WorldWideScience

Sample records for cooperative multiplayer coupon

  1. Decoherence Effects on Multiplayer Cooperative Quantum Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Salman; Ramzan, M.; Khan, M. Khalid.

    2011-01-01

    We study the behavior of cooperative multiplayer quantum games [Q. Chen, Y. Wang, J.T. Liu, and K.L. Wang, Phys. Lett. A 327 (2004) 98; A.P. Flitney and L.C.L. Hollenberg, Quantum Inf. Comput. 7 (2007) 111] in the presence of decoherence using different quantum channels such as amplitude damping, depolarizing and phase damping. It is seen that the outcomes of the games for the two damping channels with maximum values of decoherence reduce to same value. However, in comparison to phase damping channel, the payoffs of cooperators are strongly damped under the influence amplitude damping channel for the lower values of decoherence parameter. In the case of depolarizing channel, the game is a no-payoff game irrespective of the degree of entanglement in the initial state for the larger values of decoherence parameter. The decoherence gets the cooperators worse off. (general)

  2. Threshold Games and Cooperation on Multiplayer Graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare B Mikkelsen

    Full Text Available The study investigates the effect on cooperation in multiplayer games, when the population from which all individuals are drawn is structured-i.e. when a given individual is only competing with a small subset of the entire population.To optimize the focus on multiplayer effects, a class of games were chosen for which the payoff depends nonlinearly on the number of cooperators-this ensures that the game cannot be represented as a sum of pair-wise interactions, and increases the likelihood of observing behaviour different from that seen in two-player games. The chosen class of games are named "threshold games", and are defined by a threshold, M > 0, which describes the minimal number of cooperators in a given match required for all the participants to receive a benefit. The model was studied primarily through numerical simulations of large populations of individuals, each with interaction neighbourhoods described by various classes of networks.When comparing the level of cooperation in a structured population to the mean-field model, we find that most types of structure lead to a decrease in cooperation. This is both interesting and novel, simply due to the generality and breadth of relevance of the model-it is likely that any model with similar payoff structure exhibits related behaviour. More importantly, we find that the details of the behaviour depends to a large extent on the size of the immediate neighbourhoods of the individuals, as dictated by the network structure. In effect, the players behave as if they are part of a much smaller, fully mixed, population, which we suggest an expression for.

  3. Cooperation and control in multiplayer social dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbe, Christian; Wu, Bin; Traulsen, Arne; Nowak, Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    Direct reciprocity and conditional cooperation are important mechanisms to prevent free riding in social dilemmas. However, in large groups, these mechanisms may become ineffective because they require single individuals to have a substantial influence on their peers. However, the recent discovery of zero-determinant strategies in the iterated prisoner’s dilemma suggests that we may have underestimated the degree of control that a single player can exert. Here, we develop a theory for zero-determinant strategies for iterated multiplayer social dilemmas, with any number of involved players. We distinguish several particularly interesting subclasses of strategies: fair strategies ensure that the own payoff matches the average payoff of the group; extortionate strategies allow a player to perform above average; and generous strategies let a player perform below average. We use this theory to describe strategies that sustain cooperation, including generalized variants of Tit-for-Tat and Win-Stay Lose-Shift. Moreover, we explore two models that show how individuals can further enhance their strategic options by coordinating their play with others. Our results highlight the importance of individual control and coordination to succeed in large groups. PMID:25349400

  4. Promotion of cooperation induced by discriminators in the spatial multi-player donor-recipient game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guang-Hai; Wang, Zhen; Ren, Jian-Kang; Lu, Kun; Li, Ming-Chu

    2016-11-01

    Although the two-player donor-recipient game has been used extensively in studying cooperation in social dilemmas, the scenario in which a donor can simultaneously donate resources to multiple recipients is also common in human societies, economic systems, and social networks. This paper formulates a model of the multi-player donor-recipient game considering a multi-recipient scenario. The promotion of cooperation is also studied by introducing a discriminative cooperation strategy into the game, which donates resources to recipients in proportion to their previous donations with a cost for the collection of information. The evolutionary dynamics of individual strategies are explored in homogeneous and heterogeneous scenarios by leveraging spatial evolutionary game theory. The results show that in a homogeneous scenario, defectors can dominate the network at the equilibrium state only when the cost-to-benefit ratio (R) of donated resources is large. In a heterogeneous scenario, three strategies can coexist all the time within the range of R that was studied, and the promotion of cooperation is more effective when the values of R are smaller. Results from a single node evolution and the formation of local patterns of interaction are provided, and it is analytically shown that discriminators can maintain fairness in resource donation and guarantee long-term cooperation when R is not too large.

  5. Unity multiplayer games

    CERN Document Server

    Stagner, Alan

    2013-01-01

    An easy-to-follow, tutorial manner that uses the learning-by-example approach.If you are a developer who wants to start making multiplayer games with the Unity game engine, this book is for you. This book assumes you have some basic experience with programming. No prior knowledge of the Unity IDE is required.

  6. Using Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games for Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Marcus D.; Braswell, Ray

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the use of a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) to foster communication and interaction and to facilitate cooperative learning in an online course. The authors delineate the definition and history of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs), and describe current uses of MMORPGs in education, including…

  7. 7 CFR 274.7 - Coupon management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coupon management. 274.7 Section 274.7 Agriculture... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF COUPONS § 274.7 Coupon management. (a) Coupon inventory management. State agencies shall establish coupon inventory management systems which...

  8. MOBILE GAME HALMA MULTIPLAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dhimas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Handphone besides as a communication tool also has a function as a medium of entertainment. Various multimedia services and communications facilities contained therein, one Bluetooth. Games is one application that always exist in the mobile phone, and with a wider variety of games development by utilizing the services in mobile. In this research, the development of the multiplayer games for mobile phones utilizing Bluetooth communication media using the programming language Java Micro Edition (J2ME. Design method using the grapple, NetBeans IDE 6.1 is used as tools to assist programming.

  9. Coupon advertising under imperfect price information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraga-Gonzälez, José Luis; Petrakis, Emmanuel

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies sales promotions through coupons in an oligopoly under imperfect price information. Sellers can distribute either ordinary coupons, or coupon (price) advertising, or both types of coupons, at distant locations to attract consumers from their rivals' markets. A unique symmetric

  10. Multiplayer Game for DDoS Attacks Resilience in Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikalas, Antonis; Komninos, Nikos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a multiplayer game to prevent Distributed Denial of Service attack (DDoS) in ad hoc networks. The multiplayer game is based on game theory and cryptographic puzzles. We divide requests from nodes into separate groups which decreases the ability of malicious nodes to cooperate...... with one another in order to effectively make a DDoS attack. Finally, through our experiments we have shown that the total overhead of the multiplayer game as well as the the total time that each node needs to be served is affordable for devices that have limited resources and for environments like ad hoc...

  11. Multiplayer computer games as youth's leisure phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    HADERKOVÁ, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    The thesis is dedicated to multiplayer computer games as youth's leisure phenomenon of this time. The theoretical part is focused on computer games history, multiplayer computer games and their types, gaming platforms, community of multiplayer games players and potential negatives and positives, which follows from playing this type of games. The practical part contains a qualitative survey using interviews with multiplayer computer games players aged from 15 to 26 years from city of České Bud...

  12. Multiplayer games as a template for multiplayer narratives: a case study with Dark Souls

    OpenAIRE

    Spawforth, Callum; Millard, David

    2017-01-01

    Interactive Digital Storytelling (IDS) is an increasingly popular field, with a number of novel systems emerging in the last few years. However, these systems have typically focused on narratives involving only a single person. In contrast, multiplayer video games are a common and popular form of entertainment. In this paper we ask whether the way in which these works might inspire a new generation of multi-player narratives. In particular we look at the multiplayer video game "Dark Souls" an...

  13. Multiplayer game development with HTML5

    CERN Document Server

    Silveira, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    If you are a HTML5 game developer who can make basic single-player games and you are now ready to incorporate multiplayer functionality in your games as quickly as possible, then this book is ideal for you.

  14. Secure Multi-Player Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehr, Serge

    While classically cryptography is concerned with the problem of private communication among two entities, say players, in modern cryptography multi-player protocols play an important role. And among these, it is probably fair to say that secret sharing, and its stronger version verifiable secret...... sharing (VSS), as well as multi-party computation (MPC) belong to the most appealing and/or useful ones. The former two are basic tools to achieve better robustness of cryptographic schemes against malfunction or misuse by “decentralizing” the security from one single to a whole group of individuals...... (captured by the term threshold cryptography). The latter allows—at least in principle—to execute any collaboration among a group of players in a secure way that guarantees the correctness of the outcome but simultaneously respects the privacy of the participants. In this work, we study three aspects...

  15. Determinants of harassment in online multiplayer games

    OpenAIRE

    De Letter, Jolien; van Rooij, Tony; Van Looy, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Online multiplayer games allow large numbers of participants to play simultaneously online. Unfortunately, this has also given rise to new forms of harassment and abuse. The current study used the criminological framework of Routine Activity Theory to identify possible circumstantial and individual risk factors that predict both general and sexual harassment victimization in this online context. Method. An online survey of online multiplayer gamers (N = 883) was conducted. Meas...

  16. Final examination of IDMS corrosion coupons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imrich, K.J.; Jenkins, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    The metallurgical examination of corrosion coupons removed from the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) was performed as part of the IDMS Materials Evaluation Program. The findings and conclusions of the evaluation program are presented in this report

  17. Furniture Rack Corrosion Coupon Surveillance - 2012 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J. I.; Murphy, T. R.; Berry, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Under the L Basin corrosion surveillance program furniture rack coupons immersed for 14 years (FY2009 coupons) and 16 years (FY2011 coupons) were analyzed and the results trended with coupons exposed for shorter times. In addition, a section harvested from an actual furniture rack that was immersed for 14 years was analyzed for pitting in the weld and heat-affected-zone (HAZ) regions. The L Basin operations maintained very good water quality over the entire immersion period for these samples. These results for FY2009 and FY2011 coupons showed that the average pit depths for the 6061 and 6063 base metal are 1 and 2 mils, respectively, while those for the weld and HAZ are 3 and 4 mils, respectively. The results for the weld and HAZ regions are similar to coupons removed during the period of FY2003 to FY2007. These similarities indicate that the pit development occurred quickly followed by slow kinetics of increase in pit depth. For the actual furniture rack sample average pits of 5 and 2 mils were measured for the HAZ and weld, respectively. These results demonstrate that pitting corrosion of the aluminum furniture racks used to support the spent fuel occurs in waters of good quality. The corrosion kinetics or pit depth growth rate is much less that 1 mil/year, and would not impact long-term use of this material system for fuel storage racks in L Basin if good water quality is maintained

  18. How retailer coupons increase attitudinal loyalty –

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierich, Ralf; Zielke, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to investigate how different design elements of retailer coupons increase the attitudinal loyalty towards retailers. Design/methodology/approach – Three design elements are manipulated in a 2x2x2 experimental design. Data is analysed using structural equation...... and the minimum purchase amount require at least some cognitive processing to have a loyalty impact. Research limitations/implications – Future studies can use the developed framework to test the impact of other design elements, promotion types or loyalty schemes. Practical implications – The results underline...... that personalization offers opportunities for increasing loyalty without the necessity of large investments. As these effects can occur without redemption, coupon promotions should not be evaluated based on redemption rates only. Originality/value – The study extends existing research by focusing on retailer coupons...

  19. Player Transformation of Educational Multiplayer Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Misfeldt, Morten

    2004-01-01

    transformed the game to accommodate social interaction. With these transformed ways of playing the game, they managed to get to the top of the high score list while avoiding the educational parts of the game. Players transforming educational games to escape learning elements can be a problem when these games...... are used for formal education. In this paper we argue that player transformation of educational games can, however, be the basis of exciting and unconventional learning of valuable things, such as how to transform information technology to better accommodate social interaction.......Children's great interest in multiplayer games has led to attempts to design educational multiplayer games. In this study, we have studied a test of an educational multiplayer game designed for mathematics education for children aged nine to twelve. In our observations, it became clear that pupils...

  20. Altruism in multiplayer snowdrift games with threshold and punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Zhongxin; Sun, Qinglin; Chen, Zengqiang

    2015-09-01

    The puzzle of cooperation attracts broader concerns of the scientific community nowadays. Here we adopt an extra mechanism of punishment in the framework of a threshold multiple-player snowdrift game employed as the scenario for the cooperation problem. Two scenarios are considered: defectors will suffer punishment regardless of the game results, and defectors will incur punishment only when the game fails. We show by analysis that given this assumption, punishing free riders can significantly influence the evolution outcomes, and the results are driven by the specific components of the punishing rule. Particularly, punishing defectors always, not only when the game fails, can be more effective for maintaining public cooperation in multi-player systems. Intriguingly larger thresholds of the game provide a more favorable scenario for the coexistence of the cooperators and defectors under a broad value range of parameters. Further, cooperators are best supported by the large punishment on defectors, and then dominate and stabilize in the population, under the premise that defectors always incur punishment regardless of whether the game ends successfully or not.

  1. Coupons from Deal Sites as Gifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlicek, Antonin; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    There already exist studies on what influences use of deal sites. But there is a gap in literature when it comes to purchasing coupons from deal sites and then using them as gifts. The paper analyzes whether gender, age and personality traits influence such behavior. Big Five Inventory traits...

  2. Coupons for Success: A Marketing Incentive in Academic Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potacco, Donna R.; Chen, Peter; Desroches, Danielle; Chisholm, Daniel R.; De Young, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    How does a Coupon Incentive Program motivate students to seek academic support in high-risk courses? Results from this study demonstrated that the Coupon Incentive Program was effective in motivating voluntary student attendance and improving student outcomes. Recommendations related to implementation of the Coupon Incentive Program are discussed.…

  3. Impact of gender and personality traits on use of coupons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlicek, Antonin; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    Coupons are used for sales promotion for over a hundred years. The aim of the paper is to investigate influence of Big Five Inventory personality traits on use of coupons. The latter is measured in two ways - as the number of coupons used by respondents in the last 6 months, and whether they use...

  4. Mobile Phone User Interfaces in Multiplayer Games

    OpenAIRE

    NURMINEN, MINNA

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on the user interface elements of mobile phones and their qualities in multiplayer games. Mobile phone is not intended as a gaming device. Therefore its technology has many shortcomings when it comes to playing mobile games on the device. One of those is the non-standardized user interface design. However, it has also some strengths, such as the portability and networked nature. In addition, many mobile phone models today have a camera, a feature only few gaming devices hav...

  5. Decomposition of Multi-player Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dengji; Schiffel, Stephan; Thielscher, Michael

    Research in General Game Playing aims at building systems that learn to play unknown games without human intervention. We contribute to this endeavour by generalising the established technique of decomposition from AI Planning to multi-player games. To this end, we present a method for the automatic decomposition of previously unknown games into independent subgames, and we show how a general game player can exploit a successful decomposition for game tree search.

  6. Perancangan Massively Multiplayer Online Knights Fantasy Online

    OpenAIRE

    Haris, Darius Andana; Mawardi, Viny Christanti; Pratama, Davin

    2017-01-01

    Knights Fantasy Online adalah game online multiplayer dengan genre role-playing. Game ini dibuat menggunakan ActionScript 3.0 dengan Adobe Flash sebagai sisi klien dan Java sebagai servernya. Desain dari game ini dibuat dengan Adobe illustrator. Dalam game ini, pemain memulai petualangannya di dunia bernama Edenia, sebagai ksatria dari kerajaan yang bernama Aurum. Pemain bertugas mengkontrol jumlah populasi monster. Pemain dapat mengambil quest, mengumpulkan equipment dan meningkatkan ability...

  7. Bonds with index-linked stochastic coupons in quantum finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal Ehsan

    2018-06-01

    An index-linked coupon bond is defined that pays coupons whose values are stochastic, depending on a market defined index. This is an asset class distinct from the existing coupon bonds. The index-linked coupon bond is an example of a sukuk, which is an instrument that implements one of the cornerstones of Islamic finance (Askari et al., 2012): that an investor must share in the risk of the issuer in order to earn profits from the investment. The index-linked coupon bond is defined using the mathematical framework of quantum finance (Baaquie, 2004, 2010). The coupons are stochastic, with the quantum of coupon payments depending on a publicly traded index that is chosen to reflect the primary drivers of the revenues of the issuer of the bond. The index ensures there is information symmetry - regarding the quantum of coupon being paid - between issuer and investor. The dependence of the coupon on the index is designed so that the variation of the index mirrors the changing fortunes of the issuer, with the coupon's quantum increasing for increasing values of the index and conversely, decreasing with a fall of the index.

  8. Coupons Going Wireless: a Study on Consumers' Intentions to Redeem Mobile Coupons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinger, A.; Kleijnen, M.H.P.

    2008-01-01

    Firms are increasingly using the mobile media for communication and promotion and Short Message Service (SMS), in particular. This study investigates consumers' intentions to redeem mobile (m-) coupons. Results from a survey of 370 mobile phone users in Austria indicate that consumers' attitude

  9. An Architecture for Anonymous Mobile Coupons in a Large Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bartoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile coupon (m-coupon can be presented with a smartphone for obtaining a financial discount when purchasing a product or a service. M-coupons are a powerful marketing tool that has enjoyed a huge growth and diffusion, involving tens of millions of people each year. We propose an architecture which may enable significant improvements over current m-coupon technology, in terms of acceptance of potential customers and of marketing actions that become feasible: the customer does not need to install any dedicated app; an m-coupon is not bound to any specific device or customer; an m-coupon may be redeemed at any store in a set of potentially many thousands of stores, without any prior arrangement between customer and store. We are not aware of any proposal with these properties.

  10. Interest Rates and Coupon Bonds in Quantum Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.

    2009-09-01

    1. Synopsis; 2. Interest rates and coupon bonds; 3. Options and option theory; 4. Interest rate and coupon bond options; 5. Quantum field theory of bond forward interest rates; 6. Libor Market Model of interest rates; 7. Empirical analysis of forward interest rates; 8. Libor Market Model of interest rate options; 9. Numeraires for bond forward interest rates; 10. Empirical analysis of interest rate caps; 11. Coupon bond European and Asian options; 12. Empirical analysis of interest rate swaptions; 13. Correlation of coupon bond options; 14. Hedging interest rate options; 15. Interest rate Hamiltonian and option theory; 16. American options for coupon bonds and interest rates; 17. Hamiltonian derivation of coupon bond options; Appendixes; Glossaries; List of symbols; Reference; Index.

  11. Massive Multiplayer Online Gaming: A Research Framework for Military Training and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta...Massive Multiplayer Online Games 2.1 Massive Multiplayer Online Games Defined Massive multiplayer online games (MMOGs) allow users to interact ...2002) suggested various principles for group design and interactions in “massively multiplayer games ” (p. 1). In particular, he agued that it

  12. CANMET Gasifier Liner Coupon Material Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Fitzsimmons; Dave Grimmett; Bryan McEnerney

    2007-01-31

    This report provides detailed test results consisting of test data and post-test inspections from Task 1 ''Cooled Liner Coupon Development and Test'' of the project titled ''Development of Technologies and Capabilities for Coal Energy Resources--Advanced Gasification Systems Development (AGSD)''. The primary objective of this development and test program is to verify that ceramic matrix composite (CMC) liner materials planned for use in an advanced gasifier pilot plant will successfully withstand the environments in a commercial gasifier. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) designed and fabricated the cooled liner test assembly article that was tested in a slagging gasifier at CANMET Energy Technology Center (CETC-O) in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The test program conducted in 2006 met the objective of operating the cooled liner test article at slagging conditions in a small scale coal gasifier at CETC-O for over the planned 100 hours. The test hardware was exposed to at least 30 high temperature excursions (including start-up and shut-down cycles) during the test program. The results of the testing has provided valuable information on gasifier startup and required cooling controls in steady state operation of future advanced gasifiers using similar liners. The test program also provided a significant amount of information in the areas of CMC materials and processing for improved capability in a gasifier environment and insight into CMC liner fabrication that will be essential for near-term advanced gasifier projects.

  13. Networks and their traffic in multiplayer games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Andrés Melo López

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer games called multiplayer real-time, or (MCG are at the forefront of the use of the possibilities of the network. Research on this subject have been made for military simulations, virtual reality systems, computer support teamwork, the solutions diverge on the problems posed by MCG. With this in mind, this document provides an overview of the four issues affecting networking at the MCG. First, network resources (bandwidth, latency and computing capacity, together with the technical limits within which the MCG must operate. Second, the distribution concepts include communication architectures (peer-to-peer, client / server, server / network, and data and control architectures (centralized, distributed and reproduced .Thirdly, scalability allows the MCG to adapt to changes in parameterization resources. Finally, security is intended to fend off the traps and vandalism, which are common in online games; to check traffic, particularly these games we decided to take the massively multiplayer game League of Legends, a scene corresponding to a situation of real life in a network of ADSL access network is deployed has been simulated by using NS2 Three variants of TCP, it means SACK TCP, New Reno TCP, and TCP Vegas, have been considered for the cross traffic. The results show that TCP Vegas is able to maintain a constant speed while racing against the game traffic, since it avoids the packet loss and the delays in the tail caused by high peaks, without increasing the size of the sender window. SACK TCP and TCP New Reno, on the other hand, tend to increase continuously the sender window size, which could allow a greater loss of packages and also to cause unwanted delays for the game traffic.

  14. What influences buying leisure services coupons on online group buying?

    OpenAIRE

    Langvinienė, Neringa; Zemblytė, Jurgita; Sližienė, Gelminė

    2016-01-01

    Growing use of IT, laptops, tablets, PC in individuals' life shaped an opportunity to create online group buying (OGB) as a new online business model. Several of surveys show that OGB is rather popular for selling recreational activities and leisure services, such as restaurant coupons, cinema, spa, concert, flight tickets, museum visits, etc. Therefore, the paper aims to identify and estimate the influences that affect the customers to purchase the leisure services coupons on online group bu...

  15. Investigating the Relationship between Coupon Collecting and Top-of-Mind Brand Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrywczynski, Jim

    To determine if coupon collecting has any influence on product information processing like brand awareness, and to understand better the coupon collecting process, an exploratory study examined the relationship between coupon-collecting behavior and brand awareness for the coupons collected. Subjects, 152 randomly chosen respondents from a Midwest…

  16. Structure coefficients and strategy selection in multiplayer games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary processes based on two-player games such as the Prisoner's Dilemma or Snowdrift Game are abundant in evolutionary game theory. These processes, including those based on games with more than two strategies, have been studied extensively under the assumption that selection is weak. However, games involving more than two players have not received the same level of attention. To address this issue, and to relate two-player games to multiplayer games, we introduce a notion of reducibility for multiplayer games that captures what it means to break down a multiplayer game into a sequence of interactions with fewer players. We discuss the role of reducibility in structured populations, and we give examples of games that are irreducible in any population structure. Since the known conditions for strategy selection, otherwise known as [Formula: see text]-rules, have been established only for two-player games with multiple strategies and for multiplayer games with two strategies, we extend these rules to multiplayer games with many strategies to account for irreducible games that cannot be reduced to those simpler types of games. In particular, we show that the number of structure coefficients required for a symmetric game with [Formula: see text]-player interactions and [Formula: see text] strategies grows in [Formula: see text] like [Formula: see text]. Our results also cover a type of ecologically asymmetric game based on payoff values that are derived not only from the strategies of the players, but also from their spatial positions within the population.

  17. Jogos Multiplayer o poder das redes de entretenimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa de Jesus Coutinho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Os games em MMO Massive Multiplayer Online, “Multijogadores Massivos Online” surgiram a partir da conectividade com a internet, diferente dos primeiros jogos que eram desenvolvidos apenas para computadores. Este tipo de interação vem adquirindo importante avanço na indústria do entretenimento, bem como motivando estudos em distintas partes do planeta. Diretamente associado a este amplo e instigante tema situa-se a obra espanhola “Jogos Multiplayer; o poder das redes em entretenimento”, recentemente disponibilizada no Brasil, com prólogo de Gonzalo Frasca. Trata-se de um material útil para introdução a respeito do assunto uma vez que os autores constroem sua argumentação a partir de diferentes lugares teóricos propiciando uma leitura didática, abrangente, e crítica.  Multiplayer online games the power of networks Keywords: Multiplayer online games, connectivity, Multiplayer, Games Online

  18. A study of the dynamics of multi-player games on small networks using territorial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Mark; Lafaye, Charlotte; Pattni, Karan; Rychtář, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the study of structured populations using models of evolutionary processes on graphs has begun to incorporate a more general type of interaction between individuals, allowing multi-player games to be played among the population. In this paper, we develop a birth-death dynamics for use in such models and consider the evolution of populations for special cases of very small graphs where we can easily identify all of the population states and carry out exact analyses. To do so, we study two multi-player games, a Hawk-Dove game and a public goods game. Our focus is on finding the fixation probability of an individual from one type, cooperator or defector in the case of the public goods game, within a population of the other type. We compare this value for both games on several graphs under different parameter values and assumptions, and identify some interesting general features of our model. In particular there is a very close relationship between the fixation probability and the mean temperature, with high temperatures helping fitter individuals and punishing unfit ones and so enhancing selection, whereas low temperatures give a levelling effect which suppresses selection.

  19. Quantum finance Hamiltonian for coupon bond European and barrier options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E

    2008-03-01

    Coupon bond European and barrier options are financial derivatives that can be analyzed in the Hamiltonian formulation of quantum finance. Forward interest rates are modeled as a two-dimensional quantum field theory and its Hamiltonian and state space is defined. European and barrier options are realized as transition amplitudes of the time integrated Hamiltonian operator. The double barrier option for a financial instrument is "knocked out" (terminated with zero value) if the price of the underlying instrument exceeds or falls below preset limits; the barrier option is realized by imposing boundary conditions on the eigenfunctions of the forward interest rates' Hamiltonian. The price of the European coupon bond option and the zero coupon bond barrier option are calculated. It is shown that, is general, the constraint function for a coupon bond barrier option can -- to a good approximation -- be linearized. A calculation using an overcomplete set of eigenfunctions yields an approximate price for the coupon bond barrier option, which is given in the form of an integral of a factor that results from the barrier condition times another factor that arises from the payoff function.

  20. MobiDiC: Context Adaptive Digital Signage with Coupons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jörg; Krüger, Antonio

    In this paper we present a field study of a digital signage system that measures audience response with coupons in order to enable context adaptivity. In the concept for context adaptivity, the signs sense their environment; decide which content to show, and then sense the audience reaction to the content shown. From this audience measurement, the strategies which content to show in which situation are refined. As one instantiation of audience measurement, we propose a novel simple couponing system, where customers can photograph the coupons at the signs. Thus, it can be measured whether customers really went to the shop. To investigate the feasibility of this approach, we implemented a prototype of 20 signs in the city center of Münster, Germany. During one year of deployment, we investigated usage of the system through interviews with shop owners and customers. Our experiences show that customer attention towards the signs is a major hurdle to overcome.

  1. Rapid thermal cycling of new technology solar array blanket coupons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, David A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Kurland, Richard M.; Mesch, Hans G.

    1990-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is conducting thermal cycle testing of a new solar array blanket technologies. These technologies include test coupons for Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the advanced photovoltaic solar array (APSA). The objective of this testing is to demonstrate the durability or operational lifetime of the solar array interconnect design and blanket technology within a low earth orbit (LEO) or geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) thermal cycling environment. Both the SSF and the APSA array survived all rapid thermal cycling with little or no degradation in peak performance. This testing includes an equivalent of 15 years in LEO for SSF test coupons and 30 years of GEO plus ten years of LEO for the APSA test coupon. It is concluded that both the parallel gap welding of the SSF interconnects and the soldering of the APSA interconnects are adequately designed to handle the thermal stresses of space environment temperature extremes.

  2. Beneficial long communication in the multiplayer electronic mail game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jaegher, K.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the two-player electronic mail game (EMG), as is well-known, the probability of collective action is lower the more confirmations and reconfirmations are made available to players. In the multiplayer EMG, however, we show players may coordinate on equilibria where they require only few of the

  3. Massively Multiplayer Online Video Gaming as Participation in a Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkuehler, Constance A.

    2006-01-01

    This article has two primary goals: (a) to illustrate how a closer analysis of language can lead to fruitful insights into the activities that it helps constitute, and (b) to demonstrate the complexity of the practices that make up Massively Multiplayer Online Gaming (MMOGaming) through just such an analysis. The first goal is in response to the…

  4. Can Massively Multiplayer Online Gaming Environments Support Team Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Debra L.; Menaker, Ellen S.

    2008-01-01

    Instructional games are created when training is deliberately added to a gaming environment or when gaming aspects are deliberately incorporated into training. One type of game that is currently attracting the attention of the education and training field is the massively multiplayer online game (MMOG). Because evidence about learning outcomes…

  5. Massivizing multi-player online games on clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, S.; Iosup, A.; Epema, D.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs) are an important type of distributed applications and have millions of users. Traditionally, MMOGs are hosted on dedicated clusters, distributed globally. With the advent of cloud computing, MMOGs such as Zynga's are increasingly run on cloud resources,

  6. From MMORPG to a Classroom Multiplayer Presential Role Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaeta, Heinz; Jimenez, Felipe; Nussbaum, Miguel; Gajardo, Ignacio; Andreu, Juan Jose; Villalta, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has grown enormously, with communities of players reaching into the millions. Their fantasy narratives present multiple challenges created by the virtual environment and/or other players. The games' potential for education stems from the fact that players are immersed in a…

  7. Socializing by Gaming : Revealing Social Relationships in Multiplayer Online Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, L.; Shen, S.; van de Bovenkamp, R.; Iosup, A.; Kuipers, F.A.; Epema, D.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Multiplayer Online Games (MOGs) like Defense of the Ancients and StarCraft II have attracted hundreds of millions of users who communicate, interact, and socialize with each other through gaming. In MOGs, rich social relationships emerge and can be used to improve gaming services such as match

  8. 7 CFR 248.10 - Coupon and market management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... instruction emphasizing: (1) Eligible food choices; (2) Proper FMNP coupon redemption procedures, including...' markets. The State agency shall ensure that farmers/ farmers' markets are promptly paid for food costs. (h... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. Gamma scan technique for detecting coupon inside the mother pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasif Mohd Zain; Roslan Yahya; Mohamad Rabaie Shari; Airwan Affandi Mahmood; Mior Ahmad Khusaini Adnan

    2012-01-01

    Many times a year natural gas transmission and distribution companies need to make new connections to pipelines to expand or modify their existing system through hot tapping procedure. This procedure involves the installation of a new pipeline connection while the pipeline remains in service, flowing natural gas under pressure. The hot tap procedure includes attaching a branch connection and valve on the outside of an operating pipeline, and then cutting out the pipe-line wall within the branch and removing the wall section, which is called object of coupon through the valve. During the hot tapping process a critical problems occurred when a coupon fell into the mother pipeline. To overcome this problem, a gamma-ray absorption technique was chosen whereby a mapping technique will be done to detect the coupon position. The technique is non-destructive as it applies Co-60 (5 mCi) as a radioisotope sealed source to emit gamma radiation and a NaI(Tl) scintillation as detector. The result provided a visible representation of density profile inside pipeline where the coupon location can be located. This paper provides the detail of the technique used and presents the result obtained. (author)

  10. Inhibition of Bio corrosion of steel coupon by sulphate reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Inhibition of Bio corrosion of steel coupon by sulphate reducing bacteria and Iron oxidizing bacteria using .... Ethanol for 24 h. The extract was ... with distilled water to get a zero reading from the meter before .... Ethanol extract of musa species peels as a green corrosion ... Eco friendly extract of banana peel as corrosion ...

  11. 31 CFR 203.15 - Tax deposits using FTD coupons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tax deposits using FTD coupons. 203.15 Section 203.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE PAYMENT OF FEDERAL TAXES AND THE...

  12. Electropotential measurements of passivation and corrosion of steel coupons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, G.S.; Wright, R.R.

    1977-02-01

    There is considerable interest at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) in the preparation of mild steel to resist corrosion (passivation) both in moist air and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) environments. Steel prepared by the usual procedures to prevent rusting, such as oiling, plastic coating, painting, or phosphating, cannot be used in the presence of UF 6 . Tests have shown that a chromate treatment or an ammoniacal citrate treatment for passivation are effective. The electropotential behavior of these two passivation treatments is described. The initial electropotential measurement, when compared to that of an unpassivated coupon, gives the electropotential degree in volts of passivation. Continual exposure in the test, when compared to the unpassivated coupon, gives a profile of the durability of the passivation film. The chromate passivation treatment was slightly superior to the citrate passivation

  13. Interest rates and coupon bonds in quantum finance

    CERN Document Server

    Baaquie, Belal E

    2009-01-01

    The economic crisis of 2008 has shown that the capital markets need new theoretical and mathematical concepts to describe and price financial instruments. Focusing almost exclusively on interest rates and coupon bonds, this book does not employ stochastic calculus - the bedrock of the present day mathematical finance - for any of the derivations. Instead, it analyzes interest rates and coupon bonds using quantum finance. The Heath-Jarrow-Morton and the Libor Market Model are generalized by realizing the forward and Libor interest rates as an imperfectly correlated quantum field. Theoretical models have been calibrated and tested using bond and interest rates market data. Building on the principles formulated in the author's previous book (Quantum Finance, Cambridge University Press, 2004) this ground-breaking book brings together a diverse collection of theoretical and mathematical interest rate models. It will interest physicists and mathematicians researching in finance, and professionals working in the fin...

  14. MOBILE ADVERTISING ENGINE FOR CENTRALIZED MOBILE COUPON DELIVERY

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Wray; Daniel Plante

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, the preferred medium for advertising has seen a dramatic shift away from print media and other traditional means of distribution. In 2009 alone, it is estimated that advertising spending dropped by between 10 and 20 percent for newspapers, consumer magazines, radio, and television while increasing an estimated 9.2 and 18.1 percent in Internet and mobile advertising respectively. Driven by the high cost of print media, lower redemption rates on print coupons, and corres...

  15. Interactive evolution of levels for a competitive multiplayer FPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsted, P.T.; Ma, B.; Risi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally a dedicated level designer has to create every aspect of a level by hand, distribute and gather people to test it. Especially for multiplayer maps, the cyclic process of developing and testing can be quite cumbersome and time consuming. This paper presents a novel approach to provide...... live generation of levels for such multiplayer maps through procedural content generation and interactive evolution. The approach is demonstrated in the FPSEvolver video game that aims at replicating the look and feel of popular games like Counter-Strike. Without leaving the game a group of players can......”. The presented approach can generate enjoyable maps that adapt to the preferences of players across a range of skill levels. Several distinct types of levels were created during testing, which range from open to closed, and complex to simple, each fitting closely with what the different players consider a good...

  16. Login and Networking Services for Online Multiplayer Games

    OpenAIRE

    Peachi Muthu, Chithra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to study login and networking services for online multiplayer games using the unity tool. In the thesis, the authentication, communication and networking protocols supported in the unity game development tool were studied and experimented. And an analysis of the possibility to use the SIP protocol for the login services was done. A game development team from a game company, Vulpine Games Oy, was identified with the help of a lecturer in Metropolia. With the team the ...

  17. Player Skill Decomposition in Multiplayer Online Battle Arenas

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhengxing; Sun, Yizhou; El-nasr, Magy Seif; Nguyen, Truong-Huy D.

    2017-01-01

    Successful analysis of player skills in video games has important impacts on the process of enhancing player experience without undermining their continuous skill development. Moreover, player skill analysis becomes more intriguing in team-based video games because such form of study can help discover useful factors in effective team formation. In this paper, we consider the problem of skill decomposition in MOBA (MultiPlayer Online Battle Arena) games, with the goal to understand what player...

  18. Latency reduction in online multiplayer games using detour routing

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Cong

    2010-01-01

    Long network latency negatively impacts the performance of online multiplayer games. In this thesis, we propose a novel approach to reduce the network latency in online gaming. Our approach employs application level detour routing in which game-state update messages between two players can be forwarded through other intermediate relay nodes in order to reduce network latency. We present results from an extensive measurement study to show the potential benefits of detour routing in online game...

  19. Player Experiences and Behaviors in a Multiplayer Game: designing game rules to change interdependent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Vegt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Serious gaming is used as a means for improving organizational teamwork, yet little is known about the effect of individual game elements constituting serious games. This paper presents a game design experiment aimed at generating knowledge on designing game elements for teamwork. In previous work, we suggested that interaction- and goal-driven rules could guide interdependence and teamwork strategies. Based on this finding, for the present experiment we developed two versions of multiplayer Breakout, varying in rule-sets, designed to elicit player strategies of either dependent competition or dependent cooperation. Results showed that the two rule-sets could generate distinct reported player experiences and observable distinct player behaviors that could be further discriminated into four patterns: expected patterns of helping and ignoring, and unexpected patterns of agreeing and obstructing. Classic game theory was applied to understand the four behavior patterns and made us conclude that goal-driven rules steered players towards competition and cooperation. Interaction rules, in contrast, mainly stimulated dependent competitive behavior, e.g. obstructing each other. Since different types of rules thus led to different player behavior, discriminating in game design between interaction- and goal-driven rules seems relevant. Moreover, our research showed that game theory proved to be useful for understanding goal-driven rules.

  20. 26 CFR 1.466-1 - Method of accounting for the redemption cost of qualified discount coupons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the coupon. (2) Definitions—(i) Discount coupon. A discount coupon is a sales promotion device used to... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of accounting for the redemption cost of qualified discount coupons. 1.466-1 Section 1.466-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. The Effectiveness Evaluation among Different Player-Matching Mechanisms in a Multi-Player Quiz Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fu-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether different player-matching mechanisms in educational multi-player online games (MOGs) can affect students' learning performance, enjoyment perception and gaming behaviors. Based on the multi-player quiz game, TRIS-Q, developed by Tsai, Tsai and Lin (2015) using a free player-matching (FPM) mechanism, the same…

  2. Multiplayer Online Games as Educational Tools: Facing New Challenges in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskeva, Fotini; Mysirlaki, Sofia; Papagianni, Aikaterini

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a proposal for the development of educational multiplayer online games based on the activity theory, as an alternative to the current trend in multiplayer gaming and a means of promoting collaboration among students. In order to examine whether online games are engaging for learners, we consider multiple factors regarding game…

  3. Tobacco industry marketing: an analysis of direct mail coupons and giveaways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Betsy; Schillo, Barbara A; Moilanen, Molly

    2015-09-01

    Despite marketing prohibitions, tobacco company marketing expenditures in the USA have continued to grow with tobacco companies shifting focus towards point-of-sale-marketing and direct marketing to consumers through the mail and on the web. The purpose of this observational study was to investigate the content of direct marketing sent in response to registrations on select industry websites. An analysis of 659 tobacco company direct mail marketing pieces received between July 2011 and June 2012 was conducted. Mailings were coded for type and value of tobacco coupons, type of tobacco products promoted with coupons and number and type of giveaways offered. The most common type of mailing was tobacco coupon distribution; 86.5% of the mailings contained at least one coupon. Mailings with coupons had an average estimated coupon value of $4.17. The total coupon value of each mailing varied by the type of coupon offer and product promoted. The Camel and Marlboro coupon mailings heavily promoted snus, with over half of Camel coupon mailings (60.9%) and nearly half (44.8%) of Marlboro coupon mailings promoting snus alone. In addition, 47.9% of Marlboro coupon mailings and 11.4% of Camel mailings promoted snus alongside cigarettes. Tobacco companies use direct mail marketing to communicate with consumers and provide valuable tobacco coupons. More research is needed to understand the content of these mailings and how they are used by tobacco consumers in order to develop effective policy solutions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. The design of multiplayer online video game systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-chun A.; Ling, Jim; Li, Qing; Kuo, C.-C. J.

    2003-11-01

    The distributed Multiplayer Online Game (MOG) system is complex since it involves technologies in computer graphics, multimedia, artificial intelligence, computer networking, embedded systems, etc. Due to the large scope of this problem, the design of MOG systems has not yet been widely addressed in the literatures. In this paper, we review and analyze the current MOG system architecture followed by evaluation. Furthermore, we propose a clustered-server architecture to provide a scalable solution together with the region oriented allocation strategy. Two key issues, i.e. interesting management and synchronization, are discussed in depth. Some preliminary ideas to deal with the identified problems are described.

  5. Personalisation of promotional offers in a mobile coupon service context: the role of regulatory fit

    OpenAIRE

    Khajehzadeh, Saman

    2017-01-01

    This thesis theoretically develops and empirically tests a model of personalisation in the context of mobile couponing. The focus is in particular on personalised mobile coupon services provided to shoppers in shopping centres while they shop. To use such a service, customers sign up once and then send requests to receive new offers whenever they wish during their shopping trip. Three factors are identified as the key cues conveyed by a mobile coupon. The three factors consist of: the type of...

  6. A Comparison of Solo and Multiplayer Active Videogame Play in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howcroft, Jennifer; Fehlings, Darcy; Wright, Virginia; Zabjek, Karl; Andrysek, Jan; Biddiss, Elaine

    2012-08-01

    Active videogames (AVGs) have potential in terms of physical activity and therapy for children with cerebral palsy. However, the effect of social interaction on AVG play has not yet been assessed. The objective of this study is to determine if multiplayer AVG versus solo affects levels of energy expenditure and movement patterns. Fifteen children (9.77 [standard deviation (SD) 1.78] years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System Level I) participated in solo and multiplayer Nintendo(®) "Wii™ Boxing" (Nintendo, Inc., Redmond, WA) AVG play while energy expenditure and punching frequency were monitored. Moderate levels of physical activity were achieved with no significant differences in energy measures during multiplayer and solo play. Dominant arm punching frequency increased during the multiplayer session from 95.75 (SD 37.93) punches/minute to 107.77 (SD 36.99) punches/minute. Conversely, hemiplegic arm punching frequency decreased from 39.05 (SD 29.57) punches/minutes to 30.73 (SD 24.74) punches/minutes during multiplayer game play. Children enjoyed multiplayer more than solo play. Opportunities to play AVGs with friends and family may translate to more frequent participation in this moderate physical activity. Conversely, increased hemiplegic limb use during solo play may have therapeutic advantages. As such, new strategies are recommended to promote use of the hemiplegic hand during multiplayer AVG play and to optimize commercial AVG systems for applications in virtual reality therapy.

  7. Predicting protein structures with a multiplayer online game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Seth; Khatib, Firas; Treuille, Adrien; Barbero, Janos; Lee, Jeehyung; Beenen, Michael; Leaver-Fay, Andrew; Baker, David; Popović, Zoran; Players, Foldit

    2010-08-05

    People exert large amounts of problem-solving effort playing computer games. Simple image- and text-recognition tasks have been successfully 'crowd-sourced' through games, but it is not clear if more complex scientific problems can be solved with human-directed computing. Protein structure prediction is one such problem: locating the biologically relevant native conformation of a protein is a formidable computational challenge given the very large size of the search space. Here we describe Foldit, a multiplayer online game that engages non-scientists in solving hard prediction problems. Foldit players interact with protein structures using direct manipulation tools and user-friendly versions of algorithms from the Rosetta structure prediction methodology, while they compete and collaborate to optimize the computed energy. We show that top-ranked Foldit players excel at solving challenging structure refinement problems in which substantial backbone rearrangements are necessary to achieve the burial of hydrophobic residues. Players working collaboratively develop a rich assortment of new strategies and algorithms; unlike computational approaches, they explore not only the conformational space but also the space of possible search strategies. The integration of human visual problem-solving and strategy development capabilities with traditional computational algorithms through interactive multiplayer games is a powerful new approach to solving computationally-limited scientific problems.

  8. In-service testing of Ni{sub 3}Al coupons and trays in carburizing furnaces at Delphi Saginaw. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Viswanathan, S.; Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chatterjee, M. [General Motors Corporaion, Saginaw Division (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) report deals with the development of nickel aluminide alloy for improved longer life heat-resistant fixture assemblies for batch and continuous pusher carburizing furnaces. The nickel aluminide development was compared in both coupon and component testing with the currently used Fe-Ni-Cr heat-resisting alloy known as HU. The specific goals of the CRADA were: (1) casting process development, (2) characterization and possible modification of the alloy composition to optimize its manufacturing ability and performance under typical furnace operating conditions, and (3) testing and evaluation of specimens and prototype fixtures. In support of the CRADA objectives, coupons of nickel aluminide and the HU alloy were installed in both batch and pusher furnaces. The coupons were taken from two silicon levels and contained welds made with two different filler compositions (IC-221LA and IC-221W). Both nickel-aluminide and HU coupons were removed from the batch and pusher carburizing furnace at time intervals ranging from one month to one year. The exposed coupons were cut and mounted for metallographic, hardness, and microprobe analysis. The results of the microstructural analysis have been transmitted to General Motors Corporation, Saginaw Division (Delphi Saginaw) through reports that were presented at periodic CRADA review meetings. Based on coupon testing and verification of the coupon results with the testing of trays, Delphi Saginaw moved forward with the use of six additional trays in a batch furnace and two assemblies in a pusher furnace. Fifty percent of the trays and fixtures are in the as-cast condition and the remaining trays and fixtures are in the preoxidized condition. The successful operating experience of two assemblies in the pusher furnace for nearly a year formed the basis for a production run of 63 more assemblies. The production run required melting of 94 heats weighing 500 lb. each. Twenty

  9. Bipartite Graphs as Models of Population Structures in Evolutionary Multiplayer Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jorge; Rochat, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    By combining evolutionary game theory and graph theory, “games on graphs” study the evolutionary dynamics of frequency-dependent selection in population structures modeled as geographical or social networks. Networks are usually represented by means of unipartite graphs, and social interactions by two-person games such as the famous prisoner’s dilemma. Unipartite graphs have also been used for modeling interactions going beyond pairwise interactions. In this paper, we argue that bipartite graphs are a better alternative to unipartite graphs for describing population structures in evolutionary multiplayer games. To illustrate this point, we make use of bipartite graphs to investigate, by means of computer simulations, the evolution of cooperation under the conventional and the distributed N-person prisoner’s dilemma. We show that several implicit assumptions arising from the standard approach based on unipartite graphs (such as the definition of replacement neighborhoods, the intertwining of individual and group diversity, and the large overlap of interaction neighborhoods) can have a large impact on the resulting evolutionary dynamics. Our work provides a clear example of the importance of construction procedures in games on graphs, of the suitability of bigraphs and hypergraphs for computational modeling, and of the importance of concepts from social network analysis such as centrality, centralization and bipartite clustering for the understanding of dynamical processes occurring on networked population structures. PMID:22970237

  10. 7 CFR 249.10 - Coupon, market, and CSA program management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., annual training shall include instruction emphasizing: (1) Eligible food choices; (2) Proper SFMNP coupon..., including the availability of eligible foods to SFMNP participants that are of the same quality and cost as... are promptly paid for food costs. (h) Reconciliation of SFMNP coupons. The State agency shall identify...

  11. Tobacco industry direct mail receipt and coupon use among young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Lewis, M; Bover Manderski, Michelle T; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2015-02-01

    To examine young adult smokers' receipt of tobacco industry direct mail and use of coupons to purchase cigarettes. A total of 699 young adults from a 2011 national survey who reported smoking every day/some days provided self-report data on past-six month receipt of direct mail and past-six month use of coupons to purchase cigarettes. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds of direct mail receipt and coupon use. Overall, 25.1% of young adult smokers reported receiving direct mail from a tobacco company and 24.2% had used a coupon to buy cigarettes in the past 6 months. Direct mail receipt and coupon use to purchase cigarettes were significantly higher among females, daily smokers, and whites. Nearly 70% of smokers who received direct mail had also used a coupon to purchase cigarettes in the preceding 6 months. Brand websites were the most commonly reported means of joining a direct mailing list. This study adds to limited research showing receipt of direct mail and use of price reducing coupons by young adults. Also, higher rates of direct mail receipt and coupon use among females suggest that these strategies may be especially effective in encouraging smoking in females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Social interactions in massively multiplayer online role-playing gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Helena; Griffiths, Mark D

    2007-08-01

    To date, most research into massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has examined the demographics of play. This study explored the social interactions that occur both within and outside of MMORPGs. The sample consisted of 912 self-selected MMORPG players from 45 countries. MMORPGs were found to be highly socially interactive environments providing the opportunity to create strong friendships and emotional relationships. The study demonstrated that the social interactions in online gaming form a considerable element in the enjoyment of playing. The study showed MMORPGs can be extremely social games, with high percentages of gamers making life-long friends and partners. It was concluded that virtual gaming may allow players to express themselves in ways they may not feel comfortable doing in real life because of their appearance, gender, sexuality, and/or age. MMORPGs also offer a place where teamwork, encouragement, and fun can be experienced.

  13. Formative Evaluation of a Massively Multi-Player Persistent (MMP) Environment for Asymmetric Warfare Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Initiative acknowledges the dearth of published research on Massively Multiplayer Online Games ((MMOGs), which are based on MMP technology) for...wanting help during the emergency, protesting insufficient aid being delivered in time, escalating to violence , including sniper attacks and attempted... multiplayer environment. The movement control systems were rated "moderately easy" to learn, and ease of movement after learning to use the controls was rated

  14. A Study of the Relevance of Gender Identity and Characterization of Female Gamers in Massively Multiplayer Online Games

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-Hsueh Yang; I-Ning Chao

    2018-01-01

    The population of female gamers of Massive Multiplayer Online Games has increased significantly. Massive Multiplayer Online Games provide a virtual stage for players to freely shape their virtual roles and rebuild their self-identification based on preferences. Thus, characterization has become one of the most important parts when discussing female gamers of Massive Multiplayer Online Games. To understand the relevance of gender identity and characterization of female gamers in Massive Mul...

  15. The association between exposure to tobacco coupons and predictors of smoking behaviors among US youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A recent report showed that 13.1% of US middle and high school students were exposed to tobacco coupons in the past 30 days in 2012. The current study reanalyzed data from the National Youth Tobacco Survey 2012 to examine the associations between exposure to tobacco coupons in the past 30 days and predictors of smoking among US youth by smoking status. Methods 24658 middle and high school students were asked if and where they had received tobacco coupons in the past 30 days. Demographics, smoking behaviors, smoking-related beliefs, susceptibility to smoking, and confidence in quitting smoking were assessed. Analyses were stratified by smoking status (never smokers, experimenters, and current smokers). Data were weighted to be representative of US youth. Results Exposure to tobacco coupons was associated with lower likelihood of denying the social benefits of cigarette smoking and believing all tobacco products are dangerous, higher likelihood of being susceptible to smoking (among non-smokers), lower likelihood to feel confident in quitting cigarettes completely (among current smokers) and higher likelihood to intend to purchase cigarettes in the next 30 days (among experimenters and current smokers; p < 0.05). Conclusions Tobacco coupons may promote smoking and hinder smoking cessation among youth. Regulating tobacco coupons may reduce youth smoking in the US. Further research is needed to determine the effect of tobacco coupons on youth tobacco use globally. PMID:25882686

  16. Calibration of short rate term structure models from bid-ask coupon bond prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Gonçalves, Erika; Gzyl, Henryk; Mayoral, Silvia

    2018-02-01

    In this work we use the method of maximum entropy in the mean to provide a model free, non-parametric methodology that uses only market data to provide the prices of the zero coupon bonds, and then, a term structure of the short rates. The data used consists of the prices of the bid-ask ranges of a few coupon bonds quoted in the market. The prices of the zero coupon bonds obtained in the first stage, are then used as input to solve a recursive set of equations to determine a binomial recombinant model of the short term structure of the interest rates.

  17. Upgrading IEC strategy: the happy family coupon campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, C S

    1976-01-01

    The Information, Education and Communication Division of the Family Planning Organization of the Philippines launched a Happy Family Coupon Campaign, a project to test the feasibility and the potential of a scheme whereby materials were distributed in response to individuals' expressed needs and interest. The project aims were: 1) to reach specific target groups, represented by readers of commercially printed materials; 2) to explore the potential of the mail system as a medium for the distribution of family planning materials; 3) to test the effectiveness of commercial publications as a vehicle for creating demand for family planning information; and 4) to secure feedback regarding preferences for the various family planning materials. The campaign had 2 major components: 1) advertising as a means of informing readers about the availability of certain family planning information materils, and 2) mail service as a channel for delivering requested materials to the respondents. 12 types of informational materials were distributed, each written in English, Filipino, and the Ilocano, Cebuano, and Ilongo dialects. These pamphlets and leaflets are described. The campaign drew a total of 24,226 respondents from August 1974 to December 1975. 58.7% of the respondents had 1-4 children, 26.4% had 5 or more children, and the remaining 14.9% gave no information concerning the number of children. It appears that the project has already achieved a measure of success as indicated by: 1) specific target groups were reached, 2) the potential of the mail system as a channel for the distribution of family planning was not confined to the buyers of the publications, 3) the potential of commercial publications as vehicles for creating demand for family planning information was tested, and 4) feedback regarding preferences of various groups for different family planning materials was obtained.

  18. Receipt and use of half-fare airline coupons at selected Department of Energy field locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-11

    The receipt and use of half-fare coupons obtained by employees of DOE field offices and DOE contractors while traveling at DOE expense were reviewed. These coupons, issued by United Airlines and American Airlines, provided for air travel at half-fare if used before December 15, 1979. Potential savings to DOE through coupon use ranging from $50,000 to $100,000 were lost, because of ineffective management action by both federal and contractor officials. Recommendations were that DOE ascertain the extent of the failure of contractors to recover coupons from their employees and recover from the contractors the amounts lost. IG submitted a draft of this final report for comment and received the comments of the Controller, the Director of Administration, and the Director of Procurement and Contracts Management. The comments included useful information; and where appropriate, the final report was changed to reflect the comments. In addition, the comments in their entirety are contained in the appendices.

  19. Perception of using group buying sites to acquire tourist services cou-pons

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Mendes Filho; Vanessa Araújo Jorge; Otávio Bezerra de Sena Júnior

    2016-01-01

    Technologies brought new forms of business as in the case of group buying sites, which are basically a way to sell on the Internet that allows consumers to buy goods and services at lower prices. This study analyzed the travelers’ perception of the use of group buying sites to acquire tourist services coupons. The research presents a quantitative-exploratory approach using the Technology Acceptance Model to investigate the use of group buying sites to acquire tourist services coupons during a...

  20. Exposure to tobacco coupons among U.S. middle and high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessman, Greta K; Caraballo, Ralph S; Corey, Catherine G; Xu, Xin; Chang, Cindy M

    2014-08-01

    Tobacco marketing contributes to increased tobacco use susceptibility and sustained use. There are limited data on youth exposure to tobacco coupons, a type of pro-tobacco promotion. To explore channels through which youth report exposure to coupons and characteristics associated with this exposure. This may help inform efforts aimed at decreasing youth exposure to advertising and promotion. Data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey were analyzed in 2013 to estimate the self-reported prevalence of U.S. middle and high school student exposure to coupons through various channels. Associations among exposure to coupons and demographics, tobacco use, living with a tobacco user, and receptivity to tobacco marketing were examined using multivariate logistic regression models. Approximately 13% of students reported exposure to tobacco coupons in the past 30 days through mail, digital communications, or tobacco packages. Prevalence was greatest among current tobacco users (34.0%) and those receptive to tobacco marketing (23.4%) compared to non-tobacco users (9.3%) and those not receptive to tobacco marketing (8.2%), respectively. Coupon exposure varied by sex, grade, and race/ethnicity. In adjusted models, current tobacco use (AOR=3.4, 95% CI=3.0, 3.9); living with a tobacco user (AOR=2.1, 95% CI=1.9, 2.4); and receptivity to tobacco marketing (AOR=2.3, 95% CI=2.0, 2.7) were independently associated with coupon exposure. Findings from this study indicate that despite restrictions on marketing to youth, youth are still being exposed to tobacco promotions such as coupons. Efforts to limit youth exposure may be valuable in reducing curiosity, susceptibility, and initiation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The emergence of Smartphones: An exploratory study of consumer attitude and intention to redeem mobile coupons

    OpenAIRE

    Lao, Ka Man

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The prevalence of mobile phones, especially the development of smartphones, has attracted numerous companies to exploit the potential in mobile marketing. One notable mobile marketing tool that is progressively gaining interest is the mobile coupon. The aim of this study is to build a conceptual model to explain consumers’ attitude and intention to redeem mobile coupon in the emergence of smartphones. Design/methodology/approach – This study is based on an online survey questionn...

  2. Player guild dynamics and evolution in massively multiplayer online games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Hsun; Sun, Chuen-Tsai; Hsieh, Jilung

    2008-06-01

    In the latest versions of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs), developers have purposefully made guilds part of game environments. Guilds represent a powerful method for giving players a sense of online community, but there is little quantitative data on guild dynamics. To address this topic, we took advantage of a feature found in one of today's most popular MMOGs (World of Warcraft) to collect in-game data: user interfaces that players can modify and refine. In addition to collecting data on in-game player activities, we used this feature to observe and investigate how players join and leave guilds. Data were analyzed for the purpose of identifying factors that propel game-world guild dynamics and evolution. After collecting data for 641,805 avatars on 62 Taiwanese World of Warcraft game servers between February 10 and April 10, 2006, we created five guild type categories (small, large, elite, newbie, and unstable) that have different meanings in terms of in-game group dynamics. By viewing players as the most important resource affecting guild life cycles, it is possible to analyze game worlds as ecosystems consisting of evolving guilds and to study how guild life cycles reflect game world characteristics.

  3. The charge transfer structure and effective energy transfer in multiplayer assembly film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mingqiang; Jian Xigao

    2005-01-01

    Charge transfer multiplayer films have been prepared by layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. The films incorporate the rare-earth-containing polyoxometalate K 11 [Eu{PW 11 O 39 } 2 ].nH 2 O and the rich electron polyelectrolyte poly(3-viny-1-methyl-pyridine) quaternary ammonium and display a linear increase in the absorption and film thickness with the number of deposition cycles. Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra, atomic force micrographs, small-angle X-ray reflectivity measurements, and photoluminescence spectra were used to determine the structure of films. Linear and regular multilayer growth was observed. We can observe the formation of charge transfer complex compound in multiplayer by layer-by-layer assembly method. Most importantly, the luminescence spectra show the charge transfer band in assembly films, which suggest that energy could be effectively transferred to rare earth ions in assembly multiplayer films

  4. Physiological Responses During Multiplay Exergaming in Young Adult Males are Game-Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular moderate-intensity exercise provides health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine whether the selected exercise intensity and physiological responses during exergaming in a single and multiplayer mode in the same physical space were game-dependent. Ten males (mean ±SD, age: 23 ±5 years, body mass: 84.2 ±15.6 kg, body height: 180 ±7 cm, body mass index: 26.0 ±4.0 kg·m−2 played the games Kinect football, boxing and track & field (3 × ~10 min, ~ 2 min rest periods in similar time sequence in two sessions. Physiological responses were measured with the portable Cosmed K4b2 pulmonary gas exchange system. Single play demands were used to match with a competitive opponent in a multiplay mode. A within-subjects crossover design was used with one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc t-test for analysis (p<0.05. Minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and the heart rate were at least 18% higher during a multiplayer mode for Kinect football and boxing but not for track & field. Energy expenditure was 21% higher during multiplay football. Single play track & field had higher metabolic equivalent than single play football (5.7 ±1.6, range: 3.2-8.6 vs 4.1 ±1.0, range: 3.0-6.1, p<0.05. Exergaming in a multiplayer mode can provide higher physiological demands but the effects are game-dependent. It seems that exergaming with low intensity in a multiplayer mode may provide a greater physical challenge for participants than in a single play mode but may not consistently provide sufficient intensity to acquire health benefits when played regularly as part of a programme to promote and maintain health in young adults.

  5. Social Psychological Aspects of Addiction to Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinova T.Y.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of how massively multiplayer online role¬playing games (MMORPG affect the behavior of players. Basing on a series of research, the paper analyzes how massively multiplayer online role¬playing games are created and highlights their specifics that possibly contribute to the development of psychological addiction to such games. The authors describe the outcomes of their own research on motivation in persons with gaming addiction aged 18 and up, with over 1 year of gaming experience. These out-comes suggest that current traditional criteria developed for assessing gaming addiction cannot be applied to this particular form of addictive behavior.

  6. Aspiration dynamics of multi-player games in finite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jinming; Wu, Bin; Altrock, Philipp M; Wang, Long

    2014-05-06

    On studying strategy update rules in the framework of evolutionary game theory, one can differentiate between imitation processes and aspiration-driven dynamics. In the former case, individuals imitate the strategy of a more successful peer. In the latter case, individuals adjust their strategies based on a comparison of their pay-offs from the evolutionary game to a value they aspire, called the level of aspiration. Unlike imitation processes of pairwise comparison, aspiration-driven updates do not require additional information about the strategic environment and can thus be interpreted as being more spontaneous. Recent work has mainly focused on understanding how aspiration dynamics alter the evolutionary outcome in structured populations. However, the baseline case for understanding strategy selection is the well-mixed population case, which is still lacking sufficient understanding. We explore how aspiration-driven strategy-update dynamics under imperfect rationality influence the average abundance of a strategy in multi-player evolutionary games with two strategies. We analytically derive a condition under which a strategy is more abundant than the other in the weak selection limiting case. This approach has a long-standing history in evolutionary games and is mostly applied for its mathematical approachability. Hence, we also explore strong selection numerically, which shows that our weak selection condition is a robust predictor of the average abundance of a strategy. The condition turns out to differ from that of a wide class of imitation dynamics, as long as the game is not dyadic. Therefore, a strategy favoured under imitation dynamics can be disfavoured under aspiration dynamics. This does not require any population structure, and thus highlights the intrinsic difference between imitation and aspiration dynamics.

  7. Identification of Factors of Influence upon the Cost of Fixed Coupon Securities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlotov Yevhen O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies fixed coupon securities (bonds. It provides a calculation of the cash flow, generated by fixed coupon securities, with enclosed discounted face value of securities. It analyses time indicator – average weighted duration of payments, which characterises sensitivity of the price of securities to changes of interest rates in the market. It proves availability of two groups of interconnections between the cost of a bond, coupon rate, market rate (rate of return and term of its payment. The first group of interconnections reflects interconnections between the cost of a bond, coupon rate and market rate (rate of return. The second group characterises connection between the bond cost and term of its payment. The authors study the average weighted duration of payments. It plays an important role in analysis of long-term securities with fixed income. To simplify calculations it was accepted that the coupon payment is done once a year. The article offers a formula for identifying inaccuracy of the bond price depending on the expected change of profitability on payment. Analysing duration properties the article identifies shortcomings inherent in this indicator. Taking into account the average weighted duration of payments the article recommends a formula, as more efficient, for identification of the future bond price depending on change of profitability. The conducted studies are a theoretical ground for development of models of management of fixed income securities portfolios. The obtained scientific results could be used in the educational process both in colleges and specialised trainings of securities specialists. The scientific results could be used for developing information technologies when identifying cost of securities (fixed coupon bonds.

  8. Excessive Use of Massively Multi-Player Online Role-Playing Games: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zaheer; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are one of the most interesting innovations in the area of online computer gaming. This pilot study set out to examine the psychological and social effects of online gaming using an online questionnaire with particular reference to excessive and "dependent" online gaming. A self-selecting…

  9. Learner Interaction in a Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG): A Sociocultural Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the linguistic and social interaction of four intermediate EFL learners during game play in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Twelve illustrative episodes drawn from the participants' text chat, collected in four 70-minute sessions held over a one-month period, are analyzed from a…

  10. Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games as Arenas for Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates contemporary research on the use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) in language education. The development and key features of these games are explored. This is followed by an examination of the theories proposed as a basis for game-based learning, and the claims made regarding the value of…

  11. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuss, D.J.; Louws, J.; Wiers, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of

  12. Learning Strategies and Learner Attitudes in the Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game Cube World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Shu Li

    2016-01-01

    The rapid progress of technology has revolutionized learning and in the field of computer assisted language learning, the use of digital games has expanded significantly. One type of game that has been attracting interest is massively multiplayer online role-playing games (henceforth MMORPGs). Recent research has drawn attention to the potential…

  13. A Taxonomy of Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytheway, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Initiated in response to informal reports of vocabulary gains from gamers at universities in New Zealand and the Netherlands, this qualitative study explored how English language learners autonomously learn vocabulary while playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). Using research processes inherent in Grounded Theory, data…

  14. Virtual Playgrounds? Assessing the Playfulness of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kerrie Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Millions of children and adults devote much of their leisure time to playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). Most observers commonly categorize computer games as a play activity, but this article asks whether MMORPGs contain activities that might not be play. The author examines the phenomenon of online gaming and…

  15. Designing After-School Learning Using the Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Digital games have become popular for engaging students in a range of learning goals, both in the classroom and the after-school space. In this article, I discuss a specific genre of video game, the massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMO), which has been identified as a dynamic environment for encountering 21st-century workplace…

  16. Exploring Game Experiences and Game Leadership in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, YeiBeech; Ryu, SeoungHo

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the in-game experiences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) players focusing on game leadership and offline leadership. MMORPGs have enormous potential to provide gameplayers with rich social experiences through various interactions along with social activities such as joining a game community, team play…

  17. The Use of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games in CALL: An Analysis of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary CALL research reflects renewed interest in digital games. One aspect of this phenomenon namely, use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), has expanded significantly, highlighting the need for a review. This paper analyzes findings from 10 learner-based studies that draw on accounts of SLA informed by cognitive…

  18. Player communities in multiplayer online games : A systematic review of emperical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmelink, H.J.G.; Siitonen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous researchers have written about the social dynamics of player communities in multiplayer online games. Following a systematic review of refereed empirical research publications from 2000-2010, this article synthesizes the key methods and concepts researchers have used to study and

  19. Theft of virtual items in online multiplayer computer games: an ontological and moral analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwerda, Litska

    2012-01-01

    In 2009 Dutch judges convicted several minors for theft of virtual items in the virtual worlds of online multiplayer computer games. From a legal point of view these convictions gave rise to the question whether virtual items should count as “objects” that can be “stolen” under criminal law. This

  20. Efficient management of data center resources for massively multiplayer online games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nae, V.; Iosup, A.; Podlipnig, S.; Prodan, R.; Epema, D.H.J.; Fahringer, T.

    2008-01-01

    Today's massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) can include millions of concurrent players spread across the world. To keep these highly-interactive virtual environments online, a MMOG operator may need to provision tens of thousands of computing resources from various data centers. Faced with

  1. Learning Outcomes and Processes in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: Exploring the Perceptions of Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgari, Iro; Komis, Vassilis; Sampson, Demetrios G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade research has recognised the learning potential of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs). MMOGs can be used by the technology-enhanced learning research community to study and identify good educational practices that may inspire engaging, creative and motivating approaches for education and learning. To this end, in this…

  2. Inducing and measuring emotion through a multiplayer first-person shooter computer game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, P.A.B.; Truong, K.P.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    To develop an annotated database of spontaneous, multimodal, emotional expressions, recordings were made of facial and vocal expressions of emotions while participants were playing a multiplayer first-person shooter (fps) computer game. During a replay of the session, participants scored their own

  3. Beneficial Long Communication in the Multi-Player Electronic Mail Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jaegher, K.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the two-player electronic mail game (EMG), as is well-known, the probability of collective action is lower the more confirmations and re-confirmations are made available to players. In the multi-player EMG, however, as we show players may coordinate on equilibria where they require only few of

  4. Impact of egg holding temperatures on the recovery of Salmonella from eggshells and stainless steel coupons

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted to determine the impact of egg holding temperature on the ability to recover Salmonella from eggshells after 24 h. Salmonella enterica Enteritidis (nalidixic acid resistant marker strain) inoculated eggshells and stainless steel coupons (SSC, 14 mm diameter) were held a...

  5. Adaptivity to Age, Gender, and Gaming Platform Topology in Physical Multi-Player Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Friðriksson, Rafn Vídalín; Björnsson, Davíð Þór

    2012-01-01

    In games where players are competing against each other, it can be of interest to ensure that all players are challenged according to their individual skills. In order to investigate such adaptivity to the individual player in physical multi-player games, we developed a game on modular interactive...... tiles which can be used in both single-player and multi-player mode. We implemented simple adaptivity methods and tested these with different user groups including children and adults of both genders. The results show statistically significant differences in the game interactions between children...... and adults, and between male and female players. Also, results show statistically significant differences in the game interactions between different physical set-ups of the modular interactive tiles, i.e. the interaction depended on the topology of the modular tiles set-up. Changing the physical set...

  6. Modeling Game Avatar Synergy and Opposition through Embedding in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Games

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhengxing; Xu, Yuyu; Nguyen, Truong-Huy D.; Sun, Yizhou; El-Nasr, Magy Seif

    2018-01-01

    Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have received increasing worldwide popularity recently. In such games, players compete in teams against each other by controlling selected game avatars, each of which is designed with different strengths and weaknesses. Intuitively, putting together game avatars that complement each other (synergy) and suppress those of opponents (opposition) would result in a stronger team. In-depth understanding of synergy and opposition relationships among game ...

  7. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, DJ; Louws, J; Wiers, RW

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of occupational, social, and other recreational activities and relations. A number of gaming motives have been linked to excessive online gaming in adolescents and young adults. We assessed 175 current MMORP...

  8. Problematic usage among highly-engaged players of massively multiplayer online role playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Christopher S; Malesky, L Alvin

    2008-08-01

    One popular facet of Internet gaming is the massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Some individuals spend so much time playing these games that it creates problems in their lives. This study focused on players of World of Warcraft. Factor analysis revealed one factor related to problematic usage, which was correlated with amount of time played, and personality characteristics of agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and extraversion.

  9. Learner interaction in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG): A sociocultural discourse analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the linguistic and social interaction of four intermediate EFL learners during game play in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Twelve illustrative episodes drawn from the participants’ text chat, collected in four 70-minute sessions held over a one-month period, are analyzed from a sociocultural perspective. Qualitative analysis reveals the presence of interactional features associated with the development of sociocultural competence...

  10. Dynamic Difficulty Adaptation for Heterogeneously Skilled Player Groups in Multiplayer Collaborative Games

    OpenAIRE

    Greciano, Miguel Cristian

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on the combination of two key concepts: Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment/Adaptation (video games adapting their difficulty according to the in-game performance of players, making themselves easier if the player performs poorly or more difficult if the player performs well) and Collaborative Multiplayer Games (video games where two or more human players work together to achieve a common goal). It considers and analyzes the challenges, potential and possibilities of Dynamic Diffi...

  11. Meaningful real-life relationships in massively multiplayer online roleplaying games

    OpenAIRE

    Mansikkamäki, E. (Eetu)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Massively Multiplayer Online Roleplaying Games are extremely popular with millions and millions of players spending large portions of their free time in these virtual environments. Still the social value and the meaningfulness of the relationships formed within them are questioned by most non-gamers and even some gamers. In the past even academia was mainly concentrating on the negative aspects of gaming but lately...

  12. Microbiota formed on attached stainless steel coupons correlates with the natural biofilm of the sink surface in domestic kitchens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Birgitte; Røssvoll, Elin; Måge, Ingrid; Møretrø, Trond; Langsrud, Solveig

    2016-02-01

    Stainless steel coupons are frequently used in biofilm studies in the laboratory, as this material is commonly used in the food industry. The coupons are attached to different surfaces to create a "natural" biofilm to be studied further in laboratory trials. However, little has been done to investigate how well the microbiota on such coupons represents the surrounding environment. The microbiota on sink wall surfaces and on new stainless steel coupons attached to the sink wall for 3 months in 8 domestic kitchen sinks was investigated by next-generation sequencing (MiSeq) of the 16S rRNA gene derived from DNA and RNA (cDNA), and by plating and identification of colonies. The mean number of colony-forming units was about 10-fold higher for coupons than sink surfaces, and more variation in bacterial counts between kitchens was seen on sink surfaces than coupons. The microbiota in the majority of biofilms was dominated by Moraxellaceae (genus Moraxella/Enhydrobacter) and Micrococcaceae (genus Kocuria). The results demonstrated that the variation in the microbiota was mainly due to differences between kitchens (38.2%), followed by the different nucleic acid template (DNA vs RNA) (10.8%), and that only 5.1% of the variation was a result of differences between coupons and sink surfaces. The microbiota variation between sink surfaces and coupons was smaller for samples based on their RNA than on their DNA. Overall, our results suggest that new stainless steel coupons are suited to model the dominating part of the natural microbiota of the surrounding environment and, furthermore, are suitable for different downstream studies.

  13. Experiences from Implementing a Mobile Multiplayer Real-Time Game for Wireless Networks with High Latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Inge Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results and experiences from designing, implementing, and testing a multiplayer real-time game over mobile networks with high latency. The paper reports on network latency and bandwidth measurements from playing the game live over GPRS, EDGE, UMTS, and WLAN using the TCP and the UDP protocols. These measurements describe the practical constraints of various wireless networks and protocols when used for mobile multiplayer game purposes. Further, the paper reports on experiences from implementing various approaches to minimize issues related to high latency. Specifically, the paper focuses on a discussion about how much of the game should run locally on the client versus on the server to minimize the load on the mobile device and obtain sufficient consistency in the game. The game was designed to reveal all kinds of implementation issues of mobile network multiplayer games. The goal of the game is for a player to push other players around and into traps where they loose their lives. The game relies heavily on collision detection between the players and game objects. The paper presents experiences from experimenting with various approaches that can be used to handle such collisions, and highlights the advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches.

  14. The Valuation of Callable Bonds with Floored CMS-spread Coupons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovmand, David; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    the pricing and the optimal call strategy of these highly exotic bonds in a stochastic interest rate framework. We implement two versions of the LIBOR Market Model as well as a Gaussian two-factor short rate model. We show how to adapt the Least-Squares Monte Carlo procedure to handle the callability......A new type of structured bond has recently been introduced with enormous success - primarily among private investors - in many countries in Europe. The bonds are medium term and with fixed and very high initial coupons. The remaining coupons are determined as a constant multiplier times the spread...... of the product in a numerically efficient manner. We also calculate lower bounds for the product as well as delta and vega ratios....

  15. FISH DETECTION OF CAMPYLOBACTER AND ARCOBACTER ADHERED TO STAINLESS STEEL COUPONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Šilhová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on detecting biofilm and planktonic bacterial cells of the genera Arcobacter and Campylobacter. This study is, to our knowledge, the first study deals with application of FISH procedure to detect biofilm formation on stainless steel coupons of Arcobacter-isolates from real-world environments. These bacteria can cause a lot of diseases. Especially, in the last decade, arcobacters have been increasingly isolated from feces of clinically healthy and ill animals, foods of animal origin and various types of water. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to detect biofilm and planktonic cells of selected microorganisms. This method was optimized and subsequently applied to biofilm samples prepared on stainless steel coupons. The study results indicate that fluorescence in situ hybridization is suitable for detecting biofilm and planktonic cells of the studied bacteria.

  16. Corrosion of aluminium alloy test coupons in water of spent fuel storage pool at RA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Maksin, T.; Jordanov, G.; Dobrijevic, R.

    2004-12-01

    Study on corrosion of aluminium cladding, of the TVR-S type of enriched uranium spent fuel elements of the research reactor RA in the storage water pool is examined in the framework nr the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) 'Corrosion of Research Reactor Clad-Clad Spent Fuel in Water' since 2002. Standard racks with aluminium coupons are exposed to water in the spent fuel pools of the research reactor RA. After predetermined exposure times along with periodic monitoring of the water parameters, the coupons are examined according to the strategy and the protocol supplied by the IAEA. Description of the standard corrosion racks, experimental protocols, test procedures, water quality monitoring and compilation of results of visual examination of corrosion effects are present in this article. (author)

  17. The efficacy of issuing a free coupon for breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Kanako; Watanabe, Satoko; Ono, Yoshiki

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the Japanese government introduced a new project in which a free coupon for breast cancer screening was issued. Our institution provided two mammography buses and visited 11 suburbs of Tokyo places a total of 233 times for screening with the free coupon. We classified the areas visited into two groups: those where we had sent the bus every year (usual areas), and other areas to which we had never sent the bus previously (new area). We also issued questionnaires to the coupon examinees. The number of mammography screenings conducted was 15,257 (a 71% increase). The recall rate was 6.3%, and the rate of responders for detailed examination was 60.3% in the new areas, being lower than in the other areas. The most serious problem in the new areas was that the rate of early cancer detection was 44.4%, being much lower than in the other areas. In response to the questionnaire items inquiring about womens' motivation for screening, 'individual notice' accounted for the majority of responses, followed by 'free screening'. In response to the question of how much women were prepared to pay for breast cancer screening, the majority of women stated that they would be willing to pay between 1,000 and 2,000 yen. In conclusion, the scheme for providing free coupons for breast cancer screening would appear to motivate women who have never undergone screening before. On the other hand, some problems have been exposed. In areas new to screening, a high proportion of advanced cancers were found, and there was a lower rate of response for more detailed examination. The answers received appear to indicate that women prefer to receive individual notice, rather than free screening. (author)

  18. Older Adult Video Game Preferences in Practice: Investigating the Effects of Competing or Cooperating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souders, Dustin J.; Boot, Walter R.; Charness, Neil; Moxley, Jerad H.

    2017-01-01

    Video game interventions with the aim to improve cognition have shown promise for both younger (e.g., Powers et al., 2013) and older adults (e.g., Toril, Reales, and Ballesteros, 2014). Most studies suggest that fast-paced action games produce the largest benefits, but a recent video game intervention with older adults found that an action game intervention can result in poor adherence (Boot et al., 2013). To increase intervention adherence, we investigated older adult video game preferences that might bolster adherence by having participants play a competitive game (Mario Kart DS) or a cooperative game (Lego Star Wars: The Complete Saga) alone or with a partner. Although hypotheses regarding cooperative and multi-player gameplay were not supported, converging evidence suggests multi-player game play may lead to greater enjoyment, which was related to intervention adherence in a previous study (Boot et al., 2013). Insights for gaming intervention studies in older populations are also provided. PMID:29033698

  19. Older Adult Video Game Preferences in Practice: Investigating the Effects of Competing or Cooperating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souders, Dustin J; Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; Moxley, Jerad H

    2016-01-01

    Video game interventions with the aim to improve cognition have shown promise for both younger (e.g., Powers et al., 2013) and older adults (e.g., Toril, Reales, and Ballesteros, 2014). Most studies suggest that fast-paced action games produce the largest benefits, but a recent video game intervention with older adults found that an action game intervention can result in poor adherence (Boot et al., 2013). To increase intervention adherence, we investigated older adult video game preferences that might bolster adherence by having participants play a competitive game (Mario Kart DS) or a cooperative game (Lego Star Wars: The Complete Saga) alone or with a partner. Although hypotheses regarding cooperative and multi-player gameplay were not supported, converging evidence suggests multi-player game play may lead to greater enjoyment, which was related to intervention adherence in a previous study (Boot et al., 2013). Insights for gaming intervention studies in older populations are also provided.

  20. Perception of using group buying sites to acquire tourist services cou-pons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Mendes Filho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Technologies brought new forms of business as in the case of group buying sites, which are basically a way to sell on the Internet that allows consumers to buy goods and services at lower prices. This study analyzed the travelers’ perception of the use of group buying sites to acquire tourist services coupons. The research presents a quantitative-exploratory approach using the Technology Acceptance Model to investigate the use of group buying sites to acquire tourist services coupons during a trip. They were collected 60 valid questionnaires with students from a public university in northeastern of Brazil. It was used a data collection survey type, with a non-probabilistic convenience sample. Since this is a pilot study with a small sample, the results were verified by the structural equation modeling (SEM, using the technique Partial Least Squares (PLS. From the analysis, it was found that most people who responded to the questionnaires are using group buying sites to acquire tourist services coupons. However, according to the results, the group buying sites may not be easy tools to help in decision making in purchasing tourism services.

  1. Electrostatic Discharge Test of Multi-Junction Solar Array Coupons After Combined Space Environmental Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason; Hoang, Bao; Funderburk, Victor V.; Wong, Frankie; Gardiner, George

    2010-01-01

    A set of multi-junction GaAs/Ge solar array test coupons were subjected to a sequence of 5-year increments of combined environmental exposure tests. The test coupons capture an integrated design intended for use in a geosynchronous (GEO) space environment. A key component of this test campaign is conducting electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests in the inverted gradient mode. The protocol of the ESD tests is based on the ISO/CD 11221, the ISO standard for ESD testing on solar array panels. This standard is currently in its final review with expected approval in 2010. The test schematic in the ISO reference has been modified with Space System/Loral designed circuitry to better simulate the on-orbit operational conditions of its solar array design. Part of the modified circuitry is to simulate a solar array panel coverglass flashover discharge. All solar array coupons used in the test campaign consist of 4 cells. The ESD tests are performed at the beginning of life (BOL) and at each 5-year environment exposure point. The environmental exposure sequence consists of UV radiation, electron/proton particle radiation, thermal cycling, and ion thruster plume. This paper discusses the coverglass flashover simulation, ESD test setup, and the importance of the electrical test design in simulating the on-orbit operational conditions. Results from 5th-year testing are compared to the baseline ESD characteristics determined at the BOL condition.

  2. Feynman perturbation expansion for the price of coupon bond options and swaptions in quantum finance. I. Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E

    2007-01-01

    European options on coupon bonds are studied in a quantum field theory model of forward interest rates. Swaptions are briefly reviewed. An approximation scheme for the coupon bond option price is developed based on the fact that the volatility of the forward interest rates is a small quantity. The field theory for the forward interest rates is Gaussian, but when the payoff function for the coupon bond option is included it makes the field theory nonlocal and nonlinear. A perturbation expansion using Feynman diagrams gives a closed form approximation for the price of coupon bond option. A special case of the approximate bond option is shown to yield the industry standard one-factor HJM formula with exponential volatility.

  3. Small groups and long memories promote cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2016-06-01

    Complex social behaviors lie at the heart of many of the challenges facing evolutionary biology, sociology, economics, and beyond. For evolutionary biologists the question is often how group behaviors such as collective action, or decision making that accounts for memories of past experience, can emerge and persist in an evolving system. Evolutionary game theory provides a framework for formalizing these questions and admitting them to rigorous study. Here we develop such a framework to study the evolution of sustained collective action in multi-player public-goods games, in which players have arbitrarily long memories of prior rounds of play and can react to their experience in an arbitrary way. We construct a coordinate system for memory-m strategies in iterated n-player games that permits us to characterize all cooperative strategies that resist invasion by any mutant strategy, and stabilize cooperative behavior. We show that, especially when groups are small, longer-memory strategies make cooperation easier to evolve, by increasing the number of ways to stabilize cooperation. We also explore the co-evolution of behavior and memory. We find that even when memory has a cost, longer-memory strategies often evolve, which in turn drives the evolution of cooperation, even when the benefits for cooperation are low.

  4. Estimating Multivariate Exponentail-Affine Term Structure Models from Coupon Bound Prices using Nonlinear Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baadsgaard, Mikkel; Nielsen, Jan Nygaard; Madsen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    An econometric analysis of continuous-timemodels of the term structure of interest rates is presented. A panel of coupon bond prices with different maturities is used to estimate the embedded parameters of a continuous-discrete state space model of unobserved state variables: the spot interest rate...... noise term should account for model errors. A nonlinear filtering method is used to compute estimates of the state variables, and the model parameters are estimated by a quasimaximum likelihood method provided that some assumptions are imposed on the model residuals. Both Monte Carlo simulation results...

  5. The relationships into the video games massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Alfonso Acevedo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the relationships dynamics in the virtuality of the gamers into the massively multiplayer online role-playing game “Perfect World” in the not ocifial latinamerican server “Comunidad Zero”. The main objective of this study is to describe the dynamics of the relationships, analyzing them from the context of the game using the virtual ethnography, understanding the emotional interactions between couples, through a case study. During the development of research, were found several categories related to affective interactions of pre-attachment, manifested in virtual environments of the game and that ultimately manage to simulate the engagement dynamics of the physical contexts.

  6. Security and privacy in massively-multiplayer online games and social and corporate virtual worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Hogben, G.; Barosso, D.; Bartle, R.; Chazeran, C.; de Zwart, M.; Doumen, J.M.; Gorniak, S.; Kaźmierczak, M.; Kaskenmaa, M.; Benavente López, D.; Martin, A.; Naumann, I.; Reynolds, R.; Richardson, J; Rossow, C.

    2008-01-01

    2007 was the year of online gaming fraud - with malicious programs that specifically target online games and virtual worlds increasing by 145% and the emergence of over 30,000 new programs aimed at stealing online game passwords. Such malware is invariably aimed at the theft of virtual property accumulated in a user’s account and its sale for real money. With 217 million regular users of MMO/VWs (Massively Multiplayer Online Games and Virtual Worlds) and real-money sales of virtual objects es...

  7. Zoning Issues and Area of Interest Management in Massively Multiplayer Online Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Dewan Tanvir; Shirmohammadi, Shervin

    Game is a way of entertainment, a means for excitement, fun and socialization. Online games have achieved popularity due to increasing broadband adoption among consumers. Relatively cheap bandwidth Internet connections allow large number of players to play together. Since the introduction of Network Virtual Environment (NVE) in 1980s for military simulation, many interesting applications have been evolved over the past few decades. Massively multiplayer online (role-playing) game, MMOG or MMORPG, is a new genre of online games that has emerged with the introduction of Ultima since 1997. It is a kind of online computer game with the participation of hundreds of thousands of players in a virtual world.

  8. One period coupon bond valuation with revised first passage time approach and the application in Indonesian corporate bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruddani, Di Asih I.; Rosadi, Dedi; Gunardic, Abdurakhman

    2015-02-01

    The value of a corporate bond is conventionally expressed in terms of zero coupon bond. In practice, the most common form of debt instrument is coupon bond and allows early default before maturity as safety covenant for the bondholder. This paper study valuation for one period coupon bond, a coupon bond that only give one time coupon at the bond period. It assumes that the model give bondholder the right to reorganize a firm if its value falls below a given barrier. Revised first passage time approach is applied for default time rule. As a result, formulas of equity, liability, and probability of default is derived for this specified model. Straightforward integration under risk neutral pricing is used for deriving those formulas. For the application, bond of Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) as one of the largest bank in Indonesia is analyzed. R computing show that value of the equity is IDR 453.724.549.000.000, the liability is IDR 2.657.394.000.000, and the probability if default is 5.645305E-47 %.

  9. Pricing Zero-Coupon Catastrophe Bonds Using EVT with Doubly Stochastic Poisson Arrivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonggang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and severity of climate abnormal change displays an irregular upward cycle as global warming intensifies. Therefore, this paper employs a doubly stochastic Poisson process with Black Derman Toy (BDT intensity to describe the catastrophic characteristics. By using the Property Claim Services (PCS loss index data from 2001 to 2010 provided by the US Insurance Services Office (ISO, the empirical result reveals that the BDT arrival rate process is superior to the nonhomogeneous Poisson and lognormal intensity process due to its smaller RMSE, MAE, MRPE, and U and larger E and d. Secondly, to depict extreme features of catastrophic risks, this paper adopts the Peak Over Threshold (POT in extreme value theory (EVT to characterize the tail characteristics of catastrophic loss distribution. And then the loss distribution is analyzed and assessed using a quantile-quantile (QQ plot to visually check whether the PCS index observations meet the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD assumption. Furthermore, this paper derives a pricing formula for zero-coupon catastrophe bonds with a stochastic interest rate environment and aggregate losses generated by a compound doubly stochastic Poisson process under the forward measure. Finally, simulation results verify pricing model predictions and show how catastrophic risks and interest rate risk affect the prices of zero-coupon catastrophe bonds.

  10. Determination and analysis of the physical chemical characteristics of witness coupons of boral for the CNLV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez M, J.L.; Aguilar H, F.; Rivero G, T.; Carrillo M, R.

    2004-01-01

    The burnt fuel elements that are extracted in each charging of the Units 1 and 2 of the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde, are deposited in shelves placed in the storage reservoir designed for this end. Each cell or storage shelf has a structure type cage. Among the cells neutron absorber material is placed, (Boral), what allows to avoid the possible criticality that could settle down when accumulating in the storage the irradiated fuel elements. This boral has been designed to maintain its characteristics of thermal neutron absorber during a lifetime of the plant. To check that the wings and the Boral have not suffered some degradation or some change due to the environmental conditions in the warehouse, it is necessary to watch over their physical and chemical characteristics periodically, what is carried out by a surveillance program based on Badges or manufactured witness coupons of the same material that the wings. The badges witness are embedded in a special wing, which is placed in the place with more radiation in the pool. In this work the laboratory tests carried out in the ININ to the coupon witness 03 of the Unit 2, (II-03) are described, being presented the results and obtained conclusions. (Author)

  11. Impulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Billieux, Joël

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games.

  12. Impulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D.; Kuss, Daria J.; Billieux, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games. PMID:27156376

  13. An Exploration of Friendships and Socialization for Adolescents with Autism Engaged in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Jennifer; Duff, Christine; Serianni, Barbara; Gallup, Adam

    2016-01-01

    A phenomenological study was conducted to investigate the social experiences and perceptions of friendship among three adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) engaged in online videogame play in the context of a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG). Semi-structured interviews with three participants, diagnosed with…

  14. A Quantitative Content Analysis of Leveled Vocabulary Embedded within Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    This content analysis examined levels of vocabulary within massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). A total of six MMORPGs were studied; three were pay-to-play (P2P), and three were free-to-play (F2P). Sixty hours of game play (10 hours per game) provided the researcher with 50,240 embedded vocabulary words. Each MMORPG was…

  15. Examining a Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game as a Digital Game-Based Learning Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min Lun; Richards, Kari; Saw, Guan Kung

    2014-01-01

    A concurrent triangulation mixed-method research design was used to investigate 19 casual gamers' or non-gamers' use of a popular massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG), Everquest 2, as an alternative pedagogical tool to support communicative use of the English language. This study poses that MMORPGs could serve as a virtually rich…

  16. How practitioners approach gameplay requirements? An exploration into the context of massive multiplayer online role-playing games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia; Lutz, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Gameplay requirements are central to game development. In the business context of massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMOGs) where game companies' revenues rely on players' monthly subscriptions, gameplay is also recognized as the key to player retention. However, information on what

  17. Massively Multiplayer Online Games as a Sandbox for Leadership: The Relationship between in and out of Game Leadership Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Sean Henry Veloria

    2014-01-01

    Given society's increasingly technology centric play and workplace environment, Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOs) can be an excellent sandbox to develop future leaders of teams, which are the lifeblood of any organization. MMOs like World of WarCraft provide rich immersive experiences that allow leaders and followers the ability to create…

  18. A Study of the Relevance of Gender Identity and Characterization of Female Gamers in Massively Multiplayer Online Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hsueh Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The population of female gamers of Massive Multiplayer Online Games has increased significantly. Massive Multiplayer Online Games provide a virtual stage for players to freely shape their virtual roles and rebuild their self-identification based on preferences. Thus, characterization has become one of the most important parts when discussing female gamers of Massive Multiplayer Online Games. To understand the relevance of gender identity and characterization of female gamers in Massive Multiplayer Online Games, this paper divides gender identity into two parts: sexual orientation and gender role; and separates characterization into three parts: gender, class, and appearance. The results show the following. In gender identity, most female gamers are attracted to men. In gender role, female gamers must gradually shed gender stereotypes. This paper also finds that female gamers turn gender stereotypes upside down concerning toys, jobs, housework, and leadership. In characterization, female gamers tend to create female roles, tend to choose wizard and archer as an occupation; and create roles that have light skin and exude confidence. For gender identity and characterization, females’ psychological sex, sexual orientation, and gender role all have significant influences on a character’s gender and class.

  19. AGR steel corrosion monitoring schemes: progress on off-site testing of coupon specimens to end of 1985: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittle, I.; Meredith, M.E.

    1988-03-01

    Off-site Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor steel corrosion monitoring through experiments on mild steel coupon specimens is reported. The appearance of all mild steel coupons oxidised over the temperature range 375 to 450 0 C is consistent with what is expected for the appropriate silicon content, temperature and in the gas mixes used. Likewise, weight gain data from the tests is as expected and where linear (breakaway) oxidation kinetics are in evidence, measured rates are within one standard deviation of the mean oxidation rates predicted by the 1/R model. Also, data relating mean breakaway oxide thickness to weight gain is in good agreement with the currently recommended relationship of 1 mg cm -2 weight gain = 6.72 μm oxide thickness. The observed oxidation behaviour of the off-site mild steel coupons is consistent with the most recent design data. (author)

  20. Annealing to Mitigate Pitting in Electropolished Niobium Coupons and SRF Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, L.D.; Hahn, E.; Hicks, D.; Romanenko, A.; Schuessler, R.; Thompson, C.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-08

    Ongoing studies at Fermilab investigate whether dislocations and other factors instigate pitting during cavity electropolishing (EP), despite careful processing controls and the inherent leveling mechanism of EP itself. Here, cold-worked niobium coupons, which exhibited increased tendencies for pitting in our past study, were annealed in a high vacuum furnace and subsequently processed by EP. Laser confocal scanning microscopy and special defect counting algorithms were used to assess the population of pits formed. Hardness measurements indicated that annealing for 2 hours at 800 C produced recovery, whereas annealing for 12 hours at 600 C did not, as is consistent with known changes for cavities annealed in a similar way. The 800 C anneal was effective in some cases but not others, and we discuss reasons why tendencies for pitting remain. We discuss implications for cavities and continued work to understand pitting.

  1. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  2. Reinforcement Learning Explains Conditional Cooperation and Its Moody Cousin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ezaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct reciprocity, or repeated interaction, is a main mechanism to sustain cooperation under social dilemmas involving two individuals. For larger groups and networks, which are probably more relevant to understanding and engineering our society, experiments employing repeated multiplayer social dilemma games have suggested that humans often show conditional cooperation behavior and its moody variant. Mechanisms underlying these behaviors largely remain unclear. Here we provide a proximate account for this behavior by showing that individuals adopting a type of reinforcement learning, called aspiration learning, phenomenologically behave as conditional cooperator. By definition, individuals are satisfied if and only if the obtained payoff is larger than a fixed aspiration level. They reinforce actions that have resulted in satisfactory outcomes and anti-reinforce those yielding unsatisfactory outcomes. The results obtained in the present study are general in that they explain extant experimental results obtained for both so-called moody and non-moody conditional cooperation, prisoner's dilemma and public goods games, and well-mixed groups and networks. Different from the previous theory, individuals are assumed to have no access to information about what other individuals are doing such that they cannot explicitly use conditional cooperation rules. In this sense, myopic aspiration learning in which the unconditional propensity of cooperation is modulated in every discrete time step explains conditional behavior of humans. Aspiration learners showing (moody conditional cooperation obeyed a noisy GRIM-like strategy. This is different from the Pavlov, a reinforcement learning strategy promoting mutual cooperation in two-player situations.

  3. The effect of power asymmetries on cooperation and punishment in a prisoner's dilemma game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Bone

    Full Text Available Recent work has suggested that punishment is detrimental because punishment provokes retaliation, not cooperation, resulting in lower overall payoffs. These findings may stem from the unrealistic assumption that all players are equal: in reality individuals are expected to vary in the power with which they can punish defectors. Here, we allowed strong players to interact with weak players in an iterated prisoner's dilemma game with punishment. Defecting players were most likely to switch to cooperation if the partner cooperated: adding punishment yielded no additional benefit and, under some circumstances, increased the chance that the partner would both defect and retaliate against the punisher. Our findings show that, in a two-player game, cooperation begets cooperation and that punishment does not seem to yield any additional benefits. Further work should explore whether strong punishers might prevail in multi-player games.

  4. Ultimate compression after impact load prediction in graphite/epoxy coupons using neural network and multivariate statistical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Alexandre David

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this research was to accurately predict the ultimate compressive load of impact damaged graphite/epoxy coupons using a Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM) neural network and multivariate statistical regression analysis (MSRA). An optimized use of these data treatment tools allowed the generation of a simple, physically understandable equation that predicts the ultimate failure load of an impacted damaged coupon based uniquely on the acoustic emissions it emits at low proof loads. Acoustic emission (AE) data were collected using two 150 kHz resonant transducers which detected and recorded the AE activity given off during compression to failure of thirty-four impacted 24-ply bidirectional woven cloth laminate graphite/epoxy coupons. The AE quantification parameters duration, energy and amplitude for each AE hit were input to the Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM) neural network to accurately classify the material failure mechanisms present in the low proof load data. The number of failure mechanisms from the first 30% of the loading for twenty-four coupons were used to generate a linear prediction equation which yielded a worst case ultimate load prediction error of 16.17%, just outside of the +/-15% B-basis allowables, which was the goal for this research. Particular emphasis was placed upon the noise removal process which was largely responsible for the accuracy of the results.

  5. Statistical properties of online avatar numbers in a massive multiplayer online role-playing game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Ren, Fei; Gu, Gao-Feng; Tan, Qun-Zhao; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-02-01

    Massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) have been very popular in the past few years. The profit of an MMORPG company is proportional to how many users registered, and the instant number of online avatars is a key factor to assess how popular an MMORPG is. We use the online-offline logs on an MMORPG server to reconstruct the instant number of online avatars per second and investigate its statistical properties. We find that the online avatar number exhibits one-day periodic behavior and clear intraday pattern, the fluctuation distribution of the online avatar numbers has a leptokurtic non-Gaussian shape with power-law tails, and the increments of online avatar numbers after removing the intraday pattern are uncorrelated and the associated absolute values have long-term correlation. In addition, both time series exhibit multifractal nature.

  6. Verbal Communication of Story Facilitators in Multi-player Role-Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Brolund, Thea; Hitchens, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Multi-player role-playing games form one of the key examples of interactive, emergent and collaborative storytelling systems available. These games and the collaborative stories that they create, are commonly facilitated by a specialized participant, the game master. In the current study, the ver......Multi-player role-playing games form one of the key examples of interactive, emergent and collaborative storytelling systems available. These games and the collaborative stories that they create, are commonly facilitated by a specialized participant, the game master. In the current study......, the verbal communication of game masters in a series of role-playing game sessions is categorized and analyzed depending on form and content, using protocol analysis, establishing a model for the verbal communication of game masters....

  7. What are Users' Intentions Towards Real Money Trading in Massively Multiplayer Online Games?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna; Legarth, Morten Fosselius; Birch Olsen, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates user behaviour in massively multiplayer online games from the perspective of their intentions to engage in real money trading. Players who engage in real money trading purchase resources instead of spending time to acquire them in the game. This behaviour influences not just...... a set of behavioural determinants grounded in empirical research on online games. The study’s findings indicate that a player’s social status and the disinhibiting effects of online play are positive influences on players’ intentions to engage in real money trading, while perceived fairness, anticipated...... regret and uncertainty about the seller’s behaviour are negative influences. Interestingly, neither the perceived enjoyment nor the potential punishments influence intentions...

  8. How successful are mutants in multiplayer games with fluctuating environments? Sojourn times, fixation and optimal switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Joseph W.; Galla, Tobias

    2018-03-01

    Using a stochastic model, we investigate the probability of fixation, and the average time taken to achieve fixation, of a mutant in a population of wild-types. We do this in a context where the environment in which the competition takes place is subject to stochastic change. Our model takes into account interactions which can involve multiple participants. That is, the participants take part in multiplayer games. We find that under certain circumstances, there are environmental switching dynamics which minimize the time that it takes for the mutants to fixate. To analyse the dynamics more closely, we develop a method by which to calculate the sojourn times for general birth-death processes in fluctuating environments.

  9. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  10. Moving between virtual and real worlds: second language learning through massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs)

    OpenAIRE

    Kongmee, Isara; Strachan, Rebecca; Pickard, Alison; Montgomery, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs) bring players together in a large virtual community. This type of online gaming can serve many purposes such as entertainment, social interaction, information exchange and education and is now an integral part of many people's lives particularly the younger generation. This research study investigates the use of openly available MMORPGs to supplement second language teaching for higher education students. MMORPGs provide informal virtu...

  11. Analysis of Context Dependence in Social Interaction Networks of a Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Seokshin; Kang, Ah Reum; Kim, Hyun-chul; Kwon, Taekyoung; Park, Juyong; Kim, Huy Kang

    2012-01-01

    Rapid advances in modern computing and information technology have enabled millions of people to interact online via various social network and gaming services. The widespread adoption of such online services have made possible analysis of large-scale archival data containing detailed human interactions, presenting a very promising opportunity to understand the rich and complex human behavior. In collaboration with a leading global provider of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (...

  12. Prescription drug coupons: evolution and need for regulation in direct-to-consumer advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Yagi, Nozomi; Liang, Bryan A

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical marketing in the United States had undergone a shift from largely exclusively targeting physicians to considerable efforts in targeting patients through various forms of direct-to-consumer advertising ("DTCA"). This includes the use of DTCA in prescription drug coupons ("PDCs"), a new form of DTCA that offers discounts and rebates directly to consumers to lower costs of drug purchasing. Our examination of PDCs reveals that the use and types of PDC programs is expanding and includes promotion of the vast majority of top grossing pharmaceuticals. However, controversy regarding this emerging form of DTCA has given rise to health policy concerns about their overall impact on prescription drug expenditures for consumers, payers, and the health care system, and whether they lead to optimal long-term utilization of pharmaceuticals. In response to these concerns and the growing popularity of PDCs, what we propose here are clearer regulation and regulatory guidance for PDC DTCA use. This would include review for appropriate disclosure of marketing claims, increased transparency in PDC use for pharmaceutical pricing, and leveraging potential positive benefits of PDC use for vulnerable or underserved patient populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Coupon Test of an Elbow Component by Using Vision-based Measurement System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Wan; Jeon, Bub Gyu; Choi, Hyoung Suk; Kim, Nam Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Among the various methods to overcome this shortcoming, vision-based methods to measure the strain of a structure are being proposed and many studies are being conducted on them. The vision-based measurement method is a noncontact method for measuring displacement and strain of objects by comparing between images before and after deformation. This method offers such advantages as no limitations in the surface condition, temperature, and shape of objects, the possibility of full filed measurement, and the possibility of measuring the distribution of stress or defects of structures based on the measurement results of displacement and strain in a map. The strains were measured with various methods using images in coupon test and the measurements were compared. In the future, the validity of the algorithm will be compared using stain gauge and clip gage, and based on the results, the physical properties of materials will be measured using a vision-based measurement system. This will contribute to the evaluation of reliability and effectiveness which are required for investigating local damages.

  14. Coupon Test of an Elbow Component by Using Vision-based Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Wan; Jeon, Bub Gyu; Choi, Hyoung Suk; Kim, Nam Sik

    2016-01-01

    Among the various methods to overcome this shortcoming, vision-based methods to measure the strain of a structure are being proposed and many studies are being conducted on them. The vision-based measurement method is a noncontact method for measuring displacement and strain of objects by comparing between images before and after deformation. This method offers such advantages as no limitations in the surface condition, temperature, and shape of objects, the possibility of full filed measurement, and the possibility of measuring the distribution of stress or defects of structures based on the measurement results of displacement and strain in a map. The strains were measured with various methods using images in coupon test and the measurements were compared. In the future, the validity of the algorithm will be compared using stain gauge and clip gage, and based on the results, the physical properties of materials will be measured using a vision-based measurement system. This will contribute to the evaluation of reliability and effectiveness which are required for investigating local damages

  15. Nonlinear Aeroelastic Analysis of the HIAD TPS Coupon in the NASA 8' High Temperature Tunnel: Theory and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Benjamin D.; Scott, Robert C,; Dowell, Earl H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a set of theoretical and experimental techniques to characterize the aeroelasticity of the thermal protection system (TPS) on the NASA Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD). A square TPS coupon experiences trailing edge oscillatory behavior during experimental testing in the 8' High Temperature Tunnel (HTT), which may indicate the presence of aeroelastic flutter. Several theoretical aeroelastic models have been developed, each corresponding to a different experimental test configuration. Von Karman large deflection theory is used for the plate-like components of the TPS, along with piston theory for the aerodynamics. The constraints between the individual TPS layers and the presence of a unidirectional foundation at the back of the coupon are included by developing the necessary energy expressions and using the Rayleigh Ritz method to derive the nonlinear equations of motion. Free vibrations and limit cycle oscillations are computed and the frequencies and amplitudes are compared with accelerometer and photogrammetry data from the experiments.

  16. Feynman perturbation expansion for the price of coupon bond options and swaptions in quantum finance. II. Empirical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E; Liang, Cui

    2007-01-01

    The quantum finance pricing formulas for coupon bond options and swaptions derived by Baaquie [Phys. Rev. E 75, 016703 (2006)] are reviewed. We empirically study the swaption market and propose an efficient computational procedure for analyzing the data. Empirical results of the swaption price, volatility, and swaption correlation are compared with the predictions of quantum finance. The quantum finance model generates the market swaption price to over 90% accuracy.

  17. Ultrasonic Welding of Thermoplastic Composite Coupons for Mechanical Characterization of Welded Joints through Single Lap Shear Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Irene F; Palardy, Genevieve

    2016-02-11

    This paper presents a novel straightforward method for ultrasonic welding of thermoplastic-composite coupons in optimum processing conditions. The ultrasonic welding process described in this paper is based on three main pillars. Firstly, flat energy directors are used for preferential heat generation at the joining interface during the welding process. A flat energy director is a neat thermoplastic resin film that is placed between the parts to be joined prior to the welding process and heats up preferentially owing to its lower compressive stiffness relative to the composite substrates. Consequently, flat energy directors provide a simple solution that does not require molding of resin protrusions on the surfaces of the composite substrates, as opposed to ultrasonic welding of unreinforced plastics. Secondly, the process data provided by the ultrasonic welder is used to rapidly define the optimum welding parameters for any thermoplastic composite material combination. Thirdly, displacement control is used in the welding process to ensure consistent quality of the welded joints. According to this method, thermoplastic-composite flat coupons are individually welded in a single lap configuration. Mechanical testing of the welded coupons allows determining the apparent lap shear strength of the joints, which is one of the properties most commonly used to quantify the strength of thermoplastic composite welded joints.

  18. Financialisation and the coupon pool Financeirização e a aposta em dividendos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Froud

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available By the late 1990s, shareholder value was the explicit, new priority for the old corporations in the US and UK where the stock market had gained an unprecedented influence on the behaviour of giant corporations. The business press obsessively discussed which managements were, and were not, delivering value and all the major US consulting firms had moved into selling value metrics and implementation packages promising to solve this question. Over this decade, share prices rose unsteadily in a long bull market which ended in the tech stock crash of Spring 2000 which, one year later, had turned into a bear market in a slowing US economy. All this poses new questions about what’s at stake in the capital market's pressure on corporations for increased returns; and what's behind higher share prices and their collapse? The intellectual responses widened the debate but has led to increasing conceptual confusion: the journalistic term "shareholder value" has passed into academic usage; while neologisms such as financialisation are used differently by various authors. Against this background, our paper aims to discuss the existing terms and main definitions and to argue for a redefinition of the problem around a new generic concept of coupon pool capitalism. After this, the paper presents a brief empirical analysis of the dynamics of the coupon pool in the USA and UK. This analysis represents part of our answer to the question of what's new and different about the current forms of capitalism.O artigo descreve as mudanças recentes nas formas de funcionamento do capitalismo contemporâneo baseada no papel autônomo alcançado pela esfera financeira. Discutindo com várias propostas de explicação do fenômeno, ele propõe uma explicação que acentua o caráter ao mesmo tempo paradoxal, contingente e contraditório do processo que estamos vivendo. A forma atual é originária dos países anglo-saxões e se espraia rumo aos demais países desenvolvidos e

  19. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  20. Navigating the feminine in massively multiplayer online games: gender in World of Warcraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Audrey L

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to present and discuss attitudes, perceptions and opinions about sexism and gendered play in the massively multiplayer online roleplaying game (MMO), World of Warcraft. Through the use of an online survey which includes both multiple choice questions and open-ended questions, the research discusses the major themes and findings expressed by the World of Warcraft forum users (N = 294). The descriptive statistical findings presented are derived from the multiple choice questions. Within the sample, the results reveal that sexism is a contentious topic in the World of Warcraft community. 63.6% (n = 75) of female respondents reported experiencing sexism within the game. 27.5% (n = 44) of male respondents and 45.3% (n = 53) of female respondents believe that sexism is a problem in the game. Overall, 64.4% (n = 183) of the respondents reported sexism as a non-issue in the game. Themes surrounding the topic of sexism experienced within the game are presented based on frequency of homogenous responses. Based on the multiple choice questions and the open-ended questions, the research argues that sexism and gendered play in gaming should be studied more closely, as the results reveal that many MMO players are affected negatively by it.

  1. Navigating the feminine in massively multiplayer online games: Gender in World of Warcraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey eBrehm

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to present and discuss attitudes, perceptions and opinions about sexism and gendered play in the massively multiplayer online roleplaying game (MMO, World of Warcraft. Through the use of an online survey which includes both multiple choice questions and open-ended questions, the research discusses the major themes and findings expressed by the World of Warcraft forum users (N = 294. The descriptive statistical findings presented are derived from the multiple choice questions. Within the sample, the results reveal that sexism is a contentious topic in the World of Warcraft community. 63.6% (n = 75 of female respondents reported experiencing sexism within the game. 27.5% (n = 44 of male respondents and 45.3% (n = 53 of female respondents believe that sexism is a problem in the game. Overall, 64.4% (n = 183 of the respondents reported sexism as a non-issue in the game. Themes surrounding the topic of sexism experienced within the game are presented based on frequency of homogenous responses. Based on the multiple choice questions and the open-ended questions, the research argues that sexism and gendered play in gaming should be studied more closely, as the results reveal that many MMO players are affected negatively by it.

  2. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J; Louws, Jorik; Wiers, Reinout W

    2012-09-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of occupational, social, and other recreational activities and relations. A number of gaming motives have been linked to excessive online gaming in adolescents and young adults. We assessed 175 current MMORPG players and 90 nonplayers using a Web-based questionnaire regarding their gaming behavior, problems as consequences of gaming, and game motivations and tested their statistical associations. Results indicated that (a) MMORPG players are significantly more likely to experience gaming-related problems relative to nonplayers, and that (b) the gaming motivations escapism and mechanics significantly predicted excessive gaming and appeared as stronger predictors than time investment in game. The findings support the necessity of using measures that distinguish between different types of online games. In addition, this study proves useful regarding the current discussion on establishing (online) gaming addiction as a diagnosis in future categorizations of psychopathology.

  3. Insights from Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games to Enhance Gamification in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Tavakkoli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the study of a cohort of college graduate and undergraduate students who participated in playing a Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG as a gameplay rich with social interaction as well as intellectual and aesthetic features. Statistically significant differences among our participants' perception, sensation seeking, and satisfaction in relation to gameplay features are investigated. Our primary objective in this investigation was to look for certain aspects of game playing and sensation seeking that attracts a group of students to engage in long term gameplay online. Results support the majority of pre-planned hypotheses and show potential important considerations to take into account when developing gamified content for educational applications. Furthermore, the limitation of the data used in this study is presented and future directions to remove the current limitation and proliferate results through qualitative research into players' in-game social interactions. We suggest that finding similarities and underlying patterns of attraction among a diverse group of students could be beneficial in designing gameplay features to enhance student participation in the learning experience and improve learning performance.

  4. Can clans protect adolescent players of massively multiplayer online games from violent behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Boyd, Danah

    2015-02-01

    To examine whether clan membership mediates observed associations between violent game content and externalizing behaviors among youth who play massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs). Responses from 486 11- to 18-year-olds who: live in the United States, read English, have been online at least once in the past 6 months, and have played MMOGs in the past year were examined. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the population-averaged incident rate ratio of aggressive, delinquent, and seriously violent behaviors among MMOG players given one's self-reported exposure to in-game content depicting violence. Twenty-nine percent of all youth respondents played MMOGs in the past year. Rates of aggressive, IRR: 1.59, 95% CI [1.11, 2.26], and delinquent, IRR: 1.44, 95% CI [0.99, 2.08], behaviors were significantly higher for MMOG players who were in clans versus not in clans. For females, clan membership attenuated but did not eliminate the observed relation between exposure to in-game violent content and both aggressive and seriously violent behavior (16% and 10% reductions in IRR, respectively); whereas for males, clan membership was largely uninfluential (i.e., less than 2% change). Clan membership is neither associated with lower rates of externalizing behaviors for youth, nor does it affect the likelihood of reporting externalizing behaviors among male players. There is some suggestion that clan membership may attenuate the concurrent association between in-game violent content and some externalizing behaviors for females.

  5. Time perspective as a predictor of massive multiplayer online role-playing game playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukavska, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship between the time perspective (TP) personality trait and massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) playing. We investigate the question of frequency of playing. The TP was measured with Zimbardo's TP Inventory (ZTPI), which includes five factors-past negative, past positive, present hedonistic, present fatalistic, and future. The study used data from 154 MMORPG players. We demonstrated that TP partially explained differences within a group of players with respect to the frequency of playing. Significant positive correlations were found between present factors and the amount of time spent playing MMORPGs, and significant negative correlation was found between the future factor and the time spent playing MMORPGs. Our study also revealed the influence of future-present balance on playing time. Players who scored lower in future-present balance variables (their present score was relatively high compared with their future score) reported higher values in playing time. In contrast to referential studies on TP and drug abuse and gambling, present fatalistic TP was demonstrated to be a stronger predictor of extensive playing than present hedonistic TP, which opened the question of motivation for playing. The advantage of our study compared with other personality-based studies lies in the fact that TP is a stable but malleable personality trait with a direct link to playing behavior. Therefore, TP is a promising conceptual resource for excessive playing therapy.

  6. Interaction with the game and motivation among players of massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Héctor; Carbonell, Xavier; Chamarro, Andrés; Oberst, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge about users interacting with Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG) is fundamental in order to prevent their potential negative effects on behavior. For this reason, the present study analyzed the relationship between styles of play and motivations. An online questionnaire asking for socio-demographic details, playing style, characteristics of the game played and motivations for playing, was answered by 430 Spanish-speaking MMORPG players (45.1% males). The identified profile for players, far away from the stereotype of an adolescent, consisted in a person who mainly plays on PvP (Player versus Player) servers, choosing the type of game according to his experience. Regarding motivations, they were interested in relating with other players through the game (Socialization), in discovering the game's possibilities and development of its adventures (Exploration), to a lesser extent in leadership and prestige (Achievement) and, lastly, identification with an avatar and escape from reality (Dissociation). Although part of the reason for playing was escapism and/or stress relief, the main motivation had a social nature. We conclude that MMORPG offer an attractive environment for a broad spectrum of people, and we have not been able to confirm the stereotype of a loner avoiding reality, taking refuge in games.

  7. Navigating the feminine in massively multiplayer online games: gender in World of Warcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Audrey L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to present and discuss attitudes, perceptions and opinions about sexism and gendered play in the massively multiplayer online roleplaying game (MMO), World of Warcraft. Through the use of an online survey which includes both multiple choice questions and open-ended questions, the research discusses the major themes and findings expressed by the World of Warcraft forum users (N = 294). The descriptive statistical findings presented are derived from the multiple choice questions. Within the sample, the results reveal that sexism is a contentious topic in the World of Warcraft community. 63.6% (n = 75) of female respondents reported experiencing sexism within the game. 27.5% (n = 44) of male respondents and 45.3% (n = 53) of female respondents believe that sexism is a problem in the game. Overall, 64.4% (n = 183) of the respondents reported sexism as a non-issue in the game. Themes surrounding the topic of sexism experienced within the game are presented based on frequency of homogenous responses. Based on the multiple choice questions and the open-ended questions, the research argues that sexism and gendered play in gaming should be studied more closely, as the results reveal that many MMO players are affected negatively by it. PMID:24363650

  8. SecurityCom: A Multi-Player Game for Researching and Teaching Information Security Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas P. Twitchell

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A major portion of government and business organizations’ attempts to counteract information security threats is teams of security personnel.  These teams often consist of personnel of diverse backgrounds in specific specialties such as network administration, application development, and business administration, resulting in possible conflicts between security, functionality, and availability.  This paper discusses the use of games to teach and research information security teams and outlines research to design and build a simple, team-oriented, configurable, information security game. It will be used to study how information security teams work together to defend against attacks using a multi-player game, and to study the use of games in training security teams.  Studying how information security teams work, especially considering the topic of shared-situational awareness, could lead to better ways of forming, managing, and training teams.  Studying the effectiveness of the game as a training tool could lead to better training for security teams. 

  9. A Study of Interaction Patterns and Awareness Design Elements in a Massively Multiplayer Online Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Y. Tang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs have been known to create rich and versatile social worlds for thousands of millions of players to participate. As such, various game elements and advance technologies such as artificial intelligence have been applied to encourage and facilitate social interactions in these online communities, the key to the success of MMOGs. However, there is a lack of studies addressing the usability of these elements in games. In this paper, we look into interaction patterns and awareness design elements that support the awareness in LastWorld and FairyLand. Experimental results obtained through both in-game experiences and player interviews reveal that not all awareness tools (e.g., an in-game map have been fully exploited by players. In addition, those players who are aware of these tools are not satisfied with them. Our findings suggest that awareness-oriented tools/channels should be easy to interpret and rich in conveying “knowledge” so as to reduce players-cognitive overload. These findings of this research recommend considerations of early stage MMOG design.

  10. Aorta: a management layer for mobile peer-to-peer massive multiplayer games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Stefan; Hoerning, Henrik; Brunnert, Andreas; Hoerning, Reidar

    2005-03-01

    The development of massive multiplayer games (MMPGs) for personal computers is based on a wide range of frameworks and technologies. In contrast, MMPG development for cell phones lacks the availability of framework support. We present Aorta as a multi-purpose lightweight MIDP 2.0 framework to support the transparent and equal API usage of peer-to-peer communication via http, IP and Bluetooth. Special experiments, such as load-tests on Nokia 6600s, have been carried out with Bluetooth support in using a server-as-client architecture to create ad-hoc networks by using piconet functionalities. Additionally, scatternet functionalities, which will be supported in upcoming devices, have been tested in a simulated environment on more than 12 cell phones. The core of the Aorta framework is the Etherlobby, which manages connections, peers, the game lobby, game policies and much more. The framework itself was developed to enable the fast development of mobile games, regardless of the distance between users, which might be within the schoolyard or much further away. The earliest market-ready application shown here is a multimedia game for cell phones utilizing all of the frameworks features. This game, called Micromonster, acts as platform for developer tests, as well as providing valuable information about interface usability and user acceptance.

  11. A Multiplayer Learning Game based on Mixed Reality to Enhance Awareness on Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Loiseau

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Our research deals with the development of a new type of game-based learning environment: (MMORPG based on mixed reality, applied in the archaeological domain. In this paper, we propose a learning scenario that enhances players’ motivation thanks to individual, collaborative and social activities and that offers a continuous experience between the virtual environment and real places (archaeological sites, museum. After describing the challenge to a rich multidisciplinary approach involving both computer scientists and archaeologists, we present two types of game: multiplayer online role-playing games and mixed reality games. We build on the specificities of these games to make the design choices described in the paper. We also present three modular features we have developed to support independently three activities of the scenario. The proposed approach aims at raising awareness among people on the scientific approach in Archaeology, by providing them information in the virtual environment and encouraging them to go on real sites. We finally discuss the issues raised by this work, such as the tensions between the perceived individual, team and community utilities, as well as the choice of the entering point in the learning scenario (real or virtual for the players’ involvement in the game.

  12. Possible End to an Endless Quest? Cognitive Bias Modification for Excessive Multiplayer Online Gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitz, Sharon; Nagar, Maayan

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive biases have previously been recognized as key mechanisms that contribute to the development, maintenance, and relapse of addictive behaviors. The same mechanisms have been recently found in problematic computer gaming. The present study aims to investigate whether excessive massively multiplayer online role-playing gamers (EG) demonstrate an approach bias toward game-related cues compared to neutral stimuli; to test whether these automatic action tendencies can be implicitly modified in a single session training; and to test whether this training affects game urges and game-seeking behavior. EG (n=38) were randomly assigned to a condition in which they were implicitly trained to avoid or to approach gaming cues by pushing or pulling a joystick, using a computerized intervention (cognitive bias modification via the Approach Avoidance Task). EG demonstrated an approach bias for gaming cues compared with neutral, movie cues. Single session training significantly decreased automatic action tendencies to approach gaming cues. These effects occurred outside subjective awareness. Furthermore, approach bias retraining reduced subjective urges and intentions to play, as well as decreased game-seeking behavior. Retraining automatic processes may be beneficial in changing addictive impulses in EG. Yet, large-scale trials and long-term follow-up are warranted. The results extend the application of cognitive bias modification from substance use disorders to behavioral addictions, and specifically to Internet gaming disorder. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  13. Self-concept deficits in massively multiplayer online role-playing games addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leménager, Tagrid; Gwodz, Alexander; Richter, Anne; Reinhard, Iris; Kämmerer, Nina; Sell, Madlen; Mann, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on Internet addiction point towards a particular constellation of personality traits and deficits in social competence of players addicted to massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), which are hypothesized to result from impairments in self-concept. The aim of this study was to examine differences in self-concept and degree of avatar identification in World of Warcraft addicted, non-addicted and naive (nonexperienced) participants. Participants (n = 45) completed interviews and self-report questionnaires on social, emotional and physical aspects of self-concept. Attributes of participants' 'actual self', 'ideal self' and their avatar were assessed using the Giessen test. The extent of avatar identification was examined by assessing differences between 'ideal self' and avatar evaluations. In contrast to nonaddicted and naive participants, addicted players showed a more negative body appraisal and lower self-esteem as well as lower permeability, social response, general mood and social potency on the Giessen test subscales. They further showed significantly lower discrepancies between 'ideal self' and avatar ratings on nearly all Giessen test subscales. The results point towards impairments in self-concept and a higher degree in avatar identification in addicted MMORPG players compared to the remaining participants. These results could have important implications for the treatment of addicted MMORPG players. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Effectiveness of using pure copper and silver coupon corrosivity monitoring (CCM) metal strips to measure the severity levels of air pollutants in indoor and outdoor atmospheres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Foax, LJ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Severity levels of air pollutants rich in oxides, chlorides and sulphides were successfully measured in indoor and outdoor atmospheres using pure copper and silver coupon corrosivity monitoring (CCM) metal strips when the maximum exposure periods...

  15. Elasto-Plastic 3D Finite Element Contact Analysis of a Hole Containing a Circular Insert in a Fatigue Test Coupon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Australian Air Force (RAAF) airframes. An aluminium - alloy fatigue test coupon (see Figure 1) has been designed and applied in support of the validation of...manufactured from aerospace aluminium alloy material (see Section 4 for further details). Unloaded close-fit fasteners of small diametric clearance were...Abaqus elasto–plastic input data requirements The aluminium and titanium alloys used in the coupon and fastener material display linear- elastic

  16. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured foreign cooperation particularly in the frame of the Slovak Republic is membership in the IAEA, as well as cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD NEA), cooperation with European Union in the frame of PHARE programmes, and intergovernmental cooperation and cooperation among nuclear regulatory authorities. With respect to an international importance, prestige and a wide-scope possibilities of a technical assistance , either a direct one (expert assessments, technology supplies, work placement, scientific trips, training courses) or indirect one (participation at various conferences, seminars, technical committees, etc), the most important cooperation with the IAEA in Vienna. In 1994, the Slovak Republic, was elected to the Board Governors, the represent the group of Eastern European countries. The Slovak Government entrusted the NRA SR's Chairman with representing the Slovak Republic in the Board of Governors. Owing to a good name of Slovakia was elected to the one of two Vice-Chairmen of the Board of Governors at the 882-nd session on the Board. IAEA approved and developed 8 national projects for Slovakia in 1995. Generally, IAEA is contracting scientific contracts with research institutes, nuclear power plants and other organizations. Slovak organizations used these contracts as complementary funding of their tasks. In 1995, there were 12 scientific contracts in progress, or approved respectively. Other international activities of the NRA SR, international co-operations as well as foreign affairs are reported

  17. A Novel Multiplayer Screen-Based Simulation Experience for African Learners Improved Confidence in Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Taekman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionPostpartum hemorrhage (PPH remains a global challenge, affecting thirteen million women each year. In addition, PPH is a leading cause of maternal mortality in Asia and Africa. In the U.S.A., care of critically ill patients is often practiced using mannequin-based simulation. Mannequin-based simulation presents challenges in global health, particularly in low- or middle-income countries. We developed a novel multiplayer screen-based simulation in a virtual world enabling the practice of team coordination with PPH. We used this simulation with learners in Mulago, Uganda. We hypothesized that a multiplayer screen-based simulation experience would increase learner confidence in their ability to manage PPH.MethodsThe study design was a simple pre- and a post-intervention survey. Forty-eight interprofessional subjects participated in one of nine 1-h simulation sessions using the PPH software. A fifteen-question self-assessment administered before and after the intervention was designed to probe the areas of learning as defined by Bloom and Krathwohl: affective, cognitive, and psychomotor.ResultsCombined confidence scores increased significantly overall following the simulation experience and individually in each of the three categories of Bloom’s Taxonomy: affective, cognitive, and psychomotor.ConclusionWe provide preliminary evidence that multiplayer screen-based simulation represents a scalable, distributable form of learning that may be used effectively in global health education and training. Interestingly, despite our intervention being screen-based, our subjects showed improved confidence in their ability to perform psychomotor tasks. Although there is precedent for mental rehearsal improving performance, further research is needed to understand this finding.

  18. A Novel Multiplayer Screen-Based Simulation Experience for African Learners Improved Confidence in Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taekman, Jeffrey M; Foureman, Megan F; Bulamba, Fred; Steele, Michael; Comstock, Emily; Kintu, Andrew; Mauritz, Amy; Olufolabi, Adeyemi

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) remains a global challenge, affecting thirteen million women each year. In addition, PPH is a leading cause of maternal mortality in Asia and Africa. In the U.S.A., care of critically ill patients is often practiced using mannequin-based simulation. Mannequin-based simulation presents challenges in global health, particularly in low- or middle-income countries. We developed a novel multiplayer screen-based simulation in a virtual world enabling the practice of team coordination with PPH. We used this simulation with learners in Mulago, Uganda. We hypothesized that a multiplayer screen-based simulation experience would increase learner confidence in their ability to manage PPH. The study design was a simple pre- and a post-intervention survey. Forty-eight interprofessional subjects participated in one of nine 1-h simulation sessions using the PPH software. A fifteen-question self-assessment administered before and after the intervention was designed to probe the areas of learning as defined by Bloom and Krathwohl: affective, cognitive, and psychomotor. Combined confidence scores increased significantly overall following the simulation experience and individually in each of the three categories of Bloom's Taxonomy: affective, cognitive, and psychomotor. We provide preliminary evidence that multiplayer screen-based simulation represents a scalable, distributable form of learning that may be used effectively in global health education and training. Interestingly, despite our intervention being screen-based, our subjects showed improved confidence in their ability to perform psychomotor tasks. Although there is precedent for mental rehearsal improving performance, further research is needed to understand this finding.

  19. How to Be Both Rich and Happy: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Strategic Reasoning about Multi-Player Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulling, Nils; Goranko, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    We propose a logical framework combining a game-theoretic study of abilities of agents to achieve quantitative objectives in multi-player games by optimizing payoffs or preferences on outcomes with a logical analysis of the abilities of players for achieving qualitative objectives of players, i.......e., reaching or maintaining game states with desired properties. We enrich concurrent game models with payoffs for the normal form games associated with the states of the model and propose a quantitative extension of the logic ATL* enabling the combination of quantitative and qualitative reasoning....

  20. How to Be Both Rich and Happy: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Strategic Reasoning about Multi-Player Games (Extended Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Bulling

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a logical framework combining a game-theoretic study of abilities of agents to achieve quantitative objectives in multi-player games by optimizing payoffs or preferences on outcomes with a logical analysis of the abilities of players for achieving qualitative objectives of players, i.e., reaching or maintaining game states with desired properties. We enrich concurrent game models with payoffs for the normal form games associated with the states of the model and propose a quantitative extension of the logic ATL* enabling the combination of quantitative and qualitative reasoning.

  1. Analyzing the Effect of TCP and Server Population on Massively Multiplayer Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Suznjevic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs use TCP flows for communication between the server and the game clients. The utilization of TCP, which was not initially designed for (soft real-time services, has many implications for the competing traffic flows. In this paper we present a series of studies which explore the competition between MMORPG and other traffic flows. For that aim, we first extend a source-based traffic model, based on player’s activities during the day, to also incorporate the impact of the number of players sharing a server (server population on network traffic. Based on real traffic traces, we statistically model the influence of the variation of the server’s player population on the network traffic, depending on the action categories (i.e., types of in-game player behaviour. Using the developed traffic model we prove that while server population only modifies specific action categories, this effect is significant enough to be observed on the overall traffic. We find that TCP Vegas is a good option for competing flows in order not to throttle the MMORPG flows and that TCP SACK is more respectful with game flows than other TCP variants, namely, Tahoe, Reno, and New Reno. Other tests show that MMORPG flows do not significantly reduce their sending window size when competing against UDP flows. Additionally, we study the effect of RTT unfairness between MMORPG flows, showing that it is less important than in the case of network-limited TCP flows.

  2. Efficient Energy Distribution in a Smart Grid using Multi-Player Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brihaye

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms and models based on game theory have nowadays become prominent techniques for the design of digital controllers for critical systems. Indeed, such techniques enable automatic synthesis: given a model of the environment and a property that the controller must enforce, those techniques automatically produce a correct controller, when it exists. In the present paper, we consider a class of concurrent, weighted, multi-player games that are well-suited to model and study the interactions of several agents who are competing for some measurable resources like energy. We prove that a subclass of those games always admit a Nash equilibrium, i.e. a situation in which all players play in such a way that they have no incentive to deviate. Moreover, the strategies yielding those Nash equilibria have a special structure: when one of the agents deviate from the equilibrium, all the others form a coalition that will enforce a retaliation mechanism that punishes the deviant agent. We apply those results to a real-life case study in which several smart houses that produce their own energy with solar panels, and can share this energy among them in micro-grid, must distribute the use of this energy along the day in order to avoid consuming electricity that must be bought from the global grid. We demonstrate that our theory allows one to synthesise an efficient controller for these houses: using penalties to be paid in the utility bill as an incentive, we force the houses to follow a pre-computed schedule that maximises the proportion of the locally produced energy that is consumed.

  3. Fatigue damage observed non-destructively in fibre composite coupon test specimens by X-ray CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a method for monitoring the 3D fatigue damage progression on a micro-structural level in a glass fibre/polymer coupon test specimen by means of laboratory X-ray Computed Tomography (CT). A modified mount and holder made for the standard test samples to fit into the X-ray CT...... scanner along with a tension clamp solution is presented. Initially, the same location of the test specimen is inspected by ex-situ X-ray CT during the fatigue loading history, which shows the damage progression on a micro-structural level. The openings of individual uni-directional (UD) fibre fractures...

  4. Role of beta 1-4 linked polymers in the biofilm structure of marine Pseudomonas sp. CE-2 on 304 stainless steel coupons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anand; Bhosle, Narayan B

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp CE-2 cells attach and form biofilms on 304-stainless steel (SS) coupons. A series of experiments were carried out in order to understand the role of exopolysaccharides (EPS) in the formation and maintenance of CE-2 biofilms on SS coupons. The biofilm density and EPS concentration increased over the period of incubation and the highest values for both were recorded after 72 h. Calcofluor and the lectin concanavalin A (Con A) showed a positive interaction with 72-h old biofilms, indicating the presence of beta 1-4 linked polymers, and alpha-d-glucose and alpha-d-mannose in the biofilm matrix of CE-2. When the CE-2 cells were grown in the presence of calcofluor (200 microg ml(-1)), biofilm formation was significantly reduced (approximately 85%). Conversely, the lectins Con A or WGA did not influence the CE-2 biofilms on the SS coupons. Furthermore, treatment with cellulase, an enzyme specific for the degradation of beta 1-4 linked polymers, removed substantial amounts of CE-2 biofilm from SS coupons. These results strongly suggest the involvement of beta 1-4 linked polymers in the formation and maintenance of Pseudomonas sp. CE-2 biofilms on SS coupons.

  5. Electrochromic Radiator Coupon Level Testing and Full Scale Thermal Math Modeling for Use on Altair Lunar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Erika T.; Bower, Chad E.; Sheth, Rubik; Stephan, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    In order to control system and component temperatures, many spacecraft thermal control systems use a radiator coupled with a pumped fluid loop to reject waste heat from the vehicle. Since heat loads and radiation environments can vary considerably according to mission phase, the thermal control system must be able to vary the heat rejection. The ability to "turn down" the heat rejected from the thermal control system is critically important when designing the system. Electrochromic technology as a radiator coating is being investigated to vary the amount of heat rejected by a radiator. Coupon level tests were performed to test the feasibility of this technology. Furthermore, thermal math models were developed to better understand the turndown ratios required by full scale radiator architectures to handle the various operation scenarios encountered during a mission profile for the Altair Lunar Lander. This paper summarizes results from coupon level tests as well as the thermal math models developed to investigate how electrochromics can be used to increase turn down ratios for a radiator. Data from the various design concepts of radiators and their architectures are outlined. Recommendations are made on which electrochromic radiator concept should be carried further for future thermal vacuum testing.

  6. A Case Study of Using Online Communities and Virtual Environment in Massively Multiplayer Role Playing Games (MMORPGs) as a Learning and Teaching Tool for Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongmee, Isara; Strachan, Rebecca; Pickard, Alison; Montgomery, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs) create large virtual communities. Online gaming shows potential not just for entertaining, but also in education. This research investigates the use of commercial MMORPGs to support second language teaching. MMORPGs offer virtual safe spaces in which students can communicate by using their…

  7. Entrapment and near Miss: A Comparative Analysis of Psycho-Structural Elements in Gambling Games and Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Faltin

    2011-01-01

    While massively multiplayer online role-playing games like World of Warcraft are often accused of leading to excessive and harmful playing, the only gaming activity that is internationally recognized as a pathological disorder is excessive gambling. The present article seeks to establish empirical data on potential harmful online gaming through a…

  8. The role of a northern town in a massively multiplayer online roleplaying game:Bruma in The Elder Scrolls Online: Tamriel Unlimited

    OpenAIRE

    Pelkonen, M. (Minna)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This Master’s Thesis explores the gameplay and imagery offered to players in a town called Bruma in the PC version of the Massively Multiplayer Online Roleplaying Game (MMORPG) The Elder Scrolls Online: Tamriel Unlimited by Zenimax Online Studios. The game was originally released in 2014 under the name The Elder Scrolls Online. The thesis main...

  9. The Influence of Game Design on the Collaborative Problem Solving Process: A Cross-Case Study of Multi-Player Collaborative Gameplay Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Nilay

    2013-01-01

    This cross-case study examines the relationships between game design attributes and collaborative problem solving process in the context of multi-player video games. The following game design attributes: sensory stimuli elements, level of challenge, and presentation of game goals and rules were examined to determine their influence on game…

  10. Interorganizational Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    Administrative Services Officer , Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs, Office of the Chief Financial Officer , Office of the Chief ...Nations. • Clarifies the role of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Transition Initiatives and its relationship...Centralize interorganizational cooperation within the command group. Under this model, the chief of staff or a special staff officer within the command

  11. Economic game theory for mutualism and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István; Hoffman, Moshe; Frederickson, Megan E; Pierce, Naomi E; Yu, Douglas W

    2011-12-01

    We review recent work at the interface of economic game theory and evolutionary biology that provides new insights into the evolution of partner choice, host sanctions, partner fidelity feedback and public goods. (1) The theory of games with asymmetrical information shows that the right incentives allow hosts to screen-out parasites and screen-in mutualists, explaining successful partner choice in the absence of signalling. Applications range from ant-plants to microbiomes. (2) Contract theory distinguishes two longstanding but weakly differentiated explanations of host response to defectors: host sanctions and partner fidelity feedback. Host traits that selectively punish misbehaving symbionts are parsimoniously interpreted as pre-adaptations. Yucca-moth and legume-rhizobia mutualisms are argued to be examples of partner fidelity feedback. (3) The theory of public goods shows that cooperation in multi-player interactions can evolve in the absence of assortment, in one-shot social dilemmas among non-kin. Applications include alarm calls in vertebrates and exoenzymes in microbes. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  12. Cooperation, Coordination, and Trust in Virtual Teams: Insights from Virtual Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsgaard, M. Audrey; Picot, Arnold; Wigand, Rolf T.; Welpe, Isabelle M.; Assmann, Jakob J.

    This chapter considers fundamental concepts of effective virtual teams, illustrated by research on Travian, a massively multiplayer online strategy game wherein players seek to build empires. Team inputs are the resources that enable individuals to work interdependently toward a common goal, including individual and collective capabilities, shared knowledge structures, and leadership style. Team processes, notably coordination and cooperation, transform team inputs to desired collective outcomes. Because the members of virtual teams are geographically dispersed, relying on information and communication technology, three theories are especially relevant for understanding how they can function effectively: social presence theory, media richness theory, and media synchronicity theory. Research in settings like Travian can inform our understanding of structures, processes, and performance of virtual teams. Such research could provide valuable insight into the emergence and persistence of trust and cooperation, as well as the impact of different communication media for coordination and information management in virtual organizations.

  13. Analysis of Context Dependence in Social Interaction Networks of a Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seokshin; Kang, Ah Reum; Kim, Hyun-chul; Kwon, Taekyoung; Park, Juyong; Kim, Huy Kang

    2012-01-01

    Rapid advances in modern computing and information technology have enabled millions of people to interact online via various social network and gaming services. The widespread adoption of such online services have made possible analysis of large-scale archival data containing detailed human interactions, presenting a very promising opportunity to understand the rich and complex human behavior. In collaboration with a leading global provider of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs), here we present a network science-based analysis of the interplay between distinct types of user interaction networks in the virtual world. We find that their properties depend critically on the nature of the context-interdependence of the interactions, highlighting the complex and multilayered nature of human interactions, a robust understanding of which we believe may prove instrumental in the designing of more realistic future virtual arenas as well as provide novel insights to the science of collective human behavior. PMID:22496771

  14. Motivations to play specifically predict excessive involvement in massively multiplayer online role-playing games: evidence from an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetta Dauriat, Francesca; Zermatten, Ariane; Billieux, Joël; Thorens, Gabriel; Bondolfi, Guido; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have linked massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) with possible problematic usage or internet addiction. The main goal of the present study was to assess links between motivations to play in MMORPGs and addictive involvement in such types of games. A total of 696 gamers responded to an online survey. Five distinct motivations to play were identified in gamers: achievement, socializing, immersion, relaxing and escaping. Multiple regression analysis revealed that addictive MMORPG use patterns are predicted by achievement, escapism and socializing motives. Gender was also a significant predictor of problematic involvement in MMORPGs. Moreover, addictive MMORPG use positively correlated with the weekly time devoted to playing MMORPGs. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Online-offline activities and game-playing behaviors of avatars in a massive multiplayer online role-playing game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Tan, Qun-Zhao

    2009-11-01

    Massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are very popular in China, which provides a potential platform for scientific research. We study the online-offline activities of avatars in an MMORPG to understand their game-playing behavior. The statistical analysis unveils that the active avatars can be classified into three types. The avatars of the first type are owned by game cheaters who go online and offline in preset time intervals with the online duration distributions dominated by pulses. The second type of avatars is characterized by a Weibull distribution in the online durations, which is confirmed by statistical tests. The distributions of online durations of the remaining individual avatars differ from the above two types and cannot be described by a simple form. These findings have potential applications in the game industry.

  16. Discrete-Time Nonzero-Sum Games for Multiplayer Using Policy-Iteration-Based Adaptive Dynamic Programming Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaguang; Jiang, He; Luo, Chaomin; Xiao, Geyang

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the nonzero-sum games for a class of discrete-time (DT) nonlinear systems by using a novel policy iteration (PI) adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) method. The main idea of our proposed PI scheme is to utilize the iterative ADP algorithm to obtain the iterative control policies, which not only ensure the system to achieve stability but also minimize the performance index function for each player. This paper integrates game theory, optimal control theory, and reinforcement learning technique to formulate and handle the DT nonzero-sum games for multiplayer. First, we design three actor-critic algorithms, an offline one and two online ones, for the PI scheme. Subsequently, neural networks are employed to implement these algorithms and the corresponding stability analysis is also provided via the Lyapunov theory. Finally, a numerical simulation example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.

  17. Analysis of context dependence in social interaction networks of a massively multiplayer online role-playing game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seokshin; Kang, Ah Reum; Kim, Hyun-chul; Kwon, Taekyoung; Park, Juyong; Kim, Huy Kang

    2012-01-01

    Rapid advances in modern computing and information technology have enabled millions of people to interact online via various social network and gaming services. The widespread adoption of such online services have made possible analysis of large-scale archival data containing detailed human interactions, presenting a very promising opportunity to understand the rich and complex human behavior. In collaboration with a leading global provider of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs), here we present a network science-based analysis of the interplay between distinct types of user interaction networks in the virtual world. We find that their properties depend critically on the nature of the context-interdependence of the interactions, highlighting the complex and multilayered nature of human interactions, a robust understanding of which we believe may prove instrumental in the designing of more realistic future virtual arenas as well as provide novel insights to the science of collective human behavior.

  18. Analysis of context dependence in social interaction networks of a massively multiplayer online role-playing game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokshin Son

    Full Text Available Rapid advances in modern computing and information technology have enabled millions of people to interact online via various social network and gaming services. The widespread adoption of such online services have made possible analysis of large-scale archival data containing detailed human interactions, presenting a very promising opportunity to understand the rich and complex human behavior. In collaboration with a leading global provider of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs, here we present a network science-based analysis of the interplay between distinct types of user interaction networks in the virtual world. We find that their properties depend critically on the nature of the context-interdependence of the interactions, highlighting the complex and multilayered nature of human interactions, a robust understanding of which we believe may prove instrumental in the designing of more realistic future virtual arenas as well as provide novel insights to the science of collective human behavior.

  19. Role of beta 1-4 linked polymers in the biofilm structure of marine Pseudomonas sp. CE-2 on 304 stainless steel coupons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jain, A.; Bhosle, N.B.

    coupons. The biofilm density and EPS concentration increased over the period of incubation and the highest values for both were recorded after 72 h. Calcofluor and the lectin concanavalin A (Con A) showed a positive interaction with 72-h old biofilms...

  20. Online Cooperative Promotion and Cost Sharing Policy under Supply Chain Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjiang E

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies online cooperative promotion and cost sharing decisions in competing supply chains. We consider a model of one B2C e-commerce platform and two supply chains each consisting of a supplier and an online retailer. The problem is studied using a multistage game. Firstly, the e-commerce platform carries out the cooperative promotion and sets the magnitude of markdown (the value of e-coupon. Secondly, each retailer and his supplier determine the fraction of promotional cost sharing when they have different bargaining power. Lastly, the retailers decide whether to participate in the cooperative promotion campaign. We show that the retailers are likely to participate in the promotion if consumers become more price-sensitive. However, it does not imply that the retailers can benefit from the price promotion; the promotion decision game resembles the classical prisoner’s dilemma game. The retailers and suppliers can benefit from the cooperative promotion by designing an appropriate cost sharing contract. For a supply chain, the bargaining power between supplier and retailer, consumer price sensitivity, and competition intensity affect the fraction of the promotional cost sharing. We also find that equilibrium value of e-coupon set by the e-commerce platform is not optimal for all the parties.

  1. Transboundary cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauber, D.

    2006-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants near national borders requires a close bilateral co-operation to cope with accidents having off-site radiological impacts. For example in 1978 such an agreement was signed by the German and Swiss government. The accident at the Chernobyl NPP changed the international co-operation in the framework of international consequence management. International conventions were agreed to insure a timely notification and international assistance in case of an accident with transboundary effects. In order to fulfill these conventions several procedures were introduced. In addition, bilateral agreements were signed also with countries which are not operating nuclear power plants near national borders. Since then no accident took place that would have required any notification. However, following the experience the expectations to these networks have changed considerably and hence sustainable development is required to cope with new challenges such as long term consequences management, new radiological threats, faster international assistance, media and public concerns, and technical evolution of communications systems. (author)

  2. Using massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs) to support second language learning: Action research in the real and virtual world

    OpenAIRE

    Kongmee, Isara; Strachan, Rebecca; Montgomery, Catherine; Pickard, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs) create large virtual communities. Online gaming shows potential not just for entertaining, but also for education. The aim of this research project is to investigate the use of commercial MMORPGs to support second language teaching. MMORPGs offer a digital safe space in which students can communicate by using their target language with global players. This qualitative research based on ethnography and action research investigates the s...

  3. Træfsikre mødesteder. Sociale og kulturelle møder i og omkring online multiplayer computerspil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang

    2005-01-01

    Online multiplayer computerspil1 er i l¢bet af ganske kart tid blevet udbredt i et omfang, der syntes utopisk for fa ar siden - for internettets udbredelse, etableringen af netcafeer og udviklingen af spil med potentiale til online multi­player-spil i bade gameplay, grafik og interface. Det prcec...... forskelle i prog­noser indikerer tallene big business og star brugerinteresse (IGDA 2003: 15-28)....

  4. An exploratory study of the association between online gaming addiction and enjoyment motivations for playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Z; Williams, GA; Griffiths, MD

    2015-01-01

    Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are a popular form of entertainment used by millions of gamers worldwide. Potential problems relating to MMORPG play have emerged, particularly in relation to being addicted to playing in such virtual environments. In the present study, factors relating to online gaming addiction and motivations for playing in MMORPGs were examined to establish whether they were associated with addiction. A sample comprised 1,167 gamers who were survey...

  5. The effect of heterogeneous defectors on the evolution of public cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Hu, Xuezhi; Wang, Yongjie; Wang, Le

    2018-06-01

    In recent years,more and more private capital join the construction of cultural facilities and the organization of cultural activities in China. Actually, the organization of cultural activities by crowd-funding mechanism is a kind of multi-player game. Not all players who donate different amount of money are real cooperators. In fact, some cunning defectors may donate a little money to avoid the gossip and punishment. This part of people are very tricky. They could be seen as heterogeneous defectors. The role of heterogeneous defectors is investigated in cooperative behaviors of complex social network. Numerical results show that heterogeneous defectors could be a buffer for maintaining the public pool when synergy factor is low in public goods game (PGG). It is relatively easy to be cooperators for heterogeneous defectors when synergy factor is high in PGG. To better improve cooperation, punishment towards heterogeneous defectors and complete defectors is introduced. We are glad to find that when the defectors' loss is equal to or larger than the altruistic cooperators' punishment cost, the mechanism could make great effect. In addition, the role of heterogeneous defectors depends on the relationship between the punishment cost and the defectors' loss.

  6. Linear-Elastic 2D and 3D Finite Element Contact Analysis of a Hole Containing a Circular Insert in a Fatigue Test Coupon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    the z-direction coming out of the page according to the right-hand rule. The coupon (plate) material is an aluminium alloy with a nominal yield...those published, while still obtaining what appears to be a valid solution. For the case of an aluminium alloy plate with a titanium alloy insert...than if the titanium alloy insert had UNCLASSIFIED DST-Group-TR-3134 6 UNCLASSIFIED instead been made from the aluminium alloy . The peak tangential

  7. The Interplay between Real Money Trade and Narrative Structure in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byungchul Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A narrative structure is one of the main components to constitute the genre of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs. Meanwhile Real Money Trade (RMT enables a player to adjust an ex post level of challenge by skipping the narrative structure of a game. However, RMT may concurrently disturb a player who enjoys game following the narrative structure hierarchically. In pursuance of developing the knowledge about the relationship between RMT and the usage of MMORPG, we investigate the role of the strictness of predetermined narrative structure. We present the dual structure of societies to describe a player that arbitrarily decides to reside in a virtual society. Then we adopt the social nominalism to explain how individual motif of playing a game is expanded to the nature of game. Finally, we argue that a game with weakly predetermined narrative structure is more positively associated with RMT volume, since these games arouse a player’s sentiment of fun by relying more on their socially oriented motivation. With empirical evidence from the Korean MMORPGs market, we proved the hypothesis.

  8. Relationship between passion and motivation for gaming in players of massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Héctor; Chamarro, Andrés; Carbonell, Xavier; Vallerand, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    Passion represents one of the factors involved in online video gaming. However, it remains unclear how passion affects the way gamers are involved in massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). The objective of the present study was to analyze the relationships between passions and motivations for online game playing. A total of 410 MMORPG players completed an online questionnaire including motives for gaming and the Passion Scale. Results indicated that passionate gamers were interested in relating with others through the game and exhibited a high degree of interest in discovery of the game, gaining leadership and prestige but little interest in escape from reality. However, some differences were observed with respect to the role of the two types of passion in the different types of motivation. Specifically, harmonious passion (HP) predicted higher levels of exploration, socialization, and achievement, in that order, while obsessive passion (OP) predicted higher levels of dissociation, achievement, and socialization. The present findings suggest that HP and OP predict different ways of engaging in MMORPGs and confirm that passion is a useful construct to help understand different motivational patterns demonstrated by MMORPG players.

  9. Massively multiplayer online role-playing game-induced seizures: a neglected health problem in Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yao-Chung

    2006-08-01

    As the Internet has become rapidly and widely integrated into society, Internet addiction has become a growing psychosocial problem. However, epileptic seizure, another out-of-the-ordinary health problem, is often neglected in this regard. Ten patients who experienced epileptic seizures while playing the newest genre of electronic games -- Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) -- were investigated. Patients were predominantly male young adults, and most of the events were generalized tonic-clonic seizures, myoclonic seizures, and absences. These patients should be categorized into idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Even though photosensitivity was an important factor, behavioral and higher mental activities also seemed to be significant seizure precipitants. Results demonstrated that MMORPG-induced seizures were not analogous to the ordinary video game-induced seizures. Significantly, an epileptic seizure warning did not always appear on the websites of MMORPGs and instructions for the software. While the prevalence of MMORPG-induced seizures remains unknown, it may exceed our expectations and impact our society. Not only for clinical neurologists but also for the primary physicians, educators, sociologists, and global online game publishers, there should be an awareness of this special form of reflex seizures in order to provide an appropriate health warning to MMORPG players.

  10. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part the are reviewed: Co-operation with IAEA; Participation of the Slovakia on the 41 st session of the General Conference; The comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization; Co-operation with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; co-operation with the European Commission; Fulfillment of obligations resulting from the international contracting documents

  11. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...... can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort....

  12. Providing healthcare services on-the-fly using multi-player cooperation game theory in Internet of Vehicles (IoV environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Vehicles (IoV is a leading technology of the present era. It has gained huge attention with respect to its implementation in wide variety of domains ranging from traffic safety to infotainment applications. However, IoV can also be extended to healthcare domain, where the patients can be provided healthcare services on-the-fly. We extend this novel concept in this paper and refer it as “Healthcare services on-the-fly”. The concept of game theory has been used among the vehicles to access the healthcare services while traveling. The vehicles act as players in the game and tend to form and split coalitions to access these services. Learning automata (LA act as the players for interaction with the environment and take appropriate actions based on reward and penalty. Apart from this, Virtual Machine (VM scheduling algorithm for efficient utilization of resources at cloud level has also been formulated. A stochastic reward net (SRN-based model is used to represent the coalition formation and splitting with respect to availability of resources at cloud level. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated using various performance evaluation metrics. The results obtained prove the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in comparison to the best, first, and random fit schemes.

  13. Introducción al proceso de producción y comercialización del Massivel y Multiplayer Online Game (MMOG)

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano Delmar, Javier; Hermida, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    El MMOG o ‘Massively Multiplayer Online Game’ (videojuego en línea de multijugador masivo) se ha convertido en uno de los tipos de videojuego de mayor éxito en los últimos años. Gracias a una de sus características fundamentales, el acceso masivo a la red, el MMOG desarrolla toda una serie de estrategias comunicacionales que han transformado por completo la industria del videojuego y el perfil del consumidor. El presente artículo pretende ofrecer una panorámica sobre los pro...

  14. Avatar's neurobiological traces in the self-concept of massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, Julia; Hill, Holger; Sell, Madlen; Reinhard, Iris; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kiefer, Falk; Mann, Karl; Leménager, Tagrid

    2015-02-01

    Psychometric studies suggest that observed self-concept deficits in addicted massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) are compensated through the replacement of their ideal (i.e., how an individual would like to be) by their own avatar (i.e., graphical agent in the virtual world). Neurobiological studies indicate that increased identification with their own avatar in regular MMORPG gamers is possibly reflected by enhanced avatar-referential brain activation in the left angular gyrus (AG). However, the neurobiological correlates reflecting the relations of the avatar to addicted gamers' self and ideal are still unexplored. Therefore, we compare these relations between addicted and nonaddicted MMORPG gamers. A sample of n = 15 addicted and n = 17 nonaddicted players underwent functional MRI (fMRI) while completing a Giessen-Test (GT)-derived paradigm assessing self-, ideal-, and avatar-related self-concept domains. Neurobiological analyses included the comparisons avatar versus self, avatar versus ideal, and avatar versus self, ideal. Psychometrically, addicts showed significantly lower scores on the self-concept subscale of 'social resonance,' that is, social popularity. In all avatar-related contrasts, within-group comparisons showed addicted players to exhibit significantly higher brain activations in the left AG. The between-groups comparisons revealed avatar-related left AG hyperactivations in addicts. Our results may suggest that addicted MMORPG players identify significantly more with their avatar than nonaddicted gamers. The concrete avatar might increasingly replace the rather abstract ideal in the transition from normal- controlled to addictive-compulsive MMORPG usage. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training by Avatars: A Qualitative Study of Medical Students' Experiences Using a Multiplayer Virtual World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzfeldt, Johan; Hedman, Leif; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2016-12-16

    Emergency medical practices are often team efforts. Training for various tasks and collaborations may be carried out in virtual environments. Although promising results exist from studies of serious games, little is known about the subjective reactions of learners when using multiplayer virtual world (MVW) training in medicine. The objective of this study was to reach a better understanding of the learners' reactions and experiences when using an MVW for team training of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Twelve Swedish medical students participated in semistructured focus group discussions after CPR training in an MVW with partially preset options. The students' perceptions and feelings related to use of this educational tool were investigated. Using qualitative methodology, discussions were analyzed by a phenomenological data-driven approach. Quality measures included negotiations, back-and-forth reading, triangulation, and validation with the informants. Four categories characterizing the students' experiences could be defined: (1) Focused Mental Training, (2) Interface Diverting Focus From Training, (3) Benefits of Practicing in a Group, and (4) Easy Loss of Focus When Passive. We interpreted the results, compared them to findings of others, and propose advantages and risks of using virtual worlds for learning. Beneficial aspects of learning CPR in a virtual world were confirmed. To achieve high participant engagement and create good conditions for training, well-established procedures should be practiced. Furthermore, students should be kept in an active mode and frequent feedback should be utilized. It cannot be completely ruled out that the use of virtual training may contribute to erroneous self-beliefs that can affect later clinical performance. ©Johan Creutzfeldt, Leif Hedman, Li Felländer-Tsai. Originally published in JMIR Serious Games (http://games.jmir.org), 16.12.2016.

  16. Relativistic and noise effects on multiplayer Prisoners' dilemma with entangling initial states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, H.; Rashidi, S. S.

    2017-11-01

    Three-players Prisoners' dilemma (Alice, Bob and Colin) is studied in the presence of a single collective environment effect as a noise. The environmental effect is coupled with final states by a particular form of Kraus operators K_0 and K_1 through amplitude damping channel. We introduce the decoherence parameter 0≤p≤1 to the corresponding noise matrices, in order to controling the rate of environment influence on payoff of each players. Also, we consider the Unruh effect on the payoff of player, who is located at a noninertial frame. We suppose that two players (Bob and Colin) are in Rindler region I from Minkowski space-time, and move with same uniform acceleration (r_b=r_c) and frequency mode. The game is begun with the classical strategies cooperation ( C) and defection ( D) accessible to each player. Furthermore, the players are allowed to access the quantum strategic space ( Q and M). The quantum entanglement is coupled with initial classical states by the parameter γ \\in [0,π /2]. Using entangled initial states by exerting an unitary operator \\hat{J} as entangling gate, the quantum game (competition between Prisoners, as a three-qubit system) is started by choosing the strategies from classical or quantum strategic space. Arbitrarily chosen strategy by each player can lead to achieving profiles, which can be considered as Nash equilibrium or Pareto optimal. It is shown that in the presence of noise effect, choosing quantum strategy Q results in a winning payoff against the classical strategy D and, for example, the strategy profile ( Q, D, C) is Pareto optimal. We find that the unfair miracle move of Eisert from quantum strategic space is an effective strategy for accelerated players in decoherence mode (p=1) of the game.

  17. The development of integrated diabetes care in the Netherlands: a multiplayer self-assessment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, Nick; Vat, Lidewij E; Vlek, Hans; Minkman, Mirella M N

    2017-03-21

    Since recent years Dutch diabetes care has increasingly focused on improving the quality of care by introducing the concept of care groups (in Dutch: 'zorggroepen'), care pathways and improving cooperation with involved care professionals and patients. This study examined how participating actors in care groups assess the development of their diabetes services and the differences and similarities between different stakeholder groups. A self-evaluation study was performed within 36 diabetes care groups in the Netherlands. A web-based self-assessment instrument, based on the Development Model for Integrated Care (DMIC), was used to collect data among stakeholders of each care group. The DMIC defines nine clusters of integrated care and four phases of development. Statistical analysis was used to analyze the data. Respondents indicated that the diabetes care groups work together in well-organized multidisciplinary teams and there is clarity about one another's expertise, roles and tasks. The care groups can still develop on elements related to the management and monitoring of performance, quality of care and patient-centeredness. The results show differences (p < 0.01) between three stakeholders groups in how they assess their integrated care services; (1) core players, (2) managers/directors/coordinators and (3) players at a distance. Managers, directors and coordinators assessed more implemented integrated care activities than the other two stakeholder groups. This stakeholder group also placed their care groups in a further phase of development. Players at a distance assessed significantly less present elements and assessed their care group as less developed. The results show a significant difference between stakeholder groups in the assessment of diabetes care practices. This reflects that the professional disciplines and the roles of stakeholders influence the way they asses the development of their integrated care setting, or that certain stakeholder groups

  18. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...

  19. In- and Out-of-Character: The Digital Literacy Practices and Emergent Information Worlds of Active Role-Players in a New Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores and describes the in-character and out-of-character information worlds and digital literacy practices of role-players, those that create and enact their characters' or avatars' stories, both within and outside of WildStar, a Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG) (Carbine Studios, 2015). Utilizing Jaeger…

  20. Cooperation, trust and confidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, T.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Urze, P.C.G.D.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental complexity may strain cooperative relationships, both within and beyond organizations, for two reasons. First, when complexity implies uncertainty the predictability of change disappears. Secondly, change may and often will entail different estimates of the cooperating partners on the

  1. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  2. Cooperatives as Entrants

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Sexton; Terri A. Sexton

    1987-01-01

    A potential shortcoming of game-theoretic models in industrial organization is their failure to consider consumers as players. We introduce a customer coalition --- a cooperative -- as a potential entrant and compare the cooperative entry threat with that posed by the usual for-profit entrant. We identify four fundamental distinctions between cooperative and for-profit entrants and demonstrate that the strategic interplay between a cooperative and an incumbent firm may differ markedly from th...

  3. Choosing the cooperative option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, G. (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (United States))

    1999-06-01

    Cooperatives do not ask to be exempted from the law. They do ask that laws and regulations be designed to allow them to meet the needs of their consumer-owners in accordance with cooperative principles, at a time that the marginal consumers being abandoned by for-profit utilities may be ready to gravitate toward cooperatives. The cooperative principles are worth reviewing because they explain the focus on the consumer and the cooperative concept of service: cooperatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership; cooperatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting policies and making decisions, the elected representatives are accountable to the membership; members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their cooperative; cooperatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members, if they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their cooperative autonomy; cooperatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperatives, they inform the general public, particularly young people and opinion leaders, about the nature and benefits of cooperation; cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strength the cooperative movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures; and while focusing on member needs, cooperatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies accepted by their members.

  4. Inertia in Cooperative Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Jerker

    1997-01-01

    Which organization model is appropriate for a cooperative enterprise depends on the prerequisites in its business environment. When conditions are changing, the firm must adapt itself. The entry of Sweden, Finland, and Austria into the European Union led to radical changes for agricultural cooperation, especially for Swedish cooperatives since agricultural policy was not allowed a transitional period. After two years, Swedish cooperatives have still not adapted their organization model despit...

  5. What is a cooperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Groups of individuals throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. The earliest forms of hunting and agriculture required a great deal of cooperation among humans. Although the word "cooperative" can be applied to many different types of group activities, in this publication it refers to a formal business model. Cooperative businesses are...

  6. Teaching water sustainability and STEM concepts using in-class, online, and real-world multiplayer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysey, S. M.; Hannah, A. C.; Miller, S.; Mobley, C.

    2013-12-01

    Serious games are computer games with a primary purpose other than entertainment. Serious games are frequently used for training purposes, and can be used for educational and research purposes, increasing student interest and level of interaction as well as allowing researchers to collect data about emergent player behavior. The Naranpur Express simulation is based on a previously existing multiplayer role-playing game, where each player manages a small farm in rural India. Player goals include subsistence, upward economic mobility, and mitigation of environmental impact. Hydrologic and agricultural models are used to connect each player's small-scale decisions with their more far-reaching, and often difficult to perceive environmental impacts. This approach allows students to learn by discovery, experiencing first-hand the challenges of overuse of groundwater, fertilizers, and pesticides. Integration of new and rapidly developing social media techniques allows players to discuss solutions to their shared challenges, and help define a set of formal or informal rules governing their community. Previous versions of this game were implemented on paper, or in a spreadsheet run on each student's laptop. However, moving this simulation to an interactive online setting will allow us to study aggregate, as well as spatially varying effects of player decisions on economic and environmental outcomes. By coupling both physical and economic models with the real dynamics of player behavior, and considering the social and cultural aspects of agriculture, we can investigate the decision-making processes that control real environmental outcomes. By varying the types of information available to players, we can investigate how access to different kinds of information drives environmental decision-making. This can help identify key misunderstandings, thereby benefiting education and outreach efforts related to environmental justice and sustainability issues. Surveys collected from

  7. A Comprehensive Study for the Laser Cleaning of Corrosion Layers due to Environmental Pollution for Metal Objects of Cultural Value: Preliminary Studies on Artificially Corroded Coupons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siatou, A.; Charalambous, D.; Argyropoulos, V.; Pouli, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is focused on the systematic investigation of the layer-by-layer removal of corrosion products on artificially corroded metal coupons aiming to introduce a methodology for the optimum laser cleaning approach of historical metal objects. Thus, it is very important to determine the chemical composition of the studied surfaces before and after irradiation. A series of laser cleaning studies has been performed on test coupons (reference and artificially corroded). Wavelength and pulse duration effects are investigated. Initial studies were focused on the use of infrared (1064 nm) and ultraviolet (355 nm and 248 nm) radiations of nanosecond (ns) pulse duration. Damage and removal threshold values were determined for the substrates and the corrosion layers, respectively. The irradiated surfaces are evaluated microscopically under the optical and the scanning electron microscope, while the mineralogical and chemical composition of the various layers is determined with X-ray diffraction and SEM-EDAX analyses, respectively. The results obtained are providing a comprehensive approach for understanding the main mechanisms that are significant in the different laser cleaning regimes, while the optimum cleaning methodologies for the studied materials are being established.

  8. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...... a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered....

  9. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  10. Attack of the S. Mutans!: a stereoscopic-3D multiplayer direct-manipulation behavior-modification serious game for improving oral health in pre-teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Ari; Rose, Howard; Kollin, Joel; Moss, William

    2011-03-01

    Attack! of the S. Mutans is a multi-player game designed to harness the immersion and appeal possible with wide-fieldof- view stereoscopic 3D to combat the tooth decay epidemic. Tooth decay is one of the leading causes of school absences and costs more than $100B annually in the U.S. In 2008 the authors received a grant from the National Institutes of Health to build a science museum exhibit that included a suite of serious games involving the behaviors and bacteria that cause cavities. The centerpiece is an adventure game where five simultaneous players use modified Wii controllers to battle biofilms and bacteria while immersed in environments generated within a 11-foot stereoscopic WUXGA display. The authors describe the system and interface used in this prototype application and some of the ways they attempted to use the power of immersion and the appeal of S3D revolution to change health attitudes and self-care habits.

  11. Profiling Academic Research on Massively Multiplayer On-line Role-Play Gaming (MMORPG 2000-2009: Horizons for Educational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Castañeda Peña

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Whilst there exists a large body of publications around Massively Multiplayer On-line Role-Play Gaming (MMORPG, there is little profiling academic research on this type of game. This study aims at unveiling what, when, where and who constitute scholarly work in research about MMORPG. A 777-register dataset was configured with primary documents taken from 16 databases and two web-portals. The dataset was drilled down using specialized text-mining software. Findings revealed four main research interests that comprise the games themselves, gaming experiences, systems architecture and educational MMORPG. It was also found that research on this topic started out in 2002 and some milestones of emerging research were charted out. The most prolific organizations and authors were also identified in which the USA, Canada and Italy occupy outstanding places. It is recommended that research profiling studies be carried out to extend more informed literature reviews and support further research questions.

  12. Examining the influence of actual-ideal self-discrepancies, depression, and escapism, on pathological gaming among massively multiplayer online adolescent gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline

    2011-09-01

    This study examined whether actual-ideal self-discrepancy (AISD) is related to pathological gaming through escapism as a means of reducing depression for adolescent massively multiplayer online gamers. A Discrepancy-reduction Motivation model of pathological video gaming was tested. A survey was conducted on 161 adolescent gamers from secondary schools. Two mediation effects were tested using path analysis: (a) depression would mediate the relationship between AISDs and escapism, and (b) escapism would mediate the relationship between depression and pathological gaming. Results support the hypotheses stated above. The indirect effects of both AISD and depression were significant on pathological gaming. AISD and escapism also had direct effects on pathological gaming. The present study suggests that pathological behaviors may be over-regulated coping strategies of approaching the ideal self and avoiding the actual self.

  13. Cooperative Trust Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    the more widely recognized competitive (non-cooperative) game theory. Cooperative game theory focuses on what groups of self-interested agents can...provides immediate justification for using non-cooperative game theory as the basis for modeling the purely competitive agents. 2.4. Superadditive...the competitive and altruistic contributions of the subset team. Definition: Given a payoff function ( ) in a subset team game , the total marginal

  14. Evolutionary Multiplayer Games

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhale, Chaitanya S.; Traulsen, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory has become one of the most diverse and far reaching theories in biology. Applications of this theory range from cell dynamics to social evolution. However, many applications make it clear that inherent non-linearities of natural systems need to be taken into account. One way of introducing such non-linearities into evolutionary games is by the inclusion of multiple players. An example is of social dilemmas, where group benefits could e.g.\\ increase less than linear wi...

  15. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  16. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  17. Predisposed to cooperate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Costello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in Toronto and Geneva indicates that asylum seekers and refugees are predisposed to be cooperative with the refugee status determination system and other immigration procedures, and that the design of alternatives to detention can create, foster and support this cooperative predisposition – or can undermine or even demolish it.

  18. Proto-cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Read, James E; Romanczuk, Pawel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    beneficial if the cost of attacking is high, and only then when waiting times are short. Our findings provide evidence that cooperative benefits can be realized through the facilitative effects of individuals' hunting actions without spatial coordination of attacks. Such 'proto-cooperation' may be the pre...

  19. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own

  20. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  1. Helping Children Cooperate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2011-01-01

    There are occasions in life when the competitive process is appropriate. But when people consider the relationships in their lives--with friends, family members, coworkers, and the larger community--they realize the value of cooperation. When adults give children the chance to cooperate, to work together toward a solution or a common goal like…

  2. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  3. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  4. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  5. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    Brundtland Commission Report, and climate change became a common concern. Energy technology cooperation was an integral part of Nordic energy policy cooperation from the very beginning. The Nordic Energy Research Programme was established with funding from each of the Nordic countries, and was earmarked...... by a committee of senior officials and a secretariat. This was characterised by an incremental development of the cooperation based on consensus, mutual understanding and trust facilitated through exchange of experiences, work groups, seminars, educational activities and mobility schemes for energy policy...

  6. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data......-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web...

  7. The correlation between accelerated and field corrosion tests performed in carbon steel and weathering steel coupons, coated and non-coated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, Renato Altobelli

    2002-01-01

    The performance of four different organic coating systems applied to carbon and weathering steel coupons has been assessed in this investigation. applied on the surface of carbon steel and weathering steel coupons. The coupons have been evaluated using five different tests, three field tests and two accelerated tests. The field tests were carried out at three atmospheric stations, located at COSIPA in Cubatao-SP, at Alto da Serra in Cubatao-SP and at Paula Souza in Sao Paulo city. The accelerated tests consisted of (a) exposure to alternate cycles of ultraviolet radiation/condensation combined with salt spray cycles (UVCON combined with Salt Spray) and of (b) exposure to alternate cycles of ultraviolet radiation/condensation combined with the Prohesion test. The performance of the coatings was assessed by visual observation and photographs, using a method based on ASTM D-610, ASTM D-714 and ASTM-1654 standards to rank them. The oxide phases formed on the surfaces of the non-coated specimens of carbon and weathering steels, exposed to the same tests performed with the coated specimens, were identified using three different techniques: X-ray diffraction, Raman microscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy. In the field tests, the specimens have been exposed for 1, 2, 3, 6 and 9 months. In the accelerated ones, the results were obtained after 1340 hours (4 cycles) test. The main component identified in all the specimens collected from the field tests and from the UVCON combined with the Prohesion test was lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH). Goethite (α-FeOOH ) and magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) were identified as the other two main phases present in ali the specimens. In the UVCON combined with Salt Spray test, the dominant phase was magnetite, followed by goethite and lepidocrocite. The morphology of the rust formed on the specimens was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Structures corresponding to goethite and lepidocrocited were recognized on ali specimens, except those

  8. Mutual cooperation with Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orstein, Roberto M.

    1998-01-01

    The history of the nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Argentina is outlined in the framework of the changing political circumstances. Reference is made to the agreements between both countries and to its implementation

  9. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  10. From cooperation to globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela UNGUREANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is seen as a consequence of cross-border business. This complex and irreversible process can be seen as an extension of capitalist relations of production or increased interdependence in the economic system. Globalization has given rise to more and more fields of activity worldwide. To meet the challenges of business globalization, many companies form strategic alliances, cooperate or merge with other companies. Cooperation is seen by many companies as an alternative path to success. In recent years joint international associations, licensing, co-production agreements, joint research programs, exploration of consortia and other cooperative relationships between two or more corporations with potential have increased. We notice a cooperation tendency among small-sized companies, especially among those from the developing countries.

  11. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  12. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  13. Cooperative Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  14. On Cooper's Nonparametric Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeidler, James

    1978-01-01

    The basic assumption of Cooper's nonparametric test for trend (EJ 125 069) is questioned. It is contended that the proper assumption alters the distribution of the statistic and reduces its usefulness. (JKS)

  15. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  16. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  17. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  18. Nuclear cooperation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cooperation agreements are reviewed in tabular form, especially agreements with developing countries. The reporting countries are the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, Australia, Japan, and France. A separate EURATOM list is annexed

  19. Attraction and cooperative behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Donja Darai; Silvia Grätz

    2012-01-01

    Being good-looking seems to generate substantial benefits in many social interactions, making the "beauty premium" a not to be underrated economic factor. This paper investigates how physical attractiveness enables people to generate these benefits in the case of cooperation, using field data from a modified one-shot prisoner's dilemma played in a high-stakes television game show. While attractive contestants are not more or less cooperative than less attractive ones, facial attractiveness pr...

  20. Longitudinally Jointed Edge-wise Compression Honeycomb Composite Sandwich Coupon Testing and FE Analysis: Three Methods of Strain Measurement, and Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokh, Babak; AbdulRahim, Nur Aida; Segal, Ken; Fan, Terry; Jones, Justin; Hodges, Ken; Mashni, Noah; Garg, Naman; Sang, Alex; Gifford, Dawn; hide

    2013-01-01

    Three means (i.e., typical foil strain gages, fiber optic sensors, and a digital image correlation (DIC) system) were implemented to measure strains on the back and front surfaces of a longitudinally jointed curved test article subjected to edge-wise compression testing, at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, according to ASTM C364. The Pre-test finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted to assess ultimate failure load and predict strain distribution pattern throughout the test coupon. The predicted strain pattern contours were then utilized as guidelines for installing the strain measurement instrumentations. The strain gages and fiber optic sensors were bonded on the specimen at locations with nearly the same strain values, as close as possible to each other, so that, comparisons between the measured strains by strain gages and fiber optic sensors, as well as the DIC system are justified. The test article was loaded to failure (at approximately 38 kips), at the strain value of approximately 10,000mu epsilon As a part of this study, the validity of the measured strains by fiber optic sensors is examined against the strain gage and DIC data, and also will be compared with FEA predictions.

  1. Cooperative games and network structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    This thesis covers various research topics involving cooperative game theory, a mathematical tool to analyze the cooperative behavior within a group of players. The focus is mainly on interrelations between operations research and cooperative game theory by analyzing specific types of cooperative

  2. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Bouwmeester, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition) than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown), the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions) and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection). However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants) also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  3. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P J L Verkoeijen

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown, the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection. However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  4. [The effects of narcissism and self-esteem on immersion in social network games and massively multiplayer online role-playing games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kato; Igarashi, Tasuku

    2016-04-01

    Recent research has shown growing interest in the process by which narcissism triggers immersion in social network games (SNG). Highly narcissistic individuals are motivated not only by the achievement of goals and monopoly of materials (i:e., self-enhancement), but also by comparison and competition with others (i.e., social comparison) We predicted that the common rules and environments of SNG and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG), such as systems of exchanging items and ranking players, facilitate immersion of highly narcissistic individuals during the game. Structural equation modeling of data from 378 SNG players and 150 MMORPG players recruited online showed that self-esteem inhibited game immersion, whereas narcissism increased game immersion via motivation for goal attainment. SNG players were more likely to be immersed in the game via motivation for goal attainment than MMORPG players. These findings suggest that, compared with MMORPG, the environments of SNG provide strong incentives not for those high in self-esteem who seek acceptance of others, but for those high in narcissism who are motivated by self-enhancement via competition with others.

  5. Psychological predictors of problematic involvement in massively multiplayer online role-playing games: illustration in a sample of male cybercafé players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billieux, Joël; Chanal, Julien; Khazaal, Yasser; Rochat, Lucien; Gay, Philippe; Zullino, Daniele; Van der Linden, Martial

    2011-01-01

    Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) are video games in which a large number of players interact with one another in a persistent virtual world. MMORPGs can become problematic and result in negative outcomes in daily living (e.g. loss of control on gaming behaviors, compromised social and individual quality of life). The aim of the present study is to investigate psychological predictors of problematic involvement in MMORPGs. Fifty-four males who played MMORPGs regularly were recruited in cybercafés and screened using the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (which assesses 4 facets of impulsivity) and the Motivation to Play Online Questionnaire (which assesses personal motives to play online). Negative consequences due to excessive time spent on the Internet were assessed with the Internet Addiction Test. Multiple regression analysis showed that problematic use of MMORPGs is significantly predicted by: (1) high urgency (b = 0.45), and (2) a motivation to play for immersion (b = 0.35). This study showed that, for certain individuals (who are characterized by a proneness to act rashly in emotional contexts and motivated to play to be immersed in a virtual world), involvement in MMORPGs can become problematic and engender tangible negative consequences in daily life. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Impact of Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games upon the Psychosocial Well-Being of Adolescents and Young Adults: Reviewing the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Scott

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For many people, the online environment has become a significant arena for everyday living, and researchers are beginning to explore the multifaceted nature of human interaction with the Internet. The burgeoning global popularity and distinct design features of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs have received particular attention, and discourses about the phenomenon suggest both positive and negative impact upon gamer health. Aim. The purpose of this paper was to critically appraise the research literature to determine if playing MMORPGs impacts upon the psychosocial well-being of adolescents and young adults. Method. Initial searches were conducted on nine databases spanning the years 2002 to 2012 using key words, such as online gaming, internet gaming, psychosocial, and well-being, which, in addition to hand searching, identified six studies meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for this review. Results. All six studies strongly associated MMORPG playing with helpful and harmful impact to the psychosocial well-being of the populations under study; however due to the methodologies employed, only tentative conclusions may be drawn. Conclusion. Since both helpful and harmful effects were reported, further multidisciplinary research is recommended to specifically explore the clinical implications and therapeutic potentialities of this modern, growing phenomenon.

  7. Impact of Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games upon the Psychosocial Well-Being of Adolescents and Young Adults: Reviewing the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jonathan; Porter-Armstrong, Alison P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. For many people, the online environment has become a significant arena for everyday living, and researchers are beginning to explore the multifaceted nature of human interaction with the Internet. The burgeoning global popularity and distinct design features of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) have received particular attention, and discourses about the phenomenon suggest both positive and negative impact upon gamer health. Aim. The purpose of this paper was to critically appraise the research literature to determine if playing MMORPGs impacts upon the psychosocial well-being of adolescents and young adults. Method. Initial searches were conducted on nine databases spanning the years 2002 to 2012 using key words, such as online gaming, internet gaming, psychosocial, and well-being, which, in addition to hand searching, identified six studies meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for this review. Results. All six studies strongly associated MMORPG playing with helpful and harmful impact to the psychosocial well-being of the populations under study; however due to the methodologies employed, only tentative conclusions may be drawn. Conclusion. Since both helpful and harmful effects were reported, further multidisciplinary research is recommended to specifically explore the clinical implications and therapeutic potentialities of this modern, growing phenomenon.

  8. Profiling Academic Research on Massively Multiplayer On-line Role-Play Gaming (MMORPG 2000-2009: Horizons for Educational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Castañeda Peña

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.38folios75.94 Whilst there exists a large body of publications around Massively Multiplayer On-line Role-Play Gaming (MMORPG, there is little profiling academic research on this type of game. This study aims at unveiling what, when, where and who constitute scholarly work in research about MMORPG. A 777-register dataset was configured with primary documents taken from 16 databases and two web-portals. The dataset was drilled down using specialized text-mining software. Findings revealed four main research interests that comprise the games themselves, gaming experiences, systems architecture and educational MMORPG. It was also found that research on this topic started out in 2002 and some milestones of emerging research were charted out. The most prolific organizations and authors were also identified in which the USA, Canada and Italy occupy outstanding places. It is recommended that research profiling studies be carried out to extendmore informed literature reviews and support further research questions.

  9. Beyond self-selection in video game play: an experimental examination of the consequences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M

    2007-10-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the study of video games. Existing work is limited by the use of correlational designs and is thus unable to make causal inferences or remove self-selection biases from observed results. The recent development of online, socially integrated video games (massively multiplayer online role-playing games [MMORPGs]) has created a new experience for gamers. This randomized, longitudinal study examined the effects of being assigned to play different video game types on game usage, health, well-being, sleep, socializing, and academics. One hundred 18- to 20-year-old participants (73% male; 68% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to play arcade, console, solo computer, or MMORPG games for 1 month. The MMORPG group differed significantly from other groups after 1 month, reporting more hours spent playing, worse health, worse sleep quality, and greater interference in "real-life" socializing and academic work. In contrast, this group also reported greater enjoyment in playing, greater interest in continuing to play, and greater acquisition of new friendships. MMORPGs represent a different gaming experience with different consequences than other types of video games and appear to pose both unique risks and benefits from their use.

  10. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed the communic......The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed...... the companies in the case can be understood as possessing a social capital which is enforced and united by initiatives of the main contractor. The social capital was built up and maintained through the actual constitution of cooperation already in the initial phase of bidding before the building process....... The management logic of the main contractor is interpreted as based on a sociology-inspired understanding focusing on norms and social values rather than on contractual (law) and functional (engineering) logic, which had hitherto been prevalent in Danish construction management....

  11. The story of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Taek

    1989-09-01

    This book gives descriptions of technical cooperation, which is about why does technology transfer?, process of technology transfer with model, decisive cause and cooperation of technology transfer, cost and effect of technology transfer, historical experience of technology transfer, cases of technology transfer by field such as rubber tire, medicine and computer industry and automobile industry, technology transfer process and present condition of technical cooperation, and strategy for rising of technical cooperation : selection of technology for object of cooperation and development of human resources.

  12. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, James

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions.

  13. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  14. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  15. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured the Slovak Republic (SR) obligations with relation to the international agreements and with the SR membership in the IAEA.International co-operation has been ensured on the basis of the bilateral international agreements. With the Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-operation, the SR fulfilled its financial obligations to this organization in due time and in the full scope. Representing Central and Eastern Europe interest in the Board of Governors, the SR participation in the highest executive in the highest executive authority was finished in 1996.The Board of Governors Vice-chairman position was executed by NRA SR Chairman. 5 national and 6 regional technical co-operation and assistance projects were realized in 1996. 12 organizations participated in these projects and accordingly 104 experts took part in training programmes, scientific visits or as the mission members abroad. Besides, Slovak experts participated at work of technical advisory and consultation groups with the significant assistance. In the framework of IAEA co-operation, the SR was visited by 11 expert missions formed by 28 experts from 19 countries including IAEA. Slovak organizations, namely institutes of the Academy of Sciences, Slovak research centres and universities participated in IAEA scientific and research activities through NRA SR. 15 scientific contracts in total were approved and realized and these contracts are utilized as supplementary financing of the own scientific and research projects. Other international co-operation and regional co-operation activities of the NRA SR in 1996 are reviewed

  16. Membership in cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eba Gaminde Egia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze the practical application of one of the cooperative principles, «voluntary and free membership», referring to the entering of members in cooperative societies. We will first explain the meaning of this principle, and then bring up its normative regulation, with special emphasis on those aspects in which our autonomic laws differ, and ending with a brief reference to the economic aspect and the different ways to make contributions and their consequences.Received: 31 May 2017Accepted: 14 October 2017Published online: 22 December 2017

  17. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  18. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  19. Cooperatives between truth and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Krueger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current declaration of the International Cooperative Alliance on cooperative identity since its 1995 Centennial Conference (which was held in Manchester makes no distinction between cooperation and cooperative. The lack of distinction between cooperation and cooperative has caused the Decennial Cooperative Action Plan to define cooperatives as a form, while their materiality is regarded as managerial: a business (activity under a cooperative form. An identity that is close to us cannot be reduced to form, without this being a problem. Therefore, the value underlying this identity —cooperation— must have a substantial basis, even if it is idealised, if it is to affect us.Received: 27.03.2014Accepted: 12.05.2014

  20. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  1. Cooperative social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Acera Manero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Social capital consists of the contributions of members and associates, both mandatory and voluntary. From an accounting point of view, it is a liability figure that expresses the value of a portion of the equity of the cooperative. Its inclusion in the liability is not the fact that it is a debt but by its nature unenforceable.

  2. Supranational Cooperation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Deugd, Nienke; Stamm, Katharina; Westerman, Wim

    The sovereign debt crisis and the euro crisis have prompted heads of state and government in Europe to intensify supranational cooperation. However, some political leaders and policy makers aim for more. They propose the introduction of a common European economic government that would prevent Europe

  3. Systematic, Cooperative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Paula M.

    Evaluation procedures based on a systematic evaluation methodology, decision-maker validity, new measurement and design techniques, low cost, and a high level of cooperation on the part of the school staff were used in the assessment of a public school mathematics program for grades 3-8. The mathematics curriculum was organized into Spirals which…

  4. Non-Cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe non-cooperative game models and discuss game theoretic solution concepts. Some applications are also noted. Conventional theory focuses on the question ‘how will rational players play?’, and has the Nash equilibrium at its core. We discuss this concept and its interpretations, as well as

  5. Cooperative Technolgy Deployed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenders, E.; Velt, R. in 't

    2011-01-01

    After the successful demonstrations of cooperative technology by the CVIS and Safespot projects the question remains how this technology can be successfully deployed. This question is explored by the Field Operational Test project FREILOT, which aims to provide fuel economy applications that must be

  6. Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Patricia L. Kennedy; Rob Yaksich; Scott H. Stoleson

    2010-01-01

    The Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) is intermediate in size between the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and the Sharp-shinned Hawk (A. striatus), northern North America's other two accipiters. The two sexes are almost alike in plumage, but as in both of the other species, the female is noticeably larger. According to Wheeler and Clark (1995), a...

  7. Cooperative courseware authoring support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicheva, D.; Aroyo, L.M.; Cristea, A.I.

    2003-01-01

    We refined our knowledge classification and indexing approach applied in our previously developed system AIMS (Agentbased Information Management System) by introducing ontology-oriented support for cooperative courseware authoring. In order to provide a basis for formal semantics and reasoning in

  8. Can war foster cooperation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauer, Michal; Blattman, C.; Chytilová, Julie; Henrich, J.; Miguel, E.; Mitts, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 249-274 ISSN 0895-3309 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : war * conflict * cooperation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 5.727, year: 2016

  9. Robust Dynamic Cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauso, D.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2006-01-01

    Classical cooperative game theory is no longer a suitable tool for those situations where the values of coalitions are not known with certainty. Recent works address situations where the values of coalitions are modelled by random variables. In this work we still consider the values of coalitions as

  10. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); S. Bouwmeester (Samantha)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more

  11. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  12. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Nay

    Full Text Available The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection, when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  13. Discover new cooperation forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    In spite of the good forecasts concerning the supply and demand, the gas market is full of uncertainties because of the competition and the industrial reorganizing. Producers and operators try to define new forms of cooperation allowing the attainments protection and at the same time allowing to take advantage of the market opportunities with a shared risk. (A.L.B.)

  14. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities in international co-operation carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. Professionality of the Bohunice NPPs staff was highly appreciated by inviting them to be the OSART team members

  15. Marketing co-operatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); C.P. Veerman (Cees)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractMarketing co-operatives (MCs) are analysed from an incomplete contracting perspective. The requirement of the domination of control by the members of a MC is a threat to the survival of a MC in markets where the level of asset specificity at the processing stage of production is

  16. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  17. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including “what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?” and “what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?” Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  18. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Fan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including "what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?" and "what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?" Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  19. Cooperating for assisting intelligently operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezillon, P.; Cases, E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule

    1995-01-01

    We are in the process of an intelligent cooperative system in a nuclear plant application. The system must cooperate with an operator who accomplishes a task of supervision of a real-world process. We point out in the paper that a cooperation between a cooperative system and an operator has two modes: a waking state and a participating state. During the waking state, the system observes the operator's behavior and the consequences on the process. During the participation state, the cooperative system builds jointly with the user a solution to the problem. In our approach, the cooperation depends on the system capabilities to explain, to incrementally acquire knowledge and to make explicit the context of the cooperation. We develop these ideas in the framework of the design of the cooperative system in the nuclear plant. (authors). 22 refs., 1 fig

  20. Cooperation and cheating in microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the cooperative and competitive dynamics within and between species is a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Microbial model systems represent a unique opportunity to experimentally test fundamental theories regarding the evolution of cooperative behaviors. In this talk I will describe our experiments probing cooperation in microbes. In particular, I will compare the cooperative growth of yeast in sucrose and the cooperative inactivation of antibiotics by bacteria. In both cases we find that cheater strains---which don't contribute to the public welfare---are able to take advantage of the cooperator strains. However, this ability of cheaters to out-compete cooperators occurs only when cheaters are present at low frequency, thus leading to steady-state coexistence. These microbial experiments provide fresh insight into the evolutionary origin of cooperation.

  1. CTBTO international cooperation workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Cooperation Workshop took place in Vienna, Austria, on 16 and 17 November 1998, with the participation of 104 policy/decision makers, Research and Development managers and diplomatic representatives from 58 States Signatories to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The Workshop attempted to develop Treaty stipulations to: promote cooperation to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Treaty; enable member states to strengthen national implementation of verification measures, and to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes. The potential benefits arising from the CTBT monitoring, analysis and data communication systems are multifaceted, and as yet unknown. This Workshop provided the opportunity to examine some of these possibilities. An overview of the CTBT verification regime on the general aspects of the four monitoring technologies (seismic, hydro-acoustic, infrasound and radionuclides), including some of the elements that are the subject of international cooperation, were presented and discussed. Questions were raised on the potential benefits that can be derived by participating in the CTBT regime and broad-based discussions took place. Several concrete proposals on ways and means to facilitate and promote cooperation among States Signatories were suggested. The main points discussed by the participants can be summarized as follows: the purpose of the CTBT Organization is to assist member states to monitor Treaty compliance; the CTBT can be a highly effective technological tool which can generate wide-ranging data, which can be used for peaceful purposes; there are differences in the levels of technology development in the member states that is why peaceful applications should be supported by the Prep Com for the benefit of all member states, whether developed or developing, training being a key element to optimize the CTBT

  2. The Role of Habits in Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game Usage: Predicting Excessive and Problematic Gaming Through Players' Sensitivity to Situational Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukavská, Kateřina; Hrabec, Ondřej; Chrz, Vladimír

    2016-04-01

    We examined the effect of habitual regulation of massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) playing on the problematic (addictive) usage and excessiveness of gaming (time that user spent playing weekly, per session, and in relation to his other leisure activities). We developed the approach to assess the strength of habitual regulation that was based on sensitivity to situational cues. We defined cues as real-life or in-game conditions (e.g., work to be done, activities with friends or family, need to relax, new game expansion) that usually promote gaming (proplay cues) or prevent it (contraplay cues). Using a sample of 377 MMORPG players, we analyzed relationships between variables through partial least squares path modeling. We found that proplay cues sensitivity significantly positively affected the excessiveness of gaming (playing time) as well as the occurrence of problematic usage symptoms. Conversely, contraplay cues sensitivity functioned as a protective factor from these conditions; significant negative effects were found for playing time and problematic usage. Playing time was confirmed to be a mediating variable, affected by cues sensitivity and at the same time affecting problematic usage symptoms. We obtained moderately strong coefficients of determination for both endogenous variables (R(2) = 0.28 for playing time; R(2) = 0.31 for problematic usage) suggesting that the proposed variables possess good explanatory power. Based on our results, we argue that the strength of habitual regulation within MMORPG usage has both positive and negative effects on excessive and problematic usage, which is a new and important finding within the area of Internet gaming addiction.

  3. International cooperation for operating safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    1989-03-01

    The international-cooperation organization in nuclear safety domain is discussed. The nuclear energy Direction Committee is helped by the Security Committee for Nuclear Power Plants in the cooperation between security organizations of member countries and in the safety and nuclear activity regulations. The importance of the cooperation between experts in human being and engine problems is underlined. The applied methods, exchange activities and activity analysis, and the cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency and international organizations is analysed [fr

  4. Cooperation in regional nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newstead, C.M.; Lee, D.S.; Spitalnik, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the nuclear training currently being undertaken in the countries of the co-authors, and considers the degree to which training problems are amenable to common solutions such as cooperative regional training programs. Different types of cooperation are discussed including the development of regional and international training centers, cooperative bilateral and multilateral training, and the proposed US International Nuclear Safety Training Academy. The paper provides suggestions of ways for enhancing regional cooperation

  5. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  6. Conditional cooperation on three continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocher, M.G.; Cherry, T.; Kroll, S.; Netzer, R.; Sutter, M.

    2007-01-01

    We show in a public goods experiment on three continents that conditional cooperation is a universal behavioral regularity. Yet, the number of conditional cooperators and the extent of conditional cooperation are much higher in the U.S.A. than anywhere else.

  7. The governance of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Juanes Sobradillo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the appropriate legislation for cooperative societies to which Article 129 of the Spanish Constitution refers, deepen the analysis of the organs of management and control based on the Spanish and Basque Laws on Cooperatives and the Statute for the European Cooperative Societies.

  8. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  9. Forestry cooperatives: past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark G. Rickenbach

    2006-01-01

    Forest landowner cooperatives are not a new phenomenon, but past efforts to create and sustain these businesses have been largely unsuccessful in the U.S. Before and just after World War II saw significant investment in cooperative development that failed to create durable business. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly describe the history of forestry cooperatives...

  10. Cooperate or Free Ride?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    of international cooperation. On the other hand, the evidence seems to confirm Kindleberger's hypothesis that small countries were free riding during the international financial crisis of 1931, and that therefore there is a need for some coordinating mechanism, or a hegemon, in such crises....... in the establishment of the BIS and free riders in the Austrian crisis, even though there were marked differences in their attitude to international cooperation. These results run counter to the views of those International Political Economy (IPE) theorists who argue that small states should be in favour......In this article, I discuss the role of the three Scandinavian central banks in the establishment of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in 1930, and in the international lender of last resort operation towards Austria in 1931. I argue that small central banks were reluctant supporters...

  11. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu., E-mail: konstantin.yu.arutyunov@jyu.fi [National Research University Higher School of Economics , Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 101000 Moscow (Russian Federation); P.L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems RAS , Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Lehtinen, J.S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Centre for Metrology MIKES, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Junctionless Cooper pair box. • Quantum phase slips. • Coulomb blockade and gate modulation of the Coulomb gap. - Abstract: Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current–voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.

  12. Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling har evalueret undervisningsmetoden Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen og dokumenteret positive effekter på oplevelsen af samarbejde og på lærere og kursisters engagement - men har ikke kunnet påvise systematiske positive effekter af metoden på...... kursisters frafald, fravær og karakterer. Projektet har afprøvet og videreudviklet den pædagogiske metode Cooperative Learning (CL) i en dansk virkelighed og mere specifikt i forhold til VUC'ernes nye kursistgrupper med det overordnede mål at øge gennemførslen markant og målbart ved at anvende og udvikle en...

  13. International cooperative information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Developing countries need mechanisms by which the information they generate themselves and development information from the rest of the world can be retrieved. The international cooperative information system is such a mechanism. Delegates to the Seminar on International Cooperative Information Systems were informed about various existing systems (INIS, AGRIS, INFOTERRA, TCDC/INRES, POPIN, DEVSIS, and INPADROC), some specialized information systems and services (CDS/ISIS and the Cassava Information Centre), and computer programs for information processing (INIS/AGRIS, CDS/ISIS, and MINISIS). The participants suggested some changes that should be made on both the national and the international levels to ensure that these systems meet the needs of developing countries more effectively. (LL)

  14. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...... research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development...

  15. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    a gravitational pull which goes beyond economic problems. Furthermore, the EU has gradually built up a coherent policy on many fields. The EU has become the “reform anchor” and most important cooperation partner for Egypt. The progress towards increasing Egypt’s “Stake in the Internal Market” places cooperation......For decades the US has had a hegemonic position in the Middle East. A key country in this respect has been Egypt. However, in recent decades the EU has made itself increasingly felt in the region. Due to enlargements the EU came geographically much closer, and the Internal Market has generated...... to see the US and EU as rivals. Their roles are rather complementary. The article explores developments in a long-term perspective. Internal and structural developments have had a heavy impact, but at important junctions ideas and strategies for gaining political legitimacy were powerful factors too...

  16. Strategies of inducing cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, M.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the four experiments described in this paper are very consistent, and they can be summarized as follows: (1) The ''nonpunitive'' strategy was most effective in eliciting cooperative behavior from the subjects and, overall, resulted in the highest joint outcomes as well as the highest outcomes for the accomplice. (2) The effectiveness of the turn-the-other-cheek strategy was very much influenced by the competitiveness of the situation; the more competitive the incentives of the subjects, the more massively they exploited the accomplice who employed this strategy. (3) The punitive deterrent strategy elicited more agressive and self-protective, as well as less cooperative, behavior from the subjects than did the other strategies

  17. Problems of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noramli, M.

    1987-01-01

    The main principles of the IAEA technical co-operation program, which intends to answer the requirements of the member states as regards technical assistance, are presented. IAEA offers its assistance in the supervision and financial support of the projects, which promise direct and quick profit to the member states. Projects related to the satisfaction of the main demands of humanity, industrial use, energy generation, radiation protection and other fields, which can promote the contribution of nuclear power generation to the course of peace, protection of health and thriving of states, are among them. 35 million dollars (USA) was allocated for the IAEA technical assistance and realization of the co-operation program in 1987

  18. Enresa International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 with the mandate to undertake responsibility for radioactive waste management in Spain. From the very beginning, ENRESA was fully aware of the fact that international cooperation plays a very important role in the development of national programmes. Aspects such as the setting up of international databases, the development and validation of models or site characterization technique such enormous efforts and amounts of resources that they could hardly be undertaken individually. Furthermore, joint participation in research, development and demonstration projects reinforces the level of confidence, not only in the decision-making process but also in the technologies, techniques and practices used. ENRESA's participation in the international contexts is largely defined, on the one hand, by the needs arising from its technical programme, as reflected in the General Radioactive Waste Plan and in the Research and Development Plan, and on the other by the need to support spanish governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental forums. The formula for cooperation varies according to needs, this cooperation generally being accomplished by means of bilateral agreements with other institutions having similar competence or by participating in the programmes of inter-governmental organizations. In particular, ENRESA has reached cooperation agreements with most of the agencies with similar responsibilities in other countries and participates very actively in the programmes of the European Union, the Nuclear energy Agency (NEA/OECD) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (Author)

  19. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  20. Diversity and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruner, Justin Pearce

    2014-01-01

    The present dissertation is an exploration of the effect of diversity on social contract formation and the evolution of cooperation. This work stems from the pioneering efforts of economist Arthur Robson, who first explored the role of costless pre-game communication in strategic interactions. When communication is permitted, individuals playing a game can condition their behavior on the signal received from their counterpart. For my purposes, I interpret these signals as racial markers or cu...

  1. SimBasin: A serious gaming framework for integrated and cooperative decision-making in water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarita, H.; Craven, J.; Caggiano, F.; Corzo, G.

    2016-12-01

    An Integrated approach involving extensive stakeholder dialogue is widely advocated in sustainable water management. However, it requires a social learning process in which scientist and stakeholders become aware of the relationship between their own frames of reference and those of others, differences can be dealt with constructively, and shared ideas can be used to facilitate cooperation. Key obstacles in this process are heritage systems, attitudes and processes, factually wrong, incomplete or unshared mental models, and lack of science-policy dialogue (Pahl-Wostl et al., 2005) To overcome these barriers, a space is required which is free of heritage systems, where mental models can be safely and easily compared and corrected, and where scientists and policy-makers can come together. A "serious game" can serve as such a space - Serious games are games or simulations used to achieve an organizational or educational goal, and such games have already been used to facilitate stakeholder cooperation in the water management sector (Rusca et al., 2005). As well as bringing stakeholders together, they can be an accessible interface between scientific models and non-experts. Here we present SimBasin, a multiplayer serious game framework and development engine. The engine allows to easily create a simulated multiplayer basin management game using WEAP water resources modelling software (SEI, 1992-2015), to facilitate the communication of the complex, long term and wide range relationships between hydrologic, climate, and human systems present in river basins, and enable dialogue between policy-makers and scientists. Different games have been created using the Sim-Basin engine and used in various contexts. Here are discussed experiences with stakeholders at a national forum in Bogotá, flood risk management agencies in the lower Magdalena River Basin in Colombia and with water professionals in Bangkok. The experience shows that the game is a useful tool for enabling

  2. User cooperation, virality and gaming in a social mobile network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, C; Blazovics, L; Charaf, H

    2012-01-01

    Social networks and mobile systems are both rapidly developing areas nowadays. In this chapter, we will introduce Gedda-Headz, a novel social mobile gaming concept that brings these two areas together. Gedda-Headz is a social mobile network that mainly focuses on multiplayer mobile gaming. First we...

  3. AFRA: Supporting regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) provides a framework for African Member States to intensify their collaboration through programmes and projects focused on the specific shared needs of its members. It is a formal intergovernmental agreement which entered into force in 1990. In the context of AFRA, Regional Designated Centres for training and education in radiation protection (RDCs) are established African institutions able to provide services, such as training of highly qualified specialists or instructors needed at the national level and also to facilitate exchange of experience and information through networks of services operating in the field

  4. Financial problems and cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, J.

    1994-12-31

    For a Bank, an usual way to attract new clients is by offering better interest rates depending on the amount of money that the client deposits in an account: {open_quotes}The more money you have the higher interest rate you get{close_quotes}. For a company is also a common practice to offer their clients discounts connected with the number of units of the product they order: {open_quotes}The more you order, the lower price per unit you pay{close_quotes}. From these situations arises the possibility to take profit if the clients cooperate and join their money or their orders. Hence, we define a new class of cooperative games called Financial Games. We study basic properties and necessary conditions for a game to belong to this class of games and we define the concept of duality for Financial games. The core is always non-empty and, moreover, Financial games are always totally balanced. We look at some special amputations lying in the Core and we study the reduced game on the j{sup th} player at {rvec x} where x{sub j} = b{sub j} = v(N) {minus} v(N {minus} j).

  5. Precompetitive cooperative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the current worldwide technology environment, it is essential for the U.S. microelectronics industry, and especially for the integrated circuit portion of that industry, that precompetitive cooperative research alliances be formed and funded at a level that enables them to be effective in rapidly advancing technology. It is important to realize that technology advances with or without our direct participation. If we do not aggressively participate we are quickly left behind. Increasing complexity and miniaturization have been the themes in semiconductor technology. Many are aware that what began in the early 60's with a few masking steps and minimum dimensions measured in mils, has now evolved to a level of sophistication requiring a 100 MIP workstation for IC design and the investment of nearly $400 million dollars in fab cost to produce today's microchips. The leading nations of the world have come to realize that their future well- being is closely tied to their ability to compete in this hi- tech environment. Industry coalitions have been formed to exploit the early ramifications of emerging technologies. Improvements in overseas manufacturing have been made and continue unabated with new products, new processes, and new services being introduced at an increasing rate. Many foreign governments are now actively involved in formulating and conducting industrial and technology policies to aid their hi-tech industry. To meet these challenges, U.S. firms, with U.S. government cooperation, must respond

  6. Massively multiplayer online role-playing games: comparing characteristics of addict vs non-addict online recruited gamers in a French adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monnin Julie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs are a very popular and enjoyable leisure activity, and there is a lack of international validated instruments to assess excessive gaming. With the growing number of gamers worldwide, adverse effects (isolation, hospitalizations, excessive use, etc. are observed in a minority of gamers, which is a concern for society and for the scientific community. In the present study, we focused on screening gamers at potential risk of MMORPG addiction. Methods In this exploratory study, we focused on characteristics, online habits and problematic overuse in adult MMORPG gamers. In addition to socio-demographical data and gamer behavioral patterns, 3 different instruments for screening addiction were used in French MMORPG gamers recruited online over 10 consecutive months: the substance dependence criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth revised edition (DSM-IV-TR that has been adapted for MMORPG (DAS, the qualitative Goldberg Internet Addiction Disorder scale (GIAD and the quantitative Orman Internet Stress Scale (ISS. For all scales, a score above a specific threshold defined positivity. Results The 448 participating adult gamers were mainly young adult university graduates living alone in urban areas. Participants showed high rates of both Internet addiction (44.2% for GIAD, 32.6% for ISS and DAS positivity (27.5%. Compared to the DAS negative group, DAS positive gamers reported significantly higher rates of tolerance phenomenon (increased amount of time in online gaming to obtain the desired effect and declared significantly more social, financial (OR: 4.85, marital (OR: 4.61, family (OR: 4.69 and/or professional difficulties (OR: 4.42 since they started online gaming. Furthermore, these gamers self-reported significantly higher rates (3 times more of irritability, daytime sleepiness, sleep deprivation due to play, low mood and emotional

  7. Massively multiplayer online role-playing games: comparing characteristics of addict vs non-addict online recruited gamers in a French adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achab, Sophia; Nicolier, Magali; Mauny, Frédéric; Monnin, Julie; Trojak, Benoit; Vandel, Pierre; Sechter, Daniel; Gorwood, Philip; Haffen, Emmanuel

    2011-08-26

    Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) are a very popular and enjoyable leisure activity, and there is a lack of international validated instruments to assess excessive gaming. With the growing number of gamers worldwide, adverse effects (isolation, hospitalizations, excessive use, etc.) are observed in a minority of gamers, which is a concern for society and for the scientific community. In the present study, we focused on screening gamers at potential risk of MMORPG addiction. In this exploratory study, we focused on characteristics, online habits and problematic overuse in adult MMORPG gamers. In addition to socio-demographical data and gamer behavioral patterns, 3 different instruments for screening addiction were used in French MMORPG gamers recruited online over 10 consecutive months: the substance dependence criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth revised edition (DSM-IV-TR) that has been adapted for MMORPG (DAS), the qualitative Goldberg Internet Addiction Disorder scale (GIAD) and the quantitative Orman Internet Stress Scale (ISS). For all scales, a score above a specific threshold defined positivity. The 448 participating adult gamers were mainly young adult university graduates living alone in urban areas. Participants showed high rates of both Internet addiction (44.2% for GIAD, 32.6% for ISS) and DAS positivity (27.5%). Compared to the DAS negative group, DAS positive gamers reported significantly higher rates of tolerance phenomenon (increased amount of time in online gaming to obtain the desired effect) and declared significantly more social, financial (OR: 4.85), marital (OR: 4.61), family (OR: 4.69) and/or professional difficulties (OR: 4.42) since they started online gaming. Furthermore, these gamers self-reported significantly higher rates (3 times more) of irritability, daytime sleepiness, sleep deprivation due to play, low mood and emotional changes since online gaming onset. The DAS

  8. Teleworking through cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Minervini

    2006-07-01

    scheme is strictly connected to new technologies and cooperation is an important dimension of teleworking. In our study, cooperation is found performed both in social relations between employers and employees and in institutionalized relations between managers and unions. Although the two forms of cooperation, here called “social trustee cooperation” and “institutional cooperation”, are often thought as prerequisites of “best practices” of new working arrangements, our case studies demonstrate that cooperation has not always arisen that make possible to implement practices of teleworking. By focusing on cooperative relations, the results of different case studies in industry and in the service sector are discussed, thus intending to contribute to the development of sociological debate on telework.

  9. Soft cooperation systems and games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J. R.; Gallego, I.; Jiménez-Losada, A.; Ordóñez, M.

    2018-04-01

    A cooperative game for a set of agents establishes a fair allocation of the profit obtained for their cooperation. In order to obtain this allocation, a characteristic function is known. It establishes the profit of each coalition of agents if this coalition decides to act alone. Originally players are considered symmetric and then the allocation only depends on the characteristic function; this paper is about cooperative games with an asymmetric set of agents. We introduced cooperative games with a soft set of agents which explains those parameters determining the asymmetry among them in the cooperation. Now the characteristic function is defined not over the coalitions but over the soft coalitions, namely the profit depends not only on the formed coalition but also on the attributes considered for the players in the coalition. The best known of the allocation rules for cooperative games is the Shapley value. We propose a Shapley kind solution for soft games.

  10. Models in cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Branzei, Rodica; Tijs, Stef

    2008-01-01

    This book investigates models in cooperative game theory in which the players have the possibility to cooperate partially. In a crisp game the agents are either fully involved or not involved at all in cooperation with some other agents, while in a fuzzy game players are allowed to cooperate with infinite many different participation levels, varying from non-cooperation to full cooperation. A multi-choice game describes the intermediate case in which each player may have a fixed number of activity levels. Different set and one-point solution concepts for these games are presented. The properties of these solution concepts and their interrelations on several classes of crisp, fuzzy, and multi-choice games are studied. Applications of the investigated models to many economic situations are indicated as well. The second edition is highly enlarged and contains new results and additional sections in the different chapters as well as one new chapter.

  11. Political Ideology, Trust, and Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M.; Wu, Junhui; Antonellis, Christian; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Theories suggest that political ideology relates to cooperation, with conservatives being more likely to pursue selfish outcomes, and liberals more likely to pursue egalitarian outcomes. In study 1, we examine how political ideology and political party affiliation (Republican vs. Democrat) predict cooperation with a partner who self-identifies as Republican or Democrat in two samples before (n = 362) and after (n = 366) the 2012 US presidential election. Liberals show slightly more concern for their partners’ outcomes compared to conservatives (study 1), and in study 2 this relation is supported by a meta-analysis (r = .15). However, in study 1, political ideology did not relate to cooperation in general. Both Republicans and Democrats extend more cooperation to their in-group relative to the out-group, and this is explained by expectations of cooperation from in-group versus out-group members. We discuss the relation between political ideology and cooperation within and between groups. PMID:29593363

  12. The Professionalization of Intelligence Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...

  13. ITDB Cooperation With International Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    IAEA illicit trafficking database cooperates with many international organizations. Among these organizations are Interpol, Universal Postal Union,and World Customs Organization. Other organizations are Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, UN Economic Commission for Europe, UN-Department of Disarmament Affairs and UN office for Drug and Crime. The cooperation with Interpol involves consultations on issues of training and technical assistance and other matters of common interest.

  14. Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Kraft-Todd, Gordon T; Newman, George E; Wurzbacher, Owen; Nowak, Martin A; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-04-22

    Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behaviour towards the optimum for a given situation. Thus, in one-shot anonymous interactions where selfishness is optimal, intuitive responses tend to be more cooperative than deliberative responses. We test this 'social heuristics hypothesis' by aggregating across every cooperation experiment using time pressure that we conducted over a 2-year period (15 studies and 6,910 decisions), as well as performing a novel time pressure experiment. Doing so demonstrates a positive average effect of time pressure on cooperation. We also find substantial variation in this effect, and show that this variation is partly explained by previous experience with one-shot lab experiments.

  15. Regional cooperation in transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    As Floridas urbanized areas grow and merge, : neighboring jurisdictions experience interrelated : problems and opportunities, and regional : cooperation becomes an imperative. In the : transportation sector, Floridas metropolitan : planning org...

  16. Determination and analysis of the physical chemical characteristics of witness coupons of boral for the CNLV; Determinacion y analisis de las caracteristicas fisico quimicas de cupones testigo de boral para la CNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, J.L.; Aguilar H, F.; Rivero G, T.; Carrillo M, R. [ININ, Apdo. Post 18-1027, Col Escandon, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jlgm@nuclear.inin.mx; fah@nuclear.inin.mx; trg@nuclear.inin.mx; racm@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    The burnt fuel elements that are extracted in each charging of the Units 1 and 2 of the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde, are deposited in shelves placed in the storage reservoir designed for this end. Each cell or storage shelf has a structure type cage. Among the cells neutron absorber material is placed, (Boral), what allows to avoid the possible criticality that could settle down when accumulating in the storage the irradiated fuel elements. This boral has been designed to maintain its characteristics of thermal neutron absorber during a lifetime of the plant. To check that the wings and the Boral have not suffered some degradation or some change due to the environmental conditions in the warehouse, it is necessary to watch over their physical and chemical characteristics periodically, what is carried out by a surveillance program based on Badges or manufactured witness coupons of the same material that the wings. The badges witness are embedded in a special wing, which is placed in the place with more radiation in the pool. In this work the laboratory tests carried out in the ININ to the coupon witness 03 of the Unit 2, (II-03) are described, being presented the results and obtained conclusions. (Author)

  17. Engineering co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryniszak, W

    1981-06-01

    A purposeful employment policy for human energy is basic to solving the energy dilemma, but a lack of understanding about human behavior has allowed man's exploitive characteristics to dominate during the Inductrial Revolution. England is dependent on trade to survive, but the importance of size in world competition is seen in the trend toward multinational and partnership enterprises. Reflecting this increasing competition, the engineering industries see a need for government policies that acknowledge the importance of technology and the effects of those policies on productivity. Engineering progress requires the creativity of optimistic idealism and the realism of implementing new ideas. The training and nurturing of human resources should begin by broadening the education of engineers to emphasize the concepts of quality and cooperation between government and industry. Engineers and scientists, who work within society, need to understand national demands and to operate in accordance with the highest moral standards. (DCK)

  18. 75 FR 10319 - Cooper Tools-Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,602] Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From... January 26, 2010, applicable to workers of Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Division, a subsidiary of...

  19. Consumer-generated Advertising on YouTube : A quantitative study examining the effects of endorser credibility and coupon proneness on brands

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson Brajim, Rahel; Romanov, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Consumer-generated advertising on YouTube is a developing phenomenon that in the last years has grown exponentially. Recent research by Holt (2016) suggests that well-known content creators on YouTube have a large impact on brands, so great that regular firms are unable to compete with these well-known content creators. However, firms do have the opportunity to cooperate with well-known content creators on YouTube. Therefore, examining YouTube as a marketing tool is beneficial for marketing m...

  20. An Online Experimental Framework for Cooperative Relationships With a Real-Time Decision-Making and Rewarding Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiji Suzuki

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates interactions between game theoretical strategies and social relationships in real-time decision-making and rewarding environments. We propose an experimental framework based on techniques of web-based multiplayer online games for this purpose. In our framework, multiple human players, represented as particles in a two-dimensional space of social interactions, can modify their positions and game strategies for the prisoner's dilemma in real time, and receive benefit or cost emerging from both game theoretical and social relationships with neighboring players. We report on experiments with human participants in different conditions of the payoff matrix, which reflects game structures, and the speed of each player, which reflects the ability to change her social relationship. We show that cooperative relationships emerge in real human groups regardless of experimental settings, and show their basic behavioral patterns. We further discuss relationships between behavioral characters of participants in the experiments and their psychological characters to see how their personalities can be reflected in their behavior in such a game theoretical framework, and show that a few psychological characters of participants might reflect their behavioral characters at least in part, but there were variations in these relationships between experimental groups.

  1. Cooperative newsvendor games : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montrucchio, L.; Norde, H.; Ozen, U.; Scarsini, M.; Slikker, M.; Choi, T.-M.

    2012-01-01

    In this survey, we review some of the main contributions to the cooperative approach of newsvendor situations. We show how newsvendor situations with several retailers can be modeled as a transferable-utility cooperative game and we concentrate on one solution concept: the core. First, we examine

  2. Gender and Cooperation in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare cooperation among Colombian and Swedish children aged 9-12. We illustrate the dynamics of the prisoner’s dilemma in a new task that is easily understood by children and performed during a physical education class. We find no robust evidence of a difference in cooperation...

  3. Monitoring emotions and cooperative behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorbunov, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation among people in teams that are bound to perform a common goal is one of the main factors determining success of these teams. Cooperation becomes even more important for small teams performing long-term missions in isolation. Examples of such missions include missions performed on the

  4. Subsidizing R&D cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.

    2001-01-01

    A framework is developed with which the implementation of two commonly used R&D-stimulating policies can be evaluated: providing R&D subsidies and sustaining the formation of R&D cooperatives. Subsidized R&D cooperatives can also be analyzed. The analysis shows that providing R&D subsidies is more

  5. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  6. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  7. Industrial Buyer-Supplier Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Friis

    The dissertation considers industrial buyer-supplier cooperation from a systems and management perspective. The purpose is to discuss and elaborate on the buying company’s choice of cooperation strategy (governance mechanism). It is stated that no single governance mechanism will be the best in all...

  8. The financing of cooperative businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ispizua

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Concern for adequate funding, both at birth and consolidation of the cooperative enterprise, has been, is and will be a constant concern in the cooperative world. So, have emerged in the legal field, a number of financial instruments of various kinds: as equity securities or special interests that seek to cover traditional financing gaps.

  9. Marketing Cooperatives and Financial Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, G.W.J.; Veerman, C.P.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between the financial structure of marketing cooperatives and the requirement of the domination of control by the members of the cooperative is analysed with an emphasis on incomplete contracts and system complementarities. It is argued that the disappearance of shortage markets in

  10. Progress of international evaluation cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The international evaluation cooperation started to remove the differences among major nuclear data libraries such as JENDL, ENDF, and JEF. The results obtained from the cooperation have been used to improve the quality of the libraries. This paper describes the status of the ongoing projects and several remarkable results so far obtained from the projects already finished. (author)

  11. Making Cooperative Learning Groups Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, James; De Jong, Cherie

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of cooperative-learning groups with middle school students. Describes cooperative-learning techniques, including group roles, peer evaluation, and observation and monitoring. Considers grouping options, including group size and configuration, dyads, the think-pair-share lecture, student teams achievement divisions, jigsaw groups,…

  12. Nuclear energy and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Keiichi

    1981-01-01

    There is no need to emphasize that nuclear energy cannot be developed without international cooperation at either the industrial or the academic level. In the meanwhile, there have been some marked political, economic and social changes in recent years which are posing constraints to the international cooperation in nuclear energy. The problems and constraints impeding nuclear power programs cannot be overcome by only one nation; international cooperation with common efforts to solve the problems is essential. Nuclear energy is different from fossil energy resources in that it is highly technology-intensive while others are resource-intensive. International cooperation in technology has an entirely different importance in the field of nuclear energy. Educational institutions will play a role in a new era of the international cooperation. (Mori, K.)

  13. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique...... feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other’s actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. This article demonstrates how cooperative...... learning can be supported by transparency. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article discusses by which means social networking and transparency may be utilized within cooperative online education...

  14. Non-cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara-Greve, Takako

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook for university juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in economics, applied mathematics, and related fields. Each chapter is structured so that a core concept of that chapter is presented with motivations, useful applications are given, and related advanced topics are discussed for future study. Many helpful exercises at various levels are provided at the end of each chapter. Therefore, this book is most suitable for readers who intend to study non-cooperative game theory rigorously for both theoretical studies and applications. Game theory consists of non-cooperative games and cooperative games. This book covers only non-cooperative games, which are major tools used in current economics and related areas. Non-cooperative game theory aims to provide a mathematical prediction of strategic choices by decision makers (players) in situations of conflicting interest. Through the logical analyses of strategic choices, we obtain a better understanding of social (economic, business) probl...

  15. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Eriksson

    Full Text Available Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  16. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  17. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-01-01

    research described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future

  18. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  19. A Method to Design a Multi-Player Educational Scenario to Make Interdisciplinary Teams Experiment Risk Management Situation in a Digital Collaborative Learning Game: A Case of Study in Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Pons Lelardeux

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest for collaborative training in risk management. One of the critical point is to create educational and entirely controlled training environments that support industrial companies (in aviation, healthcare, nuclear… or hospitals to train (future or not professionals. The aim is to improve their teamwork performance making them understand the importance applying or adjusting safety recommendations. In this article, we present a method to design multi-player educational scenario for risk management in a socio-technical and dynamic context. The socio-technical situations focused in this article involve non-technical skills such as teamwork, communication, leadership, decision-making and situation awareness. The method presented here has been used to design as well regular situations as well as critical situations in which deficiencies already exist or mistakes can be freely made and fixed by the team in a controlled digital environment.

  20. Surgery with cooperative robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Amy C; Berg, Kyle A; Dumpert, Jason; Wood, Nathan A; Visty, Abigail Q; Rentschler, Mark E; Platt, Stephen R; Farritor, Shane M; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2008-03-01

    Advances in endoscopic techniques for abdominal procedures continue to reduce the invasiveness of surgery. Gaining access to the peritoneal cavity through small incisions prompted the first significant shift in general surgery. The complete elimination of external incisions through natural orifice access is potentially the next step in reducing patient trauma. While minimally invasive techniques offer significant patient advantages, the procedures are surgically challenging. Robotic surgical systems are being developed that address the visualization and manipulation limitations, but many of these systems remain constrained by the entry incisions. Alternatively, miniature in vivo robots are being developed that are completely inserted into the peritoneal cavity for laparoscopic and natural orifice procedures. These robots can provide vision and task assistance without the constraints of the entry incision, and can reduce the number of incisions required for laparoscopic procedures. In this study, a series of minimally invasive animal-model surgeries were performed using multiple miniature in vivo robots in cooperation with existing laparoscopy and endoscopy tools as well as the da Vinci Surgical System. These procedures demonstrate that miniature in vivo robots can address the visualization constraints of minimally invasive surgery by providing video feedback and task assistance from arbitrary orientations within the peritoneal cavity.

  1. Advisory and autonomous cooperative driving systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the traffic efficiency of an advisory cooperative driving system, Advisory Acceleration Control is examined and compared to the efficiency of an autonomous cooperative driving system, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control. The algorithms and implementation thereof are explained. The

  2. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Cooperation: the foundation of improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmer, T P; Spuhler, V J; Berwick, D M; Nolan, T W

    1998-06-15

    Cooperation--working together to produce mutual benefit or attain a common purpose--is almost inseparable from the quest for improvement. Although the case for cooperation can be made on ethical grounds, neither the motivation for nor the effects of cooperation need to be interpreted solely in terms of altruism. Cooperation can be a shrewd and pragmatic strategy for accomplishing personal goals in an interdependent system. Earlier papers in this series have explored the conceptual roots of modern approaches to improvement, which lie in systems theory. To improve systems, we must usually attend first and foremost to interactions. Among humans, "better interaction" is almost synonymous with "better cooperation." Physicians have ample opportunities and, indeed, an obligation to cooperate with other physicians in the same or different specialties, with nurses and other clinical workers, with administrators, and with patients and families. Many intellectual disciplines have made cooperation an object of study. These include anthropology; social psychology; genetics; biology; mathematics; game theory; linguistics; operations research; economics; and, of course, moral and rational philosophy. Scientifically grounded methods to enhance cooperation include developing a shared purpose; creating an open, safe environment; including all who share a common purpose and encouraging diverse viewpoints; negotiating agreement; and insisting on fairness and equity in the application of rules. These methods apply at the organizational level and at the level of the individual physician. This paper describes the application of these methods at the organizational level and focuses on one especially successful example of system-level cooperation in a care delivery site where interactions matter a great deal: the modern intensive care unit.

  4. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, W.Y.; Chen, J.H.; Kim, D.H.; Simmons, R.B.V.; Surguri, S.

    1985-01-01

    A review has been conducted of a number of multi-national and bilateral arrangements between governments and between utility-sponsored organizations which provide the framework for international cooperation in the field of nuclear safety. These arrangements include the routine exchange operational data, experiences, technical reports and regulatory data, provision of special assistance when requested, collaboration in safety research, and the holding of international conferences and seminars. Areas which may be better suited for cooperation on a regional basis are identified. These areas include: exchange of operational data and experience, sharing of emergency planning information, and collaboration in safety research. Mechanisms to initiate regional cooperation in these areas are suggested

  5. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  6. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

  7. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  8. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-07

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  9. Cooperative and supportive neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sree Hari Rao, V.; Raja Sekhara Rao, P.

    2007-01-01

    This Letter deals with the concepts of co-operation and support among neurons existing in a network which contribute to their collective capabilities and distributed operations. Activational dynamical properties of these networks are discussed

  10. Nuclear cooperation within the CAEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katchanov, A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the situation and the perspectives of the nuclear cooperation between USSR and the different countries participating in the CAEM (USSR, Bulgaria, Hungary, German Democratic Republic, Poland, Romania and Cuba) and Yugoslavia [fr

  11. States, Social Capital and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reflects on Elinor Ostrom’s classic book, Governing the Commons, and much work in sociology, political science and organization studies that has appeared since its publication. We do so in order to expand our understanding of the conditions under which cooperation occurs resulting...... in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate...... or undermine cooperative behavior. In both cases we focus on the important mechanisms by which each one contributes to the development of cooperative behavior and collective goods. We conclude by extending our arguments to a brief analysis of one of the world’s newest and largest collective goods...

  12. Heuristics for Cooperative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    behaviors of cooperating humans are not necessary for simple tasks. Those of cooperating wolves or wasps might perform more reliably and could be...observed in wolves (Mech 1970), lions (Schaller 1972), and coyotes (Robinson 1952, Hamlin 1979). In coyotes this behavior seems to be directed toward...predation in Yellowstone National Park. J. Mammal. 33:470-476. value - low Schaller, G. B. 1972. The Serengeti lion: a study of predator-prey relationships

  13. Managing the evolution of cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Dormann, Julian; Ehrmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Management scholars have long stressed the importance of evolutionary processses for inter-firm cooperation but have mostly missed the promising opportunity to incorporate ideas from evolutionary theories into the analysis of collaborative arrangements. In this paper, we first present three rules for the evolution of cooperation - kinship selection, direct reciprocity, and indirect reciprocity. Second, we apply our theoretical considerations, enriched with ideas from cultural anthropology, to...

  14. International cooperation in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanisms of international co-operations, co-ordinated by International Atomic Energy Agency, are presented. These co-operations are related to international safety standards, to the safety of the four hundred existing reactors in operation, to quick help and information in case of emergency, and to the already valid international conventions. The relation between atomic energy and environmental protection is also discussed briefly. (K.A.)

  15. Regional and Global Monetary Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Lamberte; Peter J. Morgan

    2012-01-01

    The increasing occurrence of national, regional, and global financial crises, together with their rising costs and complexity, have increased calls for greater regional and global monetary cooperation. This is particularly necessary in light of volatile capital flow movements that can quickly transmit crisis developments in individual countries to other countries around the world. Global financial safety nets (GFSNs) are one important area for monetary cooperation. This paper reviews the c...

  16. INFORMATION SECURITY IN LOGISTICS COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Małkus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation of suppliers of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, wholesalers, retailers in the form of the supply chain, as well as outsourcing of specialized logistics service require ensuring adequate support of information. It concerns the use of appropriate computer tools. The security of information in such conditions of collaboration becomes the important problem for parties of contract. The objective of the paper is to characterize main issues relating to security of information in logistics cooperation.

  17. Assessment of a cooperative workstation.

    OpenAIRE

    Beuscart, R. J.; Molenda, S.; Souf, N.; Foucher, C.; Beuscart-Zephir, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    Groupware and new Information Technologies have now made it possible for people in different places to work together in synchronous cooperation. Very often, designers of this new type of software are not provided with a model of the common workspace, which is prejudicial to software development and its acceptance by potential users. The authors take the example of a task of medical co-diagnosis, using a multi-media communication workstation. Synchronous cooperative work is made possible by us...

  18. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  19. International cooperation on breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.E.; Kratzer, M.B.; Leslie, K.E.; Paige, H.W.; Shantzis, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    In March 1977, as the result of discussions which began in the fall of 1976, the Rockefeller Foundation requested International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) to undertake a study of the role of international cooperation in the development and application of the breeder reactor. While there had been considerable international exchange in the development of breeder technology, the existence of at least seven major national breeder development programs raised a prima facie issue of the adequacy of international cooperation. The final product of the study was to be the identification of options for international cooperation which merited further consideration and which might become the subject of subsequent, more detailed analysis. During the course of the study, modifications in U.S. breeder policy led to an expansion of the analysis to embrace the pros and cons of the major breeder-related policy issues, as well as the respective views of national governments on those issues. The resulting examination of views and patterns of international collaboration emphasizes what was implicit from the outset: Options for international cooperation cannot be fashioned independently of national objectives, policies and programs. Moreover, while similarity of views can stimulate cooperation, this cannot of itself provide compelling justification for cooperative undertakings. Such undertakings are influenced by an array of other national factors, including technological development, industrial infrastructure, economic strength, existing international ties, and historic experience

  20. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazi, Pouria; Hessel, Jop; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  1. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Ramazi

    Full Text Available For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  2. Cooperation and deception in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katie; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2017-08-01

    Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates. In experimental food competitions, primates flexibly manipulate group-mates' behavior to tactically deceive them. Deception can infiltrate cooperative interactions, such as when one takes an unfair share of meat after a coordinated hunt. In order to counter competition of this sort, primates maintain cooperation through partner choice, partner control, and third party punishment. Yet humans appear to stand alone in their ability to understand others' beliefs, which allows us not only to deceive others with the explicit intent to create a false belief, but it also allows us to put ourselves in others' shoes to determine when cheaters need to be punished, even if we are not directly disadvantaged by the cheater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cooperation for a competitive position: The impact of hospital cooperation behavior on organizational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Vera Antonia; Hinz, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Several public policy initiatives, particularly those involving managed care, aim to enhance cooperation between partners in the health care sector because it is expected that such cooperation will reduce costs and generate additional revenue. However, empirical evidence regarding the effects of cooperation on hospital performance is scarce, particularly with respect to creating a comprehensive measure of cooperation behavior. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of hospital cooperation behavior on organizational performance. We differentiate between horizontal and vertical cooperation using two alternative measures-cooperation depth and cooperation breadth-and include the interaction effects between both cooperation directions. Data are derived from a survey of German hospitals and combined with objective performance information from annual financial statements. Generalized linear regression models are used. The study findings provide insight into the nature of hospitals' cooperation behavior. In particular, we show that there are negative synergies between horizontal administrative cooperation behavior and vertical cooperation behavior. Whereas the depth and breadth of horizontal administrative cooperation positively affect financial performance (when there is no vertical cooperation), vertical cooperation positively affects financial performance (when there is no horizontal administrative cooperation) only when cooperation is broad (rather than deep). Horizontal cooperation is generally more effective than vertical cooperation at improving financial performance. Hospital managers should consider the negative interaction effect when making decisions about whether to recommend a cooperative relationship in a horizontal or vertical direction. In addition, managers should be aware of the limited financial benefit of cooperation behavior.

  4. Culture and Cooperation during the Interwar Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anişoara Popa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the most important Publications of the International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (1925-1946 we will explore the ideas concerning culture and personalities involved in the intellectual cooperation during the Interwar Period. Pointing out the role that the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation had and the Romanian contribution to this cooperation is another purpose of this article.

  5. Cooperative decision making in a stochastic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative game theory is a mathematical tool to analyze situations involving several individuals who can obtain certain benefits by cooperating. The main questions this theory addresses are who will cooperate with whom and how will the corresponding benefits be divided. Most results of cooperative

  6. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the member...

  7. Astronaut Gordon Cooper during flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, relaxes while waiting for weight and balance tests to begin (03974); Cooper prior to entering the Mercury Spacecraft for a series of simulated flight tests. During these tests NASA doctors, engineers and technicians monitor Cooper's performance (03975); Cooper undergoing suit pressurization tests (03976).

  8. International nuclear cooperation in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yong-Kyu

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power project traditionally involve huge financial investment, highly sophisticated technology, and long lead time. Many countries, particularly developing ones, find it impossible to implement their nuclear power programs without technical cooperation and assistance from advanced countries. In this Asia and Pacific Region, seven countries have commercial nuclear power units in operation and/or under construction. Korea has six nuclear power units in operation, and three under construction. Active nuclear cooperation has been instrumental in implementing her abmitious nuclear power programs successfully. Nuclear cooperation is one of the widely recognized necessities, which is quite often talked about among the countries of the Asia and Pacific Region. But the differences in nuclear maturity and national interests among those in the region seem to be standing against it. Given the constraints, it is not easy to select appropriate areas for cooperation. There is no doubt, however, that they should include the nuclear policy, nuclear safety, radwaste management, radiological protection, and the management of nuclear units. In order to effectively promote nuclear cooperation in the Region, the scope of RCA activities must be expanded to include the nuclear power area. The Regional Nuclear Data Bank, the Regional Training Center and the Nuclear Emergency Response Center, for example, would be the effective tools for cooperation to meet the demands of the countries in the Region. In view of the technological gap between Japan and all others in the region, we cannot speak of a regional nuclear cooperation without heavily counting on Japan, the most advanced nuclear state in the region. For these reasons, Japan is expected to share an increasing portion of her nuclear technology with others. (author)

  9. Regional cooperation in nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.; Muntzing, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    In November 1985, PBNCC (the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee) was formally established. Currently six Pacific Basin members have been participating in PBNCC: Canada, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Taiwan of Chian, and the United States of America. The People's Republic of China has sent observes to the PBNCC meetings. The technical contents of PBWCC working groups are as follows: 1. Regional cooperative for pooled spare parts of nuclear power plants and inventory management; 2. Regional cooperation in nuclear training; 3. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety; 4. Regional cooperation in Codes and Standards; 5. Regional Cooperation in public acceptance; 6. Regional cooperation on radwaste management. (Liu)

  10. Theoretical and methodological bases of the cooperation and the cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alberto Rivera Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work has the purpose to approach the theoretical and methodological foundations of the rise of the cooperatives. In this article are studied the logical antecedents of the cooperativism, the premises  establish by  the Industrial Revolution for the emergence of the first modern cooperative “The Pioneers of Rochdale”  that  is  the inflection point of  cooperativism, until analyzing the contributions of the whole thinking  of the time that maintain this process.

  11. Forskningsoversigt - Effekterne af Cooperative Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    Kan Cooperative Learning - en undervisningsform hvor lærerens tid ved tavlen mindskes og hvor de lærende samarbejder om stoffet - maksimere de lærendes indlæring og medvirke til en forbedring af deres interpersonelle og kommunikative kompetencer, samt øge deres motivation for læring? Den megen...... forskning fra USA viser, at Cooperative Learning øger lærerens bevidsthed om, hvilken adfærd, han er medvirkende til at skabe blandt de lærende. Og den øger lærerens bevidsthed omkring interaktioner i klasserummet, og giver god plads og taletid til hver enkelt lærende. Set i lyset heraf kan Cooperative......, at Cooperative Learning har lige så høj grad af positiv effekt, som den viser sig at have på grundskoleområdet. Det er sigtet med denne oversigt over den empiriske forskning. Til start præsenteres Cooperative Learning som metode, dens rødder og udvikling, dernæst skitseres den omfattende forskning omkring...

  12. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W.; Dancey, Janet E.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Horvath, L. Elise; Perez, Edith A.; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M.; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a long-standing history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the U.S. based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the U.S., and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the U.S. or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the U.S. and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to U.S. policies that restrict drug distribution outside the U.S. This manuscript serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. PMID:26433551

  14. Partial Cooperative Equilibria: Existence and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Ghintran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the solution concepts of partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria. The partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibrium is axiomatically characterized by using notions of rationality, consistency and converse consistency with regard to reduced games. We also establish sufficient conditions for which partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria exist in supermodular games. Finally, we provide an application to strategic network formation where such solution concepts may be useful.

  15. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Acheson, Daniel J.; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was ac...

  16. Formation, “Gold Rule” for the cooperative development

    OpenAIRE

    Alcides López Labrada

    2013-01-01

    Before the arising of the cooperative movement in the world, cooperation already existed. So, it is logical to affirm that there can be cooperation without cooperative movement. But there cannot be cooperative movement without cooperation, because cooperation is an indispensable premise for the existence of cooperative movement. Both the precursors of the cooperative movement and the classics of Marxism agreed on the necessity of cooperative formation. Lenin called socialism “the regime o...

  17. Cooperative Cloudlet for Pervasive Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef Jamal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of cooperation in wireless communication has got significant attention from both academia and industrial persons towards to address the performance drawbacks of wireless sensor network due to reason of user’s high mobility and lack of resources of network. The future wireless systems should be highly heterogeneous and interconnected because motivating cooperative relaying has to apply on the future mobile network for efficient results and future demand. As currently the mobile computing is facing latency and battery drainage issues which need to address and solve hence in this work we are proposed mobile - centric and opportunistic communication architecture. In this work mobile devices which are in the range of Wi - Fi of each other can create cluste r with each other and can create an ad - hoc cooperative cloud using Relay Spot[1 - 4]. The Collaboration between these devices can enable them to resourcefully use the augmentation without any infrastructure.

  18. Regional cooperation prospects in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Wan Ki

    2006-01-01

    The Republic of Korea follows a well-established nuclear nonproliferation policy and could consider regional cooperation as proposed by many nuclear experts over the years. Real problems exist in establishing cooperation, but as the nuclear industry continues to grow, the motivation increases. The US should be a partner in the regional cooperation also. This paper summarizes significant advances made by the NNCA in applying remote monitoring technologies to support international safeguards in the ROK, providing the technical foundation for the use of these technologies for transparency between partner countries. Concrete steps are proposed to form an institutional and then a governmental approach for transparency in the use of nuclear material and even, eventual establishment of a regional safeguards inspection regime. (author)

  19. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    in the five countries and discuss its implications. The present paper synthesizes possible ‘blind spots’ in the national policy, legal or administrative water governance frameworks with reference to the identified types of water-related conflictive and cooperative situations identified during the inventories.......In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic...

  20. International cooperation in production inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limousin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear pressure equipment, like the reactor pressure vessel or steam generators, are manufactured in many countries all around the world. As only few reactors were built in the 90's, most of the nuclear safety authorities have lost part of their know how in component manufacturing oversight. For these two reasons, vendor inspection is a key area for international cooperation. On the one hand, ASN has bilateral relationships with several countries (USA, Finland, China...) to fulfill specific purposes. On the other hand, ASN participates in international groups like the MDEP ( Multinational Design Evaluation Program). A MDEP working group dedicated to vendor inspection cooperation enables exchanges of informations (inspection program plan, inspection findings...) among the regulators. Join inspections are organized. International cooperation could lead in the long term to an harmonization of regulatory practices. (author)

  1. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... by taking the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was utilized to analyse cross-border innovation...... of innovativeness increase the likelihood of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on selecting partners within the European Union. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic...

  2. Fashion, Cooperation, and Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhigang; Gao, Haoyu; Qu, Xinglong; Yang, Mingmin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks). This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination) simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels) meet, they play the (anti-) coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic). We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people’s cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed. PMID:23382799

  3. Cooperation, framing and political attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Wengström, Erik Roland

    This paper shows that political attitudes are linked to cooperative behavior in an incentivized experiment with a large sample randomly drawn from the Danish population. However, this relationship depends on the way the experiment is framed. In the standard game in which subjects give to a public...... good, contributions are the same regardless of political attitudes. In an economically equivalent version, in which subjects take from a public good, left-wingers cooperate significantly more than subjects in the middle or to the right of the political spectrum. Through simulation techniques we find...

  4. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  5. Some aspects of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera A, V.E.

    1984-01-01

    The present work deals with some aspects of International cooperation which are directly related with Science and Technology in general, but which have total validity in Nuclear Science and Technology. It is meant particularly for Latin-American countries as a whole. Some ideas meant to review the factors that act on the development of Science and Technology are briefly developed; the number of positive achievements reached in Sc. and T.; is recounted; the problems to be overcome in Sc. and T. are numbered and, finally, some propositions for increasing international cooperation in Science and Technology are exposed. (Author)

  6. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  7. Cooperative Localization for Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Urup, Daniel Nygaard; Meyer, Florian

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hybrid message passing method for distributed cooperative localization and tracking of mobile agents. Belief propagation and mean field message passing are employed for, respectively, the motion-related and measurementrelated part of the factor graph. Using a Gaussian belief approxim......We propose a hybrid message passing method for distributed cooperative localization and tracking of mobile agents. Belief propagation and mean field message passing are employed for, respectively, the motion-related and measurementrelated part of the factor graph. Using a Gaussian belief...

  8. Cooperation for knowledge demands know-how for cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. de la Rive Box (Louk)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractValedictory Address by Louk de la Rive Box, Professor of international cooperation and Rector of the International Institute of Social Studies (22 April 2010). Which Knowledge and for Which Development? Old Timers and New Players More than a decade ago the cyber-revolution gave rise

  9. The sound of cooperation: Musical influences on cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffin, Kevin M; Yan, Jubo; Wansink, Brian; Schulze, William D

    2017-03-01

    Music as an environmental aspect of professional workplaces has been closely studied with respect to consumer behavior while sparse attention has been given to its relevance for employee behavior. In this article, we focus on the influence of music upon cooperative behavior within decision-making groups. Based on results from two extended 20-round public goods experiments, we find that happy music significantly and positively influences cooperative behavior. We also find a significant positive association between mood and cooperative behavior. Consequently, while our studies provide partial support for the relevance of affect in relation to cooperation within groups, we also show an independently important function of happy music that fits with a theory of synchronous and rhythmic activity as a social lubricant. More generally, our findings indicate that music and perhaps other atmospheric variables that are designed to prime consumer behavior might have comparably important effects for employees and consequently warrant closer investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Organizational Behavior Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Let's Cooperate! Integrating Cooperative Learning Into a Lesson on Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineke, Patricia R

    2017-04-01

    Cooperative learning is an effective teaching strategy that promotes active participation in learning and can be used in academic, clinical practice, and professional development settings. This article describes that strategy and provides an example of its use in a lesson about ethics. J Contin Nurs Educ. 2017;48(4):154-156. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Accelerating cooperative systems' development through the Grand Cooperative Driving challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.; Malone, K.M.; Katwijk, R. van; Gerrits, A.

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative driving systems comprise an important research area. They are considered a promising solution for reducing traffic congestion, reducing environmental impact and improving traffic safety and driver comfort. The key to these systems is the communication and interaction between vehicles and

  12. International cooperation workshop. Regional workshop for CTBTO international cooperation: Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Pursuant to the 1999 programme of work, and following the International Cooperation Workshop held in Vienna, Austria, in 1998, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO (Prep Com) held a regional Workshop for CTBTO International Cooperation in Cairo. The purpose of the workshop was to identify how and by what means the Africa region can promote international cooperation in CTBT verification related technologies, and how the region can benefit from and contribute to Prep Com activity. PTS staff briefed the 40 participants from 22 African States who attended the Workshop on general aspects, including costs, of the establishment and operation of the CTBT verification system, including its four monitoring technologies. Participants were informed on opportunities for local institutions in the establishment of monitoring stations and on possible support for national and regional data centres. National experts presented their research and development activities and reviewed existing experiences on bi/multi-lateral cooperation. The main points of the discussion focused on the need to engage governments to advance signature/ratification, and further training opportunities for African states

  13. Cooperation in wireless networks principles and applications : real egoistic behavior is to cooperate!

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzek, Frank HP

    2006-01-01

    Covers the underlying principles of cooperative techniques as well as several applications demonstrating the use of such techniques in practical systems. This book also summarizes the strength of cooperation for wireless communication systems, motivating the use of cooperative techniques.

  14. Prenatal temperature shocks reduce cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchoslav, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Climate change has not only led to a sustained rise in mean global temperature over the past decades, but also increased the frequency of extreme weather events. This paper explores the effect of temperature shocks in utero on later-life taste for cooperation. Using historical climate data combined

  15. Market competition and efficient cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Riedl, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    We use laboratory experiments to study the causal effects of favorable and unfavorable competitive market experience on cooperation in a subsequent social dilemma game. The issues we study are part of the broader topic of whether there are behavioral spillovers between different spheres of social

  16. Cooperation: New Players in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hugon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalisation and the current global financial crisis, new players are emerging in cooperation in Africa. These partners loosen financial constraints and conditionalities, increase the room for manoeuvre and stimulate commodity markets. On the other hand, they also increase the risks of renewed indebtedness and potentially weaken the coordination of aid policies. Do these partnerships call the new cooperation practices of OECD countries into question? Do they justify the return to a realpolitik or are they repeating the earlier mistakes of industrial powers? Can these mistakes be corrected? The question also arises as to whether the global crisis, which has a profound effect on Africa, will lead to a withdrawal or to a passing of the baton on to new, emerging powers. This article highlights the new geopolitical issues concerning Africa in a multipolar world, then discusses the new players involved in cooperation in Africa, before going on to explore the horizons that are opening up for cooperation in Africa, in particular with regard to the global crisis.

  17. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that "transparency" is a unique feature of social networking services.…

  18. International Business : cooperation within networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anne van Delft

    2011-01-01

    Internationalisation is the expansion of a firms operations to foreign markets and includes not only import and export but also foreign direct investments and international cooperation. Today’s globalising economy has resulted in a growing number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) undertaking

  19. Diversified Cooperative Training. A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This bibliography describes 52 materials available for use in cooperative education classes and career and guidance counseling. The materials include books, pamphlets, and brochures, films, curriculum guides, study guides, and workbooks. A few are suited for use with special needs students. Materials for inclusion in the bibliography were located…

  20. Fostering Cooperation in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, June 25, 2015 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between US National Cancer Institute and three agencies of the Indian government - the Department of Biotechnology, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Indian National Cancer Institute, a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences to foster cooperation in cancer research.

  1. Competition, cooperation, and corporate culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosfeld, M.; von Siemens, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation between workers can be of substantial value to a firm, yet its level often varies substantially between firms. We show that these differences can unfold in a competitive labor market if workers have heterogeneous social preferences and preferences are private information. In our model,

  2. School Discipline: A Cooperative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Henry W.

    1976-01-01

    To stem the tide of student misbehavior, teachers and administrators must present a united front. Cooperative discipline procedures can be effective when they are firm, fair, and offer the misbehaving student a personal option. Practical suggestions on disciplinary procedures are offered here. (Editor/RK)

  3. Participatory Evaluation in Development Cooperation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Knowledge Shared : Participatory Evaluation in Development Cooperation ... du développement, évaluation, études environnementales, travail social, développement communautaire, développement rural, santé publique internationale, sans oublier les autres disciplines reliées au développement durable et équitable.

  4. Fifty years of Technical Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established in Vienna in 1957. The Statute of the IAEA, approved by 81 nations, founded the organization on three pillars: nuclear verification; safety and security; and the transfer of technology. Today, these three pillars still remain at the heart of the organization's work. However, the way in which the IAEA carries out this work, particularly with regard to technology transfer, has changed greatly over the years. When the IAEA opened for business, nuclear science and technology were in their infancy. Many Member States had no nuclear capacity at all. The IAEA's 'technical assistance' programme, as it was then known, was modest. Early projects were small in scale and short lived, focusing mainly on building human capacities and creating institutions and facilities that would support the introduction of nuclear technology in a safe and effective manner. Today, the picture is more complex. Instead of merely offering assistance, the IAEA focuses on cooperation for sustainable socioeconomic development, building on the skills and infrastructure that Member States have acquired over the past five decades. Member States are full partners in the process, guiding the IAEA's technical cooperation activities, setting national and regional priorities, and offering training opportunities and technical support to the IAEA and to other Member States. Technical cooperation between developing countries is facilitated and supported through regional cooperative agreements. Regional centres of expertise play an important role in sharing the benefits of nuclear science and technology among Member States

  5. [Child protection--cooperation and conflict management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbeck, Birgit; Hermans, Björn Enno

    2010-01-01

    When people have to deal with conflicts or opposing views they often refer to the term cooperation. But after lengthy discussions the question may be raised if it is more useful not to cooperate. The authors of this article analyse why cooperation is often called for but frequently fails. In this article key prerequisites for successful cooperation are described before the authors present their practical method of 'sYpport'. 'SYpport' mostly refers to trans-institutional cooperation and focuses on the required attitude of those involved. The authors' simple but crucial conclusion is that cooperation requires faith in others.

  6. Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.

    2006-12-01

    Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation. Cooperation means that selfish replicators forgo some of their reproductive potential to help one another. But natural selection implies competition and therefore opposes cooperation unless a specific mechanism is at work. Here I discuss five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. For each mechanism, a simple rule is derived that specifies whether natural selection can lead to cooperation.

  7. The Regulatory Cooperation Forum, an Opportunity to Strengthen International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachaume, J.L.; Mamoru, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Regulatory Cooperation Forum (RCF) is a member-driven forum of nuclear power regulators created in 2010 that promotes the sharing of regulatory knowledge and experience through international cooperation and collaboration using the IAEA Safety Standards as its basis. The RCF involves countries with advanced nuclear power programmes, countries embarking on nuclear power for the first time and countries with smaller programmes considering expansion. The primary objectives of the RCF are: • To promote collaboration and cooperation among RCF members to improve coordination of support for regulatory infrastructure development; • To contribute to achieving and sustaining a high level of nuclear safety, consistent with the IAEA Safety Standards and Guidance; • To optimize resources among RCF members and avoid unnecessary support duplication through improved coordination. Membership of the RCF is open to all Member States of the IAEA. Participants in RCF activities will normally be senior representatives from regulatory bodies in Member States and from other providers, including the IAEA, European Commission (EC) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). So far, more than 30 countries are members of the RCF. The RCF has developed Action Plans to support Jordan, Vietnam, Belarus and Poland. The IAEA’s Nuclear Safety Action Plan urges Member States to strengthen the effectiveness of national regulatory bodies as well as base the development of their nuclear infrastructures on IAEA Safety Standards. The RCF assists Member States in implementing both of these actions for embarking, existing and expanding nuclear programmes. (author)

  8. Cooperative Security: New Horizons for International Order

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Richard; Mihalka, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... Both are controversial. Richard Cohen presents a compelling and highly original model of Cooperative Security -- a term that once was applied almost exclusively to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE...

  9. Understanding Heterogeneous Preferences of Cooperative Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Lans, van der I.A.; Garcia, P.; Dijk, van G.

    2009-01-01

    We study the heterogeneity in the preference structure of cooperative members. Using conjoint analysis the utility that members attach to intra-organizational and strategic attributes of their cooperative is elicited. Recognizing that members are not homogenous, a concomitant finitemixture

  10. Evidence for strategic cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N; El Mouden, Claire; West, Stuart A

    2017-06-14

    Humans may cooperate strategically, cooperating at higher levels than expected from their short-term interests, to try and stimulate others to cooperate. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally manipulated the extent an individual's behaviour is known to others, and hence whether or not strategic cooperation is possible. In contrast with many previous studies, we avoided confounding factors by preventing individuals from learning during the game about either pay-offs or about how other individuals behave. We found clear evidence for strategic cooperators-just telling some individuals that their groupmates would be informed about their behaviour led to them tripling their initial level of cooperation, from 17 to 50%. We also found that many individuals play as if they do not understand the game, and their presence obscures the detection of strategic cooperation. Identifying such players allowed us to detect and study strategic motives for cooperation in novel, more powerful, ways. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Cooperative Agreement on Pesticide Safety Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is awarding the eXtension Foundation with a cooperative agreement to establish a system to distribute EPA funds to Pesticide Safety Education Programs (PSEPs) in State Cooperative Extension Services at Land Grant Universities.

  12. The incorporation of a cooperative society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar Garteiz-Aurrecoa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The new Spanish General Law regulates cooperatives and qualifies them as economic entities for conducting business, so its commercial nature is recognized aside positions that defend the absence of profit in cooperatives.

  13. Technology and Cooperation: The Behaviors of Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan K.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the pros and cons of library cooperation as exemplified by interlibrary loan and OCLC. Moving away from cooperation toward the more intensive use of local systems is suggested as one alternative for the future. (MES)

  14. Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives in Developing Society in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives in Developing Society in Relation to Poverty Alleviation and ... This paper illuminates the nature and inception of Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives and their ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  15. A Nucleolus for Stochastic Cooperative Games

    OpenAIRE

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper extends the definition of the nucleolus to stochastic cooperative games, that is, to cooperative games with random payoffs to the coalitions. It is shown that the nucleolus is nonempty and that it belongs to the core whenever the core is nonempty. Furthermore, it is shown for a particular class of stochastic cooperative games that the nucleolus can be determined by calculating the traditional nucleolus introduced by Schmeidler (1969) of a specific deterministic cooperative game.

  16. Cooperative Change and the Myth of Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Rokholt, Per Ove; Borgen, Svein Ole

    2000-01-01

    Much of the current research on agricultural cooperatives is biased towards weaknesses of the cooperative organization form. The literature says very little about the strengths and advantages of the cooperative form and what is necessary to develop the form's uniqueness into a sustainable competitive advantage. We argue that for cooperatives to remain viable and competitive, the advantages of the form must be clearly manifested. There is now a lack of systematic theorizing in this field. Typi...

  17. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  18. On the relative advantage of cooperatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm......We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm...

  19. Territorial Cooperation With Non-Eu Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Cohard, Juan Carlos; Alfonso, Javier; Vázquez-Barquero, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    TERRITORIAL COOPERATION WITH NON-EU REGIONS Territorial Cooperation (TC) has been possible because there is a trajectory of many years of work invested by the local actors, participants who have become the architects of TC through the city or region involved. Transcontinental cooperation as studied by the European Union TERCO project is providing important lessons for understanding TC. The purpose of the presentation is to analyze the Andalusian-North of Morocco territorial cooperation during...

  20. Latin American cooperation on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Associacao Brasileira de Direito Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro)

    1984-01-01

    The cooperation between Latin American countries on nuclear matters in which Brazil should play a significant role is presented. The possible areas for cooperation, particularly the nuclear law, are focused. The cooperation should be developed on bilateral or multilateral basis, by governmental and non governmental entities. (Author) [pt

  1. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative... conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and...

  2. Treatment of capital in Brasilian cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergílio Frederico Perius

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The early history of the cooperative system never taxed much importance to capital formation in cooperatives. The first German consumer cooperative had no equity in their accounting records. We want to analyze, even though the capital was not essential, what is its function actually.

  3. Testing cooperative systems with the MARS simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, B.D.; Wedemeijer, H.

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of cooperative systems makes the use of high fidelity simulation essential in the development and testing of cooperative applications and their interactions with other cooperative systems. In SAFESPOT a simulator test bench is setup to test the safety margin applications running on

  4. Coordinating choice in partial cooperative equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider symmetric aggregative games and investigate partial cooperation between a portion of the players that sign a cooperative agreement and the rest of the players. Existence results of partial cooperative equilibria are obtained when the players who do not sign the agreement

  5. Need for cooperative work in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Acosta Padrón

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper claims for the use of cooperative work to achieve democratic, communicative and socializing learning; Furthermore, theoretical grounds for cooperative work are presented, from sociological and psychological positions about the development of cooperative work on the basis of Vigotsky, Kart Lewin and Dewey ́s works, among others.

  6. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperator organization. 1220.107 Section 1220.107... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor organization...

  7. Co-Operative Learning and Development Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, V.; McConnell, D.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the theory, nature, and benefits of cooperative learning. Considers the Cooperative Learning and Development Network (CLDN) trial in the JITOL (Just in Time Open Learning) project and examines the relationship between theories about cooperative learning and the reality of a group of professionals participating in a virtual cooperative…

  8. Agricultural Co-Operatives in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tefera, Delelegne A.; Bijman, Jos; Slingerland, Maja A.

    2017-01-01

    To what extent can co-operatives strengthen rural development in sub-Saharan Africa? This paper explores the development of agricultural co-operatives in Ethiopia, particularly the changes in economic functions. Co-operative development in Ethiopia has been strongly influenced by various political

  9. Building up active membership in cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Sergaki, P.; Dijk, van G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Active membership is crucial for agricultural cooperatives as it engenders better performance. It even is the key for cooperative competitiveness. Active membership, however, decreases in many cooperatives. Thus, it is important to know what galvanizes members to become active members. The

  10. Report: National Conference on Cooperative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    The conference report on cooperative vocational education contains four main sections. The first, background papers, contains three papers: Education in a Changing Society, Carl H. Madden; A Prospectus for Cooperative Vocational Education, William F. Pierce; and Critical Issues in Cooperative Vocational Education, Robert M. Worthington. The second…

  11. Proposals for regional cooperation in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaco, T.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation includes proposals for regional cooperation in Africa in the field of seismic monitoring and proposes future actions for establishing this cooperation. It emphasises the benefits of regional cooperation meaning scientific benefit from an established data base, as well as benefit in the field of geology, meteorology, geophysics and in unified budgets and logistics

  12. 50 CFR 81.3 - Cooperative Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM CONSERVATION OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES OF FISH, WILDLIFE, AND PLANTS-COOPERATION WITH THE STATES § 81.3 Cooperative Agreement. Upon... Project Agreement can be approved for endangered or threatened species projects. A cooperative agreement...

  13. 75 FR 9246 - Cooperative Share Loan Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-14] Cooperative Share Loan... comments on the subject proposal. New guidance for cooperative housing loan insurance will be published to update existing policies, and better enable mortgagees to submit cooperative share loans for FHA...

  14. SME Cooperation on Innovation & Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Neville, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The research in this paper reveals how cooperation of SMEs can enable innovation and growth. The research is conducted in a four-year period with 24 SMEs participating from different industry branches. The research is now in the late part of the 3rd. year starting in 2013 and finished January 2017....... Preliminary findings are revealed here and discussed with the SMEs. Shorter-term cooperation and especially longer-term collaboration is important for SMEs to enable innovation and growth. The content of collaboration is based on the cross-disciplinary trinity of organisational- and managerial development......, business model development and financial development. The trinity requires time to get the specific insight on application for each SME. An enhanced contribution is made to the field of SMEs, to academia and to public bodies to understand the needed initiatives to support SMEs for innovation and growth...

  15. Developing Praxis in Conflictual Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    . The presentation will discuss and analyse some empirical material from a project on conflictual cooperation in the building business. The analysis opens an opportunity to discuss and expand Lave and Wenger's notion of situated learning. The authors' original intention of understanding learning as an integral......The present and Nielsen's abstracts argue that change and learning are two related aspects of praxis. The present abstract will investigate the relation between developing praxis and its organization, while Nielsen's abstract will investigate the relation between learning and changing praxis...... of the house leaves traces which we must take into account in our ensuing acts. Additionally it will be argued that the professionals may constitute different communities on the building site. This does not mean that the building site is a community of practice, all the same the conflictual cooperation...

  16. Cooperation between CERN and ITER

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    CERN and the International Fusion Organisation ITER have just signed a first cooperation agreeement. Kaname Ikeda, the Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organisation (ITER) (on the right) and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN, signing the agreement.The Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organization, Mr Kaname Ikeda, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a cooperation agreement at a meeting on the Meyrin site on Thursday 6 March. One of the main purposes of this agreement is for CERN to give ITER the benefit of its experience in the field of technology as well as in administrative domains such as finance, procurement, human resources and informatics through the provision of consultancy services. Currently in its start-up phase at its Cadarache site, 70 km from Marseilles (France), ITER will focus its research on the scientific and technical feasibility of using fusion energy as a fu...

  17. Cooperative epidemics on multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi-Tafreshi, N.

    2016-04-01

    The spread of one disease, in some cases, can stimulate the spreading of another infectious disease. Here, we treat analytically a symmetric coinfection model for spreading of two diseases on a two-layer multiplex network. We allow layer overlapping, but we assume that each layer is random and locally loopless. Infection with one of the diseases increases the probability of getting infected with the other. Using the generating function method, we calculate exactly the fraction of individuals infected with both diseases (so-called coinfected clusters) in the stationary state, as well as the epidemic spreading thresholds and the phase diagram of the model. With increasing cooperation, we observe a tricritical point and the type of transition changes from continuous to hybrid. Finally, we compare the coinfected clusters in the case of cooperating diseases with the so-called "viable" clusters in networks with dependencies.

  18. Cooperative Diversity in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmit Diversity is an effective methodology for improving the quality and reliability of a wireless network by reducingthe effects of fading. As majority of the wireless devices (i.e. mobile handsets, etc are limited to only one antenna, especiallydue to hardware constraints, size and cost factors; cooperative communication can be utilized in order to generatetransmit diversity [1]. This enables single antenna wireless devices to share their antennas during transmission in such amanner that creates a virtual MIMO (multiple-input and multiple-output system [2] [3]. In this paper, we will analyze therecent developments and trends in this promising area of wireless Ad hoc networks. The article will also discuss variousmain cooperative signaling methods and will also observe their performance.

  19. Assessment of a cooperative workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuscart, R J; Molenda, S; Souf, N; Foucher, C; Beuscart-Zephir, M C

    1996-01-01

    Groupware and new Information Technologies have now made it possible for people in different places to work together in synchronous cooperation. Very often, designers of this new type of software are not provided with a model of the common workspace, which is prejudicial to software development and its acceptance by potential users. The authors take the example of a task of medical co-diagnosis, using a multi-media communication workstation. Synchronous cooperative work is made possible by using local ETHERNET or public ISDN Networks. A detailed ergonomic task analysis studies the cognitive functioning of the physicians involved, compares their behaviour in the normal and the mediatized situations, and leads to an interpretation of the likely causes for success or failure of CSCW tools.

  20. Carbon tariffs and cooperative outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyland, Terry; Zaccour, Georges

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of an international environmental agreement (IEA) on climate change, a country may be reluctant to unilaterally implement environmental actions, as this may lead to the relocation of firms to other, lax-on-pollution countries. To avoid this problem, while still taking care of the environment, a country may impose a carbon tariff that adjusts for the differences between its own carbon tax and the other country's tax. We consider two countries with a representative firm in each one, and characterize and contrast the equilibrium strategies and outcomes in three scenarios. In the first (benchmark) scenario, in a first stage the regulators in the two countries determine the carbon taxes noncooperatively, and in a second stage, the firms compete à la Cournot. In the second scenario, the regulators cooperate in determining the carbon taxes, while the firms still play a noncooperative Cournot game. In the third scenario, we add another player, e.g., the World Trade Organization, which announced a border tax in a prior stage; the game is then played as in the first scenario. Our two major results are (i) a border-tax adjustment (BTA) mimics quite well the cooperative solution in setting the carbon taxes as in scenario two. This means that a BTA may be a way around the lack of enthusiasm for an IEA. (ii) All of our simulations show that a partial correction of the difference in taxes is sufficient to maximize total welfare. In short, the conclusion is that a BTA may be used as a credible threat to achieve an outcome that is very close to the cooperative outcome. - Highlights: • One of the first studies to consider border-tax adjustment in a strategic context. • Border-tax adjustment can lead to an optimal outcome, in cooperative sense. • Optimal outcome is achieved with partial tax adjustment

  1. MMCD: Cooperative Downloading for Highway

    OpenAIRE

    OTA, Kaoru; DONG, Mianxiong; CHANG, Shan; ZHU, Hongzi

    2015-01-01

    Advances in low-power wireless communications and micro-electronics make a great impact on a transportation system and pervasive deployment of road-side units (RSU) is promising to provide drive-thru Internet to vehicular users anytime and anywhere. Downloading data packets from the RSU, however, is not always reliable because of high mobility of vehicles and high contention among vehicular users. Using inter-vehicle communication, cooperative downloading can maximize the amount of data packe...

  2. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  3. Heterogeneous Multi-Robot Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    express my heartfelt thanks to my thesis advisor . Rod Brooks. who supported and encouraged me throughout my time at MIT. He provided a good mixture of...group than is possible with individual robots alone. 25 26 CHAPTER 3. ALLIANCE: THE COOPERATIVE ROBO ,ARCHITECTURE’ discuss the implications of these...available, robot teams should take advantage of it; however, I do not want the team to experience total breakdown when communication becomes unavailable

  4. Cooperation in research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanna, R.

    1977-01-01

    In planning scientific programs for rapid and extensive peaceful applications of atomic energy in any developing country, it is not fully realized that one of the most important inputs is a strong research and development (R and D) base with a well-oriented training program. The paper discusses the various ways in which R and D is required to assist in both indigenous and turnkey projects. The R and D organization should be broad based; i.e., it should have physicists, chemists (particularly specialists in water chemistry), health physicists, and engineers (particularly metallurgists for materials development, study of corrosion problems, etc.). The role of electronic engineers is also very significant from the viewpoint of designing reactor control systems. Another important advantage of having an R and D program is its general technological fallout, which aids the entire industrial structure of the country. The concept of regional cooperation is very important, particularly for atomic energy programs in developing countries that have similar conditions and levels of technological skills. This cooperation can be bilateral or multilateral under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Scientists from several countries have been trained in our Center, and we also had a very successful India-Philippines-Agency Project in which scientists from many countries in the region participated in cooperative research programs

  5. Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Rosa, Francescantonio; Frattasi, Simone; Figueiras, Joao

    2011-01-01

    Conventional software applications are usually operated on a platform similar to the one on which they were developed and tested. Wireless application development, on the other hand, is more challenging because applications are developed on one platform (like UNIX or Windows) and deployed on a to...

  6. Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.

  7. Evolution of Cooperation in Public Goods Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Chengyi; Zhang Juanjuan; Wang Jinsong; Wang Yiling

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of cooperation with evolutionary public goods games based on finite populations, where four pure strategies: cooperators, defectors, punishers and loners who are unwilling to participate are considered. By adopting approximate best response dynamics, we show that the magnitude of rationality not only quantitatively explains the experiment results in [Nature (London) 425 (2003) 390], but also it will heavily influence the evolution of cooperation. Compared with previous results of infinite populations, which result in two equilibriums, we show that there merely exists a special equilibrium and the relevant high value of bounded rationality will sustain cooperation. In addition, we characterize that loner's payoff plays an active role in the maintenance of cooperation, which will only be warranted for the low and moderate values of loner's payoff. It thus indicates the effects of rationality and loner's payoff will influence the cooperation. Finally, we highlight the important result that the introduction of voluntary participation and punishment will facilitate cooperation greatly. (general)

  8. Cooperation and Development: a study of case in network cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Alisson Westarb Cruz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop new surviving strategies and competitive advantage by individuals and organizations make cooperation to obtain complementary competences and potentialities very important, through the insertion of social actors in multiple networks of relationships and interactions.  This research was made in an Association Network of Carrinheiros[1] located in Curitiba and in the coast of Paraná.  The objective of the study was to analyze the structural characteristics of the network and its implications to develop collective actions. The data was collected through questionnaires, interviews, document analysis, and the daily direct observation of the network.  An interaction system between individuals and organizations from various sectors in society could be verified. This interaction stimulates the structured work connected to associations and cooperatives.  Between the actors of the network, concepts and realities are different, as well as individual objectives are distinct.  However, they converge to a common general objective that establish a common base for collaborative work.

  9. Cooperation between territorial communities: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П. М. Любченко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem Setting. The paper analyzes the problems in the system of legal regulation of cooperation between communities, highlights the advantages and disadvantages of such cooperation in Ukrainian local government. Analysis of the recent researches and publications. The legal basis for cooperation in the field of local government are provisions of the Constitution and laws of Ukraine, by-laws. The organizational principles of communities cooperation, principles, forms and mechanisms of such cooperation and its promotion, financing and monitoring prescribed by the Law of Ukraine «On cooperation of local communities» 17 June 2014, which provides five possible forms of cooperation. Paper main body. The first form - delegation to one party of cooperation by another parties of cooperation execution of one or few tasks with transferring of appropriate resources - one of the most difficult to implement, therefore in Ukraine it is not yet implemented. The second form – realization of joint projects, involving coordination of activities between parties of cooperation and accumulating them for a certain period resources to joint implementation of appropriate measures - one of the most common. This  form is popular because of its simplicity and versatility. Parties are determining the purpose of the project, terms and conditions of its implementation, a list of activities and conditions for their implementation, financial liabilities, other forms of local governments participation in implementation of the project and mechanism of coordination. The third and fourth forms aimed on the creation and maintenance of communal enterprises, institutions and organizations - joint infrastructure projects by parties of cooperation. This form of cooperation with the prospect of widespread use because it is aimed at ensuring effective use of resources of local communities based on common application available in one of the subjects of cooperation of municipal

  10. Cooperative effects in spherical spasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    A fully analytical semiclassical theory of cooperative optical processes which occur in an ensemble of molecules embedded in a spherical core-shell nanoparticle is developed from first principles. Both the plasmonic Dicke effect and spaser generation are investigated for the designs in which...... a shell/core contains an arbitrarily large number of active molecules in the vicinity of a metallic core/shell. An essential aspect of the theory is an ab initio account of the feedback from the core/shell boundaries which significantly modifies the molecular dynamics. The theory provides rigorous, albeit...

  11. Modelling Cooperative Tumorigenesis in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The development of human metastatic cancer is a multistep process, involving the acquisition of several genetic mutations, tumour heterogeneity, and interactions with the surrounding microenvironment. Due to the complexity of cancer development in mammals, simpler model organisms, such as the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, are being utilized to provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms involved. In this review, we highlight recent advances in modelling tumorigenesis using the Drosophila model, focusing on the cooperation of oncogenes or tumour suppressors, and the interaction of mutant cells with the surrounding tissue in epithelial tumour initiation and progression. PMID:29693007

  12. New environmentalism: A cooperative strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    A new cooperative spirit has invaded the world of environmental regulation, according to the author. He calls it the New Environmentalism. New Environmentalism is more flexible and more attentive to economics than the old command-and-control approach. It carries four basic principles: integration of environmental and economic goals; adoption of sound science practices; vigorous enforcement of existing laws; and fostering of concensus in the early stages of rule making. If these principles are practices by all parties EPA believes the waste problems facing the United States can be more effectively managed

  13. International cooperation for the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engfeldt, Lars-Göran; Kjellén, Bo; Liefferink, Duncan

    2003-01-01

    global environmental conference, the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, was convened on 5 June 1972 in Stockholm. This day in June is now yearly celebrated as the World Environment Day. The motto of the Conference “Only One Earth,” was a revolutionary concept for its time, but is today...... go on without concern for the environment. The international agenda for the environment influences the life of everyone: it determines the price for gasoline, where we can build summer houses, and what food we can buy. This chapter will describe how international cooperation for the environment has...

  14. Communicating Cooperative Robots with Bluetooth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Son, L.T.; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2001-01-01

    A generic architecture for system of cooperating communicating mobile robots is presented. An overall structure is defined from a modularity viewpoint, where a number of generic modules are identified; low level communication interface, network layer services such as initial and adaptive network...... structuring, routing and capacity management, overall behaviour which includes commitment to overall strategies as well as local behaviour like trajectory planning and navigation. Focus is kept on communication aspects and an example application of establishing a reliable wireless real-time communication...

  15. Evolution of international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, Bertrand

    1978-01-01

    The various stages of the history of the International Cooperation in nuclear matters are reviewed: isolationism period at the end of the war with the anglosaxon monopoly; opening period with the 1955 Geneva Conference and the creation of organisms within the framework of Euratom (the six European countries), of OCED (NEA) and of UNO (IAEA); industrial realizations period with Euratom research centres (Ispra, Geel, Karlsruhe and Petten) and the NEA enterprises (Halden, Dragon project, Eurochemic). The international industrial accords in the domains of exploitation and uranium enrichment are recalled and the program for the international evaluating of the fuel cycle (INFCE) is mentioned [fr

  16. Health data cooperatives - citizen empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, E; Kossmann, D; Brand, A

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of a Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on Health Record Banking. Healthcare is often ineffective and costs are steadily rising. This is in a large part due to the inaccessibility of medical and health data stored in multiple silos. Furthermore, in most cases molecular differences between individuals that result in different susceptibilities to drugs and diseases as well as targeted interventions cannot be taken into account. Technological advances in genome sequencing and the interaction of 'omics' data with environmental data on one hand and mobile health on the other, promise to generate the longitudinal health data that will form the basis for a more personalized, precision medicine. For this new medicine to become a reality, however, millions of personal health data sets have to be aggregated. The value of such aggregated personal data has been recognized as a new asset class and many commercial entities are competing for this new asset (e.g. Google, Facebook, 23andMe, PatientsLikeMe). The primary source and beneficiary of personal health data is the individual. As a collective, society should be the beneficiary of both the economic and health value of these aggregated data and (health) information. We posit that empowering citizens by providing them with a platform to safely store, manage and share their health-related data will be a necessary element in the transformation towards a more effective and efficient precision medicine. Such health data platforms should be organized as cooperatives that are solely owned and controlled by their members and not by shareholders. Members determine which data they want to share for example with doctors or to contribute to research for the benefit of their health and that of society. Members will also decide how the revenues generated by granting third parties access to the anonymized data that they agreed to share, should be invested in research, information or education. Currently no

  17. Foreign Cooperation Fruitful for Sinopec

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ On October 21, just the eve of Chinese President Jiang Zemin's visit to the United States, a total of 13 big-name enterprises in China and the United States signed five agreements in New York for cooperation in the petrochemical, telecom and energy fields with the contracted capital totaling US$4.7 billion. Of those deals, Sinopec Limited and ExxonMobil inked a framework agreement to beef up their bilateral strategic alliance and push ahead with their join venture projects developed in Southeast China's Guangdong Province and Fujian Province.

  18. Models of conflict and cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Gillman, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Models of Conflict and Cooperation is a comprehensive, introductory, game theory text for general undergraduate students. As a textbook, it provides a new and distinctive experience for students working to become quantitatively literate. Each chapter begins with a "dialogue" that models quantitative discourse while previewing the topics presented in the rest of the chapter. Subsequent sections develop the key ideas starting with basic models and ending with deep concepts and results. Throughout all of the sections, attention is given to promoting student engagement with the material through re

  19. It is the cooperation, stupid!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somesh Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise of aesthetics in medicine has resulted from society′s acknowledgement of the importance of physical beauty. This has led to an emerging conflict between allied specialties. The author introduces the concept of "Aesthetic Socialism" according to which everyone should have an opportunity to enhance or restore the beauty where it is missing or when it is lost due to disease, trauma or ageing. However, there are multiple aspects of aesthetics, which can not be addressed by a single specialty, therefore author recommends interdisciplinary cooperation rather than conflict to achieve aesthetic socialism.

  20. It is the Cooperation, Stupid!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Somesh

    2016-01-01

    The rise of aesthetics in medicine has resulted from society's acknowledgement of the importance of physical beauty. This has led to an emerging conflict between allied specialties. The author introduces the concept of "Aesthetic Socialism" according to which everyone should have an opportunity to enhance or restore the beauty where it is missing or when it is lost due to disease, trauma or ageing. However, there are multiple aspects of aesthetics, which can not be addressed by a single specialty, therefore author recommends interdisciplinary cooperation rather than conflict to achieve aesthetic socialism.

  1. Modelling Cooperative Tumorigenesis in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena E. Richardson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of human metastatic cancer is a multistep process, involving the acquisition of several genetic mutations, tumour heterogeneity, and interactions with the surrounding microenvironment. Due to the complexity of cancer development in mammals, simpler model organisms, such as the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, are being utilized to provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms involved. In this review, we highlight recent advances in modelling tumorigenesis using the Drosophila model, focusing on the cooperation of oncogenes or tumour suppressors, and the interaction of mutant cells with the surrounding tissue in epithelial tumour initiation and progression.

  2. Cooperating attackers in neural cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Lanir N; Klein, Einat; Mislovaty, Rachel; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2004-06-01

    A successful attack strategy in neural cryptography is presented. The neural cryptosystem, based on synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning, has been recently shown to be secure under different attack strategies. The success of the advanced attacker presented here, called the "majority-flipping attacker," does not decay with the parameters of the model. This attacker's outstanding success is due to its using a group of attackers which cooperate throughout the synchronization process, unlike any other attack strategy known. An analytical description of this attack is also presented, and fits the results of simulations.

  3. Launching "the evolution of cooperation".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Robert

    2012-04-21

    This article describes three aspects of the author's early work on the evolution of the cooperation. First, it explains how the idea for a computer tournament for the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma was inspired by the artificial intelligence research on computer checkers and computer chess. Second, it shows how the vulnerability of simple reciprocity of misunderstanding or misimplementation can be eliminated with the addition of some degree of generosity or contrition. Third, it recounts the unusual collaboration between the author, a political scientist, and William D. Hamilton, an evolutionary biologist. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-cooperative planning theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bogetoft, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Planning in a general sense is concerned with the design of communication and decision making mechanisms in organizations where information and choice are decentralized. Non-cooperative planning theory as it is developed in this book treats the incentive aspects hereof. It stresses how strategic behavior and opportunism may impede planning, and how this can be coped with via the organization of communication and decision making, the design of information and control systems, and the development of incentive schemes. In particular, the book contains a thorough investigation of incentive provision in information production.

  5. DOE/ABACC safeguards cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, J.M.; Toth, P.; Rubio, J.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) signed a safeguards cooperation agreement. The agreement provides for cooperation in the areas of nuclear material control, accountancy, verification, and advanced containment and surveillance technologies for international safeguards applications. ABACC is an international safeguards organization responsible for verifying the commitments of a 1991 bilateral agreement between Argentina and Brazil in which both countries agreed to submit all nuclear material in all nuclear activities to a Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). DOE provides critical assistance (including equipment and training) through the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security to countries and international organizations to enhance their capabilities to control and verify nuclear material inventories. Specific activities initiated under the safeguards agreement include: (1) active US participation in ABACC's safeguards training courses, (2) joint development of specialized measurement training workshops, (3) characterization of laboratory standards, and (4) development and application of an extensive analytical laboratory comparison program. The results realized from these initial activities have been mutually beneficial in regard to strengthening the application of international safeguards in Argentina and Brazil

  6. Cooperative Learning and Interpersonal Synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Roy; Wijnants, Maarten L; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Bosman, Anna M T

    2017-04-01

    Cooperative learning has been shown to result in better task performance, compared to individual and competitive learning, and can lead to positive social effects. However, potential working mechanisms at a micro level remain unexplored. One potential working mechanism might be the level of interpersonal synchrony between cooperating individuals. It has been shown that increased levels of interpersonal synchrony are related to better cognitive performance (e.g., increased memory). Social factors also appear to be affected by the level of interpersonal synchrony, with more interpersonal synchrony leading to increased likeability. In the present study, interpersonal synchrony of postural sway and its relation to task performance and social factors (i.e., popularity, social acceptance, and likeability) was examined. To test this, 183 dyads performed a tangram task while each child stood on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board that recorded their postural sway. The results showed that lower levels of interpersonal synchrony were related to better task performance and those dyads who were on average more popular synchronized more. These results contradict previous findings. It is suggested that for task performance, a more loosely coupled system is better than a synchronized system. In terms of social competence, dyad popularity was associated with more interpersonal synchrony.

  7. Opting for co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    In 1986, after several attempts by a federal crown corporation to site a low-level radioactive waste management facility in Ontario, the federal government established an independent task force to advise it on a less confrontational approach. The Siting Process Task Force recommended the Cooperative Siting Process, which is based on voluntary participation of local communities in a collaborative joint decision making manner. Acting on this recommendation, the Minister of Energy appointed a new Siting Task Force in 1988 to implement the first three phases of the five-phase process. The Task Force was to promote an examination of scientific and public reports prepared for the Siting Process Task Force; draft guidelines for siting and impact management; outline the basic guidelines to address costs associated with different waste management techniques, distances travelled, compensation packages, site evaluation and rehabilitation; conduct regional and community information and consultation meetings; use the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office as one of its technical advisers; and report within 18 months on the process itself, volunteer communities, disposal options, terms of reference for negotiations with the volunteer communities, and detailed cost implications of implementing the defined options. This report contains the results of the Task Force's operations, outlining the process, describing communities that have volunteered to be low level waste management sites, presenting cost estimates for the remaining phases of the process and for disposal, and listing recommendations for completing the Cooperative Siting Process

  8. Keynote address: International nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    These meetings provide an important opportunity for the nuclear community to assess the scope and direction of its wide-ranging activities. Nuclear technology has given us the tools to understand and shape our physical environment in ways which can solve ancient problems of health, food supply, energy, and many others which affect the quality of our lives. International cooperation is necessary to secure the peaceful benefits of nuclear technology. Meeting global energy needs must be high on any priority list of issues for the coming decade and the 21st century. The satisfaction of energy needs is today and will increasingly be a crucial factor in international stability. Hand in hand with the need to assure energy sufficiency is the need to assure the long-term protection of the environment. Three key elements that give a useful framework for approaching the future of nuclear cooperation are technological factors, economic issues, and political acceptability. Technological avenues to greater safety must be vigorously pursued. Economic alternatives must be identified and objectively weighed. Most important of all, the framework of public confidence must be strengthened

  9. Gossip and ostracism promote cooperation in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb; Schultz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The widespread existence of cooperation is difficult to explain because individuals face strong incentives to exploit the cooperative tendencies of others. In the research reported here, we examined how the spread of reputational information through gossip promotes cooperation in mixed-motive settings. Results showed that individuals readily communicated reputational information about others, and recipients used this information to selectively interact with cooperative individuals and ostracize those who had behaved selfishly, which enabled group members to contribute to the public good with reduced threat of exploitation. Additionally, ostracized individuals responded to exclusion by subsequently cooperating at levels comparable to those who were not ostracized. These results suggest that the spread of reputational information through gossip can mitigate egoistic behavior by facilitating partner selection, thereby helping to solve the problem of cooperation even in noniterated interactions.

  10. Cooperative path planning of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Tsourdos, Antonios; Shanmugavel, Madhavan

    2010-01-01

    An invaluable addition to the literature on UAV guidance and cooperative control, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a dedicated, practical guide to computational path planning for UAVs. One of the key issues facing future development of UAVs is path planning: it is vital that swarm UAVs/ MAVs can cooperate together in a coordinated manner, obeying a pre-planned course but able to react to their environment by communicating and cooperating. An optimized path is necessary in order to ensure a UAV completes its mission efficiently, safely, and successfully. Focussing on the path planning of multiple UAVs for simultaneous arrival on target, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles also offers coverage of path planners that are applicable to land, sea, or space-borne vehicles. Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is authored by leading researchers from Cranfield University and provides an authoritative resource for researchers, academics and engineers working in...

  11. Recent developments in cooperative control and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Murphey, Robert; Pardalos, Panos

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several years, cooperative control and optimization has un­ questionably been established as one of the most important areas of research in the military sciences. Even so, cooperative control and optimization tran­ scends the military in its scope -having become quite relevant to a broad class of systems with many exciting, commercial, applications. One reason for all the excitement is that research has been so incredibly diverse -spanning many scientific and engineering disciplines. This latest volume in the Cooperative Systems book series clearly illustrates this trend towards diversity and creative thought. And no wonder, cooperative systems are among the hardest systems control science has endeavored to study, hence creative approaches to model­ ing, analysis, and synthesis are a must! The definition of cooperation itself is a slippery issue. As you will see in this and previous volumes, cooperation has been cast into many different roles and therefore has assumed many diverse meanings. P...

  12. Group Coupons: Interpersonal Bundling on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Yongmin Chen; Tianle Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Sellers sometimes offer goods for sale under both a regular price and a discount for group purchase if the consumer group reaches some minimum size. This selling practice, which we term interpersonal bundling, has been popularized on the Internet by companies such as Groupon. We explain why interpersonal bundling is a profitable strategy in the presence of demand uncertainty, and how it may further boost profits by stimulating product information dissemination. Other reasons for its profitabi...

  13. Cooperative communications hardware, channel and PHY

    CERN Document Server

    Dohler, Mischa

    2010-01-01

    Facilitating Cooperation for Wireless Systems Cooperative Communications: Hardware, Channel & PHY focuses on issues pertaining to the PHY layer of wireless communication networks, offering a rigorous taxonomy of this dispersed field, along with a range of application scenarios for cooperative and distributed schemes, demonstrating how these techniques can be employed. The authors discuss hardware, complexity and power consumption issues, which are vital for understanding what can be realized at the PHY layer, showing how wireless channel models differ from more traditional

  14. Partner Choice in Raven (Corvus corax) Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa-Haas, Kenji; Schiestl, Martina; Bugnyar, Thomas; Massen, Jorg J M

    2016-01-01

    Although social animals frequently make decisions about when or with whom to cooperate, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of partner choice. Most previous studies compared different dyads' performances, though did not allow an actual choice among partners. We tested eleven ravens, Corvus corax, in triads, giving them first the choice to cooperate with either a highly familiar or a rather unfamiliar partner and, second, with either a friend or a non-friend using a cooperative string-pulling task. In either test, the ravens had a second choice and could cooperate with the other partner, given that this one had not pulled the string in the meantime. We show that during the experiments, these partner ravens indeed learn to wait and inhibit pulling, respectively. Moreover, the results of these two experiments show that ravens' preferences for a specific cooperation partner are not based on familiarity. In contrast, the ravens did show a preference based on relationship quality, as they did choose to cooperate significantly more with friends than with non-friends and they were also more proficient when cooperating with a friend. In order to further identify the proximate mechanism of this preference, we designed an open-choice experiment for the whole group where all birds were free to cooperate on two separate apparatuses. This set-up allowed us to distinguish between preferences for close proximity and preferences to cooperate. The results revealed that friends preferred staying close to each other, but did not necessarily cooperate with one another, suggesting that tolerance of proximity and not relationship quality as a whole may be the driving force behind partner choice in raven cooperation. Consequently, we stress the importance of experiments that allow such titrations and, suggest that these results have important implications for the interpretations of cooperation studies that did not include open partner choice.

  15. Inequity aversion and the evolution of cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit m...

  16. Network Analysis of Cooperation in Tourism Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdošík Tomáš

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation on the tourism market causes that the competition is not formed only between stakeholders in a destination, but more and more it is created among destinations. Therefore tourism stakeholders in a destination have to act together and cooperate. The cooperative behaviour of destination stakeholders is seen as a main prerequisite of applying the cooperative destination management, which influences the competitiveness of destination on tourism market.

  17. Attribution models and the Cooperative Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Berlanga, Sebastian; Vilella, Cori

    2017-01-01

    The current paper studies the attribution model used by Google Analytics. Precisely, we use the Cooperative Game Theory to propose a fair distribution of the revenues among the considered channels, in order to facilitate the cooperation and to guarantee stability. We define a transferable utility convex cooperative game from the observed frequencies and we use the Shapley value to allocate the revenues among the di erent channels. Furthermore, we evaluate the impact of an advertising...

  18. A niche marketing guide for lamb cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Kazmierczak, Tamra Kirkpatrick; Bell, James B.

    1995-01-01

    The two types of niche markets targeted by lamb marketing cooperatives are described in this guide. The first type includes specialty middlemen outlets that cooperatives used to market lamb to specialized niches within the traditional meat marketing system of retail food stores, restaurants, food service outlets, and specialty distributors. The second type includes those outlets that cooperatives used to market lamb directly to the consumer, such as freezer markets, farmers' markets, mobile m...

  19. Effect of initial fraction of cooperators on cooperative behavior in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keizo Shigaki

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of initial fraction of cooperators on the evolution of cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma games. Compared with the results of heterogeneous networks, we find that there is a relatively low initial fraction of cooperators to guarantee higher equilibrium cooperative level. While this interesting phenomenon is contrary to the commonly shared knowledge that higher initial fraction of cooperators can provide better environment for the evolution of cooperation. To support our outcome, we explore the time courses of cooperation and find that the whole course can be divided into two sequent stages: enduring (END and expanding (EXP periods. At the end of END period, thought there is a limited number of cooperator clusters left for the case of low initial setup, these clusters can smoothly expand to hold the whole system in the EXP period. However, for high initial fraction of cooperators, superfluous cooperator clusters hinder their effective expansion, which induces many remaining defectors surrounding the cooperator clusters. Moreover, through intensive analysis, we also demonstrate that when the tendency of three cooperation cluster characteristics (cluster size, cluster number and cluster shape are consistent within END and EXP periods, the state that maximizes cooperation can be favored.

  20. Non-cooperative game theory in biology and cooperative reasoning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabalak, Alihan; Smirnova, Elena; Jost, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    The readiness for spontaneous cooperation together with the assumptions that others share this cooperativity has been identified as a fundamental feature that distinguishes humans from other animals, including the great apes. At the same time, cooperativity presents an evolutionary puzzle because non-cooperators do better in a group of cooperators. We develop here an analysis of the process leading to cooperation in terms of rationality concepts, game theory and epistemic logic. We are, however, not attempting to reconstruct the actual evolutionary process. We rather want to provide the logical structure underlying cooperation in order to understand why cooperation is possible and what kind of reasoning and beliefs would lead to cooperative decision-making. Game theory depends on an underlying common belief in non-cooperative rationality of the players, and cooperativity similarly can utilize a common belief in cooperative rationality as its basis. We suggest a weaker concept of rational decision-making in games that encompasses both types of decision-making. We build this up in stages, starting from simple optimization, then using anticipation of the reaction of others, to finally arrive at reflexive and cooperative reasoning. While each stage is more difficult than the preceding, importantly, we also identify a reduction of complexity achieved by the consistent application of higher stage reasoning.