non for cognitive radio systems, as they can re-use the primary resources underused or not utilized by the respective owners, provided that primary...

  20. The 1999 activities and the 1st seminar on human resources development in the nuclear field as part of Asian regional cooperation (contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    In August, 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, organized by the Atomic Energy Commission based on a resolution of the 10th International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, held in March, 1999. The resolution was adopted as a recognition that 'human resources development' was an important area that should be added to the existing fields of cooperation. The Project was organized by the Atomic Energy Bureau of the Science and Technology Agency (STA) and is administrated by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center (NuTEC) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities: in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities, as the time of the workshops themselves is too short to achieve the objectives. As In-workshop activities, 1st Seminar on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 25 and 26, 1999, at the Tokyo International Forum. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, with Australia submitting a study report only. This report consists of presentation papers at the Seminar as in-workshop activities, and a letter of proposal from the project leader of Japan to the project leaders of participating countries after the Seminar and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the First Coordinators Meeting on March 7 and 8, 2000 as outside-of-workshop activities. The 10 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  1. The 1999 activities and the 1st seminar on human resources development in the nuclear field as part of Asian regional cooperation (contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    In August, 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, organized by the Atomic Energy Commission based on a resolution of the 10th International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, held in March, 1999. The resolution was adopted as a recognition that 'human resources development' was an important area that should be added to the existing fields of cooperation. The Project was organized by the Atomic Energy Bureau of the Science and Technology Agency (STA) and is administrated by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center (NuTEC) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities: in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities, as the time of the workshops themselves is too short to achieve the objectives. As In-workshop activities, 1st Seminar on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 25 and 26, 1999, at the Tokyo International Forum. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, with Australia submitting a study report only. This report consists of presentation papers at the Seminar as in-workshop activities, and a letter of proposal from the project leader of Japan to the project leaders of participating countries after the Seminar and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the First Coordinators Meeting on March 7 and 8, 2000 as outside-of-workshop activities. The 10 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  2. Unlocking radio broadcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette; Lykke, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    This poster reports the preliminary results of a user study uncovering the information seeking behaviour of humanities scholars dedicated to radio research. The study is part of an interdisciplinary research project on radio culture and auditory resources. The purpose of the study is to inform...... the design of information architecture and interaction design of a research infrastructure that will enable future radio and audio based research. Results from a questionnaire survey on humanities scholars‟ research interest and information needs, preferred access points, and indexing levels are reported....... Finally, a flexible metadata schema is suggested, that includes both general metadata and highly media and research project specific metadata....

  3. Review of the human resources needed for development of the activity in a service hospital radio physics; Revision de los medios humanos necesarios para el desarrollo de la actividad en un servicio de radiofisica hospitalaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almansa, J. F.; Burgos, D. E.; Guerrero, R.

    2011-07-01

    The age of the recommendations on minimum human and material resources of the SEFM, along with the emergence of new imaging techniques and new equipment, plus analysis of recent international publications relating to the subject and the establishment of relative value units in several Spanish regions, justify a revision of the minimum necessary human resources to carry out the tasks of Radio physics service with adequate safety and quality.

  4. Radio stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjellming, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Any discussion of the radio emission from stars should begin by emphasizing certain unique problems. First of all, one must clarify a semantic confusion introduced into radio astronomy in the late 1950's when most new radio sources were described as radio stars. All of these early 'radio stars' were eventually identified with other galactic and extra-galactic objects. The study of true radio stars, where the radio emission is produced in the atmosphere of a star, began only in the 1960's. Most of the work on the subject has, in fact, been carried out in only the last few years. Because the real information about radio stars is quite new, it is not surprising that major aspects of the subject are not at all understood. For this reason this paper is organized mainly around three questions: what is the available observational information; what physical processes seem to be involved; and what working hypotheses look potentially fruitful. (Auth.)

  5. Human resource practices and organisational performance: Can the HRM-performance linkage be explained by the cooperative behaviours of employees?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, Mattijs; Sanders, Karin; Koster, Ferry; Zwiers, Marieke

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the question as to whether the linkage between HRM and organisational performance can be explained by the effect of the internal and strategic fit of HRM on the cooperative behaviours of employees. We expect that the more HRM practices are aligned within themselves (internal

  6. You Are Not Alone: Colleague Support and Goal-Oriented Cooperation as Resources to Reduce Teachers' Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolgast, Anett; Fischer, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    The teaching profession is associated with high levels of perceived stress due to time constraints, heavy workload, and extra-curricular obligations. Teachers' perceived stress affects the quality of their instruction and consequently their students' motivation. According to social interdependence theory, frequent cooperative activities with…

  7. Special course for global nuclear human resource development in cooperation with Hitachi-GE nuclear energy in Tokyo institute of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, H.; Futami, T.; Saito, M.; Murata, F.; Shimizu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Many Asian countries are willing to learn Japanese nuclear power plants experiences, and are interested in introducing nuclear power generation to meet their future energy demand. Special course for Global Nuclear Human Resource Development was established in April, 2011 in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at Graduate School of Tokyo Institute of Technology in cooperation with Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy. Purpose of the special course is to develop global nuclear engineers and researchers not only in the Tokyo Institute of Technology but also in the educational institutes of Southeast Asian countries

  8. The 2000 activities and the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field as part of Asian regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    In 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), organized by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities; in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities. As in-workshop activities, the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 27 and 28, 2000, at the Tokai Research Institute of JAERI. As outside-of-workshop activities. 'The presentation of the present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan' was held on November 29, 2000 after the workshop. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The secretariat for the Human Resources Development Projects is provided by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This report consists of presentation papers and materials at the Workshop, presentation documents of 'The present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan', a letter of proposal from the Project Leader of Japan to the project leaders of the participating countries after the Workshop and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the 3rd Coordinators Meeting of FNCA at Tokyo on March 14-16, 2001. (author)

  9. Efforts for nuclear energy human resource development by industry-government-academic sectors cooperation. Nuclear Energy Human Resource Development Council Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    The report consists of eighteen sections such as the present conditions of nuclear energy, decreasing students in the department of technology and decreasing numbers of nuclear-related subjects, The Nuclear Energy Human Resources Development Program (HRD Program), The Nuclear Energy Human Resources Development Council (HRD Council), the industry-academia partnership for human resource development, the present situation of new graduates in the nuclear field, new workers of nuclear industry, the conditions of technical experts in the nuclear energy industry, long-range forecast of human resource, increasing international efforts, nuclear energy human resources development road map, three points for HRD, six basic subjects for HRD, the specific efforts of the industrial, governmental and academic sectors, promoting a better understanding of nuclear energy and supporting job hunting and employment, students to play an active part in the world, and support of the elementary and secondary schools. Change of numbers of nuclear-related subjects of seven universities, change of number of new graduates in nuclear field of various companies from 1985 to 2006, number of people employed by nuclear industries from 1998 to 2007, number of technical experts in the electric companies and the mining and manufacturing industries and forecast of number of technical experts in total nuclear industries are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  10. TOWARDS TO NEW ILLUSTRATION OF RESOURCE CURSE: FDI CHANNEL EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL (GCC COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Elheddad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends a high influential contribution by Poelhekke and Van der Ploeg (2013, on the new mechanism of natural resource curse which is FDI. Using panel data of FDI inflows (aggregate and disaggregate for six oil dependent countries (GCC during a period 1980-2013; our main findings are as follows. First, total FDI is negatively correlated with natural resources measured by oil prices constant 2000 in the long run and short term. This negative impact ranged between 0.21% and 0.41% if oil prices changed by one percent increase. Secondly, FDI in resource sector falls by around 0.44-0.47%, but non-resource FDI increased by about 0.21- 0.29% when the interaction term between oil revenues and initial oil prices (1980 increases by 1%. These results are robust even after including other FDI determinants.

  11. Radio stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjellming, R.M.; Gibson, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of stellar radio emission became an important field of research in the 1970's and have now expanded to become a major area of radio astronomy with the advent of new instruments such as the Very Large Array in New Mexico and transcontinental telescope arrays. This volume contains papers from the workshop on stellar continuum radio astronomy held in Boulder, Colorado, and is the first book on the rapidly expanding field of radio emission from stars and stellar systems. Subjects covered include the observational and theoretical aspects of stellar winds from both hot and cool stars, radio flares from active double star systems and red dwarf stars, bipolar flows from star-forming regions, and the radio emission from X-ray binaries. (orig.)

  12. Adaptive Decision-Making Scheme for Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail; Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-01

    Radio resource management becomes an important aspect of the current wireless networks because of spectrum scarcity and applications heterogeneity. Cognitive radio is a potential candidate for resource management because of its capability to satisfy

  13. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU Regulatory Framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. In this paper, it is described how such a fee can be determined for the purpose of licence renewal or extension.

  14. Data collection for cooperative water resources modeling in the Lower Rio Grande Basin, Fort Quitman to the Gulf of Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard David; Pallachula, Kiran (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Villalobos, Joshua (Texas A& M University); Piccinni, Giovanni (Texas A& M University); Brainard, James Robert; Gerik, Thomas (Texas A& M University); Morrison, Wendy (Texas A& M University); Serrat-Capdevila, Aleix (University of Arizona); Valdes, Juan (University of Arizona); Sheng, Zhuping (Texas A& M University); Lovato, Rene (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Guitron, Alberto (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Ennis, Martha Lee; Aparicio, Javier (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Newman, Gretchen Carr (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Michelsen, Ari M. (Texas A& M University)

    2004-10-01

    Water resource scarcity around the world is driving the need for the development of simulation models that can assist in water resources management. Transboundary water resources are receiving special attention because of the potential for conflict over scarce shared water resources. The Rio Grande/Rio Bravo along the U.S./Mexican border is an example of a scarce, transboundary water resource over which conflict has already begun. The data collection and modeling effort described in this report aims at developing methods for international collaboration, data collection, data integration and modeling for simulating geographically large and diverse international watersheds, with a special focus on the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo. This report describes the basin, and the data collected. This data collection effort was spatially aggregated across five reaches consisting of Fort Quitman to Presidio, the Rio Conchos, Presidio to Amistad Dam, Amistad Dam to Falcon Dam, and Falcon Dam to the Gulf of Mexico. This report represents a nine-month effort made in FY04, during which time the model was not completed.

  15. Forestry cooperatives: what today's resource professionals need to know. Proceedings of a satellite conference; 2003 November 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Jakes

    2006-01-01

    Nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) land represents approximately 48 percent of the forest land cover in the United States, and conscientious stewardship of these forests is a perennial issue facing natural resource professionals. In an attempt to draw on the strengths of NIPF ownership, some entrepreneurial forest landowners are developing forest landowner...

  16. Research cooperation project on environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment. Detail design for pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Photographs and drawings were edited into a book in relation with a joint project for environment preservation technologies in high-efficiency extraction and treatment of mineral resources, and detail design for a pilot plant. The book classified the related devices into fabricated devices, purchased devices and electrical devices, and contains detailed drawings and photographs thereof. (NEDO)

  17. Collective action for multi-scale environmental management: Achieving landscape policy objectives through cooperation of local resource managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona-Torres, C.; Parra-López, C.; Groot, J.C.J.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    The design of efficient public policies that aim to improve the provision of ecosystem services faces the problem that many ecosystem services are only apparent at spatial levels beyond the level at which they are managed. This makes it impossible to measure the contribution of individual resource

  18. The 2000 activities and the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field as part of Asian regional cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), organized by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities; in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities. As in-workshop activities, the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 27 and 28, 2000, at the Tokai Research Institute of JAERI. As outside-of-workshop activities. 'The presentation of the present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan' was held on November 29, 2000 after the workshop. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The secretariat for the Human Resources Development Projects is provided by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This report consists of presentation papers and materials at the Workshop, presentation documents of 'The present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan', a letter of proposal from the Project Leader of Japan to the project leaders of the participating countries after the Workshop and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the 3rd Coordinators Meeting of FNCA at Tokyo on March 14-16, 2001. (author)

  19. The story of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Taek

    1989-09-01

    This book gives descriptions of technical cooperation, which is about why does technology transfer?, process of technology transfer with model, decisive cause and cooperation of technology transfer, cost and effect of technology transfer, historical experience of technology transfer, cases of technology transfer by field such as rubber tire, medicine and computer industry and automobile industry, technology transfer process and present condition of technical cooperation, and strategy for rising of technical cooperation : selection of technology for object of cooperation and development of human resources.

  20. Solar Radio

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  1. Radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parijskij, Y.N.; Gossachinskij, I.V.; Zuckerman, B.; Khersonsky, V.K.; Pustilnik, S.; Robinson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of major developments and discoveries in the field of radioastronomy during the period 1973-1975 is presented. The report is presented under the following headings:(1) Continuum radiation from the Galaxy; (2) Neutral hydrogen, 21 cm (galactic and extragalactic) and recombination lines; (3) Radioastronomy investigations of interstellar molecules; (4) Extragalactic radio astronomy and (6) Development in radio astronomy instruments. (B.R.H.)

  2. Worldwide Implementation of Digital Imaging in Radiology. A Resource Guide. In Cooperation with the World Health Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides a basic introduction to digital technology and digital networks as well as an overview of the issues to consider when implementing such technology in diagnostic radiology. In an area that is under rapid development, it provides a careful analysis of the principles and advice on implementation and sustainability of digital imaging and teleradiology. The transition from film to digitally based medical imaging is complex and requires knowledge and planning to be successful. This comprehensive resource guide contains information on the needs and implications of a transition to digital imaging with case studies for different facilities requiring different levels of communication connectivity. It is aimed at hospital administrators and managers, radiologists and radiographers/technologists, medical physicists and clinical engineers as well as information technology staff

  3. 75 FR 46854 - Amendment of the Commission's Rules Regarding Amateur Radio Service Communications During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... Civil Emergency Service (RACES), the Amateur Radio Relay League's Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES... nation with Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) as described in the National Infrastructure...

  4. An active cooperation-aware spectrum allocation mechanism for body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fu; Guo, Ying; Peng, Jun; Hu, Jiankun

    2015-01-28

    A cognitive radio-based spectrum allocation scheme using an active cooperative-aware mechanism is proposed in this paper. The scheme ensures that the primary user and secondary users cooperate actively for their own benefits. The primary user releases some spectrum resources to secondary users to actively stimulate them to actively join the cooperative transmission of the primary user, and secondary users help the primary user to relay data in return, as well as its self-data transmission at the same time. The Stackelberg game is used to evenly and jointly optimize the utilities of both the primary and secondary users. Simulation results show that the proposed active cooperation-aware mechanism could improve the body sensor network performance.

  5. An Active Cooperation-Aware Spectrum Allocation Mechanism for Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cognitive radio-based spectrum allocation scheme using an active cooperative-aware mechanism is proposed in this paper. The scheme ensures that the primary user and secondary users cooperate actively for their own benefits. The primary user releases some spectrum resources to secondary users to actively stimulate them to actively join the cooperative transmission of the primary user, and secondary users help the primary user to relay data in return, as well as its self-data transmission at the same time. The Stackelberg game is used to evenly and jointly optimize the utilities of both the primary and secondary users. Simulation results show that the proposed active cooperation-aware mechanism could improve the body sensor network performance.

  6. Radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Alder, Berni

    1975-01-01

    Methods in Computational Physics, Volume 14: Radio Astronomy is devoted to the role of the digital computer both as a control device and as a calculator in addressing problems related to galactic radio noise. This volume contains four chapters and begins with a technical description of the hardware and the special data-handling problems of using radioheliography, with an emphasis on a selection of observational results obtained with the Culgoora radioheliograph and their significance to solar physics and to astrophysics in general. The subsequent chapter examines interstellar dispersion, i

  7. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  8. Distributed opportunistic spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hawa, Mohammed; Alammouri, Ahmad; Alhiary, Ala; Alhamad, Nidal

    2016-01-01

    In cases where the licensed radio spectrum is underutilized, cognitive radio technology enables cognitive devices to sense and then dynamically access this scarce resource making the most out of it. In this work, we introduce a simple and intuitive

  9. Evaluating Farmers Access To Productive Resources Through Cooperative Societies And Its Effects On Their Performance In Rural Communities Of Anambra State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Abdulahi Olabisi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The poverty of Nigerian farmers and their inability to increase their output and income above the subsistence level have been identified as one of the factors militating against food production in Nigeria. Yet agricultural cooperative create the ability for the supply of required agricultural inputs so that production of commodities is done timely to enhance productivity. They also provide an assured market for commodities produced by isolated small farmers in the rural areas. This paper was determined to evaluate the effects of cooperative societies on members output. The researchers administered a total of one hundred and twenty-six 126 questionnaires to the respondents with the assistance of the divisional cooperative officers. The hypotheses were analyzed through the use of t-test statistic and regression analysis. Results showed that the various Services rendered by farmers cooperative to their members include agric credit improved seedlings fertilizer and market access. They however disagreed that they received extension services the cooperative farmers agreed that they have access to the following agricultural services after joining cooperatives Access to Agric credit Access to Improved Seedlings and Access to Fertilizer. They disagree that they have Access to emerging markets and Access to Extension services. Hence the need to adopt cooperative as a platform for improving farmers productivity and output in Awka South L.G.A of Anambra state. As such the researchers therefore recommends that the Anambra State government should encourage research development and provision of adequate extension services to cooperative farmers through the Ministry in charge of cooperative in the state. Through the extension education the farmers will have knowledge of emerging markets and cooperative farmers should also be encouraged to join cooperative to enable them have access to agricultural credit among others.

  10. The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

  11. Fiscal 1980 Sunshine Project research report. International cooperation project for energy technology. International research cooperation for geothermal energy (Japan-U.S. R and D cooperation for geothermal resource assessment); 1980 nendo energy gijutsu kokusai kyoryoku jigyo chinetsu energy kokusai kyoryoku seika hokokusho. Chinetsu shigen hyoka ni kansuru Nichibei kenkyu kaihatsu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Based on the Japan-U.S. agreement on promotion of geothermal energy applications, the R and D cooperation specialist panel was held in America on March 12-20, 1981 to exchange the current R and D information on geothermal resources. It was clarified through the meeting in Department of Energy (DOE) that the U.S. budget was reduced by the Reagan Administration largely, resulting in delays in development of geothermal energy and construction of geothermal power plants. The following themes were discussed: Japanese and American geothermal development programs, DOE's industrialization activity, hot dry rock program, geoscience program, and geothermal prospecting technology program. It was clarified through the meeting in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that since the governmental resource assessment is made by USGS, however, wide data collection is made by other organizations generally, acquisition of data required for the assessment is difficult. Study on MOU is necessary together with fund allocation. Field survey was also made in Raft River, Cove Fort and Roosevelt. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1980 Sunshine Project research report. International cooperation project for energy technology. International research cooperation for geothermal energy (Japan-U.S. R and D cooperation for geothermal resource assessment); 1980 nendo energy gijutsu kokusai kyoryoku jigyo chinetsu energy kokusai kyoryoku seika hokokusho. Chinetsu shigen hyoka ni kansuru Nichibei kenkyu kaihatsu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Based on the Japan-U.S. agreement on promotion of geothermal energy applications, the R and D cooperation specialist panel was held in America on March 12-20, 1981 to exchange the current R and D information on geothermal resources. It was clarified through the meeting in Department of Energy (DOE) that the U.S. budget was reduced by the Reagan Administration largely, resulting in delays in development of geothermal energy and construction of geothermal power plants. The following themes were discussed: Japanese and American geothermal development programs, DOE's industrialization activity, hot dry rock program, geoscience program, and geothermal prospecting technology program. It was clarified through the meeting in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that since the governmental resource assessment is made by USGS, however, wide data collection is made by other organizations generally, acquisition of data required for the assessment is difficult. Study on MOU is necessary together with fund allocation. Field survey was also made in Raft River, Cove Fort and Roosevelt. (NEDO)

  13. Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, T.; Chen, X.; Mohan, P.; Lao, B. Q.

    2017-09-01

    The observational facilities of radio astronomy keep constant upgrades and developments to achieve better capabilities including increasing the time of the data recording and frequency resolutions, and increasing the receiving and recording bandwidth. However in contrast, only a limited spectrum resource has been allocated to radio astronomy by the International Telecommunication Union, resulting in that the radio observational instrumentations are inevitably exposed to undesirable radio frequency interference (RFI) signals which originate mainly from the terrestrial human activity and are becoming stronger with time. RFIs degrade the quality of data and even lead to invalid data. The impact of RFIs on scientific outcome becomes more and more serious. In this article, the requirement for RFI mitigation is motivated, and the RFI characteristics, mitigation techniques, and strategies are reviewed. The mitigation strategies adopted at some representative observatories, telescopes, and arrays are also introduced. The advantages and shortcomings of the four classes of RFI mitigation strategies are discussed and presented, applicable at the connected causal stages: preventive, pre-detection, pre-correlation, and post-correlation. The proper identification and flagging of RFI is the key to the reduction of data loss and improvement in data quality, and is also the ultimate goal of developing RFI mitigation technique. This can be achieved through a strategy involving a combination of the discussed techniques in stages. The recent advances in the high speed digital signal processing and high performance computing allow for performing RFI excision of the large data volumes generated from large telescopes or arrays in both real time and offline modes, aiding the proposed strategy.

  14. The radio universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worvill, R.

    1977-01-01

    Elementary description of the development of radioastronomy, radio waves from the sun and planets, the use of radio telescopes and the detection of nebulae, supernova, radio galaxies and quasars is presented. A brief glossary of terms is included. (UK)

  15. Hybrid cognitive engine for radio systems adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2017-07-20

    Network efficiency and proper utilization of its resources are essential requirements to operate wireless networks in an optimal fashion. Cognitive radio aims to fulfill these requirements by exploiting artificial intelligence techniques to create an entity called cognitive engine. Cognitive engine exploits awareness about the surrounding radio environment to optimize the use of radio resources and adapt relevant transmission parameters. In this paper, we propose a hybrid cognitive engine that employs Case Based Reasoning (CBR) and Decision Trees (DTs) to perform radio adaptation in multi-carriers wireless networks. The engine complexity is reduced by employing DTs to improve the indexing methodology used in CBR cases retrieval. The performance of our hybrid engine is validated using software defined radios implementation and simulation in multi-carrier environment. The system throughput, signal to noise and interference ratio, and packet error rate are obtained and compared with other schemes in different scenarios.

  16. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  17. A shift in the paradigm of energy cooperation between Russia and Northeast Asia countries facing new global and regional challenges: from predominant sale of energy resources to innovation and technology cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneev, Boris; Sokolov, Alexander; Lagerev, Anatoly; Popov, Sergei; Ivanova, Irina; Izbuldin, Alexander; Korneyev, Anatoly; Muzychuk, Svetlana; Sokolov, Dmitry

    2018-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the specific features of Russia's economic development in a new economic environment that caused the need to revise the priorities of energy policy. The research presents the initial conditions, targets and strategic directions of energy development in the East of the country. The focus is made on the priority lines of innovation and technology cooperation between Russia and Northeast Asian countries in the field of energy, and recommendations on necessary conditions and initiatives for their successful implementation are given.

  18. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured foreign cooperation particularly in the frame of the Slovak Republic is membership in the IAEA, as well as cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD NEA), cooperation with European Union in the frame of PHARE programmes, and intergovernmental cooperation and cooperation among nuclear regulatory authorities. With respect to an international importance, prestige and a wide-scope possibilities of a technical assistance , either a direct one (expert assessments, technology supplies, work placement, scientific trips, training courses) or indirect one (participation at various conferences, seminars, technical committees, etc), the most important cooperation with the IAEA in Vienna. In 1994, the Slovak Republic, was elected to the Board Governors, the represent the group of Eastern European countries. The Slovak Government entrusted the NRA SR's Chairman with representing the Slovak Republic in the Board of Governors. Owing to a good name of Slovakia was elected to the one of two Vice-Chairmen of the Board of Governors at the 882-nd session on the Board. IAEA approved and developed 8 national projects for Slovakia in 1995. Generally, IAEA is contracting scientific contracts with research institutes, nuclear power plants and other organizations. Slovak organizations used these contracts as complementary funding of their tasks. In 1995, there were 12 scientific contracts in progress, or approved respectively. Other international activities of the NRA SR, international co-operations as well as foreign affairs are reported

  19. El Arte de Aprender: Una Aventura Cooperativa. Un guia de recursos para trabajar con ninos jovenes. (Learning: A Cooperative Adventure. A Resource Guide for Working with Young Children.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    Due to the large numbers of children from Spanish-speaking homes, many districts send both English and Spanish written communication to parents and community members. Therefore this booklet, a Spanish translation of "Learning: A Cooperative Adventure" (ED 119 868), was prepared to provide parents and preschool and kindergarten staff members with…

  20. Internationalization of Higher Education in China: Chinese-Foreign Cooperation in Running Schools and the Introduction of High-Quality Foreign Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhen

    2009-01-01

    With the acceleration of the internationalization process of higher education in China, the Chinese-foreign cooperation in running schools (CFCRS) has been developing at an expeditious pace nowadays. It positively enhances the internationalization process of Chinese higher education and greatly contributes to providing the society with talents.…

  1. Um modelo de atores e recursos para redes de cooperação entre empresas em obras de edificações A model of actors and resources for cooperation networks among companies in building projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Müller Guerrini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As redes de cooperação entre empresas têm papel estratégico para que as empresas acessem tecnologias, informação, mercados e recursos, aumentando assim seus conhecimentos, suas experiências e obtendo economias de escala e escopo. O objetivo do artigo é propor um modelo de atores e recursos para auxiliar a formação de redes de cooperação entre empresas de construção civil em obras de edificações. Para tal finalidade, realizou-se um estudo de caso múltiplo de caráter exploratório em sete obras de edificações em diferentes estágios de execução. A modelagem organizacional foi realizada com a metodologia Enterprise Knowledge Development (EKD para representar os relacionamentos interorganizacionais, as responsabilidades de cada ator envolvido e o processo de ciclo de vida da rede. Como resultado, sistematizou-se um modelo de atores e recursos para obras de edificações de modo que os potenciais gestores da rede tenham uma visão clara dos relacionamentos e responsabilidades dos atores na realização dos processos.The cooperation networks among companies have a strategic position to enable access to technologies, information, markets and resources, in order to increase knowledge, experiences and to get scale and scope economy. Using the theoretical referential on cooperation networks, this paper addresses a multiple exploratory case study in different execution stages, in order to provide potential network managers the comprehension about the relationship and responsibilities among actors in the execution process. The organizational modeling uses the Enterprise Knowledge Development (EKD methodology, to represent the relationship between actors and resources and the network life cycle. The results present a model of actors and resources for cooperation networks among companies in building projects.

  2. Nuclear energy and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Keiichi

    1981-01-01

    There is no need to emphasize that nuclear energy cannot be developed without international cooperation at either the industrial or the academic level. In the meanwhile, there have been some marked political, economic and social changes in recent years which are posing constraints to the international cooperation in nuclear energy. The problems and constraints impeding nuclear power programs cannot be overcome by only one nation; international cooperation with common efforts to solve the problems is essential. Nuclear energy is different from fossil energy resources in that it is highly technology-intensive while others are resource-intensive. International cooperation in technology has an entirely different importance in the field of nuclear energy. Educational institutions will play a role in a new era of the international cooperation. (Mori, K.)

  3. Building capacity for co-operative governance as a basis for integrated water resource managing in the Inkomati and Mvoti catchments, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Colvin, J; Ballim, F; Chimbuya, S; Everard, M; Goss, J; Klarenberg, G; Ndlovu, S; Ncala, D; Weston, D

    2008-01-01

    South Africa's National Water Act and National Water Resource Strategy set out an ambitious vision for Integrated Water Resources Management including a strong focus on the redistribution of water resources towards the poor and on empowering historically disadvantaged communities. To achieve this vision the Department of Water Affairs & Forestry (DWAF) has been pursuing a programme for devolving powers to 19 stakeholder-led catchment management agencies (CMAs) and more locally, transforming i...

  4. NCI’s Cooperative Human Tissue Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality biospecimens are a foundational resource for cancer research. One of NCI’s longest running biospecimen programs is the Cooperative Human Tissue Network, a resource mainly for basic discovery and early translational research.

  5. Adaptive Decision-Making Scheme for Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2014-05-01

    Radio resource management becomes an important aspect of the current wireless networks because of spectrum scarcity and applications heterogeneity. Cognitive radio is a potential candidate for resource management because of its capability to satisfy the growing wireless demand and improve network efficiency. Decision-making is the main function of the radio resources management process as it determines the radio parameters that control the use of these resources. In this paper, we propose an adaptive decision-making scheme (ADMS) for radio resources management of different types of network applications including: power consuming, emergency, multimedia, and spectrum sharing. ADMS exploits genetic algorithm (GA) as an optimization tool for decision-making. It consists of the several objective functions for the decision-making process such as minimizing power consumption, packet error rate (PER), delay, and interference. On the other hand, maximizing throughput and spectral efficiency. Simulation results and test bed evaluation demonstrate ADMS functionality and efficiency.

  6. 1998 research cooperation project. Research cooperation on environment-compatible type water resource effective-utilization system; 1998 nendo kankyo taiogata mizushigen yuko riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the purpose of securing water stably and preventing water pollution in the Philippines, R and D were carried out on a wastewater treatment and water reclamation and reuse system which is easy to operate and maintain and low in cost through the research cooperation between the Philippine Industrial Technology Development Institute and Japan. According to the survey result of statistical data concerning water pollution load structure by industrial wastewater classified by the industry in the Philippines, enumerated are the food manufacturing industry, paper pulp manufacturing industry, and the textile dyeing industry as those greatly affecting water pollution in BOD exhaust and wastewater, etc. Consequently, with Ram Food Product Co. of vegetable processing and Solid Mill Co., of textile dyeing as plants to be studied, a wastewater treatment test was performed in a laboratory scale. From the result of the test, the pilot plant was basically designed to have 'anaerobic + aerobic treatment + tertiary treatment' for the treatment process, with an one-tank type UASB method used as the anaerobic treatment, with a sand filtration + activated charcoal treatment as the tertiary treatment, and with the cost effectiveness for water reuse set to be examined. (NEDO)

  7. Research cooperation project on environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment. Detail design for pilot plant (Mechanical fabrication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper prepared plans of the mechanical equipment in the detailed design of a pilot plant in the joint research project on the environmental protection technology for highly efficient mineral resource extraction and treatment. (NEDO)

  8. Cognitive Radio MAC Protocol for WLAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, Frank H.P.; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2008-01-01

    hole; moreover, it designs dual inband sensing scheme to detect primary user appearance. Additionally, C-CSMA/CA has the advantage to effectively solve the cognitive radio self-coexistence issues in the overlapping CR BSSs scenario. It also realizes station-based dynamic resource selection......To solve the performance degradation issue in current WLAN caused by the crowded unlicensed spectrum, we propose a cognitive radio (CR) media access protocol, C-CSMA/CA. The basic idea is that with cognitive radio techniques the WLAN devices can not only access the legacy WLAN unlicensed spectrum...

  9. Impact of cognitive radio on radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, A.J.; Baan, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of new communication techniques requires an increase in the efficiency of spectrum usage. Cognitive radio is one of the new techniques that fosters spectrum efficiency by using unoccupied frequency spectrum for communications. However, cognitive radio will increase the transmission

  10. Fast Radio Bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akshaya Rane

    2017-09-12

    ) which were first discovered a decade ago. Following an introduction to radio transients in general, including pulsars and rotating radio transients, we discuss the discovery of FRBs. We then discuss FRB follow-up ...

  11. La radio digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Cortés S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La radio digital es un producto de la llamada convergencia digital. Las nuevas tecnologías interconectadas permiten la aparición de nuevos modos de audiencia y la implementación de herramientas versátiles. Habla del problema de los estándares, de la radio satelital, la radio digital terrestre, las radios internacionales, la interactividad.

  12. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  13. Interorganizational Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    Administrative Services Officer , Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs, Office of the Chief Financial Officer , Office of the Chief ...Nations. • Clarifies the role of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Transition Initiatives and its relationship...Centralize interorganizational cooperation within the command group. Under this model, the chief of staff or a special staff officer within the command

  14. Concurrent bandits and cognitive radio networks

    OpenAIRE

    Avner, Orly; Mannor, Shie

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of multiple users targeting the arms of a single multi-armed stochastic bandit. The motivation for this problem comes from cognitive radio networks, where selfish users need to coexist without any side communication between them, implicit cooperation or common control. Even the number of users may be unknown and can vary as users join or leave the network. We propose an algorithm that combines an $\\epsilon$-greedy learning rule with a collision avoidance mechanism. We ...

  15. Ham radio for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Silver, H Ward

    2013-01-01

    An ideal first step for learning about ham radio Beyond operating wirelessly, today's ham radio operators can transmit data and pictures; use the Internet, laser, and microwave transmitters; and travel to places high and low to make contact. This hands-on beginner guide reflects the operational and technical changes to amateur radio over the past decade and provides you with updated licensing requirements and information, changes in digital communication (such as the Internet, social media, and GPS), and how to use e-mail via radio. Addresses the critical use of ham radio for replacing downe

  16. Radiography of Spanish Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Emma Rodero Antón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In its eighty years of existence, radio has been always characterized to adapt to the social, cultural and technological transformations. Thus it has been until this moment. Nevertheless, some years ago, the authors and professionals of this medium have been detecting a stagnation that affects to its structure. At a time in continuous technological evolution, radio demands a deep transformation. For that reason, from the conviction of which the future radio, public and commercial, will necessarily have to renew itself, in this paper we establish ten problems and their possible solutions to the radio crisis in order to draw an x-ray of radio in Spain. Radio has future, but it is necessary to work actively by it. That the radio continues being part of sound of our life, it will depend on the work of all: companies, advertisers, professionals, students, investigators and listeners.

  17. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    something of a minor tourist attraction, he later recalled. Using electronics he designed and built that pushed the technical capabilities of the era, Reber succeeded in detecting "cosmic static" in 1939. In 1941, Reber produced the first radio map of the sky, based on a series of systematic observations. His radio-astronomy work continued over the next several years. Though not a professional scientist, his research results were published in a number of prestigious technical journals, including Nature, the Astrophysical Journal, the Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers and the Journal of Geophysical Research. Reber also received a number of honors normally reserved for scientists professionally trained in astronomy, including the American Astronomical Society's Henry Norris Russell Lectureship and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific's Bruce Medal in 1962, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Jansky Lectureship in 1975, and the Royal Astronomical Society's Jackson-Gwilt Medal in 1983. Reber's original dish antenna now is on display at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's site in Green Bank, West Virginia, where Reber worked in the late 1950s. All of his scientific papers and records as well as his personal and scientific correspondence are held by the NRAO, and will be exhibited in the observatory's planned new library in Charlottesville, Virginia. Reber's amateur-radio callsign, W9GFZ, is held by the NRAO Amateur Radio Club. This callsign was used on the air for the first time since the 1930s on August 25, 2000, to mark the dedication of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  18. Cooperation of the member states of the SEV in the field of energy, fuel and raw material resources, and the problems of developing of new sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapol' i, L

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of the agreement concerning the creation of a combined organization for conducting geological prospecting operations for petroleum and gas in the Baltic Sea in the area of the continental shelf and the floor of the territorial waters of the signatory states of East Germany, Poland, and the USSR, which was signed in 1975, the Petrolbaltik organization ws created. A long time program of cooperation in the areas of energy, fuel, and raw materials foresees that the SEV member states will carry out prospective scientific developments on the use of new sources of energy, including solar, wind, chemical and geothermal forms of energy. Forty-seven scientific and technical organization of the SEV member states are working under the leadership of the Coordination center concerning the problem, ''New methods on the use of coal,'' on the industrial use of the by-products of hte extraction and enrichment of coal, the methods of their coking, and their liquefaction and gasification. The technique of producing alumina and cement from the ash of energy systems, working on coal, as well as from coal heaps is being successfully applied in Hungary.

  19. Advanced Radio Resource Management for IMT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monserrat, Jose M.; Sroka, Pawel; Auer, Gunther

    The race towards IMT-Advanced was recently started by ITU-R who distributed a Circular Letter asking for the submission of new technology proposals. The European Celtic project WINNER+ is bridging together experts from industry, academia and government all around Europe to devise this next fourth...

  20. Resource Allocation for Cloud Radio Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Dhifallah, Oussama Najeeb

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition-based algorithm and the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM)-based algorithm). One highlight of this part is that the proposed solutions can be implemented in a distributed fashion by allowing a reasonable information exchange between

  1. Technological Resources to Prevent Cyberbullying During Adolescence: The Cyberprogram 2.0 Program and the Cooperative Cybereduca 2.0 Videogame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Martínez-Valderrey, Vanesa

    2018-01-01

    Bullying and cyberbullying have serious consequences for all those involved, especially the victims, and its prevalence is high throughout all the years of schooling, which emphasizes the importance of prevention. This article describes an intervention proposal, made up of a program (Cyberprogram 2.0 Garaigordobil and Martínez-Valderrey, 2014a) and a videogame (Cooperative Cybereduca 2.0 Garaigordobil and Martínez-Valderrey, 2016b) which aims to prevent and reduce cyberbullying during adolescence and which has been validated experimentally. The proposal has four objectives: (1) To know what bullying and cyberbullying are, to reflect on the people involved in these situations; (2) to become aware of the harm caused by such behaviors and the severe consequences for all involved; (3) to learn guidelines to prevent and deal with these situations: know what to do when one suffers this kind of violence or when observing that someone else is suffering it; and (4) to foster the development of social and emotional factors that inhibit violent behavior (e.g., communication, ethical-moral values, empathy, cooperation…). The proposal is structured around 25 activities to fulfill these goals and it ends with the videogame. The activities are carried out in the classroom, and the online video is the last activity, which represents the end of the intervention program. The videogame (www.cybereduca.com) is a trivial pursuit game with questions and answers related to bullying/cyberbullying. This cybernetic trivial pursuit is organized around a fantasy story, a comic that guides the game. The videogame contains 120 questions about 5 topics: cyberphenomena, computer technology and safety, cybersexuality, consequences of bullying/cyberbullying, and coping with bullying/cyberbullying. To evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention, a quasi-experimental design, with repeated pretest-posttest measures and control groups, was used. During the pretest and posttest stages, 8

  2. Technological Resources to Prevent Cyberbullying During Adolescence: The Cyberprogram 2.0 Program and the Cooperative Cybereduca 2.0 Videogame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Martínez-Valderrey, Vanesa

    2018-01-01

    Bullying and cyberbullying have serious consequences for all those involved, especially the victims, and its prevalence is high throughout all the years of schooling, which emphasizes the importance of prevention. This article describes an intervention proposal, made up of a program (Cyberprogram 2.0 Garaigordobil and Martínez-Valderrey, 2014a) and a videogame (Cooperative Cybereduca 2.0 Garaigordobil and Martínez-Valderrey, 2016b) which aims to prevent and reduce cyberbullying during adolescence and which has been validated experimentally. The proposal has four objectives: (1) To know what bullying and cyberbullying are, to reflect on the people involved in these situations; (2) to become aware of the harm caused by such behaviors and the severe consequences for all involved; (3) to learn guidelines to prevent and deal with these situations: know what to do when one suffers this kind of violence or when observing that someone else is suffering it; and (4) to foster the development of social and emotional factors that inhibit violent behavior (e.g., communication, ethical-moral values, empathy, cooperation…). The proposal is structured around 25 activities to fulfill these goals and it ends with the videogame. The activities are carried out in the classroom, and the online video is the last activity, which represents the end of the intervention program. The videogame (www.cybereduca.com) is a trivial pursuit game with questions and answers related to bullying/cyberbullying. This cybernetic trivial pursuit is organized around a fantasy story, a comic that guides the game. The videogame contains 120 questions about 5 topics: cyberphenomena, computer technology and safety, cybersexuality, consequences of bullying/cyberbullying, and coping with bullying/cyberbullying. To evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention, a quasi-experimental design, with repeated pretest-posttest measures and control groups, was used. During the pretest and posttest stages, 8

  3. Technological Resources to Prevent Cyberbullying During Adolescence: The Cyberprogram 2.0 Program and the Cooperative Cybereduca 2.0 Videogame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Garaigordobil

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bullying and cyberbullying have serious consequences for all those involved, especially the victims, and its prevalence is high throughout all the years of schooling, which emphasizes the importance of prevention. This article describes an intervention proposal, made up of a program (Cyberprogram 2.0 Garaigordobil and Martínez-Valderrey, 2014a and a videogame (Cooperative Cybereduca 2.0 Garaigordobil and Martínez-Valderrey, 2016b which aims to prevent and reduce cyberbullying during adolescence and which has been validated experimentally. The proposal has four objectives: (1 To know what bullying and cyberbullying are, to reflect on the people involved in these situations; (2 to become aware of the harm caused by such behaviors and the severe consequences for all involved; (3 to learn guidelines to prevent and deal with these situations: know what to do when one suffers this kind of violence or when observing that someone else is suffering it; and (4 to foster the development of social and emotional factors that inhibit violent behavior (e.g., communication, ethical-moral values, empathy, cooperation…. The proposal is structured around 25 activities to fulfill these goals and it ends with the videogame. The activities are carried out in the classroom, and the online video is the last activity, which represents the end of the intervention program. The videogame (www.cybereduca.com is a trivial pursuit game with questions and answers related to bullying/cyberbullying. This cybernetic trivial pursuit is organized around a fantasy story, a comic that guides the game. The videogame contains 120 questions about 5 topics: cyberphenomena, computer technology and safety, cybersexuality, consequences of bullying/cyberbullying, and coping with bullying/cyberbullying. To evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention, a quasi-experimental design, with repeated pretest-posttest measures and control groups, was used. During the pretest and posttest stages

  4. Resource management for heterogeneous networks in LTE systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides an in-depth look at the key issues that affect the performance of heterogeneous networks and presents schemes that can effectively tackle these issues. In particular, this book discusses unbalanced traffic load among the macro and micro Base Stations (BSs) caused by the transmit power disparity, and a load-balancing based mobile association scheme to balance the traffic load among the macro and micro BSs. This book also introduces a fractional frequency reuse (FFR) scheme with proper power control to help reduce interference at the UEs which are most vulnerable to such intra-cell interference. The last section investigates radio resource allocation issues for heterogeneous networks with cooperative relays, and proposes a resource allocation framework that could achieve proportional fairness among the UEs. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed solutions in tackling the problem and improving network performance. Resource Management for Hetero...

  5. Cognitive Radio Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Challenges and Research Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyanendra Prasad Joshi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized.

  6. Cognitive radio wireless sensor networks: applications, challenges and research trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-08-22

    A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized.

  7. Cognitive Radio Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Challenges and Research Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-01-01

    A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized. PMID:23974152

  8. Senior radio listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora

    Radiobroadcasting and the hardware materialization of radio have during the 20th century changed significantly, which means that senior radio listeners have travelled along with this evolution from large, impressive radio furnitures to DAB and small, wireless, mobile devices, and from grave...... and solemn radio voices to lightharted, laughing and chatting speakers. Senior radio listerners have experienced the development and refinements of technique, content and genres. It is now expected of all media users that they are capable of crossing media, combining, juggling and jumping between various...... media platforms, not the least when listening to radio. The elder generation is no exception from this. Recently, for instance, the Danish public broadcast DR has carried out an exodus of programmes targeted for the senior segment. These programmes are removed from regular FM and sent to DAB receivers...

  9. A genetic algorithm for multiple relay selection in two-way relaying cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.; Ghazzai, Hakim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a multiple relay selection scheme for two-way relaying cognitive radio networks where primary users and secondary users operate on the same frequency band. More specifically, cooperative relays using Amplifyand- Forward

  10. 75 FR 1621 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...-20090813ABE, From BUNKERVILLE, NV, To ST GEORGE, UT; MLB-RICHMOND IV, LLC, Station WBBT- FM, Facility ID 31859...; SUSQUEHANNA RADIO CORP., Station KIKT, Facility ID 21597, BPH-20091207ABH, From GREENVILLE, TX, To COOPER, TX...

  11. Cooperative Cloudlet for Pervasive Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef Jamal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of cooperation in wireless communication has got significant attention from both academia and industrial persons towards to address the performance drawbacks of wireless sensor network due to reason of user’s high mobility and lack of resources of network. The future wireless systems should be highly heterogeneous and interconnected because motivating cooperative relaying has to apply on the future mobile network for efficient results and future demand. As currently the mobile computing is facing latency and battery drainage issues which need to address and solve hence in this work we are proposed mobile - centric and opportunistic communication architecture. In this work mobile devices which are in the range of Wi - Fi of each other can create cluste r with each other and can create an ad - hoc cooperative cloud using Relay Spot[1 - 4]. The Collaboration between these devices can enable them to resourcefully use the augmentation without any infrastructure.

  12. Management of Distributed and Extendible Heterogeneous Radio Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramkumar, Venkata; Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2009-01-01

    Wireless communication systems are dynamic by nature, which comes from several factors, namely: radio propagation impairments, traffic changes, interference conditions, user mobility, etc. In a heterogeneous environment, , the dynamic network behavior calls for a dynamic management of the radio...... resources; a process that associates a large number of parameters and quality/performance indicators that need to be set, measured, analyzed, and optimized. Radio-over-fiber (RoF) technology involves the use of optical fiber links to distribute radio frequency (RF) signals from a central location to remote...

  13. Transboundary cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauber, D.

    2006-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants near national borders requires a close bilateral co-operation to cope with accidents having off-site radiological impacts. For example in 1978 such an agreement was signed by the German and Swiss government. The accident at the Chernobyl NPP changed the international co-operation in the framework of international consequence management. International conventions were agreed to insure a timely notification and international assistance in case of an accident with transboundary effects. In order to fulfill these conventions several procedures were introduced. In addition, bilateral agreements were signed also with countries which are not operating nuclear power plants near national borders. Since then no accident took place that would have required any notification. However, following the experience the expectations to these networks have changed considerably and hence sustainable development is required to cope with new challenges such as long term consequences management, new radiological threats, faster international assistance, media and public concerns, and technical evolution of communications systems. (author)

  14. Novel Machine Learning-Based Techniques for Efficient Resource Allocation in Next Generation Wireless Networks

    KAUST Repository

    AlQuerm, Ismail A.

    2018-02-21

    There is a large demand for applications of high data rates in wireless networks. These networks are becoming more complex and challenging to manage due to the heterogeneity of users and applications specifically in sophisticated networks such as the upcoming 5G. Energy efficiency in the future 5G network is one of the essential problems that needs consideration due to the interference and heterogeneity of the network topology. Smart resource allocation, environmental adaptivity, user-awareness and energy efficiency are essential features in the future networks. It is important to support these features at different networks topologies with various applications. Cognitive radio has been found to be the paradigm that is able to satisfy the above requirements. It is a very interdisciplinary topic that incorporates flexible system architectures, machine learning, context awareness and cooperative networking. Mitola’s vision about cognitive radio intended to build context-sensitive smart radios that are able to adapt to the wireless environment conditions while maintaining quality of service support for different applications. Artificial intelligence techniques including heuristics algorithms and machine learning are the shining tools that are employed to serve the new vision of cognitive radio. In addition, these techniques show a potential to be utilized in an efficient resource allocation for the upcoming 5G networks’ structures such as heterogeneous multi-tier 5G networks and heterogeneous cloud radio access networks due to their capability to allocate resources according to real-time data analytics. In this thesis, we study cognitive radio from a system point of view focusing closely on architectures, artificial intelligence techniques that can enable intelligent radio resource allocation and efficient radio parameters reconfiguration. We propose a modular cognitive resource management architecture, which facilitates a development of flexible control for

  15. 7 CFR 611.2 - Cooperative relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative relationships. 611.2 Section 611.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS General § 611.2 Cooperative relationships. (a...

  16. Innovations to enrich science communication through radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakar Bhaumik

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Radio is an instrument of communication that has percolated to all the strata of the diverse Indian society. Its position has been consolidated through history as a regular companion and a source of information and entertainment. Its affordability, accessibility and non-reliance on costly resources have ensured its presence in almost all the households. It has become indispensable from kitchens, family rooms and even workspaces. It is one of the few or rather the only medium of communication after the print media wherein information dissemination still is primary and entertainment a secondary requirement, especially the rural areas. The role of radio in rural India is one that demands prominence and hence has been used as a primary resource for various projects on science communication. A majority of the science radio serial listeners are from the rural areas. The radio therefore is an ideal medium for reaching out to the masses. The radio even with its popularity and huge following is lacking in certain aspects that make science communication complete. Manthan Educational Programme Society developed concepts to make these efforts more effective by ensuring higher involvement and interest in these programs.

  17. DoD International Armaments Cooperation Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, William

    1997-01-01

    .... In the evolving environment of coalition warfare, limited resources, and a global industrial and technology base, it is DoD policy that we utilize International Armaments Cooperation to the maximum...

  18. Ionosphere and Radio Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The upperionosphere is used for radio communication and navigationas it reflects long, medium, as well as short radio waves. Sincesolar radiation is the main cause of the existence of ionosphere,any variation in the radiations can affect the entireradio communication system. This article attempts to brieflyintroduce the ...

  19. Writing for Radio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, Marianna S.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a 24-hour commercial radio station simulation class project for eighth-grade language arts. Students wrote their own scripts, chose music and were disc jockeys on their own music and talk shows, and prepared news and traffic reports. Guest speakers from actual commercial radio came in to discuss issues such as advertising, censorship,…

  20. The Radio Jove Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    The Radio love Project is a hands-on education and outreach project in which students, or any other interested individuals or groups build a radio telescope from a kit, operate the radio telescope, transmit the resulting signals through the internet if desired, analyze the results, and share the results with others through archives or general discussions among the observers. Radio love is intended to provide an introduction to radio astronomy for the observer. The equipment allows the user to observe radio signals from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and Earth-based radiation both natural and man-made. The project was started through a NASA Director's Discretionary Fund grant more than ten years ago. it has continued to be carried out through the dedicated efforts of a group of mainly volunteers. Dearly 1500 kits have been distributed throughout the world. Participation can also be done without building a kit. Pre-built kits are available. Users can also monitor remote radio telescopes through the internet using free downloadable software available through the radiosky.com website. There have been many stories of prize-winning projects, inspirational results, collaborative efforts, etc. We continue to build the community of observers and are always open to new thoughts about how to inspire the observers to still greater involvement in the science and technology associated with Radio Jove.

  1. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  2. Listen and talk full-duplex cognitive radio networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Yun; Han, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This brief focuses on the use of full-duplex radio in cognitive radio networks, presenting a novel spectrum sharing protocol that allows the secondary users to simultaneously sense and access the vacant spectrum. This protocol, called “Listen-and-talk” (LAT), is evaluated by both mathematical analysis and computer simulations in comparison with other existing protocols, including the listen-before-talk protocol. In addition to LAT-based signal processing and resource allocation, the brief discusses techniques such as spectrum sensing and dynamic spectrum access. The brief proposes LAT as a suitable access scheme for cognitive radio networks, which can support the quality-of-service requirements of these high priority applications. Fundamental theories and key techniques of cognitive radio networks are also covered. Listen and Talk: Full-duplex Cognitive Radio Networks is designed for researchers, developers, and professionals involved in cognitive radio networks. Advanced-level students studying signal pr...

  3. A Novel Wireless Power Transfer-Based Weighed Clustering Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Method for Cognitive Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin

    2015-10-30

    In a cognitive sensor network (CSN), the wastage of sensing time and energy is a challenge to cooperative spectrum sensing, when the number of cooperative cognitive nodes (CNs) becomes very large. In this paper, a novel wireless power transfer (WPT)-based weighed clustering cooperative spectrum sensing model is proposed, which divides all the CNs into several clusters, and then selects the most favorable CNs as the cluster heads and allows the common CNs to transfer the received radio frequency (RF) energy of the primary node (PN) to the cluster heads, in order to supply the electrical energy needed for sensing and cooperation. A joint resource optimization is formulated to maximize the spectrum access probability of the CSN, through jointly allocating sensing time and clustering number. According to the resource optimization results, a clustering algorithm is proposed. The simulation results have shown that compared to the traditional model, the cluster heads of the proposed model can achieve more transmission power and there exists optimal sensing time and clustering number to maximize the spectrum access probability.

  4. A Novel Wireless Power Transfer-Based Weighed Clustering Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Method for Cognitive Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In a cognitive sensor network (CSN, the wastage of sensing time and energy is a challenge to cooperative spectrum sensing, when the number of cooperative cognitive nodes (CNs becomes very large. In this paper, a novel wireless power transfer (WPT-based weighed clustering cooperative spectrum sensing model is proposed, which divides all the CNs into several clusters, and then selects the most favorable CNs as the cluster heads and allows the common CNs to transfer the received radio frequency (RF energy of the primary node (PN to the cluster heads, in order to supply the electrical energy needed for sensing and cooperation. A joint resource optimization is formulated to maximize the spectrum access probability of the CSN, through jointly allocating sensing time and clustering number. According to the resource optimization results, a clustering algorithm is proposed. The simulation results have shown that compared to the traditional model, the cluster heads of the proposed model can achieve more transmission power and there exists optimal sensing time and clustering number to maximize the spectrum access probability.

  5. Design of ultra-low power impulse radios

    CERN Document Server

    Apsel, Alyssa; Dokania, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the fundamental principles behind the design of ultra-low power radios and how they can form networks to facilitate a variety of applications within healthcare and environmental monitoring, since they may operate for years off a small battery or even harvest energy from the environment. These radios are distinct from conventional radios in that they must operate with very constrained resources and low overhead.  This book provides a thorough discussion of the challenges associated with designing radios with such constrained resources, as well as fundamental design concepts and practical approaches to implementing working designs.  Coverage includes integrated circuit design, timing and control considerations, fundamental theory behind low power and time domain operation, and network/communication protocol considerations.   • Enables detailed understanding of the design space for ultra-low power radio; • Provides detailed discussion and examples of the design of a practical low power ...

  6. Cooperation between territorial communities: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П. М. Любченко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem Setting. The paper analyzes the problems in the system of legal regulation of cooperation between communities, highlights the advantages and disadvantages of such cooperation in Ukrainian local government. Analysis of the recent researches and publications. The legal basis for cooperation in the field of local government are provisions of the Constitution and laws of Ukraine, by-laws. The organizational principles of communities cooperation, principles, forms and mechanisms of such cooperation and its promotion, financing and monitoring prescribed by the Law of Ukraine «On cooperation of local communities» 17 June 2014, which provides five possible forms of cooperation. Paper main body. The first form - delegation to one party of cooperation by another parties of cooperation execution of one or few tasks with transferring of appropriate resources - one of the most difficult to implement, therefore in Ukraine it is not yet implemented. The second form – realization of joint projects, involving coordination of activities between parties of cooperation and accumulating them for a certain period resources to joint implementation of appropriate measures - one of the most common. This  form is popular because of its simplicity and versatility. Parties are determining the purpose of the project, terms and conditions of its implementation, a list of activities and conditions for their implementation, financial liabilities, other forms of local governments participation in implementation of the project and mechanism of coordination. The third and fourth forms aimed on the creation and maintenance of communal enterprises, institutions and organizations - joint infrastructure projects by parties of cooperation. This form of cooperation with the prospect of widespread use because it is aimed at ensuring effective use of resources of local communities based on common application available in one of the subjects of cooperation of municipal

  7. Enresa International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 with the mandate to undertake responsibility for radioactive waste management in Spain. From the very beginning, ENRESA was fully aware of the fact that international cooperation plays a very important role in the development of national programmes. Aspects such as the setting up of international databases, the development and validation of models or site characterization technique such enormous efforts and amounts of resources that they could hardly be undertaken individually. Furthermore, joint participation in research, development and demonstration projects reinforces the level of confidence, not only in the decision-making process but also in the technologies, techniques and practices used. ENRESA's participation in the international contexts is largely defined, on the one hand, by the needs arising from its technical programme, as reflected in the General Radioactive Waste Plan and in the Research and Development Plan, and on the other by the need to support spanish governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental forums. The formula for cooperation varies according to needs, this cooperation generally being accomplished by means of bilateral agreements with other institutions having similar competence or by participating in the programmes of inter-governmental organizations. In particular, ENRESA has reached cooperation agreements with most of the agencies with similar responsibilities in other countries and participates very actively in the programmes of the European Union, the Nuclear energy Agency (NEA/OECD) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (Author)

  8. Energy-Aware Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bedeer, Ebrahim

    2016-01-15

    The concept of energy-aware communications has spurred the interest of the research community in the most recent years due to various environmental and economical reasons. It becomes indispensable for wireless communication systems to shift their resource allocation problems from optimizing traditional metrics, such as throughput and latency, to an environmental-friendly energy metric. Although cognitive radio systems introduce spectrum efficient usage techniques, they employ new complex technologies for spectrum sensing and sharing that consume extra energy to compensate for overhead and feedback costs. Considering an adequate energy efficiency metric—that takes into account the transmit power consumption, circuitry power, and signaling overhead—is of momentous importance such that optimal resource allocations in cognitive radio systems reduce the energy consumption. A literature survey of recent energy-efficient based resource allocations schemes is presented for cognitive radio systems. The energy efficiency performances of these schemes are analyzed and evaluated under power budget, co-channel and adjacent-channel interferences, channel estimation errors, quality-of-service, and/or fairness constraints. Finally, the opportunities and challenges of energy-aware design for cognitive radio systems are discussed.

  9. Cooperative research with the Institute of Resources and Environment Technology. Estimation and investigation of estimation method on property change accompanied with excavation. Intermediate report in 1994 and 1995 fiscal year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PRNFDC) and the Institute of Resources and Environment Technology (IRET) of Agency of Industrial Science and Technology conducted a cooperative research on a testing study based on in-door fundamental examination on Acoustic emission (AE) original position measuring tester to catch property change due to micro elastic wave formed with generation and propagation of rock deformation and fracture and AE measurement and specific resistance tomography under 3 years plan from 1989 fiscal year. In 1994 fiscal year, survey on the specific resistance tomography for pre-research on tunnel excavation effect test and experiment on the specific resistance measurement at in-door scale for fundamental study of estimation method were conducted. And, in 1995 fiscal year, by laying a main point of the experiment at in-door scale, the estimation and investigation on the excavation effect estimation method on a base of the past study results on the fundamental experiment results were conducted. In this paper, these experiment results conducted at IRET and PRNFDC in 1994 and 1995 fiscal years were reported. (G.K.)

  10. Research cooperation report for fiscal 1997 on the environment-friendly system for effectively utilizing water resources; 1997 nendo kankyo taiogata mizushigen yuko riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku itaku gyomu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This effort exerted in cooperation with the Philippines aims to solve problems related to water resources such as stable supply and pollution of water through developing a waste water treatment/water reuse system which is easy to operate and maintain, and low in price. The ultimate goal includes (1) the construction of a waste water treatment/water reuse system comprising an anaerobic reaction tank and activated charcoal absorption tower, easy to operate and maintain, and low in price, (2) the employment of goods procurable in the Philippines, the goods including carriers for use in the anaerobic reaction tank, microbes for use in both aerobic and anaerobic reaction tanks, and activated charcoal for use in waste water reutilization, and (3) the establishment of optimum operating conditions for the waste water treatment/water reuse system by use of a pilot plant and the transfer of operating and managing techniques to the Filipino counterpart. In this fiscal year, investigations are conducted to disclose the actualities of waste water treatment and water consumption by primary industries in the vicinity of Laguna de Bay, and the waste water to be the object of study and the place of pilot plant installation have been selected. Also conducted are investigations into the carrier, microbe, activated charcoal, etc., for use in the anaerobic reaction tank. (NEDO)

  11. Radio y elecciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Rosa Alva de la Selva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el comportamiento de la radio en México ante la contienda electoral de julio de 2000. Se examina el papel de la radio como espacio para la discusión política, así como el tratamiento informativo que hizo del tema. Asimismo, se analiza la posible repercusión de factores de reciente surgimiento en el panorama radiofónico para un manejo más autónomo de la información política en la radio

  12. A localized cooperative wideband spectrum sensing for dynamic access of TV bands using RF sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mirza, Mohammed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we address and simulate a Radio Frequency (RF) sensor network for a cooperative spectrum sensing and localization scheme. The proposed method integrates a Wavelet based Multi-Resolution Spectrum Sensing (MRSS), an N-bit hard

  13. Research cooperation promoting project in fiscal 1998. Research cooperation related to developing mine resources extraction and treatment technologies of environment harmonizing and high efficiency type; 1998 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku suishin jigyo. Kankyo chowagata kokoritsu kobutsu shigen chushutsu shori gijutsu no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to realize more effective utilization of non-ferrous metal resources, joint research cooperation is made with the Republic of Kazakhstan. It is intended that valuable metals (gold, silver, copper, rare metals, and others) contained at large quantity in ore scraps generated in association with mine operation be extracted and recovered efficiently paying considerations to the environment. The treatment process consists of the following conception: raw materials such as ore scraps are leached by sulfuric acid and microorganisms to separate and recover gold and silver; the leach liquor containing valuable metals is extracted by using solvent and recovered of copper and rare metals via an electrolytic process; and the waste water is treated and discharged. Fiscal 1998 has performed studies on the wet treatment system at the site and in Japan, the gold and silver treatment, and the waste water treatment by using samples collected from the site in fiscal 1996. Based on the results of these fundamental studies, a pilot plant was built, and all of the facility fabrication was completed in fiscal 1998. Part of the facilities has been transported to the site. To drive the project forward effectively, materials and items of equipment required for the joint research were procured and transported to the country, and at the same time Kazakhstanian researchers were received in Japan for training. (NEDO)

  14. Effects of Cooperative E-Learning on Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shang-Pao; Fu, Hsin-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the effects of E-Learning and cooperative learning on learning outcomes. E-Learning covers the dimensions of Interpersonal communication, abundant resources, Dynamic instruction, and Learning community; and, cooperative learning contains three dimensions of Cooperative motive, Social interaction, and Cognition…

  15. Cooperative path planning of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Tsourdos, Antonios; Shanmugavel, Madhavan

    2010-01-01

    An invaluable addition to the literature on UAV guidance and cooperative control, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a dedicated, practical guide to computational path planning for UAVs. One of the key issues facing future development of UAVs is path planning: it is vital that swarm UAVs/ MAVs can cooperate together in a coordinated manner, obeying a pre-planned course but able to react to their environment by communicating and cooperating. An optimized path is necessary in order to ensure a UAV completes its mission efficiently, safely, and successfully. Focussing on the path planning of multiple UAVs for simultaneous arrival on target, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles also offers coverage of path planners that are applicable to land, sea, or space-borne vehicles. Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is authored by leading researchers from Cranfield University and provides an authoritative resource for researchers, academics and engineers working in...

  16. Review of radio-frequency, nonlinear effects on the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, W.E.; Duncan, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Modification of the ionosphere by high power radio waves in the megahertz band has been intensively investigated over the past two decades. This research has yielded advances in aeronomy, geophysics, and plasma physics with applications to radio communication and has provided a fruitful interaction of radio theorists and experimentalists. There being almost no linear effects of powerful radio waves on the ionosphere, we concentrate on the nonlinear effects. To put the subject in perspective we trace its history beginning in the early 1930s and highlight the important events up to the late 1960s. We then shift to a phenomenological approach and deal in order with ohmic heating, parametric instabilities, self-focusing and kilometer-scale irregularities, meter-scale irregularities, and a collection of recently discovered effects. We conclude with the observation that stronger international cooperation would benefit this research, and describe a list of promising, difficult challenges

  17. Social cognitive radio networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xu

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents research results on social cognitive radio networks, a transformational and innovative networking paradigm that promotes the nexus between social interactions and cognitive radio networks. Along with a review of the research literature, the text examines the key motivation and challenges of social cognitive radio network design. Three socially inspired distributed spectrum sharing mechanisms are introduced: adaptive channel recommendation mechanism, imitation-based social spectrum sharing mechanism, and evolutionarily stable spectrum access mechanism. The brief concludes with a discussion of future research directions which ascertains that exploiting social interactions for distributed spectrum sharing will advance the state-of-the-art of cognitive radio network design, spur a new line of thinking for future wireless networks, and enable novel wireless service and applications.

  18. NOAA Weather Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    del tiempo incluido. Si eres quieres ser avisado de las advertencias y relojes de día o de noche, un Weather Radio relojes son independientes o basadas en el Condado (parroquia basados en Luisiana), aunque

  19. The digital sport radio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilario José ROMERO BEJARANO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Radio has been immersed in recent years in a phase of technological integration and business of multimedia, as well as diversification of systems and channels for broadcasting. In addition, Internet has been consolidated as the platform of digital radio that more has evolved as a result of its continued expansion. However, the merger radio-Internet must be understood as a new form of communication, and not solely as a new complementary medium. In this context, it is of great interest to analyze that transformations in the way of reception, contents, languages, programs and schedules, has brought with it for the radio that integration. To this end is taken as main reference the sports areas, a key aspect and broadly representative of the current broadcasting landscape.

  20. Music, radio and mediatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Morten; Krogh, Mads

    2016-01-01

    of mediatization where media as such seem to be ascribed agency. Instead, we consider historical accounts of music–radio in order to address the complex nonlinearity of concrete processes of mediatization as they take place in the multiple meetings between a decentred notion of radio and musical life.......Mediatization has become a key concept for understanding the relations between media and other cultural and social fields. Contributing to the discussions related to the concept of mediatization, this article discusses how practices of radio and music(al life) influence each other. We follow Deacon......’s and Stanyer’s advice to supplement the concept of mediatization with ‘a series of additional concepts at lower levels of abstraction’ and suggest, in this respect, the notion of heterogeneous milieus of music–radio. Hereby, we turn away from the all-encompassing perspectives related to the concept...

  1. ITSY Handheld Software Radio

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bose, Vanu

    2001-01-01

    .... A handheld software radio platform would enable the construction of devices that could inter-operate with multiple legacy systems, download new waveforms and be used to construct adhoc networks...

  2. Structure in radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breugel, W. van.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that radio jets are a rather common phenomenon in radio galaxies. Jets can be disguised as trails in head-tail sources, bridges in double sources or simply remain undetected because of lack of resolution and sensitivity. It is natural to associate these jets with the channels which had previously been suggested to supply energy to the extended radio lobes. The observations of optical emission suggest that a continuous non-thermal spectrum extending from 10 9 to 10 15 Hz is a common property of jets. Because significant amounts of interstellar matter are also observed in each of the galaxies surveyed it seems that models for jets which involve an interaction with this medium may be most appropriate. New information about the overall structure of extended radio sources has been obtained from the detailed multifrequency study with the WSRT. (Auth.)

  3. Wireless radio a history

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    ""Informative...recommended""--Choice; ""interesting...a good read...well worth reading""--Contact Magazine. This history first looks at Marconi's wireless communications system and then explores its many applications, including marine radio, cellular telephones, police and military uses, television and radar. Radio collecting is also discussed, and brief biographies are provided for the major figures in the development and use of the wireless.

  4. ¿Radios ciudadanas?

    OpenAIRE

    López Vigil, José Ignacio

    1998-01-01

    Educativas, sindicales, populares, comunitarias, libres, rebeldes, participativas, alternativas, alterativas, han sido las denominaciones de la radio cuando su proyecto está al servicio de la gente. Palabras apropiadas y nobles -dice elautor-pero devaluadas, a las que ahora se agrega la radio ciudadana, para relievarla como ejercicio depoder y espacio de verdadera participación de la genteenla vida de su nación.

  5. Classics in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    1982-01-01

    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  6. Russian Speech in Radio: Norm and Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Nefedov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available National radio, like television, is called upon to bring to the masses not only relevant information, but also a high culture of language. There were always serious demands to oral public speech from the point of view of the correctness and uniformity of the pronunciation. However, today the analysis of the language practice of broadcasting often indicates a discrepancy between the use of linguistic resources in existing literary norms. The author of the article from the end of December 2016 to early April 2017 listened and analyzed from the point of view of language correctness the majority of programs on the radio Komsomolskaya Pravda (KP. In general, recognizing the good speech qualification of the workers of this radio, as well as their «guests» (political scientists, lawyers, historians, etc., one can not but note the presence of a significant number of errors in their speech. The material presented in the article allows us to conclude that at present, broadcasting is losing its position in the field of speech culture. Neglect of the rules of the Russian language on the radio «Komsomolskaya Pravda» negatively affects the image of the Russian language, which is formed in the minds of listeners. The language of radio should strive to become a standard of cleanliness and high culture for the population, since it has the enormous power of mass impact and supports the unity of the cultural and linguistic space.

  7. Requirements and Algorithms for Cooperation of Heterogeneous Radio Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Tragos, Elias; Mino, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    systems.The RRM mechanisms are evaluated for the scenario of intra-RAN and inter-RAN user mobility. The RRM framework incorporates as novelty improved triggering mechanisms, a network-controlledmobility management scheme with policy enforcement on different levels in the RANarchitecture, and a distributed...

  8. Solar radio observations and interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, H.

    1976-01-01

    The recent solar radio observations related to flares are reviewed for the frequency range of a few kilohertz to several gigahertz. The analysis of the radio data leads to boundary conditions on the acceleration processes which are responsible for the fast particles which cause radio emission. The role and cause of plasma turbulence at the plasma-frequency and at much lower frequencies is discussed in relation to the acceleration processes and the radio emission mechanisms for the various radio bursts. (author)

  9. Coping with Radio Frequency Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    The radio spectrum is a finite resource, on which humanity makes many demands. And pressure on it is ever increasing with the development of new technology and ideas for radio services. After all, we all benefit from wifi and cell phones. Radio astronomers have a small percentage of the spectrum allocated to them at octave intervals in the metre-centimetre bands, and at important frequencies, such as that of the 21cm line of HI. Signals from other services, as well as from our own poorly-engineered equipment, sometimes contaminate our bands: these signals constitute RFI. These may totally obliterate the astronomical signal, or, in the case of CLOUDSAT, may be capable of completely destroying a receiver, which introduces us to the new possibility of 'destructive interference'. A geo-stationary satellite can block access to a piece of sky from one site. Good equipment design eliminates self-inflicted interference, while physical separation often provides adequate practical mitigation at many frequencies. However, new observatories end up being located in the West Australian desert or Antarctica. In future they may be on the back side of the Moon. But there is no Earth-bound protection via physical separation against satellite signals. Some mitigation can be achieved by frequent data dumps and the excision of RFI, or by real-time detection and blanking of the receiver, or by more sophisticated algoriths. Astronomers of necessity aim to achieve mitigation via coordination, at the local level, and by participating in spectrum management at the national and international levels. This involves them spending a lot of time in Geneva at the International Telegraphic Union protecting their access to spectrum, and access to clean spectrum from the L3 point and the far side of the Moon.

  10. The atom in international co-operation. Peace and progress through co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This issue describes the role of the IAEA in the context of international cooperation in bringing the benefits of atoms or nuclear energy in energy production, public health, water resources management and agriculture

  11. Radio morphing - towards a full parametrisation of the radio signal from air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilles, A.; Charrier, D.; Kotera, K.; Le Coz, S.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Medina, C.; Niess, V.; Tueros, M.; de Vries, K.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decades, radio detection of air showers has been established as a detection technique for ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays impinging on the Earth's atmosphere with energies far beyond LHC energies. Today’s second-generation of digital radio-detection experiments, as e.g. AERA or LOFAR, are becoming competitive in comparison to already standard techniques e.g. fluorescence light detection. Thanks to a detailed understanding of the physics of the radio emission in extensive air showers, simulations of the radio signal are already successfully tested and applied in the reconstruction of cosmic rays. However the limits of the computational power resources are easily reached when it comes to computing electric fields at the numerous positions requested by large or dense antenna arrays. In the case of mountainous areas as e.g. for the GRAND array, where 3D shower simulations are necessary, the problem arises with even stronger acuity. Therefore we developed a full parametrisation of the emitted radio signal on the basis of generic shower simulations which will reduce the simulation time by orders of magnitudes. In this talk we will present this concept after a short introduction to the concept of the radio detection of air-shower induced by cosmic rays.

  12. Engineering co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryniszak, W

    1981-06-01

    A purposeful employment policy for human energy is basic to solving the energy dilemma, but a lack of understanding about human behavior has allowed man's exploitive characteristics to dominate during the Inductrial Revolution. England is dependent on trade to survive, but the importance of size in world competition is seen in the trend toward multinational and partnership enterprises. Reflecting this increasing competition, the engineering industries see a need for government policies that acknowledge the importance of technology and the effects of those policies on productivity. Engineering progress requires the creativity of optimistic idealism and the realism of implementing new ideas. The training and nurturing of human resources should begin by broadening the education of engineers to emphasize the concepts of quality and cooperation between government and industry. Engineers and scientists, who work within society, need to understand national demands and to operate in accordance with the highest moral standards. (DCK)

  13. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part the are reviewed: Co-operation with IAEA; Participation of the Slovakia on the 41 st session of the General Conference; The comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization; Co-operation with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; co-operation with the European Commission; Fulfillment of obligations resulting from the international contracting documents

  14. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...... can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort....

  15. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This 6th edition of “Tools of Radio Astronomy”, the most used introductory text in radio astronomy, has been revised to reflect the current state of this important branch of astronomy. This includes the use of satellites, low radio frequencies, the millimeter/sub-mm universe, the Cosmic Microwave Background and the increased importance of mm/sub-mm dust emission. Several derivations and presentations of technical aspects of radio astronomy and receivers, such as receiver noise, the Hertz dipole and  beam forming have been updated, expanded, re-worked or complemented by alternative derivations. These reflect advances in technology. The wider bandwidths of the Jansky-VLA and long wave arrays such as LOFAR and mm/sub-mm arrays such as ALMA required an expansion of the discussion of interferometers and aperture synthesis. Developments in data reduction algorithms have been included. As a result of the large amount of data collected in the past 20 years, the discussion of solar system radio astronomy, dust em...

  16. Innovations to enrich science communication through radio

    OpenAIRE

    Thakar Bhaumik; Kothari Abhay

    2004-01-01

    The Radio is an instrument of communication that has percolated to all the strata of the diverse Indian society. Its position has been consolidated through history as a regular companion and a source of information and entertainment. Its affordability, accessibility and non-reliance on costly resources have ensured its presence in almost all the households. It has become indispensable from kitchens, family rooms and even workspaces. It is one of the few or rather the only medium of communicat...

  17. Biological interactions and cooperative management of multiple species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinwei; Min, Yong; Chang, Jie; Ge, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Coordinated decision making and actions have become the primary solution for the overexploitation of interacting resources within ecosystems. However, the success of coordinated management is highly sensitive to biological, economic, and social conditions. Here, using a game theoretic framework and a 2-species model that considers various biological relationships (competition, predation, and mutualism), we compute cooperative (or joint) and non-cooperative (or separate) management equilibrium outcomes of the model and investigate the effects of the type and strength of the relationships. We find that cooperation does not always show superiority to non-cooperation in all biological interactions: (1) if and only if resources are involved in high-intensity predation relationships, cooperation can achieve a win-win scenario for ecosystem services and resource diversity; (2) for competitive resources, cooperation realizes higher ecosystem services by sacrificing resource diversity; and (3) for mutual resources, cooperation has no obvious advantage for either ecosystem services or resource evenness but can slightly improve resource abundance. Furthermore, by using a fishery model of the North California Current Marine Ecosystem with 63 species and seven fleets, we demonstrate that the theoretical results can be reproduced in real ecosystems. Therefore, effective ecosystem management should consider the interconnection between stakeholders' social relationship and resources' biological relationships.

  18. Galactic radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    This book is a concise primer on galactic radio astronomy for undergraduate and graduate students, and provides wide coverage of galactic astronomy and astrophysics such as the physics of interstellar matter and the dynamics and structure of the Milky Way Galaxy and galaxies. Radio astronomy and its technological development have led to significant progress in galactic astronomy and contributed to understanding interstellar matter and galactic structures. The book begins with the fundamental physics of radio-wave radiation, i.e., black body radiation, thermal emission, synchrotron radiation, and HI and molecular line emissions. The author then gives overviews of ingredients of galactic physics, including interstellar matter such as the neutral (HI), molecular hydrogen, and ionized gases, as well as magnetic fields in galaxies. In addition, more advanced topics relevant to the Galaxy and galaxies are also contained here: star formation, supernova remnants, the Galactic Center and black holes, galactic dynamics...

  19. Radio structure in quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, P.D.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, observational attention is given to the extended extragalactic radio sources associated with quasars. The isolated compact radio sources, often identified with quasars, are only included in the discussions. Three aspects of the radio structure in quasars and their cosmic evolution are considered: a study of the parsec scale morphology in quasar cores, in relation to the extended morphologies; an investigation of possible epoch dependent hotspot properties as well as a more detailed investigation of this fine scale structure; a VLA project was carried out to obtain morphological information on scales of 0.5 arcsec on high redshift quasars and to investigate possible epoch dependent morphological properties. MERLIN observations at 0.1 arcsec resolution to supplement the VLA data were initiated. (Auth.)

  20. China-Africa: New Directions of Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L V Ponomarenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the policy of fifth generation of Chinese leadership with regard to African states. The article deals with the concept of “Chinese Dream”, which was first declared in Africa, an innovative model of international cooperation in the framework of the formation of “economic zone of the Silk Road”. The authors reveal three basic directions of cooperation - political, economic and humanitarian cooperation. Political cooperation is characterized by the activation of mutual visits at the highest level, the interaction in the framework of the UN General Assembly, participation in UN peacekeeping operations. Economic cooperation is characterized by the activation of bilateral trade, the transition to a “modernized version of” investment cooperation, implementation of the strategy of “going abroad” of Chinese products, imports of natural resources from Africa, creating jobs for the local population, financing of infrastructure projects, the transfer of labor-intensive industries in Africa. Humanitarian cooperation includes training program for Africa, the implementation of the Sino-African programs, technology partnerships, research and exchange, and the China-Africa Forum “Think Tank”. Cooperation in health care also plays an important role. The authors note that the new Chinese leadership declares transition to an upgraded version of the Sino-African cooperation.

  1. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...

  2. Open Orchestration Cloud Radio Access Network (OOCRAN) Testbed

    OpenAIRE

    Floriach-Pigem, Marti; Xercavins-Torregrosa, Guillem; Marojevic, Vuk; Gelonch-Bosch, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    The Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) offers a revolutionary approach to cellular network deployment, management and evolution. Advances in software-defined radio (SDR) and networking technology, moreover, enable delivering software-defined everything through the Cloud. Resources will be pooled and dynamically allocated leveraging abstraction, virtualization, and consolidation techniques; processes will be automated using common application programming interfaces; and network functions and s...

  3. The Resonance 107.3 FM Radio Art Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Katrine; Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    in metadata as well as in memories and texts. Applying this method of recalling, describing and reflecting to three examples of live-experimentation from the Resonance 107.3 FM collection, this article illustrates that archives of minor media and practises in community and art radio are valuable resources...... British community radio and practises of radio art. Based on work in the British Library Sound Archive, as well as on interviews with archivists and broadcasters, the article presents the collection and discusses its significance as an experiment in the aesthetic, social and political implications...

  4. Radio Emission from Supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, Kurt W.; Panagia, Nino; Sramek, Richard A.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Williams, Christopher L.; Stockdale, Christopher J.; Kelley, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    Study of radio supernovae over the past 27 years includes more than three dozen detected objects and more than 150 upper limits. From this work it is possible to identify classes of radio properties, demonstrate conformance to and deviations from existing models, estimate the density and structure of the circumstellar material and, by inference, the evolution of the presupernova stellar wind, and reveal the last stages of stellar evolution before explosion. It is also possible to detect ionized hydrogen along the line of sight, to demonstrate binary properties of the presupernova stellar system, and to detect dumpiness of the circumstellar material.

  5. Radio emission from Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velusamy, T.

    1976-01-01

    The basic features of the different radio emissions from the planet Jupiter are reviewed. These radio emissions characterized into three types as thermal, decimetric and decametric, are discussed. The coherent emission mechanism for the origin of the decametric bursts and the acceleration mechanism for relativistic electrons in the decimetric radiation have not been properly understood. The emissions are much related to the magnetic field of Jupiter. The system III rotation period for Jupiter has been calculated as 092 55 m 29.74 S. (A.K.)

  6. ¿Radios Comunitarias?

    OpenAIRE

    José Ignacio López Vigil

    2015-01-01

    Varias han sido las denominaciones dadas a la radio cuando su proyecto está al servicio de la gente. Palabras apropiadas pero devaluadas al decir del autor, a las que ahora se suma otras radios ciudadanas. Ciudadana para relievarla como ejercicio de poder y espacio de verdadera participación de la gente en la vida de su nación. Ciudadanos son los que piensan con cabeza propia y pesan en la opinión pública. Presenta una sinopsis de la historia de éstas desde 1974. Señala que la competencia obl...

  7. Centralized cooperative spectrum sensing for ad-hoc disaster relief network clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2010-01-01

    Disaster relief networks have to be highly adaptable and resilient. Cognitive radio enhanced ad-hoc architecture have been put forward as a candidate to enable such networks. Spectrum sensing is the cornerstone of the cognitive radio paradigm, and it has been the target of intensive research....... The main common conclusion was that the achievable spectrum sensing accuracy can be greatly enhanced through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. When considering applying Cognitive Radio to ad-hoc disaster relief networks, spectrum sensing cooperative schemes are paramount. A centralized cluster...

  8. Kantian Optimization: An Approach to Cooperative Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    John E. Roemer

    2014-01-01

    Although evidence accrues in biology, anthropology and experimental economics that homo sapiens is a cooperative species, the reigning assumption in economic theory is that individuals optimize in an autarkic manner (as in Nash and Walrasian equilibrium). I here postulate a cooperative kind of optimizing behavior, called Kantian. It is shown that in simple economic models, when there are negative externalities (such as congestion effects from use of a commonly owned resource) or positive exte...

  9. Sparse Beamforming for Real-time Resource Management and Energy Trading in Green C-RAN

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Ariffin, Wan Nur Suryani Firuz; Zhang, Xinruo; Nakhai, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers cloud radio access network with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer and finite capacity fronthaul, where the remote radio heads are equipped with renewable energy resources and can trade energy with the grid. Due to uneven distribution of mobile radio traffic and inherent intermittent nature of renewable energy resources, the remote radio heads may need real-time energy provisioning to meet the users’ demands. Given the amount of available energy resource...

  10. Compact radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altschuler, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven compact radio sources were monitored between 1971 and 1974 with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory interferometer. Both flux density and polarization were measured at intervals of about one month at wavelengths of 3.7 and 11.1 cms. Forty-four sources showed definite variability in their total and/or polarized flux density. The variations in polarization were of a shorter time scale than the corresponding flux density variations. Some of the qualitative features of an expanding source model were observed. The data suggest that some form of injection of relativistic electrons is taking place. The absence of significant depolarization in the variable sources indicates that only a small fraction of the mass of the radio outburst is in the form of non-relativistic plasma. Some of the objects observed belong to the BL-Lacertal class. It is shown that this class is very inhomogeneous in its radio properties. For the violently variable BL-Lacertal type objects the spectrum, flux variations and polarization data strongly suggest that these are very young objects

  11. Radio Frequency Identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has been around sinceearly 2000. Its use has currently become commonplace as thecost of RFID tags has rapidly decreased. RFID tags have alsobecome more 'intelligent' with the incorporation of processorsand sensors in them. They are widely used now in manyinnovative ways.

  12. Nanolensed Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, David

    2017-12-01

    It is suggested that fast radio bursts can probe gravitational lensing by clumpy dark matter objects that range in mass from 10-3 M ⊙-102 M ⊙. They may provide a more sensitive probe than observations of lensings of objects in the Magellanic Clouds, and could find or rule out clumpy dark matter with an extended mass spectrum.

  13. AMATEUR "HAM" RADIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    these cooler months. Did you know your body can cool 25 times faster in water than in air? That water code at 13 or 20 words-per-minute will no longer be required to obtain amateur radio operating be found by contacting the ARRL or using an Internet search engine to search on such topics as "

  14. Role of Community Radio for Community Development in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anowarul Arif Khan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Community radio is a medium of expressing and sharing views, thoughts, ideas, problems and prospects of rural, disadvantaged, vulnerable and hard to reach population with the mainstream population. As the media of root level people of the disadvantaged areas, Community radio has become popular in recent years and it has opened a new arena for both the policy makers as well as grassroots people to be involved in the development process of their community. There are about 17 Community Radios broadcasting 135 hours programmes in a day across the country. The Community Radio can help us in addressing social, economic, cultural, educational, health, water and sanitation and disaster related issues more effectively and strategically. In order to highlight the importance and effectiveness of community radio for the community development of Bangladesh, this study has been conducted based on the secondary data. This is a group effort that has become successful by the co-operation of many individuals and institutions. Access to Information (a2i Programme would like to express sincere gratitude to Monisha Mohonto, Project Focal and Bakul Mohonto, Program Assistant, BTV for introducing such an innovative project. As this is a new concept, there is no significant study has been conducted. Therefore the study has been directed to explore the importance of community FM radio in Bangladesh particularly in remote and rural areas.

  15. Within-group competition reduces cooperation and payoffs in human groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Barclay, Pat; Reeve, H. Kern

    2012-01-01

    Social organisms in many taxa cooperate to produce resources that are shared among group members. Some cooperatively produced resources may be monopolized by individuals who invest in within-group competition, but these have largely been overlooked in empirical and theoretical research on human c......, and demonstrates unifying principles in cooperation and competition across the animal kingdom....

  16. Radio images of the planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pater, I.

    1990-01-01

    Observations at radio wavelengths make possible detailed studies of planetary atmospheres, magnetospheres, and surface layers. The paper addresses the question of what can be learned from interferometric radio images of planets. Results from single-element radio observations are also discussed. Observations of both the terrestrial and the giant planets are considered. 106 refs

  17. Cooperation, trust and confidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, T.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Urze, P.C.G.D.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental complexity may strain cooperative relationships, both within and beyond organizations, for two reasons. First, when complexity implies uncertainty the predictability of change disappears. Secondly, change may and often will entail different estimates of the cooperating partners on the

  18. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  19. Uranium resources, demand and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipanicic, P.N.

    1985-05-01

    Estimations of the demand and production of principal uranium resource categories are presented. The estimations based on data analysis made by a joint 'NEA/IAEA Working Party on Uranium Resources' and the corresponding results are published by the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) in the 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand' Known as 'Red Book'. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. The importance of Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ) for radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

    2013-05-01

    Most of radio observatories are located in isolated areas. Since radio sources from the universe is very weak, astronomer need to avoid radio frequency interference (RFI) from active spectrum users and radio noise produced by human made (telecommunication, mobile phone, microwave user and many more. There are many observatories around the world are surrounded by a Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ), which is it was set up using public or state laws. A Radio Quiet Zone normally consists of two areas: an exclusive area in which totally radio emissions are forbidden, with restrictions for residents and business developments, and a larger (radius up to 100 km above) coordination area where the power of radio transmission limits to threshold levels. Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used as a powerful tool in mapping large areas with varying RQZ profiles. In this paper, we report the initial testing of the usage of this system in order to identify the areas were suitable for Radio Quiet Zone. Among the important parameters used to develop the database for our GIS are population density, information on TV and telecommunication (mobile phones) transmitters, road networks (highway), and contour shielding. We will also use other information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'best' areas generated by the GIS. The intention is to find the best site for the purpose of establishing first radio quiet zones for radio telescope in Malaysia.

  1. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-10-27

    Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  2. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Saavedra

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  3. Cooperatives as Entrants

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Sexton; Terri A. Sexton

    1987-01-01

    A potential shortcoming of game-theoretic models in industrial organization is their failure to consider consumers as players. We introduce a customer coalition --- a cooperative -- as a potential entrant and compare the cooperative entry threat with that posed by the usual for-profit entrant. We identify four fundamental distinctions between cooperative and for-profit entrants and demonstrate that the strategic interplay between a cooperative and an incumbent firm may differ markedly from th...

  4. Choosing the cooperative option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, G. (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (United States))

    1999-06-01

    Cooperatives do not ask to be exempted from the law. They do ask that laws and regulations be designed to allow them to meet the needs of their consumer-owners in accordance with cooperative principles, at a time that the marginal consumers being abandoned by for-profit utilities may be ready to gravitate toward cooperatives. The cooperative principles are worth reviewing because they explain the focus on the consumer and the cooperative concept of service: cooperatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership; cooperatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting policies and making decisions, the elected representatives are accountable to the membership; members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their cooperative; cooperatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members, if they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their cooperative autonomy; cooperatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperatives, they inform the general public, particularly young people and opinion leaders, about the nature and benefits of cooperation; cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strength the cooperative movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures; and while focusing on member needs, cooperatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies accepted by their members.

  5. Inertia in Cooperative Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Jerker

    1997-01-01

    Which organization model is appropriate for a cooperative enterprise depends on the prerequisites in its business environment. When conditions are changing, the firm must adapt itself. The entry of Sweden, Finland, and Austria into the European Union led to radical changes for agricultural cooperation, especially for Swedish cooperatives since agricultural policy was not allowed a transitional period. After two years, Swedish cooperatives have still not adapted their organization model despit...

  6. What is a cooperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Groups of individuals throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. The earliest forms of hunting and agriculture required a great deal of cooperation among humans. Although the word "cooperative" can be applied to many different types of group activities, in this publication it refers to a formal business model. Cooperative businesses are...

  7. JPL Space Telecommunications Radio System Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Lang, Minh; Peters, Kenneth J.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Duncan, Courtney B.; Orozco, David S.; Stern, Ryan A.; Ahten, Earl R.; Girard, Mike

    2013-01-01

    A flight-qualified implementation of a Software Defined Radio (SDR) Operating Environment for the JPL-SDR built for the CoNNeCT Project has been developed. It is compliant with the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard, and provides the software infrastructure for STRS compliant waveform applications. This software provides a standards-compliant abstracted view of the JPL-SDR hardware platform. It uses industry standard POSIX interfaces for most functions, as well as exposing the STRS API (Application Programming In terface) required by the standard. This software includes a standardized interface for IP components instantiated within a Xilinx FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). The software provides a standardized abstracted interface to platform resources such as data converters, file system, etc., which can be used by STRS standards conformant waveform applications. It provides a generic SDR operating environment with a much smaller resource footprint than similar products such as SCA (Software Communications Architecture) compliant implementations, or the DoD Joint Tactical Radio Systems (JTRS).

  8. Introduction to international radio regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radicella, S M [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2003-12-15

    These lecture notes contain an overview of basic problems of the International Radio Regulations. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on radio, especially in poor, remote and sparsely populated regions with under-developed telecommunication infrastructure. How the spectrum of radio frequencies is regulated has profound impact on the society, its security, prosperity, and culture. The radio regulations represent a very important framework for an adequate use of radio and should be known by all of those working in the field.

  9. Introduction to international radio regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicella, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    These lecture notes contain an overview of basic problems of the International Radio Regulations. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on radio, especially in poor, remote and sparsely populated regions with under-developed telecommunication infrastructure. How the spectrum of radio frequencies is regulated has profound impact on the society, its security, prosperity, and culture. The radio regulations represent a very important framework for an adequate use of radio and should be known by all of those working in the field

  10. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...... a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered....

  11. Cooperation and the common good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Rufus A; Rodrigues, António M M

    2016-02-05

    In this paper, we draw the attention of biologists to a result from the economic literature, which suggests that when individuals are engaged in a communal activity of benefit to all, selection may favour cooperative sharing of resources even among non-relatives. Provided that group members all invest some resources in the public good, they should refrain from conflict over the division of these resources. The reason is that, given diminishing returns on investment in public and private goods, claiming (or ceding) a greater share of total resources only leads to the actor (or its competitors) investing more in the public good, such that the marginal costs and benefits of investment remain in balance. This cancels out any individual benefits of resource competition. We illustrate how this idea may be applied in the context of biparental care, using a sequential game in which parents first compete with one another over resources, and then choose how to allocate the resources they each obtain to care of their joint young (public good) versus their own survival and future reproductive success (private good). We show that when the two parents both invest in care to some extent, they should refrain from any conflict over the division of resources. The same effect can also support asymmetric outcomes in which one parent competes for resources and invests in care, whereas the other does not invest but refrains from competition. The fact that the caring parent gains higher fitness pay-offs at these equilibria suggests that abandoning a partner is not always to the latter's detriment, when the potential for resource competition is taken into account, but may instead be of benefit to the 'abandoned' mate. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Powerful Radio Burst Indicates New Astronomical Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Hawking. The newly-discovered radio burst, the researchers said, might be the "last gasp" of a black hole as it finally evaporates completely. "We're actively looking for more of these powerful, short bursts, in other archival pulsar surveys, and hope to resolve the mystery of their origin," said McLaughlin. "In addition, if we can associate these events with galaxies of known distance, the radio dispersion we measure can be used as a powerful new way to determine the amount of material in intergalactic space," she added. The Parkes radio telescope is part of the Australia Telescope, which is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  13. Radio-capacity of ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kultakhmedov, Yu.; Kultakhmedova-Vyshnyakova, V.

    1997-01-01

    This paper consider a universal approach to ecosystems of different types, based on representation of their radio-capacity. The concept of ecosystem includes reproduction of components (bio-productivity) and conditions such as maintaining of environment quality. Radio-capacity in the case of radionuclide pollution appears in accumulation and redistribution of radionuclides in the ecosystem. As a result the radionuclides are redistributed and buried in soil or lake bottom sediments. Estimation models for the radio-capacity of water and terrestrial ecosystems are represented. The calculations of the radio-capacity factor of water ecosystems are performed, and the high radio-capacity of a freshwater reservoir (F=0.6-0.8) and extremely high radio-capacity of a reservoir cascade (F c =0.99) is shown material from the Dnieper's cascade reservoirs. The methods of radio-capacity estimation of agroecosystems, wood and marine ecosystems are developed. (authors)

  14. The Concept of 'Radio Music'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldsøe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    , educational and didactic effort which would enlighten all of society. For a while it seemed that radio music was considered a genre of its own. To fulfil its function, radio music had to consider technical limitations as well as the educational level and listening modes of the new mass audience. Public radio......, as discussed by Kurt Weill and Paul Hindemith, was at first greeted with great expectations, but soon a more realistic attitude prevailed. Weill, himself a radio critic as well, composed Der Lindberghflug (1929) as a piece of ‘radio music theatre’, but then changed some of its features in order to turn...... it into a didactical play for amateurs, a so-called Lehrstück. The article will present the concept of ‘radio music’ developed within German Neue Sachlichkeit and discuss the relevance of such a concept for current research in the field of radio and music....

  15. Optimal and Fair Resource Allocation for Multiuser Wireless Multimedia Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangyu Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal and fair strategy for multiuser multimedia radio resource allocation (RRA based on coopetition, which suggests a judicious mixture of competition and cooperation. We formulate the co-opetition strategy as sum utility maximization at constraints from both Physical (PHY and Application (APP layers. We show that the maximization can be solved efficiently employing the well-defined Layering as Optimization Decomposition (LOD method. Moreover, the coopetition strategy is applied to power allocation among multiple video users, and evaluated through comparing with existing- competition based strategy. Numerical results indicate that, the co-opetition strategy adapts the best to the changes of network conditions, participating users, and so forth. It is also shown that the coopetition can lead to an improved number of satisfied users, and in the meanwhile provide more flexible tradeoff between system efficiency and fairness among users.

  16. A project in support of international nuclear cooperation activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeongkong; Kim, Myungro; Choi, Pyunghoon; Kim, Kyungpyo; Jung, Sunghyon; Park, Jiyeon; Eom, Jaesik; Kim, Wangkeun; Chung, Byungsun

    2011-12-15

    This study contains the work undertaken to promote multilateral cooperation within the framework of international nuclear related organizations and regional cooperative agreements and the relevant forums, to enhance bilateral cooperation with foreign nuclear related research institutes as well as to promote cooperation through the exchange of foreign scientists. As for multilateral cooperation, activities for promoting cooperation within the IAEA and regional cooperative frameworks are introduced. Regarding bilateral cooperation, activities for concluding arrangements and MOUs with foreign research institutes and for participation in joint nuclear coordinating committee meetings between Korea and other countries are presented. For promoting personnel exchanges, activities for inviting and utilizing foreign scientists and mutual discussions with foreign experts, who have visited KAERI, are also described. Continuous efforts to contributing towards the international community through utilizing Korea's experience gained in the process of technical self-reliance and development of human resources are needed. Also efforts to establish the foundation of international cooperation and to make inroad into overseas nuclear markets for export of our nuclear technologies should be made. Meanwhile in the bilateral cooperation, we need to beef up cooperation with U. S. A. and Canada through the joint committee for the joint export to third countries. It is expected that this study would be utilized as a basic material for the international cooperation of nuclear energy, especially for the KAERI's international cooperation in an effective way.

  17. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The recent years have seen breathtaking progress in technology, especially in the receiver and digital technologies relevant for radio astronomy, which has at the same time advanced to shorter wavelengths. This is the updated and completely revised 5th edition of the most used introductory text in radio astronomy. It presents a unified treatment of the entire field from centimeter to sub-millimeter wavelengths. Topics covered include instruments, sensitivity considerations, observational methods and interpretations of the data recorded with both single dishes and interferometers. This text is useful to both students and experienced practicing astronomers. Besides making major updates and additions throughout the book, the authors have re-organized a number of chapters to more clearly separate basic theory from rapidly evolving practical aspects. Further, problem sets have been added at the end of each chapter.

  18. Radio telescope control

    CERN Document Server

    Schraml, J

    1972-01-01

    An on-line computer control process developed for the 100-m radio telescope of the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie in Bonn is described. The instrument is the largest fully steerable antenna in the world. Its operation started on May 31st 1972. It is controlled by a Ferranti Argus 500 on-line computer. The first part of the paper deals with the process itself, the radio telescope and its operation, and the demands resulting for the control program. The second part briefly describes the computer and its hardware. The final part introduces the architecture of the executive program in general, which has been tailored to meet the demands of the process and the hardware. The communication between the observer and the system, the format of data on magnetic tape and an on-line reduction of position measurements are considered. (0 refs).

  19. Die radio in Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. de Villiers

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Omvang van radio-uitsendings in en na Afrika. — Redes vir die versnelde tempo van uitbreiding. — Radio as die geskikste massa-kommunikasiemiddel vir Afrika. — Faktore wat die verspreiding bemoeilik. — Skouspelagtige toename in luistertalle.Toe Plinius, wat in die jaar 79 oorlede is, in sy „Historia Naturalis” verklaar het dat daar altyd iets nuuts uit Afrika afkomstig is, kon hy nouliks voorsien het dat die „iets" negentien eeue later in die lug sou setel wat hierdie reuse-vasteland oorspan — ’n Babelse spraakverwarring en ’n ongekende, verbete woorde-oorlog in die etergolwe, onder meer daarop bereken om die harte en hoofde van derduisendes te verower.

  20. Video over cognitive radio networks when quality of service meets spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Shiwen

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the problem of video streaming over emerging cognitive radio (CR) networks. The book discusses the problems and techniques for scalable video streaming over cellular cognitive radio networks, ad hoc CR networks, cooperative CR networks, and femtocell CR networks. The author formulates these problems and proposes optimal algorithms to solve these problems. Also, the book analyzes the proposed algorithms and validates the algorithms with simulations.

  1. 75 FR 77821 - Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... Corporation Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative AGENCY... Conservation Service (NRCS) through either the Agricultural Water Enhancement Program (AWEP) or the Cooperative... concerns to be addressed, and specifically what water conservation resource issues and water quality...

  2. Cooperation between CERN and ITER

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    CERN and the International Fusion Organisation ITER have just signed a first cooperation agreeement. Kaname Ikeda, the Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organisation (ITER) (on the right) and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN, signing the agreement.The Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organization, Mr Kaname Ikeda, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a cooperation agreement at a meeting on the Meyrin site on Thursday 6 March. One of the main purposes of this agreement is for CERN to give ITER the benefit of its experience in the field of technology as well as in administrative domains such as finance, procurement, human resources and informatics through the provision of consultancy services. Currently in its start-up phase at its Cadarache site, 70 km from Marseilles (France), ITER will focus its research on the scientific and technical feasibility of using fusion energy as a fu...

  3. Resource allocation in networks via coalitional games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shams, F.

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this dissertation is to manage resource allocation in network engineering problems and to introduce efficient cooperative algorithms to obtain high performance, ensuring fairness and stability. Specifically, this dissertation introduces new approaches for resource allocation in

  4. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  5. NOAA Weather Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    cosas afectan la recepción de señas de la radio. Por ejemplo, las extensiones grandes de agua de sal receptor con una antena interior de calidad buena, o conectarlo a una antena externa. Generalmente los Programación Español Listado de estación Explicacion de SAME Coverage Station Listing County Listing

  6. Survey on Cloud Radio Access Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeta Chhatani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing wireless network will face the challenge of data tsunami in the near future. Densification of network will deal huge data traffic but will increase the interferences and network cost. At the same time, the existing wireless network is underutilized due to dynamic traffic. To deal with this adverse scenario, a change in the current network architecture is required. Based on virtualization, Cloud Radio Access Network (CRAN was proposed for wireless network. In CRAN the functionality of base station will be distributed into base band unit (BBU and remote radio heads (RRH which will achieve benefits of centralization. This paper presents a survey on CRAN centring on optimized resource allocation, energy efficiency and throughput maximization under fronthaul capacity. The existing solution and future opportunities in CRAN are also summarized.

  7. AIDS radio triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, A M

    1991-07-01

    In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.

  8. International cooperation and amateur meteor work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggemans, P.

    Today, the existing framework for international cooperation among amateur meteor workers offers numerous advantages. However, this is a rather recent situation. Meteor astronomy, although popular among amateurs, was the very last topic within astronomy to benefit from a truly international approach. Anyone attempting long term studies of, for instance, meteor stream structures will be confronted with the systematic lack of usable observations due to the absence of any standards in observing, recording and reporting, any archiving or publishing policy. Visual meteor observations represent the overall majority of amateur efforts, while photographic and radio observing were developed only in recent decades as technological specialties of rather few meteor observing teams.

  9. Radio Astronomers Get Their First Glimpse of Powerful Solar Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    expanding set of loops similar to the loops seen at visible wavelengths. The radio loops, astronomers believe, indicate regions where electrons are being accelerated to nearly the speed of light at about the time the ejection process is getting started. The same ejection observed by the radio telescope also was observed by orbiting solar telescopes. Depending on what later radio observations show, the solar studies may reveal new insights into the physics of other astronomical phenomena. For example, shocks in the corona and the interplanetary medium accelerate electrons and ions, a process believed to occur in supernova remnants - the expanding debris from stellar explosions. The electrons also may be accelerated by processes associated with magnetic reconnection, a process that occurs in the Earth's magnetosphere. "The Sun is an excellent physics laboratory, and what it teaches us can then help us understand other astrophysical phenomena in the universe," Bastian said. The radio detection of a coronal mass ejection also means that warning of the potentially dangerous effects of these events could come from ground-based radio telescopes, rather than more-expensive orbiting observatories. "With solar radio telescopes strategically placed at three or four locations around the world, coronal mass ejections could be detected 24 hours a day to provide advance warning," Bastian said. The Nancay station for radio astronomy is a facility of the Paris Observatory. The Nancay Radioheliograph is funded by the French Ministry of Education, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, and by the Region Centre. This research has also been supported by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  10. SDN based millimetre wave radio over fiber (RoF) network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amate, Ahmed; Milosavljevic, Milos; Kourtessis, Pandelis; Robinson, Matthew; Senior, John M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces software-defined, millimeter Wave (mm-Wave) networks with Radio over Fiber (RoF) for the delivery of gigabit connectivity required to develop fifth generation (5G) mobile. This network will enable an effective open access system allowing providers to manage and lease the infrastructure to service providers through unbundling new business models. Exploiting the inherited benefits of RoF, complete base station functionalities are centralized at the edges of the metro and aggregation network, leaving remote radio heads (RRHs) with only tunable filtering and amplification. A Software Defined Network (SDN) Central Controller (SCC) is responsible for managing the resource across several mm-Wave Radio Access Networks (RANs) providing a global view of the several network segments. This ensures flexible resource allocation for reduced overall latency and increased throughput. The SDN based mm-Wave RAN also allows for inter edge node communication. Therefore, certain packets can be routed between different RANs supported by the same edge node, reducing latency. System level simulations of the complete network have shown significant improvement of the overall throughput and SINR for wireless users by providing effective resource allocation and coordination among interfering cells. A new Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) algorithm exploiting the benefits of the SCC global network view for reduced delay in control message exchange is presented, accounting for a minimum packet delay and limited Channel State Information (CSI) in a Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A), Cloud RAN (CRAN) configuration. The algorithm does not require detailed CSI feedback from UEs but it rather considers UE location (determined by the eNB) as the required parameter. UE throughput in the target sector is represented using a Cumulative Distributive Function (CDF). The drawn characteristics suggest that there is a significant 60% improvement in UE cell edge throughput following the

  11. The Cooperative Education as central axis for the integral Formation in the cooperative sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriadna Marín de León

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative constitutes one of the most important sectors in the economy in any economic formation - social, its fundamental cell is the man's integral development who should be capable for, from a reflexive and creative position, to assume the challenges that it implies an efficient and effective administration in function of the cooperative company. It is the educational dimension in cooperative values the key for the future, conceived in a systematic way and assuming an appropriate methodological conception. In this perspective, leaving of the theoretical foundation of the administration of the human resources in general, he intends to be carried out an integral analysis of the formation processes and education for the cooperative with the purpose of valuing the central aspects of this thematic one, leaving of the fact that the education constitutes the medullary element that leads to a true cooperative formation.

  12. CogWnet: A Resource Management Architecture for Cognitive Wireless Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail; Shihada, Basem; Shin, Kang G.

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing adoption of wireless communication technologies, there is a need to improve management of existing radio resources. Cognitive radio is a promising technology to improve the utilization of wireless spectrum. Its operating

  13. Flexible Adaptation in Cognitive Radios

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shujun

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to software-defined radio and cognitive radio, along with methodologies for applying knowledge representation, semantic web, logic reasoning and artificial intelligence to cognitive radio, enabling autonomous adaptation and flexible signaling. Readers from the wireless communications and software-defined radio communities will use this book as a reference to extend software-defined radio to cognitive radio, using the semantic technology described. Readers with a background in semantic web and artificial intelligence will find in this book the application of semantic web and artificial intelligence technologies to wireless communications. For readers in networks and network management, this book presents a new approach to enable interoperability, collaborative optimization and flexible adaptation of network components. Provides a comprehensive ontology covering the core concepts of wireless communications using a formal language; Presents the technical realization of using a ...

  14. End-to-end performance of cooperative relaying in spectrum-sharing systems with quality of service requirements

    KAUST Repository

    Asghari, Vahid Reza

    2011-07-01

    We propose adopting a cooperative relaying technique in spectrum-sharing cognitive radio (CR) systems to more effectively and efficiently utilize available transmission resources, such as power, rate, and bandwidth, while adhering to the quality of service (QoS) requirements of the licensed (primary) users of the shared spectrum band. In particular, we first consider that the cognitive (secondary) user\\'s communication is assisted by an intermediate relay that implements the decode-and-forward (DF) technique onto the secondary user\\'s relayed signal to help with communication between the corresponding source and the destination nodes. In this context, we obtain first-order statistics pertaining to the first- and second-hop transmission channels, and then, we investigate the end-to-end performance of the proposed spectrum-sharing cooperative relaying system under resource constraints defined to assure that the primary QoS is unaffected. Specifically, we investigate the overall average bit error rate (BER), ergodic capacity, and outage probability of the secondary\\'s communication subject to appropriate constraints on the interference power at the primary receivers. We then consider a general scenario where a cluster of relays is available between the secondary source and destination nodes. In this case, making use of the partial relay selection method, we generalize our results for the single-relay scheme and obtain the end-to-end performance of the cooperative spectrum-sharing system with a cluster of L available relays. Finally, we examine our theoretical results through simulations and comparisons, illustrating the overall performance of the proposed spectrum-sharing cooperative system and quantify its advantages for different operating scenarios and conditions. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Spectrum Sensing and Primary User Localization in Cognitive Radio Networks via Sparsity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanchao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of compressive sensing (CS has been employed to detect available spectrum resource in cognitive radio (CR networks recently. Capitalizing on the spectrum resource underutilization and spatial sparsity of primary user (PU locations, CS enables the identification of the unused spectrum bands and PU locations at a low sampling rate. Although CS has been studied in the cooperative spectrum sensing mechanism in which CR nodes work collaboratively to accomplish the spectrum sensing and PU localization task, many important issues remain unsettled. Does the designed compressive spectrum sensing mechanism satisfy the Restricted Isometry Property, which guarantees a successful recovery of the original sparse signal? Can the spectrum sensing results help the localization of PUs? What are the characteristics of localization errors? To answer those questions, we try to justify the applicability of the CS theory to the compressive spectrum sensing framework in this paper, and propose a design of PU localization utilizing the spectrum usage information. The localization error is analyzed by the Cramér-Rao lower bound, which can be exploited to improve the localization performance. Detail analysis and simulations are presented to support the claims and demonstrate the efficacy and efficiency of the proposed mechanism.

  16. The properties of radio ellipticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, W.B.; Disney, M.J.; Rodgers, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    Optical and additional radio data are presented for the bright galaxies of the Disney and Wall survey (1977 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 179, 235). These data form the basis of a statistical comparison of the properties of radio elliptical galaxies to radio-quiet ellipticals. The correlations may be explained by the depth of the gravitational potential well in which the galaxy resides governing the circumstances under which an elliptical galaxy rids itself of internally produced gas. (author)

  17. Cooperative heuristic multi-agent planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Tonino, J.F.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will use the framework to study cooperative heuristic multi-agent planning. During the construction of their plans, the agents use a heuristic function inspired by the FF planner (l3l). At any time in the process of planning the agents may exchange available resources, or they may

  18. Management of the Dutch development cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Lodevicus Johannes Henricus

    2009-01-01

    There is reason for concern about the Dutch development cooperation. A survey of some aid evaluations of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) showed that the aid results are limited and that the goals of the programs are not achieved. Management concerns using an organisation's resources to

  19. 75 FR 18472 - Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... Initiative AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and Natural Resources Conservation Service, Department of... Energy Act of 2008 (2008 Act) establishes the Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative (CCPI) by... of Agriculture (USDA). The CCPI is a voluntary conservation initiative that enables the use of...

  20. Central radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phinney, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    The compact radio sources in the nuclei of most active galaxies lie closer to their centers of activity than any other region accessible to observation, excepting only the broad emission line region. They provide uniquely strong evidence for bulk motion of matter at relativistic velocities, encouraging the belief that the activity originates in a gravitational potential well whose escape velocity is of the order of the speed of light. The observational facts are reviewed as well as several theoretical pictures of them. Those places where systematic observations could help to distinguish the true theoretical picture from the many competing forgeries are emphasized. 76 references

  1. Cooperative Trust Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    the more widely recognized competitive (non-cooperative) game theory. Cooperative game theory focuses on what groups of self-interested agents can...provides immediate justification for using non-cooperative game theory as the basis for modeling the purely competitive agents. 2.4. Superadditive...the competitive and altruistic contributions of the subset team. Definition: Given a payoff function ( ) in a subset team game , the total marginal

  2. Online discovery of cooperative structures in business processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zelst, S. J.; van Dongen, B.F.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Debruyne, C.; Panetto, H.; Meersman, R.; Dillon, T.; Kühn, E.; O'Sullivan, D.; Agostino Ardagna, C.

    2016-01-01

    Process mining is a data-driven technique aiming to provide novel insights and help organizations to improve their business processes. In this paper, we focus on the cooperative aspect of process mining, i.e., discovering networks of cooperating resources that together perform processes. We use

  3. Radio Frequency Anechoic Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the design, manufacture, and test of antenna systems. The facility is also used as an electromagnetic compatibility/radio frequency interference...

  4. The Hartebeeshoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolson, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    This article briefly discusses the questions, problems and study fields of the modern astronomer. Radioastronomy has made important contributions to the study of the evolution of stars and has given much information on the birth of stars while at the other extreme, studies of neutron stars and the radio emission from the remnants of supernova explosions have given further insight into the death of individual stars. Radio astronomical studies have learned astronomers much about the structure of the Milky way and some twenty years ago, in a search for new radio galaxies, quasars were discovered. Radioastronomy research in South Africa is carried out at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

  5. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  6. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  7. The Regulatory Cooperation Forum, an Opportunity to Strengthen International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachaume, J.L.; Mamoru, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Regulatory Cooperation Forum (RCF) is a member-driven forum of nuclear power regulators created in 2010 that promotes the sharing of regulatory knowledge and experience through international cooperation and collaboration using the IAEA Safety Standards as its basis. The RCF involves countries with advanced nuclear power programmes, countries embarking on nuclear power for the first time and countries with smaller programmes considering expansion. The primary objectives of the RCF are: • To promote collaboration and cooperation among RCF members to improve coordination of support for regulatory infrastructure development; • To contribute to achieving and sustaining a high level of nuclear safety, consistent with the IAEA Safety Standards and Guidance; • To optimize resources among RCF members and avoid unnecessary support duplication through improved coordination. Membership of the RCF is open to all Member States of the IAEA. Participants in RCF activities will normally be senior representatives from regulatory bodies in Member States and from other providers, including the IAEA, European Commission (EC) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). So far, more than 30 countries are members of the RCF. The RCF has developed Action Plans to support Jordan, Vietnam, Belarus and Poland. The IAEA’s Nuclear Safety Action Plan urges Member States to strengthen the effectiveness of national regulatory bodies as well as base the development of their nuclear infrastructures on IAEA Safety Standards. The RCF assists Member States in implementing both of these actions for embarking, existing and expanding nuclear programmes. (author)

  8. Interference Coordination for 5G New Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Beatriz Soret; De Domenico, Antonio; Bazzi, Samer

    2018-01-01

    The arrival of the 5G NR provides a unique opportunity for introducing new inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) mechanisms. The objective is twofold: to better exploit the benefits of ICIC in coherence with the rest of radio resource management (RRM) principles in 5G, and to support new...... results quantify the performance benefits of the different techniques under heterogeneous key performance indicators (KPIs). We also discuss the standardization effort required for having each of these techniques included in the 5G NR specifications....

  9. Interference Coordination for 5G New Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Beatriz Soret; De Domenico, Antonio; Bazzi, Samer

    2017-01-01

    The arrival of the 5G NR provides a unique opportunity for introducing new inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) mechanisms. The objective is twofold: to better exploit the benefits of ICIC in coherence with the rest of radio resource management (RRM) principles in 5G, and to support new se...... results quantify the performance benefits of the different techniques under heterogeneous key performance indicators (KPIs). We also discuss the standardization effort required for having each of these techniques included in the 5G NR specifications....

  10. Multilingual Writing and Pedagogical Cooperation in Virtual Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Vandepitte, Sonia; Arnó Macà, Elisabet

    Multilingual Writing and Pedagogical Cooperation in Virtual Learning Environments is a critical scholarly resource that examines experiences with virtual networks and their advantages for universities and students in the domains of writing, translation, and usability testing. Featuring coverage o...

  11. Investigating the cooperative strategies between China and North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-06

    Apr 6, 2011 ... collaboratively constructed, and that the benefits of the 2 dams should be allocated according to .... cooperative game is used to predict or evaluate the strategies of ... resource management conflicts (Becker and Easter, 1999).

  12. Routing Cooperating Vehicles to Perform Precedence-Linked Tasks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vakhutinsky, Andrew; Wu, Cynara

    2005-01-01

    The problem of scheduling cooperating vehicles is a generalization of the classical vehicle routing problem where certain tasks are linked by precedence constraints and vehicles have varying constrained resources...

  13. Authentication of Radio Frequency Identification Devices Using Electronic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnappa Gounder Periaswamy, Senthilkumar

    2010-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are low-cost devices that are used to uniquely identify the objects to which they are attached. Due to the low cost and size that is driving the technology, a tag has limited computational capabilities and resources. This limitation makes the implementation of conventional security protocols to prevent…

  14. Spatial Stationarity of Ultrawideband and Millimeter Wave Radio Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Tan; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    For radio channels with broad bandwidth resource, such as those often used for ultrawideband (UWB) and millimeter wave (mmwave) systems, the Wide-Sense Stationary Uncorrelated Scattering (WSSUS) and spatial stationary assumptions are more critical than typical cellular channels with very limited ...

  15. Alternative vision or utopian fantasy? Cooperation, empowerment and women's cooperative development in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoux, L

    1995-01-01

    The discussion addresses the costs and benefits of working in cooperatives in India, imposed participation, methods for increasing incomes, preconceived models, the importance of meeting the actual needs of women, and participatory options. This author evaluated 10 producer cooperatives in West Bengal, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu during 1984-92. It is argued that more discussion is needed on how ideals of cooperation and empowerment of women can occur simultaneous with the context in which cooperatives must operate. The ten study cooperatives were all officially registered cooperatives. Cooperatives varied in size, organizational structure, and forms of support. Four were determined to be successful in economic and participatory terms. Three were successful because of the efforts of the women themselves. All three cases were based on earning goals that were higher than the women could have achieved on their own. Six failed in terms of participatory decision making and cooperative operations. Lack of sufficient support and/or excessive bureaucratic red tape were involved in the six failures, but to varying degrees. Type of support and means of implementation were important in the six failures. All women used cooperatives as a means of increasing income. Participation rules were imposed by outside agencies. Women were given "cooperative" training. Disputes occurred because women selected to power positions were powerful leaders outside the cooperative. Consensus was difficult to reach. There were conflicts of interest between different departments. Quality control was made difficult by women's inability to provide discipline. Personal conflicts from outside were carried on within the cooperative. Incomes could be improved by training women in local marketing and networking, insuring adequate resources and capital, and providing savings schemes. Gender inequalities were a key factor limiting income for women, but cooperatives did not address this issue. Gains for women

  16. Vendor audits: A cooperative program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    The litany of recent problems with substandard, fraudulent, or counterfeit materials has led to much scrutiny regarding the adequacy and effectiveness of licensee-performed vendor audits. To address these problems in the audit process, most licensees have dedicated significant additional technical and qualitative resources. In response to the limited availability of sufficient resources and expertise to perform more comprehensive and effective vendor audits, many licensees have recognize the advantages of cooperative programs to perform joint audits with other licensees on a regional basis. The Nuclear Procurement Issues Council (NUPIC) provides such a program on a national level, which has proven to be of significant benefit not only to licensees but also to vendors of nuclear safety-related items and services

  17. Data multiplexing in radio interferometric calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatawatta, Sarod; Diblen, Faruk; Spreeuw, Hanno; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2018-03-01

    New and upcoming radio interferometers will produce unprecedented amount of data that demand extremely powerful computers for processing. This is a limiting factor due to the large computational power and energy costs involved. Such limitations restrict several key data processing steps in radio interferometry. One such step is calibration where systematic errors in the data are determined and corrected. Accurate calibration is an essential component in reaching many scientific goals in radio astronomy and the use of consensus optimization that exploits the continuity of systematic errors across frequency significantly improves calibration accuracy. In order to reach full consensus, data at all frequencies need to be calibrated simultaneously. In the SKA regime, this can become intractable if the available compute agents do not have the resources to process data from all frequency channels simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a multiplexing scheme that is based on the alternating direction method of multipliers with cyclic updates. With this scheme, it is possible to simultaneously calibrate the full data set using far fewer compute agents than the number of frequencies at which data are available. We give simulation results to show the feasibility of the proposed multiplexing scheme in simultaneously calibrating a full data set when a limited number of compute agents are available.

  18. Dramatugi Penyiar Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hastika Yanti Nora

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Dramaturgy is the work of Erving Goffman. He wrote "Presentation of Self in Everyday Life" in '1959. Following the theatrical analogy, Goffman spoke of a front stage and back stage. The front stage is that part of the performance that generally functions in rather fixed and general ways to define the situation for those who observed the performance. The back stage is situation where facts suppressed in the front or various kinds of informal actions may appear. A back stage is usually adjacent to the front stage, but it also cut off from it. Everyone in this world have to run his role in their everyday life. It also a radio announcer. As an actor, they have to be a nice and friendy person when they perform to make air personality, that is  a good  impression, from their audience. But before their perform in the front stage, there so much to do to prepare in the backstage. The front and back stage is radio announcer dramaturgy.

  19. Low-Complexity Scheduling and Power Adaptation for Coordinated Cloud-Radio Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed; Dahrouj, Hayssam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In practical wireless systems, the successful implementation of resource allocation techniques strongly depends on the algorithmic complexity. Consider a cloud-radio access network (CRAN), where the central cloud is responsible for scheduling

  20. Predisposed to cooperate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Costello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in Toronto and Geneva indicates that asylum seekers and refugees are predisposed to be cooperative with the refugee status determination system and other immigration procedures, and that the design of alternatives to detention can create, foster and support this cooperative predisposition – or can undermine or even demolish it.

  1. Proto-cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Read, James E; Romanczuk, Pawel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    beneficial if the cost of attacking is high, and only then when waiting times are short. Our findings provide evidence that cooperative benefits can be realized through the facilitative effects of individuals' hunting actions without spatial coordination of attacks. Such 'proto-cooperation' may be the pre...

  2. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own

  3. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  4. Helping Children Cooperate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2011-01-01

    There are occasions in life when the competitive process is appropriate. But when people consider the relationships in their lives--with friends, family members, coworkers, and the larger community--they realize the value of cooperation. When adults give children the chance to cooperate, to work together toward a solution or a common goal like…

  5. Nordic cooperation within natural gas research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edna, O.-J.

    1993-01-01

    Nordic cooperation within natural gas research is discussed. A reorganization of this cooperation has recently taken place. It is explained that common Nordic resources are now to be concentrated within 7 areas, one of which is the area of energy/industrial policies, regional policies and agriculture and forestry, all under the common heading of ''Economy''. The plan of activities within this area includes international cooperation within the European Communities, the European Energy Charter, the International Energy Agency and will involve the energy policy situation in eastern Europe and the Baltic countries, the electric power and natural gas markets in the northern countries, energy related environmental questions and Nordic energy research cooperation. Nordic research activities constitute 2% of research resources within the OECD. The basis for Nordic research cooperation (for example a common cultural background) is described, and suggestions are made as to how it should be administrated. The Nordic energy research programme for 1991-1994 embodies bioenergy and the environment, fuel cells, energy and the society, solid fuels, district heating and petroleum technology. The status report for the nordic gas market, which represents the Nordic gas companies' evaluation of the Nordic gas market, is summarized, and Nordic research activities related to gas utilization are shortly commented upon. (AB)

  6. Tuning in to pavement radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a phenomenon known all over Africa, for which there is no really satisfactory term in English but which is summed up in the French term 'radio trottoir', literally 'pavement radio'. It may be defined as the popular and unofficial discussion of current affairs in Africa,

  7. Wide Field Radio Transient Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey

    2011-04-01

    The time domain of the radio wavelength sky has been only sparsely explored. Nevertheless, serendipitous discovery and results from limited surveys indicate that there is much to be found on timescales from nanoseconds to years and at wavelengths from meters to millimeters. These observations have revealed unexpected phenomena such as rotating radio transients and coherent pulses from brown dwarfs. Additionally, archival studies have revealed an unknown class of radio transients without radio, optical, or high-energy hosts. The new generation of centimeter-wave radio telescopes such as the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) will exploit wide fields of view and flexible digital signal processing to systematically explore radio transient parameter space, as well as lay the scientific and technical foundation for the Square Kilometer Array. Known unknowns that will be the target of future transient surveys include orphan gamma-ray burst afterglows, radio supernovae, tidally-disrupted stars, flare stars, and magnetars. While probing the variable sky, these surveys will also provide unprecedented information on the static radio sky. I will present results from three large ATA surveys (the Fly's Eye survey, the ATA Twenty CM Survey (ATATS), and the Pi GHz Survey (PiGSS)) and several small ATA transient searches. Finally, I will discuss the landscape and opportunities for future instruments at centimeter wavelengths.

  8. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  9. Radio Telescopes Reveal Unseen Galactic Cannibalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    quasars and blazars are hundreds of times more powerful. The astronomers picked a number of relatively nearby Seyfert galaxies that had previously been observed with visible-light telescopes. They then carefully studied the Seyferts with the VLA, specifically looking for radio waves emitted by hydrogen atoms. The VLA images showed the vast majority of the Seyferts were disturbed by encounters with neighbor galaxies. By comparison, similar VLA images of inactive galaxies showed that very few were disturbed. "This comparison clearly shows a connection between close galactic encounters and the black-hole-powered activity in the cores," said Ya-Wen Tang, who began this work at the Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), in Taiwan and now is a graduate student at the National Taiwan University. "This is the best evidence yet for the fueling of Seyfert galaxies. Other mechanisms have been proposed, but they have shown little if any difference between Seyferts and inactive galaxies," Tang added. "Our results show that images of the hydrogen gas are a powerful tool for revealing otherwise-invisible gravitational interactions among galaxies," said Jeremy Lim, also of ASIAA. "This is a welcome advance in our understanding of these objects, made possible by the best and most extensive survey ever made of hydrogen in Seyferts," Lim said. Kuo, Tang and Lim worked with Paul Ho, of ASIAA and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The scientists reported their findings in the Astrophysical Journal. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  10. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  11. CONSTRAINING RADIO EMISSION FROM MAGNETARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, P.; Kaspi, V. M.; Dib, R. [Department of Physics, Rutherford Physics Building, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Champion, D. J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Hessels, J. W. T., E-mail: plazar@physics.mcgill.ca [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands)

    2012-01-10

    We report on radio observations of five magnetars and two magnetar candidates carried out at 1950 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope in 2006-2007. The data from these observations were searched for periodic emission and bright single pulses. Also, monitoring observations of magnetar 4U 0142+61 following its 2006 X-ray bursts were obtained. No radio emission was detected for any of our targets. The non-detections allow us to place luminosity upper limits of L{sub 1950} {approx}< 1.60 mJy kpc{sup 2} for periodic emission and L{sub 1950,single} {approx}< 7.6 Jy kpc{sup 2} for single pulse emission. These are the most stringent limits yet for the magnetars observed. The resulting luminosity upper limits together with previous results are discussed, as is the importance of further radio observations of radio-loud and radio-quiet magnetars.

  12. Radio observations of symbiotic stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A E [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Epping (Australia). Div. of Radiophysics; Allen, D A

    1978-09-01

    A search for 2-cm continuum emission from 91 symbiotic stars has been undertaken using the Parkes radio telescope. Nine sources have been detected, four of which are reported for the first time. The radio spectral indices are mostly about + 0.6; these are interpreted in terms of mass loss. In two stars a portion of the radio spectrum has an index of zero, and for one of these stars (RX Puppis) this is plausibly a manifestation of the cessation of symbiotic activity that occurred about two decades ago. There is an extraordinarily good correlation between the detectability at 2cm and the presence of circumstellar dust, but not between the radio and optical domains. The importance of continued radio monitoring of HM Sagittae over the next few years is stressed.

  13. Meta-analysis of dragon’s blood resin extract as radio-protective agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subaika Mahmood

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In health sciences, much efforts had been made in past years to explore the radio-protective agents from natural resources due to rapid exposure of radiations to environment such as space traveling, radiotherapy and largely growing telecommunication industry. It becomes crucial to find natural sources for radio-protection. In correspondence, dragon’s blood (DB is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant that possesses great medicinal values due to the presence of several phenolic compounds. For a long time, DB has been used in treatment of blood stasis, inflammation, oxidative stress, immune suppression and tumors, but recently it has been extensively used as radio-protective agent. There is no comprehensive review on radio- protective characterization of DB resin extract in literature. In our review, an attempt has been made to highlight unique and inherent radio-protection in liver, brain, kidney, lung, spleen and cerebrum. This review will help people in exploring the radioactive protectants from natural resources.

  14. Sweden-Lithuania bilateral cooperation in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistad, J.H.; Vaisnys, P.

    1996-01-01

    This cooperation started in early 1992 shortly after Lithuania became a newly independent republic. The results from the bilateral co-operation in the field of nuclear safety are very fruitful and promising. The work is progressing in a very efficient and cost-effective way. The pace of progress is to a great extent governed by the resources the Lithuanian partners can allocate. The Swedish Government has up to now allocated more than 200 MSEK (>30 MUSD) for this bilateral cooperation in nuclear safety enhancement. This paper gives an overview of the main content and achievements of the Swedish-Lithuanian cooperation. 1 tab, 2 diagrams

  15. Report 1: International Cooperation to Development of Strategy and R&D Collaboration for Substitution of Rare Earth Resources and Report 2: Development of Magnetocaloric Alloys without Critical Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Ha [Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States); Ott, Ryan [Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-05-26

    A Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the Ames Laboratory and Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH) in April of 2011 to establish a close cooperative relationship of research on Rare Metals. The Ames Laboratory through its operating contractor, Iowa State University, and the KITECH, as one of the goals of a joint Memorandum of Understanding, made agreement on a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for a personnel exchange in April of 2012. Ames Laboratory and KITECH would be jointly performing collaboration work in this cooperation as the Parties. The individual backgrounds and capabilities of the Parties are ideally suited to the successful execution of this work. The Ames Laboratory has a history spanning more than 60 years of pioneering work in rare-earth (RE) research. With its team of internationally recognized rare-earth experts, the Ames Laboratory is uniquely positioned to provide the knowledge, expertise and training necessary to help ensure a global leadership position for the United States in rare-earth research, development and applications. The KITECH was founded to promote technological capability of small and medium-sized enterprises in Korea and has a mission of supporting research on materials science and engineering in Korea. In 2009, Korea Institute for Rare Metals (KIRAM) at KITECH was established. KIRAM makes selection and funding decisions for technology projects for strategic rare metals, and provides oversight of R&D programs. The KIRAM is focusing on the commercialization and recycling of particular rare metals. In addition KIRAM will be coordinating government, local universities, and small to medium enterprises to facilitate R&D support for core technologies. KIRAM will be carrying them through to commercialization, and establishing new industry.

  16. Russia’s Treaties of Friendship and Co-Operation in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    two years. 13. Malaysia No treaty in the immediate future, but there exists the possibility of a non-socialist oriented treaty if Soviet- Malaysian ...health services, the press, radio, television, cinema , tourism, sport, and other fields. The two sides shall facilitate the expansion of cooperation...and contacts between them in the fields of science, art, literature, education, health care the press, radio, television, cinema , tourism and spirit

  17. Foreign cooperative technology development and transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schassburger, R.J.; Robinson, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    It is the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) that, in pursuing the development of mined geologic repositories in the United States, the waste isolation program will continue to actively support international cooperation and exchange activities that are judged to be in the best interest of the program and in compliance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, Sec. 223. Because there are common technical issues and because technology development often requires large expenditures of funds and dedication of significant capital resources, it is advantageous to cooperate with foreign organizations carrying out similar activities. The DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is working on cooperative nuclear waste isolation technology development programs with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), Canada's Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited (AECL), Sweden, Switzerland, and the Federal Republic of Germany. This paper describes recent technology results that have been obtained in DOE's foreign cooperative programs. Specific technology development studies are discussed for cooperative efforts with Canada, OECD/NEA, and a natural analog project in Brazil

  18. Radio opaque gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, A.V.; Whittaker, R.E. Jr.; Goldstrom, R.A.; Shipko, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation shielding garments and accessories, such as radio-opaque gloves for surgeons, shielding against the harmful x-ray radiation in a fluoroscopic zone, are advantageously different from garments for shielding from other medical uses of x-rays. Such garments are provided with zones of differing opacity, whereby desired sensitivity and ''feel'' through the glove material is retained. One feature is the provision of an ''opacity gradient'' across the glove cross section with opacity being relatively low at the fingertip area (lesser shield-thickness), but relatively high at the less nonprehensile hand zones, such as the palm. Glove fabrication techniques for achieving such an opacity gradient are described. (U.S.)

  19. MUSIC RADIO-JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubovtceva Ludmila I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on years of practical experience, the author highlights the main radio genres in which music correspondent, music reviewer, music commentator, and music leading and a disc jockey work. Theoretical principles of their creative activities are analyzed in common journalistic genres, such as interview, reportage, talk show, live broadcast, radiofilm, as well as specialized genres like concert on demand and music competition. Journalist’ speech is seen as a logical element, the incoming with music in art-structural relationships. However, it does not become the predominant sound layer and aims to harmonious correlation or local penetration into music opus. In addition, important links in music journalism are defined the auxiliary "offscreen" editor's job and keeping the original sound archive. The author cites a number of own work examples on the air.

  20. Radio-adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, T.

    1992-01-01

    Knowledge about cellular events in mammalian cells exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation is meager. Recent works showed that human lymphocytes become resistant to radiation-induced chromosomal damage after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. Experimental evidence for radio-adaptive response (RAR) in cultured mammalian cells was obtained. Exposure to very low doses of gamma-rays or tritium beta-rays make cells less susceptible to the induction of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges by subsequent higher doses. Many important characteristics of the novel response suggest that RAR is a stress response resulting in the enhanced repair of chromosomal DNA damage in cell under restricted conditions. Experiments are still in progress in order to elucidate the molecular basis for RAR processes. (author). 13 refs.; 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Grayver, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  2. Radio-adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takaji

    1991-01-01

    An adaptive response to radiation stress was found in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells, as a suppressed induction of micronuclei (MNs) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in the cells conditioned by very low doses. The important characteristics of the novel chromosomal response, called radio-adaptive response (RAR), that have newly emerged in this study are: 1) Low doses of beta-rays from tritiated water (HTO) as well as tritiated thymidine can cause the RAR. 2) Thermal neutrons, a high LET radiation, can not act as tritium beta-rays or gamma-rays. 3) The RAR expression is suppressed by an inhibition of protein synthesis. 4) Several proteins are newly synthesized concurrently with the RAR expression after adapting doses, viewed by two-dimensional electrophoresis of cellular proteins. These results suggest that the RAR is an adaptive chromosomal DNA repair induced by very low doses of low LET radiations under restricted conditions, accompanying the inducible specific gene expression. (author)

  3. A turbulent radio jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, F.D.

    1983-01-01

    A relativistic plasma flow can explain many of the observations on the one-sided jets, which are associated with radio sources that show superluminal motions in their cores. The pressure from the ambient medium will communicate across the jet in a relatively short distance, typically 30 kpc. The friction between the jet and the external medium then makes the flow go turbulent. As a result the jet dissipates energy and will be brought to rest within a few hundred kpc, if it does not strike an obstacle before. The mean flow in the jet is strongly sheared and stretches the lines of force of any magnetic field frozen into the plasma. The dominant field direction, as seen from the rest frame of the plasma, is therefore parallel to the length of the jet. Polarization measurements have shown that this is in fact the case. (author)

  4. AGONIZAN RADIOS MINERAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Salinas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ofrece un amplio análisis sobre la industria electoral, recordando que un candidato a presidente es "un producto para la venta". Se Desmenuzan las estrategias utilizadas en el plebiscito chileno,las elecciones norteamericanas con el NO a BUSH. El Mercadeo Social es una nueva metodología utilizada en proyectos de desarrollo a nivel de campo por ello se hace un esclarecimiento y clarifica el vínculo con la comunicación. Se agrega temas como: Los modelos de recepción de mensajes cuyos marcos conceptuales y metodologías aún no se han adaptado al potencial de esta línea de trabajo.Se analiza la agonía de las radios mineras en Bolivia en la que 42 años de historia y heroísmo se desmoronan.

  5. Radio-isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfangel, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the dispersions that may be used for preparing radio-isotopic tracers, technetium labelled dispersions, processes for preparing these dispersions and their use as tracers. Technetium 99m sulphur colloids are utilized as scintillation tracers to give a picture of the reticulo-endothelial system, particularly the liver and spleen. A dispersion is provided which only requires the addition of a radioactive nuclide to form a radioactively labelled dispersion that can be injected as a tracer. It is formed of a colloid of tin sulphur dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution. Such a reagent has the advantage of being safe and reliable and is easier to use. The colloid can be prepared more quickly since additions of several different reagents are avoided. There is no need to heat up and no sulphuretted hydrogen, which is a toxic gas, is used [fr

  6. Radio frequency picosecond phototube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margaryan, A.; Carlini, R.; Ent, R.; Grigoryan, N.; Gyunashyan, K.; Hashimoto, O.; Hovater, K.; Ispiryan, M.; Knyazyan, S.; Kross, B.; Majewski, S.; Marikyan, G.; Mkrtchyan, M.; Parlakyan, L.; Popov, V.; Tang, L.; Vardanyan, H.; Yan, C.; Zhamkochyan, S.; Zorn, C.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a photon detector for recording low-level and ultra-fast optical signals, based on radio frequency (RF) analysis of low-energy photoelectrons (PEs). By using currently developed 500 MHz RF deflector, it is possible to scan circularly and detect single PEs, amplified in multi-channel plates (MCPs). The operation of the tube is investigated by means of thermionic electron source. It is demonstrated that the signals generated in the MCP can be processed event by event; by using available nanosecond electronics and that time resolution better than 20 ps can be achieved. Timing characteristics of the Cherenkov detector with RF phototube in a 'head-on' geometry is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulation

  7. Radio frequency picosecond phototube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaryan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia)]. E-mail: mat@mail.yerphi.am; Carlini, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Ent, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Grigoryan, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Gyunashyan, K. [Yerevan State University of Architecture and Construction, Yerevan (Armenia); Hashimoto, O. [Tohoku University, Sendai 98-77 (Japan); Hovater, K. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Ispiryan, M. [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Rd, Houston TX 77204 (United States); Knyazyan, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Kross, B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Majewski, S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Marikyan, G. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Mkrtchyan, M. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Parlakyan, L. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Popov, V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Tang, L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Vardanyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Yan, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Zhamkochyan, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Zorn, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    We propose a photon detector for recording low-level and ultra-fast optical signals, based on radio frequency (RF) analysis of low-energy photoelectrons (PEs). By using currently developed 500 MHz RF deflector, it is possible to scan circularly and detect single PEs, amplified in multi-channel plates (MCPs). The operation of the tube is investigated by means of thermionic electron source. It is demonstrated that the signals generated in the MCP can be processed event by event; by using available nanosecond electronics and that time resolution better than 20 ps can be achieved. Timing characteristics of the Cherenkov detector with RF phototube in a 'head-on' geometry is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulation.

  8. Radio propagation measurement and channel modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Salous, Sana

    2013-01-01

    While there are numerous books describing modern wireless communication systems that contain overviews of radio propagation and radio channel modelling, there are none that contain detailed information on the design, implementation and calibration of radio channel measurement equipment, the planning of experiments and the in depth analysis of measured data. The book would begin with an explanation of the fundamentals of radio wave propagation and progress through a series of topics, including the measurement of radio channel characteristics, radio channel sounders, measurement strategies

  9. Magnetospheric radio sounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori; Nakamura, Yoshikatsu; Koseki, Teruo; Watanabe, Sigeaki; Murakami, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Radio sounding of the plasmapause from a geostationary satellite has been investigated to observe time variations of the plasmapause structure and effects of the plasma convection. In the equatorial plane, the plasmapause is located, on the average, at 4 R sub(E) (R sub(E); Earth radius), and the plasma density drops outwards from 10 2 -10 3 /cm 3 to 1-10/cm 3 in the plasmapause width of about 600 km. Plasmagrams showing a relation between the virtual range and sounding frequencies are computed by ray tracing of LF-VLF waves transmitted from a geostationary satellite, using model distributions of the electron density in the vicinity of the plasmapause. The general features of the plasmagrams are similar to the topside ionograms. The plasmagram has no penetration frequency such as f 0 F 2 , but the virtual range of the plasmagram increases rapidly with frequency above 100 kHz, since the distance between a satellite and wave reflection point increases rapidly with increasing the electron density inside the plasmapause. The plasmapause sounder on a geostationary satellite has been designed by taking account of an average propagation distance of 2 x 2.6 R sub(E) between a satellite (6.6 R sub(E)) and the plasmapause (4.0 R sub(E)), background noise, range resolution, power consumption, and receiver S/N of 10 dB. The 13-bit Barker coded pulses of baud length of 0.5 msec should be transmitted in direction parallel to the orbital plane at frequencies for 10 kHz-2MHz in a pulse interval of 0.5 sec. The transmitter peak power of 70 watts and 700 watts are required respectively in geomagnetically quiet and disturbed (strong nonthermal continuum emissions) conditions for a 400 meter cylindrical dipole of 1.2 cm diameter on the geostationary satellite. This technique will open new area of radio sounding in the magnetosphere. (auth.)

  10. The ecology of cooperative breeding behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sheng-Feng; Emlen, Stephen T; Koenig, Walter D; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2017-06-01

    Ecology is a fundamental driving force for the evolutionary transition from solitary living to breeding cooperatively in groups. However, the fact that both benign and harsh, as well as stable and fluctuating, environments can favour the evolution of cooperative breeding behaviour constitutes a paradox of environmental quality and sociality. Here, we propose a new model - the dual benefits framework - for resolving this paradox. Our framework distinguishes between two categories of grouping benefits - resource defence benefits that derive from group-defended critical resources and collective action benefits that result from social cooperation among group members - and uses insider-outsider conflict theory to simultaneously consider the interests of current group members (insiders) and potential joiners (outsiders) in determining optimal group size. We argue that the different grouping benefits realised from resource defence and collective action profoundly affect insider-outsider conflict resolution, resulting in predictable differences in the per capita productivity, stable group size, kin structure and stability of the social group. We also suggest that different types of environmental variation (spatial vs. temporal) select for societies that form because of the different grouping benefits, thus helping to resolve the paradox of why cooperative breeding evolves in such different types of environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  11. A Radio Astronomy Science Education Partnership - GAVRT and Radio JOVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, C. A.; Thieman, J. R.; Bunnell, K.; Soholt, G.

    2009-12-01

    The planet Jupiter provides an excellent subject to educate, engage, and inspire students and teachers to learn science. The Goldstone Apple-Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program (http://www.lewiscenter.org/gavrt) and The Radio JOVE project (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) each have a long history of allowing students and teachers to interact with scientists and real radio telescopes. The upcoming Juno mission to Jupiter (2011 launch) allows both GAVRT and Radio JOVE to combine efforts and engage with the NASA Juno mission, thus increasing the excitement and learning potential for teachers, students, and the general public. Teachers can attend workshops for training to operate a 34-meter radio telescope and/or build their own simple radio telescope, both of which can be used directly in the classroom. We will overview some classroom activities and highlight some teacher-student experiences. In addition, we will update our efforts on greater Web-based control of the radio telescopes, as well as highlight our upcoming workshops to allow better access for teachers in different parts of the Country.

  12. Bandwidth and power allocation for two-way relaying in overlay cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.; Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of both bandwidth and power allocation for two-way multiple relay systems in overlay cognitive radio (CR) setup is investigated. In the CR overlay mode, primary users (PUs) cooperate with cognitive users (CUs) for mutual

  13. Ignorance Is Bliss, But for Whom? The Persistent Effect of Good Will on Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Farjam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Who benefits from the ignorance of others? We address this question from the point of view of a policy maker who can induce some ignorance into a system of agents competing for resources. Evolutionary game theory shows that when unconditional cooperators or ignorant agents compete with defectors in two-strategy settings, unconditional cooperators get exploited and are rendered extinct. In contrast, conditional cooperators, by utilizing some kind of reciprocity, are able to survive and sustain cooperation when competing with defectors. We study how cooperation thrives in a three-strategy setting where there are unconditional cooperators, conditional cooperators and defectors. By means of simulation on various kinds of graphs, we show that conditional cooperators benefit from the existence of unconditional cooperators in the majority of cases. However, in worlds that make cooperation hard to evolve, defectors benefit.

  14. Education, ethics, and solidarity in international cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Lima de Castro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes an experience in technical cooperation between Brazil and Andean countries in the form of the International Course in the Management of Human Resource Policies in Health. This exploratory documental study encompassed a number of Latin American countries whose institutions of higher education had partnerships with the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, mediated by the Pan American Health Organization Representation in Brazil. The course experience shows that fundamental values like ethics and solidarity are determinant to the success of technical cooperation processes.

  15. Education, ethics, and solidarity in international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Janete Lima de; Vilar, Rosana Lucia Alves de; Germano, Raimunda Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes an experience in technical cooperation between Brazil and Andean countries in the form of the International Course in the Management of Human Resource Policies in Health. This exploratory documental study encompassed a number of Latin American countries whose institutions of higher education had partnerships with the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, mediated by the Pan American Health Organization Representation in Brazil. The course experience shows that fundamental values like ethics and solidarity are determinant to the success of technical cooperation processes.

  16. South African Radio League Introduction to Amateur Radio: A study guide for the Radio Amateur Examination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burger, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ) .............................................................................. 15 1.12 The Radio Amateurs’ Examination .......................................................................... 15 1.13 Restrictions on the Use of an Amateur Radio Station .............................................. 16 Chapter 2: Operating... ............................................................................................. 116 14.1 Theory of Operation ............................................................................................... 116 14.2 Turns Ratio...

  17. Radio Astronomy Explorer /RAE/. I - Observations of terrestrial radio noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.; Stone, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) I data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial radio noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 dB and more above cosmic noise background, on frequencies above the F-layer critical frequency.

  18. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  19. Cooperative Wireless Communications and Physical Layer Security : State of the Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohokale, Vandana M.; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2012-01-01

    in the mobile equipment is not feasible due to resource constraints. Cooperative wireless communication (CWC) is the upcoming virtual MIMO technique to combat fading and achieve diversity through user cooperation. Physical layer security (PLS) is the imminent security guarantee for the cooperative communication....

  20. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  1. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    Brundtland Commission Report, and climate change became a common concern. Energy technology cooperation was an integral part of Nordic energy policy cooperation from the very beginning. The Nordic Energy Research Programme was established with funding from each of the Nordic countries, and was earmarked...... by a committee of senior officials and a secretariat. This was characterised by an incremental development of the cooperation based on consensus, mutual understanding and trust facilitated through exchange of experiences, work groups, seminars, educational activities and mobility schemes for energy policy...

  2. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data......-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web...

  3. X rays from radio binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to the radio binary systems CC Cas, AR Lac, β Per (Algol), β Lyr, b Per and Cyg X-1. It is stated that a thermal interpretation of the radiation from Algol requires a much larger x-ray flux than the observed value of 3.8 x 10 -11 erg/cm 2 /sec/keV in the 2 to 6 keV energy range. Observations of some non-thermal flares, together with the small size of the radio source in Algol, indicate that the radio emission is non-thermal in nature. The radio emission is interpreted as synchrotron radiation and it is suggested that the observed x-ray emission is due to inverse Compton scattering of the light of the primary star by the radio electrons. The x-ray emission from other radio binaries is also calculated using this model. The energy for the radio electrons can arise from annihilation of magnetic lines connecting the binary stars, twisted by the rotation of the stars. (U.K.)

  4. A Project in Support of International Nuclear Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Ro; Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong; Jung, Sung Hyon; Shim, Jae Sun

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to establish the strategies of international cooperation in order to promote our nation's leading role in international community, to lay the foundation for the effective transfer of nuclear technology to developing countries, and to cope with the rapidly changing in the international nuclear communities. This study contains the work undertaken to promote multilateral cooperation within the framework of international nuclear related organizations and regional cooperative agreements and the relevant forums, to enhance bilateral cooperation with foreign nuclear related research institutes as well as to promote cooperation through the exchange of foreign scientists. As for multilateral cooperation, activities for promoting cooperation within the IAEA and regional cooperative frameworks are introduced. Regarding bilateral cooperation, activities for concluding arrangements and MOUs with foreign research institutes and for participation in joint nuclear coordinating committee meetings between Korea and other countries are presented. For promoting personnel exchanges, activities for inviting and utilizing foreign scientists and mutual discussions with foreign experts, who have visited KAERI, are also described. Continuous efforts to contributing towards the international community through utilizing Korea's experience gained in the process of technical self-reliance and development of human resources are needed. Also efforts to establish the foundation of international cooperation and to make inroad into overseas nuclear markets for export of our nuclear technologies should be made. Meanwhile in the bilateral cooperation, we need to beef up cooperation with U.S.A. and Canada through the joint committee for the joint export to third countries. It is expected that this study would be utilized as a basic material for the international cooperation of nuclear energy, especially for the KAERI's international cooperation in an effective way

  5. A Project in Support of International Nuclear Cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Ro; Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong; Jung, Sung Hyon; Shim, Jae Sun

    2008-12-15

    The objective of this study is to establish the strategies of international cooperation in order to promote our nation's leading role in international community, to lay the foundation for the effective transfer of nuclear technology to developing countries, and to cope with the rapidly changing in the international nuclear communities. This study contains the work undertaken to promote multilateral cooperation within the framework of international nuclear related organizations and regional cooperative agreements and the relevant forums, to enhance bilateral cooperation with foreign nuclear related research institutes as well as to promote cooperation through the exchange of foreign scientists. As for multilateral cooperation, activities for promoting cooperation within the IAEA and regional cooperative frameworks are introduced. Regarding bilateral cooperation, activities for concluding arrangements and MOUs with foreign research institutes and for participation in joint nuclear coordinating committee meetings between Korea and other countries are presented. For promoting personnel exchanges, activities for inviting and utilizing foreign scientists and mutual discussions with foreign experts, who have visited KAERI, are also described. Continuous efforts to contributing towards the international community through utilizing Korea's experience gained in the process of technical self-reliance and development of human resources are needed. Also efforts to establish the foundation of international cooperation and to make inroad into overseas nuclear markets for export of our nuclear technologies should be made. Meanwhile in the bilateral cooperation, we need to beef up cooperation with U.S.A. and Canada through the joint committee for the joint export to third countries. It is expected that this study would be utilized as a basic material for the international cooperation of nuclear energy, especially for the KAERI's international cooperation in an

  6. A Project in Support of International Nuclear Cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Ro; Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong; Jung, Sung Hyon; Shim, Jae Sun

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this study is to establish the strategies of international cooperation in order to promote our nation's leading role in international community, to lay the foundation for the effective transfer of nuclear technology to developing countries, and to cope with the rapidly changing in the international nuclear communities. This study contains the work undertaken to promote multilateral cooperation within the framework of international nuclear related organizations and regional cooperative agreements and the relevant forums, to enhance bilateral cooperation with foreign nuclear related research institutes as well as to promote cooperation through the exchange of foreign scientists. As for multilateral cooperation, activities for promoting cooperation within the IAEA and regional cooperative frameworks are introduced. Regarding bilateral cooperation, activities for concluding arrangements and MOUs with foreign research institutes and for participation in joint nuclear coordinating committee meetings between Korea and other countries are presented. For promoting personnel exchanges, activities for inviting and utilizing foreign scientists and mutual discussions with foreign experts, who have visited KAERI, are also described. Continuous efforts to contributing towards the international community through utilizing Korea's experience gained in the process of technical self-reliance and development of human resources are needed. Also efforts to establish the foundation of international cooperation and to make inroad into overseas nuclear markets for export of our nuclear technologies should be made. Meanwhile in the bilateral cooperation, we need to beef up cooperation with U.S.A. and Canada through the joint committee for the joint export to third countries. It is expected that this study would be utilized as a basic material for the international cooperation of nuclear energy, especially for the KAERI's international cooperation in an

  7. 75 FR 10439 - Cognitive Radio Technologies and Software Defined Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... petition could not through the exercise of due diligence have learned of the facts in question prior to... to a wide variety of radio services, including safety-of-life services--the Commission holds the...

  8. radio frequency based radio frequency based water level monitor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    ABSTRACT. This paper elucidates a radio frequency (RF) based transmission and reception system used to remotely monitor and .... range the wireless can cover but in this prototype, it ... power supply to the system, the sensed water level is.

  9. Introduction to solar radio astronomy and radio physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, A.

    1979-01-01

    A systematic summary is presented of the work done during the last thirty years in the field of solar radio astronomy from the standpoint of general solar physics. Instrumental aspects, observations and theory are covered. A brief introduction is given to the matter consisting of the history of solar radio astronomy and some fundamentals of astronomy and solar physics are outlined. Some topics of the instrumental background of solar radio astronomy and the main results of observations are presented. The elements of a theoretical interpretation of solar radio observations are reported and a synthesis of both observation and theory contributing to a general picture of solar and solar-terrestrial physics is outlined. (C.F./Auth)

  10. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  11. Introduction to international radio regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struzak, R

    2003-12-15

    These notes introduce the ITU Radio Regulations and related UN and WTO agreements that specify how terrestrial and satellite radio should be used in all countries over the planet. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on these regulations. The paper also discusses few problems related to the use of the radio frequencies and satellite orbits. The notes are extracted from a book under preparation, in which these issues are discussed in more detail. (author)

  12. Introduction to international radio regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struzak, R.

    2003-01-01

    These notes introduce the ITU Radio Regulations and related UN and WTO agreements that specify how terrestrial and satellite radio should be used in all countries over the planet. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on these regulations. The paper also discusses few problems related to the use of the radio frequencies and satellite orbits. The notes are extracted from a book under preparation, in which these issues are discussed in more detail. (author)

  13. Magnetogasdynamics of double radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepveu, M.

    1979-01-01

    The magnetogasdynamical behaviour of plasmoids moving through an ambient gas is investigated numerically with a two-dimensional code, based on the SHASTA scheme. The astrophysical importance of this study lies in the observed extended extragalactic radio sources. It is assumed that plasma clouds with cylinder symmetry are ejected from the nucleus of a galaxy. Their large-scale evolution in the intergalactic medium (IGM) is followed. The gas dynamics of an ejected cloud, the magnetogasdynamics of ejected clouds, the Christiansen-Pacholczyk-Scott picture for radio galaxies and the shear layers in double radio sources are studied. (Auth.)

  14. Shoestring Budget Radio Astronomy (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoot, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) The commercial exploitation of microwave frequencies for cellular, WiFi, Bluetooth, HDTV, and satellite digital media transmission has brought down the cost of the components required to build an effective radio telescope to the point where, for the cost of a good eyepiece, you can construct and operate a radio telescope. This paper sets forth a family of designs for 1421 MHz telescopes. It also proposes a method by which operators of such instruments can aggregate and archive data via the Internet. With 90 or so instruments it will be possible to survey the entire radio sky for transients with a 24 hour cadence.

  15. Mutual cooperation with Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orstein, Roberto M.

    1998-01-01

    The history of the nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Argentina is outlined in the framework of the changing political circumstances. Reference is made to the agreements between both countries and to its implementation

  16. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  17. From cooperation to globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela UNGUREANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is seen as a consequence of cross-border business. This complex and irreversible process can be seen as an extension of capitalist relations of production or increased interdependence in the economic system. Globalization has given rise to more and more fields of activity worldwide. To meet the challenges of business globalization, many companies form strategic alliances, cooperate or merge with other companies. Cooperation is seen by many companies as an alternative path to success. In recent years joint international associations, licensing, co-production agreements, joint research programs, exploration of consortia and other cooperative relationships between two or more corporations with potential have increased. We notice a cooperation tendency among small-sized companies, especially among those from the developing countries.

  18. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  19. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  20. Cooperative Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  1. On Cooper's Nonparametric Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeidler, James

    1978-01-01

    The basic assumption of Cooper's nonparametric test for trend (EJ 125 069) is questioned. It is contended that the proper assumption alters the distribution of the statistic and reduces its usefulness. (JKS)

  2. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  3. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  4. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  5. Nuclear cooperation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cooperation agreements are reviewed in tabular form, especially agreements with developing countries. The reporting countries are the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, Australia, Japan, and France. A separate EURATOM list is annexed

  6. The increased risk of joint venture promotes social cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te Wu

    Full Text Available The joint venture of many members is common both in animal world and human society. In these public enterprizes, highly cooperative groups are more likely to while low cooperative groups are still possible but not probable to succeed. Existent literature mostly focuses on the traditional public goods game, in which cooperators create public wealth unconditionally and benefit all group members unbiasedly. We here institute a model addressing this public goods dilemma with incorporating the public resource foraging failure risk. Risk-averse individuals tend to lead a autarkic life, while risk-preferential ones tend to participate in the risky public goods game. For participants, group's success relies on its cooperativeness, with increasing contribution leading to increasing success likelihood. We introduce a function with one tunable parameter to describe the risk removal pattern and study in detail three representative classes. Analytical results show that the widely replicated population dynamics of cyclical dominance of loner, cooperator and defector disappear, while most of the time loners act as savors while eventually they also disappear. Depending on the way that group's success relies on its cooperativeness, either cooperators pervade the entire population or they coexist with defectors. Even in the later case, cooperators still hold salient superiority in number as some defectors also survive by parasitizing. The harder the joint venture succeeds, the higher level of cooperation once cooperators can win the evolutionary race. Our work may enrich the literature concerning the risky public goods games.

  7. The increased risk of joint venture promotes social cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

    2013-01-01

    The joint venture of many members is common both in animal world and human society. In these public enterprizes, highly cooperative groups are more likely to while low cooperative groups are still possible but not probable to succeed. Existent literature mostly focuses on the traditional public goods game, in which cooperators create public wealth unconditionally and benefit all group members unbiasedly. We here institute a model addressing this public goods dilemma with incorporating the public resource foraging failure risk. Risk-averse individuals tend to lead a autarkic life, while risk-preferential ones tend to participate in the risky public goods game. For participants, group's success relies on its cooperativeness, with increasing contribution leading to increasing success likelihood. We introduce a function with one tunable parameter to describe the risk removal pattern and study in detail three representative classes. Analytical results show that the widely replicated population dynamics of cyclical dominance of loner, cooperator and defector disappear, while most of the time loners act as savors while eventually they also disappear. Depending on the way that group's success relies on its cooperativeness, either cooperators pervade the entire population or they coexist with defectors. Even in the later case, cooperators still hold salient superiority in number as some defectors also survive by parasitizing. The harder the joint venture succeeds, the higher level of cooperation once cooperators can win the evolutionary race. Our work may enrich the literature concerning the risky public goods games.

  8. The excess radio background and fast radio transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehayias, John; Kephart, Thomas W.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years ARCADE 2, combined with older experiments, has detected an additional radio background, measured as a temperature and ranging in frequency from 22 MHz to 10 GHz, not accounted for by known radio sources and the cosmic microwave background. One type of source which has not been considered in the radio background is that of fast transients (those with event times much less than the observing time). We present a simple estimate, and a more detailed calculation, for the contribution of radio transients to the diffuse background. As a timely example, we estimate the contribution from the recently-discovered fast radio bursts (FRBs). Although their contribution is likely 6 or 7 orders of magnitude too small (though there are large uncertainties in FRB parameters) to account for the ARCADE 2 excess, our development is general and so can be applied to any fast transient sources, discovered or yet to be discovered. We estimate parameter values necessary for transient sources to noticeably contribute to the radio background

  9. Radio frequency integrated circuit design for cognitive radio systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fahim, Amr

    2015-01-01

    This book fills a disconnect in the literature between Cognitive Radio systems and a detailed account of the circuit implementation and architectures required to implement such systems.  Throughout the book, requirements and constraints imposed by cognitive radio systems are emphasized when discussing the circuit implementation details.  In addition, this book details several novel concepts that advance state-of-the-art cognitive radio systems.  This is a valuable reference for anybody with background in analog and radio frequency (RF) integrated circuit design, needing to learn more about integrated circuits requirements and implementation for cognitive radio systems. ·         Describes in detail cognitive radio systems, as well as the circuit implementation and architectures required to implement them; ·         Serves as an excellent reference to state-of-the-art wideband transceiver design; ·         Emphasizes practical requirements and constraints imposed by cognitive radi...

  10. A radio and optical study of Molonglo radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Saikia, D. J.; McCarthy, P. J.; van Breugel, W. J. M.

    2001-05-01

    We present multi-wavelength radio observations with the Very Large Array, and narrow- and broad-band optical observations with the 2.5-m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory, of a well-defined sample of high-luminosity Fanaroff-Riley class II radio galaxies and quasars, selected from the Molonglo Reference Catalogue 1-Jy sample. These observations were carried out as part of a programme to investigate the effects of orientation and environment on some of the observed properties of these sources. We examine the dependence of the Liu-Pooley relationship, which shows that radio lobes with flatter radio spectra are less depolarized, on size, identification and redshift, and show that it is significantly stronger for smaller sources, with the strength of the relationship being similar for both radio galaxies and quasars. In addition to Doppler effects, there appear to be intrinsic differences between the lobes on opposite sides. We discuss the asymmetry in brightness and location of the hotspots, and present estimates of the ages and velocities from matched-resolution observations in the L and C bands. Narrow- and broad-band optical images of some of these sources were made to study their environments and correlate with the symmetry parameters. An extended emission-line region is seen in a quasar, and in four of the objects possible companion galaxies are seen close to the radio axis.

  11. Synthesizing perspectives on the evolution of cooperation within and between species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessica Livia; Bronstein, Judith L.; Friesen, Maren L.

    2017-01-01

    Cooperation is widespread both within and between species, but are intra-specific and inter-specific cooperation fundamentally similar or qualitatively different phenomena? This review evaluates this question, necessary for a general understanding of the evolution of cooperation. First, we outline...... three advantages of cooperation relative to non-cooperation (acquisition of otherwise inaccessible goods and services, more efficient acquisition of resources, and buffering against variability), and predict when individuals should cooperate with a conspecific versus a heterospecific partner to obtain......, certain asymmetries between partners are more common in, but not exclusive to, cooperation between species, especially complementary resource use and production. We conclude that cooperation within and between species share many fundamental qualities, and that differences between the two systems...

  12. Enhancing regional security agreements through cooperative monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    This paper proposes that strengthening regional capabilities for formulating and implementing arms control and confidence-building measures is a tangible method of enhancing regional security. It discusses the importance of developing a regional infrastructure for arms control and confidence building and elucidates the role of technology in facilitating regional arms control and confidence-building agreements. In addition, it identifies numerous applications for regional cooperative monitoring in the areas of arms control, resource management, international commerce and disaster response. The Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, whose aim is to help individual countries and regions acquire the tools they need to develop their own solutions to regional problems, is discussed briefly. The paper ends with recommendations for establishing regional cooperative monitoring centers

  13. Attraction and cooperative behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Donja Darai; Silvia Grätz

    2012-01-01

    Being good-looking seems to generate substantial benefits in many social interactions, making the "beauty premium" a not to be underrated economic factor. This paper investigates how physical attractiveness enables people to generate these benefits in the case of cooperation, using field data from a modified one-shot prisoner's dilemma played in a high-stakes television game show. While attractive contestants are not more or less cooperative than less attractive ones, facial attractiveness pr...

  14. Distributed opportunistic spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hawa, Mohammed

    2016-05-19

    In cases where the licensed radio spectrum is underutilized, cognitive radio technology enables cognitive devices to sense and then dynamically access this scarce resource making the most out of it. In this work, we introduce a simple and intuitive, yet powerful and efficient, technique that allows opportunistic channel access in cognitive radio systems in a completely distributed fashion. Our proposed method achieves very high values of spectrum utilization and throughput. It also minimizes interference between cognitive base stations and the primary users licensed to use the spectrum. The algorithm responds quickly and efficiently to variations in the network parameters and also achieves a high degree of fairness between cognitive base stations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Opportunities for addressing laminated root rot caused by Phellinus sulphuracens in Washington's forests: A Report from the Washington State Academy of Sciences in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. James Cook; Robert L. Edmonds; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Willis Littke; Geral McDonald; Daniel Omdahl; Karen Ripley; Charles G. Shaw; Rona Sturrock; Paul Zambino

    2013-01-01

    This report from the Washington State Academy of Sciences (WSAS) is in response to a request from the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to "identify approaches and opportunities ripe for research on understanding and managing root diseases of Douglas-fir." Similar to the process used by the National Research Council, the WSAS upon...

  16. Development and Implementation of a Model Training Program to Assist Special Educators, Parks and Resource Management Personnel and Parents to Cooperatively Plan and Conduct Outdoor/Environmental Education Programs for Handicapped Children and Youth. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinton, Dennis A.; Zachmeyer, Richard F.

    This final report presents a description of a 3-year project to develop and implement a model training program (for special education personnel, park and resource management personnel, and parents of disabled children) designed to promote outdoor environmental education for disabled children. The project conducted 22 training workshops (2-5 days)…

  17. Radio-adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, T.

    1992-01-01

    An adaptive response to radiation stress was found as a suppressed induction of chromosomal damage including micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells pre-exposed to very low doses of ionizing radiations. The mechanism underlying this novel chromosomal response, called 'radio-adaptive response (RAR)' has been studied progressively. The following results were obtained in recent experiments. 1. Low doses of β-rays from tritiated water (HTO) as well as tritium-thymidine can cause RAR. 2. Thermal neutrons, a high LET radiation, can not act as tritium β-rays or γ-rays. 3. The RAR expression is suppressed not only by the treatment with an inhibitor of protein synthesis but also by RNA synthesis inhibition. 4. Several proteins are newly synthesized concurrently with the RAR expression after the adapting doses, viewed by two-dimensional electrophoresis of cellular proteins. These results suggests that the RAR might be a cellular stress response to a signal produced preferentially by very low doses of low LET radiation under restricted conditions, accompany the inducible specific gene expression. (author)

  18. Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Prototype Radio Validation Flight Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Ishac, Joseph A.; Iannicca, Dennis C.; Bretmersky, Steven C.; Smith, Albert E.

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an overview and results from the unmanned aircraft (UA) Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Generation 5 prototype radio validation flight test campaign. The radios used in the test campaign were developed under cooperative agreement NNC11AA01A between the NASA Glenn Research Center and Rockwell Collins, Inc., of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Measurement results are presented for flight tests over hilly terrain, open water, and urban landscape, utilizing radio sets installed into a NASA aircraft and ground stations. Signal strength and frame loss measurement data are analyzed relative to time and aircraft position, specifically addressing the impact of line-of-sight terrain obstructions on CNPC data flow. Both the radio and flight test system are described.

  19. Beamsteerable GNSS Radio Occultation ASIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will develop an integrated RF ASIC to enable high quality radio occultation (RO) weather observations using the Global Navigations System Satellite (GNSS)...

  20. Sea Turtle Radio Telemetry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radio transmitters attached to sea turtles captured in various fishing gear enabled us to track and measure surfacing time of each turtle. Determining location of...

  1. Zero-Power Radio Device.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This report describes an unpowered radio receiver capable of detecting and responding to weak signals transmit ted from comparatively long distances . This radio receiver offers key advantages over a short range zero - power radio receiver previously described in SAND2004 - 4610, A Zero - Power Radio Receiver . The device described here can be fabricated as an integrated circuit for use in portable wireless devices, as a wake - up circuit, or a s a stand - alone receiver operating in conjunction with identification decoders or other electroni cs. It builds on key sub - components developed at Sandia National Laboratories over many years. It uses surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter technology. It uses custom component design to enable the efficient use of small aperture antennas. This device uses a key component, the pyroelectric demodulator , covered by Sandia owned U.S. Patent 7397301, Pyroelectric Demodulating Detector [1] . This device is also described in Sandia owned U.S. Patent 97266446, Zero Power Receiver [2].

  2. On the evaluation of Web Radio

    OpenAIRE

    Field, A.N.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2001-01-01

    We develop an evaluation method for Web radio, and perform it to see what we can be learnt about seven prominent Web radio sites. We also evaluate a commercial FM radio station for control purposes. We present a taxonomy of Web radio, and we give our observations and conclusions on this evaluation.

  3. Radio and line transmission 2

    CERN Document Server

    Roddy, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    Radio and Line Transmission, Volume 2 gives a detailed treatment of the subject as well as an introduction to additional advanced subject matter. Organized into 14 chapters, this book begins by explaining the radio wave propagation, signal frequencies, and bandwidth. Subsequent chapters describe the transmission lines and cables; the aerials; tuned and coupled circuits; bipolar transistor amplifiers; field-effect transistors and circuits; thermionic valve amplifiers; LC oscillators; the diode detectors and modulators; and the superheterodyne receiver. Other chapters explore noise and interfere

  4. Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    This special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten contains the proceedings of a session of the Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group of the International Astronomical Union that took place during the 26th General Assembly of the IAU in Prague on 17th August 2006. In addition to the talks presented in Prague some contributions were solicited to give a more complete overview of `The Early History of European Radio Astronomy'.

  5. Radio astronomy on the moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.O.; Asbell, J.

    1987-01-01

    The advantages and opportunities for radio astronomy on the moon during the early to mid 21st century are reviewed. In particular, it is argued that the lack of atmosphere, the extremely low seismic activity, the low RF background, and the natural cryogenic environment make the moon (particularly the far side and the poles) a nearly ideal locale for submillimeter/FIR to VLF (below 10 MHz) radio astronomy. 22 references

  6. RADIO NOISE ADVANCES SEXUAL MATURITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ansistf-lewis

    Mean age at first egg for the radio birds (143 d) was 13 d significantly earlier than controls, but body weight at ... the first 8 h of a 12-h photoperiod with radio noise, to leave only 4 h of light (4L:20D), supported rates of lay ... Age (AFE) and body weight at, and weight of, first egg were recorded for individual birds, and, after a.

  7. Worst-Case Cooperative Jamming for Secure Communications in CIoT Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Jing, Tao; Ma, Liran; Huo, Yan; Qian, Jin

    2016-03-07

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a significant branch of the ongoing advances in the Internet and mobile communications. The use of a large number of IoT devices makes the spectrum scarcity problem even more serious. The usable spectrum resources are almost entirely occupied, and thus, the increasing radio access demands of IoT devices cannot be met. To tackle this problem, the Cognitive Internet of Things (CIoT) has been proposed. In a CIoT network, secondary users, i.e., sensors and actuators, can access the licensed spectrum bands provided by licensed primary users (such as telephones). Security is a major concern in CIoT networks. However, the traditional encryption method at upper layers (such as symmetric cryptography and asymmetric cryptography) may be compromised in CIoT networks, since these types of networks are heterogeneous. In this paper, we address the security issue in spectrum-leasing-based CIoT networks using physical layer methods. Considering that the CIoT networks are cooperative networks, we propose to employ cooperative jamming to achieve secrecy transmission. In the cooperative jamming scheme, a certain secondary user is employed as the helper to harvest energy transmitted by the source and then uses the harvested energy to generate an artificial noise that jams the eavesdropper without interfering with the legitimate receivers. The goal is to minimize the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) at the eavesdropper subject to the quality of service (QoS) constraints of the primary traffic and the secondary traffic. We formulate the considered minimization problem into a two-stage robust optimization problem based on the worst-case Channel State Information of the Eavesdropper. By using semi-definite programming (SDP), the optimal solutions of the transmit covariance matrices can be obtained. Moreover, in order to build an incentive mechanism for the secondary users, we propose an auction framework based on the cooperative jamming scheme

  8. Worst-Case Cooperative Jamming for Secure Communications in CIoT Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is a significant branch of the ongoing advances in the Internet and mobile communications. Yet, the use of a large number of IoT devices can severely worsen the spectrum scarcity problem. The usable spectrum resources are almost entirely occupied, and thus, the increasing demands of radio access from IoT devices cannot be met. To tackle this problem, the Cognitive Internet of Things (CIoT has been proposed. In a CIoT network, secondary users, i.e., sensors and actuators, can access the licensed spectrum bands provided by licensed primary users (such as cellular telephones. Security is a major concern in CIoT networks. However, the traditional encryption method at upper layers (such as symmetric and asymmetric ciphers may not be suitable for CIoT networks since these networks are composed of low-profile devices. In this paper, we address the security issues in spectrum-leasing-based CIoT networks using physical layer methods. Considering that the CIoT networks are cooperative in nature, we propose to employ cooperative jamming to achieve secure transmission. In our proposed cooperative jamming scheme, a certain secondary user is employed as the helper to harvest energy transmitted by the source and then uses the harvested energy to generate an artificial noise that jams the eavesdropper without interfering with the legitimate receivers. The goal is to minimize the Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR at the eavesdropper subject to the Quality of Service (QoS constraints of the primary traffic and the secondary traffic. We formulate the minimization problem into a two-stage robust optimization problem based on the worst-case Channel State Information of the Eavesdropper (ECSI. By using Semi-Definite Programming (SDP, the optimal solutions of the transmit covariance matrices can be obtained. Moreover, in order to build an incentive mechanism for the secondary users, we propose an auction framework based on the

  9. RADIO WITHOUT A LISTENER: "MAYAK"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The singularity of this article is that it is entirely based on a critical analysis of only one live musical radio program on the Mayak radio station and dedicated to the life and work of the famous British composer Andrew Lloyd Webber. In principle, the article can be considered a scientific review of the media product. Based on his analysis, the author comes to the paradoxical conclusion that the presence of a listener becomes unnecessary for modern broadcasting. This is stated by many principles of the conduct of the air, presented in the radio program, where all the information load is placed on the guest in the studio, where there is no preparatory work of the DJs, where their inability to navigate the genres of journalism violates communication norms and colloquial ethics, where an obvious deconstructive approach to the material offered for the listener. In addition, the phenomenon of being the DJs in the radio studio exclusively "for themselves" is emphasized by the sound design of the radio program, which runs counter to the logic of auditory perception (for example, the sequence of jingles, as well as the incompetent selection of musical material, which undoubtedly repels professional radio listeners-musicians.

  10. The radio properties of infrared-faint radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Hales, C. A.; Seymour, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Huynh, M. T.; Lenc, E.; Mao, M. Y.

    2011-02-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are objects that have flux densities of several mJy at 1.4 GHz, but that are invisible at 3.6 μm when using sensitive Spitzer observations with μJy sensitivities. Their nature is unclear and difficult to investigate since they are only visible in the radio. Aims: High-resolution radio images and comprehensive spectral coverage can yield constraints on the emission mechanisms of IFRS and can give hints to similarities with known objects. Methods: We imaged a sample of 17 IFRS at 4.8 GHz and 8.6 GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array to determine the structures on arcsecond scales. We added radio data from other observing projects and from the literature to obtain broad-band radio spectra. Results: We find that the sources in our sample are either resolved out at the higher frequencies or are compact at resolutions of a few arcsec, which implies that they are smaller than a typical galaxy. The spectra of IFRS are remarkably steep, with a median spectral index of -1.4 and a prominent lack of spectral indices larger than -0.7. We also find that, given the IR non-detections, the ratio of 1.4 GHz flux density to 3.6 μm flux density is very high, and this puts them into the same regime as high-redshift radio galaxies. Conclusions: The evidence that IFRS are predominantly high-redshift sources driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) is strong, even though not all IFRS may be caused by the same phenomenon. Compared to the rare and painstakingly collected high-redshift radio galaxies, IFRS appear to be much more abundant, but less luminous, AGN-driven galaxies at similar cosmological distances.

  11. Information Content in Radio Waves: Student Investigations in Radio Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, K.; Scaduto, T.

    2013-12-01

    We describe an inquiry-based instructional unit on information content in radio waves, created in the summer of 2013 as part of a MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, MA) NSF Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) program. This topic is current and highly relevant, addressing science and technical aspects from radio astronomy, geodesy, and atmospheric research areas as well as Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Projects and activities range from simple classroom demonstrations and group investigations, to long term research projects incorporating data acquisition from both student-built instrumentation as well as online databases. Each of the core lessons is applied to one of the primary research centers at Haystack through an inquiry project that builds on previously developed units through the MIT Haystack RET program. In radio astronomy, students investigate the application of a simple and inexpensive software defined radio chip (RTL-SDR) for use in systems implementing a small and very small radio telescope (SRT and VSRT). Both of these systems allow students to explore fundamental principles of radio waves and interferometry as applied to radio astronomy. In ionospheric research, students track solar storms from the initial coronal mass ejection (using Solar Dynamics Observatory images) to the resulting variability in total electron density concentrations using data from the community standard Madrigal distributed database system maintained by MIT Haystack. Finally, students get to explore very long-baseline interferometry as it is used in geodetic studies by measuring crustal plate displacements over time. Alignment to NextGen standards is provided for each lesson and activity with emphasis on HS-PS4 'Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer'.

  12. Robust distributed two-way relay beamforming in cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present distributed beamformer designs for a cognitive radio network (CRN) consisting of a pair of cognitive (or secondary) transceiver nodes communicating with each other through a set of secondary non-regenerative two-way relays. The secondary network shares the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU), and operates under a constraint on the maximum interference to the PU, in addition to its own resource and quality of service (QoS) constraints. We propose beamformer designs assuming that the available channel state information (CSI) is imperfect, which reflects realistic scenarios. The performance of proposed designs is robust to the CSI errors. Such robustness is critical in CRNs given the difficulty in acquiring perfect CSI due to loose cooperation between the PUs and the secondary users (SUs), and the need for strict enforcement of PU interference limit. We consider a mean-square error (MSE)-constrained beamformer that minimizes the total relay transmit power and an MSE-balancing beamformer with a constraint on the total relay transmit power. We show that the proposed designs can be reformulated as convex optimization problems that can be solved efficiently. Through numerical simulations, we illustrate the improved performance of the proposed robust designs compared to non-robust designs. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Cooperative games and network structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    This thesis covers various research topics involving cooperative game theory, a mathematical tool to analyze the cooperative behavior within a group of players. The focus is mainly on interrelations between operations research and cooperative game theory by analyzing specific types of cooperative

  14. Nudging Cooperation in a Crowd Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niella, Tamara; Stier-Moses, Nicolás; Sigman, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    We examine the hypothesis that driven by a competition heuristic, people don't even reflect or consider whether a cooperation strategy may be better. As a paradigmatic example of this behavior we propose the zero-sum game fallacy, according to which people believe that resources are fixed even when they are not. We demonstrate that people only cooperate if the competitive heuristic is explicitly overridden in an experiment in which participants play two rounds of a game in which competition is suboptimal. The observed spontaneous behavior for most players was to compete. Then participants were explicitly reminded that the competing strategy may not be optimal. This minor intervention boosted cooperation, implying that competition does not result from lack of trust or willingness to cooperate but instead from the inability to inhibit the competition bias. This activity was performed in a controlled laboratory setting and also as a crowd experiment. Understanding the psychological underpinnings of these behaviors may help us improve cooperation and thus may have vast practical consequences to our society.

  15. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Bouwmeester, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition) than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown), the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions) and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection). However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants) also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  16. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P J L Verkoeijen

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown, the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection. However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  17. Impact of Base Station Cooperation on Cell Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Dexter Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Base station cooperation (BSC has been identified as a key radio access technology for next-generation cellular networks such as LTE-Advanced. BSC impacts cell planning, which is the methodical selection of base station (BS sites, and BS equipment configuration for cost-effective cellular networks. In this paper, the impact of BSC on cell plan parameters (coverage, traffic, handover, and cost, as well as additional cell planning steps required for BSC are discussed. Results show that BSC maximizes its gains over noncooperation (NC in a network wherein interference from cooperating BSs is the main limitation. Locations exist where NC may produce higher throughputs, therefore dynamic or semistatic switching between BSC and NC, called fractional BSC, is recommended. Because of interference from noncooperating BSs, the gains of BSC over NC are upper bounded, and diminishes at greater intersite distances because of noise. This encourages smaller cell sizes, higher transmit powers, and dynamic clustering of cooperative BSs.

  18. International research cooperation project. Assessment report on the R and D of the comprehensive development/utilization technology of energy of gas hydrate resource; Gas hydrate shigen no energy sogo kaihatsu riyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As to 'the R and D of the comprehensive development/utilization technology of gas hydrate resource,' assessment was conducted and reported from an aspect of the third party. This R and D is a timely project being aimed at establishing the basic technology on gas hydrate from both aspects of fundamental research and practical research. In the development of gas hydrate resource in the tundra zone, the development of measuring methods for thermal conductivity and dielectric constants advanced the establishment of a guide for exploration and possibilities of assessment of the resource amount. In the development/production, it can be said that the knowledge/information collected by exchanging methane in gas hydrate with CO2 means no needs for new supply of heat and also contributes to the isolation of CO2. As to the utilization technology, the results were rated very high also internationally of tackling the quantitative evaluation method at molecular levels of the gas included in hydrate using Raman spectroscopy to establish the industrial gas separation method using the low-temperature environment in the tundra zone. (NEDO)

  19. Improving livestock production using indigenous resources and conserving the environment. A publication prepared under the framework of a Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific project with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Livestock farming is very important in Asia and the pacific region as a source of livelihood for resource poor farmers' - provision of food and food products and as a source of income. However, livestock productivity in many countries is below their genetic potential because of inadequate and imbalanced feeds and feeding, poor reproductive management and animal diseases exacerbated by lack of effective support services, such as animal husbandry extension, artificial insemination (AI) and/or veterinary services. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific (RCA), with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled 'Integrated Approach for Improving Livestock Production using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment' (RAS/5/044). The overall objective of the project was to improve livestock productivity through better nutritional and reproduction strategies while conserving the environment. The specific objectives were (i) to improve animal productivity and decrease emission of selected greenhouse gases, (methane and carbon dioxide) and selected nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) into the environment; and (ii) to identify and adopt better breeding strategies that would improve animal productivity. This publication contains research results presented by scientists during the final review meeting incorporating the contributions of the experts associated with RAS/5/044. It is hoped that this publication will help stimulate further discussion, research and development into ways of improving the efficiency and productivity of livestock thus leading to higher income for smallholder farmers in the region

  20. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...